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Sample records for xanthines

  1. Vasoactive intestinal peptide prevents lung injury due to xanthine/xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Berisha, H; Foda, H; Sakakibara, H; Trotz, M; Pakbaz, H; Said, S I

    1990-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species mediate injury and inflammation in many tissues. The addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to perfused rat lungs led to increases in peak airway pressure and perfusion pressure, pulmonary edema, and increased protein content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Treatment with 1-10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a widely distributed neuropeptide, markedly reduced or totally prevented all signs of injury. Simultaneously, VIP also diminished or abolished the associated generation of arachidonate products. Similar protection was provided by catalase (100 micrograms/ml) but not by the VIP-related peptides secretin or glucagon. The pulmonary vasodilator papaverine (0.15 mg/ml) was also ineffective. Injured lungs that were not treated with VIP released large amounts of this peptide in the perfusate. The results indicate that VIP has potent protective activity against injury triggered by xanthine/xanthine oxidase and may be a physiological modulator of inflammatory tissue damage associated with toxic oxygen metabolites.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase system represses the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Satoru; Abe, Muneyuki; Kohda, Tetsuya; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2015-01-01

    The twin character of reactive oxygen species is substantiated by a growing body of evidence that reactive oxygen species within cells act as inducers and accelerators of the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, while reactive oxygen species can also induce cancer cell death and can therefore function as anti-tumorigenic species. The aim of this study was to assess a possible influence of xanthine/xanthine oxidase on the proliferation of colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2. xanthine/xanthine oxidase (2.5 µM/0.25 mU/ml-25 µM/2.5 mU/ml) dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Experiments utilizing reactive oxygen species scavengers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol) and exogenous hydrogen peroxide revealed a major role of hydrogen peroxide in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase effect. Investigations utilizing annexin V-fluorescein/PI assay using flow cytometry, and the lactate dehydrogenase extracellular release assay indicated that hydrogen peroxide induced necrosis, but not apoptosis, in Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that hydrogen peroxide generated by xanthine/xanthine oxidase has the potential to suppress colorectal cancer cell proliferation.

  3. IRON REGULATES XANTHINE OXIDASE ACTIVITY IN THE LUNG

    EPA Science Inventory

    The iron chelator deferoxamine has been reported to inhibit both xanthine oxidase (XO) and xanthine dehydrogenase activity, but the relationship of this effect to the availability of iron in the cellular and tissue environment remains unexplored. XO and total xanthine oxidoreduct...

  4. Xanthine oxidase biosensor for monitoring meat spoilage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanegas, D. C.; Gomes, C.; McLamore, E. S.

    2014-05-01

    In this study, we have designed an electrochemical biosensor for real-time detection of specific biomarkers of bacterial metabolism related to meat spoilage (hypoxanthine and xanthine). The selective biosensor was developed by assembling a `sandwich' of nanomaterials and enzymes on a platinum-iridium electrode (1.6 mm tip diameter). The materials deposited on the sensor tip include amorphous platinum nanoclusters (i.e. Pt black), reduced graphene oxide, nanoceria, and xanthine oxidase. Xanthine oxidase was encapsulated in laponite hydrogel and used for the biorecognition of hypoxanthine and xanthine (two molecules involved in the rotting of meat by spoilage microorganisms). The developed biosensor demonstrated good electrochemical performance toward xanthine with sensitivity of 2.14 +/- 1.48 μA/mM, response time of 5.2 +/- 1.5 sec, lower detection limit of 150 +/- 39 nM, and retained at least 88% of its activity after 7 days of continuous use.

  5. A kinetic study of hypoxanthine oxidation by milk xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Escribano, J; Garcia-Canovas, F; Garcia-Carmona, F

    1988-01-01

    The course of the reaction sequence hypoxanthine----xanthine----uric acid catalysed by xanthine:oxygen oxidoreductase from milk was investigated on the basis of u.v. spectra taken during the course of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidations. It was found that xanthine accumulated in the reaction mixture when hypoxanthine was used as a substrate. The time course of the concentrations of hypoxanthine, xanthine intermediate and uric acid product was simulated numerically. The mathematical model takes into account the competition of substrate, intermediate and product and the accumulation of the intermediate at the enzyme. This type of analysis permits the kinetic parameters of the enzyme for hypoxanthine and xanthine to be obtained. PMID:3196295

  6. Phospholipid alterations in cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum induced by xanthine oxidase: contamination of commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase by phospholipase A/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Gamache, D.A.; Kornberg, L.J.; Bartolf, M.

    1986-05-01

    Incubation of cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with xanthine oxidase alone at pH 7.0 resulted in a loss of lipid phosphorus that was potentiated by the addition of xanthine. Using autoclaved E.coli with 1-/sup 14/C-oleate in the 2-acyl position of membrane phospholipids, the authors demonstrate that many, but not all, commercial preparations of xanthine oxidase contain significant phospholipase A/sub 2/ (PLA/sub 2/) activity (64.3-545.6 nmols/min/mg). The PLA/sub 2/ was maximally active in the neutral-alkaline pH range, was Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent, and was unaffected by the addition of xanthine. PLA/sub 2/ activity was totally inhibited by 1mM EDTA whereas radical production by optimalmore » concentrations of xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) was unaffected by EDTA. Chromatographically purified xanthine oxidase (Sigma Grade III) contained high levels of PLA/sub 2/ activity (64.3 nmols/min/mg) compared to endogenous levels of neutral-active, Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent PLA/sub 2/ measured in various tissue homogenates (less than or equal to 0.5 nmols/ min/mg). Because X/XO mixtures are used extensively to study oxygen free radical-induced cell injury and membrane phospholipid alterations, the presence of a potent extracellular PLA/sub 2/ may have influenced previously published reports, and such studies should be interpreted cautiously.« less

  7. Xanthine crystals induced by topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in rats, cause transitional cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Shimo, Takeo; Moto, Mitsuyoshi; Ashizawa, Naoki; Matsumoto, Koji; Iwanaga, Takashi; Saito, Kazuhiro

    2014-04-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the underlying mechanism of transitional cell tumors found in the carcinogenicity testing of topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, in which topiroxostat was orally given to F344 rats at 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg for 2 years. In the urinary bladder, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas were seen in males receiving 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg (1/49, 3/49, and 10/50, respectively). In the kidney, transitional cell papillomas and/or carcinomas in the pelvis were seen in 2/50 males and 1/50 females receiving 3 mg/kg. In the mechanistic study by 52-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 3 mg/kg to F344 male rats, with and without citrate, simple and papillary transitional cell hyperplasias of the urinary bladder epithelium were observed in 5/17 in the topiroxostat-alone treatment group, along with xanthine-induced nephropathy, in contrast to neither xanthine crystals nor lesions in urinary organs by co-treatment group with citrate. As for sex differences of urinary bladder tumors, the BrdU labeling index for epithelial cells of the urinary bladder by 5-week oral treatment with topiroxostat at 10 mg/kg to F344 rats was increased in males only, showing consistency with histopathological findings. Therefore, the present study indicates that transitional cell tumors induced by topiroxostat in rats were due to physical stimulation to transitional cells of xanthine crystals/calculi and provides that other factors were not implicated in this tumorigenesis. Furthermore, the present study suggests that such tumors do not predict for humans since topiroxostat-induced xanthine deposition is a rodent-specific event.

  8. Immobilization of xanthine oxidase on a polyaniline silicone support.

    PubMed

    Nadruz, W; Marques, E T; Azevedo, W M; Lima-Filho, J L; Carvalho, L B

    1996-03-01

    A polyaniline silicone support to immobilize xanthine oxidase is proposed as a reactor coil to monitor the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine. A purified xanthine oxidase immobilized on this support lost 80% of the initial activity after 12 min of use. Co-immobilization of superoxide dismutase and catalase increased the stability of immobilized xanthine oxidase so that the derivative maintained 79% of its initial activity after 4.6 h of continuous use in which 1.5 mumol purine bases were converted by the immobilized enzyme system. There is no evidence of either polyaniline or protein leaching from the coil during 3 h of continuous use. When solutions (10 ml) of hypoxanthine, xanthine and 6-mercaptopurine were circulated individually through the xanthine oxidase-superoxide dismutase-catalase-polyaniline coil (1 mm internal diameter and 3 m in length, 3 ml internal volume) activities of 8.12, 11.17 and 1.09 nmol min-1 coil-1, respectively, were obtained. The advantages of the reactor configuration and the redox properties of the polymer, particularly with respect to immobilized oxidoreductases, make this methodology attractive for similar enzyme systems. This immobilized enzyme system using polyaniline-silicone as support converted 6-mercaptopurine to 6-thiouric acid with equal efficiency as resins based on polyacrylamide and polyamide 11.

  9. Xanthine urolithiasis in a cat: a case report and evaluation of a candidate gene for xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Shuichi; Kagi, Akiko; Koyama, Hidekazu; Tagawa, Masahiro

    2007-12-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was found in a 4-year-old spayed female Himalayan cat with a 10-month history of intermittent haematuria and dysuria. Ultrasonographs indicated the existence of several calculi in the bladder that were undetectable by survey radiographic examination. Four bladder stones were removed by cystotomy. The stones were spherical brownish-yellow and their surface was smooth and glossy. Quantitative mineral analysis showed a representative urolith to be composed of more than 95% xanthine. Ultrasonographic examination of the bladder 4.5 months postoperatively indicated the recurrence of urolithiasis. Analysis of purine concentration in urine and blood showed that the cat excreted excessive amounts of xanthine. In order to test the hypothesis that xanthinuria was caused by a homozygote of the inherited mutant allele of a gene responsible for deficiency of enzyme activity in purine degradation pathway, the allele composition of xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) gene (one of the candidate genes for hereditary xanthinuria) was evaluated. The cat with xanthinuria was a heterozygote of the polymorphism. A single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the cat XDH gene strongly indicated that the XDH gene of the patient cat was composed of two kinds of alleles and ruled out the hypothesis that the cat inherited the same recessive XDH allele suggesting no activity from a single ancestor.

  10. Simple, high-yield purification of xanthine oxidase from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Ozer, N; Müftüoglu, M; Ataman, D; Ercan, A; Ogüs, I H

    1999-05-13

    Xanthine oxidase, a commercially important enzyme with a wide area of application, was extracted from fresh milk, without added preservatives, using toluene and heat. The short purification procedure, with high yield, consisted of extraction, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-Sepharose (fast flow) column chromatography. Xanthine oxidase was eluted as a single activity peak from the column using a buffer gradient. The purification fold, specific activity and yield for the purified xanthine oxidase were 328, 10.161 U/mg and 69%, respectively. The enzyme was concentrated by ultrafiltration, although 31% of the activity was lost during concentration, no change in specific activity was observed. Activity and protein gave coincident staining bands on native polyacrylamide gels. The intensity and the number of bands were dependent on the oxidative state(s) of the enzyme; reduction by 2-mercaptoethanol decreased the intensity of the slow-moving bands and increased the intensity of the fastest-moving band. Following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two major bands (molecular masses of 152 and 131 kDa) were observed, accounting for > or = 95% of xanthine oxidase. Native- and SDS-PAGE showed that the purified xanthine oxidase becomes a heterodimer due to endogenous proteases.

  11. Xanthine Oxidase Induces Foam Cell Formation through LOX-1 and NLRP3 Activation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yao; Cao, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zhigao; Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2017-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. This process generates excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) that play an important role in atherogenesis. Recent studies show that LRR and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), a component of the inflammasome, may be involved in the formation of foam cells, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. This study was designed to study the role of various scavenger receptors and NLRP3 inflammasome in xanthine oxidase and uric acid-induced foam cell formation. Human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and THP-1 macrophages were treated with xanthine oxidase or uric acid. Xanthine oxidase treatment (of both VSMCs and THP-1 cells) resulted in foam cell formation in concert with generation of ROS and expression of cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36) and oxidized low density lipoprotein (lectin-like) receptor 1 (LOX-1), but not of scavenger receptor A (SRA). Uric acid treatment resulted in foam cell formation, ROS generation and expression of CD36, but not of LOX-1 or SRA. Further, treatment of cells with xanthine oxidase, but not uric acid, activated NLRP3 and its downstream pro-inflammatory signals- caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Blockade of LOX-1 or NLRP3 inflammasome with specific siRNAs reduced xanthine oxidase-induced foam cell formation, ROS generation and activation of NLRP3 and downstream signals. Xanthine oxidase induces foam cell formation in large part through activation of LOX-1 - NLRP3 pathway in both VSMCs and THP-1 cells, but uric acid-induced foam cell formation is exclusively through CD36 pathway. Further, LOX-1 activation is upstream of NLRP3 activation. Graphical Abstract Steps in the formation of foam cells in response to xanthine oxidase and uric acid. Xanthine oxidase stimulates LOX-1 expression on the cell membrane of macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and increases generation of ROS, which activate NLRP3 inflammasome and downstream pro

  12. Xanthine oxidoreductase and its inhibitors: relevance for gout.

    PubMed

    Day, Richard O; Kamel, Bishoy; Kannangara, Diluk R W; Williams, Kenneth M; Graham, Garry G

    2016-12-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in purine catabolism and converts hypoxanthine to xanthine, and xanthine into uric acid. When concentrations of uric acid exceed its biochemical saturation point, crystals of uric acid, in the form of monosodium urate, emerge and can predispose an individual to gout, the commonest form of inflammatory arthritis in men aged over 40 years. XOR inhibitors are primarily used in the treatment of gout, reducing the formation of uric acid and thereby, preventing the formation of monosodium urate crystals. Allopurinol is established as first-line therapy for gout; a newer alternative, febuxostat, is used in patients unable to tolerate allopurinol. This review provides an overview of gout, a detailed analysis of the structure and function of XOR, discussion on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of XOR inhibitors-allopurinol and febuxostat, and the relevance of XOR in common comorbidities of gout. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  13. Design, synthesis and molecular modeling of aloe-emodin derivatives as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shi, Da-Hua; Huang, Wei; Li, Chao; Liu, Yu-Wei; Wang, Shi-Fan

    2014-03-21

    A series of aloe-emodin derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Among them, four aloe-emodin derivatives showed significant inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase. The compound 4,5-dihydroxy-9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-2-carbaldehyde (A1) possessed the best xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 2.79 μM. Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that A1 acted as a mixed-type inhibitor for xanthine oxidase. The docking study revealed that the molecule A1 had strong interactions with the active site of xanthine oxidase and this result was in agreement with kinetic study. Consequently, compound A1 is a new-type candidate for further development for the treatment of gout. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Xanthine derivatives without PDE effect stimulate voltage-activated chloride conductance of toad skin.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Wolfram; Katz, Uri

    2003-02-01

    The effect of xanthine derivatives on the voltage-activated Cl(-) conductance (G(Cl)) of amphibian skin was analyzed. 3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) and the recently synthesized xanthine derivatives 3,7-dimethyl-1-propyl xanthine (X-32) and 3,7-dimethyl-1-isobutyl xanthine (X-33), which lack inhibitory effects on phosphodiesterases in CHO and Calu-3 cells, increased voltage-activated G(Cl) without effect on baseline conductance at inactivating voltage. Half-maximal stimulation of G(Cl) occurred at 108 +/- 9 microM for X-32 and X-33 after apical or basolateral application. The stimulation of G(Cl), which occurs only in the presence of Cl(-) in the mucosal solution, is caused by a shift of the voltage sensitivity to lower clamp potentials and an increase of the maximally activated level. Furosemide reversed both the shift of sensitivity and the increase in magnitude. These patterns are fundamentally different from those seen after application of membrane-permeant, nonmetabolized analogs of cAMP, and they indicate that the xanthines stimulate G(Cl) directly. This notion is strengthened by the lack of influence on intracellular cAMP content, which is consistent with the observations in CHO and Calu-3 cells. We propose that the xanthine derivatives increase the voltage sensitivity of a regulative component in the conductive Cl(-) pathway across amphibian skin.

  15. Xanthine oxidase functionalized Ta2O5 nanostructures as a novel scaffold for highly sensitive SPR based fiber optic xanthine sensor.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ravi; Tabassum, Rana; Gupta, Banshi D

    2018-01-15

    Fabrication and characterization of a surface plasmon resonance based fiber optic xanthine sensor using entrapment of xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme in several nanostructures of tantalum (v) oxide (Ta 2 O 5 ) have been reported. Chemical route was adopted for synthesizing Ta 2 O 5 nanoparticles, nanorods, nanotubes and nanowires while Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning technique. The synthesized Ta 2 O 5 nanostructures were characterized by photoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, UV-Visible spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern. The probes were fabricated by coating an unclad core of the fiber with silver layer followed by the deposition of XO entrapped Ta 2 O 5 nanostructures. The crux of sensing mechanism relies on the modification of dielectric function of sensing layer upon exposure to xanthine solution of diverse concentrations, reflected in terms of shift in resonance wavelength. The sensing probe coated with XO entrapped Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers has been turned out to possess maximum sensitivity amongst the synthesized nanostructures. The probe was optimized in terms of pH of the sample and the concentration of XO entrapped in Ta 2 O 5 nanofibers. The optimized sensing probe possesses a remarkably good sensitivity of 26.2nm/µM in addition to linear range from 0 to 3µM with an invincible LOD value of 0.0127µM together with a response time of 1min. Furthermore, probe selectivity with real sample analysis ensure the usage of the sensor for practical scenario. The results reported open a novel perspective towards a sensitive, rapid, reliable and selective detection of xanthine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  17. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors bearing a 2-arylbenzo[b]furan scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hong-Jin; Li, Wei; Zhou, Mei; Peng, Li-Ying; Wang, Jin-Xin; Li, Jia-Huang; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-10

    Xanthine oxidase, which catalyzes the oxidative reaction of hypoxanthine and xanthine into uric acid, is a key enzyme to the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia and gout. In this study, for the purpose of discovering novel xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, a series of 2-arylbenzo[b]furan derivatives (3a-3d, 4a-4o and 6a-6d) were designed and synthesized. All these compounds were evaluated their xanthine oxidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities by using in vitro enzymatic assay and cellular model. The results showed that a majority of the designed compounds exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects and antioxidant activities, and compound 4a emerged as the most potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor (IC 50  = 4.45 μM). Steady-state kinetic measurements of the inhibitor 4a with the bovine milk xanthine oxidase indicated a mixed type inhibition with 3.52 μM K i and 13.14 μM K is , respectively. The structure-activity relationship analyses have also been presented. Compound 4a exhibited the potent hypouricemic effect in the potassium oxonate-induced hyperuricemic mice model. A molecular docking study of compound 4a was performed to gain an insight into its binding mode with xanthine oxidase. These results highlight the identification of a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors that have potential to be more efficacious in treatment of gout. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. An updated patent review: xanthine oxidase inhibitors for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout (2011-2015).

    PubMed

    Ojha, Ritu; Singh, Jagjeet; Ojha, Anu; Singh, Harbinder; Sharma, Sahil; Nepali, Kunal

    2017-03-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a versatile molybdoflavoprotein, widely distributed, occurring in milk, kidney, lung, heart, and vascular endothelium. Catalysis by XO to produce uric acid and reactive oxygen species leads to many diseases. Anti hyperuricemic therapy by xanthine oxidase inhibitors has been mainly employed for the treatment of gout. Area covered: This review covers the patent literature (2011-2015) and also presents the interesting strategies/rational approaches employed for the design of xanthine oxidase inhibitors reported recently. Expert opinion: Recent literature indicates that various non purine scaffolds have been extensively investigated for xanthine oxidase inhibition. The significant potential endowed by heteroaryl based compounds, in particularly fused heterocycles clearly highlights their clinical promise and the need for detailed investigation. Studies by various research groups have also revealed that the flavone framework is open for isosteric replacements and structural modifications for yielding potent non purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In addition, various plant extracts recently reported to possess significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential presents enough promise to initiate a screening program for the identification of other plant extracts and phytoconstituents possessing inhibitory potential towards the enzyme.

  19. The xanthine oxidase activity in different of secondary transformed peat-moorsh soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styła, Katarzyna; Wojciech Szajdak, Lech

    2010-05-01

    The investigations were carried out on the transect of peatland 4.5 km long, located in the Agroecological Landscape Park host D. Chlapowski in Turew (40 km South-West of Poznań, West Polish Lowland). The sites investigation were located along Wyskoć ditch. The following material was taken from four chosen sites marked as Zbęchy, Bridge, Shelterbelt and Hirudo in two layers: acrotelm (0-50 cm) and catotelm (50-100 cm). The object of this study was to characterize the biochemical properties by the determination of the xanthine oxidase activity in two layers (acrotelm and catotelm) of the four different peat-moorsh soils used as meadow. The xanthine oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring uric acid formation at λmax=290 nm with xanthine as substrate. In peat-moorsh soil the highest activities of xanthine oxidasewas observed in the Shelterbelt and whereas the lowest - in Zbęchy, Bridge and Hirudo. Activities of this enzyme in peat-moorsh soil ranged from 5.96 to 19.51 μmol h-1g d.m soil. Increased activities of xanthine oxidase have been recorded on the depth 50-100 cm - catotelm (from 11.71 to 19.51 μmol h-1g d.m soil) in comparison with the depth 0-50 cm - acrotelm (from 5.96 to 14.64 μmol h-1g d.m soil). This work was supported by a grant No. N N305 3204 36 founded by Polish Ministry of Education.

  20. Hypouricaemic action of mangiferin results from metabolite norathyriol via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanfen; Liu, Jia; Liu, Hai-Yang; Gao, Li-Hui; Feng, Guo-Hua; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2016-09-01

    Context Mangiferin has been reported to possess a potential hypouricaemic effect. However, the pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that its oral bioavailability was only 1.2%, suggesting that mangiferin metabolites might exert the action. Objective The hypouricaemic effect and the xanthine oxidase inhibition of mangiferin and norathyriol, a mangiferin metabolite, were investigated. Inhibition of norathyriol analogues (compounds 3-9) toward xanthine oxidase was also evaluated. Materials and methods For a dose-dependent study, mangiferin (1.5-6.0 mg/kg) and norathyriol (0.92-3.7 mg/kg) were administered intragastrically to mice twice daily for five times. For a time-course study, mice received mangiferin and norathyriol both at a single dose of 7.1 μmol/kg. In vitro, inhibition of test compounds (2.4-2.4 mM) against xanthine oxidase activity was evaluated by the spectrophotometrical method. The inhibition type was identified from Lineweaver-Burk plots. Results Norathyriol (0.92, 1.85 and 3.7 mg/kg) dose dependently decreased the serum urate levels by 27.0, 33.6 and 37.4%, respectively. The action was more potent than that of mangiferin at the low dose, but was equivalent at the higher doses. Additionally, the hypouricaemic action of them exhibited a time dependence. In vitro, norathyriol markedly inhibited the xanthine oxidase activities, with the IC50 value of 44.6 μM, but mangiferin did not. The kinetic studies showed that norathyriol was an uncompetitive inhibitor by Lineweaver-Burk plots. The structure-activity relationships exhibited that three hydroxyl groups in norathyriol at the C-1, C-3 and C-6 positions were essential for maintaining xanthine oxidase inhibition. Discussion and conclusion Norathyriol was responsible for the hypouricaemic effect of mangiferin via inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity.

  1. Electronic Structure Contributions to Reactivity in Xanthine Oxidase Family Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Benjamin W.; Kirk, Martin L.

    2016-01-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the 2-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function. PMID:25425163

  2. Electronic structure contributions to reactivity in xanthine oxidase family enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stein, Benjamin W; Kirk, Martin L

    2015-03-01

    We review the xanthine oxidase (XO) family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes with a specific emphasis on electronic structure contributions to reactivity. In addition to xanthine and aldehyde oxidoreductases, which catalyze the two-electron oxidation of aromatic heterocycles and aldehyde substrates, this mini-review highlights recent work on the closely related carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) that catalyzes the oxidation of CO using a unique Mo-Cu heterobimetallic active site. A primary focus of this mini-review relates to how spectroscopy and computational methods have been used to develop an understanding of critical relationships between geometric structure, electronic structure, and catalytic function.

  3. Genetic Separation of Hypoxanthine and Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase Activities by Deletion Mutations in Salmonella typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Gots, Joseph S.; Benson, Charles E.; Shumas, Susan R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain proAB deletion mutants of Salmonella typhimurium were found to be simultaneously deleted in a gene required for the utilization of guanine and xanthine (designated gxu). These mutants were resistant to 8-azaguanine and when carrying an additional pur mutation were unable to use guanine or xanthine as a purine source. The defect was correlated with deficiencies in the uptake and phosphoribosyltransferase activities for guanine and xanthine. Hypoxanthine and adenine activities were unaltered. The deficiency was restored to normal by transduction to pro+ and in F′ merodiploids. PMID:4563984

  4. Efficacy and safety profile of xanthines in COPD: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cazzola, Mario; Calzetta, Luigino; Barnes, Peter J; Criner, Gerard J; Martinez, Fernando J; Papi, Alberto; Gabriella Matera, Maria

    2018-06-30

    Theophylline can still have a role in the management of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but its use remains controversial, mainly due to its narrow therapeutic window. Doxofylline, another xanthine, is an effective bronchodilator and displays a better safety profile than theophylline. Therefore, we performed a quantitative synthesis to compare the efficacy and safety profile of different xanthines in COPD.The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was the impact of xanthines on lung function. In addition, we assessed the risk of adverse events by normalising data on safety as a function of person-weeks. Data obtained from 998 COPD patients were selected from 14 studies and meta-analysed using a network approach.The combined surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) analysis of efficacy (change from baseline in forced expiratory volume in 1 s) and safety (risk of adverse events) showed that doxofylline was superior to aminophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety), bamiphylline (significantly better efficacy and comparable safety), and theophylline (comparable efficacy and significantly better safety).Considering the overall efficacy/safety profile of the investigated agents, the results of this quantitative synthesis suggest that doxofylline seems to be the best xanthine for the treatment of COPD. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  5. Hydroxychavicol: a potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor obtained from the leaves of betel, Piper betle.

    PubMed

    Murata, Kazuya; Nakao, Kikuyo; Hirata, Noriko; Namba, Kensuke; Nomi, Takao; Kitamura, Yoshihisa; Moriyama, Kenzo; Shintani, Takahiro; Iinuma, Munekazu; Matsuda, Hideaki

    2009-07-01

    The screening of Piperaceous plants for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity revealed that the extract of the leaves of Piper betle possesses potent activity. Activity-guided purification led us to obtain hydroxychavicol as an active principle. Hydroxychavicol is a more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor than allopurinol, which is clinically used for the treatment of hyperuricemia.

  6. Monochloramine produces reactive oxygen species in liver by converting xanthine dehydrogenase into xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Satoru; Miyoshi, Emi; Sadatoku, Namiko; Fujita, Junko; Negoro, Miki; Arakawa, Yukio; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2009-09-15

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in rat liver in vitro. When incubated with the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, NH(2)Cl (2.5-20 microM) dose-dependently enhanced XO activity concomitant with a decrease in XD activity, implying that NH(2)Cl can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing form XO. The NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion in the rat liver cytosol was completely inhibited when added in combination with an inhibitor of NH(2)Cl methionine (25 microM). A sulfhydryl reducing agent, dithiothreitol at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 5 mM also dose-dependently reversed the NH(2)Cl (5 microM)-induced XD/XO interconversion. These imply that NH(2)Cl itself acts on the XD/XO interconversion, and that this conversion occurs at the cysteine residues in XD. Furthermore, using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, it was found that NH(2)Cl could increase ROS generation in the cytoplasm of rat primary hepatocyte cultures, and that this increase might be reversed by an XO inhibitor, allopurinol. These results suggest that NH(2)Cl has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may induce the ROS generation in this region.

  7. Xanthine urolithiasis causing bilateral ureteral obstruction in a 10-month-old cat.

    PubMed

    Mestrinho, Lisa A; Gonçalves, Tiago; Parreira, Pedro B; Niza, Maria M R E; Hamaide, Annick J

    2013-10-01

    Xanthine urolithiasis was diagnosed in a 10-month-old intact female domestic shorthair cat presented with acute renal failure due to bilateral ureteral obstruction. Ultrasonography revealed the presence of multiple uroliths in both kidneys and ureters that were not detectable on previous survey radiographs. Medical management failed and ureteral obstruction persisted with no evidence of stone migration into the bladder. Bilateral ureterotomy with urolith removal was performed in order to relieve the obstruction. The cat recovered from surgery, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine values decreased within normal limits 6 days postoperatively. Urolith analysis by infrared spectrometry determined xanthine composition, and a higher blood and urine concentration of hypoxanthine and xanthine was also found. At 1-year follow-up, the cat was free of clinical signs. However, ultrasonography of the abdomen revealed small-size calculi in both kidneys, despite the low protein diet intake. The very young age of the animal suggests a possible congenital xanthinuria.

  8. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  9. Preferential inhibition of xanthine oxidase by 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine and 2-amino-6-purine thiol

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sukirti; Jena, Gopabandhu; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Background The anticancer drug, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) is subjected to metabolic clearance through xanthine oxidase (XOD) mediated hydroxylation, producing 6-thiouric acid (6TUA), which is excreted in urine. This reduces the effective amount of drug available for therapeutic efficacy. Co-administration of allopurinol, a suicide inhibitor of XOD, which blocks the hydroxylation of 6MP inadvertently enhances the 6MP blood level, counters this reduction. However, allopurinol also blocks the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine (released from dead cancer cells) leading to their accumulation in the body causing biochemical complications such as xanthine nephropathy. This necessitates the use of a preferential XOD inhibitor that selectively inhibits 6MP transformation, but leaves xanthine metabolism unaffected. Results Here, we have characterized two such unique inhibitors namely, 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine (AHMP) and 2-amino-6-purinethiol (APT) on the basis of IC50 values, residual activity in bi-substrate simulative reaction and the kinetic parameters like Km, Ki, kcat. The IC50 values of AHMP for xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 17.71 ± 0.29 μM and 0.54 ± 0.01 μM, respectively and the IC50 values of APT for xanthine and 6MP as substrates are 16.38 ± 0.21 μM and 2.57 ± 0.08 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using AHMP as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 5.78 ± 0.48 μM and 0.96 ± 0.01 μM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using APT as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 6.61 ± 0.28 μM and 1.30 ± 0.09 μM. The corresponding Km values of XOD using xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 2.65 ± 0.02 μM and 6.01 ± 0.03 μM, respectively. The results suggest that the efficiency of substrate binding to XOD and its subsequent catalytic hydroxylation is much superior for xanthine in comparison to 6MP. In addition, the efficiency of the inhibitor binding to XOD is much more superior when 6MP is the substrate instead of

  10. Preferential inhibition of xanthine oxidase by 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine and 2-amino-6-purine thiol.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sukirti; Jena, Gopabandhu; Tikoo, Kulbhushan; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar

    2007-05-18

    The anticancer drug, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) is subjected to metabolic clearance through xanthine oxidase (XOD) mediated hydroxylation, producing 6-thiouric acid (6TUA), which is excreted in urine. This reduces the effective amount of drug available for therapeutic efficacy. Co-administration of allopurinol, a suicide inhibitor of XOD, which blocks the hydroxylation of 6MP inadvertently enhances the 6MP blood level, counters this reduction. However, allopurinol also blocks the hydroxylation of hypoxanthine, xanthine (released from dead cancer cells) leading to their accumulation in the body causing biochemical complications such as xanthine nephropathy. This necessitates the use of a preferential XOD inhibitor that selectively inhibits 6MP transformation, but leaves xanthine metabolism unaffected. Here, we have characterized two such unique inhibitors namely, 2-amino-6-hydroxy-8-mercaptopurine (AHMP) and 2-amino-6-purinethiol (APT) on the basis of IC50 values, residual activity in bi-substrate simulative reaction and the kinetic parameters like Km, Ki, kcat. The IC50 values of AHMP for xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 17.71 +/- 0.29 microM and 0.54 +/- 0.01 microM, respectively and the IC50 values of APT for xanthine and 6MP as substrates are 16.38 +/- 0.21 microM and 2.57 +/- 0.08 microM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using AHMP as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 5.78 +/- 0.48 microM and 0.96 +/- 0.01 microM, respectively. The Ki values of XOD using APT as inhibitor with xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 6.61 +/- 0.28 microM and 1.30 +/- 0.09 microM. The corresponding Km values of XOD using xanthine and 6MP as substrate are 2.65 +/- 0.02 microM and 6.01 +/- 0.03 microM, respectively. The results suggest that the efficiency of substrate binding to XOD and its subsequent catalytic hydroxylation is much superior for xanthine in comparison to 6MP. In addition, the efficiency of the inhibitor binding to XOD is much more superior when 6MP is the

  11. Tissue- and cell-specific expression of mouse xanthine oxidoreductase gene in vivo: regulation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed Central

    Kurosaki, M; Li Calzi, M; Scanziani, E; Garattini, E; Terao, M

    1995-01-01

    The expression of the xanthine oxidoreductase gene was studied in various mouse organs and tissues, under basal conditions and on treatment with bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Levels of xanthine oxidoreductase protein and mRNA were compared in order to understand the molecular mechanisms regulating the expression of this enzyme system. The highest amounts of xanthine oxidoreductase and the respective mRNA are observed in the duodenum and jejunum, where the protein is present in an unusual form because of a specific proteolytic cleavage of the primary translation product present in all locations. Under basal conditions, multiple tissue-specific mechanisms of xanthine oxidoreductase regulation are evident. Lipopolysaccharide increases enzyme activity in some, but not all tissues, mainly via modulation of the respective transcript, although translational and post-translational mechanisms are also active. In situ hybridization studies on tissue sections obtained from mice under control conditions or with lipopolysaccharide treatment demonstrate that xanthine oxidoreductase is present in hepatocytes, predominantly in the proximal tubules of the kidney, epithelial layer of the gastrointestinal mucosa, the alveolar compartment of the lung, the pulpar region of the spleen and the vascular component of the heart. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7864814

  12. Posttranslational ruling of xanthine oxidase activity in bovine milk by its substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Silanikove, Nissim; Shapiro, Fira; Leitner, Gabriel

    The aims of this study were to test the hypothesis that the substrates of xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine and hypoxanthine, are consumed while the milk is stored in the gland between milkings, and to explore how XO activity responds to bacteria commonly associated with subclinical infections in the mammary gland. Freshly secreted milk was obtained following complete evacuation of the gland and induction of milk ejection with oxytocin. In bacteria-free fresh milk xanthine and hypoxanthine were converted to uric acid within 30 min (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 10 min), which in turn provides electrons for formation of hydrogen peroxide and endowsmore » the alveolar lumen with passive protection against invading bacteria. On the other hand, the longer residence time of milk in the cistern compartment was not associated with oxidative stress as a result of XO idleness caused by exhaustion of its physiological fuels. The specific response of XO to bacteria species and the resulting bacteria-dependent nitrosative stress further demonstrates that it is part of the gland immune system.« less

  13. Screening, separation, and evaluation of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Paeonia lactiflora using chromatography combined with a multi-mode microplate reader.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Shi, Dongfang; Zheng, Meizhu; Ma, Bing; Cui, Jing; Liu, Chunming; Liu, Chengyu

    2017-11-01

    Natural products have become one of the most important resources for discovering novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors, which are commonly employed in the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. However, to date, few reports exist regarding the use of monoterpene glycosides as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Thus, we herein report the use of ultrafiltration coupled with liquid chromatography in the screening of monoterpene glycoside xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the extract of Paeonia lactiflora (P. lactiflora), and both high-performance counter-current chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography were employed to separate the main constituents. Furthermore, the xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities and the mechanisms of inhibition of the isolated compounds were evaluated using a multi-mode microplate reader by Molecular Devices. As a result, three monoterpene glycosides were separated by combined high-performance counter-current chromatography and medium-pressure liquid chromatography in purities of 90.4, 98.0, and 86.3%, as determined by liquid chromatography. These three compounds were identified as albiflorin, paeoniflorin, and 1-O-β-ᴅ-glucopyranosyl-8-O-benzoylpaeonisuffrone by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and albiflorin and paeoniflorin were screened as potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors by ultrafiltration with liquid chromatography. The evaluation results of xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity corresponded with the screening results, as only albiflorin and paeoniflorin exhibited xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Complex-formation between reduced xanthine oxidase and purine substrates demonstrated by electron paramagnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Frances M.; Bray, R. C.

    1969-01-01

    The origin of the Rapid molybdenum electron-paramagnetic-resonance signals, which are obtained on reducing xanthine oxidase with purine or with xanthine, and whose parameters were measured by Bray & Vänngård (1969), was studied. It is concluded that these signals represent complexes of reduced enzyme with substrate molecules. Xanthine forms one complex at high concentrations and a different one at low concentrations. Purine forms a complex indistinguishable from the low-concentration xanthine complex. There are indications that some other substrates also form complexes, but uric acid, a reaction product, does not appear to do so. The possible significance of the complexes in the catalytic cycle of the enzyme is discussed and it is suggested that they represent substrate molecules bound at the reduced active site, waiting their turn to react there, when the enzyme has been reoxidized. Support for this role for the complexes was deduced from experiments in which frozen samples of enzyme–xanthine mixtures, prepared by the rapid-freezing method, were warmed until the signals began to change. Under these conditions an increase in amplitude of the Very Rapid signal took place. Data bearing on the origin of the Slow molybdenum signal are also discussed. This signal disappears only slowly in the presence of oxygen, and its appearance rate is unaffected by change in the concentration of dithionite. It is concluded that, like other signals from the enzyme, it is due to Mov but that a slow change of ligand takes place before it is seen. The Slow species, like the Rapid, seems capable of forming complexes with purines. PMID:4310056

  15. Construction of novel xanthine biosensor by using polymeric mediator/MWCNT nanocomposite layer for fish freshness detection.

    PubMed

    Dervisevic, Muamer; Custiuc, Esma; Çevik, Emre; Şenel, Mehmet

    2015-08-15

    A novel nanocomposite host matrix for enzyme immobilization of xanthine oxidase was developed by incorporating MWCNT in poly(GMA-co-VFc) copolymer film. In the food industry fish is a product with a very low commercial life, and a high variability as well elevated level of xanthine is an important biomarker as a sign of spoilage. The fabricated process was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the electrochemical behaviors of the biosensor were characterized by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The prepared enzyme electrodes exhibited maximum response at pH 7.0 and 45°C +0.35 V and reached 95% of steady-state current in about ∼ 4 s and its sensitivity was 16 mAM(-1). Linear ranges (2-28 μM, 28-46 and 46-86 μM), analytical performance and a low detection limit 0.12 μM obtained from the xanthine biosensor gives reliable results in measuring xanthine concentration in the fish meat. All the results indicating that the resulting biosensor exhibited a good response to xanthine that was related to the addition of MWCNT in the polymeric mediator film which played an important role in the biosensor performance. In addition, the biosensor exhibited high good storage stability and satisfactory anti-interference ability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Scaffold-hopping from xanthines to tricyclic guanines: A case study of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Pissarnitski, Dmitri A.; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Cole, David

    2016-11-01

    Molecular modeling of unbound tricyclic guanine scaffolds indicated that they can serve as effective bioisosteric replacements of xanthines. This notion was further confirmed by a combination of X-ray crystallography and SAR studies, indicating that tricyclic guanine DPP4 inhibitors mimic the binding mode of xanthine inhibitors, exemplified by linagliptin. Realization of the bioisosteric relationship between these scaffolds potentially will lead to a wider application of cyclic guanines as xanthine replacements in drug discovery programs for a variety of biological targets. Newly designed DPP4 inhibitors achieved sub-nanomolar potency range and demonstrated oral activity in vivo in mouse glucose tolerance test.

  17. Identification of a xanthine oxidase-inhibitory component from Sophora flavescens using NMR-based metabolomics.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ryuichiro; Hasuike, Yuka; Hirabayashi, Moeka; Fukuda, Tatsuo; Okada, Yoshihito; Shirataki, Yoshiaki

    2013-10-01

    We demonstrate that NMR-based metabolomics studies can be used to identify xanthine oxidase-inhibitory compounds in the diethyl ether soluble fraction prepared from a methanolic extract of Sophora flavescens. Loading plot analysis, accompanied by direct comparison of 1H NMR spectraexhibiting characteristic signals, identified compounds exhibiting inhibitory activity. NMR analysis indicated that these characteristic signals were attributed to flavanones such as sophoraflavanone G and kurarinone. Sophoraflavanone G showed inhibitory activity towards xanthine oxidase in an in vitro assay.

  18. Purification and Characterization of the FeII- and α-Ketoglutarate-Dependent Xanthine Hydroxylase from Aspergillus nidulans†

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Morán, Gabriela M.; Li, Meng; Rendòn-Huerta, Erika; Jourdan, Fabrice; Lowe, David J.; Stumpff-Kane, Andrew W.; Feig, Michael; Scazzocchio, Claudio; Hausinger, Robert P.

    2008-01-01

    His6-tagged xanthine/α-ketoglutarate (αKG) dioxygenase (XanA) of Aspergillus nidulans was purified from both the fungal mycelium and recombinant Escherichia coli cells, and the properties of the two forms of the protein were compared. Evidence was obtained for both N- and O-linked glycosylation on the fungus-derived XanA, which aggregates into an apparent dodecamer, while bacteria-derived XanA is free of glycosylation and behaves as a monomer. Immunological methods identify phosphothreonine in both forms of XanA, with phosphoserine also detected in the bacteria-derived protein. Mass spectrometric analysis confirms glycosylation and phosphorylation of the fungus-derived sample, which also undergoes extensive truncation at its amino terminus. Despite the major differences in properties of these proteins, their kinetic parameters are similar (kcat 30-70 s-1, Km of αKG 31-50 μM, Km of xanthine ∼45 μM, and pH optima at 7.0 to 7.4). The enzyme exhibits no significant isotope effect when using 8-2H-xanthine; however, it demonstrates a two-fold solvent deuterium isotope effect. CuII and ZnII potently inhibit the FeII-specific enzyme, whereas CoII, MnII, and NiII are weaker inhibitors. NaCl decreases the kcat and increases the Km of both αKG and xanthine. The αKG cosubstrate can be substituted by α-ketoadipate (9-fold decrease in kcat and 5-fold increase in the Km compared to the normal α-keto acid), while the αKG analogue N-oxalylglycine is a competitive inhibitor (Ki 0.12 μM). No alternative purines effectively substitute for xanthine as a substrate, and only one purine analogue (6,8-dihydroxypurine) results in significant inhibition. Quenching of the endogenous fluorescence of the two enzyme forms by xanthine, αKG, and DHP was used to characterize their binding properties. A XanA homology model was generated on the basis of the structure of the related enzyme TauD (PDB code 1OS7) and provided insights into the sites of posttranslational modification and

  19. Time dependent inhibition of xanthine oxidase in irradiated solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, K.; Pilot, T.F.; Meany, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The xanthine oxidase catalyzed oxidation of hypoxanthine was followed by monitoring the formation of uric acid at 290 nm. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase occurs in aqueous solutions of folic acid methotrexate and aminopterin. These compounds are known to dissociate upon exposure to ultraviolet light resulting in the formation of their respective 6-formylpteridine derivatives. The relative rates of dissociation were monitored spectrophotometrically by determining the absorbance of their 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine derivatives at 500 nm. When aqueous solutions of folic acid, aminopterin and methotrexate were exposed to uv light, a direct correlation was observed between the concentrations of the 6-formylpteridine derivatives existing inmore » solution and the ability of these solutions to inhibit xanthine oxidase. The relative potency of the respective photolysis products were estimated.« less

  20. Study on the activity of non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor by 3D-QSAR modeling and molecular docking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peizhen; Tian, Yueli; Zhai, Honglin; Deng, Fangfang; Xie, Meihong; Zhang, Xiaoyun

    2013-11-01

    Non-purine derivatives have been shown to be promising novel drug candidates as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Based on three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) methods including comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA), two 3D-QSAR models for a series of non-purine xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors were established, and their reliability was supported by statistical parameters. Combined 3D-QSAR modeling and the results of molecular docking between non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors and XO, the main factors that influenced activity of inhibitors were investigated, and the obtained results could explain known experimental facts. Furthermore, several new potential inhibitors with higher activity predicted were designed, which based on our analyses, and were supported by the simulation of molecular docking. This study provided some useful information for the development of non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors with novel structures.

  1. A novel colorimetric method based on copper nanoclusters with intrinsic peroxidase-like for detecting xanthine in serum samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhengyu; Niu, Qianqian; Mou, Mingyao; Wu, Yi; Liu, Xiaoxuan; Liao, Shenghua

    2017-07-01

    A facile strategy for detecting xanthine in serum samples by copper nanocluster (CuNCs) with high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity was reported. Firstly, a simple, mild and time-saving method for preparing CuNCs was developed, in which dithiothreitol (DTT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were used as reductant and stabilizer, respectively. The as-prepared CuNCs exhibited a fluorescence emission at 590 nm with a quantum yield (QY) of approximately 5.29%, the fluorescence intensity of the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited no considerable change when stored under ambient condition with the lifetime is 1.75 μs. Moreover, the as-prepared CuNCs exhibited high intrinsic peroxidase-like activity with lower K m ( K m = 8.90 × 10-6 mol L-1) for H2O2, which indicated that CuNCs have a higher affinity for H2O2. Compared with natural enzyme, the as-synthesized CuNCs are more catalytic stable over a wide range of pH (4.0 13.0) and temperature (4 80 °C). Finally, an indirect method for sensing xanthine was established because xanthine oxidase can catalyse the oxidation of xanthine to produce H2O2. Xanthine could be detected as low as 3.8 × 10-7 mol L-1 with a linear range from 5.0 × 10-7 to 1.0 × 10-4 mol L-1. These results proved that the proposed method is sensitive and accurate and could be successfully applied to the determination of xanthine in the serum sample with satisfaction.

  2. In vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory and in vivo hypouricemic activity of herbal coded formulation (Gouticin).

    PubMed

    Akram, Muhammad; Usmanghani, Khan; Ahmed, Iqbal; Azhar, Iqbal; Hamid, Abdul

    2014-05-01

    Currently, natural products have been used in treating gouty arthritis and are recognized as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Current study was designed to evaluate in vitro xanthine oxidase inhibitory potential of Gouticin and its ingredients extracts and in vivo hypouricemic activity of gouticin tablet 500 mg twice daily. Ethanol extracts of Gouticin and its ingredients were evaluated in vitro, at 200, 100, 50, 25 μ g/ml concentrations for xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. IC(50) values of Gouticin and its ingredients were estimated. Further, in vivo therapeutic effect of Gouticin was investigated in comparison with allopathic medicine (Allopurinol) to treat gout. Total patients were 200 that were divided into test and control group. Herbal coded medicine (Gouticin) was given to test group and allopathic medicine allopurinol was administered to control group. In vitro, Gouticin has the highest percent inhibition at 96% followed by Allopurinol with 93% inhibition. In vivo study, mean serum uric acid level of patients was 4.62 mg/dl and 5.21mg/dl by use of Gouticin and Allopurinol at end of therapy. The study showed that herbal coded formulation gouticin and its ingredients are potential sources of natural xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Gouticin 500 mg twice daily is more effective than the allopurinol 300mg once daily in the management of gout.

  3. Protein Conformational Gating of Enzymatic Activity in Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikita, Hiroshi; Eger, Bryan T.; Okamoto, Ken

    2012-05-24

    In mammals, xanthine oxidoreductase can exist as xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO). The two enzymes possess common redox active cofactors, which form an electron transfer (ET) pathway terminated by a flavin cofactor. In spite of identical protein primary structures, the redox potential difference between XDH and XO for the flavin semiquinone/hydroquinone pair (E{sub sq/hq}) is {approx}170 mV, a striking difference. The former greatly prefers NAD{sup +} as ultimate substrate for ET from the iron-sulfur cluster FeS-II via flavin while the latter only accepts dioxygen. In XDH (without NAD{sup +}), however, the redox potential of the electron donor FeS-IImore » is 180 mV higher than that for the acceptor flavin, yielding an energetically uphill ET. On the basis of new 1.65, 2.3, 1.9, and 2.2 {angstrom} resolution crystal structures for XDH, XO, the NAD{sup +}- and NADH-complexed XDH, E{sub sq/hq} were calculated to better understand how the enzyme activates an ET from FeS-II to flavin. The majority of the E{sub sq/hq} difference between XDH and XO originates from a conformational change in the loop at positions 423-433 near the flavin binding site, causing the differences in stability of the semiquinone state. There was no large conformational change observed in response to NAD{sup +} binding at XDH. Instead, the positive charge of the NAD{sup +} ring, deprotonation of Asp429, and capping of the bulk surface of the flavin by the NAD{sup +} molecule all contribute to altering E{sub sq/hq} upon NAD{sup +} binding to XDH.« less

  4. Inhibition of chrysin on xanthine oxidase activity and its inhibition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Suyun; Zhang, Guowen; Liao, Yijing; Pan, Junhui

    2015-11-01

    Chrysin, a bioactive flavonoid, was investigated for its potential to inhibit the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme catalyzing xanthine to uric acid and finally causing gout. The kinetic analysis showed that chrysin possessed a strong inhibition on XO ability in a reversible competitive manner with IC50 value of (1.26±0.04)×10(-6)molL(-1). The results of fluorescence titrations indicated that chrysin bound to XO with high affinity, and the interaction was predominately driven by hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. Analysis of circular dichroism demonstrated that chrysin induced the conformational change of XO with increases in α-helix and β-sheet and reductions in β-turn and random coil structures. Molecular simulation revealed that chrysin interacted with the amino acid residues Leu648, Phe649, Glu802, Leu873, Ser876, Glu879, Arg880, Phe1009, Thr1010, Val1011 and Phe1013 located within the active cavity of XO. The mechanism of chrysin on XO activity may be the insertion of chrysin into the active site occupying the catalytic center of XO to avoid the entrance of xanthine and causing conformational changes in XO. Furthermore, the interaction assays indicated that chrysin and its structural analog apigenin exhibited an additive effect on inhibition of XO. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. In Vitro Oxidative Metabolism of 6-Mercaptopurine in Human Liver: Insights into the Role of the Molybdoflavoenzymes Aldehyde Oxidase, Xanthine Oxidase, and Xanthine Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Choughule, Kanika V.; Barnaba, Carlo; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Anticancer agent 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) has been in use since 1953 for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite being available for 60 years, several aspects of 6MP drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. Molybdoflavoenzymes such as aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) have previously been implicated in the metabolism of this drug. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of 6MP to 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) in pooled human liver cytosol. We discovered that 6MP is metabolized to 6TUA through sequential metabolism via the 6-thioxanthine (6TX) intermediate. The role of human AO and XO in the metabolism of 6MP was established using the specific inhibitors raloxifene and febuxostat. Both AO and XO were involved in the metabolism of the 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO was responsible for the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA. These findings were further confirmed using purified human AO and Escherichia coli lysate containing expressed recombinant human XO. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), which belongs to the family of xanthine oxidoreductases and preferentially reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), was shown to contribute to the overall production of the 6TX intermediate as well as the final product 6TUA in the presence of NAD+ in human liver cytosol. In conclusion, we present evidence that three enzymes, AO, XO, and XDH, contribute to the production of 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO and XDH are involved in the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA in pooled HLC. PMID:24824603

  6. In vitro oxidative metabolism of 6-mercaptopurine in human liver: insights into the role of the molybdoflavoenzymes aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Choughule, Kanika V; Barnaba, Carlo; Joswig-Jones, Carolyn A; Jones, Jeffrey P

    2014-08-01

    Anticancer agent 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) has been in use since 1953 for the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite being available for 60 years, several aspects of 6MP drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics in humans are unknown. Molybdoflavoenzymes such as aldehyde oxidase (AO) and xanthine oxidase (XO) have previously been implicated in the metabolism of this drug. In this study, we investigated the in vitro metabolism of 6MP to 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) in pooled human liver cytosol. We discovered that 6MP is metabolized to 6TUA through sequential metabolism via the 6-thioxanthine (6TX) intermediate. The role of human AO and XO in the metabolism of 6MP was established using the specific inhibitors raloxifene and febuxostat. Both AO and XO were involved in the metabolism of the 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO was responsible for the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA. These findings were further confirmed using purified human AO and Escherichia coli lysate containing expressed recombinant human XO. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), which belongs to the family of xanthine oxidoreductases and preferentially reduces nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), was shown to contribute to the overall production of the 6TX intermediate as well as the final product 6TUA in the presence of NAD(+) in human liver cytosol. In conclusion, we present evidence that three enzymes, AO, XO, and XDH, contribute to the production of 6TX intermediate, whereas only XO and XDH are involved in the conversion of 6TX to 6TUA in pooled HLC. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Isolation, Identification, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition Activity of Alkaloid Compound from Peperomia pellucida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fachriyah, E.; Ghifari, M. A.; Anam, K.

    2018-04-01

    The research of the isolation and xanthine oxidation inhibition activity of alkaloid compound from Peperomia pellucida has been carried out. Alkaloid extract is isolated by column chromatography and preparative TLC. Alkaloid isolate is identified spectroscopically by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, FT-IR, and LC-MS/MS. Xanthine oxidase inhibition activity is carried out by in vitro assay. The result showed that the alkaloid isolated probably has piperidine basic structure. The alkaloid isolate has N-H, C-H, C = C, C = O, C-N, C-O-C groups and the aromatic ring. The IC50 values of ethanol and alkaloid extract are 71.6658 ppm and 76.3318 ppm, respectively. Alkaloid extract of Peperomia pellucida showed higher activity than ethanol extract.

  8. Design and synthesis of chalcone derivatives as potential non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Bui, Trung Huu; Nguyen, Nhan Trung; Dang, Phu Hoang; Nguyen, Hai Xuan; Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi

    2016-01-01

    Based on some previous research, the chalcone derivatives exhibited potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, e.g. sappanchalcone ( 7 ), with IC 50 value of 3.9 μM, was isolated from Caesalpinia sappan . Therefore, objectives of this research are design and synthesis of 7 and other chalcone derivatives by Claisen-Schmidt condensation and then evaluate their XO inhibitory activity. Fifteen chalcone derivatives were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation, and were evaluated for XO inhibitory activity. Nine out of 15 synthetic chalcones showed inhibitory activity ( 3 ; 5 - 8 ; 10 - 13 ). Sappanchalcone derivatives ( 11 ) (IC 50 , 2.5 μM) and a novel chalcone ( 13 ) (IC 50 , 2.4 μM) displayed strong xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity that is comparable to allopurinol (IC 50 , 2.5 μM). The structure-activity relationship of these chalcone derivatives was also presented. It is the first research on synthesis sappanchalcone ( 7 ) by Claisen-Schmidt condensation. The overall yield of this procedure was 6.6 %, higher than that of reported procedure (4 %). Design, synthesis, and evaluation of chalcone derivatives were carried out. This result suggests that the chalcone derivative can be used as potential non-purine XO inhibitors.Graphical abstractThe chalcone derivatives as potential non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  9. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  10. Vascular oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in patients with chronic heart failure: role of xanthine-oxidase and extracellular superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, Ulf; Spiekermann, Stephan; Dikalov, Sergey; Tatge, Helma; Wilke, Ragna; Kohler, Christoph; Harrison, David G; Hornig, Burkhard; Drexler, Helmut

    2002-12-10

    Impaired flow-dependent, endothelium-mediated vasodilation (FDD) in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) results, at least in part, from accelerated degradation of nitric oxide by oxygen radicals. The mechanisms leading to increased vascular radical formation, however, remain unclear. Therefore, we determined endothelium-bound activities of extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD), a major vascular antioxidant enzyme, and xanthine-oxidase, a potent radical producing enzyme, and their relation to FDD in patients with CHF. ecSOD and xanthine-oxidase activities, released from endothelium into plasma by heparin bolus injection, were determined in 14 patients with CHF and 10 control subjects. FDD of the radial artery was measured using high-resolution ultrasound and was assessed before and after administration of the antioxidant vitamin C (25 mg/min; IA). In patients with CHF, endothelium-bound ecSOD activity was substantially reduced (5.0+/-0.7 versus 14.4+/-2.6 U x mL(-1) x min(-1); P<0.01) and closely related to FDD (r=0.61). Endothelium-bound xanthine-oxidase activity was increased by >200% (38+/-10 versus 12+/-4 nmol O2*- x microL(-1); P<0.05) and inversely related to FDD (r=-0.35) in patients with CHF. In patients with low ecSOD and high xanthine-oxidase activity, a greater benefit of vitamin C on FDD was observed, ie, the portion of FDD inhibited by radicals correlated negatively with ecSOD (r=-0.71) but positively with xanthine-oxidase (r=0.75). These results demonstrate that both increased xanthine-oxidase and reduced ecSOD activity are closely associated with increased vascular oxidative stress in patients with CHF. This loss of vascular oxidative balance likely represents a novel mechanism contributing to endothelial dysfunction in CHF.

  11. A novel multi-hyphenated analytical method to simultaneously determine xanthine oxidase inhibitors and superoxide anion scavengers in natural products.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jin; Sun, Li-Qiong; Qian, Steven Y; Yu, Bo-Yang

    2017-09-01

    Natural products, such as rosmarinic acid and apigenin, can act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOIs) as well as superoxide anion scavengers, and have potential for treatment of diseases associated with high uric acid levels and oxidative stress. However, efficient simultaneous screening of these two bioactivities in natural products has been challenging. We have developed a novel method by assembling a multi-hyphenated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system that combines a photo-diode array, chemiluminescence detector and a HPLC system with a variable wavelength detector, to simultaneously detect components that act as both XOIs and superoxide anion scavengers in natural products. Superoxide anion scavenging activity in the analyte was measured by on-line chemiluminescence chromatography based on pyrogallol-luminol oxidation, while xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity was determined by semi-on-line HPLC analysis. After optimizing multiple elements, including chromatographic conditions (e.g., organic solvent concentration and mobile phase pH), concentrations of xanthine/xanthine oxidase and reaction temperature, our validated analytical method was capable of mixed sample analysis. The final results from our method are presented in an easily understood visual format including comprehensive bioactivity data of natural products. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Xanthine-Catechin Mixture Enhances Lithium-Induced Anti-Inflammatory Response in Activated Macrophages In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Barbisan, Fernanda; Azzolin, Verônica Farina; Teixeira, Cibele Ferreira; Mastella, Moisés Henrique; Ribeiro, Euler Esteves; do Prado-Lima, Pedro Antonio Schmidt; Praia, Raquel de Souza; Medeiros Frescura Duarte, Marta Maria

    2017-01-01

    Lithium (Li) is a chemical element used for treating and preventing bipolar disorder (BD) and exerts positive effects such as anti-inflammatory effects as well as undesirable side effects. These effects of Li can be influenced by interaction with some nutritional elements. Therefore, we investigated the potential effects of xanthine (caffeine and theobromine) and catechin molecules present in some food beverages broadly consumed worldwide, such as coffee and tea, on Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects. In the present study, we concomitantly exposed RAW 264.7 macrophages to Li, isolated xanthine and catechin molecules, and a xanthine-catechin mixture (XC mixture). We evaluated the effects of these treatments on cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, oxidative and antioxidant marker expression, cytokine levels, gene expression, and GSK-3β enzyme expression. Treatment with the XC mixture potentialized Li-induced anti-inflammatory effects by intensification of the following: GSK-3β inhibitory action, lowering effect on proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα), and increase in the levels of IL-10 that is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Despite the controversial nature of caffeine consumption by BD patients, these results suggested that consumption of caffeine, in low concentrations, mixed with other bioactive molecules along with Li may be safe. PMID:29250539

  13. Brain purine metabolism and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase conversion in hyperammonemia are under control of NMDA receptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Yury; Kosenko, Elena

    2009-10-19

    In hyperammonemia, a decrease in brain ATP can be a result of adenine nucleotide catabolism. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are the end steps in the purine catabolic pathway and directly involved in depletion of the adenylate pool in the cell. Besides, XD can easily be converted to XO to produce reactive oxygen species in the cell. In this study, the effects of acute ammonia intoxication in vivo on brain adenine nucleotide pool and xanthine and hypoxanthine, the end degradation products of adenine nucleotides, during the conversion of XD to XO were studied. Injection of rats with ammonium acetate was shown to lead to the dramatic decrease in the ATP level, adenine nucleotide pool size and adenylate energy charge and to the great increase in hypoxanthine and xanthine 11 min after the lethal dose indicating rapid degradation of adenylates. Conversion of XD to XO in hyperammonemic rat brain was evidenced by elevated XO/XD activity ratio. Injection of MK-801, a NMDA receptor blocker, prevented ammonia-induced catabolism of adenine nucleotides and conversion of XD to XO suggesting that in vivo these processes are mediated by activation of NMDA receptors. The in vitro dose-dependent effects of sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, on XD and XO activities are indicative of the direct modification of the enzymes by nitric oxide. This is the first report evidencing the increase in brain xanthine and hypoxanthine levels and adenine nucleotide breakdown in acute ammonia intoxication and NMDA receptor-mediated prevention of these alterations.

  14. NADH oxidase activity of rat and human liver xanthine oxidoreductase: potential role in superoxide production.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luisa; Duarte, Rui O; Ponces-Freire, Ana; Moura, José J G; Mira, Lurdes

    2007-08-01

    To characterise the NADH oxidase activity of both xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) and xanthine oxidase (XO) forms of rat liver xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) and to evaluate the potential role of this mammalian enzyme as an O2*- source, kinetics and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopic studies were performed. A steady-state kinetics study of XD showed that it catalyses NADH oxidation, leading to the formation of one O2*- molecule and half a H(2)O(2) molecule per NADH molecule, at rates 3 times those observed for XO (29.2 +/- 1.6 and 9.38 +/- 0.31 min(-1), respectively). EPR spectra of NADH-reduced XD and XO were qualitatively similar, but they were quantitatively quite different. While NADH efficiently reduced XD, only a great excess of NADH reduced XO. In agreement with reductive titration data, the XD specificity constant for NADH (8.73 +/- 1.36 microM(-1) min(-1)) was found to be higher than that of the XO specificity constant (1.07 +/- 0.09 microM(-1) min(-1)). It was confirmed that, for the reducing substrate xanthine, rat liver XD is also a better O2*- source than XO. These data show that the dehydrogenase form of liver XOR is, thus, intrinsically more efficient at generating O2*- than the oxidase form, independently of the reducing substrate. Most importantly, for comparative purposes, human liver XO activity towards NADH oxidation was also studied, and the kinetics parameters obtained were found to be very similar to those of the XO form of rat liver XOR, foreseeing potential applications of rat liver XOR as a model of the human liver enzyme.

  15. Design and synthesis of novel 2-(indol-5-yl)thiazole derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Uk; Choi, Sung Pil; Kim, Tae Hun; Jung, Cheol-Kyu; Lee, Joo-Youn; Jung, Sang-Hun; Kim, Geun Tae

    2015-03-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors have been widely used for the treatment of gout. Indole rings are frequently used as active scaffold in designing inhibitors for enzymes. Herein, we describe the structure-activity relationship for novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors based on indole scaffold. A series of novel tri-substituted 2-(indol-5-yl)thiazole derivatives were synthesized, and their in vitro inhibitory activities against xanthine oxidase and in vivo efficacy lowering uric acid level in blood were measured. Among them, 2-(3-cyano-2-isopropylindol-5-yl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid exhibits the most potent XO inhibitory activity (IC50 value: 3.5nM) and the excellent plasma uric acid lowering activity. Study of structure activity relationship indicated that hydrophobic moiety (e.g., isopropyl) at 1-position and electron withdrawing group (e.g., CN) at 3-position of indole ring and small hydrophobic group (CH3) at 4-position of the thiazole ring enhanced the XO inhibitory activity. Hydrophobic substitution such as isopropyl at 1-position of the indole moiety without any substitution at 2-position has an essential role for enhancing bioavailability and therefore for high in vivo efficacy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Electron spin resonance characterization of vascular xanthine and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to endothelium-dependent vasodilation.

    PubMed

    Spiekermann, Stephan; Landmesser, Ulf; Dikalov, Sergey; Bredt, Martin; Gamez, Graciela; Tatge, Helma; Reepschläger, Nina; Hornig, Burkhard; Drexler, Helmut; Harrison, David G

    2003-03-18

    Increased inactivation of nitric oxide by superoxide (O2*-) contributes to endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary disease (CAD). We therefore characterized the vascular activities of xanthine oxidase and NAD(P)H oxidase, 2 major O2*--producing enzyme systems, and their relationship with flow-dependent, endothelium-mediated vasodilation (FDD) in patients with CAD. Xanthine- and NAD(P)H-mediated O*.- formation was determined in coronary arteries from 10 patients with CAD and 10 controls by using electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Furthermore, activity of endothelium-bound xanthine oxidase in vivo and FDD of the radial artery were determined in 21 patients with CAD and 10 controls. FDD was measured before and after infusion of the antioxidant vitamin C (25 mg/min i.a.) to determine the portion of FDD inhibited by radicals. In coronary arteries from patients with CAD, xanthine- and NAD(P)H-mediated O2*- formation was increased compared with controls (xanthine: 12+/-2 versus 7+/-1 nmol O2*-/ microg protein; NADH: 11+/-1 versus 7+/-1 nmol O2*-/ microg protein; and NADPH: 12+/-2 versus 9+/-1 nmol O2*-/ microg protein; each P<0.05). Endothelium-bound xanthine oxidase activity was increased by >200% in patients with CAD (25+/-4 versus 9+/-1 nmol O2*-/ microL plasma per min; P<0.05) and correlated inversely with FDD (r=-0.55; P<0.05) and positively with the effect of vitamin C on FDD (r=0.54; P<0.05). The present study represents the first electron spin resonance measurements of xanthine and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in human coronary arteries and supports the concept that increased activities of both enzymes contribute to increased vascular oxidant stress in patients with CAD. Furthermore, the present study suggests that increased xanthine oxidase activity contributes to endothelial dysfunction in patients with CAD and may thereby promote the atherosclerotic process.

  17. Increased xanthine oxidase-related ROS production and TRPV1 synthesis preceding DOMS post-eccentric exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Retamoso, Leandro T; Silveira, Mauro E P; Lima, Frederico D; Busanello, Guilherme L; Bresciani, Guilherme; Ribeiro, Leandro R; Chagas, Pietro M; Nogueira, Cristina W; Braga, Ana Claudia M; Furian, Ana Flávia; Oliveira, Mauro S; Fighera, Michele R; Royes, Luiz Fernando F

    2016-05-01

    It is well-known that unaccustomed exercise, especially eccentric exercise, is associated to delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whether DOMS is associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is still an open question. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between TRPV1 and xanthine oxidase-related ROS production in muscle and DOMS after a bout of eccentric exercise. Male Wistar rats performed a downhill running exercise on a treadmill at a -16° tilt and a constant speed for 90min (5min/bout separated by 2min of rest). Mechanical allodynia and grip force tests were performed before and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72h after the downhill running. Biochemical assays probing oxidative stress, purine degradation, xanthine oxidase activity, Ca(2+) ATPase activity and TRPV1 protein content were performed in gastrocnemius muscle at 12, 24, and 48h after the downhill running. Our statistical analysis showed an increase in mechanical allodynia and a loss of strength after the downhill running. Similarly, an increase in carbonyl, xanthine oxidase activity, uric acid levels and TRPV1 immunoreactivity were found 12h post-exercise. On the other hand, Ca(2+) ATPase activity decreased in all analyzed times. Our results suggest that a possible relationship between xanthine oxidase-related ROS and TRPV1 may exist during the events preceding eccentric exercise-related DOMS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of 2-(Substituted Benzylamino)-4-Methyl-1, 3-Thiazole-5-Carboxylic Acid Derivatives as Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors and Free Radical Scavengers.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Rahmat; Kumar, Suresh; Afzal, Obaid; Shalmali, Nishtha; Sharma, Manju; Bawa, Sandhya

    2016-04-01

    A series of 2-(substituted benzylamino)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid was designed and synthesized as structural analogue of febuxostat. A methylene amine spacer was incorporated between the phenyl ring and thiazole ring in contrast to febuxostat in which the phenyl ring was directly linked with the thiazole moiety. The purpose of incorporating methylene amine was to provide a heteroatom which is expected to favour hydrogen bonding within the active site residues of the enzyme xanthine oxidase. The structure of all the compounds was established by the combined use of FT-IR, NMR and MS spectral data. All the compounds were screened in vitro for their ability to inhibit the enzyme xanthine oxidase as per the reported procedure along with DPPH free radical scavenging assay. Compounds 5j, 5k and 5l demonstrated satisfactory potent xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values, 3.6, 8.1 and 9.9 μm, respectively, whereas compounds 5k, 5n and 5p demonstrated moderate antioxidant activities having IC50 15.3, 17.6 and 19.6 μm, respectively, along with xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity. Compound 5k showed moderate xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity as compared with febuxostat along with antioxidant activity. All the compounds were also studied for their binding affinity in active site of enzyme (PDB ID-1N5X). © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Levels and interactions of plasma xanthine oxidase, catalase and liver function parameters in Nigerian children with Plasmodium falciparum infection.

    PubMed

    Iwalokun, B A; Bamiro, S B; Ogunledun, A

    2006-12-01

    Elevated plasma levels of xanthine oxidase and liver function parameters have been associated with inflammatory events in several human diseases. While xanthine oxidase provides in vitro protection against malaria, its pathophysiological functions in vivo and interactions with liver function parameters remain unclear. This study examined the interactions and plasma levels of xanthine oxidase (XO) and uric acid (UA), catalase (CAT) and liver function parameters GOT, GPT and bilirubin in asymptomatic (n=20), uncomplicated (n=32), and severe (n=18) falciparum malaria children aged 3-13 years. Compared to age-matched control (n=16), significant (p<0.05) elevation in xanthine oxidase by 100-550%, uric acid by 15.4-153.8%, GOT and GPT by 22.1-102.2%, and total bilirubin by 2.3-86% according to parasitaemia (geometric mean parasite density (GMPD)=850-87100 parasites/microL) was observed in the malarial children. Further comparison with control revealed higher CAT level (16.2+/-0.5 vs 14.6+/-0.4 U/L; p<0.05) lacking significant (p>0.05) correlation with XO, but lower CAT level (13.4-5.4 U/L) with improved correlations (r=-0.53 to -0.91; p<0.05) with XO among the asymptomatic and symptomatic malaria children studied. 75% of control, 45% of asymptomatic, 21.9% of uncomplicated, and none of severe malaria children had Hb level>11.0 g/dL. Multivariate analyses further revealed significant (p<0.05) correlations between liver function parameters and xanthine oxidase (r=0.57-0.64) only in the severe malaria group. We conclude that elevated levels of XO and liver enzymes are biochemical features of Plasmodium falciparum parasitaemia in Nigerian children, with both parameters interacting differently to modulate the catalase response in asymptomatic and symptomatic falciparum malaria.

  20. Thermal properties of milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins in pulsed electric field-treated bovine whole milk.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Oey, Indrawati; Everett, David W

    2016-09-15

    Thermodynamics of milk components (milk fat, xanthine oxidase, caseins and whey proteins) in pulsed electric field (PEF)-treated milk were compared with thermally treated milk (63 °C for 30 min and 73 °C for 15s). PEF treatments were applied at 20 or 26 kV cm(-1) for 34 μs with or without pre-heating of milk (55 °C for 24s), using bipolar square wave pulses in a continuous mode of operation. PEF treatments did not affect the final temperatures of fat melting (Tmelting) or xanthine oxidase denaturation (Tdenaturation), whereas thermal treatments increased both the Tmelting of milk fat and the Tdenaturation for xanthine oxidase by 2-3 °C. Xanthine oxidase denaturation was ∼13% less after PEF treatments compared with the thermal treatments. The enthalpy change (ΔH of denaturation) of whey proteins decreased in the treated-milk, and denaturation increased with the treatment intensity. New endothermic peaks in the calorimetric thermograms of treated milk revealed the formation of complexes due to interactions between MFGM (milk fat globule membrane) proteins and skim milk proteins. Evidence for the adsorption of complexes onto the MFGM surface was obtained from the increase in surface hydrophobicity of proteins, revealing the presence of unfolded hydrophobic regions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Xanthine oxido-reductase activity in ischemic human and rat intestine.

    PubMed

    Bianciardi, Paola; Scorza, Roberto; Ghilardi, Giorgio; Samaja, Michele

    2004-09-01

    We measured time course and extent of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) to xanthine oxidase (XO) conversion in ischemic human and rat intestine. To model normothermic no-flow ischemia, we incubated fresh biopsies for 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16h. At t = 0h, XO was less in humans than in rats (P < 0.0004), while XD was essentially the same (P = NS). After 16h incubation at 37 degrees C, there was no appreciable XD-to-XO conversion and no change in neither XO nor XD activity in human intestine. In contrast, the rat intestine had XO/(XO + XD) ratio doubled in the first 2h and then maintained that value until t = 16 h. In conclusion, no XO-to-XD conversion was appreciable after 16 h no-flow normothermic ischemia in human intestine; in contrast, XO activity in rats increased sharply after the onset of ischemia. An immunohistochemical labelling study shows that, whereas XO + XD expression in liver tissue is localised in both hepatocytes and endothelial cells, in the intestine that expression is mostly localised in epithelial cells. We conclude that XO may be considered as a major source of reactive oxygen species in rats but not in humans.

  2. Amperometric biosensor based on prussian blue and nafion modified screen-printed electrode for screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    El Harrad, Loubna; Amine, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    A simple and sensitive amperometric biosensor was developed for the screening of potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from medicinal plants. This biosensor was prepared by immobilization of xanthine oxidase on the surface of prussian blue modified screen-printed electrodes using nafion and glutaraldehyde. The developed biosensor showed a linear amperometric response at an applied potential of +0.05 V toward the detection of hypoxanthine from 5 μM to 45 μM with a detection limit of 0.4 μM (S/N=3) and its sensitivity was found to be 600 mA M(-1) cm(-2). In addition, the biosensor exhibited a good storage stability. The inhibition of xanthine oxidase by allopurinol was studied under the optimized conditions. The linear range of allopurinol concentration is obtained up to 2.5 μM with an estimated 50% of inhibitionI50=1.8 μM. The developed biosensor was successfully applied to the screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors from 13 medicinal plants belonging to different families. Indeed, Moroccan people traditionally use these plants as infusion for the treatment of gout and its related symptoms. For this purpose, water extracts obtained from the infusion of these plants were used for the experiments. In this work, 13 extracts were assayed and several of them demonstrated xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, with an inhibition greater than 50% compared to spectrophotometry measurements that only few extracts showed an inhibition greater than 50%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mechanism of xanthine oxidase catalyzed biotransformation of HMX under anaerobic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Halasz, Annamaria; Spain, Jim C; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-06-27

    Enzyme catalyzed biotransformation of the energetic chemical octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) is not known. The present study describes a xanthine oxidase (XO) catalyzed biotransformation of HMX to provide insight into the biodegradation pathway of this energetic chemical. The rates of biotransformation under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were 1.6+/-0.2 and 10.5+/-0.9 nmolh(-1)mgprotein(-1), respectively, indicating that anaerobic conditions favored the reaction. The biotransformation rate was about 6-fold higher using NADH as an electron-donor compared to xanthine. During the course of reaction, the products obtained were nitrite (NO(2)(-)), methylenedinitramine (MDNA), 4-nitro-2,4-diazabutanal (NDAB), formaldehyde (HCHO), nitrous oxide (N(2)O), formic acid (HCOOH), and ammonium (NH(4)(+)). The product distribution gave carbon and nitrogen mass-balances of 91% and 88%, respectively. A comparative study with native-, deflavo-, and desulfo-XO and the site-specific inhibition studies showed that HMX biotransformation occurred at the FAD-site of XO. Nitrite stoichiometry revealed that an initial single N-denitration step was sufficient for the spontaneous decomposition of HMX.

  4. The dual actions of Paederia scandens extract as a hypouricemic agent: xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and uricosuric effect.

    PubMed

    Yan, Haiyan; Ma, Ying; Liu, Mei; Zhou, Lanlan

    2008-09-01

    Hyperuricemia is associated with a number of pathological conditions, such as gout. Lowering of elevated uric acid levels in the blood could be achieved by xanthine oxidase inhibitors and inhibitors of renal urate reabsorption. Some natural compounds isolated from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine have been previously demonstrated to act as xanthine oxidase inhibitors. In the present investigation, Paederia scandens (Lour.) Merrill (Rubiaceae) extract (PSE; 4.5, 2.25, and 1.125 g/kg) orally for 14 days was demonstrated to possess in vivo potent hypouricemic activity in hyperuricemic rats pretreated with potassium oxonate. In addition, PSE was also demonstrated to be an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the enzyme kinetics indicated that the inhibition of PSE was of a mixed type. Using an oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rat model, PSE was indeed shown to exhibit uricosuric action in vivo, which could explain, at least in part, the observed hypouricemic effect of PSE in these rats. The potential application of this compound in the treatment of conditions associated with hyperuricemia is discussed.

  5. Phosphorescent inner filter effect-based sensing of xanthine oxidase and its inhibitors with Mn-doped ZnS quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dandan; Zhang, Jinyi; Zhou, Rongxin; Xie, Ya-Ni; Hou, Xiandeng; Xu, Kailai; Wu, Peng

    2018-05-10

    Overexpression and crystallization of uric acid have been recognized as the course of hyperuricemia and gout, which is produced via xanthine oxidase (XOD)-catalyzed oxidation of xanthine. Therefore, the medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout is majorly based on the inhibition of the XOD enzymatic pathway. The spectroscopic nature of xanthine and uric acid, namely both absorption (near the ultraviolet region) and emission (non-fluorescent) characteristics, hinders optical assay development for XOD analysis. Therefore, the state-of-the-art analysis of XOD and the screening of XOD inhibitors are majorly based on chromatography. Here, we found the near ultraviolet absorption of uric acid overlapped well with the absorption of a large bandgap semiconductor quantum dots, ZnS. On the other hand, the intrinsic weak fluorescence of ZnS QDs can be substantially improved via transition metal ion doping. Therefore, herein, we developed an inner filter effect-based assay for XOD analysis and inhibitor screening with Mn-doped ZnS QDs. The phosphorescence of Mn-doped ZnS QDs could be quenched by uric acid generated from xanthine catabolism by XOD, leading to the phosphorescence turn-off detection of XOD with a limit of detection (3σ) of 0.02 U L-1. Furthermore, the existence of XOD inhibitors could inhibit the XOD enzymatic reaction, resulting in weakened phosphorescence quenching. Therefore, the proposed assay could also be explored for the facile screening analysis of XOD inhibitors, which is important for the potential medicinal therapy of hyperuricemia and gout.

  6. Inhibitory effects of cardols and related compounds on superoxide anion generation by xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Nihei, Ken-ichi; Maeta, Ayami; Yamagiwa, Yoshiro; Kubo, Isao

    2015-01-01

    5-Pentadecatrienylresorcinol, isolated from cashew nuts and commonly known as cardol (C₁₅:₃), prevented the generation of superoxide radicals catalysed by xanthine oxidase without the inhibition of uric acid formation. The inhibition kinetics did not follow the Michelis-Menten equation, but instead followed the Hill equation. Cardol (C₁₀:₀) also inhibited superoxide anion generation, but resorcinol and cardol (C₅:₀) did not inhibit superoxide anion generation. The related compounds 3,5-dihydroxyphenyl alkanoates and alkyl 2,4-dihydroxybenzoates, had more than a C9 chain, cooperatively inhibited but alkyl 3,5-dihydroxybenzoates, regardless of their alkyl chain length, did not inhibit the superoxide anion generation. These results suggested that specific inhibitors for superoxide anion generation catalysed by xanthine oxidase consisted of an electron-rich resorcinol group and an alkyl chain having longer than C9 chain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis and pharmacological characterization of novel xanthine carboxylate amides as A2A adenosine receptor ligands exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh; Bansal, Ranju; Rohilla, Suman; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert

    2016-04-01

    The carboxylate amides of 8-phenyl-1,3-dimethylxanthine described herein represent a new series of selective ligands of the adenosine A2A receptors exhibiting bronchospasmolytic activity. The effects of location of 8-phenyl substitutions on the adenosine receptor (AR) binding affinities of the newly synthesized xanthines have also been studied. The compounds displayed moderate to potent binding affinities toward various adenosine receptor subtypes when evaluated through radioligand binding studies. However, most of the compounds showed the maximum affinity for the A2A subtype, some with high selectivity versus all other subtypes. Xanthine carboxylate amide 13b with a diethylaminoethylamino moiety at the para-position of the 8-phenylxanthine scaffold was identified as the most potent A2A adenosine receptor ligand with Ki=0.06μM. Similarly potent and highly A2A-selective are the isovanillin derivatives 16a and 16d. In addition, the newly synthesized xanthine derivatives showed good in vivo bronchospasmolytic activity when tested in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Design, synthesis and inhibitory activities of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives on monoamine oxidase B.

    PubMed

    Hu, Suwen; Nian, Siyun; Qin, Kuiyou; Xiao, Tong; Li, Lingna; Qi, Xiaolu; Ye, Faqing; Liang, Guang; Hu, Guoxin; He, Jincai; Yu, Yinfei; Song, Bo

    2012-01-01

    The design and synthesis of two series of 8-(substituted styrol-formamido)phenyl-xanthine derivatives are described. Their in vitro monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition were tested and the effect of substituents on the N-7, phenyl and the substituted positions are discussed. It was observed that compound 9b displayed significant MAO-B inhibition activity and selectivity, fluorine substitution plays a key role in the selectivity of MAO-B inhibition, and the styrol-formamido group at position-3' may enhance the activity and selectivity of 8-phenyl-xanthine analogues. These results suggest that such compounds may be utilized for the development of new candidate MAO-B inhibitors for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  9. Effect of ethanol on metabolism of purine bases (hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Moriwaki, Yuji; Takahashi, Sumio

    2005-06-01

    There are many factors that contribute to hyperuricemia, including obesity, insulin resistance, alcohol consumption, diuretic use, hypertension, renal insufficiency, genetic makeup, etc. Of these, alcohol (ethanol) is the most important. Ethanol enhances adenine nucleotide degradation and increases lactic acid level in blood, leading to hyperuricemia. In beer, purines also contribute to an increase in plasma uric acid. Although rare, dehydration and ketoacidosis (due to ethanol ingestion) are associated with the ethanol-induced increase in serum uric acid levels. Ethanol also increases the plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of hypoxanthine and xanthine via the acceleration of adenine nucleotide degradation and a possible weak inhibition of xanthine dehydrogenase activity. Since many factors such as the ALDH2*1 gene and ADH2*2 gene, daily drinking habits, exercise, and dehydration enhance the increase in plasma concentration of uric acid induced by ethanol, it is important to pay attention to these factors, as well as ingested ethanol volume, type of alcoholic beverage, and the administration of anti-hyperuricemic agents, to prevent and treat ethanol-induced hyperuricemia.

  10. Increased xanthine oxidase during labour--implications for oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Many, A; Roberts, J M

    1997-11-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) produces uric acid. When in the oxidase form, this production is coupled with the generation of free radicals. Hypoxia-reperfusion enhances conversion of XDH to XO. Since the placenta is exposed to short periods of hypoxia reperfusion during labour, 17 placentae of pregnancy terminated by elective caesarean section and five placentae of pregnancies terminated by caesarean section during labour were examined for XDH/XO activity. It was found that XO activity was higher in the placentae of labouring women (P = 0.003), which suggests that labour enhances conversion of XDH to XO, facilitating free radical production.

  11. The physiology of endothelial xanthine oxidase: from urate catabolism to reperfusion injury to inflammatory signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Meneshian, Avedis; Bulkley, Gregory B

    2002-07-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) is a ubiquitous metalloflavoprotein that appears in two interconvertible yet functionally distinct forms: xanthine dehydrogenase (XD), which is constitutively expressed in vivo; and xanthine oxidase (XO), which is generated by the posttranslational modification of XD, either through the reversible, incremental thiol oxidation of sulfhydryl residues on XD or the irreversible proteolytic cleavage of a segment of XD, which occurs at low oxygen tension and in the presence of several proinflammatory mediators. Functionally, both XD and XO catalyze the oxidation of purines to urate. However, whereas XD requires NAD+ as an electron acceptor for these redox reactions, thereby generating the stable product NADH, XO is unable to use NAD+ as an electron acceptor, requiring instead the reduction of molecular oxygen for this purine oxidation and generating the highly reactive superoxide free radical. Nearly 100 years of study has documented the physiologic role of XD in urate catabolism. However, the rapid, posttranslational conversion of XD to the oxidant-generating form XO provides a possible physiologic mechanism for rapid, posttranslational, oxidant-mediated signaling. XO-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in various clinicopathologic entities, including ischemia/reperfusion injury and multisystem organ failure. More recently, the concept of physiologic signal transduction mediated by ROS has been proposed, and the possibility of XD to XO conversion, with subsequent ROS generation, serving as the trigger of the microvascular inflammatory response in vivo has been hypothesized. This review presents the evidence and basis for this hypothesis.

  12. Structural and Functional Insights into the Catalytic Inactivity of the Major Fraction of Buffalo Milk Xanthine Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Gadave, Kaustubh S.; Panda, Santanu; Singh, Surender; Kalra, Shalini; Malakar, Dhruba; Mohanty, Ashok K.; Kaushik, Jai K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) existing in two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and xanthine oxidase (XO), catabolises xanthine to uric acid that is further broken down to antioxidative agent allantoin. XOR also produces free radicals serving as second messenger and microbicidal agent. Large variation in the XO activity has been observed among various species. Both hypo and hyper activity of XOR leads to pathophysiological conditions. Given the important nutritional role of buffalo milk in human health especially in south Asia, it is crucial to understand the functional properties of buffalo XOR and the underlying structural basis of variations in comparison to other species. Methods and Findings Buffalo XO activity of 0.75 U/mg was almost half of cattle XO activity. Enzymatic efficiency (k cat/K m) of 0.11 sec−1 µM−1 of buffalo XO was 8–10 times smaller than that of cattle XO. Buffalo XOR also showed lower antibacterial activity than cattle XOR. A CD value (Δε430 nm) of 46,000 M−1 cm−1 suggested occupancy of 77.4% at Fe/S I centre. Buffalo XOR contained 0.31 molybdenum atom/subunit of which 48% existed in active sulfo form. The active form of XO in buffalo was only 16% in comparison to ∼30% in cattle. Sequencing revealed 97.4% similarity between buffalo and cattle XOR. FAD domain was least conserved, while metal binding domains (Fe/S and Molybdenum) were highly conserved. Homology modelling of buffalo XOR showed several variations occurring in clusters, especially close to FAD binding pocket which could affect NAD+ entry in the FAD centre. The difference in XO activity seems to be originating from cofactor deficiency, especially molybdenum. Conclusion A major fraction of buffalo milk XOR exists in a catalytically inactive form due to high content of demolybdo and desulfo forms. Lower Fe/S content and structural factors might be contributing to lower enzymatic efficiency of buffalo XOR in a minor way. PMID:24498153

  13. Bisphenol A 3,4-quinone induces the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Satoru; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Morinaga, Kazuhiro; Fujitake, Mihoyo; Wada, Shun-ichi; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we assessed the influence of bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A 3,4-quinone (BPAQ) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) into xanthine oxidase (XO) in the rat liver in vitro. BPA up to 100 micromol/L did not affect the XO and XD activities in the partially purified cytosolic fraction from rat liver, whereas BPAQ (2-10 micromol/L) dose-dependently enhanced the XO activity concomitant with a decrease in the XD activity, implying that BPAQ, but not BPA, can convert XD into the reactive oxygen species (ROS) producing the form XO. Furthermore, it was found that BPAQ could increase the generation of ROS and oxidize the guanine moiety of deoxyguanosine in the DNA of primary rat hepatocyte cultures. These results suggest that BPAQ has the potential to convert XD into XO in the liver, which in turn may lead to ROS generation and oxidative DNA damage in this region. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Control of biofouling by xanthine oxidase on seawater reverse osmosis membranes from a desalination plant: enzyme production and screening of bacterial isolates from the full-scale plant.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, V; Skillman, L; Li, D; Xie, Z; Ho, G

    2017-07-01

    Control of biofouling on seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) membranes is a major challenge as treatments can be expensive, damage the membrane material and often biocides do not remove the polymers in which bacteria are embedded. Biological control has been largely ignored for biofouling control. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of xanthine oxidase enzyme against complex fouling communities and then identify naturally occurring bacterial strains that produce the free radical generating enzyme. Initially, 64 bacterial strains were isolated from different locations of the Perth Seawater Desalination Plant. In our preceding study, 25/64 isolates were selected from the culture collection as models for biofouling studies, based on their prevalence in comparison to the genomic bacterial community. In this study, screening of these model strains was performed using a nitroblue tetrazolium assay in the presence of hypoxanthine as substrate. Enzyme activity was measured by absorbance. Nine of 25 strains tested positive for xanthine oxidase production, of which Exiguobacterium from sand filters and Microbacterium from RO membranes exhibited significant levels of enzyme production. Other genera that produced xanthine oxidase were Marinomonas, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas and Staphylococcus. Strain variations were observed between members of the genera Microbacterium and Bacillus. Xanthine oxidase, an oxidoreductase enzyme that generates reactive oxygen species, is endogenously produced by many bacterial species. In this study, production of the enzyme by bacterial isolates from a full-scale desalination plant was investigated for potential use as biological control of membrane fouling in seawater desalination. We have previously demonstrated that free radicals generated by a commercially available xanthine oxidase in the presence of a hypoxanthine substrate, effectively dispersed biofilm polysaccharides on industrially fouled membranes

  15. Disulfide S-monoxides convert xanthine dehydrogenase into oxidase in rat liver cytosol more potently than their respective disulfides.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Satoru; Fujita, Junko; Nakanishi, Masahiko; Wada, Shun-ich; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2008-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO)/xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) oxidizes oxypurines to uric acid, with only the XO form producing reactive oxygen species. In the present study, the effects of cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide (disulfide S-monoxides) on the conversion of XD to XO in rat liver were examined. A partially purified enzyme fraction from the rat liver was incubated with xanthine in the presence or absence of NAD+, and the uric acid formed was measured by HPLC. Under basal conditions, XO activity represented about 15% of the total XO plus XD activity. Cystamine S-monoxide and cystine S-monoxide converted XD into XO in a dose-dependent manner, and the concentrations required to increase XO activity by 50% were approximately 1 and 2 microM, respectively. Their respective thiols (cysteamine and cysteine) and disulfides (cystamine and cystine) up to 10 microM showed weak or no effects on the activities of XO and XD and their conversion. Experiments utilizing a sulfhydryl reducing reagent (dithiothreitol) and sulfhydryl modifiers (4,4'-dithiodipyridine and 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) indicated that disulfide S-monoxides-induced conversion of XD to XO occurs via disulfide bridge formation in XD, but not the modification of sulfhydryl groups. These results suggest that disulfide S-monoxides have the potential to increase the generation of reactive oxygen species through the conversion of XD to XO in liver.

  16. 9-Benzoyl 9-deazaguanines as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marili V N; Barbosa, Alexandre F; da Silva, Júlia F; dos Santos, Deborah A; Vanzolini, Kenia L; de Moraes, Marcela C; Corrêa, Arlene G; Cass, Quezia B

    2016-01-15

    A novel potent xanthine oxidase inhibitor, 3-nitrobenzoyl 9-deazaguanine (LSPN451), was selected from a series of 10 synthetic derivatives. The enzymatic assays were carried out using an on-flow bidimensional liquid chromatography (2D LC) system, which allowed the screening¸ the measurement of the kinetic inhibition constant and the characterization of the inhibition mode. This compound showed a non-competitive inhibition mechanism with more affinity for the enzyme-substrate complex than for the free enzyme, and inhibition constant of 55.1±9.80 nM, about thirty times more potent than allopurinol. Further details of synthesis and enzymatic studies are presented herein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of anticancer effects and enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity of xanthine derivatives using canine hemangiosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Tomoki; Katayama, Masaaki; Uzuka, Yuji; Okamura, Yasuhiko

    2013-10-01

    Methylxanthine derivatives increase cAMP and are known to have diuretic, cardiac, and central nervous system stimulatory effects. Moreover, caffeine inhibits the development of tumors induced by various carcinogens. The aim of this work was to elucidate the anticancer effects on apoptosis of xanthine derivatives alone and with doxorubicin in canine hemangiosarcoma cells. Xanthine derivatives with or without doxorubicin were administered to cells, and the effects were investigated by measuring tumor cell proliferation, cell death (cytotoxicity) induction, and apoptosis by the expression of annexin V or caspase 3/7. Both caffeine and theophylline induced apoptosis, and the treated cells expressed annexin V and caspase 3/7. Both drugs enhanced doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity; however, hypoxanthine showed no effect. These results indicate that theophylline is similar to caffeine; both drugs may enhance doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity by inhibiting ATM/ATR kinases. Our data suggest that caffeine and theophylline have anticancer effects and can improve the treatment effect in canine hemangiosarcoma patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A structure-based catalytic mechanism for the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Huber, R; Hof, P; Duarte, R O; Moura, J J; Moura, I; Liu, M Y; LeGall, J; Hille, R; Archer, M; Romão, M J

    1996-01-01

    The crystal structure of the xanthine oxidase-related molybdenum-iron protein aldehyde oxido-reductase from the sulfate reducing anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Desulfovibrio gigas (Mop) was analyzed in its desulfo-, sulfo-, oxidized, reduced, and alcohol-bound forms at 1.8-A resolution. In the sulfo-form the molybdenum molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor has a dithiolene-bound fac-[Mo, = O, = S, ---(OH2)] substructure. Bound inhibitory isopropanol in the inner compartment of the substrate binding tunnel is a model for the Michaelis complex of the reaction with aldehydes (H-C = O,-R). The reaction is proposed to proceed by transfer of the molybdenum-bound water molecule as OH- after proton transfer to Glu-869 to the carbonyl carbon of the substrate in concert with hydride transfer to the sulfido group to generate [MoIV, = O, -SH, ---(O-C = O, -R)). Dissociation of the carboxylic acid product may be facilitated by transient binding of Glu-869 to the molybdenum. The metal-bound water is replenished from a chain of internal water molecules. A second alcohol binding site in the spacious outer compartment may cause the strong substrate inhibition observed. This compartment is the putative binding site of large inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:8799115

  19. Synthesis, crystal structures, fluorescence and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, De-Qiang; Yu, Chuan-Ming; You, Jin-Zong; Yang, Guang-Hui; Wang, Xue-Jie; Zhang, Yi-Ping

    2015-11-01

    A series of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives were rationally designed and synthesized in good yields by following a convenient route. All the newly synthesized molecules were fully characterized by IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. Eight compounds were structurally determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The fluorescence properties of all the compounds were investigated in dimethyl sulfoxide media. In addition, these newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro inhibitory activity against commercial enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) by measuring the formation of uric acid from xanthine. Among the compounds synthesized and tested, 3d and 3e were found to be moderate inhibitory activity against commercial XO with IC50 = 72.4 μM and 75.6 μM. The studies gave a new insight in further optimization of pyrazole-based 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives with excellent fluorescence properties and XO inhibitory activity.

  20. Acyclic phosph(on)ate inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase

    PubMed Central

    Clinch, Keith; Crump, Douglas R.; Evans, Gary B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Mason, Jennifer M.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenic protozoa responsible for malaria lack enzymes for the de novo synthesis of purines and rely on purine salvage from the host. In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) converts hypoxanthine to inosine monophosphate and is essential for purine salvage making the enzyme an anti-malarial drug target. We have synthesized a number of simple acyclic aza-C- nucleosides and shown that some are potent inhibitors of Pf HGXPRT while showing excellent selectivity for the Pf versus the human enzyme. PMID:23810424

  1. Detection of xanthine oxidase and immunologically related proteins in fractions from bovine mammary tissue and milk after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Mather, I H; Sullivan, C H; Madara, P J

    1982-01-01

    A solid-phase immunoassay was used to detect xanthine oxidase in fractions from bovine mammary glands after electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulphate. Under these conditions the major proportion of xanthine oxidase in either mammary tissue or mild could be recovered as a protein of mol.wt. 150 000. In mammary tissue approx. 80% of the enzyme was in a soluble form and the remainder was accounted for in either 'mitochondrial' or microsomal fractions after tissue homogenization and fractionation. Affinity chromatography of either detergent-solubilized microsomal membranes or postmicrosomal supernatants on immobilized antibody to xanthine oxidase yielded a single protein that cross-reacted with antibody to the enzyme. In milk presumptive degradation products of the enzyme were detected in minor quantities with mol.wts. of 43 000 in the whey fraction and 90 000 in fat-globule membrane. Only the undegraded enzyme was present in the skim-milk membrane fraction. Xanthine oxidase is therefore synthesized and secreted as a protein with a monomeric mol.wt. of 150 000 and is not subjected to extensive proteolytic degradation during the storage of milk in mammary alveoli. The significance of the results is discussed in relation to the overall protein composition of the membranes of milk-fat globules and skim milk. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:7046730

  2. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activities of Amaranthus cruentus L. and Amaranthus hybridus L. Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Nana, Fernand W.; Hilou, Adama; Millogo, Jeanne F.; Nacoulma, Odile G.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a preliminary assessment of the nutraceutical value of Amaranthus cruentus (A. cruentus) and Amaranthus hybridus (A. hybridus), two food plant species found in Burkina Faso. Hydroacetonic (HAE), methanolic (ME), and aqueous extracts (AE) from the aerial parts were screened for in vitro antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. Phytochemical analyses revealed the presence of polyphenols, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids, saponins and betalains. Hydroacetonic extracts have shown the most diversity for secondary metabolites. The TLC analyses of flavonoids from HAE extracts showed the presence of rutin and other unidentified compounds. The phenolic compound contents of the HAE, ME and AE extracts were determined using the Folin–Ciocalteu method and ranged from 7.55 to 10.18 mg Gallic acid equivalent GAE/100 mg. Tannins, flavonoids, and flavonols ranged from 2.83 to 10.17 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/100 mg, 0.37 to 7.06 mg quercetin equivalent (QE) /100 mg, and 0.09 to 1.31 mg QE/100 mg, respectively. The betacyanin contents were 40.42 and 6.35 mg Amaranthin Equivalent/100 g aerial parts (dry weight) in A. cruentus and A. hybridus, respectively. Free-radical scavenging activity expressed as IC50 (DPPH method) and iron reducing power (FRAP method) ranged from 56 to 423 µg/mL and from 2.26 to 2.56 mmol AAE/g, respectively. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts of A. cruentus and A. hybridus were 3.18% and 38.22%, respectively. The A. hybridus extract showed the best antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities. The results indicated that the phytochemical contents of the two species justify their traditional uses as nutraceutical food plants. PMID:24281664

  3. In vitro study of 6-mercaptopurine oxidation catalysed by aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza; Beedham, Christine; Smith, John S; Davaran, Soodabeh

    2007-08-01

    In spite of over 40 years of clinical use of 6-mercaptopurine, many aspects of complex pharmacology and metabolism of this drug remain unclear. It is thought that 6-mercaptopurine is oxidized to 6-thiouric acid through 6-thioxanthine or 8-oxo-6-mercaptopurine by one of two molybdenum hydroxylases, xanthine oxidase (XO), however, the role of other molybdenum hydroxylase, aldehyde oxidase (AO), in the oxidation of 6-mercaptopurine and possible interactions of AO substrates and inhibitors has not been investigated in more details. In the present study, the role of AO and XO in the oxidation of 6- mercaptopurine has been investigated. 6-mercaptopurine was incubated with bovine milk xanthine oxidase or partially purified guinea pig liver molybdenum hydroxylase fractions in the absence and presence of XO and AO inhibitor/substrates, and the reactions were monitored by spectrophotometric and HPLC methods. According to the results obtained from the inhibition studies, it is more likely that 6- mercaptopurine is oxidized to 6-thiouric acid via 6-thioxanthine rather than 8-oxo-6-mercaptopurine. The first step which is the rate limiting step is catalyzed solely by XO, whereas both XO and AO are involved in the oxidation of 6-thioxanthine to 6-thiouric acid.

  4. Study of Drug Metabolism by Xanthine Oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; He, Xiaolin; Yang, Nana; Sun, Lizhou; Li, Genxi

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we report the studies of drug metabolism by xanthine oxidase (XOD) with electrochemical techniques. Firstly, a pair of stable, well-defined and quasi-reversible oxidation/reduction peaks is obtained with the formal potential at −413.1 mV (vs. SCE) after embedding XOD in salmon sperm DNA membrane on the surface of pyrolytic graphite electrode. Then, a new steady peak can be observed at −730 mV (vs. SCE) upon the addition of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) to the electrochemical system, indicating the metabolism of 6-MP by XOD. Furthermore, the chronoamperometric response shows that the current of the catalytic peak located at −730 mV increases with addition of 6-MP in a concentration-dependent manner, and the increase of the chronoamperometric current can be inhibited by an XOD inhibitor, quercetin. Therefore, our results prove that XOD/DNA modified electrode can be efficiently used to study the metabolism of 6-MP, which may provide a convenient approach for in vitro studies on enzyme-catalyzed drug metabolism. PMID:22606015

  5. Nitrite-derived nitric oxide protects the rat kidney against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo: role for xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Tripatara, Pinpat; Patel, Nimesh S A; Webb, Andrew; Rathod, Krishnaraj; Lecomte, Florence M J; Mazzon, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Yaqoob, Mohammed M; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Thiemermann, Christoph

    2007-02-01

    In normal conditions, nitric oxide (NO) is oxidized to the anion nitrite, but in hypoxia, this nitrite may be reduced back to NO by the nitrite reductase action of deoxygenated hemoglobin, acidic disproportionation, or xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR). Herein, is investigated the effects of topical sodium nitrite administration in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were subjected to 60 min of bilateral renal ischemia and 6 h of reperfusion in the absence or presence of sodium nitrite (30 nmol) administered topically 1 min before reperfusion. Serum creatinine, serum aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of Na(+), and plasma nitrite/nitrate concentrations were measured. The nitrite-derived NO-generating capacity of renal tissue was determined under acidic and hypoxic conditions by ozone chemiluminescence in homogenates of kidneys that were subjected to sham, ischemia-only, and I/R conditions. Nitrite significantly attenuated renal dysfunction and injury, an effect that was abolished by previous treatment of rats with the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazole-1-oxyl-3-oxide (2.5 mumol intravenously 5 min before ischemia and 50 nmol topically 6 min before reperfusion). Renal tissue homogenates produced significant amounts of NO from nitrite, an effect that was attenuated significantly by the xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor allopurinol. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that topically administered sodium nitrite protects the rat kidney against I/R injury and dysfunction in vivo via the generation, in part, of xanthine oxidoreductase-catalyzed NO production. These observations suggest that nitrite therapy might prove beneficial in protecting kidney function and integrity during periods of I/R such as those encountered in renal transplantation.

  6. Slow ligand-induced conformational switch increases the catalytic rate in Plasmodium falciparum hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Roy, Sourav; Karmakar, Tarak; Prahlada Rao, Vasudeva S; Nagappa, Lakshmeesha K; Balasubramanian, Sundaram; Balaram, Hemalatha

    2015-05-01

    P. falciparum (Pf) hypoxanthine guanine xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) exhibits a unique mechanism of activation where the enzyme switches from a low activity (unactivated) to a high activity (activated) state upon pre-incubation with substrate/products. Xanthine phosphoribosylation by unactivated PfHGXPRT exhibits a lag phase, the duration of which reduces with an increase in concentration of the enzyme or substrate, PRPP·Mg(2+). Activated PfHGXPRT does not display the lag phase and exhibits a ten-fold drop in the Km value for PRPP·Mg(2+). These observations suggest the involvement of ligand-mediated oligomerization and conformational changes in the process of activation. The dipeptide Leu-Lys in the PPi binding site of human and T. gondii HG(X)PRT that facilitates PRPP·Mg(2+) binding by isomerization from trans to cis conformation is conserved in PfHGXPRT. Free energy calculations using the well-tempered metadynamics technique show the ligand-free enzyme to be more stable when this dipeptide is in the trans conformation than in the cis conformation. The high rotational energy barrier observed for the conformational change from experimental and computational studies permits delineation of the activation mechanism.

  7. Methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines as a basis of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babkov, D. A.; Geisman, A. N.; Khandazhinskaya, A. L.; Novikov, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The review covers methods for the synthesis of aza(deaza)xanthines, i.e., fused pyrrolo-, pyrazolo- and triazolopyrimidine heterocyclic systems, which are common core structures of various biologically active compounds. The extensive range of modern synthetic approaches is organized according to target structures and starting building blocks. The presented material is intended to benefit broad audience of specialists in the fields of organic, medicinal and pharmaceutical chemistry. The bibliography includes 195 references.

  8. Antidepressant-like effects of the xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitor allopurinol in rats. A comparison with fluoxetine.

    PubMed

    Gürbüz Özgür, Börte; Aksu, Hatice; Birincioğlu, Mustafa; Dost, Turhan

    2015-11-01

    Allopurinol is a xanthine oxidase enzyme inhibitor that is widely used for the treatment of hyperuricemia and gout. The activity of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, which metabolizes tryptophan (TRP), is decreased by xanthine oxidase inhibitors, causing TRP levels in the body to be increased. Increases in TRP levels in the brain might have antidepressant effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the antidepressant effects of allopurinol compared to those of fluoxetine, which is a proven antidepressant. Thirty-two Wistar albino male rats were divided into four groups (control, 10mg/kg fluoxetine, 50mg/kg allopurinol, 50mg/kg allopurinol+10 mg/kg fluoxetine; n=8 per group), and forced swimming tests were performed before and after 14days of drug administration. Serotonin, 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid and uric acid levels were measured in blood samples after the final treatment. When allopurinol and fluoxetine were administered separately, a decrease in the duration of immobility and an increased duration of swimming were observed in the forced swimming test. The results showed similar antidepressant efficacies between allopurinol and fluoxetine. However, we found no statistically significant difference in the antidepressant effect of the combined therapy versus single drug therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones as potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Honda, Sari; Miura, Yukari; Masuda, Akiko; Masuda, Toshiya

    2014-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity has been found in boiling water extracts from roasted coffee beans. Therefore, assay-guided purification of the extracts was performed using size-exclusion column chromatography, and subsequently with reversed phase HPLC to afford lactone derivatives of chlorogenic acids. Among the tested lactones, crypto- and neochlorogenic lactones showed potent XO inhibitory activities compared with three major chlorogenic acids found in coffee beans. These XO inhibitory lactones may ameliorate gout and hyperuricemia in humans who drink coffee.

  10. The dual actions of morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone) as a hypouricemic agent: uricosuric effect and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhifeng; Fong, Wing Ping; Cheng, Christopher H K

    2006-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is associated with a number of pathological conditions such as gout. Lowering of elevated uric acid level in the blood could be achieved by xanthine oxidase inhibitors and inhibitors of renal urate reabsorption. Some natural compounds isolated from herbs used in traditional Chinese medicine have been previously demonstrated to possess xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. In the present investigation, morin (3,5,7,2',4'-pentahydroxyflavone), which occurs in the twigs of Morus alba L. documented in traditional Chinese medicinal literature to treat conditions akin to gout, was demonstrated to exert potent inhibitory action on urate uptake in rat renal brush-border membrane vesicles, indicating that this compound acts on the kidney to inhibit urate reabsorption. Lineweaver-Burk transformation of the inhibition kinetics data demonstrated that the inhibition of urate uptake was of a competitive type, with a K(i) value of 17.4 microM. In addition, morin was also demonstrated to be an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of the enzyme kinetics indicated that the mode of inhibition was of a mixed type, with K(i) and K(ies) values being 7.9 and 35.1 microM, respectively. Using an oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rat model, morin was indeed shown to exhibit an in vivo uricosuric action, which could explain, in part at least, the observed hypouricemic effect of morin in these rats. The potential application of this compound in the treatment of conditions associated with hyperuricemia was discussed.

  11. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase and NAD(P)H oxidase in endothelial superoxide production in response to oscillatory shear stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNally, J. Scott; Davis, Michael E.; Giddens, Don P.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Dikalov, Sergey; Jo, Hanjoong; Harrison, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Oscillatory shear stress occurs at sites of the circulation that are vulnerable to atherosclerosis. Because oxidative stress contributes to atherosclerosis, we sought to determine whether oscillatory shear stress increases endothelial production of reactive oxygen species and to define the enzymes responsible for this phenomenon. Bovine aortic endothelial cells were exposed to static, laminar (15 dyn/cm2), and oscillatory shear stress (+/-15 dyn/cm2). Oscillatory shear increased superoxide (O2.-) production by more than threefold over static and laminar conditions as detected using electron spin resonance (ESR). This increase in O2*- was inhibited by oxypurinol and culture of endothelial cells with tungsten but not by inhibitors of other enzymatic sources. Oxypurinol also prevented H2O2 production in response to oscillatory shear stress as measured by dichlorofluorescin diacetate and Amplex Red fluorescence. Xanthine-dependent O2*- production was increased in homogenates of endothelial cells exposed to oscillatory shear stress. This was associated with decreased xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) protein levels and enzymatic activity resulting in an elevated ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) to XDH. We also studied endothelial cells lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase. These cells exhibited dramatically depressed O2*- production and had minimal XO protein and activity. Transfection of these cells with p47phox restored XO protein levels. Finally, in bovine aortic endothelial cells, prolonged inhibition of the NAD(P)H oxidase with apocynin decreased XO protein levels and prevented endothelial cell stimulation of O2*- production in response to oscillatory shear stress. These data suggest that the NAD(P)H oxidase maintains endothelial cell XO levels and that XO is responsible for increased reactive oxygen species production in response to oscillatory shear stress.

  12. Measurement of xanthine oxidase inhibition activity of phenolics and flavonoids with a modified cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method.

    PubMed

    Ozyürek, Mustafa; Bektaşoğlu, Burcu; Güçlü, Kubilay; Apak, Reşat

    2009-03-16

    Various dietary polyphenolics have been found to show an inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase (XO) which mediates oxidative stress-originated diseases because of its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO activity has usually been determined by following the rate of uric acid formation from xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO) system using the classical XO activity assay (UV-method) at 295nm. Since some polyphenolics have strong absorption from the UV to visible region, XO-inhibitory activity of polyphenolics was alternatively determined without interference by directly measuring the formation of uric acid and hydrogen peroxide using the modified CUPRAC (cupric reducing antioxidant capacity) spectrophotometric method at 450nm. The CUPRAC absorbance of the incubation solution due to the reduction of Cu(II)-neocuproine reagent by the products of the X-XO system decreased in the presence of polyphenolics, the difference being proportional to the XO inhibition ability of the tested compound. The structure-activity relationship revealed that the flavones and flavonols with a 7-hydroxyl group such as apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, and myricetin inhibited XO-inhibitory activity at low concentrations (IC(50) values from 1.46 to 1.90microM), while the flavan-3-ols and naringin were less inhibitory. The findings of the developed method for quercetin and catechin in the presence of catalase were statistically alike with those of HPLC. In addition to polyphenolics, five kinds of herbs were evaluated for their XO-inhibitory activity using the developed method. The proposed spectrophotometric method was practical, low-cost, rapid, and could reliably assay uric acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of polyphenols (flavonoids, simple phenolic acids and hydroxycinnamic acids), and less open to interferences by UV-absorbing substances.

  13. Investigation of solvent polarity effect on molecular structure and vibrational spectrum of xanthine with the aid of quantum chemical computations.

    PubMed

    Polat, Turgay; Yıldırım, Gurcan

    2014-04-05

    The main scope of this study is to determine the effects of 8 solvents on the geometric structure and vibrational spectra of the title compound, xanthine, by means of the DFT/B3LYP level of theory in the combination with the polarizable conductor continuum model (CPCM) for the first time. After determination of the most-steady state (favored structure) of the xanthine molecule, the role of the solvent polarity on the SCF energy (for the molecule stability), atomic charges (for charge distribution) and dipole moments (for molecular charge transfer) belonging to tautomer is discussed in detail. The results obtained indicate not only the presence of the hydrogen bonding and strong intra-molecular charge transfer (ICT) in the compound but the increment of the molecule stability with the solvent polarity, as well. Moreover, it is noted that the optimized geometric parameters and the theoretical vibrational frequencies are in good agreement with the available experimental results found in the literature. In fact, the correlations between the experimental and theoretical findings for the molecular structures improve with the enhancement of the solvent polarity. At the same time, the dimer forms of the xanthine compound are simulated to describe the effect of intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies. It is found that the CO and NH stretching vibrations shift regularly to lower frequency value with higher IR intensity as the dielectric medium enhances systematically due to the intermolecular NH⋯O hydrogen bonds. Theoretical vibrational spectra are also assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) using the VEDA 4 program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition by Febuxostat Attenuates Experimental Atherosclerosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Johji; Busso, Nathalie; Ives, Annette; Matsui, Chieko; Tsujimoto, Syunsuke; Shirakura, Takashi; Tamura, Mizuho; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; So, Alexander; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease due to lipid deposition in the arterial wall. Multiple mechanisms participate in the inflammatory process, including oxidative stress. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and has been linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we show enhanced XO expression in macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque and in aortic endothelial cells in ApoE−/− mice, and that febuxostat, a highly potent XO inhibitor, suppressed plaque formation, reduced arterial ROS levels and improved endothelial dysfunction in ApoE−/− mice without affecting plasma cholesterol levels. In vitro, febuxostat inhibited cholesterol crystal-induced ROS formation and inflammatory cytokine release in murine macrophages. These results demonstrate that in the atherosclerotic plaque, XO-mediated ROS formation is pro-inflammatory and XO-inhibition by febuxostat is a potential therapy for atherosclerosis. PMID:24686534

  15. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay for simultaneous screening of xanthine oxidase inhibitors and free radical scavengers from complex mixture.

    PubMed

    Li, D Q; Zhao, J; Li, S P

    2014-06-06

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to generate uric acid and reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion radical (O₂(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide. XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers are beneficial to the treatment of gout and many related diseases. In the present study, an on-line high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with post-column dual-bioactivity assay was established and successfully applied to simultaneously screening of XO inhibitors and free radical scavengers from a complex mixture, Oroxylum indicum extract. The integrated system of HPLC separation, bioactivity screening and mass spectrometry identification was proved to be simple and effective for rapid and sensitive screening of individual bioactive compounds in complex mixtures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pharmacophore modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics studies on natural products database to discover novel skeleton as non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jiale; Li, Yaping; Zhou, Yeheng; Zhang, Li; Liu, Xingyong; Zuo, Zhili

    2018-05-29

    Gout is a common inflammatory arthritis caused by the deposition of urate crystals within joints. It is increasingly in prevalence during the past few decades as shown by the epidemiological survey results. Xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme to transfer hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid, whose overproduction leads to gout. Therefore, inhibiting the activity of xanthine oxidase is an important way to reduce the production of urate. In the study, in order to identify the potential natural products targeting XO, pharmacophore modeling was employed to filter databases. Here, two methods, pharmacophore based on ligand and pharmacophore based on receptor-ligand, were constructed by Discovery Studio. Then GOLD was used to refine the potential compounds with higher fitness scores. Finally, molecular docking and dynamics simulations were employed to analyze the interactions between compounds and protein. The best hypothesis was set as a 3D query to screen database, returning 785 and 297 compounds respectively. A merged set of the above 1082 molecules was subjected to molecular docking, which returned 144 hits with high-fitness scores. These molecules were clustered in four main kinds depending on different backbones. What is more, molecular docking showed that the representative compounds established key interactions with the amino acid residues in the protein, and the RMSD and RMSF of molecular dynamics results showed that these compounds can stabilize the protein. The information represented in the study confirmed previous reports. And it may assist to discover and design new backbones as potential XO inhibitors based on natural products.

  17. 35 GHz ENDOR characterization of the "very rapid" signal of xanthine oxidase reacted with 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine (13C8): evidence against direct Mo-C8 interaction.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, P; Choi, E Y; Hille, R; Hoffman, B M

    2001-03-21

    Xanthine oxidase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of xanthine and a wide variety of other aromatic heterocycles. In the course of the reaction with xanthine and substrates such as 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine (HMP), the enzyme gives rise to a Mo(V) EPR signal, denoted "very rapid", that arises from an authentic catalytic intermediate. The two alternative catalytic mechanisms proposed for this enzyme differ critically in whether the distance between Mo and C8 of the purine nucleus in this intermediate is short enough to admit a direct bonding interaction. To examine this distance, we have performed 13C ENDOR measurements of the "very rapid" EPR signal generated by xanthine oxidase during reaction with 13C8-HMP. The resulting (13)C8 hyperfine tensor, A = [10.2(1), 7.0(1), 6.5(1)] MHz, is discussed in the framework of a detailed consideration of factors involved in extracting metrical parameters from an anisotropic hyperfine interaction composed of contributions from multiple sources, in particular, the effect of the local contributions from spin density on (13)C8. The analysis presented here gives a Mo...C distance whose value is expected to be ca. 2.7-2.9 A in the "very rapid" intermediates formed with both xanthine and HMP, consistent with plausible bond lengths for a Mo-O-C8 fragment where C8 is a trigonal-planar aromatic carbon. The difference from earlier conclusions is explained. The data thus do not support the existence of a direct Mo-C bond in the signal-giving species. This conclusion supports a mechanism that does not involve such an interaction and which begins with base-assisted nucleophilic attack of the Mo(VI)-OH group on the C-8 of substrate, with concomitant hydride transfer to the Mo=S group to give Mo(IV)-SH; the EPR-active "very rapid" species then forms by one-electron oxidation and deprotonation to yield the EPR-detectable Mo(V)OS(OR) species. We further discuss the complexities and limitations of the semiempirical

  18. A novel amperometric enzyme inhibition biosensor based on xanthine oxidase immobilised onto glassy carbon electrodes for bisphenol A determination.

    PubMed

    Ben Messaoud, Najib; Ghica, Mariana Emilia; Dridi, Cherif; Ben Ali, Mounir; Brett, Christopher M A

    2018-07-01

    A novel and simple biosensor for the determination of bisphenol A (BPA) based on xanthine oxidase (XOD) enzymatic inhibition has been developed. The biosensor was prepared from xanthine oxidase immobilised by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde, with hypoxanthine as enzyme substrate, and was successfully applied to the determination of BPA using fixed potential amperometry. Biosensor performance was optimised with respect to the applied potential, influence of pH of the electrolyte solution, XOD loading and the substrate concentration. The enzyme inhibition mechanism was evaluated from Cornish-Bowden plus Dixon plots and was found to be reversible and competitive with an apparent inhibition constant of 8.15 nM. Under optimised conditions, the determination of BPA can be achieved in the linear range up to 41 nM with a detection limit of 1.0 nM, which is equal to the lowest reported in the literature, with very good repeatability and reproducibility. The selectivity of the biosensor was evaluated by performing an interference study and found to be excellent; and stability was investigated. It was successfully applied to the detection of BPA in mineral water and in river water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic evidence for the essential role of PfNT1 in the transport and utilization of xanthine, guanine, guanosine and adenine by Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    El Bissati, Kamal; Downie, Megan J; Kim, Seong-Kyoun; Horowitz, Michael; Carter, Nicola; Ullman, Buddy; Ben Mamoun, Choukri

    2008-10-01

    The malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is unable to synthesize the purine ring de novo and is therefore wholly dependent upon purine salvage from the host for survival. Previous studies have indicated that a P. falciparum strain in which the purine transporter PfNT1 had been disrupted was unable to grow on physiological concentrations of adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine. We have now used an episomally complemented pfnt1Delta knockout parasite strain to confirm genetically the functional role of PfNT1 in P. falciparum purine uptake and utilization. Episomal complementation by PfNT1 restored the ability of pfnt1Delta parasites to transport and utilize adenosine, inosine and hypoxanthine as purine sources. The ability of wild-type and pfnt1Delta knockout parasites to transport and utilize the other physiologically relevant purines adenine, guanine, guanosine and xanthine was also examined. Unlike wild-type and complemented P. falciparum parasites, pfnt1Delta parasites could not proliferate on guanine, guanosine or xanthine as purine sources, and no significant transport of these substrates could be detected in isolated parasites. Interestingly, whereas isolated pfnt1Delta parasites were still capable of adenine transport, these parasites grew only when adenine was provided at high, non-physiological concentrations. Taken together these results demonstrate that, in addition to hypoxanthine, inosine and adenosine, PfNT1 is essential for the transport and utilization of xanthine, guanine and guanosine.

  20. Purification and properties of a novel ferricyanide-linked xanthine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida 40.

    PubMed Central

    Woolfolk, C A

    1985-01-01

    The isolation of a xanthine dehydrogenase from Pseudomonas putida 40 which utilizes ferricyanide as an electron acceptor at high efficiency is presented. The new activity is separate from the NAD+ and oxygen-utilizing activities of the same organism but displays a broad pattern for reducing substrates typical of those of previously studied xanthine-oxidizing enzymes. Unlike the previously studied enzymes, the new enzyme appears to lack flavin but possess heme and is resistant to cyanide treatment. However, sensitivity of the purified enzyme to methanol and the selective elimination of the activity when tungstate is added to certain growth media suggest a role for molybdenum. The enzyme is subject to a selective proteolytic action during processing which is not accompanied by denaturation or loss of activity and which is minimized by the continuous exposure of the activity to EDTA and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Electrophoresis of the denatured enzyme in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate suggests that the enzyme is constructed of subunits with a molecular weight of approximately 72,000. Electrophoresis under native conditions of a purified enzyme previously exposed to magnesium ion reveals a series of major and minor activity bands which display some selectivity toward both electron donors and acceptors. An analysis of the effect of gel concentration on this pattern suggests that the enzyme forms a series of charge and size isomers with a pair of trimeric forms predominating. Comparison of the rate of sedimentation of the enzyme in sucrose gradients with its elution profile from standardized Sepharose 6B columns suggests a molecular weight of 255,000 for the major form of the native enzyme. Images PMID:3860496

  1. In vitro antioxidant, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of fractions from Cienfuegosia digitata Cav., Sida alba L. and Sida acuta Burn f. (Malvaceae).

    PubMed

    Konaté, K; Souza, A; Coulibaly, A Y; Meda, N T R; Kiendrebeogo, M; Lamien-Meda, A; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J; Lamidi, M; Nacoulma, O G

    2010-11-15

    In this study polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, lipoxygenase (LOX) and Xanthine Oxidase (XO) inhibitory effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of aqueous acetone extracts from S. alba L., S. acuta Burn f and Cienfuegosia digitata Cav. were investigated. The total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and total tannins were determined by spectrophotometric methods using Folin-ciocalteu, AlCl3 reagents and tannic acid, respectively. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using three methods: inhibition of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydramzyl (DPPH), ABTS radical cation decolorization assay and Iron (III) to iron (II) reduction activity (FRAP). For enzymatic activity, lipoxygenase and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities were used. This study shows a relationship between polyphenol contents, antioxidant and enzymatic activities. Present results showed that ethyl acetate and dichloromethane fractions elicit the highest polyphenol content, antioxidant and enzymatic activities.

  2. Role of host xanthine oxidase in infection due to enteropathogenic and Shiga-toxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Crane, John K; Naeher, Tonniele M; Broome, Jacqueline E; Boedeker, Edgar C

    2013-04-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), also known as xanthine oxidoreductase, has long been considered an important host defense molecule in the intestine and in breastfed infants. Here, we present evidence that XO is released from and active in intestinal tissues and fluids in response to infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli (STEC), also known as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). XO is released into intestinal fluids in EPEC and STEC infection in a rabbit animal model. XO activity results in the generation of surprisingly high concentrations of uric acid in both cultured cell and animal models of infection. Hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) generated by XO activity triggered a chloride secretory response in intestinal cell monolayers within minutes but decreased transepithelial electrical resistance at 6 to 22 h. H(2)O(2) generated by XO activity was effective at killing laboratory strains of E. coli, commensal microbiotas, and anaerobes, but wild-type EPEC and STEC strains were 100 to 1,000 times more resistant to killing or growth inhibition by this pathway. Instead of killing pathogenic bacteria, physiologic concentrations of XO increased virulence by inducing the production of Shiga toxins from STEC strains. In vivo, exogenous XO plus the substrate hypoxanthine did not protect and instead worsened the outcome of STEC infection in the rabbit ligated intestinal loop model of infection. XO released during EPEC and STEC infection may serve as a virulence-inducing signal to the pathogen and not solely as a protective host defense.

  3. Amperometric biosensors based on deposition of gold and platinum nanoparticles on polyvinylferrocene modified electrode for xanthine detection.

    PubMed

    Baş, Salih Zeki; Gülce, Handan; Yıldız, Salih; Gülce, Ahmet

    2011-12-15

    In this study, new xanthine biosensors, XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt, based on electroless deposition of gold(Au) and platinum(Pt) nanoparticles on polyvinylferrocene(PVF) coated Pt electrode for detection of xanthine were presented. The amperometric responses of the enzyme electrodes were measured at the constant potential, which was due to the electrooxidation of enzymatically produced H(2)O(2). Compared with XO/PVF/Pt electrode, XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt exhibited excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of the analyte. Effect of Au and Pt nanoparticles was investigated by monitoring the response currents at the different deposition times and the different concentrations of KAuCl(4) and PtBr(2). Under the optimal conditions, the calibration curves of XO/Au/PVF/Pt and XO/Pt/PVF/Pt were obtained over the range of 2.5 × 10(-3) to 0.56 mM and 2.0 × 10(-3) to 0.66 mM, respectively. The detection limits were 7.5 × 10(-4)mM for XO/Au/PVF/Pt and 6.0 × 10(-4)mM for XO/Pt/PVF/Pt. The effects of interferents, the operational and the storage stabilities of the biosensors and the applicabilities of the proposed biosensors to the drug samples analysis were also evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Design, synthesis, and molecular docking studies of N-(9,10-anthraquinone-2-carbonyl)amino acid derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ting-Jian; Li, Song-Ye; Yuan, Wei-Yan; Zhang, Yi; Meng, Fan-Hao

    2018-04-01

    A series of N-(9,10-anthraquinone-2-carbonyl)amino acid derivatives (1a-j) was designed and synthesized as novel xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Among them, the L/D-phenylalanine derivatives (1d and 1i) and the L/D-tryptophan derivatives (1e and 1j) were effective with micromolar level potency. In particular, the L-phenylalanine derivative 1d (IC 50  = 3.0 μm) and the D-phenylalanine derivative 1i (IC 50  = 2.9 μm) presented the highest potency and were both more potent than the positive control allopurinol (IC 50  = 8.1 μm). Preliminary SAR analysis pointed that an aromatic amino acid fragment, for example, phenylalanine or tryptophan, was essential for the inhibition; the D-amino acid derivative presented equal or greater potency compared to its L-enantiomer; and the 9,10-anthraquinone moiety was welcome for the inhibition. Molecular simulations provided rational binding models for compounds 1d and 1i in the xanthine oxidase active pocket. As a result, compounds 1d and 1i could be promising lead compounds for further investigation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized study for evaluating vascular function under uric acid control using the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat: the PRIZE study.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Jun-Ichi; Tanaka, Atsushi; Sato, Yasunori; Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Sata, Masataka; Ishizu, Tomoko; Taguchi, Isao; Kuroyanagi, Takanori; Teragawa, Hiroki; Ishizaka, Nobukazu; Kanzaki, Yumiko; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Eguchi, Kazuo; Higashi, Yukihito; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Maemura, Koji; Ako, Junya; Bando, Yasuko K; Ueda, Shinichiro; Inoue, Teruo; Murohara, Toyoaki; Node, Koichi

    2016-06-18

    Xanthine oxidase inhibitors are anti-hyperuricemic drugs that decrease serum uric acid levels by inhibiting its synthesis. Xanthine oxidase is also recognized as a pivotal enzyme in the production of oxidative stress. Excess oxidative stress induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammatory reactions in vascular systems, leading to atherosclerosis. Many experimental studies have suggested that xanthine oxidase inhibitors have anti-atherosclerotic effects by decreasing in vitro and in vivo oxidative stress. However, there is only limited evidence on the clinical implications of xanthine oxidase inhibitors on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease in patients with hyperuricemia. We designed the PRIZE study to evaluate the effects of febuxostat on a surrogate marker of cardiovascular disease risk, ultrasonography-based intima-media thickness of the carotid artery in patients with hyperuricemia. The study is a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label and blinded-endpoint evaluation (PROBE) design. A total of 500 patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (uric acid >7.0 mg/dL) and carotid intima-media thickness ≥1.1 mm will be randomized centrally to receive either febuxostat (10-60 mg/day) or non-pharmacological treatment. Randomization is carried out using the dynamic allocation method stratified according to age (<65, ≥65 year), gender, presence or absence of diabetes mellitus, serum uric acid (<8.0, ≥8.0 mg/dL), and carotid intima-media thickness (<1.3, ≥1.3 mm). In addition to administering the study drug, we will also direct lifestyle modification in all participants, including advice on control of body weight, sleep, exercise and healthy diet. Carotid intima-media thickness will be evaluated using ultrasonography performed by skilled technicians at a central laboratory. Follow-up will be continued for 24 months. The primary endpoint is percentage change in mean intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery 24 months after baseline, measured by

  6. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of natural and hemisynthetic flavonoids from Gardenia oudiepe (Rubiaceae) in vitro and molecular docking studies.

    PubMed

    Santi, M D; Paulino Zunini, M; Vera, B; Bouzidi, C; Dumontet, V; Abin-Carriquiry, A; Grougnet, R; Ortega, M G

    2018-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), an enzyme widely distributed among mammalian tissues, is associated with the oxidation of xanthine and hypoxanthine to form uric acid. Reactive oxygen species are also released during this process, leading to oxidative damages and to the pathology called gout. Available treatments mainly based on allopurinol cause serious side effects. Natural products such as flavonoids may represent an alternative. Thus, a series of polymethoxyflavones isolated and hemisynthesized from the bud exudates of Gardenia oudiepe has been evaluated for in vitro XO inhibitory activity. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 were more active than the reference inhibitor, Allopurinol (IC 50  = 0.25 ± 0.004 μM) with IC 50 values of (0.004 ± 0.001) μM, (0.05 ± 0.01) μM and (0.09 ± 0.003) μM, respectively. Structure-activity relationships were established. Additionally, a molecular docking study using MOE™ tool was carried out to establish the binding mode of the most active flavones with the enzyme, showing important interactions with its catalytic residues. These promising results, suggest the use of these compounds as potential leads for the design and development of novel XO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Molecular characterization of human xanthine oxidoreductase: the enzyme is grossly deficient in molybdenum and substantially deficient in iron-sulphur centres

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    XOR (xanthine oxidoreductase) purified from human milk was shown to contain 0.04 atom of Mo and 0.09 molecule of molybdopterin/subunit. On the basis of UV/visible and CD spectra, the human enzyme was approx. 30% deficient in iron-sulphur centres. Mo(V) EPR showed the presence of a weak rapid signal corresponding to the enzyme of low xanthine oxidase activity and a slow signal indicating a significant content of desulpho-form. Resulphuration experiments, together with calculations based on enzymic activity and Mo content, led to an estimate of 50–60% desulpho-form. Fe/S EPR showed, in addition to the well-known Fe/S I and Fe/S II species, the presence of a third Fe/S signal, named Fe/S III, which appears to replace partially Fe/S I. Comparison is made with similarly prepared bovine milk XOR, which has approx. 15-fold higher enzymic activity and Mo content. Taken along with evidence of low Mo content in the milk of other mammals, these findings add further support to the idea that XOR protein plays a physiological role in milk (e.g. in secretion) equal in importance to its catalytic function as an enzyme. PMID:15679468

  8. Acyclic Immucillin Phosphonates. Second-Generation Inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum Hypoxanthine- Guanine-Xanthine Phosphoribosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Hazelton, Keith Z.; Ho, Meng-Chaio; Cassera, Maria B.

    We found that Plasmodium falciparum is the primary cause of deaths from malaria. It is a purine auxotroph and relies on hypoxanthine salvage from the host purine pool. Purine starvation as an antimalarial target has been validated by inhibition of purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Hypoxanthine depletion kills Plasmodium falciparum in cell culture and in Aotus monkey infections. Hypoxanthine-guanine-xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGXPRT) from P. falciparum is required for hypoxanthine salvage by forming inosine 5'-monophosphate, a branchpoint for all purine nucleotide synthesis in the parasite. We present a class of HGXPRT inhibitors, the acyclic immucillin phosphonates (AIPs), and cell permeable AIP prodrugs. The AIPsmore » are simple, potent, selective, and biologically stable inhibitors. The AIP prodrugs block proliferation of cultured parasites by inhibiting the incorporation of hypoxanthine into the parasite nucleotide pool and validates HGXPRT as a target in malaria.« less

  9. Effect of Soy Sauce on Serum Uric Acid Levels in Hyperuricemic Rats and Identification of Flazin as a Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Li, Huipin; Zhao, Mouming; Su, Guowan; Lin, Lianzhu; Wang, Yong

    2016-06-15

    This is the first report on the ability of soy sauce to effectively reduce the serum uric acid levels and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities of hyperuricemic rats. Soy sauce was partitioned sequentially into ethyl acetate and water fractions. The ethyl acetate fraction with strong XOD inhibition effect was purified further. On the basis of xanthine oxidase inhibitory (XOI) activity-guided purification, nine compounds including 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate, diisobutyl terephthalate, harman, daidzein, flazin, catechol, thymine, genistein, and uracil were obtained. It was the first time that 3,4-dihydroxy ethyl cinnamate and diisobutyl terephthalate had been identified from soy sauce. Flazin with hydroxymethyl furan ketone group at C-1 and carboxyl at C-3 exhibited the strongest XOI activity (IC50 = 0.51 ± 0.05 mM). According to fluorescence quenching and molecular docking experiments, flazin could enter into the catalytic center of XOD to interact with Lys1045, Gln1194, and Arg912 mainly by hydrophobic forces and hydrogen bonds. Flazin, catechol, and genistein not only were potent XOD inhibitors but also held certain antioxidant activities. According to ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion) simulation in silico, flazin had good oral bioavailability in vivo.

  10. Xanthine oxidase inhibiting effects of noni (Morinda citrifolia) fruit juice.

    PubMed

    Palu, Afa; Deng, Shixin; West, Brett; Jensen, Jarakae

    2009-12-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. (noni), family Rubiaceae, has been used in Polynesia for over 2000 years for its reputed health benefits, one of which is its therapeutic effects on gout (langa e hokotanga hui). However, its healing mechanism has not been elucidated. This study showed that in an in vitro bioassay that Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) inhibited xanthine oxidase (XO) concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1, 5 and 10 mg/mL of TNJ inhibited XO by 11%, 113% and 148%, respectively, with an IC50 of 3.8 mg compared with an IC50 of 2.4 microm for allopurinol. Noni fruit juice concentrate (NFJC) also inhibited XO concentration dependently. Concentrations of 1 and 5 mg/mL NFJC inhibited XO in vitro by 184% and 159%, respectively. A 0.1 mg/mL methanol extract (NFJME) from the fractionation of noni fruit puree inhibited XO by 64%. It was elucidated that the noni fruit juice inhibitory effect on XO enzymes is the mechanism by which noni ameliorates gout and gout-like diseases. Further, the results also support the traditional usage of noni in the treatment of gout. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The role of xanthine oxidoreductase and uric acid in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Polito, Letizia; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2018-08-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) could contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome through the oxidative stress and the inflammatory response induced by XOR-derived reactive oxygen species and uric acid. Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to hypertension, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The serum level of XOR is correlated to triglyceride/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, fasting glycemia, fasting insulinemia and insulin resistance index. Increased activity of endothelium-linked XOR may promote hypertension. In addition, XOR is implicated in pre-adipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis. XOR and uric acid play a role in cell transformation and proliferation as well as in the progression and metastatic process. Collected evidences confirm the contribution of XOR and uric acid in metabolic syndrome. However, in some circumstances XOR and uric acid may have anti-oxidant protective outcomes. The dual-face role of both XOR and uric acid explains the contradictory results obtained with XOR inhibitors and suggests caution in their therapeutic use. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Honey as an apitherapic product: its inhibitory effect on urease and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Huseyin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate new natural inhibitor sources for the enzymes urease and xanthine oxidase (XO). Chestnut, oak and polyfloral honey extracts were used to determine inhibition effects of both enzymes. In addition to investigate inhibition, the antioxidant capacities of these honeys were determined using total phenolic content (TPC), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays. Due to their high phenolic content, chestnut and oak honeys are found to be a powerful source for inhibition of both enzymes. Especially, oak honeys were efficient for urease inhibition with 0.012-0.021 g/mL IC50 values, and also chestnut honeys were powerful for XO inhibition with 0.028-0.039 g/mL IC50 values. Regular daily consumption of these honeys can prevent gastric ulcers deriving from Helicobacter pylori and pathological disorders mediated by reactive oxygen species.

  13. A role for xanthine oxidase in the control of fetal cardiovascular function in late gestation sheep

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, E A; Kane, A D; Hansell, J A; Thakor, A S; Allison, B J; Niu, Y; Giussani, D A

    2012-01-01

    Virtually nothing is known about the effects on fetal physiology of xanthine oxidase inhibition. This is despite maternal treatment with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol being considered in human complicated pregnancy to protect the infant's brain from excessive generation of ROS. We investigated the in vivo effects of maternal treatment with allopurinol on fetal cardiovascular function in ovine pregnancy in late gestation. Under anaesthesia, pregnant ewes and their singleton fetus were instrumented with vascular catheters and flow probes around an umbilical and a fetal femoral artery at 118 ± 1 dGA (days of gestational age; term ca. 145 days). Five days later, mothers were infused i.v. with either vehicle (n= 11) or allopurinol (n= 10). Fetal cardiovascular function was stimulated with increasing bolus doses of phenylephrine (PE) following maternal vehicle or allopurinol. The effects of maternal allopurinol on maternal and fetal cardiovascular function were also investigated following fetal NO blockade (n= 6) or fetal β1-adrenergic antagonism (n= 7). Maternal allopurinol led to significant increases in fetal heart rate, umbilical blood flow and umbilical vascular conductance, effects abolished by fetal β1-adrenergic antagonism but not by fetal NO blockade. Maternal allopurinol impaired fetal α1-adrenergic pressor and femoral vasopressor responses and enhanced the gain of the fetal cardiac baroreflex. These effects of maternal allopurinol were restored to control levels during fetal NO blockade. Maternal treatment with allopurinol induced maternal hypotension, tachycardia and acid–base disturbance. We conclude that maternal treatment with allopurinol alters in vivo maternal, umbilical and fetal vascular function via mechanisms involving NO and β1-adrenergic stimulation. The evidence suggests that the use of allopurinol in clinical practice should be approached with caution. PMID:22331413

  14. Pleiotrophin-induced endothelial cell migration is regulated by xanthine oxidase-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Tsirmoula, Sotiria; Lamprou, Margarita; Hatziapostolou, Maria; Kieffer, Nelly; Papadimitriou, Evangelia

    2015-03-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is a heparin-binding growth factor that induces cell migration through binding to its receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase beta/zeta (RPTPβ/ζ) and integrin alpha v beta 3 (ανβ3). In the present work, we studied the effect of PTN on the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human endothelial cells and the involvement of ROS in PTN-induced cell migration. Exogenous PTN significantly increased ROS levels in a concentration and time-dependent manner in both human endothelial and prostate cancer cells, while knockdown of endogenous PTN expression in prostate cancer cells significantly down-regulated ROS production. Suppression of RPTPβ/ζ through genetic and pharmacological approaches, or inhibition of c-src kinase activity abolished PTN-induced ROS generation. A synthetic peptide that blocks PTN-ανβ3 interaction abolished PTN-induced ROS generation, suggesting that ανβ3 is also involved. The latter was confirmed in CHO cells that do not express β3 or over-express wild-type β3 or mutant β3Y773F/Y785F. PTN increased ROS generation in cells expressing wild-type β3 but not in cells not expressing or expressing mutant β3. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) or Erk1/2 inhibition suppressed PTN-induced ROS production, suggesting that ROS production lays down-stream of PI3K or Erk1/2 activation by PTN. Finally, ROS scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibition completely abolished both PTN-induced ROS generation and cell migration, while NADPH oxidase inhibition had no effect. Collectively, these data suggest that xanthine oxidase-mediated ROS production is required for PTN-induced cell migration through the cell membrane functional complex of ανβ3 and RPTPβ/ζ and activation of c-src, PI3K and ERK1/2 kinases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydroxylated chalcones with dual properties: xanthine oxidase inhibitors and radical scavengers

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Emily; Webster, Jonathan; Do, Thuy; Kline, Reid; Snider, Lindsey; Hauser, Quintin; Higginbottom, Grace; Campbell, Austin; Ma, Lili; Paula, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the abilities of a series of chalcones to inhibit the activity of the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XO) and to scavenge radicals. 20 mono- and polyhydroxylated chalcone derivatives were synthesized by Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions and then tested for inhibitory potency against XO, a known generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In parallel, the ability of the synthesized chalcones to scavenge a stable radical was determined. Structure-activity relationship analysis in conjunction with molecular docking indicated that the most active XO inhibitors carried a minimum of three hydroxyl groups. Moreover, the most effective radical scavengers had two neighboring hydroxyl groups on at least one of the two phenyl rings. Since it has been proposed previously that XO inhibition and radical scavenging could be useful properties for reduction of ROS-levels in tissue, we determined the chalcones’ effects to rescue neurons subjected to ROS-induced stress created by the addition of β-amyloid peptide. Best protection was provided by chalcones that combined good inhibitory potency with high radical scavenging ability in a single molecule, an observation that points to a potential therapeutic value of this compound class. PMID:26762836

  16. Inverting the G-Tetrad Polarity of a G-Quadruplex by Using Xanthine and 8-Oxoguanine.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Vee Vee; Lech, Christopher Jacques; Heddi, Brahim; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2016-01-04

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded nucleic acid structures that are built from consecutively stacked guanine tetrad (G-tetrad) assemblies. The simultaneous incorporation of two guanine base lesions, xanthine (X) and 8-oxoguanine (O), within a single G-tetrad of a G-quadruplex was recently shown to lead to the formation of a stable G⋅G⋅X⋅O tetrad. Herein, a judicious introduction of X and O into a human telomeric G-quadruplex-forming sequence is shown to reverse the hydrogen-bond polarity of the modified G-tetrad while preserving the original folding topology. The control exerted over G-tetrad polarity by joint X⋅O modification will be valuable for the design and programming of G-quadruplex structures and their properties. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Longevity and aging. Role of free radicals and xanthine oxidase. A review.

    PubMed

    Labat-Robert, J; Robert, L

    2014-04-01

    Longevity and aging are differently regulated. Longevity has an important part of genetic determinants, aging is essentially post-genetic. Among the genes involved in longevity determination, sirtuins, activated also by calorie restriction and some others as the TOR pathway, attracted special interest after the insulin–IGF pathway first shown to regulate longevity in model organisms. For most of these genes, postponement of life-threatening diseases is the basis of their action which never exceeds about 35% of all determinants, in humans. Among the post-genetic mechanisms responsible for age-related decline of function, free radicals attracted early interest as well as the Maillard reaction, generating also free radicals. Most attempts to remediate to free radical damage failed however, although different scavenger mechanisms and protective substances are present in the organism. Synthetic protectors were also tested without success. The only example of a successful treatment of a free radical mediated pathology is the case of xanthine oxidase, involved in cardiovascular pathology, essentially during the ischemia-reperfusion process. Its inhibition by allopurinol is currently used to fight this deadly syndrome.

  18. The reductive half-reaction of xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus: the role of Glu232 in catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, James; Reschke, Stefan; Cao, Hongnan; Leimkühler, Silke; Hille, Russ

    2014-11-14

    The kinetic properties of an E232Q variant of the xanthine dehydrogenase from Rhodobacter capsulatus have been examined to ascertain whether Glu(232) in wild-type enzyme is protonated or unprotonated in the course of catalysis at neutral pH. We find that kred, the limiting rate constant for reduction at high [xanthine], is significantly compromised in the variant, a result that is inconsistent with Glu(232) being neutral in the active site of the wild-type enzyme. A comparison of the pH dependence of both kred and kred/Kd from reductive half-reaction experiments between wild-type and enzyme and the E232Q variant suggests that the ionized Glu(232) of wild-type enzyme plays an important role in catalysis by discriminating against the monoanionic form of substrate, effectively increasing the pKa of substrate by two pH units and ensuring that at physiological pH the neutral form of substrate predominates in the Michaelis complex. A kinetic isotope study of the wild-type R. capsulatus enzyme indicates that, as previously determined for the bovine and chicken enzymes, product release is principally rate-limiting in catalysis. The disparity in rate constants for the chemical step of the reaction and product release, however, is not as great in the bacterial enzyme as compared with the vertebrate forms. The results indicate that the bacterial and bovine enzymes catalyze the chemical step of the reaction to the same degree and that the faster turnover observed with the bacterial enzyme is due to a faster rate constant for product release than is seen with the vertebrate enzyme. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Xanthine oxidoreductase mediates membrane docking of milk-fat droplets but is not essential for apocrine lipid secretion.

    PubMed

    Monks, Jenifer; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Bales, Elise S; Orlicky, David J; Wright, Richard M; McManaman, James L

    2016-10-15

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) modulates milk lipid secretion and lactation initiation. XOR is required for butyrophilin1a1 clustering in the membrane during milk lipid secretion. XOR mediates apical membrane reorganization during milk lipid secretion. Loss of XOR delays milk fat globule secretion. XOR loss alters the proteome of milk fat globules. Apocrine secretion is utilized by epithelial cells of exocrine glands. These cells bud off membrane-bound particles into the lumen of the gland, losing a portion of the cytoplasm in the secretion product. The lactating mammary gland secretes milk lipid by this mechanism, and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has long been thought to be functionally important. We generated mammary-specific XOR knockout (MGKO) mice, expecting lactation to fail. Histology of the knockout glands showed very large lipid droplets enclosed in the mammary alveolar cells, but milk analysis showed that these large globules were secreted. Butyrophilin, a membrane protein known to bind to XOR, was clustered at the point of contact of the cytoplasmic lipid droplet with the apical plasma membrane, in the wild-type gland but not in the knockout, suggesting that XOR mediates 'docking' to this membrane. Secreted milk fat globules were isolated from mouse milk of wild-type and XOR MGKO dams, and subjected to LC-MS/MS for analysis of protein component. Proteomic results showed that loss of XOR leads to an increase in cytoplasmic, cytoskeletal, Golgi apparatus and lipid metabolism proteins associated with the secreted milk fat globule. Association of XOR with the lipid droplet results in membrane docking and more efficient retention of cytoplasmic components by the secretory cell. Loss of XOR then results in a reversion to a more rudimentary, less efficient, apocrine secretion mechanism, but does not prevent milk fat globule secretion. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. Xanthine Oxidoreductase Function Contributes to Normal Wound Healing.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Michael C; McEnaney, Ryan M; Shukla, Ankur J; Hong, Guiying; Kelley, Eric E; Tarpey, Margaret M; Gladwin, Mark; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Tzeng, Edith

    2015-04-14

    Chronic, nonhealing wounds result in patient morbidity and disability. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are both required for normal wound repair, and derangements of these result in impaired healing. Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) has the unique capacity to produce both ROS and NO. We hypothesize that XOR contributes to normal wound healing. Cutaneous wounds were created in C57Bl6 mice. XOR was inhibited with dietary tungsten or allopurinol. Topical hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 0.15%) or allopurinol (30 μg) was applied to wounds every other day. Wounds were monitored until closure or collected at d 5 to assess XOR expression and activity, cell proliferation and histology. The effects of XOR, nitrite, H2O2 and allopurinol on keratinocyte cell (KC) and endothelial cell (EC) behavior were assessed. We identified XOR expression and activity in the skin and wound edges as well as granulation tissue. Cultured human KCs also expressed XOR. Tungsten significantly inhibited XOR activity and impaired healing with reduced ROS production with reduced angiogenesis and KC proliferation. The expression and activity of other tungsten-sensitive enzymes were minimal in the wound tissues. Oral allopurinol did not reduce XOR activity or alter wound healing but topical allopurinol significantly reduced XOR activity and delayed healing. Topical H2O2 restored wound healing in tungsten-fed mice. In vitro, nitrite and H2O2 both stimulated KC and EC proliferation and EC migration. These studies demonstrate for the first time that XOR is abundant in wounds and participates in normal wound healing through effects on ROS production.

  1. Mechanistic insights into the inhibition of quercetin on xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cen; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Guowen; Gong, Deming

    2018-06-01

    Quercetin, one of the most abundant flavonoid in the daily diet, was found to reversibly inhibit the generation of uric acid and superoxide radicals (O 2 - )catalyzed by xanthine oxidase (XOD) in a mixed-type manner with IC 50 values of (2.74±0.04)×10 -6 and (2.90±0.03)×10 -6 molL -1 , respectively, and the inhibition of quercetin on O 2 - generation may be ascribed to the reduced form of XOD by a ping-pong mechanism. XOD had one high affinity binding site for quercetin with a binding constant of 4.28×10 4 Lmol -1 at 298K, and the binding process was predominately driven by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds on account of the negative enthalpy and entropy changes. Moreover, molecular docking confirmed that the binding site for quercetin located in the isoalloxazine ring of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) domain of XOD, then the diffusion of O 2 - out of the FAD site was blocked in favor of another electron transferred from FADH 2 to O 2 - to form hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). This study may clarify the role of quercetin on inhibiting XOD catalysis and provide a potential nutritional supplement for preventing gout and peroxidative damage. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase activity in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Ercan, N; Koçkaya, M; Kapancik, S; Bakir, D

    2017-11-01

    Kangal dogs, known as guard dogs in many countries of the world, have been found to eat their own puppies during their first 24 h following birth, which is called as maternal cannibalism. Adenosine deaminase (ADA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are important enzymes for purine metabolism. In this study, the aim is to evaluate ADA and XO activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism. The material of the study consists of the blood sera of Kangal dog breed with and without maternal cannibalism in the breeders around Sivas city and its districts. ADA and XO activities in blood serum of these animals were investigated by spectrophotometric method. ADA activities in Kangal dogs with maternal cannibalism were increased to the control group without maternal cannibalism (p<0.01). Postnatal measurement of ADA activity in dogs may be useful in assessing maternal cannibalism.

  3. Different inhibitory potency of febuxostat towards mammalian and bacterial xanthine oxidoreductases: insight from molecular dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Hiroto; Fujisaki, Hiroshi; Furuta, Tadaomi; Okamoto, Ken; Leimkühler, Silke; Nishino, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    Febuxostat, a drug recently approved in the US, European Union and Japan for treatment of gout, inhibits xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR)-mediated generation of uric acid during purine catabolism. It inhibits bovine milk XOR with a Ki in the picomolar-order, but we found that it is a much weaker inhibitor of Rhodobacter capsulatus XOR, even though the substrate-binding pockets of mammalian and bacterial XOR are well-conserved as regards to catalytically important residues and three-dimensional structure, and both permit the inhibitor to be accommodated in the active site, as indicated by computational docking studies. To clarify the reason for the difference of inhibitory potency towards the two XORs, we performed molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicate that differences in mobility of hydrophobic residues that do not directly interact with the substrate account for the difference in inhibitory potency. PMID:22448318

  4. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor Febuxostat reduces tissue uric acid content and inhibits injury-induced inflammation in the liver and lung

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Hiroshi; Yang, Ke; Rock, Kenneth L.

    2014-01-01

    Necrotic cell death in vivo induces a robust neutrophilic inflammatory response and the resulting inflammation can cause further tissue damage and disease. Dying cells induce this inflammation by releasing pro-inflammatory intracellular components, one of which is uric acid. Cells contain high levels of intracellular uric acid, which is produced when purines are oxidized by the enzyme xanthine oxidase. Here we test whether a non-nucleoside xanthine oxidase inhibitor, Febuxostat (FBX), can reduce intracellular uric acid levels and inhibit cell death-induced inflammation in two different murine tissue injury models; acid-induced acute lung injury and acetaminophen liver injury. Infiltration of inflammatory cells induced by acid injection into lungs or peritoneal administration of acetaminophen was evaluated by quantification with flow cytometry and tissue myeloperoxidase activity in the presence or absence of FBX treatment. Uric acid levels in serum and tissue were measured before giving the stimuli and during inflammation. The impact of FBX treatment on the peritoneal inflammation caused by the microbial stimulus, zymosan, was also analyzed to see whether FBX had a broad anti-inflammatory effect. We found that FBX reduced uric acid levels in acid-injured lung tissue and inhibited acute pulmonary inflammation triggered by lung injury. Similarly, FBX reduced uric acid levels in the liver and inhibited inflammation in response to acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury. In contrast, FBX did not reduce inflammation to zymosan, and therefore is not acting as a general anti-inflammatory agent. These results point to the potential of using agents like FBX to treat cell death-induced inflammation. PMID:25449036

  5. Investigation of the interaction between benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone compounds and xanthine oxidase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mengrong; Yu, Yanying; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zelu; Cao, Shuwen

    2018-05-01

    A series of substituted benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazide compounds (1-7) were synthesized as xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors, and the interactions between substituted benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazide compounds (1-7) and XO were studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular docking. It was found that the hydrogen bond and hydrophobicity were the main interactions between substituted benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazide compounds and XO, and introducing sbnd OH at the para position of the benzene ring and a Ph- or Me-group at the amino terminal of compound 4 increased the modifier's inhibitory activity. The results suggest that the newly introduced benzene ring interacted with the hydrophobic cavity of XO by means of the π-π stacking force between the newly introduced benzene ring and the aromatic amino acid residues, such as the Phe residue, which greatly increased the modifier's inhibitory activity. We conclude that introducing the Ph-group at the amino terminal of compound 4 and the sbnd OH group at the para position of the benzene ring was a good route to obtain novel XO inhibitors. Fluorescence spectroscopy assisted by 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid fluorescence probing and molecular docking were helpful for achieving a preliminary and relatively clear understanding of the interactions between target compounds and XO, which deserve further study.

  6. Determination of Flavonoids, Phenolic Acids, and Xanthines in Mate Tea (Ilex paraguariensis St.-Hil.)

    PubMed Central

    Bojić, Mirza; Simon Haas, Vicente; Maleš, Željan

    2013-01-01

    Raw material, different formulations of foods, and dietary supplements of mate demands control of the content of bioactive substances for which high performance thin layer chromatography (TLC), described here, presents simple and rapid approach for detections as well as quantification. Using TLC densitometry, the following bioactive compounds were identified and quantified: chlorogenic acid (2.1 mg/g), caffeic acid (1.5 mg/g), rutin (5.2 mg/g), quercetin (2.2 mg/g), and kaempferol (4.5 mg/g). The results obtained with TLC densitometry for caffeine (5.4 mg/g) and theobromine (2.7 mg/g) show no statistical difference to the content of total xanthines (7.6 mg/g) obtained by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Thus, TLC remains a technique of choice for simple and rapid analysis of great number of samples as well as a primary screening technique in plant analysis. PMID:23841023

  7. Antioxidant, xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory activities and phenolics of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae).

    PubMed

    Compaoré, M; Lamien, C E; Lamien-Meda, A; Vlase, L; Kiendrebeogo, M; Ionescu, C; Nacoulma, O G

    2012-01-01

    An aqueous acetone extract of the stem with the leaves of Bauhinia rufescens and its fractions were analysed for their antioxidant and enzyme-inhibitory activities, as well as their phytochemical composition. For measurement of the antioxidant activities, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzoline-6-sulphonate) and the ferric-reducing methods were used. The results indicated that the aqueous acetone, its ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions possessed considerable antioxidant activity. Further, the xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase inhibitory assays showed that the n-butanol fraction possessed compounds that can inhibit both these enzymes. In the phytochemical analysis, the ethyl acetate and the n-butanol fractions of the aqueous acetone extract were screened by HPLC-MS for their phenolic content. The results indicated the presence of hyperoside, isoquercitrin, rutin quercetin, quercitrin, p-coumaric and ferulic acids in the non-hydrolysed fractions. In the hydrolysed fractions, kaempferol, p-coumaric and ferulic acids were identified.

  8. Increased plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity deteriorates coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Ken; Shishido, Tetsuro; Otaki, Yoichiro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Sugai, Takayuki; Toshima, Taku; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yokoyama, Miyuki; Kinoshita, Daisuke; Murase, Takayo; Nakamura, Takashi; Wanezaki, Masahiro; Tamura, Harutoshi; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Yamauchi, So; Yamanaka, Tamon; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kubota, Isao; Watanabe, Masafumi

    2018-06-23

    Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes to the development of endothelial dysfunction, which is involved in coronary artery spasm (CAS). Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) plays a pivotal role in producing both uric acid and ROS. However, the association between plasma XOR activity and CAS has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma XOR activity is associated with CAS. We measured XOR activity in 104 patients suspected for CAS, who presented without significant coronary artery stenosis and underwent intracoronary acetylcholine provocation tests. CAS was provoked in 44 patients and they had significantly higher XOR activity as compared with those without CAS. The patients were divided into three groups based on the XOR activity. The prevalence rate of CAS was increased with increasing XOR activity. A multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the 3rd tertile group exhibited a higher incidence of CAS as compared with the 1st tertile group [odds ratio (OR) 6.9, P = 0.001) and the 2nd tertile group (OR 3.2, P = 0.033) after adjustment for conventional CAS risk factors, respectively. The C index was significantly improved by the addition of XOR activity to the baseline model based on CAS risk factors. Furthermore, the 3rd tertile group had the highest incidence of severe spasm defined as total obstruction, flow-limiting stenosis, diffuse spasm, multivessel spasm, and/or lethal arrhythmia. This is a first report to elucidate the association of plasma XOR activity with CAS. Increased plasma XOR activity is significantly associated with CAS.

  9. Freeze-Quench Magnetic Circular Dichroism Spectroscopic Study of the "Very Rapid" Intermediate in Xanthine Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert M.; Inscore, Frank E.; Hille, Russ; Kirk, Martin L.

    1999-11-01

    Freeze-quench magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy (MCD) has been used to trap and study the excited-state electronic structure of the Mo(V) active site in a xanthine oxidase intermediate generated with substoichiometric concentrations of the slow substrate 2-hydroxy-6-methylpurine. EPR spectroscopy has shown that the intermediate observed in the MCD experiment is the "very rapid" intermediate, which lies on the main catalytic pathway. The low-energy (< approximately 30 000 cm(-1)) C-term MCD of this intermediate is remarkably similar to that of the model compound LMoO(bdt) (L = hydrotris(3,5-dimethyl-1-pyrazolyl)borate; bdt = 1,2-benzenedithiolate), and the MCD bands have been assigned as dithiolate S(ip) --> Mo d(xy) and S(op) --> Mo d(xz,yz) LMCT transitions. These transitions result from a coordination geometry of the intermediate where the Mo=O bond is oriented cis to the ene-1,2-dithiolate of the pyranopterin. Since X-ray crystallography has indicated that a terminal sulfido ligand is oriented cis to the ene-1,2-dithiolate in oxidized xanthine oxidase related Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase, we have suggested that a conformational change occurs upon substrate binding. The substrate-mediated conformational change is extremely significant with respect to electron-transfer regeneration of the active site, as covalent interactions between the redox-active Mo d(xy) orbital and the S(ip) orbitals of the ene-1,2-dithiolate are maximized when the oxo ligand is oriented cis to the dithiolate plane. This underlies the importance of the ene-1,2-dithiolate portion of the pyranopterin in providing an efficient superexchange pathway for electron transfer. The results of this study indicate that electron-transfer regeneration of the active site may be gated by the orientation of the Mo=O bond relative to the ene-1,2-dithiolate chelate. Poor overlap between the Mo d(xy) orbital and the S(ip) orbitals of the dithiolate in the oxidized enzyme geometry may

  10. Studies on the mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine. Interaction with copper and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kela, U; Vijayvargiya, R

    1981-03-01

    Interaction between 6-mercaptopurine, Cu2+ and the enzyme xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was examined. Whereas Cu2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme, 6-mercaptopurine could protect as well as reverse the enzyme inhibition produced by the metal ion. The formation of a complex between 6-mercaptopurine and Cu2+ seems to be responsible for the observed effect. Job's [(1928) Ann. Chem. 9, 113] method has shown the composition of the complex to be 1:1. The apparent stability constant (log K value), as determined by Subhrama Rao & Raghav Rao's [(1955) J. Sci. Chem. Ind. Res. 143, 278], method is found to be 6.74. It is suggested that the formation of a stable complex between 6-mercaptopurine molecules and Cu2+ may be an additional mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine, particularly with reference to its anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors: Renaissance Half a Century after the Discovery of Allopurinol

    PubMed Central

    PACHER, PÁL; NIVOROZHKIN, ALEX; SZABÓ, CSABA

    2008-01-01

    The prototypical xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor allopurinol, has been the cornerstone of the clinical management of gout and conditions associated with hyperuricemia for several decades. More recent data indicate that XO also plays an important role in various forms of ischemic and other types of tissue and vascular injuries, inflammatory diseases, and chronic heart failure. Allopurinol and its active metabolite oxypurinol showed considerable promise in the treatment of these conditions both in experimental animals and in small-scale human clinical trials. Although some of the beneficial effects of these compounds may be unrelated to the inhibition of the XO, the encouraging findings rekindled significant interest in the development of additional, novel series of XO inhibitors for various therapeutic indications. Here we present a critical overview of the effects of XO inhibitors in various pathophysiological conditions and also review the various emerging therapeutic strategies offered by this approach. PMID:16507884

  12. Studies on the mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine. Interaction with copper and xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Kela, U; Vijayvargiya, R

    1981-01-01

    Interaction between 6-mercaptopurine, Cu2+ and the enzyme xanthine oxidase (EC 1.2.3.2.) was examined. Whereas Cu2+ was found to inhibit the enzyme, 6-mercaptopurine could protect as well as reverse the enzyme inhibition produced by the metal ion. The formation of a complex between 6-mercaptopurine and Cu2+ seems to be responsible for the observed effect. Job's [(1928) Ann. Chem. 9, 113] method has shown the composition of the complex to be 1:1. The apparent stability constant (log K value), as determined by Subhrama Rao & Raghav Rao's [(1955) J. Sci. Chem. Ind. Res. 143, 278], method is found to be 6.74. It is suggested that the formation of a stable complex between 6-mercaptopurine molecules and Cu2+ may be an additional mechanism of action of 6-mercaptopurine, particularly with reference to its anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:6895465

  13. Periodic variation in bile acids controls circadian changes in uric acid via regulation of xanthine oxidase by the orphan nuclear receptor PPARα.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, Takumi; Tsurudome, Yuya; Kusunose, Naoki; Oda, Masayuki; Matsunaga, Naoya; Koyanagi, Satoru; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2017-12-29

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD), also known as xanthine dehydrogenase, is a rate-limiting enzyme in purine nucleotide degradation, which produces uric acid. Uric acid concentrations in the blood and liver exhibit circadian oscillations in both humans and rodents; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that XOD expression and enzymatic activity exhibit circadian oscillations in the mouse liver. We found that the orphan nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) transcriptionally activated the mouse XOD gene and that bile acids suppressed XOD transactivation. The synthesis of bile acids is known to be under the control of the circadian clock, and we observed that the time-dependent accumulation of bile acids in hepatic cells interfered with the recruitment of the co-transcriptional activator p300 to PPARα, thereby repressing XOD expression. This time-dependent suppression of PPARα-mediated transactivation by bile acids caused an oscillation in the hepatic expression of XOD, which, in turn, led to circadian alterations in uric acid production. Finally, we also demonstrated that the anti-hyperuricemic effect of the XOD inhibitor febuxostat was enhanced by administering it at the time of day before hepatic XOD activity increased. These results suggest an underlying mechanism for the circadian alterations in uric acid production and also underscore the importance of selecting an appropriate time of day for administering XOD inhibitors. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Nature and position of functional group on thiopurine substrates influence activity of xanthine oxidase--enzymatic reaction pathways of 6-mercaptopurine and 2-mercaptopurine are different.

    PubMed

    Tamta, Hemlata; Kalra, Sukirti; Thilagavathi, Ramasamy; Chakraborti, Asit K; Mukhopadhyay, Anup K

    2007-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase-catalyzed hydroxylation reactions of the anticancer drug 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and its analog 2-mercaptopurine (2-MP) as well as 6-thioxanthine (6-TX) and 2-thioxanthine (2-TX) have been studied using UV-spectroscopy, high pressure liquid chromatography, photodiode array, and liquid chromatography-based mass spectral analysis. It is shown that 6-MP and 2-MP are oxidatively hydroxylated through different pathways. Enzymatic hydroxylation of 6-MP forms 6-thiouric acid in two steps involving 6-TX as the intermediate, whereas 2-MP is converted to 8-hydroxy-2-mercaptopurine as the expected end product in one step. Surprisingly, in contrast to the other thiopurines, enzymatic hydroxylation of 2-MP showed a unique hyperchromic effect at 264 nm as the reaction proceeded. However, when 2-TX is used as the substrate, it is hydroxylated to 2-thiouric acid. The enzymatic hydroxylation of 2-MP is considerably faster than that of 6-MP, while 6-TX and 2-TX show similar rates under identical reaction conditions. The reason why 2-MP is a better substrate than 6-MP and how the chemical nature and position of the functional groups present on the thiopurine substrates influence xanthine oxidase activity are discussed.

  15. Assessment of Antioxidant and Phenolic Compound Concentrations as well as Xanthine Oxidase and Tyrosinase Inhibitory Properties of Different Extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Fruiting Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Kyung Rim; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Pyung Gyun; Cheong, Jong Chun; Yoo, Young Bok; Shim, Mi Ja; Lee, Min Woong

    2011-01-01

    Cellular damage caused by reactive oxygen species has been implicated in several diseases, thus establishing a significant role for antioxidants in maintaining human health. Acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts of Pleurotus citrinopileatus were evaluated for their antioxidant activities against β-carotene-linoleic acid and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power, ferrous ion-chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities. In addition, the tyrosinase inhibitory effects and phenolic compound contents of the extracts were also analyzed. Methanol and acetone extracts of P. citrinopileatus showed stronger inhibition of β-carotene-linoleic acid compared to the hot water extract. Methanol extract (8 mg/mL) showed a significantly high reducing power of 2.92 compared to the other extracts. The hot water extract was more effective than the acetone and methanole extracts for scavenging DPPH radicals. The strongest chelating effect (92.72%) was obtained with 1.0 mg/mL of acetone extract. High performance liquid chromatography analysis detected eight phenolic compounds, including gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin, and biochanin-A, in an acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5 : 1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the acetone, methanol, and hot water extracts increased with increasing concentration. This study suggests that fruiting bodies of P. citrinopileatus can potentially be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants. PMID:22783067

  16. Development of a method to screen and isolate potential xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Panax japlcus var via ultrafiltration liquid chromatography combined with counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Sainan; Tang, Ying; Liu, Chunming; Li, Jing; Guo, Liping; Zhang, Yuchi

    2015-03-01

    Panax japlcus var is a typical Chinese herb with a large number of saponins existing in all parts of it. The common methods of screening and isolating saponins are mostly labor-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, a new assay based on ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UF-LC-MS) was developed for the rapid screening and identifying of the ligands for xanthine oxidase from the extract of P. japlcus. Six saponins were identified as xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the extract. Subsequently, the specific binding ligands, namely, 24 (R)-majoroside R1, chikusetsusaponin IVa, oleanolic acid-28-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rb2 and ginsenoside Rd (the purities of them were 95.74%, 96.12%, 93.19%, 94.83%, 95.07% and 94.62%, respectively) were separated by high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The component ratio of the solvent system of HSCCC was calculated with the help of a multiexponential function model was optimized. The partition coefficient (K) values of the target compounds and resolutions of peaks were employed as the research indicators, and exponential function and binomial formulas were used to optimize the solvent system and flow rate of the mobile phases in a two-stage separation. An optimized two-phase solvent system composed of ethyl acetate, isopropanol, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (1.9:1.0:1.3, v/v/v, for the first-stage) and that composed of methylene chloride, acetonitrile, isopropanol, 0.1% aqueous formic acid (5.6:1.0:2.4:5.2, v/v/v/v, for the second-stage) were used to isolate the six compounds from P. japlcus. The targeted compounds isolated, collected and purified by HSCCC were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and the chemical structures of all the six compounds were identified by UV, MS and NMR. The results demonstrate that UF-LC-MS combined with HSCCC might provide not only a powerful tool for screening and isolating xanthine oxidase inhibitors in complex

  17. Trisubstituted barbiturates and thiobarbiturates: Synthesis and biological evaluation as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants, antibacterial and anti-proliferative agents.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Joana; Serrano, João L; Cavalheiro, Eunice; Keurulainen, Leena; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Moreira, Vânia M; Ferreira, Susana; Domingues, Fernanda C; Silvestre, Samuel; Almeida, Paulo

    2018-01-01

    Barbituric and thiobarbituric acid derivatives have become progressively attractive to medicinal chemists due to their wide range of biological activities. Herein, different series of 1,3,5-trisubstituted barbiturates and thiobarbiturates were prepared in moderate to excellent yields and their activity as xanthine oxidase inhibitors, antioxidants, antibacterial agents and as anti-proliferative compounds was evaluated in vitro. Interesting bioactive barbiturates were found namely, 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-(2-phenylhydrazinyl)ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6c) and 1,3-dimethyl-5-[1-[2-(4-nitrophenyl)hydrazinyl]ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6e), which showed concomitant xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect (IC 50 values of 24.3 and 27.9 μM, respectively), and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (IC 50 values of 18.8 and 23.8 μM, respectively). In addition, 5-[1-(2-phenylhydrazinyl)ethylidene]pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (6d) also revealed DPPH radical scavenger effect, with an IC 50 value of 20.4 μM. Moreover, relevant cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cells (IC 50  = 13.3 μM) was observed with 5-[[(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)amino]methylene]-2-thioxodihydropyrimidine-4,6(1H,5H)-dione (7d). Finally, different 5-hydrazinylethylidenepyrimidines revealed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (MIC values between 12.5 and 25.0 μM) which paves the way for developing new treatments for infections caused by this Gram-negative coccobacillus bacterium, known to be an opportunistic pathogen in humans with high relevance in multidrug-resistant nosocomial infections. The most promising bioactive barbiturates were studied in silico with emphasis on compliance with the Lipinski's rule of five as well as several pharmacokinetics and toxicity parameters. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic structure of some adenosine receptor antagonists. III. Quantitative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of alkyl xanthines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustafa, H.; Shalaby, Samia H.; El-sawy, K. M.; Hilal, Rifaat

    2002-07-01

    Quantitative and comparative investigation of the electronic absorption spectra of theophylline, caffeine and their derivatives is reported. The spectra of theophylline, caffeine and theobromine were compared to establish the predominant tautomeric species in solution. This comparison, analysis of solvent effects and assignments of the observed transitions via MO computations indicate the exits of only one tautomeric species in solution that is the N7 form. A low-lying triplet state was identified which corresponds to a HOMO-LUMO transition. This relatively long-lived T 1 state is always less polar than the ground state and may very well underlie the photochemical reactivity of alkyl xanthines. Substituents of different electron donating or withdrawing strengths and solvent effects are investigated and analyzed. The present analysis is facilitated via computer deconvolution of the observed spectra and MO computation.

  19. Nitrite reductase activity of rat and human xanthine oxidase, xanthine dehydrogenase, and aldehyde oxidase: evaluation of their contribution to NO formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luisa B; Pereira, Vânia; Mira, Lurdes; Moura, José J G

    2015-01-27

    Nitrite is presently considered a NO "storage form" that can be made available, through its one-electron reduction, to maintain NO formation under hypoxia/anoxia. The molybdoenzymes xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase (XO/XD) and aldehyde oxidase (AO) are two of the most promising mammalian nitrite reductases, and in this work, we characterized NO formation by rat and human XO/XD and AO. This is the first characterization of human enzymes, and our results support the employment of rat liver enzymes as suitable models of the human counterparts. A comprehensive kinetic characterization of the effect of pH on XO and AO-catalyzed nitrite reduction showed that the enzyme's specificity constant for nitrite increase 8-fold, while the Km(NO2(-)) decrease 6-fold, when the pH decreases from 7.4 to 6.3. These results demonstrate that the ability of XO/AO to trigger NO formation would be greatly enhanced under the acidic conditions characteristic of ischemia. The dioxygen inhibition was quantified, and the Ki(O2) values found (24.3-48.8 μM) suggest that in vivo NO formation would be fine-tuned by dioxygen availability. The potential in vivo relative physiological relevance of XO/XD/AO-dependent pathways of NO formation was evaluated using HepG2 and HMEC cell lines subjected to hypoxia. NO formation by the cells was found to be pH-, nitrite-, and dioxygen-dependent, and the relative contribution of XO/XD plus AO was found to be as high as 50%. Collectively, our results supported the possibility that XO/XD and AO can contribute to NO generation under hypoxia inside a living human cell. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of XO/AO-catalyzed nitrite reduction was revised.

  20. Xanthine oxidase inhibitors beyond allopurinol and febuxostat; an overview and selection of potential leads based on in silico calculated physico-chemical properties, predicted pharmacokinetics and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Šmelcerović, Andrija; Tomović, Katarina; Šmelcerović, Žaklina; Petronijević, Živomir; Kocić, Gordana; Tomašič, Tihomir; Jakopin, Žiga; Anderluh, Marko

    2017-07-28

    Xanthine oxidase (XO), a versatile metalloflavoprotein enzyme, catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid in purine catabolism while simultaneously producing reactive oxygen species. Both lead to the gout-causing hyperuricemia and oxidative damage of the tissues where overactivity of XO is present. Over the past years, significant progress and efforts towards the discovery and development of new XO inhibitors have been made and we believe that not only experts in the field, but also general readership would benefit from a review that addresses this topic. Accordingly, the aim of this article was to overview and select the most potent recently reported XO inhibitors and to compare their structures, mechanisms of action, potency and effectiveness of their inhibitory activity, in silico calculated physico-chemical properties as well as predicted pharmacokinetics and toxicity. Derivatives of imidazole, 1,3-thiazole and pyrimidine proved to be more potent than febuxostat while also displaying/possessing favorable predicted physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Although being structurally similar to febuxostat, these optimized inhibitors bear some structural freshness and could be adopted as hits for hit-to-lead development and further evaluation by in vivo studies towards novel drug candidates, and represent valuable model structures for design of novel XO inhibitors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative electron spin resonance (ESR) analysis of antioxidative properties using the acetaldehyde/xanthine oxidase system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souchard, J.-P.; Nepveu, F.

    1998-05-01

    We present a method for the quantitative ESR analysis of the antioxidant properties of drugs using the acetaldhehyde/xanthine oxidase (AC/XOD) superoxide generating system and 5,5-dimethyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) as spin trap. In stoichiometric conditions (AC/XOD, 60 mM/0.018 U), the resulting paramagnetic DMPO adduct disappeared with superoxide dismutase and remained when catalase or DMSO were used. That adduct was dependent only on superoxide and resulted from the trapping of a carboxyl radical by DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Similar results were obtained using 4-pyridyl-l-oxide-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN) as spin trap. The ESR signal of the DMPO-CO2- adduct was very stable and allowed quantitative analysis of the antioxidative activity of redox molecules from an IC{50} value representing the concentration causing 50% inhibition of its intensity. Among the tested compounds, manganese(II), complexes were the most effective, 25 times as active as ascorbic acid or (+)catechin and 500-fold more antioxidative than Trolox^R. Nous présentons une méthode d'analyse quantitative de l'activité antioxydante de composés d'intérêt pharmaceutique basée sur le système acétaldéhyde/xanthine oxydase (AC/XOD), l'utilisation de la RPE et du piégeage de spin avec le 5,5-diméthyl-l-pyrroline-N-oxyde (DMPO). Dans les conditions stoechiométriques {AC/XOD, 60 mM/0,018 U/ml}, l'adduit radicalaire résultant de ce système disparaît en présence de superoxyde dismutase et persiste en présence de catalase ou de DMSO. Cet adduit ne dépend que de la présence de l'anion superoxyde et provient du piégeage d'un radical carboxyle CO2- sur le DMPO (aN = 15.2 G, aH = 18.9 G). Des résultats similaires ont été obtenus avec le piégeur de spin 4-pyridyl-l-oxyde-N-t-butyl nitrone (POBN). Le signal RPE de l'adduit DMPO-CO2- est très stable et permet la quantification de l'activité antioxydante de pharmacophores redox par la détermination de la CI{50}, concentration qui

  2. The Role of Aldehyde Oxidase and Xanthine Oxidase in the Biotransformation of a Novel Negative Allosteric Modulator of Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Subtype 5

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Ryan D.; Blobaum, Anna L.; Byers, Frank W.; Santomango, Tammy S.; Bridges, Thomas M.; Stec, Donald; Brewer, Katrina A.; Sanchez-Ponce, Raymundo; Corlew, Melany M.; Rush, Roger; Felts, Andrew S.; Manka, Jason; Bates, Brittney S.; Venable, Daryl F.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Jones, Carrie K.; Niswender, Colleen M.; Conn, P. Jeffrey; Lindsley, Craig W.; Emmitte, Kyle A.

    2012-01-01

    Negative allosteric modulation (NAM) of metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGlu5) represents a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of childhood developmental disorders, such as fragile X syndrome and autism. VU0409106 emerged as a lead compound within a biaryl ether series, displaying potent and selective inhibition of mGlu5. Despite its high clearance and short half-life, VU0409106 demonstrated efficacy in rodent models of anxiety after extravascular administration. However, lack of a consistent correlation in rat between in vitro hepatic clearance and in vivo plasma clearance for the biaryl ether series prompted an investigation into the biotransformation of VU0409106 using hepatic subcellular fractions. An in vitro appraisal in rat, monkey, and human liver S9 fractions indicated that the principal pathway was NADPH-independent oxidation to metabolite M1 (+16 Da). Both raloxifene (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor) and allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) attenuated the formation of M1, thus implicating the contribution of both molybdenum hydroxylases in the biotransformation of VU0409106. The use of 18O-labeled water in the S9 experiments confirmed the hydroxylase mechanism proposed, because 18O was incorporated into M1 (+18 Da) as well as in a secondary metabolite (M2; +36 Da), the formation of which was exclusively xanthine oxidase-mediated. This unusual dual and sequential hydroxylase metabolism was confirmed in liver S9 and hepatocytes of multiple species and correlated with in vivo data because M1 and M2 were the principal metabolites detected in rats administered VU0409106. An in vitro-in vivo correlation of predicted hepatic and plasma clearance was subsequently established for VU0409106 in rats and nonhuman primates. PMID:22711749

  3. Altered xanthine oxidase and N-acetyltransferase activity in obese children.

    PubMed

    Chiney, Manoj S; Schwarzenberg, Sarah J; Johnson, L'aurelle A

    2011-07-01

    It is well established that oxidative and conjugative enzyme activity differs between obese and healthy-weight adults. However, the effect of obesity on drug metabolism in children has not been studied extensively. This study examined whether obese and healthy-weight children vary with respect to oxidative enzyme activity of CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase (XO) and conjugative enzyme activity of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2). In vivo CYP1A2, XO and NAT2 activity was assessed in obese (n= 9) and lean (n= 16) children between the ages of 6-10 years using caffeine (118.3 ml Coca Cola®) as probe. Urine samples were collected in 2-h increments over 8 h. Caffeine and metabolites were measured using LC/MS, and urinary metabolic ratios were determined based on reported methods. Sixteen healthy-weight and nine obese children were evaluated. XO activity was elevated in paediatric obese volunteers compared with non-obese paediatric volunteers (XO metabolic ratio of 0.7 ± 0.06 vs. 0.6 ± 0.06, respectively, 95% CI 0.046, 0.154, P < 0.001). NAT2 activity was fivefold higher in the obese (1 ± 0.4) as compared with non-obese children (0.2 ± 0.1), 95% CI 0.26, 1.34, P < 0.05. However, no difference was observed in CYP1A2 activity between the groups (95% CI -2.72, 0.12, P > 0.05). This study provides evidence that obese children have elevated XO and NAT2 enzyme activity when compared with healthy-weight controls. Further studies are needed to determine how this may impact the efficacy of therapeutic agents that may undergo metabolism by these enzymes. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  4. Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Drug Metabolism: Beyond a Role as a Detoxifying Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Battelli, Maria Giulia; Polito, Letizia; Bortolotti, Massimo; Bolognesi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyzes the last two steps of purine catabolism in the highest uricotelic primates. XOR is an enzyme with dehydrogenase activity that, in mammals, may be converted into oxidase activity under a variety of pathophysiologic conditions. XOR activity is highly regulated at the transcriptional and post-translational levels and may generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which trigger different consequences, ranging from cytotoxicity to inflammation. The low specificity for substrates allows XOR to metabolize a number of endogenous metabolites and a variety of exogenous compounds, including drugs. The present review focuses on the role of XOR as a drug-metabolizing enzyme, specifically for drugs with anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, immunosuppressive or vasodilator activities, as well as drugs acting on metabolism or inducing XOR expression. XOR has an activating role that is essential to the pharmacological action of quinone drugs, cyadox, antiviral nucleoside analogues, allopurinol, nitrate and nitrite. XOR activity has a degradation function toward thiopurine nucleotides, pyrazinoic acid, methylxanthines and tolbutamide, whose half-life may be prolonged by the use of XOR inhibitors. In conclusion, to avoid potential drug interaction risks, such as a toxic excess of drug bioavailability or a loss of drug efficacy, caution is suggested in the use of XOR inhibitors, as in the case of hyperuricemic patients affected by gout or tumor lysis syndrome, when it is necessary to simultaneously administer therapeutic substances that are activated or degraded by the drug-metabolizing activity of XOR.

  5. Seizure activity results in calcium- and mitochondria-independent ROS production via NADPH and xanthine oxidase activation

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, S; Domijan, A-M; Walker, M C; Abramov, A Y

    2014-01-01

    Seizure activity has been proposed to result in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which then contribute to seizure-induced neuronal damage and eventually cell death. Although the mechanisms of seizure-induced ROS generation are unclear, mitochondria and cellular calcium overload have been proposed to have a crucial role. We aim to determine the sources of seizure-induced ROS and their contribution to seizure-induced cell death. Using live cell imaging techniques in glioneuronal cultures, we show that prolonged seizure-like activity increases ROS production in an NMDA receptor-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, however, mitochondria did not contribute to ROS production during seizure-like activity. ROS were generated primarily by NADPH oxidase and later by xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in a calcium-independent manner. This calcium-independent neuronal ROS production was accompanied by an increase in intracellular [Na+] through NMDA receptor activation. Inhibition of NADPH or XO markedly reduced seizure-like activity-induced neuronal apoptosis. These findings demonstrate a critical role for ROS in seizure-induced neuronal cell death and identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25275601

  6. 4,6-Diaryl/heteroarylpyrimidin-2(1H)-ones as a new class of xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shiwani; Kumar, Dinesh; Ojha, Ritu; Gupta, Manish K; Nepali, Kunal; Bedi, Preet M S

    2014-07-01

    A series of 4,6-diaryl/heteroarylpyrimidones was synthesized employing silica-supported fluoroboric acid under solvent-free conditions in a microwave reactor. The catalytic influence of HBF4-SiO2 was investigated in detail to optimize the reaction conditions. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for in vitro xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity for the first time. Structure-activity relationship analyses are also presented. Among the synthesized compounds, VA-5, -9, -10, -12, -22, -23, and -25 were the active inhibitors with IC50 values ranging from 6.45 to 13.46 µM. Compound VA-25 with a pyridinyl ring as ring A and a thiophenyl ring as ring B emerged as the most potent XO inhibitor (IC50 = 6.45 µM) in comparison to allopurinol (IC50 = 12.24 µM). Some of the important interactions of VA-25 with the amino acid residues of the active site of XO were figured out by molecular modeling studies. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Characterization and Thermodynamic Relationship of Three Polymorphs of a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, Febuxostat.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jinish; Jagia, Moksh; Bansal, Arvind Kumar; Patel, Sarsvatkumar

    2015-11-01

    Febuxostat (FXT), a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, is an interesting and unique molecule, which exhibits extensive polymorphism, with over 15 polymorphic forms reported to date. The primary purpose of the study was to characterize the three polymorphic forms with respect to their thermodynamic quantities and establish thermodynamic relationship between them. The polymorphs were characterized by thermal and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Three different methods were used to calculate the transition temperatures (Ttr) and thereby their thermodynamic relationships. Although the first and second method used calorimetric data (melting point and heat of fusion), the third method employed the use of configurational free energy phase diagram. The onset melting points of three polymorphic forms were found to be 482.89 ± 0.37 K for form I, 476.30 ± 1.21 K for form II, and 474.19 ± 0.11 K for form III. Moreover, the powder X-ray diffraction patterns for each form were also unique. The polymorphic pair of form I and II and of form I and III was found to be enantiotropic, whereas pair of form II and III was monotropic. Besides the relative thermodynamic aspects (free energy differences, enthalpy, entropy contributions) using different methods, the pharmaceutical implications and phase transformation aspects have also been covered. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. Metabonomics revealed xanthine oxidase-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingping; Wang, Chengshi; Liu, Fang; Lu, Yanrong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2015-03-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM), which is a major public health problem in the world. To reveal the metabolic changes associated with DN, we analyzed the serum, urine, and renal extracts obtained from control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DN rats by (1)H NMR-based metabonomics and multivariate data analysis. A significant difference between control and DN rats was revealed in metabolic profiles, and we identified several important DN-related metabolites including increased levels of allantoin and uric acid (UA) in the DN rats, suggesting that disturbed purine metabolism may be involved in the DN. Combined with conventional histological and biological methods, we further demonstrated that xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme for purine catabolism, was abnormally activated in the kidney of diabetic rats by hyperglycemia. The highly activated XO increased the level of intracellular ROS, which caused renal injury by direct oxidative damage to renal cells, and indirect inducing inflammatory responses via activating NF-κB signaling pathway. Our study highlighted that metabonomics is a promising tool to reveal the metabolic changes and the underlying mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of DN.

  9. Structure-based design and biological evaluation of novel 2-(indol-2-yl) thiazole derivatives as xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Song, Jeong Uk; Jang, Jae Wan; Kim, Tae Hun; Park, Heuisul; Park, Wan Su; Jung, Sang-Hun; Kim, Geun Tae

    2016-02-01

    Inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO) has obviously been a central concept for controlling hyperuricemia, which causes serious and painful inflammatory arthritis disease such as gout. We discovered a series of novel 2-(indol-2-yl)thiazole derivatives as XO inhibitors at the level of nanomolar activity. Structure-guided design using molecular modeling program (Accelrys Software program) provided an excellent basis for optimization of 2-(indol-2-yl)thiazole compounds. Structure-activity relationship indicated that hydrophobic alkoxy group (isopropoxy, cyclopentoxy) at 5-position and hydrogen binding acceptor (NO2, CN) at 7-position of indole ring appear as critical functional groups. Among the compounds, 2-(7-nitro-5-isopropoxy-indol-2-yl)-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid (9m) exhibits the most potent XO inhibitory activity (IC50 value: 5.1 nM) and the excellent uric acid lowering activity in potassium oxonate induced hyperuricemic rat model. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The significance of the measurement of serum xanthine oxidase and oxidation markers in patients with acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J-W; Lv, G-C; Zhao, Y

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether xanthine oxidase (XO) plays an important role in the mechanism of toxicity of acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). The serum activities of XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), paraoxonase-1 (PON1), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were compared in 49 patients with AOPP and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Serum XO and MDA activities were higher and the serum SOD, PON1 and BChE activities were lower in the AOPP patients compared with the controls. Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated a significant negative correlation between XO activity and the SOD, PON1 and BChE activities, but a significant positive correlation between XO activity and MDA. These results suggest that increased activity of XO and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity contribute to the development of oxidative injury in AOPP patients. Thus, effective antioxidant therapy may be a therapeutic option following AOPP.

  11. 6-Mercaptopurine-induced histopathological changes and xanthine oxidase expression in rat placenta.

    PubMed

    Taki, Kenji; Fukushima, Tamio; Ise, Ryota; Horii, Ikuo; Yoshida, Takemi

    2012-01-01

    The placenta secures the embryo and fetus to the endometrium and releases a variety of steroid and peptide hormones that convert the physiology of a female to that of a pregnant female. Chemical-induced alteration or deviation of placental function in the maternal and extraembryonic tissue can ultimately lead to pregnancy loss, congenital malformation and fetal death. The 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP), an anti-leukemic drug, is known to produce undesired effects on some organs, then the placenta/embryo toxicity of 6-MP was investigated in pregnant rats given 60 mg/kg with two intraperitoneal injections on gestation days (GD) 11 and 12. The rats were sacrificed and their placentas were collected on GD13 or 15. On GD15 small and limb-defected embryos were found in the 6-MP-treated rats. Placental weights were significantly reduced on GD15, as well as a reduced number of cells was detected in the labyrinth zone with both the labyrinth and basal zones having thinned. Cleaved caspase-3-positive cells increased in number in the labyrinth zone, while in the basal zone, glycogen cells reduced with cytolysis. The number of spongiotrophoblasts and trophoblastic giant cells also increased by 6-MP treatment. The 6-MP-treatment resulted in the increased xanthine oxidase (Xdh) expression in the placenta, which gene is related to the ischemic condition of tissues. These data suggest that apoptosis of the labyrinth zone cells may lead to decreased materno-fetal exchange. Moreover, subsequent ischemia in the placental tissue may occur and induce Xdh expression.

  12. The crystal structure of xanthine oxidoreductase during catalysis: Implications for reaction mechanism and enzyme inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Ken; Matsumoto, Koji; Hille, Russ; Eger, Bryan T.; Pai, Emil F.; Nishino, Takeshi

    2004-01-01

    Molybdenum is widely distributed in biology and is usually found as a mononuclear metal center in the active sites of many enzymes catalyzing oxygen atom transfer. The molybdenum hydroxylases are distinct from other biological systems catalyzing hydroxylation reactions in that the oxygen atom incorporated into the product is derived from water rather than molecular oxygen. Here, we present the crystal structure of the key intermediate in the hydroxylation reaction of xanthine oxidoreductase with a slow substrate, in which the carbon–oxygen bond of the product is formed, yet the product remains complexed to the molybdenum. This intermediate displays a stable broad charge–transfer band at ≈640 nm. The crystal structure of the complex indicates that the catalytically labile Mo—OH oxygen has formed a bond with a carbon atom of the substrate. In addition, the Mo⋕S group of the oxidized enzyme has become protonated to afford Mo—SH on reduction of the molybdenum center. In contrast to previous assignments, we find this last ligand at an equatorial position in the square-pyramidal metal coordination sphere, not the apical position. A water molecule usually seen in the active site of the enzyme is absent in the present structure, which probably accounts for the stability of this intermediate toward ligand displacement by hydroxide. PMID:15148401

  13. Mechanism of action and interactions between xanthine oxidase inhibitors derived from natural sources of chlorogenic and ferulic acids.

    PubMed

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Świeca, Michał; Nowak, Renata

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to estimate the phenolic composition and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity of green coffee beans (GCB) and wholemeal wheat flour (WF). Additionally, the type and strength of interaction (expressed as the combination index, CI) and mode of XO inhibition were analyzed. The major phenolic in GCB was 5-caffeoylquinic acid (39.92mg/g dw). The main phenolic acids in WF were trans- and cis-ferulic acids (257 and 165.57mg/100g dw, respectively). Both ferulic and chlorogenic acids individually inhibited XO, and for their combination moderate synergism was found. Buffer extractable compounds from GCB and WF demonstrated slight synergism (CI=0.92), while potentially bioaccessible and bioavailable compounds acted synergistically (CI=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). Buffer-extractable and potentially bioavailable phytochemicals from GCB acted uncompetitively, whereas potentially bioaccessible compounds acted as noncompetitive XO inhibitors. The addition of 3-5% of GCB to wheat bread significantly increased XO-inhibitory activity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor febuxostat suppresses development of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Nakatsu, Yusuke; Seno, Yasuyuki; Kushiyama, Akifumi; Sakoda, Hideyuki; Fujishiro, Midori; Katasako, Aya; Mori, Keiichi; Matsunaga, Yasuka; Fukushima, Toshiaki; Kanaoka, Ryuhei; Yamamotoya, Takeshi; Kamata, Hideaki; Asano, Tomoichiro

    2015-07-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme involved in the production of uric acid (UA) from purine nucleotides. Numerous recent studies have revealed the likelihood of metabolic syndrome including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or steatohepatitis (NASH) to be related to hyperuricemia. However, it remains unclear whether elevated serum UA during the development of NAFLD or NASH is a cause or a consequence of these diseases. In this study, the XO inhibitor febuxostat was administered to two types of NASH model mice. Febuxostat exerted a strong protective effect against NASH development induced by a high-fat diet containing trans fatty acid (HFDT). In contrast, methionine choline-deficient-diet-induced NASH development not accompanied by hyperuricemia showed no UA normalization, suggesting that the ameliorating effect of febuxostat occurs via the normalization of hyperuricemia itself and/or accompanying molecular mechanism(s) such as oxidative stress. In the HFDT-fed mice, hyperuricemia, elevated alanine aminotransferase, and increased Tunnel-positive cells in the liver were normalized by febuxostat administration. In addition, upregulation of fatty acid oxidation-related genes, fibrotic change, and increases in collagen deposition, inflammatory cytokine expressions, and lipid peroxidation in the HFDT-fed mice were also normalized by febuxostat administration. Taken together, these observations indicate that administration of febuxostat has a protective effect against HFDT-induced NASH development, suggesting the importance of XO in its pathogenesis. Thus XO inhibitors are potentially potent therapies for patients with NASH, particularly that associated with hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Xanthine and 8-oxoguanine in G-quadruplexes: formation of a G·G·X·O tetrad

    PubMed Central

    Cheong, Vee Vee; Heddi, Brahim; Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2015-01-01

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded structures built from stacked G-tetrads (G·G·G·G), which are planar cyclical assemblies of four guanine bases interacting through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. A G-quadruplex containing a single guanine analog substitution, such as 8-oxoguanine (O) or xanthine (X), would suffer from a loss of a Hoogsteen hydrogen bond within a G-tetrad and/or potential steric hindrance. We show that a proper arrangement of O and X bases can reestablish the hydrogen-bond pattern within a G·G·X·O tetrad. Rational incorporation of G·G·X·O tetrads in a (3+1) G-quadruplex demonstrated a similar folding topology and thermal stability to that of the unmodified G-quadruplex. pH titration conducted on X·O-modified G-quadruplexes indicated a protonation-deprotonation equilibrium of X with a pKa ∼6.7. The solution structure of a G-quadruplex containing a G·G·X·O tetrad was determined, displaying the same folding topology in both the protonated and deprotonated states. A G-quadruplex containing a deprotonated X·O pair was shown to exhibit a more electronegative groove compared to that of the unmodified one. These differences are likely to manifest in the electronic properties of G-quadruplexes and may have important implications for drug targeting and DNA-protein interactions. PMID:26400177

  16. Oxidation-reduction potentials of molybdenum, flavin and iron-sulphur centres in milk xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Cammack, R; Barber, M J; Bray, R C

    1976-01-01

    1. The mid-point reduction potentials of the various groups in xanthine oxidase from bovine milk were determined by potentiometric titration with dithionite in the presence of dye mediators, removing samples for quantification of the reduced species by e.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectroscopy. The values obtained for the functional enzyme in pyrophosphate buffer, pH8.2, are: Fe/S centre I, -343 +/- 15mV; Fe/S II, -303 +/- 15mV; FAD/FADH-; -351 +/- 20mV; FADH/FADH2, -236 +/-mV; Mo(VI)/Mo(V) (Rapid), -355 +/- 20mV; Mo(V) (Rapid)/Mo(IV), -355 +/- 20mV. 2. Behaviour of the functional enzyme is essentially ideal in Tris but less so in pyrophosphate. In Tris, the potential for Mo(VI)/Mo(V) (Rapid) is lowered relative to that in pyrophosphate, but the potential for Fe/S II is raised. The influence of buffer on the potentials was investigated by partial-reduction experiments with six other buffers. 3. Conversion of the enzyme with cyanide into the non-functional form, which gives the Slow molybdenum signal, or alkylation of FAD, has little effect on the mid-point potentials of the other centres. The potentials associated with the Slow signal are: Mo(VI)/Mo(V) (Slow), -440 +/- 25mV; Mo(V) (Slow)/Mo(IV), -480 +/- 25 mV. This signal exhibits very sluggish equilibration with the mediator system. 4. The deviations from ideal behaviour are discussed in terms of possible binding of buffer ions or anti-co-operative interactions amongst the redox centres. PMID:183752

  17. Effects of high hydrostatic pressure or hydrophobic modification on thermal stability of xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Halalipour, Ali; Duff, Michael R; Howell, Elizabeth E; Reyes-De-Corcuera, José I

    2017-08-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) on the kinetics of thermal inactivation of xanthine oxidase (XOx) from bovine milk was studied. Inactivation of XOx followed pseudo-first-order kinetics at 0.1-300MPa and 55.0-70.0°C. High pressure up to at least 300MPa stabilized XOx at all the studied temperatures. The highest stabilization effect of HHP on XOx was at 200-300MPa at 55.0 and 58.6°C, and at 250-300MPa at 62.3-70.0°C. The stability of XOx increased 9.5 times at 300MPa and 70.0°C compared to atmospheric pressure at the same temperature. The activation energy of inactivation of XOx decreased with pressure and was 1.9 times less at 300MPa (97.0±8.2kJmol -1 ) than at 0.1MPa (181.7±12.1kJmol -1 ). High pressure decreased the dependence of the rate constant of inactivation to temperature effects compared to atmospheric pressure. The stabilizing effect of HHP on XOx was highest at 70.0°C where the activation volume of inactivation of XOx was 28.9±2.9cm 3 mol -1 . A second approach to try to increase XOx stability involved hydrophobic modification using aniline or benzoate. However, the thermal stability of XOx remained unaffected after 8-14 modifications of carboxyl side groups per XOx monomer with aniline, or 12-17 modifications of amino side groups per XOx monomer with benzoate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacological Basis for Use of Selaginella moellendorffii in Gouty Arthritis: Antihyperuricemic, Anti-Inflammatory, and Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ping; Chen, Ke-li; Zhang, Guo-li

    2017-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the effects of Selaginella moellendorffii Hieron. (SM) on gouty arthritis and getting an insight of the possible mechanisms. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. The paw oedema, the neutrophil accumulation, inflammatory mediators, lipid peroxidation, and histopathological changes of the joints were analyzed in gouty arthritis rat model, and the kidney injury and serum urate were detected in hyperuricemic mice. Pharmacokinetic result demonstrated that the main apigenin glycosides might be quantitatively transformed into apigenin in the mammalian body. Among these compounds, the apigenin exhibited the strongest effect on xanthine oxidase (XOD). SM aqueous extract has proved to be active in reducing hyperuricemia in dose-dependent manner, and the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) in high dose group were decreased significantly as compared with hyperuricemic control group (P < 0.01). The high dose of SM extract could significantly prevent the paw swelling, reduce gouty joint inflammatory features, reduce the release of IL-1β and TNF-α, lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels, and increase superoxide dismutase (SOD) level (P < 0.01). For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the traditional use of SM aqueous extract against gout in folk medicine. PMID:28250791

  19. Xanthine and 8-oxoguanine in G-quadruplexes: formation of a G·G·X·O tetrad.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Vee Vee; Heddi, Brahim; Lech, Christopher Jacques; Phan, Anh Tuân

    2015-12-02

    G-quadruplexes are four-stranded structures built from stacked G-tetrads (G·G·G·G), which are planar cyclical assemblies of four guanine bases interacting through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. A G-quadruplex containing a single guanine analog substitution, such as 8-oxoguanine (O) or xanthine (X), would suffer from a loss of a Hoogsteen hydrogen bond within a G-tetrad and/or potential steric hindrance. We show that a proper arrangement of O and X bases can reestablish the hydrogen-bond pattern within a G·G·X·O tetrad. Rational incorporation of G·G·X·O tetrads in a (3+1) G-quadruplex demonstrated a similar folding topology and thermal stability to that of the unmodified G-quadruplex. pH titration conducted on X·O-modified G-quadruplexes indicated a protonation-deprotonation equilibrium of X with a pKa ∼6.7. The solution structure of a G-quadruplex containing a G·G·X·O tetrad was determined, displaying the same folding topology in both the protonated and deprotonated states. A G-quadruplex containing a deprotonated X·O pair was shown to exhibit a more electronegative groove compared to that of the unmodified one. These differences are likely to manifest in the electronic properties of G-quadruplexes and may have important implications for drug targeting and DNA-protein interactions. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition with Febuxostat Attenuates Systolic Overload-induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Dysfunction in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xin; Hu, Xinli; Lu, Zhongbing; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Lin; Wessale, Jerry L.; Bache, Robert J.; Chen, Yingjie

    2008-01-01

    The purine analog xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors (XOIs), allopurinol and oxypurinol, have been reported to protect against heart failure secondary to myocardial infarction or rapid ventricular pacing. Since these agents might influence other aspects of purine metabolism that could influence their effect, this study examined the effect of the non-purine XOI, febuxostat, on pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. Transverse aortic constriction (TAC) in mice caused LV hypertrophy and dysfunction as well as increased myocardial nitrotyrosine at 8 days. TAC also caused increased phosphorylated Akt (p-AktSer473), p42/44 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ErkThr202/Tyr204) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) (p-mTORSer2488). XO inhibition with febuxostat (5mg/kg/day by gavage for 8 days) beginning ~60 minutes after TAC attenuated the TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Febuxostat blunted the TAC-induced increases in nitrotyrosine (indicating reduced myocardial oxidative stress), p-ErkThr202/Tyr204 and p-mTORSer2488, with no effect on total Erk or total mTOR. Febuxostat had no effect on myocardial p-AktSer473 or total Akt. The results suggest that XO inhibition with febuxostat reduced oxidative stress in the pressure overloaded LV, thereby diminishing the activation of pathways that result in pathologic hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction. PMID:18995179

  1. Impact of single anaerobic exercise on delayed activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase in men and women.

    PubMed

    Wiecek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of xanthine oxidase (XO) in the blood of men and women during the first hour following a single anaerobic exercise (AN-EX), and after 24 hours of recovery, and to determine whether the changes in XO activity in the blood after AN-EX are dependent on anaerobic performance. Ten men and ten women performed a single AN-EX. Blood was collected before and five times after completion of the AN-EX. The activity of XO was determined. In both groups, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in blood XO activity was found only 24 hours after the AN-EX. The increased activity of XO in men was significantly lower than in women (P < 0.05). Negative correlations were found between the increase in XO activity in the blood plasma 24 hours after the AN-EX and anaerobic power, the total work performed during the AN-EX and the power decrease. In the first hour after the single AN-EX, XO activity in the blood of women and men did not change, but after 24 hours of recovery, it was significantly higher compared to baseline levels in both sexes. Single AN-EX causes a smaller increase in XO activity in people with higher anaerobic performance.

  2. Effects of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its Flavonol Constituents, Kaempferol and Quercetin, on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Aactivity inOxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Seid Ali; Mohammad Shahi, Majid; Mahboob, Soltan-Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid is known to be a major risk related to the development of several oxidative stress diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parsley, quercetin and kaempferol on serum uric acid levels, liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration) in normal and oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten equal groups; including 5 normal groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol) and 5 hyperuricemic groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol). Parsley (5 g/Kg), quercetin (5 mg/Kg), kaempferol (5 mg/Kg) and allopurinol (5 mg/Kg) were administrated to the corresponding groups by oral gavage once a day for 2 weeks. The results showed that parsley and its flavonol did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. All treatments significantly inhibited liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Parsley, kaempferol and quercetin treatment led also to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol was much higher than that of parsley and its flavonol constituents, it could not significantly change oxidative stress biomarkers. These features of parsley and its flavonols make them as a possible alternative for allopurinol, or at least in combination therapy to minimize the side effects of allopurinol to treat hyperuricemia and oxidative stress diseases.

  3. Effects of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its Flavonol Constituents, Kaempferol and Quercetin, on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Aactivity inOxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Seid Ali; Mohammad Shahi, Majid; Mahboob, Soltan-Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza

    2011-01-01

    Increased serum uric acid is known to be a major risk related to the development of several oxidative stress diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parsley, quercetin and kaempferol on serum uric acid levels, liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration) in normal and oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten equal groups; including 5 normal groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol) and 5 hyperuricemic groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol). Parsley (5 g/Kg), quercetin (5 mg/Kg), kaempferol (5 mg/Kg) and allopurinol (5 mg/Kg) were administrated to the corresponding groups by oral gavage once a day for 2 weeks. The results showed that parsley and its flavonol did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. All treatments significantly inhibited liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Parsley, kaempferol and quercetin treatment led also to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol was much higher than that of parsley and its flavonol constituents, it could not significantly change oxidative stress biomarkers. These features of parsley and its flavonols make them as a possible alternative for allopurinol, or at least in combination therapy to minimize the side effects of allopurinol to treat hyperuricemia and oxidative stress diseases. PMID:24250417

  4. Xanthine Oxidase Mediates Axonal and Myelin Loss in a Murine Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, Tatsusada; Takata, Kazushiro; Koda, Toru; Tada, Satoru; Shirakura, Takashi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Sakoda, Saburo; Nakatsuji, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Though reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by various mechanisms, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a major enzyme generating ROS in the context of inflammation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the involvement of XO in the pathogenesis of MS and to develop a potent new therapy for MS based on the inhibition of ROS. Methods XO were assessed in a model of MS: experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The contribution of XO-generated ROS to the pathogenesis of EAE was assessed by treating EAE mice with a novel XO inhibitor, febuxostat. The efficacy of febuxostat was also examined in in vitro studies. Results We showed for the first time that the expression and the activity of XO were increased dramatically within the central nervous system of EAE mice as compared to naïve mice. Furthermore, prophylactic administration of febuxostat, a XO inhibitor, markedly reduced the clinical signs of EAE. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed infiltrating macrophages and microglia as the major sources of excess XO production, and febuxostat significantly suppressed ROS generation from these cells. Inflammatory cellular infiltration and glial activation in the spinal cord of EAE mice were inhibited by the treatment with febuxostat. Importantly, therapeutic efficacy was observed not only in mice with relapsing-remitting EAE but also in mice with secondary progressive EAE by preventing axonal loss and demyelination. Conclusion These results highlight the implication of XO in EAE pathogenesis and suggest XO as a target for MS treatment and febuxostat as a promising therapeutic option for MS neuropathology. PMID:23951137

  5. Is Xanthine oxidase activity in polycystic ovary syndrome associated with inflammatory and cardiovascular risk factors?

    PubMed

    Isık, Hatice; Aynıoglu, Oner; Tımur, Hakan; Sahbaz, Ahmet; Harma, Muge; Can, Murat; Guven, Berrak; Alptekin, Husnu; Kokturk, Furuzan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) to determine the relationship between xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidative stress, inflammatory status, and various clinical and biochemical parameters. In this cross-sectional study a total of 83 women including 45 PCOS patients and 38 healthy women were enrolled. We collected blood samples for XO and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, hormone levels, cholesterol values, and inflammatory markers. Body mass index (BMI) , waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and blood pressure were assessed. Blood samples were taken for hormonal levels, cholesterol levels, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell and neutrophil counts, XO and SOD activities. The basal hormone levels, triglyceride (TG) levels, TG/HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) ratios FPG, FPI and HOMA-IR levels were higher in PCOS patients compared to controls (p<0.05). Platelet and plateletcrit (PCT) values, CRP, and XO activity were significantly increased, however SOD activity was decreased in PCOS patients (p<0.001). XO activity was positively correlated with LH/FSH and TG/HDL ratios, CRP, PCT, FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR, and negatively correlated with QUICKI levels. In conclusion, XO is a useful marker to assess oxidative stress in PCOS patients. Positive correlations between XO and inflammatory markers and cardiovascular disease risk factors suggest that XO plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS and its metabolic complications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute effects of febuxostat, a nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, in pacing induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hou, Mingxiao; Hu, Qingsong; Chen, Yingjie; Zhao, Lin; Zhang, Jianyi; Bache, Robert J

    2006-11-01

    We investigated whether xanthine oxidase inhibition with febuxostat enhances left ventricular (LV) function and improves myocardial high energy phosphates (HEP) in dogs with pacing-induced heart failure (CHF). Febuxostat (2.2 mg/kg over 10 minutes followed by 0.06 mg/kg/min) caused no change of LV function or myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2) at rest or during treadmill exercise in normal dogs. In dogs with CHF, febuxostat increased LV dP/dtmax at rest and during heavy exercise (P < 0.05), indicating improved LV function with no change of MVO2. Myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and phosphocreatine (PCr) were examined using 31P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the open chest state. In normal dogs, febuxostat increased PCr/ATP during basal conditions and during high workload produced by dobutamine + dopamine (P < 0.05). PCr/ATP was decreased in animals with CHF; in these animals, febuxostat (given after completing basal and high workload measurements with vehicle) tended to increase PCr/ATP during basal conditions with no effect during catecholamine stimulation. Thus, febuxostat improved LV performance in awake dogs with CHF, but caused only a trend toward increased PCr/ATP in the open chest state. It is possible that the antecedent high workload condition prior to drug administration blunted the effect of febuxostat on HEP in the CHF animals. Alternatively, beneficial effects of febuxostat on LV performance in the failing heart may not involve HEP.

  7. Characterization of xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase of Marsupenaeus japonicus and their response to microbial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Yo; Inada, Mari; Elshopakey, Gehad Elsaid; Itami, Toshiaki

    2018-05-16

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in many physiological processes. In particular, the sterilization mechanism of bacteria using ROS in macrophages is a very important function for biological defense. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and aldehyde oxidase (AOX), members of the molybdo-flavoenzyme subfamily, are known to generate ROS. Although these enzymes occur in many vertebrates, some insects, and plants, little research has been conducted on XDHs and AOXs in crustaceans. Here, we cloned the entire cDNA sequences of XDH (MjXDH: 4328 bp) and AOX (MjAOX: 4425 bp) from Marsupenaeus japonicus (kuruma shrimp) using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and random amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR transcriptional analysis revealed that MjXDH mRNA is highly expressed in heart and stomach tissues, whereas MjAOX mRNA is highly expressed in the lymphoid organ and intestinal tissues. Furthermore, expression of MjAOX was determined to be up-regulated in the lymphoid organ in response to Vibrio penaeicida at 48 and 72 h after injection; in contrast, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) concentrations increased significantly at 6, 12, 48, and 72 h after injection with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and at 72 h after injection with V. penaeicida. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to have identified and cloned XDH and AOX from a crustacean species.

  8. Identification of the free phenolic profile of Adlay bran by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS and inhibitory mechanisms of phenolic acids against xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lianzhu; Yang, Qingyun; Zhao, Kun; Zhao, Mouming

    2018-07-01

    Adlay bran free phenolic extract has been previously demonstrated to possess potent xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory activity. The aims of this study were to characterize the free phenolic profile of adlay bran and investigate the structure-activity relationship, underlying mechanism and interaction of phenolic acids as XOD inhibitors. A total of twenty phenolics including ten phenolic acids, two coumarins, two phenolic aldedhyes and six flavonoids were identified in a phenolic compound-guided separation by UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS. Adlay bran free phenolic extract possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity related to hydroxycinnamic acids with methoxyl groups. The hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions were the main forces in the binding of adlay phenolics to XOD. Sinapic acid, identified in adlay bran for the first time, possessed strong XOD inhibitory activity in a mixed non-competitive manner, and synergistic effects with other adlay phenolic acids at low concentrations, and would be a promising agent for preventing and treating hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Febuxostat, an Inhibitor of Xanthine Oxidase, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced MCP-1 Production via MAPK Phosphatase-1-Mediated Inactivation of JNK

    PubMed Central

    Nomura, Johji; Busso, Nathalie; Ives, Annette; Tsujimoto, Syunsuke; Tamura, Mizuho; So, Alexander; Yamanaka, Yoshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation can trigger various pathological conditions such as inflammation, in which xanthine oxidase (XO) is one major enzymatic source of ROS. Although XO has been reported to play essential roles in inflammatory conditions, the molecular mechanisms underlying the involvement of XO in inflammatory pathways remain unclear. Febuxostat, a selective and potent inhibitor of XO, effectively inhibits not only the generation of uric acid but also the formation of ROS. In this study, therefore, we examined the effects of febuxostat on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammatory responses. Here we show that febuxostat suppresses LPS-induced MCP-1 production and mRNA expression via activating MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) which, in turn, leads to dephosphorylation and inactivation of JNK in macrophages. Moreover, these effects of febuxostat are mediated by inhibiting XO-mediated intracellular ROS production. Taken together, our data suggest that XO mediates LPS-induced phosphorylation of JNK through ROS production and MKP-1 inactivation, leading to MCP-1 production in macrophages. These studies may bring new insights into the novel role of XO in regulating inflammatory process through MAPK phosphatase, and demonstrate the potential use of XO inhibitor in modulating the inflammatory processes. PMID:24086554

  10. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of extracts and flavonoids of the leaves of Blumea balsamifera.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Mohamed, Nornisah

    2010-12-01

    Blumea balsamifera DC (Compositae) leaves have been recommended for use as a folk medicine in the treatment of various diseases related to urolithiasis in southeast Asia. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed it contains four classes of flavonoids (e.g., flavonols, flavones, flavanones, and dihydroflavonol derivatives). In view of the broad pharmacological activity of flavonoids, this study was carried out to determine the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory and enzymatically produced superoxide radical scavenging activity of different organic extracts and that of the isolated flavonoids from B. balsamifera leaves. The inhibitory activity of XO was assayed spectrophotometrically at 295 nm. The superoxide radicals scavenging activity was assessed by NBT reduction method, spectrophotometrically at 560 nm. A dose response curve was plotted for determining IC₅₀ values. The methanol extract (IC₅₀ = 0.111 mg/mL) showed higher XO inhibitory activity than the chloroform (0.138 mg/mL) and pet-ether extracts (0.516 mg/mL). IC₅₀ values of scavenging of superoxide radicals for extracts decreased in the order of: methanol (0.063 mg/mL) > chloroform (0.092 mg/mL) > pet-ether (0.321 mg/mL). The XO inhibitory activity of the isolated flavonoids and reference compounds tested decreased in the order of: allopurinol > luteolin > quercetin > tamarixetin > 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone > rhamnetin > luteolin-7-methyl ether > blumeatin > dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether > dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether > L-ascorbic acid. The results indicated that the flavone derivatives were more active than the flavonol derivatives. The flavanone derivatives were moderately active and the dihydroflavonol derivatives were the least. The higher flavonoid content of extracts contributed to their higher XO inhibitory activity.

  11. Effects of antirheumatic gold compounds on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to oxidase in rabbit liver cytosol in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Satoru; Gotoh, Kyohko; Sadatoku, Namiko; Fujita, Tadashi; Fujimoto, Yohko

    2004-07-23

    Effects of auranofin (AUR), aurothioglucose (AuTG) and aurothiomalate (AuTM) on the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase (XD) to oxidase (XO) in the cytosolic fraction from rabbit liver were examined. AUR had no effect on the conversion of XD to XO at concentrations up to 50 microM, whereas at concentrations ranging from 10 to 25 microM, AuTG and AuTM induced the conversion of XD to XO. The constituents of AuTG and AuTM, aurous ion (Au+), but not mercaptosuccinic acid and 1-thio-beta-D-glucose, converted XD to XO in a similar degree to AuTG and AuTM. This means that Au (I) moiety has an important role in the AuTG- and AuTM-induced conversion of XD to XO. Furthermore, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and British anti-Lewisite (BAL) reconverted AuTG and AuTM-induced XO to XD, implying that clinical activity of NAC and BAL against toxic reactions of AuTG and AuTM is partially due to the XO reconversion. These results suggest that AuTG and AuTM have the potential to convert XD to its reactive oxygen species-generating form, XO, and that this effect may be correlated with cytotoxic actions of these drugs.

  12. Interaction of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide and its gemini homologue bis(cetyldimethylammonium)butane dibromide with xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Mir, Mohammad Amin; Khan, Javed Masood; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Dar, Aijaz Ahmad; Rather, Ghulam Mohammad

    2012-05-17

    The interaction of xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in purine metabolism, with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and bis(cetyldimethylammonium)butane dibromide (C16C4C16Br2) has been studied using tensiometry, spectrofluorometry, spectrophotometry, and circular dichroism at pH 7.4 and 25 °C. The tensiometric profiles of CTAB and C16C4C16Br2 in the presence of XO exhibit a single break at a lower surfactant concentration termed as C1 compared to their CMC in the buffered solution and show the existence of interaction between the surfactants and the enzyme. The results of the multitechnique approach showed that, although both CTAB as well as C16C4C16Br2 interact with the XO, C16C4C16Br2 interacts more strongly than its conventional single chain counterpart. Fluorescence and absorption measurements revealed that, compared to CTAB, C16C4C16Br2 is more effective in unfolding the enzyme. Change in XO activity by the surfactants was in concurrence with the structural alterations monitored by circular dichroism and showed structural stabilization of XO at higher surfactant concentrations, consistent with the aggregation results. This stabilization has been explained in light of strong tendency of C16C4C16Br2 for micellar growth and membrane/water stabilization of proteins by membrane-like fragments provided by higher concentrations of C16C4C16Br2 . The results are related to the stronger electrostatic and hydrophobic forces in C16C4C16Br2, owing to the presence of two charged headgroups and two hydrophobic tails.

  13. Febuxostat, a novel xanthine oxidoreductase inhibitor, improves hypertension and endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Shirakura, Takashi; Nomura, Johji; Matsui, Chieko; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Tamura, Mizuho; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an enzyme responsible for the production of uric acid. XO produces considerable amount of oxidative stress throughout the body. To date, however, its pathophysiologic role in hypertension and endothelial dysfunction still remains controversial. To explore the possible involvement of XO-derived oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of vascular dysfunction, by use of a selective XO inhibitor, febuxostat, we investigated the impact of pharmacological inhibition of XO on hypertension and vascular endothelial dysfunction in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen-week-old SHR and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were treated with tap water (control) or water containing febuxostat (3 mg/kg/day) for 6 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) in febuxostat-treated SHR (220 ± 3 mmHg) was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared with the control SHR (236 ± 4 mmHg) while SBP in febuxostat-treated WKY was constant. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortas from febuxostat-treated SHR was significantly (P < 0.05) improved compared with the control SHR, whereas relaxation in response to sodium nitroprusside was not changed. Vascular XO activity and tissue nitrotyrosine level, a representative indicator of local oxidative stress, were considerably elevated in the control SHR compared with the control WKY, and this increment was abolished by febuxostat. Our results suggest that exaggerated XO activity and resultant increase in oxidative stress in this experimental model contribute to the hypertension and endothelial dysfunction, thereby supporting a notion that pharmacological inhibition of XO is valuable not only for hyperuricemia but also for treating hypertension and related endothelial dysfunction in human clinics.

  14. Sulfur-containing compounds quench 3,7-dihydro-2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazol[1,2-a]pyrazine-3-one chemiluminescence: Discrimination between true antioxidants and quenchers using xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Kruglov, Alexey G; Nikiforova, Anna B; Shatalin, Yuri V; Shubina, Viktoria V; Fisyuk, Alexander S; Akatov, Vladimir S

    2010-11-15

    The probe 3,7-dihydro-2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)imidazol[1,2-a]pyrazine-3-one (MCLA) is widely used for studying the superoxide anion production and the efficiency of antioxidants in biological systems. Here we report that a number of sulfur-containing compounds applied in biochemical and cytological studies are able to suppress MCLA-derived chemiluminescence (MDCL) independent of their capability to scavenge superoxide anion. The most effective MDCL quenchers appeared to be the substances with thiocarbamoyl and thiocarbonyl groups coupled to cyclic molecules and several thiol- and disulfide-containing compounds. The analysis of MDCL kinetics in a xanthine oxidase system allows one to rapidly discriminate between true antioxidants and the quenchers of chemiluminescence. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Sequential activation of JAKs, STATs and xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase by hypoxia in lung microvascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guansong; Qian, Pin; Jackson, Fannie R; Qian, Guisheng; Wu, Guangyu

    2008-01-01

    Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase (XDH/XO) is associated with various pathological conditions related to the endothelial injury. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the activation of XDH/XO by hypoxia remains largely unknown. In this report, we determined whether the Janus kinases (JAKs) and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) signaling pathway is involved in hypoxia-induced activation of XDH/XO in primary cultures of lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMVEC). We found that hypoxia significantly increased interleukin 6 (IL6) production in a time-dependent manner in LMVEC. Hypoxia also markedly augmented phosphorylation/activation of JAKs (JAK1, JAK2 and JAK3) and the JAK downstream effectors STATs (STAT3 and STAT5). Hypoxia-induced activation of STAT3 was blocked by IL6 antibodies, the JAK inhibitor AG490 and the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), implying that hypoxia-promoted IL6 secretion activates the JAK/STAT pathway in LMVEC. Phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of STAT3 were also inhibited by the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002, suggesting that multiple signaling pathways involved in STAT activation by hypoxia. Importantly, hypoxia promoted XDH/XO activation in LMVEC, which was markedly reversed by inhibiting the JAK-STAT pathway using IL6 antibodies, AG490 and SOCS3. These data demonstrated that JAKs, STATs and XDH/XO were sequentially activated by hypoxia. These data provide the first evidence indicating that the JAK-STAT pathway is involved in hypoxia-mediated XDH/XO activation in LMVEC.

  16. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase and xanthine oxidase activities in erythrocytes and plasma from marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Pérez-Milicua, Myrna Barjau; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal-Vertiz, Jaime A; de la Rosa, Alejandro; Vázquez-Medina, José P; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-05-01

    Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and xanthine oxidase (XO) are key enzymes involved in the purine salvage pathway. PNP metabolizes purine bases to synthetize purine nucleotides whereas XO catalyzes the oxidation of purines to uric acid. In humans, PNP activity is reported to be high in erythrocytes and XO activity to be low in plasma; however, XO activity increases after ischemic events. XO activity in plasma of northern elephant seals has been reported during prolonged fasting and rest and voluntary associated apneas. The objective of this study was to analyze circulating PNP and XO activities in marine mammals adapted to tolerate repeated cycles of ischemia/reperfusion associated with diving (bottlenose dolphin, northern elephant seal) in comparison with semiaquatic (river otter) and terrestrial mammals (human, pig). PNP activities in plasma and erythrocytes, as well as XO activity in plasma, from all species were quantified by spectrophotometry. No clear relationship in circulating PNP or XO activity could be established between marine, semiaquatic and terrestrial mammals. Erythrocytes from bottlenose dolphins and humans are highly permeable to nucleosides and glucose, intraerythrocyte PNP activity may be related to a release of purine nucleotides from the liver. High-energy costs will probably mean a higher ATP degradation rate in river otters, as compared to northern elephant seals or dolphins. Lower erythrocyte PNP activity and elevated plasma XO activity in northern elephant seal could be associated with fasting and/or sleep- and dive-associated apneas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative analysis of phenolic metabolites from different parts of Angelica keiskei by HPLC-ESI MS/MS and their xanthine oxidase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Wook; Curtis-Long, Marcus J; Yuk, Heung Joo; Wang, Yan; Song, Yeong Hun; Jeong, Seong Hun; Park, Ki Hun

    2014-06-15

    Angelica keiskei is used as popular functional food stuff. However, quantitative analysis of this plant's metabolites has not yet been disclosed. The principal phenolic compounds (1-16) within A. keiskei were isolated, enabling us to quantify the metabolites within different parts of the plant. The specific quantification of metabolites (1-16) was accomplished by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a quadruple tandem mass spectrometer. The limit of detection and limit of quantitation were calculated as 0.4-44 μg/kg and 1.5-148 μg/kg, respectively. Abundance and composition of these metabolites varied significantly across different parts of plant. For example, the abundance of chalcones (12-16) decreased as follows: root bark (10.51 mg/g)>stems (8.52 mg/g)>leaves (2.63 mg/g)>root cores (1.44 mg/g). The chalcones were found to be responsible for the xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition shown by this plant. The most potent inhibitor, xanthoangelol inhibited XO with an IC50 of 8.5 μM. Chalcones (12-16) exhibited mixed-type inhibition characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Regulation of xanthine dehydrogensase gene expression and uric acid production in human airway epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Huff, Ryan D.; Hsu, Alan C-Y.; Nichol, Kristy S.; Jones, Bernadette; Knight, Darryl A.; Wark, Peter A. B.; Hansbro, Philip M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The airway epithelium is a physical and immunological barrier that protects the pulmonary system from inhaled environmental insults. Uric acid has been detected in the respiratory tract and can function as an antioxidant or damage associated molecular pattern. We have demonstrated that human airway epithelial cells are a source of uric acid. Our hypothesis is that uric acid production by airway epithelial cells is induced by environmental stimuli associated with chronic respiratory diseases. We therefore examined how airway epithelial cells regulate uric acid production. Materials and methods Allergen and cigarette smoke mouse models were performed using house dust mite (HDM) and cigarette smoke exposure, respectively, with outcome measurements of lung uric acid levels. Primary human airway epithelial cells isolated from clinically diagnosed patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were grown in submerged cultures and compared to age-matched healthy controls for uric acid release. HBEC-6KT cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, were grown under submerged monolayer conditions for mechanistic and gene expression studies. Results HDM, but not cigarette smoke exposure, stimulated uric acid production in vivo and in vitro. Primary human airway epithelial cells from asthma, but not COPD patients, displayed elevated levels of extracellular uric acid in culture. In HBEC-6KT, production of uric acid was sensitive to the xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) inhibitor, allopurinol, and the ATP Binding Cassette C4 (ABCC4) inhibitor, MK-571. Lastly, the pro-inflammatory cytokine combination of TNF-α and IFN-γ elevated extracellular uric acid levels and XDH gene expression in HBEC-6KT cells. Conclusions Our results suggest that the active production of uric acid from human airway epithelial cells may be intrinsically altered in asthma and be further induced by pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:28863172

  19. Genomic sequencing of uric acid metabolizing and clearing genes in relationship to xanthine oxidase inhibitor dose.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Matthew B; Smith, Derek M; Shaak, Thomas L

    2017-03-01

    It remains unclear why the dose of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (XOI) allopurinol or febuxostat varies among patients though they reach similar serum uric acid (SUA) goal. We pursued genomic sequencing of XOI metabolism and clearance genes to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) relate to differences in XOI dose. Subjects with a diagnosis of Gout based on the 1977 American College of Rheumatology Classification Criteria for the disorder, who were on stable doses of a XOI, and who were at their goal SUA level, were enrolled. The primary outcome was relationship between SNPs in any of these genes to XOI dose. The secondary outcome was relationship between SNPs and change in pre- and post-treatment SUA. We enrolled 100 subjects. The average patient age was 68.6 ± 10.6 years old. Over 80% were men and 77% were Caucasian. One SNP was associated with a higher XOI dose: rs75995567 (p = 0.031). Two SNPs were associated with 300 mg daily of allopurinol: rs11678615 (p = 0.022) and rs3731722 on Aldehyde Oxidase (AO) (His1297Arg) (p = 0.001). Two SNPs were associated with a lower dose of allopurinol: rs1884725 (p = 0.033) and rs34650714 (p = 0.006). For the secondary outcome, rs13415401 was the only SNP related to a smaller mean SUA change. Ten SNPs were identified with a larger change in SUA. Though multiple SNPs were identified in the primary and secondary outcomes of this study, rs3731722 is known to alter catalytic function for some aldehyde oxidase substrates.

  20. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  1. Effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition with febuxostat on the development of nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Komers, Radko; Xu, Bei; Schneider, Jennifer; Oyama, Terry T

    2016-09-01

    Elevated serum uric acid (UA) is a risk factor for the development of kidney disease. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XOi), an enzyme involved in UA synthesis, have protective effects at early stages of experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, long-term effects of XOi in models of DN remain to be determined. The development of albuminuria, renal structure and molecular markers of DN were studied in type 2 diabetic Zucker obese (ZO) rats treated for 18 weeks with the XOi febuxostat and compared with vehicle-treated ZO rats, ZO rats treated with enalapril or a combination of both agents, and lean Zucker rats without metabolic defects. Febuxostat normalized serum UA and attenuated the development of albuminuria, renal structural changes, with no significant effects on BP, metabolic control or systemic markers of oxidative stress (OS). Most of these actions were comparable with those of enalapril. Combination treatment induced marked decreases in BP and was more effective in ameliorating structural changes, expression of profibrotic genes and systemic OS than either monotherapy. Febuxostat attenuated renal protein expression of TGF-ß, CTGF, collagen 4, mesenchymal markers (FSP1 and vimentin) and a tissue marker of OS nitrotyrosine. Moreover, febuxostat attenuated TGF-ß- and S100B-induced increased expression of fibrogenic molecules in renal tubular cells in vitro in UA-free media in an Akt kinase-dependent manner. Febuxostat is protective and enhances the actions of enalapril in experimental DN. Multiple mechanisms might be involved, such as a reduction of UA, renal OS and inhibition of profibrotic signalling. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of different solvent extracts of leaves of Citrullus colocynthis

    PubMed Central

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Khan, Saeed A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Citrullus colocynthis is a folk medicinal plan of United Arab Emirates. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological and toxicological profile of fruits pulp. The present study focused on the antioxidant potency of leaf extract of this plant. Aim: To evaluate the antioxidant and xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activities of C. colocynthis by chemical method. Materials and Methods: Four different solvent extracts (methanol-CCM, methanol: water (1:1)-CCMW, chloroform-CCC and hexane-CCH) of leaves of C. colocynthis were investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using DPPH radical as a substrate, lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibitory activity using a model system consisting of β-carotene-linoleic acid, superoxide radical scavenging activity (enzymatically/nonenzymatically) and XO inhibitory activity. A dose response curve was plotted for determining SC50 and IC50 values for expressing the results of free radical scavenging activity and XO inhibitory activities respectively. Results: The high polyphenolic content of CCM and CCMW extract showed highest antioxidant activity irrespective the method used for this investigation. The overall results decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. CCH extract was inactive towards chemically generated superoxide radical and poor DPPH radical scavengers. The results of LPO inhibitory activities of leaves extract (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/mL) also decreased in the order of: CCM > CCMW > CCC > CCH. Overall 1.0 mg/mL leaves extract showed highest antioxidant potency amongst the studied concentration. Conclusion: CCMW and CCM extract of C. colocynthis exhibited promising antioxidants and XO inhibitory activities. PMID:25002802

  3. Xanthine oxidase and the fetal cardiovascular defence to hypoxia in late gestation ovine pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Andrew D; Hansell, Jeremy A; Herrera, Emilio A; Allison, Beth J; Niu, Youguo; Brain, Kirsty L; Kaandorp, Joepe J; Derks, Jan B; Giussani, Dino A

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia is a common challenge to the fetus, promoting a physiological defence to redistribute blood flow towards the brain and away from peripheral circulations. During acute hypoxia, reactive oxygen species (ROS) interact with nitric oxide (NO) to provide an oxidant tone. This contributes to the mechanisms redistributing the fetal cardiac output, although the source of ROS is unknown. Here, we investigated whether ROS derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) contribute to the fetal peripheral vasoconstrictor response to hypoxia via interaction with NO-dependent mechanisms. Pregnant ewes and their fetuses were surgically prepared for long-term recording at 118 days of gestation (term approximately 145 days). After 5 days of recovery, mothers were infused i.v. for 30 min with either vehicle (n = 11), low dose (30 mg kg−1, n = 5) or high dose (150 mg kg−1, n = 9) allopurinol, or high dose allopurinol with fetal NO blockade (n = 6). Following allopurinol treatment, fetal hypoxia was induced by reducing maternal inspired O2 such that fetal basal decreased approximately by 50% for 30 min. Allopurinol inhibited the increase in fetal plasma uric acid and suppressed the fetal femoral vasoconstrictor, glycaemic and lactate acidaemic responses during hypoxia (all P < 0.05), effects that were restored to control levels with fetal NO blockade. The data provide evidence for the activation of fetal XO in vivo during hypoxia and for XO-derived ROS in contributing to the fetal peripheral vasoconstriction, part of the fetal defence to hypoxia. The data are of significance to the understanding of the physiological control of the fetal cardiovascular system during hypoxic stress. The findings are also of clinical relevance in the context of obstetric trials in which allopurinol is being administered to pregnant women when the fetus shows signs of hypoxic distress. PMID:24247986

  4. Characteristic of theophylline imprinted monolithic column and its application for determination of xanthine derivatives caffeine and theophylline in green tea.

    PubMed

    Sun, Han-wen; Qiao, Feng-xia; Liu, Guang-yu

    2006-11-17

    Theophylline imprinted monolithic columns were designed and prepared for rapid separation of a homologous series of xanthine derivatives, caffeine, and theophylline by an in situ thermal-initiated copolymerization technique. Caffeine and theophylline were fully separated both under isocratic and gradient elutions on this kind of monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) column. The broad peak showed in isocratic elution could be improved in gradient elution. Some chromatographic conditions such as mobile phase composition, flow rate, and the temperature on the retention times were investigated. Hydrogen bonding interaction and hydrophobic interaction played an important role in the retention and separation. The binding capacity was evaluated by static adsorption and Scatchard analysis, which showed that the dissociation constant (KD) and the maximum binding capacity (Qmax) were 1.50 mol/L, and 236 micromol/g for high affinity binding site, and 7.97 mol/L and 785 micromol/g for lower affinity binding site, respectively. Thermodynamic data (DeltaDeltaH and DeltaDeltaS) obtained by Van't Hoff plots revealed an enthalpy-controlled separation. The morphological characteristics of monolithic MIP were investigated by scanning electron microscope, which showed that both mesopores and macropores were formed in the monolith. The present monolithic MIP column was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of caffeine and theophylline in different kinds of green tea.

  5. In vitro antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid, a stilbene compound derived from pigeon pea [Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.] leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nan; Kong, Yu; Fu, Yujie; Zu, Yuangang; Yang, Zhiwei; Yang, Mei; Peng, Xiao; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-12

    The antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activities, and xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitory effect of cajaninstilbene acid (CSA) derived from pigeon pea leaves were studied in the present work. Compared with resveratrol, CSA showed stronger antioxidant properties, DNA damage protective activity, and XOD inhibition activity. The IC(50) values of CSA for superoxide radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, reducing power, lipid peroxidation, and XOD inhibition were 19.03, 6.36, 39.65, 20.41, 20.58, and 3.62 μM, respectively. CSA possessed good protective activity from oxidative DNA damage. Furthermore, molecular docking indicated that CSA was more potent than resveratrol or allopurinol to interact with the active site of XOD (calculated free binding energy: -229.71 kcal mol(-1)). On the basis of the results, we conclude that CSA represents a valuable natural antioxidant source and may potentially be applicable in health food industry.

  6. Selective fishing and analysis of xanthine oxidase binders from two Fabaceae species by coupling enzyme functionalized core-shell magnetic nanoparticles with HPLC-MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liangliang; Shi, Shuyun; Zhao, Huading; Yu, Jingang; Jiang, Xinyu; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2014-01-15

    Xanthine oxidase (XOD) immobilized core-shell magnetic silica (Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD) nanoparticles coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed to fish out and analyze XOD binders from two Fabaceae species, Puerariae lobata flower and Glycyrrhiza uralensis root. The prepared Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles exhibited good specificity for XOD binders, better dispersion in aqueous solution and reusability than those of Fe3O4-XOD nanoparticles. The amount of XOD immobilized onto Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles was 339.9μg/mg and the activity of Fe3O4@SiO2-XOD nanoparticles remained 95% after ten times usage. The optimum conditions of selective fishing were optimized, and finally incubating pH was set at 7, incubating temperature at 25°C and adsorption time at 30min. Twelve XOD binders were successfully identified from ethyl acetate extract of P. lobata flower and G. uralensis root. The developed method provides a rapid, purposeful and effective way to identify active compounds from natural complex mixtures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition with febuxostat on the development of nephropathy in experimental type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bei; Schneider, Jennifer; Oyama, Terry T

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Elevated serum uric acid (UA) is a risk factor for the development of kidney disease. Inhibitors of xanthine oxidase (XOi), an enzyme involved in UA synthesis, have protective effects at early stages of experimental diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, long‐term effects of XOi in models of DN remain to be determined. Experimental Approach The development of albuminuria, renal structure and molecular markers of DN were studied in type 2 diabetic Zucker obese (ZO) rats treated for 18 weeks with the XOi febuxostat and compared with vehicle‐treated ZO rats, ZO rats treated with enalapril or a combination of both agents, and lean Zucker rats without metabolic defects. Results Febuxostat normalized serum UA and attenuated the development of albuminuria, renal structural changes, with no significant effects on BP, metabolic control or systemic markers of oxidative stress (OS). Most of these actions were comparable with those of enalapril. Combination treatment induced marked decreases in BP and was more effective in ameliorating structural changes, expression of profibrotic genes and systemic OS than either monotherapy. Febuxostat attenuated renal protein expression of TGF‐ß, CTGF, collagen 4, mesenchymal markers (FSP1 and vimentin) and a tissue marker of OS nitrotyrosine. Moreover, febuxostat attenuated TGF‐ß‐ and S100B‐induced increased expression of fibrogenic molecules in renal tubular cells in vitro in UA‐free media in an Akt kinase‐dependent manner. Conclusions and Implications Febuxostat is protective and enhances the actions of enalapril in experimental DN. Multiple mechanisms might be involved, such as a reduction of UA, renal OS and inhibition of profibrotic signalling. PMID:27238746

  8. Xanthine oxidase and uric acid as independent predictors of albuminuria in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    PubMed

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kocic, Gordana; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Milovan; Stanisic, Verica; Ninic, Ana

    2018-05-01

    Xanthine oxidase (XO) is an important enzyme responsible for conversion of purine bases to uric acid and represents the major source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in circulation. Since pathophysiological mechanism of the relationship between XO activity and urinary albumin excretion (UAE) rate is not well elucidated, we aimed to investigate this association in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2). In addition, we wanted to examine whether uric acid itself plays an independent role in albuminuria onset and progression, or it is only mediated through XO activity. A total of 83 patients with DM2 (of them 56.6% females) were included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric, biochemical parameters and blood pressure were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that uric acid and XO were the independent predictors for albuminuria onset in patients with DM2 [odds ratio (OR) 1.015, 95% CI (1.008-1.028), p = 0.026 and OR 1.015, 95% CI (1.006-1.026), p = 0.040, respectively]. Rise in uric acid for 1 µmol/L enhanced the probability for albuminuria by 1.5%. Also, elevation in XO activity for 1 U/L increased the probability for albuminuria for 1.5%. A total of 66.7% of variation in UAE could be explained with this Model. Both XO and uric acid are independently associated with albuminuria in diabetes. Better understanding of pathophysiological relationship between oxidative stress and albuminuria could lead to discoveries of best pharmacological treatment of XO- and/or uric acid-induced ROS, in order to prevent albuminuria onset and progression.

  9. Role of xanthine oxidoreductase in the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite in rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kramkowski, K; Leszczynska, A; Przyborowski, K; Kaminski, T; Rykaczewska, U; Sitek, B; Zakrzewska, A; Proniewski, B; Smolenski, R T; Chabielska, E; Buczko, W; Chlopicki, S

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying nitrite-induced effects on thrombosis and hemostasis in vivo are not clear. The goal of the work described here was to investigate the role of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in the anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities of nitrite in rats in vivo. Arterial thrombosis was induced electrically in rats with renovascular hypertension by partial ligation of the left renal artery. Sodium nitrite (NaNO2, 0.17 mmol/kg twice daily for 3 days, p.o) was administered with or without one of the XOR-inhibitors: allopurinol (ALLO) and febuxostat (FEB) (100 and 5 mg/kg, p.o., for 3 days). Nitrite treatment (0.17 mmol/kg), which was associated with a significant increase in NOHb, nitrite/nitrate plasma concentration, resulted in a substantial decrease in thrombus weight (TW) (0.48 ± 0.03 mg vs. vehicle [VEH] 0.88 ± 0.08 mg, p < 0.001) without a significant hypotensive effect. The anti-thrombotic effect of nitrite was partially reversed by FEB (TW = 0.63 ± 0.06 mg, p < 0.05 vs. nitrites), but not by ALLO (TW = 0.43 ± 0.02 mg). In turn, profound anti-platelet effect of nitrite measured ex vivo using collagen-induced whole-blood platelet aggregation (70.5 ± 7.1% vs. VEH 100 ± 4.5%, p < 0.05) and dynamic thromboxaneB2 generation was fully reversed by both XOR-inhibitors. In addition, nitrite decreased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration (0.47 ± 0.13 ng/ml vs. VEH 0.62 ± 0.04 ng/ml, p < 0.05) and FEB/ALLO reversed this effect. In vitro the anti-platelet effect of nitrite (1 mM) was reversed by FEB (0.1 mM) under hypoxia (0.5%O2) and normoxia (20%O2). Nitrite treatment had no effect on coagulation parameters. In conclusion, the nitrite-induced anti-platelet effect in rats in vivo is mediated by XOR, but XOR does not fully account for the anti-thrombotic effects of nitrite.

  10. Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Umar, Anwar; Hoxur, Parida; Anaydulla, Mihrigul; Imam, Guzalnur; Aziz, Ranagul; Upur, Halmurat; Kijjoa, Anake; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-04-25

    Karapxa decoction (KD) is a Traditional Uighur Medicine used for hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastralgia, oedema, gout and arthralgia. Because of its purported effect in gout, its effects were tested in hyperuricemic mice models induced by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate, as well as its capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro. Hyperuricemia was induced in mice by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate. KD was given orally for 14 days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, with Allopurinol 10 mg/kg/day as positive control. Serum uric acid (UA), and liver xanthine oxidase activity (XO) were measured. Scavenging activity of KD on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPP•), nitric oxide (•NO), superoxide (O2•-), efficiency against lipid peroxidation, and XO inhibition were determined in vitro. KD inhibited liver XO activity and reduced serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. KD also showed noticeable antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals (DPP•, •NO and O2•-). It was effective against lipid peroxidation and inhibited XO in vitro. This study supports the traditional use of Karapxa decoction to treat hyperuricemia and gout.

  11. Utilization of quercetin and quercetin glycosides from onion (Allium cepa L.) solid waste as an antioxidant, urease and xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nile, Shivraj Hariram; Nile, Arti Shivraj; Keum, Young Soo; Sharma, Kavita

    2017-11-15

    This study aimed to determine the flavonol glycosides from onion solid waste (OSW) using HPLC analysis, with antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities. We found considerable amount of quercetin-4'-O-monoglucoside (QMG: 254.85), quercetin-3,4'-O-diglucoside (QDG: 162.34), quercetin (Q: 60.44), and isorhamnetin-3-glucoside (IMG: 23.92) (mg/100g) dry weight (DW) of OSW. For OSW, the methanol and ethanol showed the strongest antioxidant activities, followed by ethyl acetate, chloroform, and n-hexane extracts. Among the flavonols, Q and QDG possessed higher antioxidant activities. OSW and flavonol glycosides displayed significant enzyme inhibitory activity, with IC 50 values ranging from 12.5±0.11 to 32.5±0.28 for OSW, 8.2±0.07 to 16.8±0.02 for flavonol glycosides, and 4.2±0.05μg/mL for thiourea (positive control) towards urease; while 15.2±0.8 to 35.8±0.2 (μg/mL) for OSW, 10.5±0.06 to 20.8±0.05 (μg/mL) for flavonol glycosides, and 6.5±0.05μg/mL for allopurinol (positive control) towards xanthine oxidase, respectively. The OSW and flavonol glycosides may thus be considered as potential antioxidant and antigout agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-05

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dispelling dogma and misconceptions regarding the most pharmacologically targetable source of reactive species in inflammatory disease, xanthine oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Eric E

    2015-08-01

    Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), the molybdoflavin enzyme responsible for the terminal steps of purine degradation in humans, is also recognized as a significant source of reactive species contributory to inflammatory disease. In animal models and clinical studies, inhibition of XOR has resulted in diminution of symptoms and enhancement of function in a number of pathologies including heart failure, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, hypertension and ischemia-reperfusion injury. For decades, XOR involvement in pathologic processes has been established by salutary outcomes attained from treatment with the XOR inhibitor allopurinol. This has served to frame a working dogma that elevation of XOR-specific activity is associated with enhanced rates of reactive species generation that mediate negative outcomes. While adherence to this narrowly focused practice of designating elevated XOR activity to be "bad" has produced some benefit, it has also led to significant underdevelopment of the processes mediating XOR regulation, identification of alternative reactants and products as well as micro-environmental factors that alter enzymatic activity. This is exemplified by recent reports: (1) identifying XOR as a nitrite reductase and thus a source of beneficial nitric oxide ((•)NO) under in vivo conditions similar to those where XOR inhibition has been assumed an optimal treatment choice, (2) describing XOR-derived uric acid (UA) as a critical pro-inflammatory mediator in vascular and metabolic disease and (3) ascribing an antioxidant/protective role for XOR-derived UA. When taken together, these proposed and countervailing functions of XOR affirm the need for a more comprehensive evaluation of product formation as well as the factors that govern product identity. As such, this review will critically evaluate XOR-catalyzed oxidant, (•)NO and UA formation as well as identify factors that mediate their production, inhibition and the resultant impact on inflammatory disease.

  14. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  15. Purine salvage in the apicomplexan Sarcocystis neurona, and generation of hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase-deficient clones for positive-negative selection of transgenic parasites.

    PubMed

    Dangoudoubiyam, Sriveny; Zhang, Zijing; Howe, Daniel K

    2014-09-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is an apicomplexan parasite that causes severe neurological disease in horses and marine mammals. The Apicomplexa are all obligate intracellular parasites that lack purine biosynthesis pathways and rely on the host cell for their purine requirements. Hypoxanthine-xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HXGPRT) and adenosine kinase (AK) are key enzymes that function in two complementary purine salvage pathways in apicomplexans. Bioinformatic searches of the S. neurona genome revealed genes encoding HXGPRT, AK and all of the major purine salvage enzymes except purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Wild-type S. neurona were able to grow in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) but were inhibited by 6-thioxanthine (6-TX), suggesting that the pathways involving either HXGPRT or AK are functional in this parasite. Prior work with Toxoplasma gondii demonstrated the utility of HXGPRT as a positive-negative selection marker. To enable the use of HXGPRT in S. neurona, the SnHXGPRT gene sequence was determined and a gene-targeting plasmid was transfected into S. neurona. SnHXGPRT-deficient mutants were selected with 6-TX, and single-cell clones were obtained. These Sn∆HXG parasites were susceptible to MPA and could be complemented using the heterologous T. gondii HXGPRT gene. In summary, S. neurona possesses both purine salvage pathways described in apicomplexans, thus allowing the use of HXGPRT as a positive-negative drug selection marker in this parasite.

  16. Nitrate decreases xanthine oxidoreductase-mediated nitrite reductase activity and attenuates vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Damacena-Angelis, Célio; Oliveira-Paula, Gustavo H; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Crevelin, Eduardo J; Portella, Rafael L; Moraes, Luiz Alberto B; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2017-08-01

    Nitrite and nitrate restore deficient endogenous nitric oxide (NO) production as they are converted back to NO, and therefore complement the classic enzymatic NO synthesis. Circulating nitrate and nitrite must cross membrane barriers to produce their effects and increased nitrate concentrations may attenuate the nitrite influx into cells, decreasing NO generation from nitrite. Moreover, xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) mediates NO formation from nitrite and nitrate. However, no study has examined whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated NO generation from nitrite. We hypothesized that nitrate attenuates the vascular and blood pressure responses to nitrite either by interfering with nitrite influx into vascular tissue, or by competing with nitrite for XOR, thus inhibiting XOR-mediated NO generation. We used two independent vascular function assays in rats (aortic ring preparations and isolated mesenteric arterial bed perfusion) to examine the effects of sodium nitrate on the concentration-dependent responses to sodium nitrite. Both assays showed that nitrate attenuated the vascular responses to nitrite. Conversely, the aortic responses to the NO donor DETANONOate were not affected by sodium nitrate. Further confirming these results, we found that nitrate attenuated the acute blood pressure lowering effects of increasing doses of nitrite infused intravenously in freely moving rats. The possibility that nitrate could compete with nitrite and decrease nitrite influx into cells was tested by measuring the accumulation of nitrogen-15-labeled nitrite ( 15 N-nitrite) by aortic rings using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Nitrate exerted no effect on aortic accumulation of 15 N-nitrite. Next, we used chemiluminescence-based NO detection to examine whether nitrate attenuates XOR-mediated nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate significantly shifted the Michaelis Menten saturation curve to the right, with a 3-fold increase in the

  17. The effect of xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine on the permeability of red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Al Balushi, Halima W M; Rees, David C; Brewin, John N; Hannemann, Anke; Gibson, John S

    2018-03-01

    Red cells from patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are under greater oxidative challenge than those from normal individuals. We postulated that oxidants generated by xanthine oxidase (XO) and hypoxanthine (HO) contribute to the pathogenesis of SCA through altering solute permeability. Sickling, activities of the main red cell dehydration pathways (P sickle , Gardos channel, and KCl cotransporter [KCC]), and cell volume were measured at 100, 30, and 0 mmHg O 2 , together with deoxygenation-induced nonelectrolyte hemolysis. Unexpectedly, XO/HO mixtures had mainly inhibitory effects on sickling, P sickle , and Gardos channel activities, while KCC activity and nonelectrolyte hemolysis were increased. Gardos channel activity was significantly elevated in red cells pharmacologically loaded with Ca 2+ using the ionophore A23187, consistent with an effect on the transport system per se as well as via Ca 2+ entry likely via the P sickle pathway. KCC activity is controlled by several pairs of conjugate protein kinases and phosphatases. Its activity, however, was also stimulated by XO/HO mixtures in red cells pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), which is thought to prevent regulation via changes in protein phosphorylation, suggesting that the oxidants formed could also have direct effects on this transporter. In the presence of XO/HO, red cell volume was better maintained in deoxygenated red cells. Overall, the most notable effect of XO/HO mixtures was an increase in red cell fragility. These findings increase our understanding of the effects of oxidative challenge in SCA patients and are relevant to the behavior of red cells in vivo. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Long-Term Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase by Febuxostat Does Not Decrease Blood Pressure in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate (DOCA)-Salt Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Szasz, Theodora; Davis, Robert Patrick; Garver, Hannah S.; Burnett, Robert J.; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water) or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water) in a short-term “reversal” experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning) and a long-term “prevention” experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt). We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate) and decrease in uric acid (XO product) levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible. PMID:23393607

  19. Xanthine oxidase activity is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease and inflammatory and oxidative status markers in metabolic syndrome: effects of a single exercise session.

    PubMed

    Feoli, Ana Maria Pandolfo; Macagnan, Fabrício Edler; Piovesan, Carla Haas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the xanthine oxidase (XO) activity in metabolic syndrome in subjects submitted to a single exercise session. We also investigated parameters of oxidative and inflammatory status. A case-control study (9 healthy and 8 MS volunteers) was performed to measure XO, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activities, lipid peroxidation, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) content, glucose levels, and lipid profile. Body mass indices, abdominal circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and TG levels were also determined. The exercise session consisted of 3 minutes of stretching, 3 minutes of warm-up, 30 minutes at a constant dynamic workload at a moderate intensity, and 3 minutes at a low speed. The blood samples were collected before and 15 minutes after the exercise session. Serum XO activity was higher in MS group compared to control group. SOD activity was lower in MS subjects. XO activity was correlated with SOD, abdominal circumference, body mass indices, and hsCRP. The single exercise session reduced the SOD activity in the control group. Our data support the association between oxidative stress and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and suggest XO is present in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  20. Efficacy and safety of febuxostat, a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase for the treatment of hyperuricemia in kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Tojimbara, T; Nakajima, I; Yashima, J; Fuchinoue, S; Teraoka, S

    2014-01-01

    Febuxostat, a novel nonpurine selective inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, is a potential alternative to allopurinol for patients with hyperuricemia. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of febuxostat for the management of hyperuricemia in renal transplant recipients. Between June 2012 and January 2013, a total of 22 renal transplant recipients (56 ± 10 years old) with hyperuricemia were enrolled in this study. All patients underwent de novo kidney transplantation, except for 1 patient, who received a second kidney transplant. Ten patients receiving allopurinol and 3 patients receiving benzbromarone were converted to febuxostat at doses of 10-20 mg/d. In the remaining 9 patients, who did not have a history of other urate-lowering medications, febuxostat was initiated at a dose of 10 mg/d. Uric acid levels after initiation of febuxostat were significantly lower than before treatment (5.7 ± 0.7 mg/mL vs 8.0 ± 0.8 mg/mL; P < .001). At last follow-up visit, 16 of the 22 patients (73%) achieved uric acid levels of ≤ 6.0 mg/dL, despite the low dosage of febuxostat. All patients were maintained on febuxostat without serious adverse events, except for 1 patient, who discontinued febuxostat because of numbness in the arms. Low-dose febuxostat is a promising alternative to allopurinol or benzbromarone for the treatment of hyperuricemia in kidney transplant recipients. The long-term urate-lowering efficacy and safety of febuxostat with regard to renal function in kidney transplant recipients with hyperuricemia requires further investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. NADH induces the generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes. [Pisum sativum L

    SciTech Connect

    del Rio, L.A.; Sandalio, L.M.; Palma, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    In peroxisomes isolated from pea leaves (Pisum sativum L.) the production of superoxide free radicals (O{sub 2}{sup {minus}}) by xanthine and NADH was investigated. In peroxisomal membranes, 100 micromolar NADH induced the production of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals. In the soluble fractions of peroxisomes, no generation of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} radicals was observed by incubation with either NADH or xanthine, although xanthine oxidase was found located predominantly in the matrix of peroxisomes. The failure of xanthine to induce superoxide generation was probably due to the inability to fully suppress the endogenous Mn-superoxide dismutase activity by inhibitors which were inactive againstmore » xanthine oxidase. The generation of superoxide radicals in leaf peroxisomes together with the recently described production of these oxygen radicals in glyoxysomes suggests that O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generation could be a common metabolic property of peroxisomes and further supports the existence of active oxygen-related roles for peroxisomes in cellular metabolism.« less

  2. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary xanthinuria

    MedlinePlus

    ... xanthine dehydrogenase, described above, and another enzyme called aldehyde oxidase. Mutations in the MOCOS gene prevent xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase from being turned on (activated). The loss ...

  3. Mediterranean diets supplemented with virgin olive oil and nuts enhance plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and decrease xanthine oxidase activity in people with metabolic syndrome: The PREDIMED study.

    PubMed

    Sureda, Antoni; Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Martorell, Miquel; Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Marti, Amelia; Pons, Antoni; Tur, Josep A; Martinez-Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed plasmatic antioxidant capabilities and xanthine oxidase (XOX) activity in metabolic syndrome patients after 5 years intervention with Mediterranean diet (MeDiet) supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil or with nuts or with low-fat diet (the PREDIMED [PREvención con Dieta MEDiterránea] study). Seventy-five participants were randomly selected. Daily energy and nutrient intake were assessed with a validated 137-item food frequency questionnaire, and adherence to the MeDiet was assessed using a 14-item questionnaire. Catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), myeloperoxidase, XOX activities and protein levels, and protein carbonyl derivatives, nitrotyrosine, nitrite and nitrate levels were determined in overnight fasting venous blood samples. The plasma activity and protein levels of SOD and catalase were significantly higher and XOX activity was lower in MeDiet supplemented with extra-virgin olive oil and MeDiet supplemented with nuts than in the control group. Participants in both MeDiet groups showed higher plasma nitrate levels than in the control group. Adherence to the MeDiet showed a positive correlation with SOD and catalase plasma antioxidant activities. A MeDiet enriched with either virgin olive oil or nuts enhances the plasma antioxidant capabilities and decreases XOX activity in patients with the metabolic syndrome but we did not observe changes in myeloperoxidase or markers of oxidative damage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. SciTech Connect

    Santamaria, J.; Pasquier, C.; Ferradini, C.

    The oxidation in aqueous solutions of hypoxanthine into xanthine and xanthine into uric acid by OH radicals has been investigated using pulse radiolysis and fast kinetic absorption spectrophotometry. After hypoxanthine irradiations the spectrum of transient R/sub 1/ has been characterized. This radical is formed with a rate constant k/sub (Hyx+OH) = 6.5 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ and disappears by disproportionation leading to xanthine and hypoxanthine with a rate constant 2K/sub (R/sub 1/+ r/sub 1// = 1.3 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -//sub 1/. After xanthine irradiations a radical intermediate R/sub 2/ is formed with a ratemore » constant k/sub(X+ OH)/= 5.2 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/ and disappears through a second-order reaction 2K/sub (R/sub 2/+ R/sub 2/)/ = 2.0 x 10/sup 8/ M/sup -1/ sec/sup -1/. Finally, after aeration only uric acid and xanthine are measured.« less

  5. Effect of Febuxostat, a Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor, on Cardiovascular Risk in Hyperuricemic Patients with Hypertension: A Prospective, Open-label, Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Tani, Shigemasa; Nagao, Ken; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    There is growing evidence of an association between high uric acid (UA) levels and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We hypothesized that febuxostat, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, may be associated with suppressing the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and improving renal function in hyperurecemic patients with hypertension. We conducted a 6-month prospective study in which we randomized hypertensive hyperuricemic patients to either a febuxostat group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). The dose of febuxostat was adjusted to maintain the serum UA level at <6.0 mg/dL. In the febuxostat group, the plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC), and serum UA level significantly decreased by 33 % (p = 0.0012), 14 % (p = 0.001), and 29 % (p < 0.0001), respectively. The estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) significantly increased by 5.5 % (p = 0.001). Similar changes were not observed in the control group. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the percent changes in the serum UA levels and the percent changes in the PRA (r = 0.277, p = 0.033), PAC (r = 0.310, p = 0.016), serum blood urea nitrogen levels (r = 0.434, p = 0.0005), serum creatinine levels (r = 0.413, p = 0.002), and eGFR (r = -0.474, p = 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that febuxostat might not only reduce serum UA levels but also suppress RAAS and improve renal function in hyperuricemic patients with hypertension, possibly leading to prevention of CVD.

  6. Caffeine protects against experimental acute pancreatitis by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Cane, Matthew C; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Szatmary, Peter; Zhang, Xiaoying; Elliott, Victoria; Ouyang, Yulin; Chvanov, Michael; Latawiec, Diane; Wen, Li; Booth, David M; Haynes, Andrea C; Petersen, Ole H; Tepikin, Alexei V; Criddle, David N

    2017-01-01

    Objective Caffeine reduces toxic Ca2+ signals in pancreatic acinar cells via inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R)-mediated signalling, but effects of other xanthines have not been evaluated, nor effects of xanthines on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP). We have determined effects of caffeine and its xanthine metabolites on pancreatic acinar IP3R-mediated Ca2+ signalling and experimental AP. Design Isolated pancreatic acinar cells were exposed to secretagogues, uncaged IP3 or toxins that induce AP and effects of xanthines, non-xanthine phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cAMP/cGMP) determined. The intracellular cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]C), mitochondrial depolarisation and necrosis were assessed by confocal microscopy. Effects of xanthines were evaluated in caerulein-induced AP (CER-AP), taurolithocholic acid 3-sulfate-induced AP (TLCS-AP) or palmitoleic acid plus ethanol-induced AP (fatty acid ethyl ester AP (FAEE-AP)). Serum xanthines were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results Caffeine, dimethylxanthines and non-xanthine PDE inhibitors blocked IP3-mediated Ca2+ oscillations, while monomethylxanthines had little effect. Caffeine and dimethylxanthines inhibited uncaged IP3-induced Ca2+ rises, toxin-induced Ca2+ release, mitochondrial depolarisation and necrotic cell death pathway activation; cAMP/cGMP did not inhibit toxin-induced Ca2+ rises. Caffeine significantly ameliorated CER-AP with most effect at 25 mg/kg (seven injections hourly); paraxanthine or theophylline did not. Caffeine at 25 mg/kg significantly ameliorated TLCS-AP and FAEE-AP. Mean total serum levels of dimethylxanthines and trimethylxanthines peaked at >2 mM with 25 mg/kg caffeine but at <100 µM with 25 mg/kg paraxanthine or theophylline. Conclusions Caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites reduced pathological IP3R-mediated pancreatic acinar Ca2

  7. Novel repair activities of AlkA (3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II) and endonuclease VIII for xanthine and oxanine, guanine lesions induced by nitric oxide and nitrous acid

    PubMed Central

    Terato, Hiroaki; Masaoka, Aya; Asagoshi, Kenjiro; Honsho, Akiko; Ohyama, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Toshinori; Yamada, Masaki; Makino, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Ide, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    Nitrosation of guanine in DNA by nitrogen oxides such as nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous acid leads to formation of xanthine (Xan) and oxanine (Oxa), potentially cytotoxic and mutagenic lesions. In the present study, we have examined the repair capacity of DNA N-glycosylases from Escherichia coli for Xan and Oxa. The nicking assay with the defined substrates containing Xan and Oxa revealed that AlkA [in combination with endonuclease (Endo) IV] and Endo VIII recognized Xan in the tested enzymes. The activity (Vmax/Km) of AlkA for Xan was 5-fold lower than that for 7-methylguanine, and that of Endo VIII was 50-fold lower than that for thymine glycol. The activity of AlkA and Endo VIII for Xan was further substantiated by the release of [3H]Xan from the substrate. The treatment of E.coli with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine increased the Xan-excising activity in the cell extract from alkA+ but not alkA– strains. The alkA and nei (the Endo VIII gene) double mutant, but not the single mutants, exhibited increased sensitivity to nitrous acid relative to the wild type strain. AlkA and Endo VIII also exhibited excision activity for Oxa, but the activity was much lower than that for Xan. PMID:12434002

  8. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN SERUM FERRITIN AND URIC ACID IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    OBJECTIVE: Urate forms a coordination complex with Fe(3+) which does not support electron transport. The only enzymatic source of urate is xanthine oxidoreductase. If a major purpose of xanthine oxidoreductase is the production of urate to function as an iron chelator and antioxi...

  9. Febuxostat for management of tumor lysis syndrome including its effects on levels of purine metabolites in patients with hematological malignancies - a single institution's, pharmacokinetic and pilot prospective study.

    PubMed

    Takai, Mihoko; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Ookura, Miyuki; Matsuda, Yasufumi; Tai, Katsunori; Kishi, Shinji; Yoshida, Akira; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Nakamura, Toru; Ueda, Takanori

    2014-12-01

    Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a life-threatening oncological emergency, and control of serum uric acid level (S-UA) is most important. In this single-institution, short-term and pilot prospective study, the efficacy of a new xanthine oxidase inhibitor, febuxostat, as an alternative to conventional allopurinol, including its effects on hypoxanthine and xanthine, was evaluated in 10 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies at intermediate risk for TLS. Febuxostat at 40 mg (n=7) or 60 mg (n=3) daily was administered according to renal function, and induction chemotherapy was started within 24 h. The primary end-point was the reduction of S-UA to ≤ 7.5 mg/dl by day 5. The median S-UA at base-line was 8.0 mg/dl (range=3.2-10.6 mg/dl). The median S-UA on day 5 after chemotherapy was 3.3 mg/dl (range=1.1-5.8 mg/dl) (p<0.0001, by paired t-test), indicating successful control of S-UA during chemotherapy. All patients achieved S-UA ≤ 7.5 mg/dl. A simultaneous decrease in serum creatinine and increase in estimated glomerular filtration rate were seen. Serum hypoxanthine and xanthine levels (as the consequence of inhibition of xanthine oxidase) were elevated along with the decrease in S-UA. Xanthine level was elevated higher compared to hypoxanthine level and reached the level reported to cause xanthine nephropathy, but no advance of renal impairment was observed. Serum febuxostat concentrations at 2 h after administration were 891.8 ± 285.0 ng/ml (mean ± SE) for the 40-mg dose and 770.6 ± 242.7 ng/ml for the 60-mg dose (p=0.80, unpaired t-test), showing no accumulation in patients with renal impairment. No febuxostat-related adverse reactions were noted. No patients experienced progressive TLS. Febuxostat is promising for the management of TLS of an intermediate-risk patient and further observation and reevaluation regarding xanthine nephropathy should be performed. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios

  10. Oral administration of L-arginine in patients with angina or following myocardial infarction may be protective by increasing plasma superoxide dismutase and total thiols with reduction in serum cholesterol and xanthine oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Pratima; Chandra, M

    2009-01-01

    Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA) and acute myocardial infarction (MI)]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days) resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH) and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO). These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes. PMID:20716909

  11. Influence of thermal processing conditions on flavor stability in fluid milk: benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Potineni, R V; Peterson, D G

    2005-01-01

    Flavor loss in dairy products has been associated with enzymatic degradation by xanthine oxidase. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of milk thermal processing conditions (or xanthine oxidase inactivation) on benzaldehyde stability. Benzaldehyde was added to whole milk which had been thermally processed at 4 levels: (1) none or raw, (2) high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization, (3) HTST pasteurization, additionally heated to 100 degrees C (PAH), and (4) UHT sterilized. Additionally, PAH and UHT milk samples containing benzaldehyde (with and without ferrous sulfate) were spiked with xanthine oxidase. Azide was added as an antimicrobial agent (one additional pasteurized sample without) and the microbial load (total plate count) was determined on d 0, 2, and 6. The concentration of benzaldehyde and benzoic acid in all milk samples were determined at d 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 (stored at 5 degrees C) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selective ion monitory mode. Over the 6-d storage period, more than 80% of the benzaldehyde content was converted (oxidized) to benzoic acid in raw and pasteurized milk, whereas no change in the benzaldehyde concentration was found in PAH or UHT milk samples. Furthermore, the addition of xanthine oxidase or xanthine oxidase plus ferrous sulfate to PAH or UHT milk samples did not result in benzaldehyde degradation over the storage period.

  12. Identification of a Lacosamide Binding Protein Using an Affinity Bait and Chemical Reporter Strategy: 14-3-3 ζ

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ki Duk; Kim, Dong Wook; Reamtong, Onrapak; Eyers, Claire; Gaskell, Simon J.; Liu, Rihe; Kohn, Harold

    2011-01-01

    We have advanced a useful strategy to elucidate binding partners of ligands (drugs) with modest binding affinity. Key to this strategy is attaching to the ligand an affinity bait (AB) and a chemical reporter (CR) group, where the AB irreversibly attaches the ligand to the receptor upon binding and the CR group is employed for receptor detection and isolation. We have tested this AB&CR strategy using lacosamide ((R)-1), a low-molecular-weight antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate that using a (R)-lacosamide AB&CR agent ((R)-2) 14-3-3 ζ in rodent brain soluble lysates is preferentially adducted, adduction is stereospecific with respect to the AB&CR agent, and adduction depends upon the presence of endogenous levels of the small molecule metabolite xanthine. Substitution of lacosamide AB agent ((R)- 5) for (R)-2 led to the identification of the 14-3-3 ζ adduction site (K120) by mass spectrometry. Competition experiments using increasing amounts of (R)-1 in the presence of (R)-2 demonstrated that (R)-1 binds at or near the (R)-2 modification site on 14-3-3 ζ. Structure-activity studies of xanthine derivatives provided information concerning the likely binding interaction between this metabolite and recombinant 14-3-3 ζ. Documentation of the 14-3-3 ζ-xanthine interaction was obtained with isothermal calorimetry using xanthine and the xanthine analogue 1,7-dimethylxanthine. PMID:21692503

  13. Formation and Detoxification of Reactive Oxygen Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuciel, Radoslawa; Mazurkiewicz, Aleksandra

    2004-01-01

    A model of reactive oxygen species metabolism is proposed as a laboratory exercise for students. The superoxide ion in this model is generated during the reaction of oxidation of xanthine, catalyzed by xanthine oxidase. The effect of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and allopurinol on superoxide ion generation and removal in this system is also…

  14. Phytochemical investigation of some traditional chinese medicines and endophyte cultures.

    PubMed

    Tan, R X; Meng, J C; Hostettmann, K

    2000-01-01

    For many social and environmental reasons, over the last few decades, there has been an increase in chronic and life-threatening diseases including mycoses, hyperuricemia-related disorders and some mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety and Parkinson's disease. In order to fight these diseases, compounds acting on various biological targets, including enzymes such as xanthine oxidase or monoamine oxidase, have to be screened. The enzyme xanthine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine and then to uric acid, which plays a crucial role in hyperuricemiarelated disorders such as gout and renal stones. One of the therapeutic approaches to treat these diseases is the use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors that block the production of uric acid. Monoamine oxidases (E.C.1.4.3.4) A and B catalyse the oxidative deamination of monoamines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Inhibitors of MAO A are clinically useful to treat anxiety and depression since they are expected to increase both noradrenalin and serotonin levels in the brain. On the other hand, inhibition of MAO B appears to be an effective approach for the prevention and adjunct treatment of Parkinson's disease. In traditional Chinese medical practice, many medicinal herbs have been used to treat chronic diseases such as fungal infections, hyperuricemia-based disorders and mental illnesses. This usage is indicative for the presumable presence of antifungal phytochemicals and inhibitors of xanthine and monoamine oxidases. Plants do not represent the only source for interesting natural products; some endophytes ('special' microorganisms living inside the healthy host plant) are also known to produce secondary metabolites of promising pharmaceutical and/or agricultural potential. The above observations prompted us to search for natural antifungal compounds and inhibitors of xanthine and monoamine oxidases in different Chinese plants and endophyte cultures. The active constituents

  15. Antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi seeds glyceric extract.

    PubMed

    Giamperi, Laura; Fraternale, Daniele; Bucchini, Anahi; Ricci, Donata

    2004-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit) seeds glyceric extract dissolved in ethanol and in aqueous media was evaluated using three different methods: evaluation by DPPH assay, by 5-lipoxygenase assay and by luminol/xanthine/xanthine oxidase chemiluminescence assay. The total phenolic content was determined by the Prussian Blue method opportunely modified. The grapefruit seeds glyceric extract utilized as aqueous solutions demonstrated antioxidant properties better than those displayed by alcoholic solutions.

  16. Metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine and phenylacetaldehyde by precision-cut guinea pig fresh liver slices.

    PubMed

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I; Kouretas, Demetrios; Gounaris, Elias G; Beedham, Christine

    2004-01-01

    2-Phenylethylamine is an endogenous constituent of human brain and is implicated in cerebral transmission. It is also found in certain foodstuffs and may cause toxic side-effects in susceptible individuals. Metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetaldehyde is catalyzed by monoamine oxidase and the oxidation of the reactive aldehyde to its acid derivative is catalyzed mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase and perhaps aldehyde oxidase, with xanthine oxidase having minimal transformation. The present investigation examines the metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetaldehyde in liver slices and compares the relative contribution of aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde with precision-cut fresh liver slices in the presence/absence of specific inhibitors of each enzyme. In liver slices, phenylacetaldehyde was rapidly converted to phenylacetic acid. Phenylacetic acid was the main metabolite of 2-phenylethylamine, via the intermediate phenylacetaldehyde. Phenylacetic acid formation was completely inhibited by disulfiram (specific inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase), whereas isovanillin (specific inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase) inhibited acid formation to a lesser extent and allopurinol (specific inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) had little or no effect. Therefore, in liver slices, phenylacetaldehyde is rapidly oxidized by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase with little or no contribution from xanthine oxidase.

  17. The mechanism of action of doxofylline is unrelated to HDAC inhibition, PDE inhibition or adenosine receptor antagonism.

    PubMed

    van Mastbergen, J; Jolas, T; Allegra, L; Page, C P

    2012-02-01

    Xanthines such as theophylline have been used in the treatment of lung diseases since the early 1900's, but have a major drawback of a very narrow therapeutic window and many drug/drug interactions. This means that plasma levels have to be measured regularly and can make the use of theophylline problematic. With the increasing availability of other classes of drugs for the treatment of respiratory diseases, this has limited the use of xanthines, despite their clear clinical benefit in the treatment of patients with asthma and COPD. Doxofylline is a xanthine molecule having both bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory activity with an improved therapeutic window over conventional xanthines such as theophylline. However, the mechanistic basis of this improved therapeutic window is not understood. The present study has investigated some pharmacological activities of doxofylline in comparison with theophylline. Doxofylline does not directly inhibit any of the known HDAC enzymes, and did not inhibit any PDE enzyme sub types or act as an antagonist at any of the known adenosine receptors, except for PDE2A(1), and adenosine A(2A) and only at the highest tested concentration (10(-4) M). These results may explain the improved tolerability profile of doxofylline compared with theophylline. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Competitive binding experiments can reduce the false positive results of affinity-based ultrafiltration-HPLC: A case study for identification of potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors from Perilla frutescens extract.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Kwon, Shin Hwa; Hwang, Seung Hwan; Kang, Young-Hee; Lee, Jae-Yong; Lim, Soon Sung

    2017-03-24

    The purpose of this study was to assess the possibility of using competitive binding experiments with ultrafiltration-HPLC analysis to identify potent xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors from the Perilla frutescens extract as an attempt to reduce the number of false positive results. To isolate the enzyme-ligand complex from unbound compounds, the P. frutescens extract was either incubated in the absence of XO, in the presence of XO, or with the active site blocked XO before the ultrafiltration was performed. Allopurinaol was used as the XO active site blocker. The unbound compounds were subjected to HPLC analysis. The degree of total binding (TBD) and degree of specific binding (SBD) of each compound were calculated using the peak areas. TBD represents the binding affinities of compounds from the P. frutescens extract for the XO binding site. SBD represents the XO competitive binding between allopurinol and ligands from the extract samples. Two criteria were applied to select putative targets that could help avoid false positives. These include TBD>30% and SBD>10%. Using that approach, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, rosmarinic acid, methyl-rosmarinic acid, apigenin, and 4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone were identified, from total 11 compounds, as potent XO inhibitors. Finally, apigenin, 4',5,7-trimethoxyflavone, and luteolin were XO inhibitors verified through an XO inhibition assay and structural simulation of the complex. These results showed that the newly developed strategy has the advantage that the number of targets identified via ultrafiltration-HPLC can be narrowed from many false positives. However, not all false positives can be eliminated with this approach. Some potent inhibitors might also be excluded with the use of this method. The limitations of this method are also discussed herein. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Activity of xanthine oxidase in plasma correlates with indices of insulin resistance and liver dysfunction in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome: A pilot exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sunagawa, Sumito; Shirakura, Takashi; Hokama, Noboru; Kozuka, Chisayo; Yonamine, Masato; Namba, Toyotaka; Morishima, Satoko; Nakachi, Sawako; Nishi, Yukiko; Ikema, Tomomi; Okamoto, Shiki; Matsui, Chieko; Hase, Naoki; Tamura, Mizuho; Shimabukuro, Michio; Masuzaki, Hiroaki

    2018-06-03

    There is a controversy whether hyperuricemia is an independent risk for cardiometabolic diseases. Serum level of uric acid is affected by a wide variety of factors involved in its production and excretion. On the other hand, evidence has accumulated that locally and systemically activated xanthine oxidase (XO), a rate limiting enzyme for production of uric acid, is linked to metabolic derangement in humans and rodents. We therefore explored the clinical implication of plasma XO activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). We enrolled 60 patients with T2DM and MetS. MetS was defined according to the 2005 International Diabetes Federation guidelines. Plasma XO activity was measured by highly sensitive fluorometric assay measuring the conversion of pterin to isoxanthopterin, and explored associations between the value of plasma XO activity and metabolic parameters. Value of plasma XO activity was correlated with indices of insulin resistance and level of circulating liver transaminases. On the other hand, level of serum uric acid was not correlated with indices of insulin resistance. The value of plasma XO activity was not correlated with serum uric acid level. Plasma XO activity correlates with indices of insulin resistance and liver dysfunction in Japanese patients with T2DM and MetS. Through assessing the plasma XO activity, patients demonstrating normal level of serum uric acid with higher activity of XO can be screened, thereby possibly providing a clue to uncover metabolic risks in T2DM and MetS. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. Preventive Strategies for Contrast-Induced Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Procedures: Evidence From a Hierarchical Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis of 124 Trials and 28 240 Patients.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Daniele; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Buccheri, Sergio; Aruta, Patrizia; Byrne, Robert A; Cassese, Salvatore; Dangas, George; Kastrati, Adnan; Mehran, Roxana; Tamburino, Corrado; Capodanno, Davide

    2017-05-01

    The effectiveness of currently available effective preventive strategies for contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CIAKI) is a matter of debate. We performed a Bayesian random-effects network meta-analysis of 124 trials (28 240 patients) comparing a total of 10 strategies: saline, statin, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ), NAC+NaHCO 3 , ascorbic acid, xanthine, dopaminergic agent, peripheral ischemic preconditioning, and natriuretic peptide. Compared with saline, the risk of CIAKI was reduced by using statin (odds ratio [OR], 0.42; 95% credible interval [CrI], 0.26-0.67), xanthine (OR, 0.32; 95% CrI, 0.17-0.57), ischemic preconditioning (OR, 0.48; 95% CrI, 0.26-0.87), NAC+NaHCO 3 (OR, 0.50; 95% CrI, 0.33-0.76), NAC (OR, 0.68; 95% CrI, 0.55-0.84), and NaHCO 3 (OR, 0.66; 95% CrI, 0.47-0.90). The benefit of statin therapy was consistent across multiple sensitivity analyses, whereas the efficacy of all the other strategies was questioned by restricting the analysis to high-quality trials. Overall, high heterogeneity was observed for comparisons involving xanthine and ischemic preconditioning, although the impact of NAC and xanthine was probably influenced by publication bias/small-study effect. Hydration alone was the least effective preventive strategy for CIAKI. Meta-regressions did not reveal significant associations with baseline creatinine and contrast volume. In patients with diabetes mellitus, no strategy was found to reduce the incidence of CIAKI. In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary procedures, statin administration is associated with a marked and consistent reduction in the risk of CIAKI compared with saline. Although xanthine, NAC, NaHCO 3 , NAC+NaHCO 3 , ischemic preconditioning, and natriuretic peptide may have nephroprotective effects, these results were not consistent across multiple sensitivity analyses. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Two Distinct Pathways for Metabolism of Theophylline and Caffeine Are Coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria. PMID:19447909

  2. Hereditary xanthinuria and urolithiasis in a domestic shorthair cat

    PubMed Central

    Furman, E.; Hooijberg, E.H.; Leidinger, E.; Zedinger, C.; Giger, U.; Leidinger, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented with a history of hematuria, stranguria and intermittent urethral obstruction. Urine sediment showed hematuria, pyuria, and yellow-brown, amorphous and spherical crystals. Upon surgical correction of the obstructed urethra by perineal urethrostomy, many dark yellow to grey, irregular, gravel-like to millet grain-sized uroliths, consisting of 100% xanthine by crystallography were found. The urinary xanthine concentration was high. The cat subsequently developed bilateral nephroliths, recurrent urinary tract infection, and chronic kidney failure. Dietary management with a low-purine diet failed in part due to poor compliance, and the cat was euthanized at 6 years of age. Xanthinuria is rare inborn error of metabolism in cats and other species but should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of feline urolithiasis. No associated molecular genetic defect has been elucidated, and management of these cases is difficult. In the absence of calculi for analysis, measuring urinary xanthine concentration can help in diagnosing this metabolic defect. PMID:26478726

  3. Role of selective cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase inhibition in the myorelaxant actions of M&B 22,948, MY-5445, vinpocetine and 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-8-(methylamino)xanthine.

    PubMed Central

    Souness, J. E.; Brazdil, R.; Diocee, B. K.; Jordan, R.

    1989-01-01

    1. The mechanism by which M&B 22,948, MY-5445, vinpocetine and 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-8-(methylamino)xanthine (MIMAX), which have been described as selective cyclic GMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors, relax rat aorta was investigated. 2. Three cyclic nucleotide PDEs were identified in the soluble fraction of rat aorta; a Ca2+-insensitive form exhibiting substrate selectivity for cyclic GMP (cGMP PDE), a Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated form which also preferentially hydrolyzed cyclic GMP (Ca2+ PDE), and a form demonstrating substrate selectivity for cyclic AMP (cAMP PDE). 3. M&B 22,948 and MIMAX inhibited cGMP PDE (Ki = 0.16 microM and 0.43 microM, respectively) and Ca2+ PDE (Ki = 9.9 microM and 0.55 microM, respectively), but exhibited weak activity against cAMP PDE (Ki = 249 microM and 42 microM, respectively). MY-5445 selectivity inhibited cGMP PDE (Ki = 1.3 microM) and vinpocetine selectively inhibited Ca2+ PDE (Ki = 14 microM). 4. M&B 22,948 and MIMAX induced dose-dependent increases in the accumulation of cyclic GMP, but not cyclic AMP, in rat aorta pieces. These effects were greatly reduced by endothelial denudation and by methylene blue (5 microM) which blocks the actions of endothelium-derived relaxant factor. MY-5445 and vinpocetine had no effect on rat aorta cyclic GMP or cyclic AMP accumulation. 5. All four compounds caused dose-related relaxation of 5-hydroxytryptamine (10 microM) contracted, endothelium-intact rat aorta, the effects of M&B 22,948 and MIMAX being greatly reduced by methylene blue (5 microM). Methylene blue also caused 10 fold and 100 fold rightward shifts in the dose-response curves of MY-5445 and vinpocetine, respectively. 6. The results are consistent with the smooth muscle relaxant actions of M&B 22,948 and MIMAX, but not vinpocetine and MY-5445, being mediated through a mechanism involving inhibition of cyclic GMP hydrolysis. PMID:2480168

  4. Enzymatic oxidation of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetic acid and 2-phenylethanol with special reference to the metabolism of its intermediate phenylacetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I; Kouretas, Demetrios; Gounaris, Elias G; Beedham, Christine

    2004-12-01

    2-phenylethylamine is an endogenous constituent of the human brain and is implicated in cerebral transmission. This bioactive amine is also present in certain foodstuffs such as chocolate, cheese and wine and may cause undesirable side effects in susceptible individuals. Metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetaldehyde is catalysed by monoamine oxidase B but the oxidation to its acid is usually ascribed to aldehyde dehydrogenase and the contribution of aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, if any, is ignored. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of the molybdenum hydroxylases, aldehyde oxidase and xanthine oxidase, in the metabolism of phenylacetaldehyde derived from its parent biogenic amine. Treatments of 2-phenylethylamine with monoamine oxidase were carried out for the production of phenylacetaldehyde, as well as treatments of synthetic or enzymatic-generated phenylacetaldehyde with aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. The results indicated that phenylacetaldehyde is metabolised mainly to phenylacetic acid with lower concentrations of 2-phenylethanol by all three oxidising enzymes. Aldehyde dehydrogenase was the predominant enzyme involved in phenylacetaldehyde oxidation and thus it has a major role in 2-phenylethylamine metabolism with aldehyde oxidase playing a less prominent role. Xanthine oxidase does not contribute to the oxidation of phenylacetaldehyde due to low amounts being present in guinea pig. Thus aldehyde dehydrogenase is not the only enzyme oxidising xenobiotic and endobiotic aldehydes and the role of aldehyde oxidase in such reactions should not be ignored.

  5. Clonidine prevents enhancement of spinal sympathetic transmission by phosphodiesterase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Franz, D N; Madsen, P W

    1982-02-12

    Preganglionic sympathetic discharges, evoked by cervical stimulation in spinal cats, were rapidly and markedly enhanced for 1-2 h by aminophylline or isobutylmethylxanthine. Clonidine depressed intraspinal transmission and prevented enhancement by the xanthines; alpha 2-receptor antagonists blocked the effect of clonidine and not only restored but also markedly prolonged the enhancement by the xanthines. The results suggest that the excitability of sympathetic preganglionic neurons is regulated by cyclic AMP through activation of different subtypes of adrenergic receptors that are either positively or negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase.

  6. Metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetic acid, via the intermediate phenylacetaldehyde, by freshly prepared and cryopreserved guinea pig liver slices.

    PubMed

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2004-01-01

    2-Phenylethylamine is an endogenous amine, which acts as a neuromodulator of dopaminergic responses. Exogenous 2-phenylethylamine is found in certain foodstuffs and may cause toxic side-effects in susceptible individuals. The present investigation examined the metabolism of 2-phenylethylamine to phenylacetic acid, via phenylacetaldehyde, in freshly prepared and cryopreserved liver slices. Additionally, it compared the relative contribution of aldehyde oxidase, xanthine oxidase and aldehyde dehydrogenase by using specific inhibitors for each oxidizing enzyme. In freshly prepared and cryopreserved liver slices, phenylacetic acid was the main metabolite of 2-phenylethalamine. In freshly prepared liver slices, phenylacetic acid was completely inhibited by disulfiram (inhibitor of aldehyde dehydrogenase), whereas isovanillin (inhibitor of aldehyde oxidase) inhibited acid formation to a lesser extent and allopurinol (inhibitor of xanthine oxidase) had no effect. In cryopreserved liver slices, isovanillin inhibited phenylacetic acid by 85%, whereas disulfiram inhibited acid formation to a lesser extent and allopurinol had no effect. In liver slices, 2-phenylethylamine is rapidly oxidized to phenylacetic acid, via phenylacetaldehyde, by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase with no contribution from xanthine oxidase.

  7. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity.more » Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.« less

  8. Curcumin modulates free radical quenching in myocardial ischaemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Panchatcharam; Sumitra, Miriyala; Aishwarya, Srinivasan; Manohar, Bhakthavatsalam Murali; Lokanadam, Beema; Puvanakrishnan, Rengarajulu

    2004-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin (CUR) against isoprenaline induced myocardial ischaemia in rat myocardium. The effect of single oral dose of curcumin (15 mg kg(-1)), administered 30 min before and/or after the onset of ischaemia, was investigated by assessing oxidative stress related biochemical parameters in rat myocardium. Curcumin pre and post-treatment (PPT) was shown to decrease the levels of xanthine oxidase, superoxide anion, lipid peroxides (LPs) and myeloperoxidase while the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were significantly increased after curcumin PPT. Histopathological and transmission electron microscopical studies also confirmed the severe myocardial damage occurring as a consequence of isoprenaline induced ischaemia and they also showed the significant improvement effected by curcumin PPT. These findings provided evidence that curcumin was found to protect rat myocardium against ischaemic insult and the protective effect could be attributed to its antioxidant properties as well as its inhibitory effects on xanthine dehydrogenase/xanthine oxidase (XD/XO) conversion and resultant superoxide anion production.

  9. Antioxidant and antiradical properties of esculin, and its effect in a model of epirubicin-induced bone marrow toxicity.

    PubMed

    Biljali, Sefedin; Hadjimitova, Vera A; Topashka-Ancheva, Margarita N; Momekova, Denitsa B; Traykov, Trayko T; Karaivanova, Margarita H

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of esculin, a plant coumarin glucoside, on free radicals and against epirubicin-induced toxicity on bone marrow cells. Antioxidant activity was assessed by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence method or NBT test in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system, and two iron-dependent lipid peroxidation systems. In vivo experiments were carried out in epirubicin-treated mice, alone or in a combination with esculin. Genotoxicity of the anthracycline drug was assessed by cytogenetic analysis and an autoradiographic assay. Esculin inactivated superoxide anion radicals in both systems we used. It exerted SOD-mimetic effect and reduced the level of superoxide radicals generated in a xanthine-xanthine oxidase system by 30%. Esculin also showed an antioxidant effect in a model of Fe2+-induced lipid peroxidation. Cytogenetic analysis showed that epirubicin had a marked influence on the structure of metaphase chromosomes of normal bone marrow cells. Inclusion of esculin in the treatment protocol failed to ameliorate the epirubicin-induced antiproliferative effects and genotoxicity in bone marrow cells. In this study the ability of the coumarin glucoside esculin to scavenge superoxide radicals and to decrease Fe-induced lipid peroxidation was documented. However, despite the registered antioxidant effects the tested compound failed to exert cytoprotection in models of anthracycline-induced genotoxicity in bone marrow cells. The results of this study warrant for more precise further evaluation of esculin, employing different test systems and end-points and a wider range of doses to more precisely appraise its potential role as a chemoprotective/resque agent.

  10. SciTech Connect

    Cao, Hongnan; Pauff, James M.; Hille, Russ

    Xanthine oxidase is a molybdenum-containing enzyme catalyzing the hydroxylation of a sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon in a broad range of aromatic heterocycles and aldehydes. Crystal structures of the bovine enzyme in complex with the physiological substrate hypoxanthine at 1.8 {angstrom} resolution and the chemotherapeutic agent 6-mercaptopurine at 2.6 {angstrom} resolution have been determined, showing in each case two alternate orientations of substrate in the two active sites of the crystallographic asymmetric unit. One orientation is such that it is expected to yield hydroxylation at C-2 of substrate, yielding xanthine. The other suggests hydroxylation at C-8 to give 6,8-dihydroxypurine, a putative productmore » not previously thought to be generated by the enzyme. Kinetic experiments demonstrate that >98% of hypoxanthine is hydroxylated at C-2 rather than C-8, indicating that the second crystallographically observed orientation is significantly less catalytically effective than the former. Theoretical calculations suggest that enzyme selectivity for the C-2 over C-8 of hypoxanthine is largely due to differences in the intrinsic reactivity of the two sites. For the orientation of hypoxanthine with C-2 proximal to the molybdenum center, the disposition of substrate in the active site is such that Arg880 and Glu802, previous shown to be catalytically important for the conversion of xanthine to uric acid, play similar roles in hydroxylation at C-2 as at C-8. Contrary to the literature, we find that 6,8-dihydroxypurine is effectively converted to uric acid by xanthine oxidase.« less

  11. Glutarimide alkaloids and a terpenoid benzoquinone from Cordia globifera.

    PubMed

    Parks, Joshua; Gyeltshen, Thinley; Prachyawarakorn, Vilailak; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-05-28

    Three new compounds, a meroterpene (2) having a cyclopropane moiety named globiferane and glutarimide alkaloids named cordiarimides A (3) and B (4), were isolated from the roots of Cordia globifera. Compounds 2-4 exhibited weak cytotoxic activity. Cordiarimide B (4) exhibited radical scavenging activity, as it inhibited superoxide anion radical formation in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (XXO) assay, and also suppressed superoxide anion generation in differentiated HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells when induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). This is the first report on the presence of glutarimide alkaloids in the genus Cordia.

  12. Oxidation and detoxification of trivalent arsenic species.

    PubMed

    Aposhian, H Vasken; Zakharyan, Robert A; Avram, Mihaela D; Kopplin, Michael J; Wollenberg, Michael L

    2003-11-15

    Arsenic compounds with a +3 oxidation state are more toxic than analogous compounds with a +5 oxidation state, for example, arsenite versus arsenate, monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) versus monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)), and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) versus dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)). It is no longer believed that the methylation of arsenite is the beginning of a methylation-mediated detoxication pathway. The oxidation of these +3 compounds to their less toxic +5 analogs by hydrogen peroxide needs investigation and consideration as a potential mechanism for detoxification. Xanthine oxidase uses oxygen to oxidize hypoxanthine to xanthine to uric acid. Hydrogen peroxide and reactive oxygen are also products. The oxidation of +3 arsenicals by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the xanthine oxidase reaction was blocked by catalase or allopurinol but not by scavengers of the hydroxy radical, e.g., mannitol or potassium iodide. Melatonin, the singlet oxygen radical scavenger, did not inhibit the oxidation. The production of H2O2 by xanthine oxidase may be an important route for decreasing the toxicity of trivalent arsenic species by oxidizing them to their less toxic pentavalent analogs. In addition, there are many other reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide in the cell. Although chemists have used hydrogen peroxide for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate to purify water, we are not aware of any published account of its potential importance in the detoxification of trivalent arsenicals in biological systems. At present, this oxidation of the +3 oxidation state arsenicals is based on evidence from in vitro experiments. In vivo experiments are needed to substantiate the role and importance of H2O2 in arsenic detoxication in mammals.

  13. Doxofylline does not increase formoterol-induced cAMP nor MKP-1 expression in ASM cells resulting in lack of anti-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Patel, Brijeshkumar S; Kugel, Michael J; Baehring, Gina; Ammit, Alaina J

    2017-08-01

    The xanthine doxofylline has been examined in clinical trials and shown to have efficacy and greater tolerability than theophylline in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The 'novofylline' doxofylline has demonstrated bronchodilatory and anti-inflammatory actions in in vivo and ex vivo experimental models of respiratory disease. However, there are limited studies in vitro. We address this herein and examine whether doxofylline has anti-inflammatory impact on primary cultures of airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells. We conduct a series of investigations comparing and contrasting doxofylline with the archetypal xanthine, theophylline, and the specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 inhibitor, cilomilast. We confirm that the xanthine drugs do not have action as PDE inhibitors in ASM cells. Unlike cilomilast, doxofylline (and theophylline) do not increase cAMP production in ASM cells induced by long-acting β 2 -agonist formoterol. Similar to theophylline, and consistent with the lack of cAMP potentiation, doxofylline does not augment formoterol-induced upregulation of the anti-inflammatory protein mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 1 (MKP-1). However, when we examine the effect of doxofylline on secretion of the interleukin 8 from ASM cells stimulated by tumour necrosis factor (an in vitro surrogate measure of inflammation), there was no repression of inflammation. This is in contrast to the anti-inflammatory impact exerted by theophylline and cilomilast in confirmatory experiments. In summary, our study is the first to examine the effect of doxofylline on ASM cells in vitro and highlights some distinct differences between two key members of xanthine drug family, doxofylline and theophylline. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Antioxidant effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts on the male reproductive function of boars and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Yun, Suk Jun; Bae, Gui-Seck; Park, Jae Hawn; Song, Tae Ho; Choi, Ahreum; Ryu, Buom-Yong; Pang, Myung-Geol; Kim, Eun Joong; Yoon, Minjung; Chang, Moon Baek

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of cultured wild ginseng root extracts (cWGRE) on the sperm of boars and the reproductive system of guinea pigs. Firstly, semen collected from boars (n=10) were incubated in 38°C for 1h with xanthine and xanthine oxidase to generate ROS. The cWGRE was added to the sperm culture system to test its antioxidant effect on the boar sperm. The amount of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) was measured by a chemiluminescence assay using luminol. The results indicated that the addition of cWGRE to boar sperm culture inhibited xanthine and xanthine oxidase-induced ROS concentrations. Treatment with cWGRE also had a positive effect on maintaining sperm motility. Effects of cWGRE administration on vitamin C-deficient guinea pigs were further investigated. Hartley guinea pigs (n=25) at 8 weeks of age were randomly divided into five groups. With the exception of the positive control group, each group was fed vitamin C-deficient feed for 21days (d). Respective groups were also orally administered cWGRE, ginseng extract, or mixed ginsenosides for 21 days. In comparison to the control group, oral administration of cWGRE reduced (P<0.05) amount of lipid peroxidation and increased (P<0.05) both glutathione peroxidase concentrations and the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity. In addition, administration of cWGRE induced increases (P<0.05) in body weight, testosterone concentrations, and spermatid populations. The results of the present study support our hypothesis that cWGRE has positive effects on male reproductive functions via suppression of ROS production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum) and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42). Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise. PMID:23173926

  16. Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Safranow, Krzysztof; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2005-05-25

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet detection has been developed for the analysis of purines in urinary calculi. The method using gradient of methanol concentration and pH was able to separate 16 compounds: uric acid, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, xanthine, hypoxanthine, allopurinol and oxypurinol as well as 10 methyl derivatives of uric acid or xanthine (1-, 3-, 7- and 9-methyluric acid, 1,3-, 1,7- and 3,7-dimethyluric acid, 1-, 3- and 7-methylxanthine). Limits of detection for individual compounds ranged from 0.006 to 0.035 mg purine/g of the stone weight and precision (CV%) was 0.5-2.4%. The method enabled us to detect in human uric acid stones admixtures of nine other purine derivatives: natural metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and methylated purines (1-, 3- and 7-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3- and 7-methylxanthine) originating from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). The method allows simultaneous quantitation of all known purine constituents of urinary stones, including methylated purines, and may be used as a reference one for diagnosing disorders of purine metabolism and research on the pathogenesis of urolithiasis.

  17. Consequence of the antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effects of various extracts from the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ferulae

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Jae Seong; Cho, Hae Jin; Lee, Tae Soo

    2011-01-01

    This study was initiated to screen the antioxidant activities, tyrosinase inhibitory effects on the fruiting bodies of Pleurotus ferulae extracted with acetone, methanol and hot water. The antioxidant activities were performed on β-carotene–linoleic acid, reducing power, DPPH, ferrous ions chelating abilities, and xanthine oxidase. In addition to this, phenolic compounds were also analyzed. The methanolic extract showed the strongest β-carotene–linoleic acid inhibition and high reducing power as compared to other extracts. The scavenging effects on DPPH radicals, the acetonic and methanolic extracts were more effective than hot water extracts. The strongest chelating effect was obtained from the methanolic extract as compared to the tested synthetic antioxidant. Gallic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, naringin, resveratrol, naringenin, hesperetin, formononetin and biochanin-A were detected from acetonitrile and hydrochloric acid (5:1) solvent extract. Xanthine oxidase and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of acetonic, methanolic, and hot water extracts of P. ferulae increased with increasing concentration. The results suggested that consumption of P. ferulae might be beneficial to the antioxidant, xanthine oxidase, and tyrosinase protection system of the human body against oxidative damage and others complications. PMID:23961169

  18. Moricandia arvensis extracts protect against DNA damage, mutagenesis in bacteria system and scavenge the superoxide anion.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Neffati, Aicha; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Ghedira-Chekir, Leila

    2009-02-01

    The mutagenic potential of total aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), petroleum ether (PE) and methanol (MeOH) extracts from aerial parts of Moricandia arvensis was assessed using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA100 and TA1535 with and without metabolic activation (S9), and using plasmid pBluescript DNA assay. None of the different extracts produced a mutagenic effect, except aqueous extract when incubated with Salmonella typhimurium TA100 after metabolic activation. Likewise, the antimutagenicity of the same extracts was tested using the "Ames test". Our results showed that M. arvensis extracts possess antimutagenic effects against sodium azide (SA) in the two tested Salmonella assay systems, except metabolized aqueous and PE extracts when tested with S. typhimurium TA100 assay system. Different extracts were also found to be effective in protecting plasmid DNA against the strand breakage induced by hydroxyl radicals, except PE and aqueous extracts. Antioxidant capacity of the tested extracts was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) (X/XOD) and the non enzymatic (NBT/Riboflavine assay) systems. TOF extract was the more effective one in inhibiting both xanthine oxidase activity and NBT reduction.

  19. [Mechanism of the diuretic effect of eufillin].

    PubMed

    Kantariia, V A; Lebedev, A A

    1975-01-01

    In acute experiments on rats the xanthine diuretic euphylline did not block the short-circuited current in the proximal tubule, nor did it lower the transtubular potential and the transepithelial resistance of the nephron wall. The diuretic speeded up significantly the passage of the tubular fluid along the proximal region of the nephron and Henle's loop. The dihydroergotoxin and inderal blocking of adrenoreceptors did not produce any influence on the renal effects of the xanthine agent. Reserpine totally blocked the diuretic and saluretic effects of euphylline, whereas other sympatholytics, such as alpha-methyl-dofa, anthabus and hemedin, did not modify the action of the diuretic.

  20. Mechanisms involved in gastric protection of melatonin against oxidant stress by ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, J; Motilva, V; Martín, M J; de la Lastra, C A

    2001-02-09

    The generation of oxygen-derived free radicals has been suggested to be significantly responsible for ischemia-reperfusion injury in gastrointestinal tissues. Biochemical mechanisms include the xanthine-oxidase-derived oxidants mainly the superoxide anion. Both in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that the pineal hormone melatonin possesses free radical scavenging and antioxidant properties. The indolamine has been effective in reducing the induced-oxidative damage in several tissues and biological systems. The aim of this study was to elucidate additional antioxidant mechanisms responsible for the gastroprotection afforded by the indolamine in ischemia-reperfusion gastric injury. Therefore, changes of related enzymes such as xanthine-oxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase and total glutathione were investigated. Our results showed that treatment with 5, 10 or 20 mg kg(-1) of melatonin, administered i.p., clearly diminished the percentage of damage to 49.56 +/- 17.20, 37.54 +/- 11.40 and 26.70 +/- 8.12 respectively. Histologically there was a reduction of exfoliation of superficial cells and blood cell infiltration. These protective effects were related to a significant reduction of xanthine-oxidase activity (2.23 +/- 0.38 U/mg prot x 10(-4) with the highest tested dose of melatonin) and significant increases in superoxide dismutase reaching a value of 6.20 +/- 0.56 U/mg prot with 25 mg/Kg of melatonin and glutation reductase activities (417.44 +/- 29.72 and 649.43 +/- 81.11 nmol/min/mg prot with 10 and 20 mg/Kg of melatonin). We conclude that the free radical scavenger properties of melatonin mainly of the superoxide anion, probably derived via the xanthine-oxidase pathway, and the increase of antioxidative enzymes significantly contributes to mediating the protection by the hormone against ischemia-reperfusion gastric injury.

  1. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products system in women with severe preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Emily A; Buhimschi, Catalin S; Dulay, Antonette T; Baumbusch, Margaret A; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya S; Lee, Sarah Y; Zhao, Guomao; Jing, Shichu; Pettker, Christian M; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2011-03-01

    Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) mediates cellular injury. Soluble forms of RAGE [soluble RAGE (sRAGE), endogenous secretory (esRAGE)] bind RAGE ligands, thereby preventing downstream signaling and damage. The objective of the study was to characterize the changes in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, and cord blood soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) during physiological gestation and to provide insight into mechanisms responsible for RAGE activation in preeclampsia. This was a cross-sectional study at a tertiary university hospital. We studied 135 women in the following groups: nonpregnant controls (n = 16), healthy pregnant controls (n = 68), pregnant women with chronic hypertension (n = 13), or pregnant women with severe preeclampsia (sPE; n = 38). sRAGE and esRAGE levels were evaluated in vivo by ELISA in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, and cord blood and in vitro after stimulation of the amniochorion and placental explants with lipopolysaccharide or xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Placenta and amniochorion were immunostained for RAGE. Real-time quantitative PCR measured RAGE mRNA. Pregnant women had significantly decreased serum sRAGE compared with nonpregnant subjects (P < 0.001). sPE women had higher serum and amniotic fluid sRAGE and esRAGE relative to those expected for gestational age (P < 0.001). Cord blood sRAGE remained unaffected by sPE. RAGE immunoreactivity and mRNA expression appeared elevated in the amniochorion of sPE women. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase (but not lipopolysaccharide) significantly up-regulated the release of sRAGE (P < 0.001) in the amniochorion explant system. Fetal membranes are a rich source of sRAGE. Elevated maternal serum and amniotic fluid sRAGE and esRAGE, paralleled by increased RAGE expression in the amniochorion, suggest activation of this system in sPE.

  2. Uric acid, an important screening tool to detect inborn errors of metabolism: a case series.

    PubMed

    Jasinge, Eresha; Kularatnam, Grace Angeline Malarnangai; Dilanthi, Hewa Warawitage; Vidanapathirana, Dinesha Maduri; Jayasena, Kandana Liyanage Subhashinie Priyadarshika Kapilani Menike; Chandrasiri, Nambage Dona Priyani Dhammika; Indika, Neluwa Liyanage Ruwan; Ratnayake, Pyara Dilani; Gunasekara, Vindya Nandani; Fairbanks, Lynette Dianne; Stiburkova, Blanka

    2017-09-06

    Uric acid is the metabolic end product of purine metabolism in humans. Altered serum and urine uric acid level (both above and below the reference ranges) is an indispensable marker in detecting rare inborn errors of metabolism. We describe different case scenarios of 4 Sri Lankan patients related to abnormal uric acid levels in blood and urine. CASE 1: A one-and-half-year-old boy was investigated for haematuria and a calculus in the bladder. Xanthine crystals were seen in microscopic examination of urine sediment. Low uric acid concentrations in serum and low urinary fractional excretion of uric acid associated with high urinary excretion of xanthine and hypoxanthine were compatible with xanthine oxidase deficiency. CASE 2: An 8-month-old boy presented with intractable seizures, feeding difficulties, screaming episodes, microcephaly, facial dysmorphism and severe neuro developmental delay. Low uric acid level in serum, low fractional excretion of uric acid and radiological findings were consistent with possible molybdenum cofactor deficiency. Diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of xanthine, hypoxanthine and sulfocysteine levels in urine. CASE 3: A 3-year-10-month-old boy presented with global developmental delay, failure to thrive, dystonia and self-destructive behaviour. High uric acid levels in serum, increased fractional excretion of uric acid and absent hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase enzyme level confirmed the diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. CASE 4: A 9-year-old boy was investigated for lower abdominal pain, gross haematuria and right renal calculus. Low uric acid level in serum and increased fractional excretion of uric acid pointed towards hereditary renal hypouricaemia which was confirmed by genetic studies. Abnormal uric acid level in blood and urine is a valuable tool in screening for clinical conditions related to derangement of the nucleic acid metabolic pathway.

  3. Urate synthesis and oxidative stress in phenytoin hepatotoxicity: the role of antioxidant vitamins.

    PubMed

    Ekaidem, Itemobong S; Usoh, Itoro F; Akpanabiatu, Monday I; Uboh, Friday E; Akpan, Henry D

    2014-11-01

    Phenytoin is known to induce microsomal enzymes including xanthine oxidase which catalyzes uric acid synthesis with superoxides as byproducts, thus contributing to the oxidative stress of phenytoin hepatotoxicity. To investigate the role of antioxidant vitamins in ameliorating phenytoin induced hepatic changes through possible actions on xanthine oxidase activities as measured by urate concentration. Growing albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 8 groups of 7 rats each. Group 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were treated with phenytoin alone, phenytoin + folic acid, phenytoin + vitamin E, phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C, phenytoin + vitamin C, phenytoin + folic acid + vitamin E and phenytoin + vitamin E + vitamin C + folic acid respectively while animals in group 1 were given normal saline to serve as control. Serum concentrations of uric acid, albumin, total protein and the activities of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST and ALT) and catalase were measured spectrophotometrically using appropriate commercial reagent kits. Result showed that administration of phenytoin alone caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum levels of globulin, uric acid, AST and ALT activities while the levels of albumin and catalase were reduced significantly (p < 0.05). Supplementation of phenytoin treatment with vitamins resulted in various degrees of protection. However, the elevated level of uric acid in serum was not significantly (p < 0.05) affected by any of the vitamins used and there was no significant correlation between the activities of aminotransferases and uric acid concentration in the vitamin treated animals as was observed between aminotransferases and catalase. The findings in this study suggest that antioxidant vitamins were able to ameliorate phenytoin hepatotoxic effects by improving oxidant radicals removal in the animals but would not inhibit further generation of the superoxides by xanthine oxidase activity and that xanthine oxidase may

  4. Involvement of the chloroplast plastoquinone pool in the Mehler reaction.

    PubMed

    Vetoshkina, Daria V; Ivanov, Boris N; Khorobrykh, Sergey A; Proskuryakov, Ivan I; Borisova-Mubarakshina, Maria M

    2017-09-01

    Light-dependent oxygen reduction in the photosynthetic electron transfer chain, i.e. the Mehler reaction, has been studied using isolated pea thylakoids. The role of the plastoquinone pool in the Mehler reaction was investigated in the presence of dinitrophenyl ether of 2-iodo-4-nitrothymol (DNP-INT), the inhibitor of plastohydroquinone oxidation by cytochrome b6/f complex. Oxygen reduction rate in the presence of DNP-INT was higher than in the absence of the inhibitor in low light at pH 6.5 and 7.6, showing that the capacity of the plastoquinone pool to reduce molecular oxygen in this case exceeded that of the entire electron transfer chain. In the presence of DNP-INT, appearance of superoxide anion radicals outside thylakoid membrane represented approximately 60% of the total superoxide anion radicals produced. The remaining 40% of the produced superoxide anion radicals was suggested to be trapped by plastohydroquinone molecules within thylakoid membrane, leading to the formation of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). To validate the reaction of superoxide anion radical with plastohydroquinone, xanthine/xanthine oxidase system was integrated with thylakoid membrane in order to generate superoxide anion radical in close vicinity of plastohydroquinone. Addition of xanthine/xanthine oxidase to the thylakoid suspension resulted in a decrease in the reduction level of the plastoquinone pool in the light. The obtained data provide additional clarification of the aspects that the plastoquinone pool is involved in both reduction of oxygen to superoxide anion radicals and reduction of superoxide anion radicals to H 2 O 2 . Significance of the plastoquinone pool involvement in the Mehler reaction for the acclimation of plants to light conditions is discussed. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E; Ortiz, Rudy M

    2012-05-01

    Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1-2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species.

  6. Prolonged fasting increases purine recycling in post-weaned northern elephant seals

    PubMed Central

    Soñanez-Organis, José Guadalupe; Vázquez-Medina, José Pablo; Zenteno-Savín, Tania; Aguilar, Andres; Crocker, Daniel E.; Ortiz, Rudy M.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Northern elephant seals are naturally adapted to prolonged periods (1–2 months) of absolute food and water deprivation (fasting). In terrestrial mammals, food deprivation stimulates ATP degradation and decreases ATP synthesis, resulting in the accumulation of purines (ATP degradation byproducts). Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) salvages ATP by recycling the purine degradation products derived from xanthine oxidase (XO) metabolism, which also promotes oxidant production. The contributions of HGPRT to purine recycling during prolonged food deprivation in marine mammals are not well defined. In the present study we cloned and characterized the complete and partial cDNA sequences that encode for HGPRT and xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) in northern elephant seals. We also measured XO protein expression and circulating activity, along with xanthine and hypoxanthine plasma content in fasting northern elephant seal pups. Blood, adipose and muscle tissue samples were collected from animals after 1, 3, 5 and 7 weeks of their natural post-weaning fast. The complete HGPRT and partial XOR cDNA sequences are 771 and 345 bp long and encode proteins of 218 and 115 amino acids, respectively, with conserved domains important for their function and regulation. XOR mRNA and XO protein expression increased 3-fold and 1.7-fold with fasting, respectively, whereas HGPRT mRNA (4-fold) and protein (2-fold) expression increased after 7 weeks in adipose tissue and muscle. Plasma xanthine (3-fold) and hypoxanthine (2.5-fold) levels, and XO (1.7- to 20-fold) and HGPRT (1.5- to 1.7-fold) activities increased during the last 2 weeks of fasting. Results suggest that prolonged fasting in elephant seal pups is associated with increased capacity to recycle purines, which may contribute to ameliorating oxidant production and enhancing the supply of ATP, both of which would be beneficial during prolonged food deprivation and appear to be adaptive in this species. PMID

  7. Purine-related metabolites and their converting enzymes are altered in frontal, parietal and temporal cortex at early stages of Alzheimer's disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Andrés, Patricia; Albasanz, José Luis; Ferrer, Isidro; Martín, Mairena

    2018-01-24

    Adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanosine and inosine levels were assessed by HPLC, and the activity of related enzymes 5'-nucleotidase (5'-NT), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) measured in frontal (FC), parietal (PC) and temporal (TC) cortices at different stages of disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in age-matched controls. Significantly decreased levels of adenosine, guanosine, hypoxanthine and xanthine, and apparently less inosine, are found in FC from the early stages of AD; PC and TC show an opposing pattern, as adenosine, guanosine and inosine are significantly increased at least at determinate stages of AD whereas hypoxanthine and xanthine levels remain unaltered. 5'-NT is reduced in membranes and cytosol in FC mainly at early stages but not in PC, and only at advanced stages in cytosol in TC. ADA activity is decreased in AD when considered as a whole but increased at early stages in TC. Finally, PNP activity is increased only in TC at early stages. Purine metabolism alterations occur at early stages of AD independently of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques. Alterations are stage dependent and region dependent, the latter showing opposite patterns in FC compared with PC and TC. Adenosine is the most affected of the assessed purines. © 2018 International Society of Neuropathology.

  8. Specificity and Catalytic Mechanism in Family 5 Uracil DNA Glycosylase*

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Bo; Liu, Yinling; Li, Wei; Brice, Allyn R.; Dominy, Brian N.; Cao, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    UDGb belongs to family 5 of the uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) superfamily. Here, we report that family 5 UDGb from Thermus thermophilus HB8 is not only a uracil DNA glycosyase acting on G/U, T/U, C/U, and A/U base pairs, but also a hypoxanthine DNA glycosylase acting on G/I, T/I, and A/I base pairs and a xanthine DNA glycosylase acting on all double-stranded and single-stranded xanthine-containing DNA. Analysis of potentials of mean force indicates that the tendency of hypoxanthine base flipping follows the order of G/I > T/I, A/I > C/I, matching the trend of hypoxanthine DNA glycosylase activity observed in vitro. Genetic analysis indicates that family 5 UDGb can also act as an enzyme to remove uracil incorporated into DNA through the existence of dUTP in the nucleotide pool. Mutational analysis coupled with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics analysis reveals that although hydrogen bonding to O2 of uracil underlies the UDG activity in a dissociative fashion, Tth UDGb relies on multiple catalytic residues to facilitate its excision of hypoxanthine and xanthine. This study underscores the structural and functional diversity in the UDG superfamily. PMID:24838246

  9. Lesinurad for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in people with gout.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Philip C; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-12-01

    Gout is a common form of inflammatory arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals. The central strategy for effective long-term management of gout is serum urate lowering. Current urate-lowering drugs include both xanthine oxidase inhibitors and uricosuric agents. Lesinurad is a URAT1 inhibitor that selectively inhibits urate rebsorption at the proximal renal tubule. Lesinurad 200mg daily in combination with a xanthine oxidase is approved for urate-lowering therapy in patients with gout. Areas covered: The published literature was searched using Pubmed and additional information was obtained from publically available regulatory documents. Pre-clinical data and clinical trials of lesinurad are described. Serum urate-lowering efficacy and effects on other clinical endpoints are discussed. Adverse event data, focusing on renal safety are also presented. Expert opinion: Lesinurad is an effective urate-lowering drug that has a generally acceptable safety profile when used at 200mg daily dosing in combination with a xanthine oxidase inhibitor. The recent approval of fixed dose combination pills of lesinurad with allopurinol is an important step in improving adherence and reducing risk of renal adverse events. It remains to be seen if this therapy will provide additional benefit for gout management above improved use of widely available generic therapies.

  10. Free radical scavenging activities of yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) measured by electron spin resonance.

    PubMed

    Kusar, A; Zupancic, A; Sentjurc, M; Baricevic, D

    2006-10-01

    Yellow gentian (Gentiana lutea L.) is a herbal species with a long-term use in traditional medicine due to its digestive and stomachic properties. This paper presents an investigation of the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of yellow gentian leaves and roots in two different systems using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometry. Assays were based on the stable free radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the superoxide radicals (O2*-) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system. The results of gentian methanolic extracts were compared with the antioxidant capacity of synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). This study proves that yellow gentian leaves and roots exhibit considerable antioxidant properties, expressed either by their capability to scavenge DPPH or superoxide radicals.

  11. Regulation of Purine Metabolism in Intact Leaves of Coffea arabica.

    PubMed

    Nazario, G. M.; Lovatt, C. J.

    1993-12-01

    The capacity of Coffea arabica leaves (5- x 5-mm pieces) to synthesize de novo and catabolize purine nucleotides to provide precursors for caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) was investigated. Consistent with de novo synthesis, glycine, bicarbonate, and formate were incorporated into the purine ring of inosine 5[prime]-monophosphate (IMP) and adenine nucleotides ([sigma]Ade); azaserine, a known inhibitor of purine de novo synthesis, inhibited incorporation. Activity of the de novo pathway in C. arabica per g fresh weight of leaf tissue during a 3-h incubation period was 8 [plus or minus] 4 nmol of formate incorporated into IMP, 61 [plus or minus] 7 nmol into [sigma]Ade, and 150 nmol into caffeine (the latter during a 7-h incubation). Coffee leaves exhibited classical purine catabolism. Radiolabeled formate, inosine, adenosine, and adenine were incorporated into hypoxanthine and xanthine, which were catabolized to allantoin and urea. Urease activity was demonstrated. Per g fresh weight, coffee leaf squares incorporated 90 [plus or minus] 22 nmol of xanthine into caffeine in 7 h but degraded 102 [plus or minus] 1 nmol of xanthine to allantoin in 3 h. Feedback control of de novo purine biosynthesis was contrasted in C. arabica and Cucurbita pepo, a species that does not synthesize purine alkaloids. End-product inhibition was demonstrated to occur in both species but at different enzyme reactions.

  12. Characterization of "mini-nucleotides" as P2X receptor agonists in rat cardiomyocyte cultures. An integrated synthetic, biochemical, and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Fischer, B; Yefidoff, R; Major, D T; Rutman-Halili, I; Shneyvays, V; Zinman, T; Jacobson, K A; Shainberg, A

    1999-07-15

    The design and synthesis of "mini-nucleotides", based on a xanthine-alkyl phosphate scaffold, are described. The physiological effects of the new compounds were evaluated in rat cardiac cell culture regarding Ca(2+) elevation and contractility. The results indicate biochemical and physiological profiles similar to those of ATP, although at higher concentrations. The biological target molecules of these "mini-nucleotides" were identified by using selective P2-R and A(1)-R antagonists and P2-R subtype selective agonists. On the basis of these results and of experiments in Ca(2+) free medium, in which [Ca(2+)](i) elevation was not observed, we concluded that interaction of the analogues is likely with P2X receptor subtypes, which causes Ca(2+) influx. Theoretical calculations analyzing electronic effects within the series of xanthine-alkyl phosphates were performed on reduced models at quantum mechanical levels. Calculated dipole moment vectors, electrostatic potential maps, and volume parameters suggest an explanation for the activity or inactivity of the synthesized derivatives and predict a putative binding site environment for the active agonists. Xanthine-alkyl phosphate analogues proved to be selective agents for activation of P2X-R subtypes, whereas ATP activated all P2-R subtypes in cardiac cells. Therefore, these analogues may serve as prototypes of selective drugs aiming at cardiac disorders mediated through P2X receptors.

  13. Potential Pharmacologic Treatments for Cystinuria and for Calcium Stones Associated with Hyperuricosuria

    SciTech Connect

    Goldfarb, David S.

    Two new potential pharmacologic therapies for recurrent stone disease are described. The role of hyperuricosuria in promoting calcium stones is controversial with only some but not all epidemiologic studies demonstrating associations between increasing urinary uric acid excretion and calcium stone disease. The relationship is supported by the ability of uric acid to 'salt out' (or reduce the solubility of) calcium oxalate in vitro. A randomized, controlled trial of allopurinol in patients with hyperuricosuria and normocalciuria was also effective in preventing recurrent stones. Febuxostat, a nonpurine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase (also known as xanthine dehydrogenase or xanthine oxidoreductase) may have advantagesmore » over allopurinol and is being tested in a similar protocol, with the eventual goal of determining whether urate-lowering therapy prevents recurrent calcium stones. Treatments for cystinuria have advanced little in the past 30 years. Atomic force microscopy has been used recently to demonstrate that effective inhibition of cystine crystal growth is accomplished at low concentrations of L-cystine methyl ester and L-cystine dimethyl ester, structural analogs of cystine that provide steric inhibition of crystal growth. In vitro, L-cystine dimethyl ester had a significant inhibitory effect on crystal growth. The drug's safety and effectiveness will be tested in an Slc3a1 knockout mouse that serves as an animal model of cystinuria.« less

  14. Mendelian randomization analysis associates increased serum urate, due to genetic variation in uric acid transporters, with improved renal function.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya; de Zoysa, Janak; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-02-01

    Increased serum urate predicts chronic kidney disease independent of other risk factors. The use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors coincides with improved renal function. Whether this is due to reduced serum urate or reduced production of oxidants by xanthine oxidase or another physiological mechanism remains unresolved. Here we applied Mendelian randomization, a statistical genetics approach allowing disentangling of cause and effect in the presence of potential confounding, to determine whether lowering of serum urate by genetic modulation of renal excretion benefits renal function using data from 7979 patients of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities and Framingham Heart studies. Mendelian randomization by the two-stage least squares method was done with serum urate as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and estimated glomerular filtration rate and serum creatinine as the outcomes. Increased genetic risk score was associated with significantly improved renal function in men but not in women. Analysis of individual genetic variants showed the effect size associated with serum urate did not correlate with that associated with renal function in the Mendelian randomization model. This is consistent with the possibility that the physiological action of these genetic variants in raising serum urate correlates directly with improved renal function. Further studies are required to understand the mechanism of the potential renal function protection mediated by xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

  15. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Badtke, Piotr; Zajączkowski, Miłosz A.; Flis, Damian J.; Figarski, Adam; Smolińska-Bylańska, Maria; Wierzba, Tomasz H.

    2018-01-01

    Background It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear. Aim The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. Material and methods 16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g): control-untreated (N = 8) and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (N = 8), were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h) in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression). Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi), SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), frequency-domain parameters (FFT method): TSP (total spectral power) as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF). At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione

  16. Promising effects of xanthine oxidase inhibition by allopurinol on autonomic heart regulation estimated by heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in rats exposed to hypoxia and hyperoxia.

    PubMed

    Zajączkowski, Stanisław; Ziółkowski, Wiesław; Badtke, Piotr; Zajączkowski, Miłosz A; Flis, Damian J; Figarski, Adam; Smolińska-Bylańska, Maria; Wierzba, Tomasz H

    2018-01-01

    It has long been suggested that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a role in oxygen sensing via peripheral chemoreceptors, which would imply their involvement in chemoreflex activation and autonomic regulation of heart rate. We hypothesize that antioxidant affect neurogenic cardiovascular regulation through activation of chemoreflex which results in increased control of sympathetic mechanism regulating heart rhythm. Activity of xanthine oxidase (XO), which is among the major endogenous sources of ROS in the rat has been shown to increase during hypoxia promote oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of how XO inhibition affects neurogenic regulation of heart rhythm is still unclear. The study aimed to evaluate effects of allopurinol-driven inhibition of XO on autonomic heart regulation in rats exposed to hypoxia followed by hyperoxia, using heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. 16 conscious male Wistar rats (350 g): control-untreated (N = 8) and pretreated with Allopurinol-XO inhibitor (5 mg/kg, followed by 50 mg/kg), administered intraperitoneally (N = 8), were exposed to controlled hypobaric hypoxia (1h) in order to activate chemoreflex. The treatment was followed by 1h hyperoxia (chemoreflex suppression). Time-series of 1024 RR-intervals were extracted from 4kHz ECG recording for heart rate variability (HRV) analysis in order to calculate the following time-domain parameters: mean RR interval (RRi), SDNN (standard deviation of all normal NN intervals), rMSSD (square root of the mean of the squares of differences between adjacent NN intervals), frequency-domain parameters (FFT method): TSP (total spectral power) as well as low and high frequency band powers (LF and HF). At the end of experiment we used rat plasma to evaluate enzymatic activity of XO and markers of oxidative stress: protein carbonyl group and 8-isoprostane concentrations. Enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measures in

  17. Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC essential oil: chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and enzyme inhibition properties.

    PubMed

    Mosbah, Habib; Chahdoura, Hassiba; Kammoun, Jannet; Hlila, Malek Besbes; Louati, Hanen; Hammami, Saoussen; Flamini, Guido; Achour, Lotfi; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2018-03-05

    α-glucosidase is a therapeutic target for diabetes mellitus (DM) and α-glucosidase inhibitors play a vital role in the treatments for the disease. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) is a key enzyme that catalyzes hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid which at high levels can lead to hyperuricemia which is an important cause of gout. Pancreatic lipase (PL) secreted into the duodenum plays a key role in the digestion and absorption of fats. For its importance in lipid digestion, PL represents an attractive target for obesity prevention. The flowers essential oil of Rhaponticum acaule (L) DC (R. acaule) was characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activities of R. acaule essential oil (RaEO) were also determined using 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS), reducing power, phosphomolybdenum, and DNA nicking assays. The inhibitory power of RaEO against α-glucosidase, xanthine oxidase and pancreatic lipase was evaluated. Enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and the derived Lineweaver-Burk (LB) plots were performed to understand the possible mechanism of inhibition exercised by the components of this essential oil. The result revealed the presence of 26 compounds (97.4%). The main constituents include germacrene D (49.2%), methyl eugenol (8.3%), (E)-β-ionone (6.2%), β-caryophyllene (5.7%), (E,E)-α-farnesene (4.2%), bicyclogermacrene (4.1%) and (Z)-α-bisabolene (3.7%). The kinetic inhibition study showed that the essential oil demonstrated a strong α-glucosidase inhibiton and it was a mixed inhibitor. On the other hand, our results evidenced that this oil exhibited important xanthine oxidase inhibitory effect, behaving as a non-competitive inhibitor. The essential oil inhibited the turkey pancreatic lipase, with maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 2 mg/mL. Furthermore, the inhibition of turkey pancreatic lipase by RaEO was an irreversible one. The results revealed that the RaEO is a new

  18. Oxidative stress induces protein and DNA radical formation in follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) of the germinal center and modulates its cell death patterns in late sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Saurabh; Lardinois, Olivier; Bhattacharjee, Suchandra; Tucker, Jeff; Corbett, Jean; Deterding, Leesa; Ehrenshaft, Marilyn; Bonini, Marcelo; Mason, Ronald P.

    2011-01-01

    Profound depletion of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) is a hallmark of sepsis-like syndrome, but the exact causes for the ensuing cell death are unknown. The cell death-driven depletion contributes to immunoparalysis and is responsible for most of the morbidity and mortality in sepsis. Here we have utilized immuno-spin trapping, a method for detection of free radical formation, to detect oxidative stress-induced protein and DNA radical adducts in FDCs isolated from the spleen of septic mice and human tonsil-derived HK cells, a subtype of germinal center FDCs, to study their role in FDC depletion. At 24 h post-LPS administration, protein radical formation and oxidation was significantly elevated in vivo and in HK cells as shown by ELISA and confocal microscopy. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol and the iron chelator desferrioxamine significantly decreased the formation of protein radicals, suggesting the role of xanthine oxidase and Fenton-like chemistry in radical formation. Protein and DNA radical formation correlated mostly with apoptotic features at 24 h and necrotic morphology of all the cell types studied at 48 h with concomitant inhibition of caspase-3. The cytotoxity of FDCs resulted in decreased CD45R/CD138+ve plasma cell numbers, indicating a possible defect in B cell differentiation. In one such mechanism, radical formation initiated by xanthine oxidase formed protein and DNA radicals which may lead to cell death of germinal center FDCs. PMID:21215311

  19. The first mammalian aldehyde oxidase crystal structure: insights into substrate specificity.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Catarina; Mahro, Martin; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Alexandra T P; Ramos, Maria João; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João

    2012-11-23

    Aldehyde oxidases have pharmacological relevance, and AOX3 is the major drug-metabolizing enzyme in rodents. The crystal structure of mouse AOX3 with kinetics and molecular docking studies provides insights into its enzymatic characteristics. Differences in substrate and inhibitor specificities can be rationalized by comparing the AOX3 and xanthine oxidase structures. The first aldehyde oxidase structure represents a major advance for drug design and mechanistic studies. Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are homodimeric proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. Each 150-kDa monomer contains a FAD redox cofactor, two spectroscopically distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and a molybdenum cofactor located within the protein active site. AOXs are characterized by broad range substrate specificity, oxidizing different aldehydes and aromatic N-heterocycles. Despite increasing recognition of its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, the physiological function of the protein is still largely unknown. We have crystallized and solved the crystal structure of mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 to 2.9 Å. This is the first mammalian AOX whose structure has been solved. The structure provides important insights into the protein active center and further evidence on the catalytic differences characterizing AOX and xanthine oxidoreductase. The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 three-dimensional structure combined with kinetic, mutagenesis data, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies make a decisive contribution to understand the molecular basis of its rather broad substrate specificity.

  20. Role of reactive oxygen intermediates in the interferon-mediated depression of hepatic drug metabolism and protective effect of N-acetylcysteine in mice.

    PubMed

    Ghezzi, P; Bianchi, M; Gianera, L; Landolfo, S; Salmona, M

    1985-08-01

    Interferon (IFN) and IFN inducers are known to depress hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 levels, and the liver toxicity of IFN was reported to be lethal in newborn mice. We have observed that administration to mice of IFN and IFN inducers caused a marked increase in liver xanthine oxidase activity. Because this enzyme is well known to produce reactive oxygen intermediates and cytochrome P-450 was reported to be sensitive to the oxidative damage, we have tested the hypothesis that a free radical mechanism could mediate the depression of cytochrome P-450 levels by IFN. Administration to mice of the IFN inducer polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (2 mg/kg i.p.) caused a 29 to 52% decrease in liver cytochrome P-450. Concomitant p.o. administration of the free radical scavenger, N-acetylcysteine (as a 2.5% solution in drinking water), or the xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol (100 mg/kg), protected against the IFN-mediated depression of P-450 kg), protected against the IFN-mediated depression of P-450 levels. The results suggest that an increased endogenous generation of free radicals, possibly due to the induction of xanthine oxidase, is implicated in the IFN-mediated depression of liver drug metabolism. The relevance of these data also extends to cases in which this side effect is observed in pathological situations (e.g., viral diseases and administration of vaccines) associated with an induction of IFN.

  1. Uric acid in plants and microorganisms: Biological applications and genetics - A review.

    PubMed

    Hafez, Rehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; Naguib, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Uric acid increased accumulation and/or reduced excretion in human bodies is closely related to pathogenesis of gout and hyperuricemia. It is highly affected by the high intake of food rich in purine. Uric acid is present in both higher plants and microorganisms with species dependent concentration. Urate-degrading enzymes are found both in plants and microorganisms but the mechanisms by which plant degrade uric acid was found to be different among them. Higher plants produce various metabolites which could inhibit xanthine oxidase and xanthine oxidoreductase, so prohibit the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine then to uric acid in the purine metabolism. However, microorganisms produce group of degrading enzymes uricase, allantoinase, allantoicase and urease, which catalyze the degradation of uric acid to the ammonia. In humans, researchers found that several mutations caused a pseudogenization (silencing) of the uricase gene in ancestral apes which exist as an insoluble crystalloid in peroxisomes. This is in contrast to microorganisms in which uricases are soluble and exist either in cytoplasm or peroxisomes. Moreover, many recombinant uricases with higher activity than the wild type uricases could be induced successfully in many microorganisms. The present review deals with the occurrence of uric acid in plants and other organisms specially microorganisms in addition to the mechanisms by which plant extracts, metabolites and enzymes could reduce uric acid in blood. The genetic and genes encoding for uric acid in plants and microorganisms are also presented.

  2. In vitro susceptibility of Mycobacterium leprae to oxygen-mediated damage.

    PubMed

    Dhople, A M

    1996-01-01

    In order to evaluate factors responsible for the failure of Mycobacterium leprae to multiply in cell-free cultures in vitro studies were undertaken to determine the possible poisoning of the organism by hydroxide and superoxide radicals produced in the growth medium. The superoxide dismutase activity was very low, 10% of the levels found in armadillo cells, while measured activity of catalase and glutathione peroxidase was negligible. Susceptibility of M. leprae to hydrogen peroxide was enhanced by potassium iodide but not by lactoperoxidase. The addition of high amounts of catalase completely prevented hydrogen peroxide-mediated killing of M. leprae. Superoxide generated by the action of xanthine oxidase on xanthine was lethal to M. leprae, but superoxide dismutase added to the reaction mixture gave significant protection. Thus superoxide radicals may be a major cause for the sudden termination of growth of M. leprae in primary cultures and also for failure of subcultures.

  3. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives as an index of microbial protein synthesis in the camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Guerouali, Abdelhai; El Gass, Youssef; Balcells, Joaquim; Belenguer, Alvaro; Nolan, John

    2004-08-01

    Five experiments were carried out to extend knowledge of purine metabolism in the camel (Camelus dromedarius) and to establish a model to enable microbial protein outflow from the forestomachs to be estimated from the urinary excretion of purine derivatives (PD; i.e. xanthine, hypoxanthine, uric acid, allantoin). In experiment 1, four camels were fasted for five consecutive days to enable endogenous PD excretion in urine to be determined. Total PD excretion decreased during the fasting period to 267 (SE 41.5) micromol/kg body weight (W)0.75 per d. Allantoin and xanthine + hypoxanthine were consistently 86 and 6.1 % of total urinary PD during this period but uric acid increased from 3.6 % to 7.4 %. Xanthine oxidase activity in tissues (experiment 2) was (micromol/min per g fresh tissue) 0.038 in liver and 0.005 in gut mucosa but was not detected in plasma. In experiment 3, the duodenal supply of yeast containing exogenous purines produced a linear increase in urinary PD excretion rate with the slope indicating that 0.63 was excreted in urine. After taking account of endogenous PD excretion, the relationship can be used to predict purine outflow from the rumen. From the latter prediction, and also the purine:protein ratio in bacteria determined in experiment 5, we predicted the net microbial outflow from the rumen. In experiment 4, with increasing food intake, the rate of PD excretion in the urine increased linearly by about 11.1 mmol PD/kg digestible organic matter intake (DOMI), equivalent to 95 g microbial protein/kg DOMI.

  4. SciTech Connect

    Winterbourn, C.C.; Sutton, H.C.

    O2- was produced by gamma irradiation of formate solutions, by the action of xanthine oxidase on hypoxanthine and O2, and by the action of ferredoxin reductase on NADPH and paraquat in the presence of O2. Its reaction with H2O2 and various iron chelates was studied. Oxidation of deoxyribose to thiobarbituric acid-reactive products that was appropriately inhibited by OH. scavengers, or formate oxidation to CO2, was used to detect OH(.). With each source of O2-, and by these criteria, Fe(EDTA) efficiently catalyzed this (Haber-Weiss) reaction, but little catalysis was detectable with iron bound to DTPA, citrate, ADP, ATP, or pyrophosphate, ormore » without chelator in phosphate buffer. O2- produced from xanthine oxidase, but not from the other sources, underwent another iron-dependent reaction with H2O2, to produce an oxidant that did not behave as free OH(.). It was formed in phosphate or bicarbonate buffer, and caused deoxyribose oxidation that was readily inhibited by mannitol or Tris, but not by benzoate, formate, or dimethyl sulfoxide. It did not oxidize formate to CO2. Addition of EDTA changed the pattern of inhibition to that expected for a reaction of OH(.). The other chelators all inhibited deoxyribose oxidation, provided their concentrations were high enough. The results are compatible with iron bound to xanthine oxidase catalyzing production of a strong oxidant (which is not free OH.) from H2O2 and O2- produced by the enzyme.« less

  5. Effects of allopurinol on exercise-induced muscle damage: new therapeutic approaches?

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Gomar, F; Pareja-Galeano, H; Perez-Quilis, C; Santos-Lozano, A; Fiuza-Luces, C; Garatachea, N; Lippi, G; Lucia, A

    2015-01-01

    Intensive muscular activity can trigger oxidative stress, and free radicals may hence be generated by working skeletal muscle. The role of the enzyme xanthine oxidase as a generating source of free radicals is well documented and therefore is involved in the skeletal muscle damage as well as in the potential transient cardiovascular damage induced by high-intensity physical exercise. Allopurinol is a purine hypoxanthine-based structural analog and a well-known inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. The administration of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol may hence be regarded as promising, safe, and an economic strategy to decrease transient skeletal muscle damage (as well as heart damage, when occurring) in top-level athletes when administered before a competition or a particularly high-intensity training session. Although continuous administration of allopurinol in high-level athletes is not recommended due to its possible role in hampering training-induced adaptations, the drug might be useful in non-athletes. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is the most common form of rhabdomyolysis and affects individuals participating in a type of intense exercise to which they are not accustomed. This condition can cause exercise-related myoglobinuria, thus increasing the risk of acute renal failure and is also associated with sickle cell trait. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the recent evidence about the effects of allopurinol on exercise-induced muscle damage. More research is needed to determine whether allopurinol may be useful for preventing not only exertional rhabdomyolysis and acute renal damage but also skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness as well as in immobilized, bedridden, sarcopenic or cachectic patients.

  6. Seasonal superoxide overproduction and endothelial activation in guinea-pig heart; seasonal oxidative stress in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Konior, Anna; Klemenska, Emilia; Brudek, Magdalena; Podolecka, Ewa; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Beręsewicz, Andrzej

    2011-04-01

    Seasonality in endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress was noted in humans and rats, suggesting it is a common phenomenon of a potential clinical relevance. We aimed at studying (i) seasonal variations in cardiac superoxide (O(2)(-)) production in rodents and in 8-isoprostane urinary excretion in humans, (ii) the mechanism of cardiac O(2)(-) overproduction occurring in late spring/summer months in rodents, (iii) whether this seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction is associated with a pro-inflammatory endothelial activation, and (iv) how the summer-associated changes compare to those caused by diabetes, a classical cardiovascular risk factor. Langendorff-perfused guinea-pig and rat hearts generated ~100% more O(2)(-), and human subjects excreted 65% more 8-isoprostane in the summer vs. other seasons. Inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and NO synthase inhibited the seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction. In the summer vs. other seasons, cardiac NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase activity, and protein expression were increased, the endothelial NO synthase and superoxide dismutases were downregulated, and, in guinea-pig hearts, adhesion molecules upregulation and the endothelial glycocalyx destruction associated these changes. In guinea-pig hearts, the summer and a streptozotocin-induced diabetes mediated similar changes, yet, more severe endothelial activation associated the diabetes. These findings suggest that the seasonal oxidative stress is a common phenomenon, associated, at least in guinea-pigs, with the endothelial activation. Nonetheless, its biological meaning (regulatory vs. deleterious) remains unclear. Upregulated NADPH oxidase and xanthine oxidase and uncoupled NO synthase are the sources of the seasonal O(2)(-)-overproduction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mammalian molybdo-flavoenzymes, an expanding family of proteins: structure, genetics, regulation, function and pathophysiology.

    PubMed Central

    Garattini, Enrico; Mendel, Ralf; Romão, Maria João; Wright, Richard; Terao, Mineko

    2003-01-01

    The molybdo-flavoenzymes are structurally related proteins that require a molybdopterin cofactor and FAD for their catalytic activity. In mammals, four enzymes are known: xanthine oxidoreductase, aldehyde oxidase and two recently described mouse proteins known as aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 2. The present review article summarizes current knowledge on the structure, enzymology, genetics, regulation and pathophysiology of mammalian molybdo-flavoenzymes. Molybdo-flavoenzymes are structurally complex oxidoreductases with an equally complex mechanism of catalysis. Our knowledge has greatly increased due to the recent crystallization of two xanthine oxidoreductases and the determination of the amino acid sequences of many members of the family. The evolution of molybdo-flavoenzymes can now be traced, given the availability of the structures of the corresponding genes in many organisms. The genes coding for molybdo-flavoenzymes are expressed in a cell-specific fashion and are controlled by endogenous and exogenous stimuli. The recent cloning of the genes involved in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor has increased our knowledge on the assembly of the apo-forms of molybdo-flavoproteins into the corresponding holo-forms. Xanthine oxidoreductase is the key enzyme in the catabolism of purines, although recent data suggest that the physiological function of this enzyme is more complex than previously assumed. The enzyme has been implicated in such diverse pathological situations as organ ischaemia, inflammation and infection. At present, very little is known about the pathophysiological relevance of aldehyde oxidase, aldehyde oxidase homologue 1 and aldehyde oxidase homologue 2, which do not as yet have an accepted endogenous substrate. PMID:12578558

  8. Application of HPLC to study the kinetics of a branched bi-enzyme system consisting of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and xanthine oxidase--an important biochemical system to evaluate the efficiency of the anticancer drug 6-mercaptopurine in ALL cell line.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sukirti; Paul, Manash K; Balaram, Hemalatha; Mukhopadhyay, Anup Kumar

    2007-05-01

    The thiopurine antimetabolite 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) is an important chemotherapeutic drug in the conventional treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). 6MP is mainly catabolized by both hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) to form thioinosinic monophosphate (TIMP) (therapeutically active metabolite) and 6-thiouric acid (6TUA) (inactive metabolite), respectively. The activity of both the enzymes varies among ALL patients governing the active and the inactive metabolite profile within the immature lymphocytes. Therefore, an attempt was made to study the kinetic nature of the branched bi-enzyme system acting on 6MP and to quantitate TIMP and 6TUA formed when the two enzymes are present in equal and variable ratios. The quantification of the branched kinetics using spectrophotometric method presents problem due to the closely apposed lambda(max) of the substrates and products. Hence, employing an HPLC method, the quantification of the products was done with the progress of time. The limit of quantification (LOQ) of substrate was found to be 10nM and for products as 50 nM. The limit of detection (LOD) was found to be 1 nM for the substrate and the products. The method exhibited linearity in the range of 0.01-100 microM for 6MP and 0.05-100 microM for both 6TUA and TIMP. The amount of TIMP formed was higher than that of 6TUA in the bi-enzyme system when both the enzymes were present in equivalent enzymatic ratio. It was further found that enzymatic ratios play an important role in determining the amounts of TIMP and 6TUA. This method was further validated using actively growing T-ALL cell line (Jurkat) to study the branched kinetics, wherein it was observed that treatment of 50 microM 6MP led to the generation of 12 microM TIMP and 0.8 microM 6TUA in 6 h at 37 degrees C.

  9. A RAPID DNA EXTRACTION METHOD IS SUCCESSFULLY APPLIED TO ITS-RFLP ANALYSIS OF MYCORRHIZAL ROOT TIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A rapid method for extracting DNA from intact, single root tips using a Xanthine solution was developed to handle very large numbers of analyses of ectomycorrhizas. By using an extraction without grinding we have attempted to bias the extraction towards the fungal DNA in the man...

  10. Gout - a guide for the general and acute physicians.

    PubMed

    Abhishek, Abhishek; Roddy, Edward; Doherty, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthritis and affects 2.5% of the general population in the UK. It is also the only arthritis that has the potential to be cured with safe, inexpensive and well tolerated urate-lowering treatments, which reduce serum uric acid by either inhibiting xanthine oxidase - eg allopurinol, febuxostat - or by increasing the renal excretion of uric acid. Of these, xanthine oxidase inhibitors are used first line and are effective in 'curing' gout in the vast majority of patients. Gout can be diagnosed on clinical grounds in those with typical podagra. However, in those with involvement of other joints, joint aspiration is recommended to demonstrate monosodium urate crystals and exclude other causes of acute arthritis, such as septic arthritis. However, a clinical diagnosis of gout can be made if joint aspiration is not feasible. This review summarises the current understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, investigations and treatment of gout. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  11. Mn-porphyrin derivatives as an antioxidant for medical devices.

    PubMed

    Ohse, T; Kawakami, H; Morita, A; Nagaoka, S

    1999-01-01

    It is well known that reactive oxygen species such as O*2- and H2O2 induce the biodegradation or cracking of medical devices in vivo or that they are released from inflammatory cells activated by devices to oxidize low-density lipoprotein. Therefore, the development of a novel antioxidant is required to eliminate the reactive oxygen species. In this paper, we report that Mn-porphyrin derivatives containing a macromolecular Mn-porphyrin are relatively stable compounds that can eliminate O*2- and/or H2O2. The dismutation of O*2- in the porphyrins was determined using a cytochrome c-assay by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and using the stopped-flow kinetic analysis technique. The possibility of porphyrins as scavengers of H2O2 was evaluated by in situ measurement with a Clark electrode. As a result, it has been found that Mn-porphyrin derivatives may be a vastly better scavenger of reactive oxygen species in vivo.

  12. Inflammatory Flt3L is essential to mobilize dendritic cells and for T cell responses during Plasmodium infection

    PubMed Central

    Guermonprez, Pierre; Helft, Julie; Claser, Carla; Deroubaix, Stephanie; Karanje, Henry; Gazumyan, Anna; Darrasse-Jeze, Guillaume; Telerman, Stephanie B.; Breton, Gaëlle; Schreiber, Heidi A.; Frias-Staheli, Natalia; Billerbeck, Eva; Dorner, Marcus; Rice, Charles M.; Ploss, Alexander; Klein, Florian; Swiecki, Melissa; Colonna, Marco; Kamphorst, Alice O.; Meredith, Matthew; Niec, Rachel; Takacs, Constantin; Mikhail, Fadi; Hari, Aswin; Bosque, David; Eisenreich, Tom; Merad, Miriam; Shi, Yan; Ginhoux, Florent; Rénia, Laurent; Urban, Britta C.; Nussenzweig, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Innate sensing mechanisms trigger a variety of humoral and cellular events that are essential to adaptive immune responses. Here we describe an innate sensing pathway triggered by Plasmodium infection that regulates dendritic cell (DC) homeostasis and adaptive immunity via Flt3L release. Plasmodium-induced Flt3L release requires toll-like receptor activation and type I interferon production. We find that type I interferon supports the up-regulation of xanthine dehydrogenase, which metabolizes the xanthine accumulating in infected erythrocytes to uric acid. Uric acid crystals trigger mast cells to release soluble Flt3L from a pre-synthesized membrane-associated precursor. During infection Flt3L preferentially stimulates expansion of the CD8α+/CD103+ DC subset or its BDCA3+ human DC equivalent and has a significant impact on the magnitude of T cell activation, mostly in the CD8+ compartment. Our findings highlight a new mechanism that regulates DC homeostasis and T cell responses to infection. PMID:23685841

  13. The substrate specificity of purine phosphoribosyltransferases in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    De Groodt, A.; Whitehead, E. P.; Heslot, H.; Poirier, L.

    1971-01-01

    1. The activities of the purine phosphoribosyltransferases (EC 2.4.2.7 and 2.4.2.8) in purine-analogue-resistant mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe were checked. An 8-azathioxanthine-resistant mutant lacked hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, xanthine phosphoribosyltransferase and guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activities (EC 2.4.2.8) and appeared to carry a single mutation. Two 2,6-diaminopurine-resistant mutants retained these activities but lacked adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity (EC 2.4.2.7). This evidence, together with data on purification and heat-inactivation patterns of phosphoribosyltransferase activities towards the various purines, strongly suggests that there are two phosphoribosyltransferase enzymes for purine bases in Schiz. pombe, one active with adenine, the other with hypoxanthine, xanthine and guanine. 2. Neither growth-medium supplements of purines nor mutations on genes involved in the pathway for new biosynthesis of purine have any influence on the amount of hypoxanthine–xanthine–guanine phosphoribosyltransferase produced by this organism. PMID:5123876

  14. Changes in free-radical scavenging ability of kombucha tea during fermentation.

    PubMed

    Jayabalan, R; Subathradevi, P; Marimuthu, S; Sathishkumar, M; Swaminathan, K

    2008-07-01

    Kombucha tea is a fermented tea beverage produced by fermenting sugared black tea with tea fungus (kombucha). Free-radical scavenging abilities of kombucha tea prepared from green tea (GTK), black tea (BTK) and tea waste material (TWK) along with pH, phenolic compounds and reducing power were investigated during fermentation period. Phenolic compounds, scavenging activity on DPPH radical, superoxide radical (xanthine-xanthine oxidase system) and inhibitory activity against hydroxyl radical mediated linoleic acid oxidation (ammonium thiocyanate assay) were increased during fermentation period, whereas pH, reducing power, hydroxyl radical scavenging ability (ascorbic acid-iron EDTA) and anti-lipid peroxidation ability (thiobarbituric assay) were decreased. From the present study, it is obvious that there might be some chances of structural modification of components in tea due to enzymes liberated by bacteria and yeast during kombucha fermentation which results in better scavenging performance on nitrogen and superoxide radicals, and poor scavenging performance on hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decaffeination and measurement of caffeine content by addicted Escherichia coli with a refactored N-demethylation operon from Pseudomonas putida CBB5.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Erik M; Hammerling, Michael J; Summers, Ryan M; Otoupal, Peter B; Slater, Ben; Alnahhas, Razan N; Dasgupta, Aurko; Bachman, James L; Subramanian, Mani V; Barrick, Jeffrey E

    2013-06-21

    The widespread use of caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) and other methylxanthines in beverages and pharmaceuticals has led to significant environmental pollution. We have developed a portable caffeine degradation operon by refactoring the alkylxanthine degradation (Alx) gene cluster from Pseudomonas putida CBB5 to function in Escherichia coli. In the process, we discovered that adding a glutathione S-transferase from Janthinobacterium sp. Marseille was necessary to achieve N 7 -demethylation activity. E. coli cells with the synthetic operon degrade caffeine to the guanine precursor, xanthine. Cells deficient in de novo guanine biosynthesis that contain the refactored operon are ″addicted″ to caffeine: their growth density is limited by the availability of caffeine or other xanthines. We show that the addicted strain can be used as a biosensor to measure the caffeine content of common beverages. The synthetic N-demethylation operon could be useful for reclaiming nutrient-rich byproducts of coffee bean processing and for the cost-effective bioproduction of methylxanthine drugs.

  16. Reexamining Michaelis-Menten Enzyme Kinetics for Xanthine Oxidase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassingthwaighte, James B.; Chinn, Tamara M.

    2013-01-01

    Abbreviated expressions for enzyme kinetic expressions, such as the Michaelis-Menten (M-M) equations, are based on the premise that enzyme concentrations are low compared with those of the substrate and product. When one does progress experiments, where the solute is consumed during conversion to form a series of products, the idealized conditions…

  17. The role of allopurinol on oxidative stress in experimental hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Makay, O; Yenisey, C; Icoz, G; Genc Simsek, N; Ozgen, G; Akyildiz, M; Yetkin, E

    2009-09-01

    During hyperthyroidism, production of free oxygen radicals derives, where xanthine oxidase may also play an important role. Allopurinol, a xanthine oxidase inhibitor, has a significant effect on thyrotoxicosis-related oxidative stress. However, the relationship between thyroid hormones, oxidative stress parameters and allopurinol remains to be explored. Forty-two Wistar albino rats were divided into three groups. Rats in group A served as negative controls, while group B had untreated thyrotoxicosis and group C received allopurinol. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily 0.2 mg/kg L-thyroxine intraperitoneally in groups B and C; 40 mg/kg allopurinol were given daily intraperitoneally. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed after 72 h and 21 days, by measuring serum xanthine oxidase (XO), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and nitric oxide derivates (NO*x). In both time periods, serum XO, MDA, GSH and NO*x levels were significantly increased after thyroid hormone induction (p<0.05). Levels of XO, MDA and NO*x decreased with allopurinol treatment (p<0.05). There was a remarkable decrease in triiodothyronine levels in group C after 72 h (p<0.05), and in both triiodothyronine and thyroxine levels in group C after 21 days (p<0.05). There was no difference between groups B and C in means of serum GSH, GR and GPx levels (p>0.05). This study suggests an association between allopurinol and the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones. Allopurinol prevents the hyperthyroid state, which is mediated predominantly by triiodothyronine and not by XO. This issue has to be questioned in further studies where allopurinol is administered in control subjects.

  18. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  19. Isolation and characterization of ellagitannins as the major polyphenolic components of Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sudjaroen, Yuttana; Hull, William E; Erben, Gerhard; Würtele, Gerd; Changbumrung, Supranee; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Owen, Robert W

    2012-05-01

    Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour, syn. Euphoria longan Lam.) represents an important fruit in Northern Thailand and has significant economic impact. The fruit is either consumed fresh or as commercially prepared dried and canned products. The canning industry in Thailand produces considerable quantities of waste products, in particular Longan seeds. Because these seeds may be an exploitable source of natural phenolic antioxidants, it was of interest to identify, purify and quantitate the major potential antioxidant phenolics contained therein. The polyphenolic fraction from ground Longan seeds was obtained by extraction with methanol after delipidation with hexane. The hexane extract contained predominantly long-chain fatty acids with major contributions from palmitic (35%) and oleic (28%) acids. The polyphenolic fraction (80.90 g/kg dry weight) was dominated by ellagic acid (25.84 g/kg) and the known ellagitannins corilagin (13.31 g/kg), chebulagic acid (13.06 g/kg), ellagic acid 4-O-α-l-arabinofuranoside (9.93 g/kg), isomallotinic acid (8.56 g/kg) and geraniin (5.79 g/kg). Structure elucidation was performed with mass spectrometry and complete assignment of (1)H and (13)C NMR signals. The methanol extracts exhibited strong antioxidant capacities with an IC(50) of 154 μg/ml for reactive oxygen species attack on salicylic acid and 78 μg/ml for inhibition of xanthine oxidase in the hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase assay. The extracts were less effective in the 2-deoxyguanosine assay (IC(50)=2.46 mg/ml), indicating that gallates along with ellagic acid and its congeners exert their potential antioxidant effects predominantly by precipitation of proteins such as xanthine oxidase. This was confirmed for the pure compounds gallic acid, methyl gallate, ellagic acid and corilagin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Allopurinol-mediated lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitor tolerance by Clostridium beijerinckii during acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ujor, Victor; Agu, Chidozie Victor; Gopalan, Venkat; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2015-04-01

    In addition to glucans, xylans, and arabinans, lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates contain significant levels of nonsugar components that are toxic to the microbes that are typically used to convert biomass to biofuels and chemicals. To enhance the tolerance of acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE)-generating Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 to these lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs; e.g., furfural), we have been examining different metabolic perturbation strategies to increase the cellular reductant pools and thereby facilitate detoxification of LDMICs. As part of these efforts, we evaluated the effect of allopurinol, an inhibitor of NAD(P)H-generating xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH), on C. beijerinckii grown in furfural-supplemented medium and found that it unexpectedly increased the rate of detoxification of furfural by 1.4-fold and promoted growth, butanol, and ABE production by 1.2-, 2.5-, and 2-fold, respectively. Since NAD(P)H/NAD(P)(+) levels in C. beijerinckii were largely unchanged upon allopurinol treatment, we postulated and validated a possible basis in DNA repair to account for the solventogenic gains with allopurinol. Following the observation that supplementation of allopurinol in the C. beijerinckii growth media mitigates the toxic effects of nalidixic acid, a DNA-damaging antibiotic, we found that allopurinol elicited 2.4- and 6.7-fold increase in the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of xanthine and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferases, key purine-salvage enzymes. Consistent with this finding, addition of inosine (a precursor of hypoxanthine) and xanthine led to 1.4- and 1.7-fold increase in butanol production in furfural-challenged cultures of C. beijerinckii. Taken together, our results provide a purine salvage-based rationale for the unanticipated effect of allopurinol in improving furfural tolerance of the ABE-fermenting C. beijerinckii.

  1. Cu(II) potentiation of Alzheimer Abeta1-40 cytotoxicity and transition on its secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xue-Ling; Sun, Ya-Xuan; Jiang, Zhao-Feng

    2006-11-01

    Mounting evidence has shown that dyshomeostasis of the redox-active biometals such as Cu and Fe can lead to oxidative stress, which plays a key role in the neuropathology of Alzheimer' disease (AD). Here we demonstrate that with the formation of Cu(II).beta1-40 complexes, copper markedly potentiates the neurotoxicity exhibited by beta-amyloid peptide (Ab). A greater amount of hydrogen peroxide was released when Cu(II).beta1-40 complexes was added to the xanthine oxidase/xanthine system detected by potassium iodide spectrophotometry. Copper bound to Abeta1-40 was observed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. Circular dichroism (CD) studies indicated that copper chelation could cause a structural transition of Abeta. The addition of copper to Ab introduced an increase on beta-sheet as well as alpha-helix, which may be responsible for the aggregation of Abeta. We hypothesized that Abeta aggregation induced by copper may be responsible for local injury in AD. The interaction between Cu(2+) and Ab also provides a possible mechanism for the enrichment of metal ions in amyloid plaques in the AD brain.

  2. The First Mammalian Aldehyde Oxidase Crystal Structure

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Catarina; Mahro, Martin; Trincão, José; Carvalho, Alexandra T. P.; Ramos, Maria João; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico; Leimkühler, Silke; Romão, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Aldehyde oxidases (AOXs) are homodimeric proteins belonging to the xanthine oxidase family of molybdenum-containing enzymes. Each 150-kDa monomer contains a FAD redox cofactor, two spectroscopically distinct [2Fe-2S] clusters, and a molybdenum cofactor located within the protein active site. AOXs are characterized by broad range substrate specificity, oxidizing different aldehydes and aromatic N-heterocycles. Despite increasing recognition of its role in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics, the physiological function of the protein is still largely unknown. We have crystallized and solved the crystal structure of mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 to 2.9 Å. This is the first mammalian AOX whose structure has been solved. The structure provides important insights into the protein active center and further evidence on the catalytic differences characterizing AOX and xanthine oxidoreductase. The mouse liver aldehyde oxidase 3 three-dimensional structure combined with kinetic, mutagenesis data, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics studies make a decisive contribution to understand the molecular basis of its rather broad substrate specificity. PMID:23019336

  3. An ethanol extract derived from Bonnemaisonia hamifera scavenges ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation-induced reactive oxygen species and attenuates UVB-induced cell damage in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Hyun, Yu Jae; Cho, Suk Ju; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Ko, Mi Hee; Hyun, Jin Won

    2012-12-14

    The present study investigated the photoprotective properties of an ethanol extract derived from the red alga Bonnemaisonia hamifera against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced cell damage in human HaCaT keratinocytes. The Bonnemaisonia hamifera ethanol extract (BHE) scavenged the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO₄ + H₂O₂), both of which were detected by using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In addition, BHE exhibited scavenging activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were induced by either hydrogen peroxide or UVB radiation. BHE reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as shown by decreased apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation. BHE also attenuated DNA damage and the elevated levels of 8-isoprostane and protein carbonyls resulting from UVB-mediated oxidative stress. Furthermore, BHE absorbed electromagnetic radiation in the UVB range (280-320 nm). These results suggest that BHE protects human HaCaT keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative damage by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB photons, thereby reducing injury to cellular components.

  4. Purine metabolism in Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Krug, E.C.; Marr, J.J.; Berens, R.L.

    1989-06-25

    We have studied the incorporation and interconversion of purines into nucleotides by freshly isolated Toxoplasma gondii. They did not synthesize nucleotides from formate, glycine, or serine. The purine bases hypoxanthine, xanthine, guanine, and adenine were incorporated at 9.2, 6.2, 5.1, and 4.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. The purine nucleosides adenosine, inosine, guanosine, and xanthosine were incorporated at 110, 9.0, 2.7, and 0.3 pmol/10(7) cells/h, respectively. Guanine, xanthine, and their respective nucleosides labeled only guanine nucleotides. Inosine, hypoxanthine, and adenine labeled both adenine and guanine nucleotide pools at nearly equal ratios. Adenosine kinase was greater than 10-fold more active than the nextmore » most active enzyme in vitro. This is consistent with the metabolic data in vivo. No other nucleoside kinase or phosphotransferase activities were found. Phosphorylase activities were detected for guanosine and inosine; no other cleavage activities were detected. Deaminases were found for adenine and guanine. Phosphoribosyltransferase activities were detected for all four purine nucleobases. Interconversion occurs only in the direction of adenine to guanine nucleotides.« less

  5. Influence of Honey on the Suppression of Human Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Peroxidation (In vitro).

    PubMed

    Hegazi, Ahmed G; Abd El-Hady, Faten K

    2009-03-01

    The antioxidant activity of four honey samples from different floral sources (Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm) were evaluated with three different assays; DPPH free radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion generated in xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XOD) system and low density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation assay. The dark Palm and Sider honeys had the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay. But all the honey samples exhibited more or less the same highly significant antioxidant activity within the concentration of 1mg honey/1 ml in XOD system and LDL peroxidation assays. The chemical composition of these samples was investigated by GC/MS and HPLC analysis, 11 compounds being new to honey. The GC/MS revealed the presence of 90 compounds, mainly aliphatic acids (37 compounds), which represent 54.73, 8.72, 22.87 and 64.10% and phenolic acids (15 compound) 2.3, 1.02, 2.07 and 11.68% for Acacia, Coriander, Sider and Palm honeys. In HPLC analysis, 19 flavonoids were identified. Coriander and Sider honeys were characterized by the presence of large amounts of flavonoids.

  6. Nature of plant stimulators in the production of Acetobacter xylinum ({open_quotes}Tea fungas{close_quotes}) biofilm used in skin therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Franco, V.C.; Lyra, I.N.

    1991-12-31

    Caffeine and related xanthines were identified as potent stimulators for the bacterial cellulose production in A. xylinum. These compounds are present in several plants whose infusions are useful as culture-medium supplements for this acetobacterium. The proposed target for these native purine-like inhibitory substances is the novel diguanyl nucleotide phosphodiesterase(s) that participates in the bacterial cellulogenic complex.

  7. The Quinone Based Antitumor Agent Sepantronium Bromide (YM155) Causes Oxygen Independent Redox Activated Oxidative DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Wani, Tasaduq Hussain; Surendran, Sreeraj; Jana, Anal; Chakrabarty, Anindita; Chowdhury, Goutam

    2018-06-13

    Sepantronium bromide (YM155) is a small molecule antitumor agent currently in phase II clinical trials. Although developed as survivin suppressor, YM155's primary mode of action has recently been found to be DNA damage. However, the mechanism of DNA damage by YM155 is still unknown. Knowing the mechanism of action of an anticancer drug is necessary to formulate a rational drug combination and select a cancer type for achieving maximum clinical efficacy. Using cell-based assays we showed that YM155 cause extensive DNA cleavage and reactive oxygen species generation. DNA cleavage by YM155 was found to be inhibited by radical scavengers and desferal. The reducing agent DTT and the cellular reducing system xanthine/xanthine oxidase were found to reductively activate YM155 and cause DNA cleavage. Unlike quinones, DNA cleavage by YM155 occurs in the presence of catalase and under hypoxic conditions indicating that hydrogen peroxide and oxygen is not necessary. Although YM155 is a quinone, it does not follow a typical quinone mechanism. Consistent with these observations a mechanism has been proposed that suggests that YM155 can cause oxidative DNA cleavage upon two electron reductive activation.

  8. Antioxidative properties of the essential oil from Pinus mugo.

    PubMed

    Grassmann, Johanna; Hippeli, Susanne; Vollmann, Renate; Elstner, Erich F

    2003-12-17

    The essential oil from Pinus mugo (PMEO) was tested on its antioxidative capacity. For this purpose, several biochemical test systems were chosen (e.g., the Fenton System, the xanthine oxidase assay, or the copper-induced oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)). The results show that there is moderate or weak antioxidative activity when tested in aqueous environments, like in the Fenton system, xanthine oxidase induced superoxide radical formation, or in the HOCl driven fragmentation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC). In contrast, when tested in more lipophilic environments (e.g., the ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood) the PMEO exhibits good antioxidative activity. PMEO does also show good antioxidative capacity in another lipophilic test system (i.e., the copper induced oxidation of LDL). Some components of PMEO (i.e., Delta(3)-carene, camphene, alpha-pinene, (+)-limonene and terpinolene) were also tested. As the PMEO, they showed weak or no antioxidant activity in aqueous environments, but some of them were effective antioxidants regarding ACC-cleavage by activated neutrophils in whole blood or copper-induced LDL-oxidation. Terpinolene, a minor component of PMEO, exhibited remarkable protection against LDL-oxidation.

  9. Contribution of aldehyde oxidizing enzymes on the metabolism of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine to 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid by guinea pig liver slices.

    PubMed

    Panoutsopoulos, Georgios I

    2006-01-01

    3,4-Dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine is catalyzed to its aldehyde derivative by monoamine oxidase B, but the subsequent oxidation into the corresponding acid has not yet been studied. Oxidation of aromatic aldehydes is catalyzed mainly by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase. The present study examines the metabolism of 3,4-dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine in vitro and in freshly prepared and cryopreserved guinea pig liver slices and the relative contribution of different aldehyde-oxidizing enzymes was estimated by pharmacological means. 3,4-Dimethoxy-2- phenylethylamine was converted into the corresponding aldehyde when incubated with monoamine oxidase and further oxidized into the acid when incubated with both, monoamine oxidase and aldehyde oxidase. In freshly prepared and cryopreserved liver slices, 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetic acid was the main metabolite of 3,4-dimethoxy-2- phenylethylamine. 3,4-Dimethoxyphenylacetic acid formation was inhibited by 85% from disulfiram (aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor) and by 75-80% from isovanillin (aldehyde oxidase inhibitor), whereas allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor) inhibited acid formation by only 25-30%. 3,4- Dimethoxy-2-phenylethylamine is oxidized mainly to its acid, via 3,4-dimethoxyphenylacetaldehyde, by aldehyde dehydrogenase and aldehyde oxidase with a lower contribution from xanthine oxidase.

  10. Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) hommersand extract protects the human keratinocyte cell line by blocking free radicals and UVB radiation-induced cell damage.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei Jing; Hyun, Yu Jae; Oh, Tae-Heon; Kang, Hee Kyoung; Yoo, Eun Sook; Koh, Young Sang; Lee, Nam Ho; Suh, In Soo; Hyun, Jin Won

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of the ethanol extract of the red algae Chondracanthus tenellus (Harvey) Hommersand (CTE) on cultured human keratinocyte cell line. The cellular protection conferred by CTE was evidenced by the ability of the extract to absorb ultraviolet B (UVB; 280-320 nm) and to scavenge the radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, as well as intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), induced by either hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or UVB radiation. In addition, both superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system and hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4) + H(2)O(2)) were scavenged by CTE, as confirmed using electron spin resonance spectrometry. In the human keratinocyte cell line, CTE decreased the degree of injury resulting from UVB-induced oxidative stress to lipids, proteins, and DNA. CTE-treated cells also showed a reduction in UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies and less DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that CTE confers protection on the human keratinocyte cell line against UVB-induced oxidative stress by absorbing UVB ray and scavenging ROS, thereby reducing injury to cellular constituents.

  11. HDAC2 is required by the physiological concentration of glucocorticoid to inhibit inflammation in cardiac fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; He, Yanhua; Zhang, Guiping; Li, Xiaobin; Yan, Suikai; Hou, Ning; Xiao, Qing; Huang, Yue; Luo, Miaoshan; Zhang, Genshui; Yi, Quan; Chen, Minsheng; Luo, Jiandong

    2017-09-01

    We previously suggested that endogenous glucocorticoids (GCs) may inhibit myocardial inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vivo. However, the possible cellular and molecular mechanisms were poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of physiological concentration of GCs in inflammation induced by LPS in cardiac fibroblasts and explored the possible mechanisms. The results showed that hydrocortisone at the dose of 127 ng/mL (equivalent to endogenous basal level of GCs) inhibited LPS (100 ng/mL)-induced productions of TNF-α and IL-1β in cardiac fibroblasts. Xanthine oxidase/xanthine (XO/X) system impaired the anti-inflammatory action of GCs through downregulating HDAC2 activity and expression. Knockdown of HDAC2 restrained the anti-inflammatory effects of physiological level of hydrocortisone, and blunted the ability of XO/X system to downregulate the inhibitory action of physiological level of hydrocortisone on cytokines. These results suggested that HDAC2 was required by the physiological concentration of GC to inhibit inflammatory response. The dysfunction of HDAC2 induced by oxidative stress might be account for GC resistance and chronic inflammatory disorders during the cardiac diseases.

  12. Photo-protection by 3-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde against ultraviolet B-induced oxidative stress in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Yu Jae; Piao, Mei Jing; Zhang, Rui; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chae, Sungwook; Hyun, Jin Won

    2012-09-01

    Exposure of the skin to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation leads to epidermal damage and the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skin cells, including keratinocytes. Therefore, the photo-protective effect of 3-bromo-4, 5-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (BDB) against UVB was assessed in human HaCaT keratinocytes exposed to UVB radiation in vitro. BDB restored cell viability, which decreased upon exposure to UVB radiation. BDB exhibited scavenging activity against 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals, intracellular ROS induced by hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) or UVB radiation, the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, and the hydroxyl radical generated by the Fenton reaction (FeSO(4)+H(2)O(2)). Moreover, BDB absorbed UVB and decreased injury resulting from UVB-induced oxidative stress to lipids, proteins and DNA. Finally, BDB reduced UVB-induced apoptosis, as exemplified by fewer apoptotic bodies and a reduction in DNA fragmentation. Taken together, these results suggest that BDB protects human keratinocytes against UVB-induced oxidative stress by scavenging ROS and absorbing UVB rays, thereby reducing injury to cellular components. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of Bacillus subtilis Responding to Dissolved Oxygen in Adenosine Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Chun-Yun; Zhou, Ying; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important factor for adenosine fermentation. Our previous experiments have shown that low oxygen supply in the growth period was optimal for high adenosine yield. Herein, to better understand the link between oxygen supply and adenosine productivity in B. subtilis (ATCC21616), we sought to systematically explore the effect of DO on genetic regulation and metabolism through transcriptome analysis. The microarrays representing 4,106 genes were used to study temporal transcript profiles of B. subtilis fermentation in response to high oxygen supply (agitation 700 r/min) and low oxygen supply (agitation 450 r/min). The transcriptome data analysis revealed that low oxygen supply has three major effects on metabolism: enhance carbon metabolism (glucose metabolism, pyruvate metabolism and carbon overflow), inhibit degradation of nitrogen sources (glutamate family amino acids and xanthine) and purine synthesis. Inhibition of xanthine degradation was the reason that low oxygen supply enhanced adenosine production. These provide us with potential targets, which can be modified to achieve higher adenosine yield. Expression of genes involved in energy, cell type differentiation, protein synthesis was also influenced by oxygen supply. These results provided new insights into the relationship between oxygen supply and metabolism. PMID:21625606

  14. Febuxostat for the treatment of gout.

    PubMed

    Bridgeman, Mary Barna; Chavez, Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Gout is a rheumatologic condition associated with elevated serum uric acid levels and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and soft tissues. The xanthine oxidase inhibitor, allopurinol, has historically been the principle agent utilized for reducing elevated uric acid levels and treating underlying cause of gout symptoms; the availability of febuxostat, a newer non-purine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor, represents an alternative therapy for those patients with contraindications or intolerance to allopurinol. This article reviews the published literature on the pharmacologic characteristics and clinical safety and efficacy data on the use of febuxostat in the treatment of gout. A literature search of MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Databases (1996-November 2014) was conducted utilizing the key words 'febuxostat', 'allopurinol', and 'gout'. All published articles regarding febuxostat were evaluated. References of selected articles, data from poster presentations, and abstract publications were additionally reviewed. Febuxostat has shown benefit with respect to symptomatic relief and uric acid level reduction. The safety profile of this agent makes it an ideal alternative in those patients with contraindications to or who are intolerant of allopurinol.

  15. Convergent evolution of caffeine in plants by co-option of exapted ancestral enzymes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ruiqi; O'Donnell, Andrew J; Barboline, Jessica J; Barkman, Todd J

    2016-09-20

    Convergent evolution is a process that has occurred throughout the tree of life, but the historical genetic and biochemical context promoting the repeated independent origins of a trait is rarely understood. The well-known stimulant caffeine, and its xanthine alkaloid precursors, has evolved multiple times in flowering plant history for various roles in plant defense and pollination. We have shown that convergent caffeine production, surprisingly, has evolved by two previously unknown biochemical pathways in chocolate, citrus, and guaraná plants using either caffeine synthase- or xanthine methyltransferase-like enzymes. However, the pathway and enzyme lineage used by any given plant species is not predictable from phylogenetic relatedness alone. Ancestral sequence resurrection reveals that this convergence was facilitated by co-option of genes maintained over 100 million y for alternative biochemical roles. The ancient enzymes of the Citrus lineage were exapted for reactions currently used for various steps of caffeine biosynthesis and required very few mutations to acquire modern-day enzymatic characteristics, allowing for the evolution of a complete pathway. Future studies aimed at manipulating caffeine content of plants will require the use of different approaches given the metabolic and genetic diversity revealed by this study.

  16. Superoxide-mediated decomposition of biological S-nitrosothiols.

    PubMed

    Aleryani, S; Milo, E; Rose, Y; Kostka, P

    1998-03-13

    Incubation of S-nitrosocysteine or S-nitrosoglutathione (5-100 M) in the presence of a generator of superoxide (xanthine/xanthine oxidase) resulted in a time-dependent decomposition of S-nitrosothiols and accumulation of nitrite/nitrate in reaction mixtures. Quantitatively, the amounts of nitrite/nitrate represented >90% of nitrosonium equivalent of S-nitrosothiols degraded during the incubation. The reaction rates were unaffected by the presence catalase (1 unit/ml). Kinetic analysis showed that the degradation of S-nitrosothiols in the presence of superoxide proceeded at second order rate constants of 76,900 M-1 s-1 (S-nitrosocysteine) and 12,800 M-1 s-1 (S-nitrosoglutathione), respectively, with a stoichiometric ratio of 1 mol of S-nitrosothiol per 2 mol of superoxide. The findings provide the evidence for the involvement of superoxide in the metabolism of S-nitrosothiols. Furthermore, substantially slower reaction rates of superoxide with S-nitrosothiols relative to the reaction rate with NO are consistent with the contention that the transient formation of S-nitrosothiols in biological systems may protect NO from its rapid destruction by superoxide, thus enabling these compounds to serve as carriers or buffers of NO.

  17. Phosphate-Linked Silibinin Dimers (PLSd): New Promising Modified Metabolites.

    PubMed

    Romanucci, Valeria; Gravante, Raffaele; Cimafonte, Martina; Marino, Cinzia Di; Mailhot, Gilles; Brigante, Marcello; Zarrelli, Armando; Fabio, Giovanni Di

    2017-08-11

    By exploiting the regioselective protection of the hydroxyl groups of silibinin along with the well-known phosphoramidite chemistry, we have developed an efficient strategy for the synthesis of new silibinin-modified species, which we have named Phosphate-Linked Silibinin Dimers (PLSd), in which the monomer units are linked by phosphodiester bonds. The antioxidant abilities of the new PLSd were estimated on HepG2 cells using DPPH free radical scavenging and xanthine/xanthine oxidase assays. The new phosphate-metabolites showed a higher anti-oxidant activity than the silibinin, as well as very low toxicity. The ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen () and hydroxyl radical () reveals that the two dimers are able to scavenge about two times more effectively than silibinin. Finally, solubility studies have shown that the PLSd present good water solubility (more than 20 mg·L -1 ) under circumneutral pH values, whereas the silibinin was found to be very poorly soluble (less than 0.4 mg·L -1 ) and not stable under alkaline conditions. Together, the above promising results warrant further investigation of the future potential of the PLSd as anti-oxidant metabolites within the large synthetic polyphenols field.

  18. Engineering a microbial platform for de novo biosynthesis of diverse methylxanthines

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Maureen; Wang, Yen-Hsiang; Cravens, Aaron; Win, Maung Nyan; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    Engineered microbial biosynthesis of plant natural products can support manufacturing of complex bioactive molecules and enable discovery of non-naturally occurring derivatives. Purine alkaloids, including caffeine (coffee), theophylline (antiasthma drug), theobromine (chocolate), and other methylxanthines, play a significant role in pharmacology and food chemistry. Here, we engineered the eukaryotic microbial host Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the de novo biosynthesis of methylxanthines. We constructed a xanthine-to-xanthosine conversion pathway in native yeast central metabolism to increase endogenous purine flux for the production of 7-methylxanthine, a key intermediate in caffeine biosynthesis. Yeast strains were further engineered to produce caffeine through expression of several enzymes from the coffee plant. By expressing combinations of different N-methyltransferases, we were able to demonstrate re-direction of flux to an alternate pathway and develop strains that support the production of diverse methylxanthines. We achieved production of 270 μg/L, 61 μg/L, and 3700 μg/L of caffeine, theophylline, and 3-methylxanthine, respectively, in 0.3-L bench-scale batch fermentations. The constructed strains provide an early platform for de novo production of methylxanthines and with further development will advance the discovery and synthesis of xanthine derivatives. PMID:27519552

  19. Convergent evolution of caffeine in plants by co-option of exapted ancestral enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ruiqi; O’Donnell, Andrew J.; Barboline, Jessica J.; Barkman, Todd J.

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evolution is a process that has occurred throughout the tree of life, but the historical genetic and biochemical context promoting the repeated independent origins of a trait is rarely understood. The well-known stimulant caffeine, and its xanthine alkaloid precursors, has evolved multiple times in flowering plant history for various roles in plant defense and pollination. We have shown that convergent caffeine production, surprisingly, has evolved by two previously unknown biochemical pathways in chocolate, citrus, and guaraná plants using either caffeine synthase- or xanthine methyltransferase-like enzymes. However, the pathway and enzyme lineage used by any given plant species is not predictable from phylogenetic relatedness alone. Ancestral sequence resurrection reveals that this convergence was facilitated by co-option of genes maintained over 100 million y for alternative biochemical roles. The ancient enzymes of the Citrus lineage were exapted for reactions currently used for various steps of caffeine biosynthesis and required very few mutations to acquire modern-day enzymatic characteristics, allowing for the evolution of a complete pathway. Future studies aimed at manipulating caffeine content of plants will require the use of different approaches given the metabolic and genetic diversity revealed by this study. PMID:27638206

  20. Effects of the Aqueous Extract from Tabebuia roseoalba and Phenolic Acids on Hyperuricemia and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz-Filha, Zilma Schimith; Ferrari, Fernanda Cristina; Araújo, Marcela Carolina de Paula Michel; Bernardes, Ana Catharina Fernandes P. F.

    2017-01-01

    Tabebuia species (Bignoniaceae) have long been used in folk medicine as anti-inflammatory, antirheumatic, antimicrobial, and antitumor. The aim of this study was to investigate if aqueous extract from the leaves (AEL) of Tabebuia roseoalba (Ridl.) Sandwith, Bignoniaceae, and its constituents could be useful to decrease serum uric acid levels and restrain the gout inflammatory process. HPLC analysis identified caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid in AEL. Antihyperuricemic effects and inhibition of liver XOD (xanthine oxidoreductase) by AEL and identified compounds were evaluated in hyperuricemic mice. Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated on MSU (monosodium urate) crystal-induced paw edema. In addition, AEL antioxidant activity in vitro was evaluated. AEL, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids were able to reduce serum uric acid levels in hyperuricemic mice probably through inhibition of liver xanthine oxidase activity and significantly decreased the paw edema induced by MSU crystals. AEL showed significant antioxidant activity in all evaluated assays. The results show that the AEL of Tabebuia roseoalba can be a promising agent for treatment for gout and inflammatory diseases. We suggest that caffeic and chlorogenic acids may be responsible for the activities demonstrated by the species. PMID:29375639

  1. Reconciled Rat and Human Metabolic Networks for Comparative Toxicogenomics and Biomarker Predictions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-02-08

    compared with the original human GPR rules (Supplementary Fig. 3). The consensus-based approach for filtering orthology annotations was designed to...ARTICLE Received 29 Jan 2016 | Accepted 13 Dec 2016 | Published 8 Feb 2017 Reconciled rat and human metabolic networks for comparative toxicogenomics...predictions in response to 76 drugs. We validate comparative predictions for xanthine derivatives with new experimental data and literature- based evidence

  2. Pentoxifylline and its applications in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Iffat; Dorjay, Konchok; Anwar, Parvaiz

    2014-01-01

    Pentoxifylline is a methyl-xanthine derivative with many anti inflammatory effects. Pentoxifylline has been found to be effective for many dermatological as well as non-dermatological conditions. It has been used both as primary drug as well as adjuvant and is a safe and relatively cost-effective alternative drug. In this article, we review the literature and highlight various important aspects of pentoxifylline. PMID:25396144

  3. Novel, Highly Specific N-Demethylases Enable Bacteria To Live on Caffeine and Related Purine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Summers, Ryan M.; Louie, Tai Man; Yu, Chi-Li; Gakhar, Lokesh; Louie, Kailin C.

    2012-01-01

    The molecular basis for the ability of bacteria to live on caffeine as a sole carbon and nitrogen source is unknown. Pseudomonas putida CBB5, which grows on several purine alkaloids, metabolizes caffeine and related methylxanthines via sequential N-demethylation to xanthine. Metabolism of caffeine by CBB5 was previously attributed to one broad-specificity methylxanthine N-demethylase composed of two subunits, NdmA and NdmB. Here, we report that NdmA and NdmB are actually two independent Rieske nonheme iron monooxygenases with N1- and N3-specific N-demethylation activity, respectively. Activity for both enzymes is dependent on electron transfer from NADH via a redox-center-dense Rieske reductase, NdmD. NdmD itself is a novel protein with one Rieske [2Fe-2S] cluster, one plant-type [2Fe-2S] cluster, and one flavin mononucleotide (FMN) per enzyme. All ndm genes are located in a 13.2-kb genomic DNA fragment which also contained a formaldehyde dehydrogenase. ndmA, ndmB, and ndmD were cloned as His6 fusion genes, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified using a Ni-NTA column. NdmA-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N1-demethylation of caffeine, theophylline, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine to theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, 7-methylxanthine, and xanthine, respectively. NdmB-His6 plus His6-NdmD catalyzed N3-demethylation of theobromine, 3-methylxanthine, caffeine, and theophylline to 7-methylxanthine, xanthine, paraxanthine, and 1-methylxanthine, respectively. One formaldehyde was produced from each methyl group removed. Activity of an N7-specific N-demethylase, NdmC, has been confirmed biochemically. This is the first report of bacterial N-demethylase genes that enable bacteria to live on caffeine. These genes represent a new class of Rieske oxygenases and have the potential to produce biofuels, animal feed, and pharmaceuticals from coffee and tea waste. PMID:22328667

  4. The protective effect of 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA) against traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Erdal Resit; Kertmen, Hayri; Gürer, Bora; Kanat, Mehmet Ali; Arikok, Ata Türker; Ergüder, Berrin Imge; Hasturk, Askin Esen; Ergil, Julide; Sekerci, Zeki

    2013-01-01

    The agent, 2-mercaptoethane sulfonate (MESNA), is a synthetic small molecule, widely used as a systemic protective agent against chemotherapy toxicity, but is primarily used to reduce hemorrhagic cystitis induced by cyclophosphamide. Because MESNA has potential antioxidant and cytoprotective effects, so we hypothesized that MESNA may protect the brain against traumatic injury. Thirty-two rats were randomized into four groups of eight animals each; Group 1 (sham), Group 2 (trauma), Group 3 (150 mg/kg MESNA), Group 4 (30 mg/kg methylprednisolone). Only skin incision was performed in the sham group. In all the other groups, the traumatic brain injury model was created by an object weighing 450 g falling freely from a height of 70 cm through a copper tube on to the metal disc over the skull. The drugs were administered immediately after the injury. The animals were killed 24 h later. Brain tissues were extracted for analysis, where levels of tissue malondialdehyde, caspase-3, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthetase and xanthine oxidase were analyzed. Also, histopathological evaluation of the tissues was performed. After head trauma, tissue malondialdehyde levels increased; these levels were significantly decreased by MESNA administration. Caspase-3 levels were increased after trauma, but no effect of MESNA was determined in caspase-3 activity. Following trauma, both glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels were decreased; MESNA increased the activity of both these antioxidant enzymes. Also, after trauma, nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthetase and xanthine oxidase levels were increased; administration of MESNA significantly decreased the levels of nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthetase and xanthine oxidase, promising an antioxidant activity. Histopathological analysis showed that MESNA protected the brain tissues well from injury. Although further studies considering different dose regimens and time intervals

  5. Antioxidative activity of the olive oil constituent hydroxy-1-aryl-isochromans in cells and cell-free systems.

    PubMed

    Schönfeld, Peter; Kruska, Nicol; Reiser, Georg

    2009-12-01

    Hydroxy-1-aryl-isochromans (HAIC) are newly emerging natural polyphenolic antioxidants, enriched in extravirgin olive oil, whose antioxidative potency was only scarcely characterized using cell-free systems and cells. We characterized the activity of HAIC to inactivate reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system, mitochondria (rat brain) and neural cells. ROS levels were estimated using ROS-sensitive probes, such as Amplex Red, MitoSOXRED. HAIC (with 2, 3 or 4 hydroxyl substituents) effectively scavenge ROS released from mitochondria. EC50 values estimated with mitochondria and submitochondrial particles were around 20 microM. Moreover, in PC12 and cultured neural primary cells, HAIC buffered cytosolic ROS. Although HAIC permeate biological membranes, HAIC fail to buffer matrix ROS in isolated mitochondria. We show that hydrogen peroxide was effectively abolished by HAIC, whereas the production of superoxide was not affected. HAIC exert high antioxidative activity to reduce hydrogen peroxide. The antioxidative activity of HAIC is comparable with that of the stilbene-like, polyphenolic resveratrol, but much higher than that of trolox, N-acetylcysteine or melatonin. Unlike resveratrol, HAIC do not impair mitochondrial ATP synthesis or Ca2+ retention by mitochondria. Thus, HAIC have the decisive advantage to be potent antioxidants with no detrimental side effects on mitochondrial functions.

  6. Investigation into the role of phosphodiesterase IV in bronchorelaxation, including studies with human bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Cortijo, J.; Bou, J.; Beleta, J.; Cardelús, I.; Llenas, J.; Morcillo, E.; Gristwood, R. W.

    1993-01-01

    1. We have investigated the role of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV) in the relaxation of human bronchus and guinea-pig trachea in vitro and in guinea-pigs in vivo. 2. Functional studies showed that the selective PDE IV inhibitors, rolipram and denbufylline, relaxed human and guinea-pig preparations in vitro. 3. Two clinically used xanthine non-selective PDE inhibitors, theophylline and pentoxifylline, were also effective in these preparations, but were much less potent than the selective agents used. 4. The rank order of potency for the four PDE inhibitors in both species was similar. 5. Biochemical studies indicated that PDE IV was the major PDE isoform present in the human bronchial tissue. PDEs I, II and V were also identified. 6. Theophylline and pentoxifylline were, as expected, non-selective inhibitors of the human enzymes, but there was a good correlation between PDE IV inhibitory and bronchorelaxation potencies, suggesting that PDE IV inhibition is important for the clinical bronchodilator activities of the two xanthine compounds. 7. We have confirmed the ability of selective PDE IV inhibitors to cause bronchodilatation in guinea-pigs in vivo. 8. We conclude that our study has provided further evidence that selective PDE IV inhibitors could act as bronchodilators in the clinic. PMID:8383567

  7. Calpain activation induced by glucose deprivation is mediated by oxidative stress and contributes to neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Blanca; Montiel, Teresa; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego R; Rivera-Martínez, Marlene; Morán, Julio; Massieu, Lourdes

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to neuronal death during glucose deprivation have not been fully elucidated, but a role of oxidative stress has been suggested. In the present study we have investigated whether the production of reactive oxygen species during glucose deprivation, contributes to the activation of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease involved in neuronal injury associated with brain ischemia and cerebral trauma. We have observed a rapid activation of calpain, as monitored by the cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein α-spectrin, after glucose withdrawal, which is reduced by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase. Results suggest that phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase contribute to the early activation of calpain after glucose deprivation. In particular NOX2, a member of the NADPH oxidase family is involved, since reduced stimulation of calpain activity is observed after glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice lacking a functional NOX2. We observed an additive effect of the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and phospholipase A2 on both ROS production and calpain activity, suggesting a synergistic action of these two enzymes. The present results provide new evidence showing that reactive oxygen species stimulate calpain activation during glucose deprivation and that this mechanism is involved in neuronal death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Updates on the treatment of gout, including a review of updated treatment guidelines and use of small molecule therapies for difficult-to-treat gout and gout flares.

    PubMed

    Soskind, Rose; Abazia, Daniel T; Bridgeman, Mary Barna

    2017-08-01

    Gout is a rheumatologic condition associated with elevated serum uric acid levels and deposition of monosodium urate crystals in joints and soft tissues. Areas covered: In this article, we describe the role of currently available drug therapies for managing acute gout flares and used in reducing serum urate levels. Further, we explore the role of novel small molecular therapies and biologic agents in the treatment of refractory or severe gout symptoms. A literature search of MEDLINE and MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations Databases (1996-June 2017) was conducted utilizing the key words 'gout', 'interleukin-1 inhibitors', 'acute gout', 'gout treatment', 'urate lowering therapies', 'hyperuricemia', 'colchicine', 'pegloticase', 'lesinurad', 'xanthine oxidase', 'xanthine oxidase inhibitors', 'allopurinol', 'febuxostat', 'uricosurics', 'probenecid', and 'benzbromarone'. All published articles regarding therapeutic management of gout and hyperuricemia were evaluated. References of selected articles, data from poster presentations, and abstract publications were additionally reviewed. Expert opinion: Numerous therapies are currently available to managing acute gout flares and for lowering serum urate levels; advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology of this disorder has led to the emergence of targeted therapies and novel biologic preparations currently in development which may improve the clinical management of severe or refractory cases of disease that fail to respond to traditional therapies.

  9. Allopurinol prevents nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in rat thoracic aorta.

    PubMed

    Azarmi, Yadollah; Babaei, Hossein; Alizadeh, Fatemeh; Gharebageri, Afsaneh; Fouladi, Daniel F; Nikkhah, Elhameh

    2014-02-01

    Xanthine oxidase is an important source of reactive oxygen species; so, it may play a role in the pathogenesis of endothelium dysfunction and its consequences. Allopurinol, a purine analog, is a famous xanthine oxidase inhibitor. This study aimed to investigate possible effects of allopurinol on nitroglycerin tolerance, vasoconstriction, and vasorelaxation in rat aortic ring. Using thoracic aortic rings obtained from male Wistar rats, the effect of allopurinol was examined on nitroglycerin-induced tolerance. In addition, changes of vasoconstriction (by using KCl and phenylephrine) and vasorelaxation (by using carbachol, sodium nitroprusside, and nitroglycerin) were also measured and compared between tissues treated with and without allopurinol. All 3 concentrations of allopurinol (50, 100, and 150 μM) significantly acted against the development of nitroglycerin-induced tolerance in comparison with controls. In terms of vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation, the effect of allopurinol was significant only on carbachol-induced (endothelium related) vasorelaxation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, although allopurinol had no significant effect on the contractile response of the aorta, in accord with the previous data, it significantly intensified endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The inhibitory effect of allopurinol against the development of nitrate-induced tolerance may suggest its clinical benefit and is worth to be studied more extensively.

  10. Electrochemical estrogen screen method based on the electrochemical behavior of MCF-7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinlian; Song, Jia; Bi, Sheng; Zhou, Shi; Cui, Jiwen; Liu, Jiguang; Wu, Dongmei

    2016-08-05

    It was an urgent task to develop quick, cheap and accurate estrogen screen method for evaluating the estrogen effect of the booming chemicals. In this study, the voltammetric behavior between the estrogen-free and normal fragmented MCF-7 cell suspensions were compared, and the electrochemical signal (about 0.68V attributed by xanthine and guanine) of the estrogen-free fragmented MCF-7 cell suspension was obviously lower than that of the normal one. The electrochemistry detection of ex-secretion purines showed that the ability of ex-secretion purines of cells sharp decreased due to the removing of endogenous estrogen. The results indicated that the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells was related to the level of intracellular estrogen. When the level of intracellular estrogen was down-regulated, the concentrations of the xanthine and hypoxanthine decreased, which led to the electrochemical signal of MCF-7 cells fall. Based on the electrochemical signal, the electrochemical estrogen screen method was established. The estrogen effect of estradiol, nonylphenol and bisphenol A was evaluated with the electrochemical method, and the result was accordant with that of MTT assay. The electrochemical estrogen screen method was simple, quickly, cheap, objective, and it exploits a new way for the evaluation of estrogenic effects of chemicals. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Substituted thieno[2,3-b]thiophenes and related congeners: Synthesis, β-glucuronidase inhibition activity, crystal structure, and POM analyses.

    PubMed

    Mabkhot, Yahia Nasser; Barakat, Assem; Yousuf, Sammer; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Frey, Wolfgang; Ben Hadda, Taibi; Mubarak, Mohammad S

    2014-12-01

    A series of 15 novel compounds incorporating the thieno[2,3-b]thiophene moiety were synthesized. The chemical structures of these compounds were deduced from elemental analyses, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, and ESI-mass spectral data. The enzyme inhibition potential of these compounds was evaluated, in vitro, against β-glucuronidase, xanthine oxidase, and α-chymotrypsin enzymes. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by a cell viability assay utilizing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. Among the compounds tested, compound 3 was the most potent β-glucuronidase inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.9 ± 0.0138 μM; it was much more active than the standard, d-saccharic acid 1,4-lactone (IC50=45.75 ± 2.16 μM). Compound 12, on the other hand, was the most potent as a xanthine oxidase inhibitor with an IC50 of 14.4 ± 1.2 μM. With the characterization of their mechanism of action and with further testing, these compounds could be useful candidates as anticancer drugs. In addition, the newly synthesized compounds were subjected to POM analyses to get insights about their degree of their toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Pancreatic two P domain K+ channels TALK-1 and TALK-2 are activated by nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Duprat, F; Girard, C; Jarretou, G; Lazdunski, M

    2005-01-01

    This study firstly shows with in situ hybridization on human pancreas that TALK-1 and TALK-2, two members of the 2P domain potassium channel (K2P) family, are highly and specifically expressed in the exocrine pancreas and absent in Langherans islets. On the contrary, expression of TASK-2 in mouse pancreas is found both in the exocrine pancreas and in the Langherans islets. This study also shows that TALK-1 and TALK-2 channels, expressed in Xenopus oocytes, are strongly and specifically activated by nitric oxide (obtained with a mixture of sodium nitroprussate (SNP) and dithiothreitol (DTT)), superoxide anion (obtained with xanthine and xanthine oxidase) and singlet oxygen (obtained upon photoactivation of rose bengal, and with chloramine T). Other nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (NOS and ROS) donors, as well as reducing conditions were found to be ineffective on TALK-1, TALK-2 and TASK-2 (sin-1, angeli's salt, SNP alone, tBHP, H2O2, and DTT). These results suggest that, in the exocrine pancreas, specific members of the NOS and ROS families could act as endogenous modulators of TALK channels with a role in normal secretion as well as in disease states such as acute pancreatitis and apoptosis. PMID:15513946

  13. Antioxidant effects of herbal therapies used by patients with inflammatory bowel disease: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Langmead, L; Dawson, C; Hawkins, C; Banna, N; Loo, S; Rampton, D S

    2002-02-01

    Herbal remedies used by patients for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease include slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, Mexican yam, tormentil and wei tong ning, a traditional Chinese medicine. Reactive oxygen metabolites produced by inflamed colonic mucosa may be pathogenic. Aminosalicylates (5-ASA) are antioxidant and other such agents could be therapeutic. To assess the antioxidant effects of herbal remedies in cell-free oxidant-generating systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies. Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase cell-free system was used to detect superoxide scavenging by herbs and 5-ASA, and fluorimetry to define peroxyl radical scavenging using a phycoerythrin degradation assay. Chemiluminescence was used to detect herbal effects on generation of oxygen radicals by mucosal biopsies from patients with active ulcerative colitis. Like 5-ASA, all herbs, except fenugreek, scavenged superoxide dose-dependently. All materials tested scavenged peroxyl dose-dependently. Oxygen radical release from biopsies was reduced after incubation in all herbs except Mexican yam, and by 5-ASA. All six herbal remedies have antioxidant effects. Fenugreek is not a superoxide scavenger, while Mexican yam did not inhibit radical generation by inflamed biopsies. Slippery elm, fenugreek, devil's claw, tormentil and wei tong ning merit formal evaluation as novel therapies in inflammatory bowel disease.

  14. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saher F; Woodman, Owen L

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin) on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function.

  15. Antioxidant activities of Physalis peruviana.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sue-Jing; Ng, Lean-Teik; Huang, Yuan-Man; Lin, Doung-Liang; Wang, Shyh-Shyan; Huang, Shan-Ney; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2005-06-01

    Physalis peruviana (PP) is a widely used medicinal herb for treating cancer, malaria, asthma, hepatitis, dermatitis and rheumatism. In this study, the hot water extract (HWEPP) and extracts prepared from different concentrations of ethanol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 95% EtOH) from the whole plant were evaluated for antioxidant activities. Results displayed that at 100 mug/ml, the extract prepared from 95% EtOH exhibited the most potent inhibition rate (82.3%) on FeCl2-ascorbic acid induced lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate. At concentrations 10-100 microg/ml, this extract also demonstrated the strongest superoxide anion scavenging and inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase activities. In general, the ethanol extracts revealed a stronger antioxidant activity than alpha-tocopherol and HWEPP. Compared to alpha-tocopherol, the IC50 value of 95% EtOH PP extract was lower in thiobarbituric acid test (IC50=23.74 microg/ml vs. 26.71 microg/ml), in cytochrome c test (IC50=10.40 microg/ml vs. 13.39 microg/ml) and in xanthine oxidase inhibition test (IC50=8.97 microg/ml vs. 20.68 microg/ml). The present study concludes that ethanol extracts of PP possess good antioxidant activities, and the highest antioxidant properties were obtained from the 95% EtOH PP.

  16. Effect of Chemicals on the Cell Membrane Transport of Nucleosides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-08-01

    hypoxanthine in the external buffer and the efflux mte is decreased by uric acid in tne buffer. Perfluorodecanoic acid ( PFDA ), adenine, or xanthlne...uric acid in the buffer. Perfluorodecanoic acid ( PFDA ), Sadenine, or xanthine in the external buffer have no direct effect on the rate of AP efflux, in...observed that perfluorooctanoic acid ( PFOA ) produces a transient weight N loss, but no mortality in young rats. By contrast, the treatment of rats with

  17. Superoxide from NADPH oxidase upregulates type 5 phosphodiesterase in human vascular smooth muscle cells: inhibition with iloprost and NONOate.

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, S; Shukla, N; Bond, M; Sala-Newby, G B; Newby, A C; Angelini, G D; Jeremy, J Y

    2008-11-01

    To determine whether there is an association between vascular NADPH oxidase (NOX), superoxide, the small GTPase Rac(1) and PDE type 5 (PDE5) in human vascular smooth muscle cell (hVSMCs). hVSMCs were incubated with xanthine-xanthine oxidase (X-XO; a superoxide generating system) or the thromboxane A(2) analogue, U46619 (+/-superoxide dismutase (SOD) or apocynin) for 16 h. The expression of PDE5 and NOX-1 was assessed using Western blotting and superoxide measured. The role of Rac(1) in superoxide generation was assessed by overexpressing either the dominant-negative or constitutively active Rac isoforms. The effects of iloprost, DETA-NONOate and the Rho-kinase inhibitor, Y27632, on PDE5 and NOX-1 expression were also studied. Following 16 h incubation, U46619 and X-XO promoted the expression of PDE5 and NOX-1, an effect blocked by SOD or apocynin when co-incubated over the same time course. X-XO and U46619 both promoted the formation of superoxide. Overexpression of dominant-negative Rac(1) or addition of iloprost, DETA-NONOate or Y27632 completely blocked both superoxide release and PDE5 protein expression and activity. These data demonstrate that superoxide derived from NOX upregulates the expression of PDE5 in human VSMCs. As PDE5 hydrolyses cyclic GMP, this effect may blunt the vasculoprotective actions of NO.

  18. Biomarkers of Nanoparticles Impact on Biological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailenko, V.; Ieleiko, L.; Glavin, A.; Sorochinska, J.

    Studies of nanoscale mineral fibers have demonstrated that the toxic and carcinogenic effects are related to the surface area and surface activity of inhaled particles. Particle surface characteristics are considered to be key factors in the generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species and are related to the development of apoptosis or cancer. Existing physico-chemical methods do not always allow estimation of the nanoparticles impact on organismal and cellular levels. The aim of this study was to develop marker system for evaluation the toxic and carcinogenic effects of nanoparticles on cells. The markers are designed with respect to important nanoparticles characteristics for specific and sensitive assessment of their impact on biological system. We have studied DNA damage, the activity of xanthine oxidoreductase influencing the level of free radicals, bioenergetic status, phospholipids profile and formation of 1H-NMR-visible mobile lipid domains in Ehrlich carcinoma cells. The efficiency of the proposed marker system was tested in vivo and in vitro with the use of C60 fullerene nanoparticles and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. Our data suggest that multiwalled carbon nanotubes and fullerene C60 may pose genotoxic effect, change energy metabolism and membrane structure, alter free radical level via xanthine oxidase activation and cause mobile lipid domains formation as determined in vivo and in vitro studies on Ehrlich carcinoma cells.

  19. 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone: aldehyde oxidase-activation to 5-ethynyluracil, a mechanism-based inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Porter, D J; Harrington, J A; Almond, M R; Lowen, G T; Zimmerman, T P; Spector, T

    1994-03-29

    5-Ethynyluracil is a potent mechanism-based inactivator of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD, EC 1.3.1.2) in vitro (Porter et al., J Biol Chem 267: 5236-5242, 1992) and in vivo (Spector et al., Biochem Pharmacol, 46: 2243-2248, 1993. 5-Ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone was rapidly oxidized to 5-ethynyluracil by aldehyde oxidase. The substrate efficiency (kcat/Km) was 60-fold greater than that for N-methylnicotinamide. In contrast, xanthine oxidase oxidized 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone to 5-ethynyluracil with a substrate efficiency that was only 0.02% that of xanthine. Because 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone did not itself inactivate purified DPD in vitro and aldehyde oxidase is predominately found in liver, we hypothesized that 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone could be a liver-specific inactivator of DPD. We found that 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone administered orally to rats at 2 micrograms/kg inactivated DPD in all tissues studied. Although 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone produced slightly less inactivation than 5-ethynyluracil, the two compounds showed fairly similar patterns of inactivation of DPD in these tissues. At doses of 20 micrograms/kg, however, 5-ethynyl-2-pyrimidinone and 5-ethynyluracil produced equivalent inactivation of DPD. Thus, 5-ethynyl-2(1H)-pyrimidinone appeared to be an efficient, but not highly liver-selective prodrug of 5-ethynyluracil.

  20. Comparative study of radical scavenger activities of crude extract and fractions from Cuphea carthagenensis leaves.

    PubMed

    Schuldt, E Z; Farias, M R; Ribeiro-do-Valle, R M; Ckless, K

    2004-09-01

    This study investigated the superoxide anion and hydroxyl radical scavenger properties, as well as the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the crude hydroalcoholic extract (CE) and the butanolic (BF) and ethyl acetate (EAF) fractions of Cuphea carthagenensis leaves. In a enzymatic system of O2- production (xanthine/xanthine oxidase system) the CE, EAF and BF (0.1-100 microg ml(-1)) were effective at inhibiting both uric acid formation and NBT reduction by O2(-1). In the non-enzymatic system of O2- generation, the CE and fractions were effective only at the concentration of 100 microg ml(-1). The CE, EAF and BF were also evaluated for their ability to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and/or to chelate iron. The results showed that CE, BF and EAF from C. carthagenensis (0.1-100 microg ml(-1)) were able to inhibit deoxyribose degradation in a concentration-dependent manner. CE was more potent than the fractions. In a hydrophobic system, increasing concentrations of CE, EAF and BF (0.1-100 microg ml(-1)) caused graded inhibition of lipid peroxidation of rat liver homogenate. The EAF displayed the lowest median inhibitory concentration. The present study suggests that an extract (CE) and fractions (EAF and BF) from C. carthagenensis leaves are significant sources of phenolic compounds with antioxidant activity in vitro and may have important health effects, for example, in cardiovascular disease.

  1. Antioxidation activities of pteridines in mammalian cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Shen, R.

    1991-03-11

    L-erythro-5,6,7,8-Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH{sub 4}), the cofactor for aromatic amino acid hydroxylases (AAA-H), is a predominant form of pteridines which occur ubiquitously in nature. When BH{sub 4} is oxidized to quinonoid dihydrobiopterin by AAA-H, it is regenerated by dihydropteridine reductase (DHPR) at the expense of NADH. The role of BH{sub 4} other than serving as the hydroxylase cofactor is not clear. The existence of BH{sub 4} and DHPR in tissues which are devoid of AAA-H suggests that BH{sub 4} may play an as yet undiscovered physiological function. This study demonstrates a BH{sub 4}-mediated antioxidation system, which consists of BH{sub 4}, DHPR, peroxidasemore » and NADH in rat pheochromocytoma PC 12 cells and mouse macrophages J774A.1. This system was as effective as catalase and ascorbic acid in protecting cells against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and xanthine/xanthine oxidase-induced toxicity and was more effective than catalase in defense against nitrofurantoin-induced toxicity. The antioxidation effect of this system was not due to peroxidase and was improved when synthetic pteridines were substituted for BH{sub 4}. Since BH{sub 4}, DHPR, peroxidases and NADH are widely distributed in major organs and blood cells, they may constitute an as yet little known antioxidation system in mammalian cells.« less

  2. Nigella sativa (black cumin) ameliorates potassium bromate-induced early events of carcinogenesis: diminution of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naghma; Sharma, Sonia; Sultana, Sarwat

    2003-04-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a potent nephrotoxic agent. In this paper, we report the chemopreventive effect of Nigella sativa (black cumin) on KBrO3-mediated renal oxidative stress, toxicity and tumor promotion response in rats. KBrO3 (125 mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneally) enhances lipid peroxidation, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, hydrogen peroxide and xanthine oxidase with reduction in the activities of renal antioxidant enzymes and renal glutathione content. A marked increase in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine has also been observed. KBrO3 treatment also enhances ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and [3H] thymidine incorporation into renal DNA. Prophylaxis of rats orally with Nigella sativa extract (50 mg/kg body weight and 100 mg/kg body weight) resulted in a significant decrease in renal microsomal lipid peroxidation (P < 0.001), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (P < 0.001), H2O2 (P < 0.001) and xanthine oxidase (P < 0.05). There was significant recovery of renal glutathione content (P < 0.01) and antioxidant enzymes (P < 0.001). There was also reversal in the enhancement of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, renal ODC activity and DNA synthesis (P < 0.001). Data suggest that Nigella sativa is a potent chemopreventive agent and may suppress KBrO3-mediated renal oxidative stress, toxicity and tumour promotion response in rats.

  3. Tocotrienol Rich Palm Oil Extract Is More Effective Than Pure Tocotrienols at Improving Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation in the Presence of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Saher F.; Woodman, Owen L.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative endothelial dysfunction is a critical initiator of vascular disease. Vitamin E is an effective antioxidant but attempts to use it to treat vascular disorders have been disappointing. This study investigated whether tocotrienols, the less abundant components of vitamin E compared to tocopherols, might be more effective at preserving endothelial function. Superoxide generated by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase or rat aorta was measured using lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence. The effect of α-tocopherol, α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols and a tocotrienol rich palm oil extract (tocomin) on levels of superoxide was assessed. Endothelial function in rat aorta was assessed in the presence of the auto-oxidant pyrogallol. Whilst all of the compounds displayed antioxidant activity, the tocotrienols were more effective when superoxide was produced by hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase whereas tocomin and α-tocopherol were more effective in the isolated aorta. Tocomin and α-tocopherol restored endothelial function in the presence of oxidant stress but α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols were ineffective. The protective effect of tocomin was replicated when the tocotrienols were present with, but not without, α-tocopherol. Tocotrienol rich tocomin is more effective than α-tocopherol at reducing oxidative stress and restoring endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortae and although α-, δ-, and γ-tocotrienols effectively scavenged superoxide, they did not improve endothelial function. PMID:26075031

  4. Novel estrogens and their radical scavenging effects, iron-chelating, and total antioxidative activities: 17 alpha-substituted analogs of delta 9(11)-dehydro-17 beta-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Römer, W; Oettel, M; Menzenbach, B; Droescher, P; Schwarz, S

    1997-11-01

    Antioxidant effects of N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine, p-cresol, and p-(hydroxy)thioanisol 17 alpha-substituted analogs of 17 beta-estradiol and their delta 9(11)-dehydro homologs were investigated using four different in vitro models: rat synaptosomal lipid peroxidation induced by Fenton's reagent, Fe(II)-chelating activities, the formation of superoxide anion radicals, and total antioxidative activity. Whereas the classical estrogen 17 beta-estradiol as well as selected phenolic compounds was only moderately inhibiting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation and stimulating total antioxidative activity, besides delta 9(11)-dehydro-17 beta-estradiol (J 1213), novel estrogens such as C-17-oriented side chain analogs of 17 beta-estradiol (J 843, J 872, and J 897) and delta 9(11)-dehydro homologs (J 844, J 864, and J 898) directly altered the iron redox chemistry and diminished the formation of superoxide anion radicals generated by a xanthine/xanthine oxidase-dependent luminescence reaction to a great extent. These results suggest that definite modifications in the chemical structure of 17 beta-estradiol, e.g., the introduction of a delta 9(11)-double bond and/or p-cresol as well as p-(hydroxy)thioanisol C-17 substitution, may result in substantial changes in their antioxidant behavior. These compounds may be drug candidates for treating pathologies related to free radical formation.

  5. Functional expression and characterization of a purine nucleobase transporter gene from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marco A; Tryon, Rob; Pierce, Steven; Vasudevan, Gayatri; Landfear, Scott M

    2004-01-01

    Leishmania major, like all the other kinetoplastid protozoa, are unable to synthesize purines and rely on purine nucleobase and nucleoside acquisition across the parasite plasma membrane by specific permeases. Although, several genes have been cloned that encode nucleoside transporters in Leishmania and Trypanosoma brucei, much less progress has been made on nucleobase transporters, especially at the molecular level. The studies reported here have cloned and expressed the first gene for a L. major nucleobase transporter, designated LmaNT3. The LmaNT3 permease shows 33% identity to L. donovani nucleoside transporter 1.1 (LdNT1.1) and is, thus, a member of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family. ENT family members identified to date are nucleoside transporters, some of which also transport one or several nucleobases. Functional expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes revealed that LmaNT3 mediates high levels of uptake of hypoxanthine, xanthine, adenine and guanine. Moreover, LmaNT3 is an high affinity transporter with K(m) values for hypoxanthine, xanthine, adenine and guanine of 16.5 +/- 1.5, 8.5 +/- 0.6, 8.5 +/- 1.1, and 8.8 +/- 4.0 microM, respectively. LmaNT3 is, thus, the first member of the ENT family identified in any organism that functions as a nucleobase rather than nucleoside or nucleoside/nucleobase transporter.

  6. Berberine-induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells is initiated by reactive oxygen species generation

    SciTech Connect

    Meeran, Syed M.; Katiyar, Suchitra; Katiyar, Santosh K.

    2008-05-15

    Phytochemicals show promise as potential chemopreventive or chemotherapeutic agents against various cancers. Here we report the chemotherapeutic effects of berberine, a phytochemical, on human prostate cancer cells. The treatment of human prostate cancer cells (PC-3) with berberine induced dose-dependent apoptosis but this effect of berberine was not seen in non-neoplastic human prostate epithelial cells (PWR-1E). Berberine-induced apoptosis was associated with the disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential, release of apoptogenic molecules (cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO) from mitochondria and cleavage of caspase-9,-3 and PARP proteins. This effect of berberine on prostate cancer cells was initiated by the generation of reactive oxygenmore » species (ROS) irrespective of their androgen responsiveness, and the generation of ROS was through the increased induction of xanthine oxidase. Treatment of cells with allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, inhibited berberine-induced oxidative stress in cancer cells. Berberine-induced apoptosis was blocked in the presence of antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine, through the prevention of disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential and subsequently release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO. In conclusion, the present study reveals that the berberine-mediated cell death of human prostate cancer cells is regulated by reactive oxygen species, and therefore suggests that berberine may be considered for further studies as a promising therapeutic candidate for prostate cancer.« less

  7. Day to Day Variability and Reliability of Blood Oxidative Stress Markers within a Four-Week Period in Healthy Young Men.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, A H; Garten, R S; Waller, J; Labban, J D

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the day to day variability and reliability of several blood oxidative stress markers at rest in a healthy young cohort over a four-week period. Twelve apparently healthy resistance trained males (24.6 ± 3.0 yrs) were tested over 7 visits within 4 weeks with at least 72 hrs between visits at the same time of day. Subjects rested 30 minutes prior to blood being obtained by vacutainer. Results. The highest IntraClass correlations (ICC's) were obtained for protein carbonyls (PC) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) (PC = 0.785 and ORAC = 0.780). Cronbach's α reliability score for PC was 0.967 and for ORAC was 0.961. The ICC's for GSH, GSSG, and the GSSG/TGH ratio ICC were 0.600, 0.573, and 0.570, respectively, with Cronbach's α being 0.913, 0.904, and 0.903, respectively. Xanthine oxidase ICC was 0.163 and Cronbach's α was 0.538. Conclusions. PC and ORAC demonstrated good to excellent reliability while glutathione factors had poor to excellent reliability. Xanthine oxidase showed poor reliability and high variability. These results suggest that the PC and ORAC markers were the most stable and reliable oxidative stress markers in blood and that daily changes across visits should be considered when interpreting resting blood oxidative stress markers.

  8. Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang) inhibits 2-deoxyribose damage induced by Fe (III) plus ascorbate.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto Lázaro; Delgado, René; Núñez-Sellés, Alberto J; Vercesi, Anibal E

    2006-02-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of selected species of Mangifera indica L, used in Cuba as a nutritional antioxidant supplement. Many in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress have been used to elucidate the antioxidant mechanisms of this extract. To further characterize the mechanism of Vimang action, its effect on the degradation of 2-deoxyribose induced by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or plus hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase was studied. Vimang was shown to be a potent inhibitor of 2-deoxyribose degradation mediated by Fe (III)-EDTA plus ascorbate or superoxide (O2-). The results revealed that Vimang, at concentrations higher than 50 microM mangiferin equivalent, was equally effective in preventing degradation of both 15 mM and 1.5 mM 2-deoxyribose. At a fixed Fe (III) concentration, increasing the concentration of ligands (either EDTA or citrate) caused a significant reduction in the protective effects of Vimang. When ascorbate was replaced by O2- (formed by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase) the protective efficiency of Vimang was also inversely related to EDTA concentration. The results strongly indicate that Vimang does not block 2-deoxyribose degradation by simply trapping *OH radicals. Rather, Vimang seems to act as an antioxidant by complexing iron ions, rendering them inactive or poorly active in the Fenton reaction. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Distinct Distribution of Purines in CM and CR Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Smith, Karen E.; Martin, Mildred G.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites contain a diverse suite of organic molecules and delivered pre biotic organic compounds, including purines and pyrimidines, to the early Earth (and other planetary bodies), seeding it with the ingredients likely required for the first genetic material. We have investigated the distribution of nucleobases in six different CM and CR type carbonaceous chondrites, including fivc Antarctic meteorites never before analyzed for nucleobases. We employed a traditional formic acid extraction protocol and a recently developed solid phase extraction method to isolate nucleobases. We analyzed these extracts by high performance liquid chromatography with UV absorbance detection and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-UV -MS/MS) targeting the five canonical RNAIDNA bases and hypoxanthine and xanthine. We detected parts-per-billion levels of nucleobases in both CM and CR meteorites. The relative abundances of the purines found in Antarctic CM and CR meteorites were clearly distinct from each other suggesting that these compounds are not terrestrial contaminants. One likely source of these purines is formation by HCN oligomerization (with other small molecules) during aqueous alteration inside the meteorite parent body. The detection of the purines adenine (A), guanine (0), hypoxanthine (HX), and xanthine (X) in carbonaceous meteorites indicates that these compounds should have been available on the early Earth prior to the origin of the first genetic material.

  10. Therapeutic Hypothermia Reduces Oxidative Damage and Alters Antioxidant Defenses after Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Hackenhaar, Fernanda S.; Medeiros, Tássia M.; Heemann, Fernanda M.; Behling, Camile S.; Putti, Jordana S.; Mahl, Camila D.; Verona, Cleber; da Silva, Ana Carolina A.; Guerra, Maria C.; Gonçalves, Carlos A. S.; Oliveira, Vanessa M.; Riveiro, Diego F. M.; Vieira, Silvia R. R.

    2017-01-01

    After cardiac arrest, organ damage consequent to ischemia-reperfusion has been attributed to oxidative stress. Mild therapeutic hypothermia has been applied to reduce this damage, and it may reduce oxidative damage as well. This study aimed to compare oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in patients treated with controlled normothermia versus mild therapeutic hypothermia during postcardiac arrest syndrome. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 h mild therapeutic hypothermia (33°C), victims of in- or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Parameters were assessed at 6, 12, 36, and 72 h after cardiac arrest in the central venous blood samples. Hypothermic and normothermic patients had similar S100B levels, a biomarker of brain injury. Xanthine oxidase activity is similar between hypothermic and normothermic patients; however, it decreases posthypothermia treatment. Xanthine oxidase activity is positively correlated with lactate and S100B and inversely correlated with pH, calcium, and sodium levels. Hypothermia reduces malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl levels, markers of oxidative damage. Concomitantly, hypothermia increases the activity of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase while decreasing the activity of serum paraoxonase-1. These findings suggest that mild therapeutic hypothermia reduces oxidative damage and alters antioxidant defenses in postcardiac arrest patients. PMID:28553435

  11. Insight on specificity of uracil permeases of the NAT/NCS2 family from analysis of the transporter encoded in the pyrimidine utilization operon of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Botou, Maria; Lazou, Panayiota; Papakostas, Konstantinos; Lambrinidis, George; Evangelidis, Thomas; Mikros, Emmanuel; Frillingos, Stathis

    2018-04-01

    The uracil permease UraA of Escherichia coli is a structurally known prototype for the ubiquitous Nucleobase-Ascorbate Transporter (NAT) or Nucleobase-Cation Symporter-2 (NCS2) family and represents a well-defined subgroup of bacterial homologs that remain functionally unstudied. Here, we analyze four of these homologs, including RutG of E. coli which shares 35% identity with UraA and is encoded in the catabolic rut (pyrimidine utilization) operon. Using amplified expression in E. coli K-12, we show that RutG is a high-affinity permease for uracil, thymine and, at low efficiency, xanthine and recognizes also 5-fluorouracil and oxypurinol. In contrast, UraA and the homologs from Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Aeromonas veronii are permeases specific for uracil and 5-fluorouracil. Molecular docking indicates that thymine is hindered from binding to UraA by a highly conserved Phe residue which is absent in RutG. Site-directed replacement of this Phe with Ala in the three uracil-specific homologs allows high-affinity recognition and/or transport of thymine, emulating the RutG profile. Furthermore, all RutG orthologs from enterobacteria retain an Ala at this position, implying that they can use both uracil and thymine and, possibly, xanthine as substrates and provide the bacterial cell with a range of catabolizable nucleobases. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Allopurinol Riboside,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase. uric acid , arnd was 28 years; the age range was from 18 to 48 years. chemical and microscopic urinalyses... uric acid , hy- tions, the mean retention times relative to N-acetlp- pIoxanthine, xanthine, allopurinol, oxypurinol, and al- aminophenol 128.5 + 1.5...there was a decrease in serum uric acid levels to less to 10%), and nilopurinol (0% to 2%), Oxvpudwl~i aixt than 4.2 mig/dl (normal level 4,2 to 8,8

  13. [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Safranow, K

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical method for the analysis of purine derivatives in urinary calculi using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method presented herein includes extraction of purine derivatives from urinary stones, followed by chromatography on a reversed-phase column with UV detection. A simpler isocratic method was applied to quantitate 6 purines known to be components of urinary stones, namely uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, oxypurinol and allopurinol. Gradient method separated 10 additional peaks representing methyl derivatives of uric acid or xanthine (1-, 3-, 7-, and 9-methyluric acid, 1,3-,1,7-, and 3,7-dimethyluric acid, and 1-, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) (Fig. 1). Detection limits for individual compounds ranged from 25 to 140 micrograms purine per g stone weight and precision (RSD%) was 0.5-2.4%. Both methods were next used to analyze purine derivatives in urinary calculi from 48 residents of Western Pomerania. Uric acid was the main component of 9 stones. All of the uric acid stones showed admixtures of 9 other purine derivatives: natural metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and methyl derivatives of uric acid (1-,3-, and 7-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) originating from the metabolism of exogenous methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) (Tab. 1,2). Methyl derivatives of uric acid and xanthine, with a maximal content in stones of 1.7%, have hitherto not been considered constituents of urinary calculi. Statistical analysis of the results revealed strong positive correlations between the level of uric acid and of other purine derivatives in stones (Fig. 2). Correlations were also found between levels of some purines and inorganic compounds (Tab. 3). The sensitivity and specificity of HPLC with UV detection satisfy the requirements of a reference method for the analysis of purines in urinary stones. Isocratic

  14. Mechanisms of perinatal cerebral injury in fetus and newborn.

    PubMed

    Delivoria-Papadopoulos, M; Mishra, O P

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral hypoxia in the fetus and newborn results in neonatal morbidity and mortality as well as long-term sequelae such as mental retardation, seizure disorders, and cerebral palsy. In the developing brain, determinants of susceptibility to hypoxia should include the lipid composition of the brain cell membrane, the rate of lipid peroxidation, the presence of antioxidant defenses, and the development and modulation of excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, the intracellular Ca2+, and the intranuclear Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms. In addition to the developmental status of these cellular components, the response of these potential mechanisms to hypoxia determines the fate of the hypoxic brain cell in the developing brain. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy of alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl-nitrone spin adducts, studies from our laboratory demonstrated that tissue hypoxia results in increased free radical generation in the cortex of fetal guinea pigs and newborn piglets. Pretreatment with MgSO4 significantly decreased the hypoxia-induced increase in free radical generation in the term fetal brain. We also showed that brain tissue hypoxia modifies the NMDA receptor ion-channel recognition and modulatory sites. Furthermore, a higher increase in NMDA receptor agonist-dependent Ca2+ in synaptosomes was demonstrated. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ may activate several enzymatic pathways such as phospholipase A2 and metabolism of archidonic acid by cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase, conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase to xanthine oxidase by proteases, and activation of nitric oxide synthase. Using inhibitors of each of these enzymes such as cyclooxygenase (indomethacin), lipoxygenase (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), xanthine oxidase (allopurinol), and nitric oxide synthase (N-nitro-L-arginine), studies have shown that these enzyme reactions result in oxygen free radical generation, membrane peroxidation, and

  15. Anti-oxidative and photo-protective effects of coumarins isolated from Fraxinus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bum-Chun; Lee, So Yong; Lee, Hwa Jeong; Sim, Gwan-Sub; Kim, Jin-Hui; Kim, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Young-Ho; Lee, Dong-Hwan; Pyo, Hyeong-Bae; Choe, Tae-Boo; Moon, Dong Cheul; Yun, Yeo Pyo; Hong, Jin Tae

    2007-10-01

    Free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are generated by UV irradiation, may cause serious injury to skin cell membranes, DNA and functional proteins. In addition, these agents stimulate the expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade most components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including collagen. In order to develop new anti-photoaging agents, five major components from the extract of Fraxinus chinensis extract (FCE) were identified. Two of the major components of FCE were found to be esculin (11.2%) and esculetin (1.9%). FCE (IC50: 50.0 microg/mL 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 19.8 microg/mL, superoxide anion radical) and esculetin (IC50: 2.1 microg/mL DPPH; 0.6 microg/mL, superoxide anion radical) showed strong antioxidative activities. Of the compounds tested, esculetin showed the strongest scavenging activity against DPPH radicals, followed by superoxide anions from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. The intracellular ROS scavenging activity showed that oxidation of 5-(6-)-chloromethyl-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-H2DCFDA) was effectively inhibited by esculetin, with potent free radical scavenging activity was also shown in UVB-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Moreover, treatment of UVA-irradiated HDFs with esculetin resulted in dose-dependent decreases in the expression levels of MMP-1 mRNA and protein. From these results, FCE and one of its components, esculetin, were predicted to be potentially useful as ingredients in cosmetics for protecting against photoaging.

  16. Mechanisms of the Formation of Adenine, Guanine, and Their Analogues in UV-Irradiated Mixed NH3:H2O Molecular Ices Containing Purine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bera, Partha P.; Stein, Tamar; Head-Gordon, Martin; Lee, Timothy J.

    2017-08-01

    We investigated the formation mechanisms of the nucleobases adenine and guanine and the nucleobase analogues hypoxanthine, xanthine, isoguanine, and 2,6-diaminopurine in a UV-irradiated mixed 10:1 H2O:NH3 ice seeded with precursor purine by using ab initio and density functional theory computations. Our quantum chemical investigations suggest that a multistep reaction mechanism involving purine cation, hydroxyl and amino radicals, together with water and ammonia, explains the experimentally obtained products in an independent study. The relative abundances of these products appear to largely follow from relative thermodynamic stabilities. The key role of the purine cation is likely to be the reason why purine is not functionalized in pure ammonia ice, where cations are promptly neutralized by free electrons from NH3 ionization. Amine group addition to purine is slightly favored over hydroxyl group attachment based on energetics, but hydroxyl is much more abundant due to higher abundance of H2O. The amino group is preferentially attached to the 6 position, giving 6-aminopurine, that is, adenine, while the hydroxyl group is preferentially attached to the 2 position, leading to 2-hydroxypurine. A second substitution by hydroxyl or amino group occurs at either the 6 or the 2 position depending on the first substitution. Given that H2O is far more abundant than NH3 in the experimentally studied ices (as well as based on interstellar abundances), xanthine and isoguanine are expected to be the most abundant bi-substituted photoproducts.

  17. Susceptibility of Trichophyton quinckeanum and Trichophyton rubrum to products of oxidative metabolism.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R A; Shennan, G I

    1987-07-01

    Two dermatophyte strains, Trichophyton quinckeanum and Trichophyton rubrum, were highly susceptible to in vitro killing by components of the H2O2-peroxidase-halide system. Both strains were, however, resistant to relatively high concentrations of reagent H2O2 or H2O2 enzymatically generated by glucose and glucose oxidase, KI, or lactoperoxidase (LPO) alone. Resistance to hydrogen peroxidase killing was found to be in part due to the presence of endogenous catalase in the fungi; susceptibility was increased by pretreatment of the fungi with a catalase inhibitor. Kinetic studies using small quantities of reagent or enzymatically generated H2O2 and LPO-KI showed that the system was lethal for both fungal strains within 1 min. Furthermore, using the glucose-glucose oxidase-LPO-KI system, it was shown that catalase, superoxide dismutase and histidine scavengers of H2O2, superoxide anion and singlet oxygen, respectively, prevented the killing of fungus, whereas scavengers of hydroxyl radicals such as benzoate and mannitol had no effect. T. quinckeanum was found to contain large quantities of superoxide anion, as judged by the nitroblue-tetrazolium test. Consequently, the xanthine (or hypoxanthine) and xanthine oxidase system in which the main product is superoxide anion had no toxic effect on the fungus. The high sensitivity of dermatophytes to killing by the H2O2-peroxidase-halide system active in polymorphonuclear neutrophils and macrophages may account in part for fungal toxicity in vivo.

  18. Iodide oxidation and iodine reduction mediated by horseradish peroxidase in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA): the superoxide effect.

    PubMed

    Chang, H C; Bumpus, J A

    2001-04-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is an inhibitor of iodide (I-) oxidation that is catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase (HRP). HRP-mediated iodine (I2) reduction and triiodide (I3+) disappearance occur in the presence of this inhibitor. It is interesting that in the presence of EDTA, HRP produces superoxide radical, a reactive oxygen species that is required for iodine reduction. Substitution of potassium superoxide (KO2) or a biochemical superoxide generating system (xanthine/xanthine oxidase) for HRP and H2O2 in the reaction mixture also can reduce iodine to iodide. Thus, iodine reduction mediated by HRP occurs because HRP is able to mediate the formation of superoxide in the presence of EDTA and H2O2. Although superoxide is able to mediate iodine reduction directly, other competing reactions appear to be more important. For example, high concentrations (mM range) of EDTA are required for efficient iodine reduction in this system. Under such conditions, the concentration (microM range) of contaminating EDTA-Fe(III) becomes catalytically important. In the presence of superoxide, EDTA-Fe(III) is reduced to EDTA-Fe(II), which is able to reduce iodine and form triiodide rapidly. Also of importance is the fact that EDTA-Fe(II) reacts with hydrogen peroxide to form hydroxyl radical. Hydroxyl radical involvement is supported by the fact that a wide variety of hydroxyl radical (OH) scavengers can inhibit HRP dependent iodine reduction in the presence of EDTA and hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Anti-Oxidant, Anti-Aging, and Anti-Melanogenic Properties of the Essential Oils from Two Varieties of Alpinia zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pham Thi Be; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2015-09-14

    Here, we investigated the anti-oxidant and anti-aging effects of essential oils (EOs) from the leaves of Alpinia zerumbet (tairin and shima) in vitro and anti-melanogenic effects in B16F10 melanoma cells. The anti-oxidant activities were performed with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS); nitric oxide; singlet oxygen; hydroxyl radical scavenging; and xanthine oxidase. The inhibitory activities against collagenase, elastase, hyaluronidase, and tyrosinase were employed for anti-aging. The anti-melanogenic was assessed in B16F10 melanoma cells by melanin synthesis and intracellular tyrosinase inhibitory activity. The volatile chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The EO was a complex mixture mainly consisting of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. The results revealed that tairin and shima EOs showed strong anti-oxidant activities against DPPH and nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and xanthine oxidase inhibition. Compared to shima EO; tairin EO exhibited strong anti-aging activity by inhibiting collagenase, tyrosinase, hyaluronidase, and elastase (IC50 = 11 ± 0.1; 25 ± 1.2; 83 ± 1.6; and 213 ± 2 μg/mL, respectively). Both EOs inhibited intracellular tyrosinase activity; thus, reducing melanin synthesis. These results suggest that tairin EO has better anti-oxidant/anti-aging activity than shima EO, but both are equally anti-melanogenic.

  20. Activation of proteolytic enzymes and depression of the sarcolemmal Na+/K+-ATPase in ischemia-reperfused heart may be mediated through oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raja B; Hryshko, Larry; Freed, Darren; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2012-02-01

    We tested whether the activation of proteolytic enzymes, calpain, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is mediated through oxidative stress. For this purpose, isolated rat hearts were subjected to a 30 min global ischemia followed by a 30 min reperfusion. Cardiac function was monitored and the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, calpain, and MMP were measured. Depression of cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity in I/R hearts was associated with increased calpain and MMP activities. These alterations owing to I/R were similar to those observed in hearts perfused with hypoxic medium, H(2)O(2) and xanthine plus xanthine oxidase. The I/R-induced changes were attenuated by ischemic preconditioning as well as by perfusing the hearts with N-acetylcysteine or mercaptopropionylglycine. Inhibition of MMP activity in hearts treated with doxycycline depressed the I/R-induced changes in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity without affecting the calpain activation. On the other hand, inhibition of calpain activity upon treatment with leupeptin or MDL 28170 significantly reduced the MMP activity in addition to attenuating the I/R-induced alterations in cardiac function and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. These results suggest that the I/R-induced depression in Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and cardiac function may be a consequence of the increased activities of both calpain and MMP because of oxidative stress in the heart.

  1. An investigation of the antiplatelet effects of succinobucol (AGI-1067).

    PubMed

    Houston, Stephanie A; Ugusman, Azizah; Gnanadesikan, Sukanya; Kennedy, Simon

    2017-05-01

    Succinobucol is a phenolic antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet effects. Given the importance of oxidant stress in modulating platelet-platelet and platelet-vessel wall interactions, the aim of this study was to establish if antioxidant activity was responsible for the antiplatelet activity of succinobucol. Platelet aggregation in response to collagen and adenosine diphosphate (ADP) was studied in rabbit whole blood and platelet-rich plasma using impedance aggregometry. The effect of oxidant stress on aggregation, platelet lipid peroxides, and vascular tone was studied by incubating platelets, washed platelets or preconstricted rabbit iliac artery rings respectively with a combination of xanthine and xanthine oxidase (X/XO). To study the effect of succinobucol in vivo, anaesthetized rats were injected with up to 150 mg/kg succinobucol and aggregation measured in blood removed 15 mins later. Succinobucol (10 -5 -10 -4 M) significantly attenuated platelet aggregation to collagen and ADP in whole blood and platelet-rich plasma. X/XO significantly increased aggregation to collagen and platelet lipid peroxides and this was reversed by succinobucol. Addition of X/XO to denuded rabbit iliac arteries caused a dose-dependent relaxation which was significantly inhibited by succinobucol. In vivo administration up to 150 mg/kg had no effect on heart rate or mean arterial blood pressure but significantly inhibited platelet aggregation to collagen ex vivo. In conclusion, succinobucol displays anti-platelet activity in rabbit and rat blood and reverses the increase in platelet aggregation in response to oxidant stress.

  2. Hydrogen peroxide stimulates rat colonic prostaglandin production and alters electrolyte transport.

    PubMed Central

    Karayalcin, S S; Sturbaum, C W; Wachsman, J T; Cha, J H; Powell, D W

    1990-01-01

    The changes in short circuit current (electrogenic Cl- secretion) of rat colon brought about by xanthine/xanthine oxidase in the Ussing chamber were inhibited by catalase and diethyldithiocarbamate, but not by superoxide dismutase. These results, the reproduction of the response with glucose/glucose oxidase and with exogenous H2O2, and the lack of effect of preincubation with deferoxamine or thiourea implicate H2O2, and not O2- or OH., as the important reactive oxygen metabolite altering intestinal electrolyte transport. 1 mM H2O2 stimulated colonic PGE2 and PGI2 production 8- and 15-fold, respectively, inhibited neutral NaCl absorption, and stimulated biphasic electrogenic Cl secretion with little effect on enterocyte lactic dehydrogenase release, epithelial conductance, or histology. Cl- secretion was reduced by cyclooxygenase inhibition. Also, the Cl- secretion, but not the increase in prostaglandin production, was reduced by enteric nervous system blockade with tetrodotoxin, hexamethonium, or atropine. Thus, H2O2 appears to alter electrolyte transport by releasing prostaglandins that activate the enteric nervous system. The change in short circuit current in response to Iloprost, but not PGE2, was blocked by tetrodotoxin. Therefore, PGI2 may be the mediator of the H2O2 response. H2O2 produced in nontoxic concentrations in the inflamed gut could have significant physiologic effects on intestinal water and electrolyte transport. Images PMID:2164049

  3. Urinary and plasma purine derivatives in fed and fasted llamas (Lama glama and L. guanacoe).

    PubMed

    Bakker, M L; Chen, X B; Kyle, D J; Orskov, E R; Bourke, D A

    1996-02-01

    The changes in urinary and plasma purine derivatives in response to fasting and level of feeding in llamas were examines. In one experiment, four llamas were gradually deprived of feed within 3 days and then fasted for 6 days. Daily urinary excretion of purine derivatives decreased with feed intake and leveled on the last 3 days of fasting at 177 +/- 26 mumol/kg W0.75. Allantoin and uric acid comprised 71% and 15% of total purine derivatives, respectively, in both fed and fasted states, but hypoxanthine plus xanthine increased from 9% to 36%. Plasma concentration of allantoin declined with feed intake reduction, but those of uric acid (217 mumol/l) and hypoxanthine plus xanthine (27 mumol/l) remained relatively unchanged. Concentration of uric acid was higher than that of allantoin, probably due to a high reabsorption of uric acid in renal tubules, which was measured as over 90%. In a second experiment, the four llamas were fed at 860 and 1740 g dry matter/d in a crossover design. Urinary total purine derivatives excretion responded to feed intake (10.4 vs 14.4 mmol/d), although the observed differences did not reach significance. Compared with some ruminant species, it appears that the llama resembles sheep regarding the magnitude of urinary purine derivatives excretion but is unique in maintaining a high concentration of uric acid in plasma, which could be part of the llama's adaptation to their environment.

  4. Determination of caffeine, myosmine, and nicotine in chocolate by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christoph; Vetter, Florian; Richter, Elmar; Bracher, Franz

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of the bioactive components caffeine (xanthine alkaloid), myosmine and nicotine (pyridine alkaloids) in different edibles and plants is well known, but the content of myosmine and nicotine is still ambiguous in milk/dark chocolate. Therefore, a sensitive method for determination of these components was established, a simple separation of the dissolved analytes from the matrix, followed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS/MS). This is the first approach for simultaneous determination of caffeine, myosmine, and nicotine with a convenient SPME technique. Calibration curves were linear for the xanthine alkaloid (250 to 3000 mg/kg) and the pyridine alkaloids (0.000125 to 0.003000 mg/kg). Residuals of the calibration curves were lower than 15%, hence the limits of detection were set as the lowest points of the calibration curves. The limits of detection calculated from linearity data were for caffeine 216 mg/kg, for myosmine 0.000110 mg/kg, and for nicotine 0.000120 mg/kg. Thirty samples of 5 chocolate brands with varying cocoa contents (30% to 99%) were analyzed in triplicate. Caffeine and nicotine were detected in all samples of chocolate, whereas myosmine was not present in any sample. The caffeine content ranged from 420 to 2780 mg/kg (relative standard deviation 0.1 to 11.5%) and nicotine from 0.000230 to 0.001590 mg/kg (RSD 2.0 to 22.1%). © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Mycophenolic acid induces differentiation of Toxoplasma gondii RH strain tachyzoites into bradyzoites and formation of cyst-like structure in vitro.

    PubMed

    Castro-Elizalde, Kitzia N; Hernández-Contreras, Pedro; Ramírez-Flores, Carlos J; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Gómez de León, Carmen T; Mondragón-Castelán, Mónica; Mondragón-Flores, Ricardo

    2018-02-01

    The biochemical and structural changes that occur during the conversion of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites to bradyzoites and the formation of tissue cyst are not well understood. Maintaining cells infected with T. gondii type II and III strains under stress conditions induces the tachyzoite-bradyzoite in vitro differentiation, along with the formation of cyst-like structures. However, due to the long exposure to such conditions required to induce the differentiation, the severe damages in the host cell and the low encystation frequency, it has been difficult to dissect in more detail these processes. Here, we successfully induced the in vitro formation of Toxoplasma cysts-like structures from tachyzoites of the type I RH strain by treating with mycophenolic acid, an inhibitor of the inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Mycophenolic acid is a drug widely used for HXGPRT positive selection of Toxoplasma mutant strains along with xanthine incubation in the culture medium; under such conditions, formation of tissue cysts has not been reported. We show that the exposure of extracellular tachyzoites to mycophenolic acid in absence of xanthine, followed by host cell invasion, triggered their differentiation into cyst-like structures. The differential expression of CST1, BAG1, and SAG1 molecules, as well as the structural modifications of infected cells, was characterized during the formation of cyst-like structures in vitro. These findings will allow the characterization of signaling pathways involved in tachyzoite to bradyzoite conversion and formation of tissue cysts.

  6. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of an artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) aqueous extract.

    PubMed

    Zan, Meriele A; Ferraz, Alexandre B F; Richter, Marc F; Picada, Jaqueline N; de Andrade, Heloisa H R; Lehmann, Mauricio; Dihl, Rafael R; Nunes, Emilene; Semedo, Juliane; Da Silva, Juliana

    2013-02-01

    The Cynara scolymus (artichoke) is widely consumed as tea or food and shows important therapeutic properties. However, few studies have assessed the possible toxic effects of artichoke extracts. This study evaluates genotoxic and mutagenic activities of artichoke leaf aqueous extract in mice using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Leaf extracts were given by gavage (500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. Extract composition was investigated using phytochemical screening and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, antioxidant capacity was analyzed through the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and xanthine oxidase assay. Phytochemical screening detected the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and saponins. HPLC analyses indicated the presence of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, isoquercetrin, and rutin. Extracts showed a dose-dependent free radical scavenging effect of DPPH and an inhibitory effect of xanthine oxidase. The genotoxic results showed that leaf extracts did not increase micronuclei in peripheral blood cells. Compared to the control group, a significant increase in comet assay values was observed only in bone marrow of group treated with 2000 mg/kg, the highest dose tested, indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. This is the first report of in vivo mutagenic and genotoxic evaluation with C. scolymus. The present study revealed leaf aqueous extract from artichoke shows lack of mutagenicity in vivo, and low genotoxicity and antioxidant activity; indicating that artichoke tea should be consumed with moderation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Black grape and garlic extracts protect against cyclosporine a nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Durak, Ilker; Cetin, Recep; Candir, Ozden; Devrim, Erdinç; Kiliçoğlu, Bülent; Avci, Aslihan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the natural antioxidant foods, dried black grape and garlic, protect against cyclosporine nephrotoxicity. Forty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were given Cyclosporine A (CsA) orally for 10 days, with the antioxidant food supplementation begun 3 days before CsA treatment and continued during the study period (totaling 13 days). In each group (control, CsA alone, CsA plus black grape, CsA plus aqueous garlic extract, aqueous garlic extract alone and black grape alone), there were 7 animals. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed; their kidneys were removed and prepared for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Oxidant (xanthine oxidase enzyme and malondialdehyde) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase enzymes) parameters were measured in the kidney tissues of the groups. Histopathological examinations of the tissues were also performed. It has been found that CsA creates oxidant load to the kidneys through both xanthine oxidase activation and impaired antioxidant defense system, which accelerates oxidation reactions in the kidney tissue. Supplementation with either dried black grape or aqueous garlic extract led to reduced malondialdehyde level in the kidney tissue possibly, by preventing oxidant reactions. In conclusion, the results suggest that impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance may play part in the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity, and some foods with high antioxidant power may ameliorate this toxicity, in agreement with studies with antioxidant vitamins.

  9. Effect of Microalgal Extracts of Tetraselmis suecica against UVB-Induced Photoaging in Human Skin Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wol Soon; Yang, Kwang Mo; Park, Hee Sung; Kim, Gi Yong; Nam, Byung Hyouk; Jeong, Min Ho; Choi, Yoo Jin

    2012-12-01

    Exposure of cells to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can induce production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage cellular components. In addition, these agents can stimulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and decrease collagen synthesis in human skin cells. In this study, we examined the anti-photoaging effects of extracts of Tetraselmis suecica (W-TS). W-TS showed the strongest scavenging activity against 2,2-difenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals, followed by superoxide anions from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. We observed that the levels of both intracellular ROS and lipid peroxidation significantly increased in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase) and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) significantly decreased in cells. However, W-TS pretreatment, at the maximum tested concentration, significantly decreased intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in the cells. At this same concentration, W-TS did not show cytotoxicity. Type 1 procollagen and MMP-1 released were quantified using RT-PCR techniques. The results showed that W-TS protected type 1 procollagen against UVBinduced depletion in fibroblast cells in a dose-dependent manner via inhibition of UVB-induced MMP-1. Taken together, the results of the study suggest that W-TS effectively inhibits UVB-induced photoaging in skin fibroblasts by its strong anti-oxidant ability.

  10. Effect of Microalgal Extracts of Tetraselmis suecica against UVB-Induced Photoaging in Human Skin Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Wol Soon; Yang, Kwang Mo; Park, Hee Sung; Kim, Gi Yong; Nam, Byung Hyouk

    2012-01-01

    Exposure of cells to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation can induce production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which damage cellular components. In addition, these agents can stimulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and decrease collagen synthesis in human skin cells. In this study, we examined the anti-photoaging effects of extracts of Tetraselmis suecica (W-TS). W-TS showed the strongest scavenging activity against 2,2-difenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and peroxyl radicals, followed by superoxide anions from the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. We observed that the levels of both intracellular ROS and lipid peroxidation significantly increased in UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblast cells. Furthermore, the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., superoxide dismutase) and the levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants (e.g., glutathione) significantly decreased in cells. However, W-TS pretreatment, at the maximum tested concentration, significantly decreased intracellular ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels in the cells. At this same concentration, W-TS did not show cytotoxicity. Type 1 procollagen and MMP-1 released were quantified using RT-PCR techniques. The results showed that W-TS protected type 1 procollagen against UVBinduced depletion in fibroblast cells in a dose-dependent manner via inhibition of UVB-induced MMP-1. Taken together, the results of the study suggest that W-TS effectively inhibits UVB-induced photoaging in skin fibroblasts by its strong anti-oxidant ability. PMID:24278616

  11. The solute specificity profiles of nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) from Zea mays and Setaria viridis illustrate functional flexibility.

    PubMed

    Rapp, Micah; Schein, Jessica; Hunt, Kevin A; Nalam, Vamsi; Mourad, George S; Schultes, Neil P

    2016-03-01

    The solute specificity profiles (transport and binding) for the nucleobase cation symporter 1 (NCS1) proteins, from the closely related C4 grasses Zea mays and Setaria viridis, differ from that of Arabidopsis thaliana and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii NCS1. Solute specificity profiles for NCS1 from Z. mays (ZmNCS1) and S. viridis (SvNCS1) were determined through heterologous complementation studies in NCS1-deficient Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. The four Viridiplantae NCS1 proteins transport the purines adenine and guanine, but unlike the dicot and algal NCS1, grass NCS1 proteins fail to transport the pyrimidine uracil. Despite the high level of amino acid sequence similarity, ZmNCS1 and SvNCS1 display distinct solute transport and recognition profiles. SvNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, cytosine, and allantoin and competitively binds xanthine and uric acid. ZmNCS1 transports adenine, guanine, and cytosine and competitively binds, 5-fluorocytosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine, and uric acid. The differences in grass NCS1 profiles are due to a limited number of amino acid alterations. These amino acid residues do not correspond to amino acids essential for overall solute and cation binding or solute transport, as previously identified in bacterial and fungal NCS1, but rather may represent residues involved in subtle solute discrimination. The data presented here reveal that within Viridiplantae, NCS1 proteins transport a broad range of nucleobase compounds and that the solute specificity profile varies with species.

  12. Oxidative stress and inflammation response following aerobic exercise: role of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, M J; Goldfarb, A; Garten, R S; Vervaecke, L

    2014-09-01

    African-Americans are at a significantly greater risk for developing several diseases and conditions. These conditions often have underlying oxidative stress mechanisms. Therefore the purpose of this investigation was to ascertain the post-exercise oxidative response to a single bout of aerobic exercise in African-American and Caucasian college-age females. A total of 10 African-American and 10 Caucasian females completed the study. Each subject had her VO2 max measured while exercising on a treadmill. A week later, each subject returned to the laboratory and performed a 30-min run at 70% of her VO2max. Blood samples were taken immediately prior to and following exercise for analysis. Lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyls, malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase, glutathione in the reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) forms, TNFα and interleukin 6 were measured from blood taken before and after exercise. Significance was set at p≤0.05 a priori. Xanthine oxidase was the only measure that did not significantly increase following exercise. All other markers showed a significant elevation in response to the exercise bout with no difference between groups except that the Caucasian group had significantly higher malondialdehyde post-exercise compared to the African-American group. This cohort of college-age African-American and Caucasian females showed little difference in their response to a single 30-min run at 70% of their max in the markers of oxidative stress within the blood. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Selective cytotoxicity of an oxygen-radical-generating enzyme conjugated to a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed Central

    Battelli, M G; Abbondanza, A; Tazzari, P L; Dinota, A; Rizzi, S; Grassi, G; Gobbi, M; Stirpe, F

    1988-01-01

    The monoclonal antibody 8A, which recognizes a human plasma cell-associated antigen, was covalently linked to xanthine oxidase in a conjugate maintaining both immunological and enzymatic properties. A significant degree of target cell lysis was obtained at an enzyme concentration that was ineffective on non-target cells and on myeloid staminal cells (CFU-GM). The cytotoxic activity was abolished by an excess of antibody, by allopurinol and by superoxide dismutase and catalase. A possible use of the conjugate for bone marrow purging in multiple myeloma patients is suggested. PMID:3262464

  14. Selective cytotoxicity of an oxygen-radical-generating enzyme conjugated to a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Battelli, M G; Abbondanza, A; Tazzari, P L; Dinota, A; Rizzi, S; Grassi, G; Gobbi, M; Stirpe, F

    1988-07-01

    The monoclonal antibody 8A, which recognizes a human plasma cell-associated antigen, was covalently linked to xanthine oxidase in a conjugate maintaining both immunological and enzymatic properties. A significant degree of target cell lysis was obtained at an enzyme concentration that was ineffective on non-target cells and on myeloid staminal cells (CFU-GM). The cytotoxic activity was abolished by an excess of antibody, by allopurinol and by superoxide dismutase and catalase. A possible use of the conjugate for bone marrow purging in multiple myeloma patients is suggested.

  15. Host Factors Contributing to Disability Following Sulfur Mustard Exposure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-30

    800 bp EGF fragment inserted (now called pGEGF), (c) pGEMEX with the larger pmEGF-26F12 4000 bp fragment, ( d ) pGEMEX with 8 DAMD17-90-C-0037 - March...xanthine oxidase, 21 DAMD17-90-C-0037 -- March 1992 - Midterm Report -- Arthur M. Dannenberg, Jr., M.D. D -amino acid oxidase, monoamine oxidase and alpha...mouse. J. Immunol. 141: 3081-3095, 1988. 4. Cooper, C.L., Mueller, C., Sinchaisri, T-A., Pirmez, D ., Chan, J., Kaplan, G., Young, S.M.M., Weissman, I.L

  16. Antioxidant, mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of an aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall.

    PubMed

    Krifa, Mounira; Bouhlel, Ines; Skandrani, Ines; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila; Ghedira, Kamel

    2014-01-01

    An aqueous extract of Limoniastrum guyonianum gall (G extract) was tested on Salmonella typhimurium to assess its mutagenic and antimutagenic effects. This extract showed no mutagenicity when tested with S. typhimurium strain TA104 either with or without exogenous metabolic activation mixture (S9), whereas our findings revealed that the aqueous gall extract induced a mutagenic effect in S. typhimurium TA1538 when tested in the presence, as well as in the absence, of S9 activation mixture at the concentration of 500 µg/mL. Thus, the same concentration produced a mutagenic effect, when incubated with S. typhimurium TA100 in the presence of metabolic activation mixture. In contrast, our results showed a weak antimutagenic potential of the same extract against sodium azide in the presence of S. typhimurium TA100 and S. typhimurium TA1538 without metabolic activation (S9), whereas, in the presence of S. typhimurium TA104, we obtained a significant inhibition percentage (76.39%) toward 3.25 µg/plate of methylmethanesulfonate. Antimutagenicity against aflatoxin B1, 4-nitro-o-phenylene-diamine and 2-aminoanthracène was significant, with an inhibition percentage of, respectively, 70.63, 99.3 and 63.37% in the presence of, respectively, S. typhimurium TA100, S. typhimurium TA1538 and S. typhimurium TA104 strains at a concentration of 250 µg/plate after metabolic activation (S9). Antioxidant capacity of the tested extract was evaluated using the enzymatic (xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay) and the nonenzymatic (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) system. G extract exhibited high antioxidant activity.

  17. CD26: A Prognostic Marker of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Children in the Post Remission Induction Phase.

    PubMed

    Mehde, Atheer Awad; Yusof, Faridah; Adel Mehdi, Wesen; Zainulabdeen, Jwan Abdulmohsin

    2015-01-01

    ALL is an irredeemable disease due to the resistance to treatment. There are several influences which are involved in such resistance to chemotherapy, including oxidative stress as a result of the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and presence of hypodiploid cells. Cluster of differentiation 26 (CD26), also known as dipeptidyl peptidase-4, is a 110 kDa, multifunctional, membrane-bound glycoprotein. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical significance of serum CD26 in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia patients in the post remission induction phase, as well as the relationship between CD26 activity and the oxidative stress status. CD26, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI), in addition to activity of related enzymes myeloperoxidase, glutathione- s-transferase and xanthine oxidase, were analysed in sixty children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase. The study showed significant elevation in CD26, TOS and OSI levels in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase in comparison to healthy control samples. In contrast, myeloperoxidase, glutathione-s-transferase and xanthine oxidase activities were decreased significantly. A significant correlation between CD26 concentration and some oxidative stress parameters was evident in ALL patients. Serum levels of CD26 appear to be useful as a new biomarker of oxidative stress in children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in the post remission induction phase, and levels of antioxidants must be regularly estimated during the treatment of children with ALL.

  18. Protective effects of propolis on methotrexate-induced testis injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih; Çilenk, Kübra Tuğçe; Karabulut, Derya; Ünalmış, Sunay; Deligönül, Erkan; Öztürk, İsmet; Kaymak, Emin

    2016-04-01

    Propolis is an adhesive substance which is collected and used by honeybees. Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. This study was designed to determine whether propolis could protect against dysfunction and oxidative stress induced by methotrexate-induced injury in rat testis. A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 days by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under anesthesia, and their testes were removed. The histopathological and biochemical analysis along with apoptosis assessment of testis tissues were compared. Immunohistochemical analysis of Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) were performed. The phenolic characterization of propolis was performed by Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Methotrexate caused tended to increase in malondialdehyde level and in the number of apoptotic cells; it also caused a decrease in MSTD and JTBS, PCNA and HSP-70 expression and xanthine oxidase levels in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in malondialdehyde, xanthine oxidase levels and HSP-70 expression and improved testicular morphology and JTBS. It was found that, methorexate gives rise to serious damage in the testes and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing testicular injury. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Cell death induced by flavonoid glycosides with and without copper.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hsue-Yin; Tsang, Shih-Fang; Lin, Kai-Wei; Yang, Shyh-Chyun; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2008-07-01

    The ability of flavonoid glycosides isolated from several plants to induce DNA breakage was examined using supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA by agarose gel electrophoresis in the presence of Cu(II). Among all the compounds, 1, 4, and 6 could cause significant breakages of supercoiled plasmid pBR322 DNA in the presence of Cu(II). Cu(I) was not shown to be an essential intermediate in the process of pBR322 DNA breakage by using the Cu(I)-specific sequestering reagent neocuproine. A decreased cell viability was enhanced in gastric carcinoma SCM-1 cells treating with lower concentrations of 1 and 6 when cotreated with increased concentrations of Cu(II), respectively. Treatments of SCM-1 cells with 500 microM of 1 in the presence of 300 or 500 microM of Cu(II) inhibited the Cu(II)-induced apoptosis. Compound 1 (500 microM) could prevent cell death by inhibiting the 500 microM Cu(II)-induced apoptosis and necrosis, but did not have any effect on the mitochondrial membrane potential changed by 500 microM Cu(II). Both compounds 1 and 6 could inhibit the DNA breakages caused by O2- while 1 also revealed inhibitory effect on xanthine oxidase with an IC50 value of 22.7+/-6.9 microM. These results indicated that compound 1 with a higher concentration may probably mediate through the suppression of xanthine oxidase activity and reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by high concentration of Cu(II) (500 microM) and prevent the following cell death.

  20. Influence of infection by Toxoplasma gondii on purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice experimentally infected mice.

    PubMed

    Tonin, Alexandre A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Casali, Emerson A; Silveira, Stephanie S; Moritz, Cesar E J; Camillo, Giovana; Flores, Mariana M; Fighera, Rafael; Thomé, Gustavo R; Morsch, Vera M; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Rue, Mario De La; Vogel, Fernanda S F; Lopes, Sonia T A

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the purine levels and E-ADA activity in the brain of mice (BALB/c) experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii. In experiment I (n=24) the mice were infected with RH strain of T. gondii, while in experiment II (n=36) they were infected with strain ME-49 of T. gondii. Our results showed that, for RH strain (acute phase), an increase in both periods in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, hypoxanthine, xanthine (only on day 6 PI) and uric acid (only on day 6 PI). By the other hand, the RH strain led, on days 4 and 6 PI, to a reduction in the concentration of inosine. ME-49, a cystogenic strain, showed some differences in acute and chronic phase, since on day 6 PI the levels of ATP and ADP were increased, while on day 30 these same nucleotides were reduced. On day 60 PI, ME-49 induced a reduction in the levels of ATP, ADP, AMP, adenosine, inosine and xanthine, while uric acid was increased. A decrease of E-ADA activity was observed in brain on days 4 and 6 PI (RH), and 30 PI (ME-49); however on day 60 PI E-ADA activity was increased for infection by ME-49 strain. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that infection with T. gondii changes the purine levels and the activity of E-ADA in brain, which may be associated with neurological signs commonly observed in this disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Salivary Antigen-5/CAP Family Members Are Cu2+-dependent Antioxidant Enzymes That Scavenge O2⨪ and Inhibit Collagen-induced Platelet Aggregation and Neutrophil Oxidative Burst*

    PubMed Central

    Assumpção, Teresa C. F.; Ma, Dongying; Schwarz, Alexandra; Reiter, Karine; Santana, Jaime M.; Andersen, John F.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Nardone, Glenn; Yu, Lee L.; Francischetti, Ivo M. B.

    2013-01-01

    The function of the antigen-5/CAP family of proteins found in the salivary gland of bloodsucking animals has remained elusive for decades. Antigen-5 members from the hematophagous insects Dipetalogaster maxima (DMAV) and Triatoma infestans (TIAV) were expressed and discovered to attenuate platelet aggregation, ATP secretion, and thromboxane A2 generation by low doses of collagen (<1 μg/ml) but no other agonists. DMAV did not interact with collagen, glycoprotein VI, or integrin α2β1. This inhibitory profile resembles the effects of antioxidants Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in platelet function. Accordingly, DMAV was found to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by O2⨪ generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase, implying that it exhibits antioxidant activity. Moreover, our results demonstrate that DMAV blunts the luminescence signal of O2⨪ generated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated neutrophils. Mechanistically, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed that DMAV, like Cu,Zn-SOD, interacts with Cu2+, which provides redox potential for catalytic removal of O2⨪. Notably, surface plasmon resonance experiments (BIAcore) determined that DMAV binds sulfated glycosaminoglycans (e.g. heparin, KD ∼100 nmol/liter), as reported for extracellular SOD. Finally, fractions of the salivary gland of D. maxima with native DMAV contain Cu2+ and display metal-dependent antioxidant properties. Antigen-5/CAP emerges as novel family of Cu2+-dependent antioxidant enzymes that inhibit neutrophil oxidative burst and negatively modulate platelet aggregation by a unique salivary mechanism. PMID:23564450

  2. Extracellular redox state regulates features associated with prostate cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Chaiswing, Luksana; Zhong, Weixiong; Cullen, Joseph J; Oberley, Larry W; Oberley, Terry D

    2008-07-15

    We have examined the possible role of extracellular reduction-oxidation (redox) state in regulation of biological/biochemical features associated with prostate cancer cell invasion. DU145, PC-3, and RWPE1-derived human prostate cancer (WPE1-NB26) cell lines were used for the present in vitro analysis. Increasing levels of nitric oxide using S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine resulted in a decrease in cell invasion ability, whereas increasing levels of extracellular superoxide radical (O(2)(*-)) using xanthine/xanthine oxidase resulted in an increase in cell invasion ability in these three cell lines. WPE1-NB26 cells exhibited an increased glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio in the medium in comparison with RWPE1 cells (immortalized but nonmalignant prostate epithelial cells), suggesting an alteration of extracellular redox state of WPE1-NB26 cells. We hypothesized that O(2)(*-) production at or near the plasma membrane or in the adjacent extracellular matrix at least partially regulated prostate cancer cell invasion. Using adenovirus-mediated extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) gene transduction to enzymatically decrease O(2)(*-) levels, we showed that in the presence of heparin, adenovirus EC-SOD gene transduction resulted in an increase in the expression of EC-SOD outside the cells with resultant inhibition of cell invasion ability. This inhibition correlated with reduced metalloproteinase [matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) 2/membrane type 1-MMP] activities and increased levels of extracellular nitrite. Our results suggest a prominent role of extracellular redox status in regulation of cell invasion, which may provide opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  3. Free radicals generated by electrolysis reduces nitro blue tetrazolium in isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Chahine, R; Huet, M P; Oliva, L; Nadeau, R

    1997-02-01

    Oxygen free radicals (OFR) are highly cytotoxic when produced in the myocardium under certain pathological conditions. In isolated rat hearts perfused retrogradely, OFR were generated by electrolysis of the Krebs-Henseleit buffer (two platinum electrodes, DC current, 10 mA, 1 min). In order to find evidence that OFR are produced, we used nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) a soluble compound which yields a dark blue formazan pigment in the presence of reducing agents. Hearts were subdivided into: control, electrolysed, NBT (3.3 mg/ml) perfusion during electrolysis in the presence or absence of scavengers. The xanthine-xanthine oxidase (XXO) system known to produce superoxide radical was used as a reference. Specimens were fixed with formaldehyde and stained with eosine or Kernechtrot in preparation for light microscopical examination. Several areas of acute necrosis expressed by hyalinisation and loss of striation were observed in electrolysed hearts which present a pattern of wavy disrupted myofibers and an increase in interstitial spaces. A very faint deposition of formazan was observed in some rare areas of NBT perfused heart. Only the electrolysed group perfused with NBT and the one perfused with XXO plus NBT presented an extensive formazan deposition, mostly in the areas of fibre necrosis. Formazan was barely detectable when superoxide dismutase plus catalase were perfused in the XXO system, while it was still apparent when perfused in electrolysed hearts. These results support the hypothesis that electrolysis can be used to generate different species of OFR and to evaluate the protective action of scavenger and antioxidants against OFR-induced myocardial damage.

  4. Molybdenum cofactor deficiency causes translucent integument, male-biased lethality, and flaccid paralysis in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tsuguru; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Banno, Yutaka

    2016-06-01

    Uric acid accumulates in the epidermis of Bombyx mori larvae and renders the larval integument opaque and white. Yamamoto translucent (oya) is a novel spontaneous mutant with a translucent larval integument and unique phenotypic characteristics, such as male-biased lethality and flaccid larval paralysis. Xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) that requires a molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) for its activity is a key enzyme for uric acid synthesis. It has been observed that injection of a bovine xanthine oxidase, which corresponds functionally to XDH and contains its own MoCo activity, changes the integuments of oya mutants from translucent to opaque and white. This finding suggests that XDH/MoCo activity might be defective in oya mutants. Our linkage analysis identified an association between the oya locus and chromosome 23. Because XDH is not linked to chromosome 23 in B. mori, MoCo appears to be defective in oya mutants. In eukaryotes, MoCo is synthesized by a conserved biosynthesis pathway governed by four loci (MOCS1, MOCS2, MOCS3, and GEPH). Through a candidate gene approach followed by sequence analysis, a 6-bp deletion was detected in an exon of the B. mori molybdenum cofactor synthesis-step 1 gene (BmMOCS1) in the oya strain. Moreover, recombination was not observed between the oya and BmMOCS1 loci. These results indicate that the BmMOCS1 locus is responsible for the oya locus. Finally, we discuss the potential cause of male-biased lethality and flaccid paralysis observed in the oya mutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Peroxynitrite mediates testosterone-induced vasodilation of microvascular resistance vessels.

    PubMed

    Puttabyatappa, Yashoda; Stallone, John N; Ergul, Adviye; El-Remessy, Azza B; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen; Johnson, Maribeth; Owen, Mary P; White, Richard E

    2013-04-01

    Our knowledge of how androgens influence the cardiovascular system is far from complete, and this lack of understanding is especially true of how androgens affect resistance vessels. Our aim was to identify the signaling mechanisms stimulated by testosterone (TES) in microvascular arteries and to understand how these mechanisms mediate TES-induced vasodilation. Mesenteric microvessels were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Tension studies demonstrated a rapid, concentration-dependent, vasodilatory response to TES that did not involve protein synthesis or aromatization to 17β-estradiol. Dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and nitrotyrosine immunoblot experiments indicated that TES stimulated peroxynitrite formation in microvessels, and functional studies demonstrated that TES-induced vasodilation was inhibited by scavenging peroxynitrite. As predicted, TES enhanced the production of both peroxynitrite precursors (i.e., superoxide and nitic oxide), and xanthine oxidase was identified as the likely source of TES-stimulated superoxide production. Functional and biochemical studies indicated that TES signaling involved activity of the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor and culminated in enhanced production of cGMP and microvascular vasodilation. These findings, derived from a variety of analytical and functional approaches, provide evidence for a novel nongenomic signaling mechanism for androgen action in the microvasculature: TES-stimulated vasodilation mediated primarily by peroxynitrite formed from xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide and NO. This response was associated with activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor. We propose this mechanism could account for TES-stimulated cGMP production in microvessels and, ultimately, vasodilation.

  6. Peroxynitrite Mediates Testosterone-Induced Vasodilation of Microvascular Resistance Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Puttabyatappa, Yashoda; Stallone, John N.; Ergul, Adviye; El-Remessy, Azza B.; Kumar, Sanjiv; Black, Stephen; Johnson, Maribeth; Owen, Mary P.

    2013-01-01

    Our knowledge of how androgens influence the cardiovascular system is far from complete, and this lack of understanding is especially true of how androgens affect resistance vessels. Our aim was to identify the signaling mechanisms stimulated by testosterone (TES) in microvascular arteries and to understand how these mechanisms mediate TES-induced vasodilation. Mesenteric microvessels were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Tension studies demonstrated a rapid, concentration-dependent, vasodilatory response to TES that did not involve protein synthesis or aromatization to 17β-estradiol. Dichlorofluorescein fluorescence and nitrotyrosine immunoblot experiments indicated that TES stimulated peroxynitrite formation in microvessels, and functional studies demonstrated that TES-induced vasodilation was inhibited by scavenging peroxynitrite. As predicted, TES enhanced the production of both peroxynitrite precursors (i.e., superoxide and nitic oxide), and xanthine oxidase was identified as the likely source of TES-stimulated superoxide production. Functional and biochemical studies indicated that TES signaling involved activity of the phosphoinositide 3 (PI3) kinase-protein kinase B (Akt) cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor and culminated in enhanced production of cGMP and microvascular vasodilation. These findings, derived from a variety of analytical and functional approaches, provide evidence for a novel nongenomic signaling mechanism for androgen action in the microvasculature: TES-stimulated vasodilation mediated primarily by peroxynitrite formed from xanthine oxidase-generated superoxide and NO. This response was associated with activation of the PI3 kinase-Akt signaling cascade initiated by activation of the androgen receptor. We propose this mechanism could account for TES-stimulated cGMP production in microvessels and, ultimately, vasodilation. PMID:23318471

  7. Antioxidant effects of aminosalicylates and potential new drugs for inflammatory bowel disease: assessment in cell-free systems and inflamed human colorectal biopsies.

    PubMed

    Simmonds, N J; Millar, A D; Blake, D R; Rampton, D S

    1999-03-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of 5-aminosalicylic acid in inflammatory bowel disease may be related to its antioxidant properties. To compare in vitro the antioxidant effects of conventional drugs (5-aminosalicylic acid, corticosteroids, metronidazole), with new aminosalicylates (4-aminosalicylic acid, balsalazide) and other potential therapies (ascorbate, N-acetylcysteine, glutathione, verapamil). Compounds were assessed for efficacy in reducing the in vitro production of reactive oxygen species by cell-free systems (using xanthine/xanthine oxidase, with or without myeloperoxidase) and by colorectal biopsies from patients with ulcerative colitis using luminol-amplified chemiluminescence. 5-aminosalicylic acid and balsalazide were more potent antioxidants than 4-aminosalicylic acid or N-acetyl-5-aminosalicylic acid in cell-free systems. 5-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM) and balsalazide (20 mM) inhibited rectal biopsy chemiluminescence by 93% and 100%, respectively, compared with only 59% inhibition by 4-aminosalicylic acid (20 mM). Hydrocortisone, metronidazole and verapamil had no significant effect on chemiluminescence in any system. Ascorbate (20 mM) inhibited chemiluminescence by 100% in cell-free systems and by 60% in rectal biopsies. N-acetyl cysteine (10 mM), and both oxidized and reduced glutathione (10 mM), completely inhibited chemiluminescence in cell-free systems, but not with rectal biopsies. The antioxidant effects of compounds varies between cell-free systems and inflamed colorectal biopsies. The effect of drugs on the chemiluminescence produced by these two assay systems is useful for screening potentially new antioxidant treatments for inflammatory bowel disease. Ascorbate seems worth further study as a novel therapy.

  8. Manganese oxide particles as cytoprotective, oxygen generating agents.

    PubMed

    Tootoonchi, Mohammad Hossein; Hashempour, Mazdak; Blackwelder, Patricia L; Fraker, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    Cell culture and cellular transplant therapies are adversely affected by oxidative species and radicals. Herein, we present the production of bioactive manganese oxide nanoparticles for the purpose of radical scavenging and cytoprotection. Manganese comprises the core active structure of somatic enzymes that perform the same function, in vivo. Formulated nanoparticles were characterized structurally and surveyed for maximal activity (superoxide scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging with resultant oxygen generation) and minimal cytotoxicity (48-h direct exposure to titrated manganese oxide concentrations). Cytoprotective capacity was tested using cell exposure to hydrogen peroxide in the presence or absence of the nanoparticles. Several ideal compounds were manufactured and utilized that showed complete disproportionation of superoxide produced by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase reaction. Further, the nanoparticles showed catalase-like activity by completely converting hydrogen peroxide into the corresponding concentration of oxygen. Finally, the particles protected cells (murine β-cell insulinoma) against insult from hydrogen peroxide exposure. Based on these observed properties, these particles could be utilized to combat oxidative stress and inflammatory response in a variety of cell therapy applications. Maintaining viability once cells have been removed from their physiological niche, e.g. culture and transplant, demands proper control of critical variables such as oxygenation and removal of harmful substances e.g. reactive oxygen species. Limited catalysts can transform reactive oxygen species into molecular oxygen and, thereby, have the potential to maintain cell viability and function. Among these are manganese oxide particles which are the subject of this study. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Biological activity tests of chemical constituents from two Brazilian Labiatae plants].

    PubMed

    Isobe, Takahiko; Doe, Matsumi; Morimoto, Yoshiki; Nagata, Kumiko; Masuoka, Noriyoshi; Ohsaki, Ayumi

    2007-02-01

    We studied the bioactivities of constituents from two tropical medicinal plants, Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata. These plants found in Brazil belong to the Labiatae family. Four known compounds obtained from these herbs were identified as 3alpha, 24-dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid, betulinic acid, aurantiamide acetate, and aurantiamide benzoate by spectroscopic means. 3alpha, 24-Dihydoxylurs-12-en-28-oic acid has potent inhibitory activity against Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Porphyromomas gingivalis. Aurantiamide benzoate exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase. It was clarified that herbs Cunila spicata and Hyptis fasciculata are effective against bronchitis and gout.

  10. Damage to Candida albicans Hyphae and Pseudohyphae by the Myeloperoxidase System and Oxidative Products of Neutrophil Metabolism In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Richard D.; Clark, Robert A.; Haudenschild, Christian C.

    1980-01-01

    In previous studies, we noted that Candida hyphae and pseudohyphae could be damaged and probably killed by neutrophils, primarily by oxygen-dependent nonphagocytic mechanisms. In extending these studies, amount of damage to hyphae again was measured by inhibition of [14C]cytosine uptake. Neutrophils from only one of four patients with chronic granulomatous disease damaged hyphae at all, and neutrophils from this single patient damaged hyphae far less efficiently than simultaneously tested neutrophils from normal control subjects. Neutrophils from neither of two subjects with hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency damaged the hyphae. This confirmed the importance of oxidative mechanisms in general and myeloperoxidase-mediated systems in particular in damaging Candida hyphae. Several potentially fungicidal oxidative intermediates are produced by metabolic pathways of normal neutrophils, but their relative toxicity for Candida hyphae was previously unknown. To help determine this, cell-free in vitro systems were used to generate these potentially microbicidal products. Myeloperoxidase with hydrogen peroxide, iodide, and chloride resulted in 91.2% damage to hyphal inocula in 11 experiments. There was less damage when either chloride or iodide was omitted, and no damage when myeloperoxidase was omitted or inactivated by heating. Azide, cyanide, and catalase (but not heated catalase) inhibited the damage. Systems for generation of hydrogen peroxide could replace reagent hydrogen peroxide in the myeloperoxidase system. These included glucose oxidase, in the presence of glucose, and xanthine oxidase, in the presence of either hypoxanthine or acetaldehyde. In the presence of myeloperoxidase and a halide, the toxicity of the xanthine oxidase system was not inhibited by superoxide dismutase and, under some conditions, was marginally increased by this enzyme. This suggested that superoxide radical did not damage hyphae directly but served primarily as an intermediate in the

  11. Effect of sauna bathing and beer ingestion on plasma concentrations of purine bases.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Moriwaki, Yuji; Ka, Tuneyoshi; Takahashi, Sumio; Tsutsumi, Zenta; Cheng, Jidong; Inokuchi, Taku; Yamamoto, Asako; Hada, Toshikazu

    2004-06-01

    To determine whether sauna bathing alone or in combination with beer ingestion increases the plasma concentration of uric acid, 5 healthy subjects were tested. Urine and plasma measurements were performed before and after each took a sauna bath, ingested beer, and ingested beer just after taking a sauna bath, with a 2-week interval between each activity. Sauna bathing alone increased the plasma concentrations of uric acid and oxypurines (hypoxanthine and xanthine), and decreased the urinary and fractional excretion of uric acid, while beer ingestion alone increased the plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of uric acid and oxypurines. A combination of both increased the plasma concentration of uric acid and oxypurines, and decreased the urinary and fractional excretion of uric acid, with an increase in the urinary excretion of oxypurines. The increase in plasma concentration of uric acid with the combination protocol was not synergistic as compared to the sum of the increases by each alone. Body weight, urine volume, and the urinary excretion of sodium and chloride via dehydration were decreased following sauna bathing alone. These results suggest that sauna bathing had a relationship with enhanced purine degradation and a decrease in the urinary excretion of uric acid, leading to an increase in the plasma concentration of uric acid. Further, we concluded that extracellular volume loss may affect the common renal transport pathway of uric acid and xanthine. Therefore, it is recommended that patients with gout refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages, including beer, after taking a sauna bath, since the increase in plasma concentration of uric acid following the combination of sauna bathing and beer ingestion was additive.

  12. Purine metabolism in response to hypoxic conditions associated with breath-hold diving and exercise in erythrocytes and plasma from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Del Castillo Velasco-Martínez, Iris; Hernández-Camacho, Claudia J; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    In mammalian tissues under hypoxic conditions, ATP degradation results in accumulation of purine metabolites. During exercise, muscle energetic demand increases and oxygen consumption can exceed its supply. During breath-hold diving, oxygen supply is reduced and, although oxygen utilization is regulated by bradycardia (low heart rate) and peripheral vasoconstriction, tissues with low blood flow (ischemia) may become hypoxic. The goal of this study was to evaluate potential differences in the circulating levels of purine metabolism components between diving and exercise in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). Blood samples were taken from captive dolphins following a swimming routine (n=8) and after a 2min dive (n=8). Activity of enzymes involved in purine metabolism (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT), inosine monophosphate deshydrogenase (IMPDH), xanthine oxidase (XO), purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)), and purine metabolite (hypoxanthine (HX), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), inosine monophosphate (IMP), inosine, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)), adenosine, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), ATP, guanosine diphosphate (GDP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP)) concentrations were quantified in erythrocyte and plasma samples. Enzymatic activity and purine metabolite concentrations involved in purine synthesis and degradation, were not significantly different between diving and exercise. Plasma adenosine concentration was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.03); this may be related to dive-induced ischemia. In erythrocytes, HGPRT activity was higher after diving than exercise (p=0.007), suggesting an increased capacity for purine recycling and ATP synthesis from IMP in ischemic tissues of bottlenose dolphins during diving. Purine recycling and physiological adaptations may maintain the ATP concentrations in bottlenose dolphins after diving and exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Metabolomic Markers of Altered Nucleotide Metabolism in Early Stage Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wikoff, William R.; Grapov, Dmitry; Fahrmann, Johannes F.; DeFelice, Brian; Rom, William; Pass, Harvey; Kim, Kyoungmi; Nguyen, UyenThao; Taylor, Sandra L.; Kelly, Karen; Fiehn, Oliver; Miyamoto, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma, a type of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), is the most frequently diagnosed lung cancer and the leading cause of lung cancer mortality in the United States. It is well documented that biochemical changes occur early in the transition from normal to cancer cells, but the extent to which these alterations affect tumorigenesis in adenocarcinoma remains largely unknown. Herein we describe the application of mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis in one of the largest biomarker research studies to date aimed at distinguishing metabolic differences between malignant and non-malignant lung tissue. Gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to measure 462 metabolites in 39 malignant and non-malignant lung tissue pairs from current or former smokers with early stage (Stage IA–IB) adenocarcinoma. Statistical mixed effects models, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis and network integration, were used to identify key cancer-associated metabolic perturbations in adenocarcinoma compared to non-malignant tissue. Cancer-associated biochemical alterations were characterized by: 1) decreased glucose levels, consistent with the Warburg effect, 2) changes in cellular redox status highlighted by elevations in cysteine and antioxidants, alpha- and gamma-tocopherol, 3) elevations in nucleotide metabolites 5,6-dihydrouracil and xanthine suggestive of increased dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidoreductase activity, 4) increased 5'-deoxy-5'-methylthioadenosine levels indicative of reduced purine salvage and increased de novo purine synthesis and 5) coordinated elevations in glutamate and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine suggesting increased protein glycosylation. The present study revealed distinct metabolic perturbations associated with early stage lung adenocarcinoma which may provide candidate molecular targets for personalizing therapeutic interventions and treatment efficacy monitoring. PMID:25657018

  14. Comparative study of binding interactions between porphyrin systems and aromatic compounds of biological importance by multiple spectroscopic techniques: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2018-07-01

    The specific spectroscopic and redox properties of porphyrins predestine them to fulfill the role of sensors during interacting with different biologically active substances. Monitoring of binding interactions in the systems porphyrin-biologically active compound is a key question not only in the field of physiological functions of living organisms, but also in environmental protection, notably in the light of the rapidly growing drug consumption and concurrently the production of drug effluents. Not always beneficial action of drugs on natural porphyrin systems induces to further studies, with commercially available porphyrins as the model systems. Therefore the binding process between several water-soluble porphyrins and a series of biologically active compounds (e.g. caffeine, guanine, theophylline, theobromine, xanthine, uric acid) has been studied in different aqueous solutions analyzing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra, the porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes and their quantum yields. The magnitude of the binding and fluorescence quenching constants values for particular quenchers decreases in a series: uric acid > guanine > caffeine > theophylline > theobromine > xanthine. In all the systems studied there are characters of static quenching, as a consequence of the π-π-stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes formation between porphyrins and interacting compounds, accompanied simultaneously by the additional specific binding interactions. The porphyrin fluorescence quenching can be explain by the photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer from aromatic compound to the center of the porphyrin molecule, playing the role of the binding site. Presented results can be valuable for designing of new fluorescent porphyrin chemosensors or monitoring of drug traces in aqueous solutions. The obtained outcomes have also the toxicological and medical importance, providing insight into the interactions of the water-soluble porphyrins with

  15. Combined analytical approaches to define biodistribution and biological activity of semi-synthetic berberrubine, the active metabolite of natural berberine.

    PubMed

    Porru, Emanuele; Franco, Placido; Calabria, Donato; Spinozzi, Silvia; Roberti, Marinella; Caliceti, Cristiana; Roda, Aldo

    2018-06-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural alkaloid obtained from Berberis species plants, known for its protective effects against several diseases. Among the primary BBR metabolites, berberrubine (M1) showed the highest plasma concentration but few and conflicting data are available regarding its concentration in biological fluids related to its new potential activity on vascular cells. A combined analytical approach was applied to study biodistribution of M1 in comparison with BBR. The optimization of sample clean-up combined with a fully validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS tailored for M1 allows sufficient detectability and accuracy to be reached in the different studied organs even when administered at low dose, comparable to that assumed by human. A predictive human vascular endothelial cell-based assay to measure intracellular xanthine oxidase has been developed and applied to study unexplored activities of M1 alongside other common activities. Results showed that oral M1 treatment exhibits higher plasma levels than BBR, reaching maximum concentration 400-fold higher than BBR (204 vs 0.5 ng/mL); moreover, M1 exhibits higher concentrations than BBR also in all the biological compartments analyzed. Noteworthy, the two compounds follow two different excretion routes: M1 through urine, while BBR through feces. In vitro studies demonstrated that M1 inhibited intracellular xanthine oxidase activity, one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species in vasculature, with an IC50 = 9.90 ± 0.01 μg/mL and reduced the expression of the inflammatory marker ICAM-1. These peculiar characteristics allow new perspectives to be opened up for the direct use of M1 instead of BBR in endothelial dysfunction treatment.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/) stimulates the active transport of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) into platelets

    SciTech Connect

    Bosin, T.R.

    1986-03-01

    Platelets function in a variety of physiological and pathological processes which may be altered by oxidant injury. One such process is the active transport 5-HT, which is an important mechanism in the control of circulating 5-HT levels. Exposure of mouse platelets (10/sup 8//ml) to H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ caused a time-dependent and dose-dependent increase in 5-HT (10/sup -7/M) uptake. The uptake 4 and 10 min following H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ (50 ..mu..M) was 228% and 145% of control values, respectively. Fluoxetine (10/sup -6/M) blocked all 5-HT uptake and catalase (1500 U/ml) blocked the H/sub 2/O/sub 2/-stimulated uptake. Enzymatically produced H/sub 2/O/sub 2/more » (glucose/glucose oxidase) and xanthine (X)/xanthine oxidase (XO) generated oxygen radicals produced quantitatively and qualitatively similar results. The stimulatory response of platelets to X/XO generated oxidants was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (250 U/ml) but, was inhibited using heat-denatured XO, allopurinol (0.5 mM) and catalase; fluoxetine inhibited all 5-HT uptake. Platelets exposed to X/XO in the presence of chelated (EDTA, 100 ..mu..M) or unchelated FeSO/sub 4/, FeNH/sub 4/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ or CuCl (50 ..mu..M) did not have altered 5-HT uptake. These data indicate that brief exposure of platelets to physiological levels of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ results in marked, reversible stimulation of active 5-HT uptake which may represent a homeostatic defense mechanism when H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ is elevated in the platelet microenvironment.« less

  17. Comparison of the active-site design of molybdenum oxo-transfer enzymes by quantum mechanical calculations.

    PubMed

    Li, Jilai; Ryde, Ulf

    2014-11-17

    There are three families of mononuclear molybdenum enzymes that catalyze oxygen atom transfer (OAT) reactions, named after a typical example from each family, viz., dimethyl sulfoxide reductase (DMSOR), sulfite oxidase (SO), and xanthine oxidase (XO). These families differ in the construction of their active sites, with two molybdopterin groups in the DMSOR family, two oxy groups in the SO family, and a sulfido group in the XO family. We have employed density functional theory calculations on cluster models of the active sites to understand the selection of molybdenum ligands in the three enzyme families. Our calculations show that the DMSOR active site has a much stronger oxidative power than the other two sites, owing to the extra molybdopterin ligand. However, the active sites do not seem to have been constructed to make the OAT reaction as exergonic as possible, but instead to keep the reaction free energy close to zero (to avoid excessive loss of energy), thereby making the reoxidation (SO and XO) or rereduction of the active sites (DMSOR) after the OAT reaction facile. We also show that active-site models of the three enzyme families can all catalyze the reduction of DMSO and that the DMSOR model does not give the lowest activation barrier. Likewise, all three models can catalyze the oxidation of sulfite, provided that the Coulombic repulsion between the substrate and the enzyme model can be overcome, but for this harder reaction, the SO model gives the lowest activation barrier, although the differences are not large. However, only the XO model can catalyze the oxidation of xanthine, owing to its sulfido ligand.

  18. Manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a role player in seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) antioxidant defense system and adaptive immune system.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Seongdo; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Hwang, Seong Don; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metaloenzyme that catalyzes dismutation of the hazardous superoxide radicals into less hazardous H 2 O 2 and H 2 O. Here, we identified a homolog of MnSOD from big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaMnSOD) and characterized its structural and functional features. HaMnSOD transcript possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 bp which codes for a peptide of 223 amino acids. Pairwise alignment showed that HaMnSOD shared highest identity with rock bream MnSOD. Results of the phylogenetic analysis of HaMnSOD revealed a close proximity with rock bream MnSOD which was consistent with the result of homology alignment. The intense expression of HaMnSOD was observed in the ovary, followed by the heart and the brain. Further, immune related responses of HaMnSOD towards pathogenic stimulation were observed through bacterial and viral challenges. Highest HaMnSOD expression in response to stimulants Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) was observed in the late stage in the blood tissue. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay (XOD assay) indicated the ROS-scavenging ability of purified recombinant HaMnSOD (rHaMnSOD). The optimum conditions for the SOD activity of rHaMnSOD were pH 9 and the 25 °C. Collectively, the results obtained through the expressional analysis profiles and the functional assays provide insights into potential immune related and antioxidant roles of HaMnSOD in the big belly seahorse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylated purines in urinary stones.

    PubMed

    Safranow, Krzysztof; Machoy, Zygmunt

    2005-08-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the content of methylated purines that appear as admixtures in uric acid stones. We analyzed urinary calculi from 48 residents of Western Pomerania who underwent surgery at the urology ward in Szczecin. Stone samples were dissolved in 0.1 mol/L NaOH. Extracts were diluted in 50 mmol/L KH(2)PO(4) and analyzed by reversed-phase HPLC with ultraviolet detection and use of a gradient of methanol concentration and pH. Uric acid was the main component of 9 stones. All 9 showed admixtures of 9 other purine derivatives: endogenous purine breakdown products (xanthine, hypoxanthine, and 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and exogenous methyl derivatives of uric acid and xanthine (1-, 3-, and 7-methyluric acid; 1,3-dimethyluric acid; and 3- and 7-methylxanthine). Amounts of these purine derivatives ranged from the limit of detection to 12 mg/g of stone weight and showed a strong positive correlation (Spearman rank correlation coefficients, 0.63-0.94) with the uric acid content of the samples. The main methylated purine in the stones was 1-methyluric acid. Urinary purines at concentrations below their saturation limits may coprecipitate in samples supersaturated with uric acid and appear as admixtures in urinary stones. The amount of each purine depends on its average urinary excretion, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and concentration of the latter in the stone. These findings suggest that purines in stones represent a substitutional solid solution with uric acid as solvent. Methylxanthines, which are ubiquitous components of the diet, drugs, and uric acid calculi, may be involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis.

  20. Polar extracts from (Tunisian) Acacia salicina Lindl. Study of the antimicrobial and antigenotoxic activities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanolic, aqueous and Total Oligomer Flavonoids (TOF)-enriched extracts obtained from the leaves of Acacia salicina 'Lindl.' were investigated for antibacterial, antimutagenic and antioxidant activities. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested on the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains. The Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities against direct acting mutagens, methylmethane sulfonate (MMS) and 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine (NOPD), and indirect acting mutagens, 2-aminoanthracene (2-AA) and benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) were performed with S. typhimurium TA102 and TA98 assay systems. In addition, the enzymatic and nonenzymatic methods were employed to evaluate the anti-oxidative effects of the tested extracts. Results A significant effect against the Gram positive and Gram negative reference bacterial strains was observed with all the extracts. The mutagenic and antimutagenic studies revealed that all the extracts decreased the mutagenicity induced by B(a)P (7.5 μg/plate), 2-AA (5 μg/plate), MMS (1.3 mg/plate) and NOPD (10 μg/plate). Likewise, all the extracts showed an important free radical scavenging activity towards the superoxide anion generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system, as well as high Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC), against the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS)+• radical. TOF-enriched extract exhibited the highest protective effect against free radicals, direct acting-mutagen and metabolically activated S9-dependent mutagens. Conclusions The present study indicates that the extracts from A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities, and this may be useful for developing potential chemopreventive substances. PMID:22490278

  1. Muscle adenine nucleotide degradation during submaximal treadmill exercise to fatigue.

    PubMed

    Essén-Gustavsson, B; Gottlieb-Vedi, M; Lindholm, A

    1999-07-01

    The aim was to investigate metabolic response in muscle during submaximal treadmill exercise to fatigue, with a special emphasis on adenine nucleotide degradation products such as inosine monophosphate (IMP) in muscle and hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid in plasma. Five Standardbred trotters performed treadmill exercise on 2 occasions, once at 7 m/s and once at 10 m/s. Venous blood samples were taken at rest, during exercise and at the end of exercise. Muscle biopsies were taken before and after exercise and muscle temperature was measured before and after exercise. Running time differed among horses and was 48-58 min at 7 m/s and 10-15.5 min at 10 m/s. Both lactate and uric acid concentrations in plasma showed a gradual increase during exercise at both 7 and 10 m/s. At the end of exercise, values for uric acid were higher and values for lactate lower at 7 m/s compared with at 10 m/s. No marked changes were seen in plasma concentrations of hypoxanthine or xanthine with exercise. Muscle glycogen decreased after exercise at both 7 and 10 m/s with a marked depletion seen in some fibres. Muscle lactate concentrations increased after exercise at both 7 m/s and at 10 m/s. No significant changes were seen in adenosine triphosphate (ATP), ADP and AMP concentrations, whereas IMP concentrations increased after exercise at both 7 m/s and at 10 m/s. The results of this study indicate that AMP deamination occurs with submaximal exercise and that development of fatigue may be related to adenine nucleotide degradation in muscle.

  2. Ceruloplasmin enhances smooth muscle cell- and endothelial cell-mediated low density lipoprotein oxidation by a superoxide-dependent mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mukhopadhyay, C. K.; Ehrenwald, E.; Fox, P. L.

    1996-01-01

    Cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC) and endothelial cells (EC) stimulate low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation by free radical-mediated, transition metal-dependent mechanisms. The physiological source(s) of metal ions is not known; however, purified ceruloplasmin, a plasma protein containing 7 coppers, oxidizes LDL in vitro. We now show that ceruloplasmin also increases LDL oxidation by vascular cells. In metal ion-free medium, human ceruloplasmin increased bovine aortic SMC- and EC-mediated LDL oxidation by up to 30- and 15-fold, respectively. The maximal response was at 100-300 microg ceruloplasmin/ml, a level at or below the unevoked physiological plasma concentration. Oxidant activity was dependent on protein structure as a specific proteolytic cleavage or removal of one of the seven ceruloplasmin copper atoms inhibited activity. Three lines of evidence indicated a critical role for cellular superoxide (O2.) in ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation. First, the rate of production of O2. by cells correlated with their rates of LDL oxidation. Second, superoxide dismutase effectively blocked ceruloplasmin-stimulated oxidation by both cell types. Finally, O2. production by SMC quantitatively accounted for the observed rate of LDL oxidation. To show this, the course of O2. production by SMC was simulated by repeated addition of xanthine and xanthine oxidase to culture medium under cell-free conditions. Neither ceruloplasmin nor O2. alone increased LDL oxidation, but together they completely reconstituted the oxidation rate of ceruloplasmin-stimulated SMC. These results are the first to show that ceruloplasmin stimulates EC- and SMC-mediated oxidation of LDL and that cell-derived O2. accounts quantitatively for metal-dependent, free radical-initiated oxidation of LDL by these cells.

  3. Febuxostat: a review of its use in the treatment of hyperuricaemia in patients with gout.

    PubMed

    Frampton, James E

    2015-03-01

    Febuxostat (Adenuric(®), Uloric(®), Feburic(®)) is an orally-active, potent, non-purine, selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor. In the EU, it is indicated in adults for the treatment of chronic hyperuricaemia in conditions where urate deposition has already occurred. Unlike allopurinol, the prototypical xanthine oxidase inhibitor that is the cornerstone therapy for chronic gout, febuxostat does not require dosage adjustment in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment. In randomized, double-blind studies, 6-12 months' treatment with febuxostat at dosages approved for use in the EU (80 and 120 mg/day) was significantly more effective in lowering serum uric acid (sUA) levels in patients with hyperuricaemia and gout than allopurinol at dosages commonly prescribed in practice (100-300 mg/day); febuxostat demonstrated greater urate-lowering efficacy than allopurinol in patients with renal impairment. In open-label extension studies, 3-5 years' treatment with febuxostat maintained a target sUA level of <6.0 mg/dL in most patients; sustained reduction in sUA level was associated with near elimination of gout flares and improved tophus status. Febuxostat therapy was generally well tolerated during clinical development; frequently reported adverse events included liver function abnormalities, diarrhoea and rash. Cardiovascular (CV) events were the most common serious adverse events; the comparative safety of febuxostat and allopurinol is being examined further in large, ongoing trials in patients with gout who already have, or are at risk of developing, CV disease. In conclusion, febuxostat is a well established antihyperuricaemic agent that provides an effective alternative to allopurinol for the management of chronic gout.

  4. Differential involvement of various sources of reactive oxygen species in thyroxin-induced hemodynamic changes and contractile dysfunction of the heart and diaphragm muscles

    PubMed Central

    Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Schultz, Eric J.; Gearinger, Rachel L.; Saad, Nancy S.; Rastogi, Neha; Ahmed, Amany A.E.; Mohler, Peter J.; Janssen, Paul M.L.

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are key regulators of basal metabolic state and oxidative metabolism. Hyperthyroidism has been reported to cause significant alterations in hemodynamics, and in cardiac and diaphragm muscle function, all of which have been linked to increased oxidative stress. However, the definite source of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) in each of these phenotypes is still unknown. The goal of the current study was to test the hypothesis that thyroxin (T4) may produce distinct hemodynamic, cardiac, and diaphragm muscle abnormalities by differentially affecting various sources of ROS. Wild-type and T4 mice with and without 2-week treatments with allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor), apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), L-NIO (nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or MitoTEMPO (mitochondria-targeted antioxidant) were studied. Blood pressure and echocardiography were noninvasively evaluated, followed by ex vivo assessments of isolated heart and diaphragm muscle functions. Treatment with L-NIO attenuated the T4-induced hypertension in mice. However, apocynin improved the left-ventricular (LV) dysfunction without preventing the cardiac hypertrophy in these mice. Both allopurinol and MitoTEMPO reduced the T4-induced fatigability of the diaphragm muscles. In conclusion, we show here for the first time that T4 exerts differential effects on various sources of ROS to induce distinct cardiovascular and skeletal muscle phenotypes. Additionally, we find that T4-induced LV dysfunction is independent of cardiac hypertrophy and NADPH oxidase is a key player in this process. Furthermore, we prove the significance of both xanthine oxidase and mitochondrial ROS pathways in T4-induced fatigability of diaphragm muscles. Finally, we confirm the importance of the nitric oxide pathway in T4-induced hypertension. PMID:25795514

  5. Design and synthesis of novel adenine fluorescence probe based on Eu(III) complexes with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Fengyun; Jiang, Xiaoqing; Dou, Xuekai; Wu, Qiong; Wang, Jun; Song, Youtao

    2017-05-01

    A novel adenine (Ad) fluorescence probe (EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine)) was designed and synthesized by improving experimental method based on the Eu(III) complex and dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. The dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand was first synthesized by the acylation action between dtpaa and guanine (Gu), and the corresponding Eu(III) complex was successfully prepared through heat-refluxing method with dtpa-bis(guanine) ligand. As a novel fluorescence probe, the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) complex can detect adenine (Ad) with characteristics of strong targeting, high specificity and high recognition ability. The detection mechanism of the adenine (Ad) using this probe in buffer solution was studied by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) and fluorescence spectroscopy. When the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) was introduced to the adenine (Ad) solution, the fluorescence emission intensity was significantly enhanced. However, adding other bases such as guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) with similar composition and structure to that of adenine (Ad) to the EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) solution, the fluorescence emission intensities are nearly invariable. Meanwhile, the interference of guanine (Gu), xanthine (Xa), hypoxanthine (Hy) and uric acid (Ur) on the detection of the adenine using EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) probe was also studied. It was found that presence of these bases does not affect the detection of adenine (Ad). A linear response of fluorescence emission intensities of EuIII-dtpa-bis(guanine) at 570 nm as a function of adenine (Ad) concentration in the range of 0.00-5.00 × 10- 5 mol L- 1 was observed. The detection limit is about 4.70 × 10- 7 mol L- 1.

  6. The mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant MitoQ ameliorates metabolic syndrome features in obesogenic diet-fed rats better than Apocynin or Allopurinol.

    PubMed

    Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gillen; Ebabe Elle, Raymond; Rieusset, Jennifer; Bonafos, Beatrice; Chabi, Beatrice; Crouzier, David; Zarkovic, Kamelija; Zarkovic, Neven; Ramos, Jeanne; Badia, Eric; Murphy, Michael P; Cristol, Jean Paul; Coudray, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) components including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance (IR), and hepatic steatosis is rapidly increasing in wealthy societies. It is accepted that inflammation/oxidative stress are involved in the initiation/evolution of the MetS features. The present work was designed to evaluate the effects of three major cellular ROS production systems on obesity, glucose tolerance, and hepatic steatosis development and on oxidative stress onset. To do so, 40 young male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: 1-control group, 2-high fat (HF) group (60% energy from fat), 3-HF+ MitoQ (mitochondrial ROS scavenger), 4-HF+ Apocynin (NADPH oxidase inhibitor), 5-HF+ Allopurinol (xanthine oxidase inhibitor). After 8 weeks of these treatments, surrogate MetS, mitochondrial function, and oxidative stress markers were measured in blood and liver. As expected, rats that were fed the HF diet exhibited increased body weight, glucose intolerance, overt hepatic steatosis, and increased hepatic oxidative stress. The impacts of the studied ROS inhibitors on these aspects of the MetS were markedly different. MitoQ showed the most clinically relevant effects, attenuating body weight gain and glucose intolerance provoked by the HF diet. Both Apocynin and Allopurinol showed limited effects suggesting secondary roles of xanthine oxidase (XO) or NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production in the onset of oxidative stress-dependent obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis process. Thus, MitoQ revealed the central role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in the development of MetS and suggested that mitochondria-targeted antioxidants may be worth considering as potentially helpful therapies for MetS features.

  7. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes S-nitrosylation and oxidation of actin affecting cytoskeleton and peroxisomal dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Serrano, M.; Pazmiño, D. M.; Sparkes, I.; Rochetti, A.; Hawes, C.; Romero-Puertas, M. C.; Sandalio, L. M.

    2014-01-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. In this work, the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of this herbicide are studied by analysing in Arabidopsis plants the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and their effect on cytoskeleton structure and peroxisome dynamics. 2,4-D (23mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·–, whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. The herbicide promotes disturbances on the actin cytoskeleton structure as a result of post-translational modification of actin by oxidation and S-nitrosylation, which could disturb actin polymerization, as suggested by the reduction of the F-actin/G-actin ratio. These effects were reduced by EDTA, and the reduction of ROS production in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in xanthine dehydrogenase (Atxdh) gave rise to a reduction in actin oxidation. Also, 2,4-D alters the dynamics of the peroxisome, slowing the speed and shortening the distances by which these organelles are displaced. It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. These structural changes in turn appear to be responsible for the leaf epinasty. PMID:24913628

  8. Hypoxic augmentation of Ca2+ channel currents requires a functional electron transport chain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen T; Scragg, Jason L; Boyle, John P; Hudasek, Kristin; Peers, Chris; Fearon, Ian M

    2005-06-10

    The incidence of Alzheimer disease is increased following ischemic episodes, and we previously demonstrated that following chronic hypoxia (CH), amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide-mediated increases in voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channel activity contribute to the Ca(2+) dyshomeostasis seen in Alzheimer disease. Because in certain cell types mitochondria are responsible for detecting altered O(2) levels we examined the role of mitochondrial oxidant production in the regulation of recombinant Ca(2+) channel alpha(1C) subunits during CH and exposure to Abeta-(1-40). In wild-type (rho(+)) HEK 293 cells expressing recombinant L-type alpha(1C) subunits, Ca(2+) currents were enhanced by prolonged (24 h) exposure to either CH (6% O(2)) or Abeta-(1-40) (50 nm). By contrast the response to CH was absent in rho(0) cells in which the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) was depleted following long term treatment with ethidium bromide or in rho(+) cells cultured in the presence of 1 microm rotenone. CH was mimicked in rho(0) cells by the exogenous production of O2(-.). by xanthine/xanthine oxidase. Furthermore Abeta-(1-40) enhanced currents in rho(0) cells to a degree similar to that seen in cells with an intact ETC. The antioxidants ascorbate (200 microm) and Trolox (500 microm) ablated the effect of CH in rho(+) cells but were without effect on Abeta-(1-40)-mediated augmentation of Ca(2+) current in rho(0) cells. Thus oxidant production in the mitochondrial ETC is a critical factor, acting upstream of amyloid beta peptide production in the up-regulation of Ca(2+) channels in response to CH.

  9. Molybdenum cofactor (chlorate-resistant) mutants of Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al can use hypoxanthine as the sole nitrogen source.

    PubMed Central

    Garzón, A; Li, J; Flores, A; Casadesus, J; Stewart, V

    1992-01-01

    Selection for chlorate resistance yields mol (formerly chl) mutants with defects in molybdenum cofactor synthesis. Complementation and genetic mapping analyses indicated that the Klebsiella pneumoniae mol genes are functionally homologous to those of Escherichia coli and occupy analogous genetic map positions. Hypoxanthine utilization in other organisms requires molybdenum cofactor as a component of xanthine dehydrogenase, and thus most chlorate-resistant mutants cannot use hypoxanthine as a sole source of nitrogen. Surprisingly, the K. pneumoniae mol mutants and the mol+ parent grew equally well with hypoxanthine as the sole nitrogen source, suggesting that K. pneumoniae has a molybdenum cofactor-independent pathway for hypoxanthine utilization. PMID:1400180

  10. Antioxidant and neurosedative properties of polyphenols and iridoids from Lippia alba.

    PubMed

    Hennebelle, Thierry; Sahpaz, Sevser; Gressier, Bernard; Joseph, Henry; Bailleul, François

    2008-02-01

    The neurosedative and antioxidative properties of some major compounds isolated from a citral chemotype of Lippia alba were investigated. Binding assays were performed on two CNS inhibitory targets: benzodiazepine and GABA(A) receptors. The most active compound was luteolin-7-diglucuronide, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) of 101 and 40 microm, respectively. Fifteen compounds isolated from Lippia alba were tested for their radical scavenging capacities against DPPH. Four of the major compounds (verbascoside, calceolarioside E, luteolin-7-diglucuronide and theveside) were also tested for their antioxidant activity against superoxide radical-anion in cell-free (hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase) and cellular (PMA-stimulated neutrophil granulocytes) systems.

  11. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) suppress the human mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) by different mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Safi, S A; Maddocks, J L

    1984-01-01

    6-MP inhibitory effects on the MLR were reversed by AIC (46%), adenine (32%), hypoxanthine (89%), adenosine (86%) and inosine (93%). AIC, adenine, hypoxanthine and inosine had no effect on azathioprine inhibition of the MLR. Adenosine at 10 microM caused 29% reversal and had no effect at 100-400 microM on azathioprine inhibition of the MLR. Reversal of 6-MP suppression of the MLR was decreased with the delay of adenosine addition. Guanine, xanthine and guanosine caused no reversal of 6-MP or azathioprine inhibitory effects on the MLR. These results show that azathioprine and 6-MP suppress the MLR by different mechanisms. PMID:6232936

  12. The first report of disseminated Nocardia concava infection, in an immunocompromised patient, in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Hoon; Sung, Heungseop; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang-Soo; Woo, Jun-Hee; Kim, Sung-Han

    2012-10-01

    A new Nocardia species, N. concava, was first reported in Japan in 2005. To date, there have been only 3 case reports of N. concava infection worldwide (2 in Japan and 1 in China), and only 1 of these reports has detailed the clinical characteristics of N. concava, in China. Here we report the first case of disseminated infection caused by N. concava- in a patient with a history of glucocorticoid use-in South Korea. Species identification of N. concava was done with 16S rRNA sequencing and was confirmed by biochemical tests using urea, xanthine, tyrosine, and hypoxanthine decomposition. The patient was successfully treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  13. Oxygen-17 and molybdenum-95 coupling in spectroscopic models of molybdoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, G.L.; Kony, M.; Tiekink, E.R.

    1988-09-28

    Assignment of (Mo/sup V/OS) and cis-(Mo/sup V/O(SH)) centers in active xanthine oxidase (very rapid and rapid ESR signals) are supported by generation of these species in solution. The ESR parameters were measured using /sup 17/O and /sup 95/Mo and are reported herein. The data revealed variations in relative magnitudes of the hyperfine components, and the different patterns of angles reflect significant differences in electronic structure. The same electronic differences appear to be responsible for the variations in magnitude and anisotropy of the /sup 17/O coupling, assigned to bound product Mo-/sup 17/OR in both enzyme signals.

  14. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  15. Inhibitory effect of nicergoline on superoxide generation by activated rat microglias measured using a simple chemiluminescence method.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Tanaka, M; Okamoto, K

    2001-01-05

    We evaluated the effect of nicergoline on superoxide production by rat microglias using a 2-methyl-6-(p-methoxyphenyl)-3, 7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-a]pyrazin-3-one-dependent chemiluminescence assay. Nicergoline dose-dependently inhibited superoxide production by microglias stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, while it had no effect on superoxide production by a hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase system. These results indicate that nicergoline does not have a scavenging effect, but has an inhibitory effect on superoxide generation by microglias. Although this drug is commonly used for treating chronic cerebral infarction, it may also have a protective effect on progression of Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Oxidative Damage to Rhesus Macaque Spermatozoa Results in Mitotic Arrest and Transcript Abundance Changes in Early Embryos1

    PubMed Central

    Burruel, Victoria; Klooster, Katie L.; Chitwood, James; Ross, Pablo J.; Meyers, Stuart A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Our objective was to determine whether oxidative damage of rhesus macaque sperm induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro would affect embryo development following intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) of metaphase II (MII) oocytes. Fresh rhesus macaque spermatozoa were treated with ROS as follows: 1 mM xanthine and 0.1 U/ml xanthine oxidase (XXO) at 37°C and 5% CO2 in air for 2.25 h. Sperm were then assessed for motility, viability, and lipid peroxidation. Motile ROS-treated and control sperm were used for ICSI of MII oocytes. Embryo culture was evaluated for 3 days for development to the eight-cell stage. Embryos were fixed and stained for signs of cytoplasmic and nuclear abnormalities. Gene expression was analyzed by RNA-Seq in two-cell embryos from control and treated groups. Exposure of sperm to XXO resulted in increased lipid peroxidation and decreased sperm motility. ICSI of MII oocytes with motile sperm induced similar rates of fertilization and cleavage between treatments. Development to four- and eight-cell stage was significantly lower for embryos generated with ROS-treated sperm than for controls. All embryos produced from ROS-treated sperm demonstrated permanent embryonic arrest and varying degrees of degeneration and nuclear fragmentation, changes that are suggestive of prolonged senescence or apoptotic cell death. RNA-Seq analysis of two-cell embryos showed changes in transcript abundance resulting from sperm treatment with ROS. Differentially expressed genes were enriched for processes associated with cytoskeletal organization, cell adhesion, and protein phosphorylation. ROS-induced damage to sperm adversely affects embryo development by contributing to mitotic arrest after ICSI of MII rhesus oocytes. Changes in transcript abundance in embryos destined for mitotic arrest is evident at the two-cell stage of development. PMID:23904511

  17. Superoxide anion radical-triggered Ca2+ release from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum through ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, M; Okabe, E

    1998-03-01

    The ryanodine receptor Ca2+ channel (RyRC) constitutes the Ca2+-release pathway in sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of cardiac muscle. A direct mechanical and a Ca2+-triggered mechanism (Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release) have been proposed to explain the in situ activation of Ca2+ release in cardiac muscle. A variety of chemical oxidants have been shown to activate RyRC; however, the role of modification induced by oxygen-derived free radicals in pathological states of the muscle remains to be elucidated. It has been hypothesized that oxygen-derived free radicals initiate Ca2+-mediated functional changes in or damage to cardiac muscle by acting on the SR and promoting an increase in Ca2+ release. We confirmed that superoxide anion radical (O2-) generated from hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase reaction decreases calmodulin content and increases 45Ca2+ efflux from the heavy fraction of canine cardiac SR vesicles; hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase also decreases Ca2+ free within the intravesicular space of the SR with no effect on Ca2+-ATPase activity. Current fluctuations through single Ca2+-release channels have been monitored after incorporation into planar phospholipid bilayers. We demonstrate that activation of the channel by O2- is dependent of the presence of calmodulin and identified calmodulin as a functional mediator of O2--triggered Ca2+ release through the RyRC. For the first time, we show that O2- stimulates Ca2+ release from heavy SR vesicles and suggest the importance of accessory proteins such as calmodulin in modulating the effect of O2-. The decreased calmodulin content induced by oxygen-derived free radicals, especially O2-, is a likely mechanism of accumulation of cytosolic Ca2+ (due to increased Ca2+ release from SR) after reperfusion of the ischemic heart.

  18. Reperfusion injury and reactive oxygen species: The evolution of a concept☆

    PubMed Central

    Granger, D. Neil; Kvietys, Peter R.

    2015-01-01

    Reperfusion injury, the paradoxical tissue response that is manifested by blood flow-deprived and oxygen-starved organs following the restoration of blood flow and tissue oxygenation, has been a focus of basic and clinical research for over 4-decades. While a variety of molecular mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) continues to receive much attention as a critical factor in the genesis of reperfusion injury. As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to identifying the dominant cellular and enzymatic sources of excess ROS production following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). Of the potential ROS sources described to date, xanthine oxidase, NADPH oxidase (Nox), mitochondria, and uncoupled nitric oxide synthase have gained a status as the most likely contributors to reperfusion-induced oxidative stress and represent priority targets for therapeutic intervention against reperfusion-induced organ dysfunction and tissue damage. Although all four enzymatic sources are present in most tissues and are likely to play some role in reperfusion injury, priority and emphasis has been given to specific ROS sources that are enriched in certain tissues, such as xanthine oxidase in the gastrointestinal tract and mitochondria in the metabolically active heart and brain. The possibility that multiple ROS sources contribute to reperfusion injury in most tissues is supported by evidence demonstrating that redox-signaling enables ROS produced by one enzymatic source (e.g., Nox) to activate and enhance ROS production by a second source (e.g., mitochondria). This review provides a synopsis of the evidence implicating ROS in reperfusion injury, the clinical implications of this phenomenon, and summarizes current understanding of the four most frequently invoked enzymatic sources of ROS production in post-ischemic tissue. PMID:26484802

  19. Surgery-derived reactive oxygen species produced by polymorphonuclear leukocytes promote tumor recurrence: studies in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    van Grevenstein, Wilhelmina M U; Aalbers, Arend G J; Ten Raa, Sander; Sluiter, Wim; Hofland, Leo J; Jeekel, Hans; van Eijck, Casper H J

    2007-06-01

    Tissue injury induces the acute phase response, aimed at minimizing damage and starting the healing process. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) respond to the presence of specific chemoattractants and begin to appear in large numbers. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by PMNs on the interaction between colon carcinoma cells and mesothelial cells. An experimental human in vitro model was designed using Caco-2 colon carcinoma cells and primary cultures of mesothelial cells. Tumor cell adhesion to a mesothelial monolayer was assessed after preincubation of the mesothelium with stimulated PMNs and unstimulated PMNs. Mesothelial cells were also incubated with xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) complex producing ROS after which adhesion of Caco-2 cells was investigated and the expression of adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CD44) by means of enzyme immunoassay. In the control situation the average adhesion of Caco-2 cells to the mesothelial monolayers was 23%. Mesothelial monolayers incubated with unstimulated PMNs showed a 25% increase of tumor cell adhesion (P < 0.05). The adhesion of tumor to the monolayers incubated with the N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated PMNs increased with 40% (P < 0.01). Incubation of the mesothelium with X/XO resulted in an enhancement of adhesion of Caco-2 cells of 70% and an up-regulation of expression of ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CD44. This study reveals an increase of tumor cell adhesion to the mesothelium induced by incubating the mesothelial monolayers with PMNs. PMNs are producing a number of products, like proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, and ROS. These factors up-regulate the expression of adhesion molecules and in that way stimulate the adhesion of tumor to the mesothelium.

  20. Exploration of the role of reactive oxygen species in glutamate neurotoxicity in rat hippocampal neurones in culture.

    PubMed

    Vergun, O; Sobolevsky, A I; Yelshansky, M V; Keelan, J; Khodorov, B I; Duchen, M R

    2001-02-15

    1. Exposure of hippocampal neurones to glutamate at toxic levels is associated with a profound collapse of mitochondrial potential and deregulation of calcium homeostasis. We have explored the contributions of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to these events, considered to represent the first steps in the progression to cell death. 2. Digital imaging techniques were used to monitor changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c; fura-2FF) and mitochondrial potential (Deltapsim; rhodamine 123); rates of ROS generation were assessed using hydroethidium (HEt); and membrane currents were measured with the whole-cell configuration of the patch clamp technique. 3. Inhibitors of lipid peroxidation (trolox plus ascorbate) and scavengers of superoxide or hydrogen peroxide (manganese(III) tetrakis(4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) and TEMPO plus catalase), had only minimal impact on the mitochondrial depolarisation and the sustained increase in [Ca2+]c during and following a 10 min exposure to glutamate. 4. The antioxidants completely suppressed ROS generated by xanthine with xanthine oxidase. No significant increase in ROS production was detected with HEt during a 10 min glutamate exposure. 5. A combination of antioxidants (TEMPO, catalase, trolox and ascorbate) delayed but did not prevent the glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarisation and the secondary [Ca2+]c rise. However, this was attributable to a transient inhibition of the NMDA current by the antioxidants. 6. Despite their inability to attenuate the glutamate-induced collapse of Deltapsim and destabilisation of [Ca2+]c homeostasis, the antioxidants conferred significant protection in assays of cell viability at 24 h after a 10 min excitotoxic challenge. The data obtained suggest that antioxidants exert their protective effect against glutamate-induced neuronal death through steps downstream of a sustained increase in [Ca2+]c associated with the collapse of Deltapsi(m).

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of pet ether extract of black pepper

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ramnik; Singh, Narinder; Saini, B.S.; Rao, Harwinder Singh

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions (R1, R2 and R3) obtained from pet ether extract of black pepper fruits (Piper nigrum Linn.) Materials and Methods: The fractions R1, R2 and R3 were eluted from pet ether and ethyl acetate in the ratio of 6:4, 5:5 and 4:6, respectively. 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. Results: The free radical scavenging activity of the different fractions of pet ether extract of P. nigrum (PEPN) increased in a concentration dependent manner. The R3 and R2 fraction of PEPN in 500 µg/ml inhibited the peroxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion by 60.48±3.33% and 58.89±2.51%, respectively. In DPPH free radical scavenging assay, the activity of R3 and R2 were found to be almost similar. The R3 (100µg/ml) fraction of PEPN inhibited 55.68±4.48% nitric oxide radicals generated from sodium nitroprusside, whereas curcumin in the same concentration inhibited 84.27±4.12%. Moreover, PEPN scavenged the superoxide radical generated by the Xanthine/Xanthine oxidase system. The fraction R2 and R3 in the doses of 1000µg/ml inhibited 61.04±5.11% and 63.56±4.17%, respectively. The hydroxyl radical was generated by Fenton's reaction. The amounts of total phenolic compounds were determined and 56.98 µg pyrocatechol phenol equivalents were detected in one mg of R3. Conclusions: P. nigrum could be considered as a potential source of natural antioxidant. PMID:20040947

  2. Febuxostat attenuates paroxysmal atrial fibrillation-induced regional endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Li, YanGuang; Chen, FuKun; Deng, Long; Lin, Kun; Shi, Xiangmin; Zhaoliang, Shan; Wang, YuTang

    2017-01-01

    Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) can increase thrombogenesis risk, especially in the left atrium (LA). The exact mechanism is still unclear. We assessed the effects of PAF on endothelial function, and investigated if febuxostat (FX) can attenuate endothelial dysfunction by inhibition of xanthine oxidase (XO). Eighteen male New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into sham-operated (S), PAF (P) or FX+pacing (FP) groups. Group P and group FP received rapid atrial pacing (RAP). Group FP was administered febuxostat (FX) for 7days before RAP. Post-procedure, blood samples were collected from the LA, right atrium (RA) and peripheral circulation. Tissues from the LA and RA were obtained. Endothelial dysfunction (thrombomodulin [TM], von Willebrand factor [VWF], asymmetric dimethylarginine [ADMA]), and indirect thrombin generation (thrombin-antithrombin complex [TAT], prothrombin fragment 1+2 [F1.2]) and oxidative stress in atrial tissue (xanthine oxidase [XO], superoxide dismutase [SOD], malondialdehyde [MDA]) were measured using an Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atrial endothelial expression of TM and VWF was measured by histology/western blotting. Endothelial dysfunction (TM, VWF, ADMA), TAT generation and oxidative stress (XO, SOD, MDA) in group P were more significant compared with that in group S (p<0.05, respectively). In group P, all of these changes occurred to a greater extent in the LA compared with those in the RA or peripheral circulation. In group FP, FX attenuated endothelial dysfunction and reduced TAT levels by inhibition of XO-mediated oxidative stress. PAF can lead to endothelial dysfunction and TAT generation by XO-mediated oxidative stress. The LA is more susceptible to these effects. FX can attenuate these changes by inhibition XO and XO-mediated oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. A Direct Redox Regulation of Protein Kinase C Isoenzymes Mediates Oxidant-induced Neuritogenesis in PC12 Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishna, Rayudu; Gundimeda, Usha; Schiffman, Jason Eric; McNeill, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have used the PC12 cell model to elucidate the mechanisms by which sublethal doses of oxidants induce neuritogenesis. The xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) system was used for the steady state generation of superoxide, and CoCl2 was used as a representative transition metal redox catalyst. Upon treatment of purified protein kinase C (PKC) with these oxidants, there was an increase in its cofactor-independent activation. Redox-active cobalt competed with the redoxinert zinc present in the zinc-thiolates of the PKC regulatory domain and induced the oxidation of these cysteine-rich regions. Both CoCl2 and X/XO induced neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells, as determined by an overexpression of neuronal marker genes. Furthermore, these oxidants induced a translocation of PKC from cytosol to membrane and subsequent conversion of PKC to a cofactor-independent form. Isoenzyme-specific PKC inhibitors demonstrated that PKCε plays a crucial role in neuritogenesis. Moreover, oxidant-induced neurite outgrowth was increased with a conditional overexpression of PKCε and decreased with its knock-out by small interfering RNA. Parallel with PKC activation, an increase in phosphorylation of the growth-associated neuronal protein GAP-43 at Ser41 was observed. Additionally, there was a sustained activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2, which was correlated with activating phosphorylation (Ser133) of cAMP-responsive element-binding protein. All of these signaling events that are causally linked to neuritogenesis were blocked by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (both l and d-forms) and by a variety of PKC-specific inhibitors. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that sublethal doses of oxidants induce neuritogenesis via a direct redox activation of PKCε. PMID:18375950

  4. Nitric oxide-induced interstrand cross-links in DNA.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Jennifer L; Wishnok, John S; Tannenbaum, Steven R

    2003-05-01

    The DNA damaging effects of nitrous acid have been extensively studied, and the formation of interstrand cross-links have been observed. The potential for this cross-linking to occur through a common nitrosating intermediate derived from nitric oxide is investigated here. Using a HPLC laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system, the amount of interstrand cross-link formed on nitric oxide treatment of the 5'-fluorescein-labeled oligomer ATATCGATCGATAT was determined. This self-complimentary sequence contains two 5'-CG sequences, which is the preferred site for nitrous acid-induced cross-linking. Nitric oxide was delivered to an 0.5 mM oligomer solution at 15 nmol/mL/min to give a final nitrite concentration of 652 microM. The resulting concentration of the deamination product, xanthine, in this sample was found to be 211 +/- 39 nM, using GC/MS, and the amount of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 13 +/- 2.5 nM. Therefore, upon nitric oxide treatment, the cross-link is found at approximately 6% of the amount of the deamination product. Using this system, detection of the cross-link is also possible for significantly lower doses of nitric oxide, as demonstrated by treatment of the same oligomer with NO at a rate of 18 nmol/mL/min resulting in a final nitrite concentration of 126 microM. The concentration of interstrand cross-link was determined to be 3.6 +/- 0.1 nM in this sample. Therefore, using the same dose rate, when the total nitric oxide concentration delivered drops by a factor of approximately 5, the concentration of cross-link drops by a factor of about 4-indicating a qausi-linear response. It may now be possible to predict the number of cross-links in a small genome based on the number of CpG sequences and the yield of xanthine derived from nitrosative deamination.

  5. Comparative study of binding interactions between porphyrin systems and aromatic compounds of biological importance by multiple spectroscopic techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Makarska-Bialokoz, Magdalena

    2018-07-05

    The specific spectroscopic and redox properties of porphyrins predestine them to fulfill the role of sensors during interacting with different biologically active substances. Monitoring of binding interactions in the systems porphyrin-biologically active compound is a key question not only in the field of physiological functions of living organisms, but also in environmental protection, notably in the light of the rapidly growing drug consumption and concurrently the production of drug effluents. Not always beneficial action of drugs on natural porphyrin systems induces to further studies, with commercially available porphyrins as the model systems. Therefore the binding process between several water-soluble porphyrins and a series of biologically active compounds (e.g. caffeine, guanine, theophylline, theobromine, xanthine, uric acid) has been studied in different aqueous solutions analyzing their absorption and steady-state fluorescence spectra, the porphyrin fluorescence lifetimes and their quantum yields. The magnitude of the binding and fluorescence quenching constants values for particular quenchers decreases in a series: uric acid > guanine > caffeine > theophylline > theobromine > xanthine. In all the systems studied there are characters of static quenching, as a consequence of the π-π-stacked non-covalent and non-fluorescent complexes formation between porphyrins and interacting compounds, accompanied simultaneously by the additional specific binding interactions. The porphyrin fluorescence quenching can be explain by the photoinduced intermolecular electron transfer from aromatic compound to the center of the porphyrin molecule, playing the role of the binding site. Presented results can be valuable for designing of new fluorescent porphyrin chemosensors or monitoring of drug traces in aqueous solutions. The obtained outcomes have also the toxicological and medical importance, providing insight into the interactions of the water

  6. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid promotes S-nitrosylation and oxidation of actin affecting cytoskeleton and peroxisomal dynamics.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Serrano, M; Pazmiño, D M; Sparkes, I; Rochetti, A; Hawes, C; Romero-Puertas, M C; Sandalio, L M

    2014-09-01

    2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) is a synthetic auxin used as a herbicide to control weeds in agriculture. A high concentration of 2,4-D promotes leaf epinasty and cell death. In this work, the molecular mechanisms involved in the toxicity of this herbicide are studied by analysing in Arabidopsis plants the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO), and their effect on cytoskeleton structure and peroxisome dynamics. 2,4-D (23 mM) promotes leaf epinasty, whereas this process was prevented by EDTA, which can reduce ·OH accumulation. The analysis of ROS accumulation by confocal microscopy showed a 2,4-D-dependent increase in both H2O2 and O2·(-), whereas total NO was not affected by the treatment. The herbicide promotes disturbances on the actin cytoskeleton structure as a result of post-translational modification of actin by oxidation and S-nitrosylation, which could disturb actin polymerization, as suggested by the reduction of the F-actin/G-actin ratio. These effects were reduced by EDTA, and the reduction of ROS production in Arabidopsis mutants deficient in xanthine dehydrogenase (Atxdh) gave rise to a reduction in actin oxidation. Also, 2,4-D alters the dynamics of the peroxisome, slowing the speed and shortening the distances by which these organelles are displaced. It is concluded that 2,4-D promotes oxidative and nitrosative stress, causing disturbances in the actin cytoskeleton, thereby affecting the dynamics of peroxisomes and some other organelles such as the mitochondria, with xanthine dehydrogenase being involved in ROS production under these conditions. These structural changes in turn appear to be responsible for the leaf epinasty. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  7. Degradation of oxidatively denatured proteins in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Davies, K J; Lin, S W

    1988-01-01

    When exposed to oxidative stress, by oxygen radicals or H2O2, E. coli exhibited decreased growth, decreased protein synthesis, and dose-dependent increases in protein degradation. The quinone menadione induced proteolysis when cells were incubated in air, but was not effective when cells were incubated without oxygen. Anaerobically grown cells also exhibited significantly lower proteolytic capacity than did cells that were grown aerobically. Xanthine plus xanthine oxidase (which generate O2- and H2O2) caused a stimulation of proteolysis which was inhibitable by catalase, but not by superoxide dismutase: Indicating that H2O2 was responsible for the increased protein degradation. Indeed, H2O2 alone was effective in inducing increased intracellular proteolysis. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of [3H]leucine labeled E. coli revealed greater than 50% decreases in the concentrations of 10-15 cell proteins following H2O2 or menadione exposure, while several other proteins were less severely affected. To test for the presence of soluble proteases, we prepared cell-free extracts of E. coli and incubated them with radio-labeled protein substrates. E. coli extracts degraded casein and globin polypeptides at rapid rates but showed little activity with native proteins such as superoxide dismutase, hemoglobin, bovine serum albumin, or catalase. When these same proteins were denatured by exposure to oxygen radicals or H2O2, however, they became excellent substrates for degradation in E. coli extracts. Studies with albumin revealed correlations greater than 0.95 between the degree of oxidative denaturation and proteolytic susceptibility. Pretreatment of E. coli with menadione or H2O2 did not increase the proteolytic capacity of cell extracts; indicating that neither protease activation, nor protease induction were required.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. New modulated design and synthesis of quercetin-Cu(II)/Zn(II)-Sn2(IV) scaffold as anticancer agents: in vitro DNA binding profile, DNA cleavage pathway and Topo-I activity.

    PubMed

    Tabassum, Sartaj; Zaki, Mehvash; Afzal, Mohd; Arjmand, Farukh

    2013-07-21

    New molecular topologies quercetin-Cu(II)-Sn2(IV) and Zn(II)-Sn2(IV)1 and 2 were designed and synthesized to act as potential cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Their interaction with CT DNA by UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated revealing an electrostatic mode of binding. Quercetin complexes are capable of promoting DNA cleavage involving both single and double strand breaks. Complex 1 cleaved pBR322 DNA via an oxidative mechanism while 2 followed a hydrolytic pathway, accessible to the minor groove of the DNA double helix in accordance with molecular docking studies with the DNA duplex of sequence d(CGCGAATTCGCG)2 dodecamer demonstrating that the complex was stabilized by additional electrostatic and hydrogen bonding interactions with the DNA. ROS such as OH˙, H2O2 and O2˙(-) are the major metabolites responsible for chronic diseases such as cancer, respiratory disorders, HIV, and diabetes etc., therefore eliminating ROS by molecular scaffolds involving SOD enzymatic activity has emerged as a potential way to develop a novel class of drugs. Therefore, in vitro superoxide dismutase activity of redox active complex 1 was evaluated by using a xanthine/xanthine oxidase-NBT assay which showed an IC50 value of 2.26 μM. Moreover, the cytotoxicity of both the complexes were screened on a panel of human carcinoma cell lines (GI50 values <8.7 μM) which revealed that 1 has a better prospect of acting as a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to elucidate the mechanism of tumor inhibition, Topo-I enzymatic activity was carried out. Furthermore, molecular modeling studies were carried out to understand molecular features important for drug-enzyme interactions which offer new insights into the experimental model observations.

  9. Cloning and expression of the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, T E; Ullman, B

    1993-01-01

    The hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT) enzyme of Trypanosoma brucei and related parasites provides a rational target for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and several other parasitic diseases. To characterize the T. brucei HGPRT enzyme in detail, the T. brucei hgprt was isolated within a 4.2 kb SalI-KpnI genomic insert and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame of 630 bp that encoded a protein of 210 amino acids with a M(r) = 23.4 kd. After gap alignment, the T. brucei HGPRT exhibited 21-23% amino acid sequence identity, mostly in three clustered regions, with the HGPRTs from human, S. mansoni, and P falciparum, indicating that the trypanosome enzyme was the most divergent of the group. Surprisingly, the T. brucei HGPRT was more homologous to the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) from the prokaryote V. harveyi than to the eukaryotic HGPRTs. Northern blot analysis revealed two trypanosome transcripts of 1.4 and 1.9 kb, each expressed to equivalent degrees in insect vector and mammalian forms of the parasite. The T. brucei hgprt was inserted into an expression plasmid and transformed into S phi 606 E. coli that are deficient in both HPRT and xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase activities. Soluble, enzymatically active recombinant T. brucei HGPRT was expressed to high levels and purified to homogeneity by GTP-agarose affinity chromatography. The purified recombinant enzyme recognized hypoxanthine, guanine, and allopurinol, but not xanthine or adenine, as substrates and was inhibited by a variety of nucleotide effectors. The availability of a molecular clone encoding the T. brucei hgprt and large quantities of homogeneous recombinant HGPRT enzyme provides an experimentally manipulable molecular and biochemical system for the rational design of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of African sleeping sickness and other diseases of parasitic origin. Images PMID:8265360

  10. Uric acid and allopurinol aggravate absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Kovács, Zsolt

    2018-05-01

    Uric acid has a role in several physiological and pathophysiological processes. For example, uric acid may facilitate seizure generalization while reducing uric acid level may evoke anticonvulsant/antiepileptic effects. Allopurinol blocks the activity of xanthine oxidase, by which allopurinol inhibits catabolism of hypoxanthine to xanthine and uric acid and, as a consequence, decreases the level of uric acid. Although the modulation of serum uric acid level is a widely used strategy in the treatment of certain diseases, our knowledge regarding the effects of uric acid on epileptic activity is far from complete. Thus, the main aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of uric acid on absence epileptic seizures (spike-wave discharges: SWDs) in a model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rat. We investigated the influence of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected uric acid (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg), allopurinol (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg), a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 (COX-1 and COX-2) inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) alone and the combined application of allopurinol (50 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) or inosine (500 mg/kg) as well as indomethacin (10 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) and inosine (500 mg/kg) with uric acid (100 mg/kg) on absence epileptic activity. We demonstrated that both uric acid and allopurinol alone significantly increased the number of SWDs whereas indomethacin abolished the uric acid-evoked increase in SWD number. Our results suggest that uric acid and allopurinol have proepileptic effects in WAG/Rij rats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Endogenous flow-induced superoxide stimulates Na/H exchange activity via PKC in thick ascending limbs

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Luminal flow stimulates Na reabsorption along the nephron and activates protein kinase C (PKC) which enhances endogenous superoxide (O2−) production by thick ascending limbs (TALs). Exogenously-added O2− augments TAL Na reabsorption, a process also dependent on PKC. Luminal Na/H exchange (NHE) mediates NaHCO3 reabsorption. However, whether flow-stimulated, endogenously-produced O2− enhances luminal NHE activity and the signaling pathway involved are unclear. We hypothesized that flow-induced production of endogenous O2− stimulates luminal NHE activity via PKC in TALs. Intracellular pH recovery was measured as an indicator of NHE activity in isolated, perfused rat TALs. Increasing luminal flow from 5 to 20 nl/min enhanced total NHE activity from 0.104 ± 0.031 to 0.167 ± 0.036 pH U/min, 81%. The O2− scavenger tempol decreased total NHE activity by 0.066 ± 0.011 pH U/min at 20 nl/min but had no significant effect at 5 nl/min. With the NHE inhibitor EIPA in the bath to block basolateral NHE, tempol reduced flow-enhanced luminal NHE activity by 0.029 ± 0.010 pH U/min, 30%. When experiments were repeated with staurosporine, a nonselective PKC inhibitor, tempol had no effect. Because PKC could mediate both induction of O2− by flow and the effect of O2− on luminal NHE activity, we used hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase to elevate O2−. Hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase increased luminal NHE activity by 0.099 ± 0.020 pH U/min, 137%. Staurosporine and the PKCα/β1-specific inhibitor Gö6976 blunted this effect. We conclude that flow-induced O2− stimulates luminal NHE activity in TALs via PKCα/β1. This accounts for part of flow-stimulated bicarbonate reabsorption by TALs. PMID:25080525

  12. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L.

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Ahmed Y; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Kehoe, Patrick G; Sombie, Pierre A E D; Lamien, Charles E; Millogo, Jeanne F; Nacoulma, Odile G

    2011-12-01

    Different extracts were obtained from Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae) by successive extraction with hexane, chloroform, and methanol. These extracts exhibited significant antioxidant capacity in various antioxidant models mediated (xantine oxidase and lipoxygenase) or not mediated (2,2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl, ferric-reducing antioxidant power, β-carotene bleaching, lipid peroxidation) by enzymes. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was related to their phytochemical composition in terms of polyphenol and carotenoid contents. The chloroform extract was richest in phytochemicals and had the highest antioxidant activity in the different antioxidant systems. All the extracts exhibited less than 50% inhibition on xanthine oxidase but more than 50% inhibition on lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase. The extracts strongly inhibited lipid peroxidation mediated by lipoxygenase.

  13. New silibinin glyco-conjugates: synthesis and evaluation of antioxidant properties.

    PubMed

    Zarrelli, Armando; Romanucci, Valeria; Tuccillo, Concetta; Federico, Alessandro; Loguercio, Carmela; Gravante, Raffaele; Di Fabio, Giovanni

    2014-11-15

    New silibinin glyco-conjugates have been synthesized by efficient method and in short time. Exploiting our solution phase strategy, several structurally diverse silibinin glyco-conjugates (gluco, manno, galacto, and lacto-) were successfully realized in very good yields and in short time. In preliminary study to evaluate their antioxidant and neuroprotective activities new derivatives were subjected to DPPH free radical scavenging assay and the Xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition models assay. Irrespective of the sugar moiety examined, new glyco-conjugates are more than 50 times water-soluble of silibinin. In the other hand they exhibit a radical scavenging activities slightly higher than to silibinin and XO inhibition at least as silibinin. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Maternal blood total oxypurines and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels during normal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, S; Akiyama, H; Kurauchi, O; Taira, H; Yamada, R; Narita, O; Tomoda, Y

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pregnancy on the levels of maternal plasma total oxypurines (hypoxanthine, xanthine and uric acid) and erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) was investigated. With advancing gestation there was a slight increasing tendency in plasma total oxypurines as well as erythrocyte 2,3-DPG in pregnant women. When the ratio of 2,3-DPG to total oxypurines was calculated, the ratio was almost unchanged until week 34. After week 35, the ratio decreased to week 37; the ratios between week 37 and 40 had similar values to cord blood. The above data suggest that the changes of these metabolites in maternal peripheral blood may be indicative for hypoxia with fetoplacental tissue.

  15. Inflammatory Role of Macrophage Xanthine Oxidoreductase in Pulmonary Hypertension: Implications for Novel Therapeutic Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Lung Inflammation, Uric Acid, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, Mononuclear Phagocyte , Monosodium Urate, XOR WT, XOR KO, Wistar Kyoto, Pulmonary...0451 Annual Report (Year 1) 4 Mononuclear Phagocyte XOR Activity and Superoxide Generation Were Reduced by

  16. Febuxostat hypersensitivity: another cause of DRESS syndrome in chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Paschou, E; Gavriilaki, E; Papaioannou, G; Tsompanakou, A; Kalaitzoglou, A; Sabanis, N

    2016-11-01

    Febuxostat is a xanthine oxidase inhibitor that during the last years has successfully replaced allopurinol treatment in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricemia. Several adverse events have been observed during therapy with febuxostat. DRESS (Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms) syndrome induced by febuxostat has been poorly described, mainly in patient with CKD who previously developed allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. DRESS syndrome is characterized by manifold cutaneous reactions and systemic disorders with potential devastating consequences. The underlying pathogenetic mechanisms remain unidentified, though immune responses are often complicated. P-i concept can partially explain the phenomenon. The role of renal insufficiency appears to be crucial and further investigation is required. The present article describes the case of a CKD patient that developed febuxostat-related DRESS syndrome.

  17. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigation of Spiraea chamaedryfolia: a contribution to the chemotaxonomy of Spiraea genus.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Tivadar; Cank, Kristóf Bence; Orbán-Gyapai, Orsolya; Liktor-Busa, Erika; Zomborszki, Zoltán Péter; Rutkovska, Santa; Pučka, Irēna; Németh, Anikó; Csupor, Dezső

    2017-12-21

    Diterpene alkaloids are secondary plant metabolites and chemotaxonomical markers with a strong biological activity. These compounds are characteristic for the Ranunculaceae family, while their occurrence in other taxa is rare. Several species of the Spiraea genus (Rosaceae) are examples of this rarity. Screening Spiraea species for alkaloid content is a chemotaxonomical approach to clarify the classification and phylogeny of the genus. Novel pharmacological findings make further investigations of Spiraea diterpene alkaloids promising. Seven Spiraea species were screened for diterpene alkaloids. Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations were performed on Spiraea chamaedryfolia, the species found to contain diterpene alkaloids. Its alkaloid-rich fractions were found to exert a remarkable xanthine-oxidase inhibitory activity and a moderate antibacterial activity. The alkaloid distribution within the root was clarified by microscopic techniques.

  18. Xanthine-oxidase inhibitors and statins in chronic heart failure: effects on vascular and functional parameters.

    PubMed

    Greig, Douglas; Alcaino, Hernan; Castro, Pablo F; Garcia, Lorena; Verdejo, Hugo E; Navarro, Mario; López, Rafael; Mellado, Rosemarie; Tapia, Fabiola; Gabrielli, Luigi A; Nogerol, Camilo; Chiong, Mario; Godoy, Ivan; Lavandero, Sergio

    2011-04-01

    Increased oxidative stress in heart failure (HF) leads to inflammation and endothelial dysfunction (ED). Both statins and allopurinol have known anti-oxidant properties, but their utility in HF has not been fully assessed. This investigation was a prospective, double-blind, double-dummy study, performed between March 2007 and June 2009. Seventy-four HF patients, with New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II or III status and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40%, were included. Patients received placebo during 4 weeks and were then randomized to receive 4 weeks of either atorvastatin 20 mg/day plus placebo (ATV+PLA group) or atorvastatin 20 mg/day orally plus allopurinol 300 mg/day orally (ATV+ALLO group). Malondialdehyde (MDA), extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) activity and uric acid (UA) levels, among others, were determined at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. ED was assessed by flow-dependent endothelial-mediated vasodilation (FDD), and functional capacity by 6-minute walk test (6MWT). Thirty-two patients were randomized to ATV+PLA and 38 to ATV+ALLO. Mean age was 59 ± 2 years, 82% were male, and 22% had an ischemic etiology. Hypertension was present in 60% and diabetes in 15% of those studied. No significant differences were observed between baseline measurements and after placebo. After 4 weeks of treatment, both groups showed a significant decrease on MDA (0.9 ± 0.1 to 0.8 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.5 to 0.9 ± 0.1 μmol/liter, p = 0.88), UA (7.4 ± 0.4 to 6.8 ± 0.3 and 7.2 ± 0.4 to 5.0 ± 0.3 mg/dl, p < 0.01) and FDD (3.9 ± 0.2% to 5.6 ± 0.4% and 4.6 ± 0.3% to 7.1 ± 0.5%, p = 0.07) with increased ecSOD activity (109 ± 11 to 173 ± 13 and 98 ± 10 to 202 ± 16, U/ml/min, p = 0.41) and improved 6MWT (447 ± 18 to 487 ± 19 and 438 ± 17 to 481 ± 21 m, p = 0.83), with all values for ATV+PLA and ATV+ALLO, respectively; p-values are for comparison between groups after treatment. Short-term ATV treatment in heart failure (HF) patients reduces oxidative stress and improves FDD and functional capacity. These beneficial effects are not strengthened by the addition of allopurinol. Copyright © 2011 International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Distinct Purine Distribution in Carbonaceous Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Cleaves, Henderson J.; Ruzicka, Josef; Stern, Jennifer C.; Glavin, Daniel P.; House, Christopher H.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2011-01-01

    Carbonaceous chondrite meteorites are known to contain a diverse suite of organic compounds, many of which are essential components of biochemistry. Amino acids, which are the monomers of proteins, have been extensively studied in such meteorites (e.g. Botta and Bada 2002; Pizzarello et aI., 2006). The origin of amino acids in meteorites has been firmly established as extraterrestrial based on their detection typically as racemic mixtures of amino acids, the presence of many non-protein amino acids, and non-terrestrial values for compound-specific deuterium, carbon, and nitrogen isotopic measurements. In contrast to amino acids, nucleobases in meteorites have been far less studied. Nucleobases are substituted one-ring (pyrimidine) or two-ring (purine) nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and serve as the information carriers of nucleic acids and in numerous coenzymes. All of the purines (adenine, guanine, hypoxanthine, and xanthine) and pyrimidines (uracil) previously reported in meteorites are biologically common and could be interpreted as the result of terrestrial contamination (e.g. van del' Velden and Schwartz, 1974.) Unlike other meteoritic organics, there have been no observations of stochastic molecular diversity of purines and pyrimidines in meteorites, which has been a criterion for establishing extraterrestrial origin. Maltins et al. (2008) performed compound-specific stable carbon isotope measurements for uracil and xanthine in the Murchison meteorite. They assigned a non-terrestrial origin for these nucleobases; however, the possibility that interfering indigenous molecules (e.g. carboxylic acids) contributed to the 13C-enriched isotope values for these nucleobases cannot be completely ruled out. Thus, the origin of these meteoritic nucleobases has never been established unequivocally. Here we report on our investigation of extracts of II different carbonaceous chondrites covering various petrographic types (Cl, CM, and CR) and degrees of aqueous alteration

  20. Synthesis, characterization, crystal structure, superoxide dismutase and biological activities of nickel (II) complexes with bidentate ligands possessing N and O donor atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeeta, S.; Ahmad, K.; Noorussabah, N.; Bharti, S.; Mishra, M. K.; Sharma, S. R.; Choudhary, M.

    2017-12-01

    Two new Schiff bases 2-((E)-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenylimino)methyl)-4-bromophenol(HL1) and1-((E)-(4-bromo-2-chlorophenylimino)methyl)naphthalene-2-ol (HL2) and their new nickel (II) complexes [Ni(L1)2]·DMF(1) and [Ni(L2)2] (2) have been synthesized and characterized by various physico- chemical and spectroscopic methods. The solid-state structures of synthesized compounds were determined by single crystal X-ray crystallography, which revealed square planar geometry around Ni (II) ion. Infrared spectra, UV-Vis, thermal analysis and magnetic susceptibility measurements agreed with the observed crystal structures. The ligand (HL1) crystallized in the Orthorhombic system of the space group Pbca,a = 7.5485(4)Å, b = 11.5514(5) Å, c = 30.1370(14)Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°and Z = 8. Complex[Ni(L1)2]·DMF(1) crystallized in the Triclinic system of the space group P-1, a = 8.9954(3) Å, b = 9.4593(4) Å, c = 13.2657(5) Å, α = 101.478°, β = 99.595°, γ = 117.651°and Z = 2, whereas complex [Ni(L2)2]·(2) crystallized in the Monoclinic system of the space group P21/c, a = 9.301(9)Å, b = 12.149(8)Å, c = 13.792(10)Å, α = 90°, β = 106.35(4).°, γ = 90°and Z = 2. The Schiff bases (HL1and HL2) behaved as monobasic bidentate ligands possessing N and O donor atoms. The SOD activities of HL1 and its Ni (II) complex[Ni(L1)2]·DMF(1) have been measured using xanthine-xanthine oxidase as a source of superoxide radical and NBT assay as O2- scavenger. In vitro antimicrobial activities of the Ni(II) complexes (1) and (2)against Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus as Gram + ve and Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli as Gram-ve species have been investigated comparing with the Schiff base ligands (HL1and HL2).

  1. Attenuation of ischemia-reperfusion-induced alterations in intracellular Ca2+ in cardiomyocytes from hearts treated with N-acetylcysteine and N-mercaptopropionylglycine.

    PubMed

    Saini-Chohan, Harjot K; Dhalla, Naranjan S

    2009-12-01

    This study was undertaken to test whether Ca(2+)-handling abnormalities in cardiomyocytes after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) are prevented by antioxidants such as N-acetyl L-cysteine (NAC), which is known to reduce oxidative stress by increasing the glutathione redox status, and N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (MPG), which scavenges both peroxynitrite and hydroxyl radicals. For this purpose, isolated rat hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia followed by 30 min of reperfusion, and cardiomyocytes were prepared to monitor changes in the intracellular concentration of free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)). Marked depression in the left ventricular developed pressure and elevation in the left ventricular end-diastolic pressure in I/R hearts were attenuated by treatment with NAC or MPG. Cardiomyocytes obtained from I/R hearts showed an increase in the basal level of [Ca(2+)](i) as well as augmentation of the low Na(+)-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), with no change in the KCl-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i). These I/R-induced alterations in Ca(2+) handling by cardiomyocytes were attenuated by treatment of hearts with NAC or MPG. Furthermore, reduction in the isoproterenol-, ATP-, ouabain-, and caffeine-induced increases in [Ca(2+)](i) in cardiomyocytes from I/R hearts were limited by treatment with NAC or MPG. The increases in the basal [Ca(2+)](i), unlike the KCl-induced increase in [Ca(2+)](i), were fully or partially prevented by both NAC and MPG upon exposing cardiomyocytes to hypoxia-reoxygenation, H(2)O(2), or a mixture of xanthine and xanthine oxidase. These results suggest that improvement in cardiac function of I/R hearts treated with NAC or MPG was associated with attenuation of changes in Ca(2+) handling by cardiomyocytes, and the results support the view that oxidative stress due to oxyradical generation and peroxynitrite formation plays an important role in the development of intracellular Ca(2+) overload in cardiomyocytes as a consequence of I/R injury.

  2. Production and actions of superoxide in the renal medulla.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Li, N; Cowley, A W

    2001-02-01

    The present study characterized the biochemical pathways responsible for superoxide (O(2)(-.)) production in different regions of the rat kidney and determined the role of O(2)(-.)in the control of renal medullary blood flow (MBF) and renal function. By use of dihydroethidium/DNA fluorescence spectrometry with microtiter plates, the production of O(2)(-. )was monitored when tissue homogenate from different kidney regions was incubated with substrates for the major O(2)(-.)-producing enzymes, such as NADH/NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes. The production of O(2)(-. )via NADH oxidase was greater (P<0.05) in the renal cortex and outer medulla (OM) than in the papilla. The mitochondrial enzyme activity for O(2)(-.)production was higher (P<0.05) in the OM than in the cortex and papilla. Compared with NADH oxidase and mitochondrial enzymes, xanthine oxidase and NADPH oxidase produced much less O(2)(-. )in the kidney under this condition. Overall, the renal OM exhibited the greatest enzyme activities for O(2)(-.)production. In anesthetized rats, renal medullary interstitial infusion of a superoxide dismutase inhibitor, diethyldithiocarbamate, markedly decreased renal MBF and sodium excretion. Diethyldithiocarbamate (5 mg/kg per minute by renal medullary interstitial infusion [RI]) reduced the renal medullary laser-Doppler flow signal from 0.6+/-0.04 to 0.4+/-0.03 V, a reduction of 33%, and both urine flow and sodium excretion decreased by 49%. In contrast, a membrane-permeable superoxide dismutase mimetic, 4-hydroxytetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL, 30 micromol/kg per minute RI) increased MBF and sodium excretion by 34% and 69%, respectively. These effects of TEMPOL on renal MBF and sodium excretion were not altered by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10 microgram/kg per minute RI). We conclude that (1) renal medullary O(2)(-. )is primarily produced in the renal OM; (2) both NADH oxidase and mitochondrial

  3. Linking Microbial Community Structure, Activity and Carbon Cycling in Biological Soil Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, T.; Karaoz, U.; Swenson, J.; Bowen, B.; Northen, T.

    2016-12-01

    Soils play a key role in the global carbon cycle, but the relationships between soil microbial communities and metabolic pathways are poorly understood. In this study, biological soil crusts (biocrusts) from the Colorado Plateau are being used to develop soil metabolomics methods and statistical models to link active microbes to the abundance and turnover of soil metabolites and to examine the detailed substrate and product profiles of individual soil bacteria isolated from biocrust. To simulate a pulsed activity (wetting) event and to analyze the subsequent correlations between soil metabolite dynamics, community structure and activity, biocrusts were wetup with water and samples (porewater and DNA) were taken at various timepoints up to 49.5 hours post-wetup. DNA samples were sequenced using the HiSeq sequencing platform and porewater metabolites were analyzed using untargeted liquid chromatography/ mass spectrometry. Exometabolite analysis revealed the release of a breadth of metabolites including sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, dicarboxylic acids, nucleobases and osmolytes. In general, many metabolites (e.g. amino acids and nucleobases) immediately increased in abundance following wetup and then steadily decreased. However, a few continued to increase over time (e.g. xanthine). Interestingly, in a previous study exploring utilization of soil metabolites by sympatric bacterial isolates from biocrust, we observed xanthine to be released by some Bacilli sp. Furthermore, our current metagenomics data show that members of the Paenibacillaceae family increase in abundance in late wetup samples. Previous 16S amplicon data also show a "Firmicutes bloom" following wetup with the new metagenomic data resolving this at genome-level. Our continued metagenome and exometabolome analyses are allowing us to examine complex pulsed-activity events in biocrust microbial communities specifically by correlating the abundance of microbes to the release of soil metabolites

  4. Protective effect of N-acetylcysteine against oxygen radical-mediated coronary artery injury.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, A J; Evora, P R B; Schaff, H V

    2004-08-01

    The present study investigated the protective effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against oxygen radical-mediated coronary artery injury. Vascular contraction and relaxation were determined in canine coronary arteries immersed in Kreb's solution (95% O2-5% CO2), incubated or not with NAC (10 mM), and exposed to free radicals (FR) generated by xanthine oxidase (100 mU/ml) plus xanthine (0.1 mM). Rings not exposed to FR or NAC were used as controls. The arteries were contracted with 2.5 microM prostaglandin F2alpha. Subsequently, concentration-response curves for acetylcholine, calcium ionophore and sodium fluoride were obtained in the presence of 20 microM indomethacin. Concentration-response curves for bradykinin, calcium ionophore, sodium nitroprusside, and pinacidil were obtained in the presence of indomethacin plus Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (0.2 mM). The oxidative stress reduced the vascular contraction of arteries not exposed to NAC (3.93 +/- 3.42 g), compared to control (8.56 +/- 3.16 g) and to NAC group (9.07 +/- 4.0 g). Additionally, in arteries not exposed to NAC the endothelium-dependent nitric oxide (NO)-dependent relaxation promoted by acetylcholine (1 nM to 10 microM) was also reduced (maximal relaxation of 52.1 +/- 43.2%), compared to control (100%) and NAC group (97.0 +/- 4.3%), as well as the NO/cyclooxygenase-independent receptor-dependent relaxation provoked by bradykinin (1 nM to 10 microM; maximal relaxation of 20.0 +/- 21.2%), compared to control (100%) and NAC group (70.8 +/- 20.0%). The endothelium-independent relaxation elicited by sodium nitroprusside (1 nM to 1 microM) and pinacidil (1 nM to 10 microM) was not affected. In conclusion, the vascular dysfunction caused by the oxidative stress, expressed as reduction of the endothelium-dependent relaxation and of the vascular smooth muscle contraction, was prevented by NAC.

  5. 1,4-Diamino-2-butanone, a wide-spectrum microbicide, yields reactive species by metal-catalyzed oxidation.

    PubMed

    Soares, Chrislaine O; Alves, Maria Julia M; Bechara, Etelvino J H

    2011-06-15

    The α-aminoketone 1,4-diamino-2-butanone (DAB), a putrescine analogue, is highly toxic to various microorganisms, including Trypanosoma cruzi. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying DAB's cytotoxic properties. We report here that DAB (pK(a) 7.5 and 9.5) undergoes aerobic oxidation in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, at 37°C, catalyzed by Fe(II) and Cu(II) ions yielding NH(4)(+) ion, H(2)O(2), and 4-amino-2-oxobutanal (oxoDAB). OxoDAB, like methylglyoxal and other α-oxoaldehydes, is expected to cause protein aggregation and nucleobase lesions. Propagation of DAB oxidation by superoxide radical was confirmed by the inhibitory effect of added SOD (50 U ml-1) and stimulatory effect of xanthine/xanthine oxidase, a source of superoxide radical. EPR spin trapping studies with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-1-oxide (DMPO) revealed an adduct attributable to DMPO-HO(•), and those with α-(4-pyridyl-1-oxide)-N-tert-butylnitrone or 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulfonic acid, a six-line adduct assignable to a DAB(•) resonant enoyl radical adduct. Added horse spleen ferritin (HoSF) and bovine apo-transferrin underwent oxidative changes in tryptophan residues in the presence of 1.0-10 mM DAB. Iron release from HoSF was observed as well. Assays performed with fluorescein-encapsulated liposomes of cardiolipin and phosphatidylcholine (20:80) incubated with DAB resulted in extensive lipid peroxidation and consequent vesicle permeabilization. DAB (0-10 mM) administration to cultured LLC-MK2 epithelial cells caused a decline in cell viability, which was inhibited by preaddition of either catalase (4.5 μM) or aminoguanidine (25 mM). Our findings support the hypothesis that DAB toxicity to several pathogenic microorganisms previously described may involve not only reported inhibition of polyamine metabolism but also DAB pro-oxidant activity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rac2 deficiency attenuates CCl4-induced liver injury through suppressing inflammation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Xiong, Ji-Bin; Ma, Ke; Wang, Ai-Zhong; Qian, Ke-Jian

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a leading cause to liver injury. Rac2 is a Ras-associated guanosine triphosphatase, an important molecule modulating a large number of cells and involved in the regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the study described here, we supposed that Rac2 knockout protects mice against CCl 4 -induced acute liver injury. We found that Rac2 expressed highly in CCl 4 -induced liver tissues. CCl 4 -treated Rac2 knockout (Rac2-/-) mice had reduced CD24 levels and steatosis. In addition, CCl 4 -induced high expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were reversed by Rac2 deficiency compared to CCl 4 -treated wild type (WT) mice. We also found that fibrosis-related signals of MMP-9, MMP-2 and TGF-β1 were also down-regulated in Rac2 knockout mice induced by CCl 4 . Significantly, oxidative stress induced by CCl 4 was also suppressed owing to the lack of Rac2, evidenced by enhanced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, superoxide radical, H 2 O 2 , xanthine oxidase (XO), xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) and XO/XDH ratio. Moreover, c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase mitogen-activated protein kinases (JNK MAPK) was activated by CCl 4 , which was reversed in the liver of Rac2-/- mice through western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, endotoxin (LPS) was treated to hepatocytes isolated from WT mice and Rac2-/- mice. The data further confirmed the role of Rac2 deficiency suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine, as well as fibrosis-related signals. Of note, production of ROS induced by LPS was reduced in Rac2-/- cells, accompanied with enhanced SOD1, SOD2 and reduced XO and phosphorylated-JNK expressions. Our results indicated that Rac2 played an essential role in acute liver injury induced by CCl 4 , providing the compelling information of the effects of Rac2 on liver injury, and revealing a novel regulatory mechanism for acute liver injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  7. Cardiovascular Safety of Febuxostat or Allopurinol in Patients with Gout.

    PubMed

    White, William B; Saag, Kenneth G; Becker, Michael A; Borer, Jeffrey S; Gorelick, Philip B; Whelton, Andrew; Hunt, Barbara; Castillo, Majin; Gunawardhana, Lhanoo

    2018-03-29

    Cardiovascular risk is increased in patients with gout. We compared cardiovascular outcomes associated with febuxostat, a nonpurine xanthine oxidase inhibitor, with those associated with allopurinol, a purine base analogue xanthine oxidase inhibitor, in patients with gout and cardiovascular disease. We conducted a multicenter, double-blind, noninferiority trial involving patients with gout and cardiovascular disease; patients were randomly assigned to receive febuxostat or allopurinol and were stratified according to kidney function. The trial had a prespecified noninferiority margin of 1.3 for the hazard ratio for the primary end point (a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or unstable angina with urgent revascularization). In total, 6190 patients underwent randomization, received febuxostat or allopurinol, and were followed for a median of 32 months (maximum, 85 months). The trial regimen was discontinued in 56.6% of patients, and 45.0% discontinued follow-up. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, a primary end-point event occurred in 335 patients (10.8%) in the febuxostat group and in 321 patients (10.4%) in the allopurinol group (hazard ratio, 1.03; upper limit of the one-sided 98.5% confidence interval [CI], 1.23; P=0.002 for noninferiority). All-cause and cardiovascular mortality were higher in the febuxostat group than in the allopurinol group (hazard ratio for death from any cause, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.47]; hazard ratio for cardiovascular death, 1.34 [95% CI, 1.03 to 1.73]). The results with regard to the primary end point and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in the analysis of events that occurred while patients were being treated were similar to the results in the modified intention-to-treat analysis. In patients with gout and major cardiovascular coexisting conditions, febuxostat was noninferior to allopurinol with respect to rates of adverse cardiovascular events. All-cause mortality and

  8. Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; Mackenzie, Isla S; De Caterina, Raffaele; Findlay, Evelyn; Hallas, Jesper; Hawkey, Christopher J; Ralston, Stuart; Walters, Matthew; Webster, John; McMurray, John; Perez Ruiz, Fernando; Jennings, Claudine G

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). Methods and analysis FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60 years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357 µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3 years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists’ Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. Ethics and dissemination FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be

  9. Febuxostat ameliorates diabetic renal injury in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hong-Joo; Jeong, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Yang Gyun; Moon, Joo Young; Lee, Sang Ho; Ihm, Chun Gyoo; Sung, Ji Youn; Lee, Tae Won

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are known to play central roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Febuxostat is a novel non-purine xanthine oxidase (XO)-specific inhibitor developed to treat hyperuricemia. In this study, we investigated whether febuxostat could ameliorate DN via renoprotective mechanisms such as alleviation of oxidative stress and anti-inflammatory actions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: a normal group, a diabetes group (DM group), and a febuxostat-treated diabetes group (DM+Fx group). We administered 5 mg/kg of febuxostat to experimental rats for 7 weeks and evaluated clinical and biochemical parameters and XO and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activity in hepatic tissue. The degree of oxidative stress and extent of inflammation were evaluated from urine samples and renal tissue collected from each group. Diabetic rats (DM and DM+Fx groups) had higher blood glucose and kidney weight relative to body weight than normal rats. Albuminuria was significantly reduced in febuxostat-treated diabetic rats compared with untreated diabetic rats. Quantitative analysis showed that hepatic XO and XDH activities were higher in the DM groups, but decreased after treatment with febuxostat. Urinary 8-OHdG concentrations and renal cortical nitrotyrosine also indicated reduced oxidative stress in the DM+Fx group relative to the DM group. The number of ED-1-stained cells in the glomerulus and tubule of diabetic renal tissue decreased in febuxostat-treated diabetic rats relative to that of non-treated diabetic rats. Diabetic rats also expressed higher transcript levels of inflammatory genes (E-selectin and VCAM-1), an inflammation-induced enzyme (COX-2), and inflammatory mediators (ED-1 and NF-κB) than control rats; expression of these genes was significantly reduced by treatment with febuxostat. Febuxostat prevents diabetic renal injury such as albuminuria. This renoprotective effect appears to be due to attenuation of the

  10. Effect of mitochondrial complex I inhibition on Fe-S cluster protein activity

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, Natalia P.; Millennium Institute of Cell Dynamics and Biotechnology, Santiago; Bulteau, Anne Laure

    2011-06-03

    Highlights: {yields} Mitochondrial complex I inhibition resulted in decreased activity of Fe-S containing enzymes mitochondrial aconitase and cytoplasmic aconitase and xanthine oxidase. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in the loss of Fe-S clusters in cytoplasmic aconitase and of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase. {yields} Consistent with loss of cytoplasmic aconitase activity, an increase in iron regulatory protein 1 activity was found. {yields} Complex I inhibition resulted in an increase in the labile cytoplasmic iron pool. -- Abstract: Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are small inorganic cofactors formed by tetrahedral coordination of iron atoms with sulfur groups. Present in numerous proteins, these clusters aremore » involved in key biological processes such as electron transfer, metabolic and regulatory processes, DNA synthesis and repair and protein structure stabilization. Fe-S clusters are synthesized mainly in the mitochondrion, where they are directly incorporated into mitochondrial Fe-S cluster-containing proteins or exported for cytoplasmic and nuclear cluster-protein assembly. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of mitochondrial complex I by rotenone decreases Fe-S cluster synthesis and cluster content and activity of Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes. Inhibition of complex I resulted in decreased activity of three Fe-S cluster-containing enzymes: mitochondrial and cytosolic aconitases and xanthine oxidase. In addition, the Fe-S cluster content of glutamine phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate amidotransferase and mitochondrial aconitase was dramatically decreased. The reduction in cytosolic aconitase activity was associated with an increase in iron regulatory protein (IRP) mRNA binding activity and with an increase in the cytoplasmic labile iron pool. Since IRP activity post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of iron import proteins, Fe-S cluster inhibition may result in a false iron deficiency signal. Given

  11. Differential expression of hsp70 stress proteins in human endothelial cells exposed to heat shock and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Jornot, L; Mirault, M E; Junod, A F

    1991-09-01

    The potential role of oxidative stress conditions in the induction of heat shock proteins was studied in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. We compared the effects of temperature (43 to 45 degrees C), exposure to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and oxygen metabolites generated by the enzyme system hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase (O2- plus H2O2), as well as exposure to 95% O2, on the expression of the major 70-kD heat shock proteins (hsp70). Northern blot analysis indicated that: (1) heat shock induced a rapid and marked increase in hsp70 mRNA levels that reached a maximum during recovery from a 30-min exposure to 45 degrees C; (2) treatment with a 5-mM H2O2 bolus or 50 mU/ml xanthine oxidase also increased hsp70 mRNA levels but to a lesser extent than heat shock (about 10 and 25 times less, respectively); (3) no change was detected after a 5-day exposure to 95% O2. Nuclear run on transcription data and kinetics of mRNA decay in the presence of actinomycin D indicated that the observed increase in hsp70 mRNA levels in both heat-shocked and H2O2-treated cells was mainly due to a transcriptional induction. The kinetics of hsp70 synthesis correlated with the accumulation of hsp70 mRNA. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunologic analysis of these heat shock proteins revealed a series of at least five distinct hsp70 isoforms induced in heat-shocked cells, whereas only a specific subset of these proteins, mainly one acidic isoform, was induced in very low amounts in response to H2O2 treatment. These results clearly indicate that the endothelial cell responses to oxidative stress and heat shock differ in both qualitative and quantitative terms in respect to hsp70 induction. They also suggest that the intensity of this response to oxidative stress conditions may vary depending on the nature of the oxidative challenge.

  12. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THE ANTIMETABOLITE ACTION OF 2,6-DIAMINOPURINE IN VICIA FABA ROOTS

    PubMed Central

    Setterfield, George; Duncan, Robert E.

    1955-01-01

    At a concentration of 9.6 x 10–5 M, 2,6-diaminopurine (DAP) completely inhibited cell enlargement, cell division, and DNA synthesis (determined by microphotometric measurement of Feulgen dye) in Vicia faba roots. Inhibition of cell enlargement was partially reversed by adenine, guanine, xanthine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine. Guanine and the nucleosides gave the greatest reversal, suggesting that one point of DAP action upon cell enlargement is a disruption of nucleoside or nucleotide metabolism, possibly during pentosenucleic acid synthesis. DAP inhibited cell division by preventing onset of prophase. At the concentrations used it had no significant effect on the rate or appearance of mitoses in progress. Inhibition of entrance into prophase was not directly due to inhibition of DNA synthesis since approximately half of the inhibited nuclei had the doubled (4C) amount of DNA. Adenine competitively reversed DAP inhibition of cell division, giving an inhibition index of about 0.5. Guanine gave a slight reversal while xanthine, hypoxanthine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine were inactive. A basic need for free adenine for the onset of mitosis was suggested by this reversal pattern. Meristems treated with DAP contained almost no nuclei with intermediate amounts of DNA, indicating that DAP prevented the onset of DNA synthesis while allowing that underway to reach completion. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was reversed by adenine, adenosine, and desoxyadenosine although synthesis appeared to proceed at a slower rate in reversals than in controls. Inhibition of DNA synthesis by DAP is probably through nucleoside or nucleotide metabolism. A small general depression of DNA content of nuclei in the reversal treatments was observed. This deviation from DNA "constancy" cannot be adequately explained at present although it may be a result of direct incorporation of DAP into DNA. The possible purine precursor, 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide gave no reversal of DAP inhibition

  13. Long term effects of fetal undernutrition on rat heart. Role of hypertension and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; López de Pablo, Angel L.; García-Prieto, Concha F.; Somoza, Beatriz; Quintana-Villamandos, Begoña; Gómez de Diego, José J.; Gutierrez-Arzapalo, Perla Y.; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; González, M. Carmen

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Fetal undernutrition is a risk factor for heart disease in both genders, despite the protection of women against hypertension development. Using a rat model of maternal undernutrition (MUN) we aimed to assess possible sex differences in the development of cardiac alterations and the implication of hypertension and cardiac oxidative stress. Methods Male and female offspring from rats fed ad libitum (control) or with 50% of the normal daily intake during the second half of gestation (MUN) were used. Heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW), hemodynamic parameters (anaesthetized rats) and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP, ELISA) were assessed in 21-day, 6-month and 22-month old rats. Plasma testosterone (ELISA) and cardiac protein expression of enzymes related to reactive oxygen species synthesis (p22phox, xanthine-oxidase) and degradation (catalase, Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, Ec-SOD) were evaluated in 21-day and 6-month old rats (Western Blot). Heart structure and function was studied at the age of 22 months (echocardiography). Results At the age of 21 days MUN males exhibited significantly larger HW/BW and cardiac p22phox expression while females had reduced p22phox expression, compared to their respective sex-matched controls. At the age of 6-months, MUN males showed significantly larger blood pressure and cardiac xanthine-oxidase expression; MUN females were normotensive and had a lower cardiac expression of antioxidant enzymes, compared to their respective sex-matched controls. At the age of 22 months, both MUN males and females showed larger HW/BW and left ventricular mass and lower ejection fraction compared to sex-matched controls; only MUN males exhibited hypertension and a larger plasma BNP compared to aged male controls. Conclusions 1) During perinatal life females exposed to fetal undernutrition are protected from cardiac alterations, but in ageing they exhibit ventricular hypertrophy and functional loss, like MUN males; 2) cardiac oxidative

  14. Mycosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using extract of endophytic fungi, Penicillium species of Glycosmis mauritiana, and its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and tyrokinase inhibitory activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindappa, M.; Farheen, H.; Chandrappa, C. P.; Channabasava; Rai, Ravishankar V.; Raghavendra, Vinay B.

    2016-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using endophytic fungal species, Penicillium species from Glycosmis mautitiana. Phytochemicals, namely tannins, saponins, terpenoids and flavonoids, were identified in Penicillium species extracts, and act as agents of reducing and capping in the conversion of silver nanoparticles into nanoparticles. Using SEM, UV-spectroscopy and XRD, the Penicillium species silver nanoparticles (PsAgNPs) were characterized. The PsAgNPs are shown to be strong antioxidants (DDPH and FRAP), have demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties by three different methods in vitro and strongly inhibited the activity of xanthine oxidase, lipoxygenase and tyrosine kinase. E. coli and P. aeruginosa bacterial species were strongly inhibited by PsAgNPs activity at maximum levels and SEM picture of P. aeruginosa confirms these effects and that they were shrunken due to the toxic effect of PsAgNPs.

  15. Febuxostat for the chronic management of hyperuricemia in patients with gout.

    PubMed

    Chinchilla, Sandra Pamela; Urionaguena, Irati; Perez-Ruiz, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Febuxostat is a non-purine, selective inhibitor of both isoforms of xanthine oxido-reductase (XOR), and a major alternative to the scarce number of urate-lowering medications available in the last decades. Its inhibition of XOR is more potent than allopurinol in a mg to mg comparison, what is associated to achievement of serum urate target more frequently than allopurinol at doses tested in clinical trials, especially in patients with the highest baseline serum urate levels. Its pharmacokinetics is not greatly dependent on renal clearance, contrary to allopurinol, what may be an advantage in patients with chronic kidney disease. Several trials are further evaluating both the cardiovascular safety of febuxostat and its possible beneficial effect on renal function preservation. Still scarce, but clinically interesting, evidence on its use in transplant patients has been recently released.

  16. Rational pharmacotherapy (RPT) in goutology: Define the serum uric acid target & treat-to-target patient cohort and review on urate lowering therapy (ULT) applying synthetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Tim L

    2015-07-01

    A gout revolution is at hand as can be seen from the number of publications and our recent increase in a better understanding of gout regarding imaging, regarding pathogenetic involvement of crystals, cells and cytokines, as well as regarding new pharmacotherapeutic options. We should now focus on rational pharmacotherapy to significantly improve gout care. With modern combinations of xanthine oxidase inhibition PLUS uricosuric all serum urate concentrations can be targeted. The pharmacotherapeutic literature of synthetic urate lowering treatment is reviewed and a plea is given for rational pharmacotherapy combining different modes of action aiming at the rheumatologically predefined optimal serum urate concentrations instead of a more reluctant approach to just lower a serum urate to any lower level with a fixed dose allopurinol. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  17. Mechanism for the Increased Permeability in Endothelial Monolayers Induced by Elastase

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Y.; Kitamura, S.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for the increase in endothelial permeability induced by human neutrophil elastase (HNE). Pretreatment of bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (BPAEC) with HNE(0-30 μg/ml) for 1 h produced a concentration dependent increase in 125I-albumin clearance. The effect was reversible and was not due to cytolysis. Pretreatment of BPAEC with sodium tungstate, which depletes xanthine oxidase, or with oxypurinol, did not prevent HNE induced increased permeability. Heparin, which neutralizes the cationic charge of HNE, also had no protective effect. Pretreatment with heat inactivated HNE, which still had positive charge sites, did not result in increased endothelial permeability. Also, ONO-5046, a novel specific inhibitor of HNE, did prevent increased permeability. These results suggest that elastase increases endothelial permeability mainly through its proteolytic effects. PMID:18472917

  18. On the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase from Brevundimonas diminuta 7

    PubMed Central

    Boer, D. Roeland; Müller, Axel; Fetzner, Susanne; Lowe, David J.; Romão, Maria João

    2005-01-01

    Isoquinoline 1-oxidoreductase (IOR) from Brevundimonas diminuta is a mononuclear molybdoenzyme of the xanthine-dehydrogenase family of proteins and catalyzes the conversion of isoquinoline to isoquinoline-1-one. Its primary sequence and behaviour, specifically in its substrate specificity and lipophilicity, differ from other members of the family. A crystal structure of the enzyme is expected to provide an explanation for these differences. This paper describes the crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction experiments as well as an optimized purification protocol for IOR. Crystallization of IOR was achieved using two different crystallization buffers. Streak-seeding and cross-linking were essential to obtain well diffracting crystals. Suitable cryo-conditions were found and a structure solution was obtained by molecular replacement. However, phases need to be improved in order to obtain a more interpretable electron-density map. PMID:16508115

  19. Preventing hepatocyte oxidative stress cytotoxicity with Mangifera indica L. extract (Vimang).

    PubMed

    Remirez, Diadelis; Tafazoli, Shahrzad; Delgado, Rene; Harandi, Asghar A; O'Brien, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Vimang is an aqueous extract of Mangifera indica used in Cuba to improve the quality of life in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases. In the present study we evaluated the effects of Vimang at preventing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and lipid peroxidation in intact isolated rat hepatocytes. Vimang at 20, 50 and 100 microg/ml inhibited hepatocyte ROS formation induced by glucose-glucose oxidase. Hepatocyte cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation induced by cumene hydroperoxide was also inhibited by Vimang in a dose and time dependent manner at the same concentration. Vimang also inhibited superoxide radical formation by xanthine oxidase and hypoxanthine. The superoxide radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of the Vimang extract was likely related to its gallates, catechins and mangiferin content. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cytoprotective antioxidant effects of Vimang in cellular oxidative stress models.

  20. Visualization of the endocytic pathway in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae using an EGFP-fused plasma membrane protein

    SciTech Connect

    Higuchi, Yujiro; Nakahama, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Jun-ya

    2006-02-17

    Endocytosis is an important process for cellular activities. However, in filamentous fungi, the existence of endocytosis has been so far elusive. In this study, we used AoUapC-EGFP, the fusion protein of a putative uric acid-xanthine permease with enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in Aspergillus oryzae, to examine whether the endocytic process occurs or not. Upon the addition of ammonium into the medium the fusion protein was internalized from the plasma membrane. The internalization of AoUapC-EGFP was completely blocked by sodium azide, cold, and cytochalasin A treatments, suggesting that the internalization possesses the general features of endocytosis. These results demonstrate themore » occurrence of endocytosis in filamentous fungi. Moreover, we discovered that the endosomal compartments appeared upon the induction of endocytosis and moved in a microtubule-dependent manner.« less

  1. Cold urticaria. Dissociation of cold-evoked histamine release and urticara following cold challenge.

    PubMed

    Keahey, T M; Greaves, M W

    1980-02-01

    Nine patients with acquired cold urticaria were studied to assess the effects of beta-adrenergic agents, xanthines, and corticosteroids on cold-evoked histamine release from skin in vivo. The patients, in all of whom an immediate urticarial response developed after cooling of the forearm, demonstrated release of histamine into the venous blood draining that forearm. Following treatment with aminophylline and albuterol in combination or prednisone alone, suppression of histamine release occurred in all but one patient. In some patients, this was accompanied by a subjective diminution in pruritus or buring, but there was no significant improvement in the ensuing edema or erythema. In one patient, total suppression of histamine release was achieved without any effect on whealing and erythema in response to cold challenge. Our results suggest that histamine is not central to the pathogenesis of vascular changes in acquired cold urticaria.

  2. In vivo exposure of Dreissena polymorpha mussels to the quinones menadione and lawsone: menadione is more toxic to mussels than lawsone.

    PubMed

    Osman, A M; Rotteveel, S; den Besten, P J; van Noort, P C M

    2004-01-01

    higher organisms, is more toxic than lawsone. The lack of detectability of xanthine oxidase in the mussel tissues could explain the comparatively lower toxicity of lawsone in the invertebtrate, lending support to a previous suggestion that xanthine oxidase might be responsible for the mechanism of toxicity of lawsone in higher organisms in vivo. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling of methotrexate and 6-mercaptopurine in adults and children. Part 2: 6-mercaptopurine and its interaction with methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Ogungbenro, Kayode; Aarons, Leon

    2014-04-01

    6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) is a purine antimetabolite and prodrug that undergoes extensive intracellular metabolism to produce thionucleotides, active metabolites which have cytotoxic and immunosuppressive properties. Combination therapies involving 6-MP and methotrexate have shown remarkable results in the cure of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in the last 30 years. 6-MP undergoes very extensive intestinal and hepatic metabolism following oral dosing due to the activity of xanthine oxidase leading to very low and highly variable bioavailability and methotrexate has been demonstrated as an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. Despite the success recorded in the use of 6-MP in ALL, there is still lack of effect and life threatening toxicity in some patients due to variability in the pharmacokinetics of 6-MP. Also, dose adjustment during treatment is still based on toxicity. The aim of the current work was to develop a mechanistic model that can be used to simulate trial outcomes and help to improve dose individualisation and dosage regimen optimisation. A physiological based pharmacokinetic model was proposed for 6-MP, this model has compartments for stomach, gut lumen, enterocyte, gut tissue, spleen, liver vascular, liver tissue, kidney vascular, kidney tissue, skin, bone marrow, thymus, muscle, rest of body and red blood cells. The model was based on the assumption of the same elimination pathways in adults and children. Parameters of the model include physiological parameters and drug-specific parameter which were obtained from the literature or estimated using plasma and red blood cell concentration data. Age-dependent changes in parameters were implemented for scaling and variability was also introduced on the parameters for prediction. Inhibition of 6-MP first-pass effect by methotrexate was implemented to predict observed clinical interaction between the two drugs. The model was developed successfully and plasma and red blood cell concentrations were

  4. Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Thomas M; Ford, Ian; Nuki, George; Mackenzie, Isla S; De Caterina, Raffaele; Findlay, Evelyn; Hallas, Jesper; Hawkey, Christopher J; Ralston, Stuart; Walters, Matthew; Webster, John; McMurray, John; Perez Ruiz, Fernando; Jennings, Claudine G

    2014-07-10

    Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST). FAST is a cardiovascular safety study using the prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint design. FAST is recruiting in the UK and Denmark. Recruited patients are aged over 60 years, prescribed allopurinol for symptomatic hyperuricaemia and have at least one additional cardiovascular risk factor. After an allopurinol lead-in phase where the dose of allopurinol is optimised to achieve European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) urate targets (serum urate <357 µmol/L), patients are randomised to either continue optimal dose allopurinol or to use febuxostat. Patients are followed-up for an average of 3 years. The primary endpoint is first occurrence of the Anti-Platelet Trialists' Collaboration (APTC) cardiovascular endpoint of non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke or cardiovascular death. Secondary endpoints are all cause mortality and hospitalisations for heart failure, unstable, new or worsening angina, coronary or cerebral revascularisation, transient ischaemic attack, non-fatal cardiac arrest, venous and peripheral arterial vascular thrombotic event and arrhythmia with no evidence of ischaemia. The primary analysis is a non-inferiority analysis with a non-inferiority upper limit for the HR for the primary outcome of 1.3. FAST (ISRCTN72443728) has ethical approval in the UK and Denmark, and results will be published in a peer reviewed journal. FAST is registered in the EU

  5. Differentiation by hydroquinone of relaxations induced by exogenous and endogenous nitrates in non-vascular smooth muscle: role of superoxide anions.

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, A. J.; Tucker, J. F.; Gibson, A.

    1991-01-01

    1. The influence of hydroquinone on relaxations induced by nitric oxide (NO), nitrovasodilator drugs, and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC) field stimulation has been investigated in three tissues in which endogenous nitrates have been implicated in the NANC response; the mechanism of action of hydroquinone was also studied. 2. In mouse anococcygeus, hydroquinone (10-100 microM) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of relaxations induced by 15 microM NO. Hydroquinone, 100 microM, which reduced responses to NO by 85%, had no effect on relaxations induced by NANC field stimulation (10 Hz; 20s trains), hydroxylamine (10 microM), sodium nitroprusside (1 microM) or sodium azide (20 microM). 3. In guinea-pig trachea, 100 microM hydroquinone reduced relaxations to 150 microM NO by 75%, but had no effect on those to NANC stimulation (10 Hz; 30 s trains) or sodium azide (5 microM). 4. In rat gastric fundus, 100 microM hydroquinone reduced relaxations to 1 microM NO by 85%, but had no effect on those to NANC stimulation (0.5 Hz; 15 s trains) or sodium azide (2 microM). 5. Superoxide dismutase (SOD; 50 u ml-1) had no effect on relaxations of the mouse anococcygeus in response to 15 microM NO or 10 Hz NANC stimulation. Further, the inhibition of responses to NO by hydroquinone was unaffected in the presence of SOD. 6. Hydroquinone (10-100 microM) failed to generate superoxide anions, as detected by a chemiluminescent assay. However, 100 microM hydroquinone, like SOD (50 u ml-1), produced almost complete inhibition of superoxide anion chemiluminescence induced by xanthine (500 microM): xanthine oxidase (0.07 u ml-1). 7. It is concluded that, in our system, hydroquinone inhibits NO by acting as a free radical scavenger rather than by generating superoxide anions. The ability of hydroquinone to block relaxations to NO, but not NANC stimulation, may suggest that the endogenous nitrate substance released by these NANC nerves may not be free NO, but may be an NO

  6. Activation of adenosine low-affinity A3 receptors inhibits the enteric short interplexus neural circuit triggered by histamine.

    PubMed

    Bozarov, Andrey; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Yu, Jun Ge; Wunderlich, Jacqueline; Hassanain, Hamdy H; Alhaj, Mazin; Cooke, Helen J; Grants, Iveta; Ren, Tianhua; Christofi, Fievos L

    2009-12-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that endogenous adenosine (eADO) activates low-affinity A3 receptors in a model of neurogenic diarrhea in the guinea pig colon. Dimaprit activation of H2 receptors was used to trigger a cyclic coordinated response of contraction and Cl(-) secretion. Contraction-relaxation was monitored by sonomicrometry (via intracrystal distance) simultaneously with short-circuit current (I(sc), Cl(-) secretion). The short interplexus reflex coordinated response was attenuated or abolished by antagonists at H2 (cimetidine), 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (RS39604), neurokinin-1 receptor (GR82334), or nicotinic (mecamylamine) receptors. The A1 agonist 2-chloro-N(6)-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) abolished coordinated responses, and A1 antagonists could restore normal responses. A1-selective antagonists alone [8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)xanthine (PACPX), or 8-cyclopentyl-N(3)-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyloxy)propyl]-xanthine (FSCPX)] caused a concentration-dependent augmentation of crypt cell secretion or contraction and acted at nanomolar concentrations. The A3 agonist N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) abolished coordinated responses and the A3 antagonist 3-ethyl-5-benzyl-2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(+/-)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1191) could restore and further augment responses. The IB-MECA effect was resistant to knockdown of adenosine A1 receptor with the irreversible antagonist FSCPX; the IC(50) for IB-MECA was 0.8 microM. MRS1191 alone could augment or unmask coordinated responses to dimaprit, and IB-MECA suppressed them. MRS1191 augmented distension-evoked reflex I(sc) responses. Adenosine deaminase mimicked actions of adenosine receptor antagonists. A3 receptor immunoreactivity was differentially expressed in enteric neurons of different parts of colon. After tetrodotoxin, IB-MECA caused circular muscle relaxation. The data support the novel concept that

  7. Activation of adenosine low-affinity A3 receptors inhibits the enteric short interplexus neural circuit triggered by histamine

    PubMed Central

    Bozarov, Andrey; Wang, Yu-Zhong; Yu, Jun Ge; Wunderlich, Jacqueline; Hassanain, Hamdy H.; Alhaj, Mazin; Cooke, Helen J.; Grants, Iveta; Ren, Tianhua

    2009-01-01

    We tested the novel hypothesis that endogenous adenosine (eADO) activates low-affinity A3 receptors in a model of neurogenic diarrhea in the guinea pig colon. Dimaprit activation of H2 receptors was used to trigger a cyclic coordinated response of contraction and Cl− secretion. Contraction-relaxation was monitored by sonomicrometry (via intracrystal distance) simultaneously with short-circuit current (Isc, Cl− secretion). The short interplexus reflex coordinated response was attenuated or abolished by antagonists at H2 (cimetidine), 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor (RS39604), neurokinin-1 receptor (GR82334), or nicotinic (mecamylamine) receptors. The A1 agonist 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA) abolished coordinated responses, and A1 antagonists could restore normal responses. A1-selective antagonists alone [8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT), 1,3-dipropyl-8-(2-amino-4-chlorophenyl)xanthine (PACPX), or 8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonyl)benzoyloxy)propyl]-xanthine (FSCPX)] caused a concentration-dependent augmentation of crypt cell secretion or contraction and acted at nanomolar concentrations. The A3 agonist N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5′-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) abolished coordinated responses and the A3 antagonist 3-ethyl-5-benzyl-2-methyl-4-phenylethynyl-6-phenyl-1,4-(±)-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate (MRS1191) could restore and further augment responses. The IB-MECA effect was resistant to knockdown of adenosine A1 receptor with the irreversible antagonist FSCPX; the IC50 for IB-MECA was 0.8 μM. MRS1191 alone could augment or unmask coordinated responses to dimaprit, and IB-MECA suppressed them. MRS1191 augmented distension-evoked reflex Isc responses. Adenosine deaminase mimicked actions of adenosine receptor antagonists. A3 receptor immunoreactivity was differentially expressed in enteric neurons of different parts of colon. After tetrodotoxin, IB-MECA caused circular muscle relaxation. The data support the novel concept that eADO acts at

  8. Spectral investigations and DFT studies of 3,7-dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione (caffeine) interaction and recognition by single amino acid derived self-assembled nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindhan, R.; Karthikeyan, B.

    2018-03-01

    Recognition of xanthine alkaloid caffeine with 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylamine derived peptide nanotubes (BTTPNTs) through chemical interaction have been achieved through the host-guest like interaction. DFT simulation is carried out for caffeine interacted with BTTPNTs system and also experimentally characterized by ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorbance, confocal Raman spectra (CRS) with microscopic imaging (CRM), FT-Raman, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), UV-diffuse reflectance spectra (UV-DRS), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) studies. The results are used to examine the morphologies, size of the nanostructure and study of its interaction with the caffeine molecule. The results show that BTTPNTs is having potential for sensing the caffeine molecules through the binding occurred from the NH2 of tyrosine moiety of the BTTPNTs. This intermolecular association through face-to-face stacking of BTTPNTs is explained by detailed DFT calculations.

  9. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  10. Discovery of piperonal-converting oxidase involved in the metabolism of a botanical aromatic aldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Shiori; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Tomita, Chiaki; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-01

    Piperonal-catabolizing microorganisms were isolated from soil, the one (strain CT39-3) exhibiting the highest activity being identified as Burkholderia sp. The piperonal-converting enzyme involved in the initial step of piperonal metabolism was purified from strain CT39-3. Gene cloning of the enzyme and a homology search revealed that the enzyme belongs to the xanthine oxidase family, which comprises molybdoenzymes containing a molybdopterin cytosine dinucleotide cofactor. We found that the piperonal-converting enzyme acts on piperonal in the presence of O2, leading to formation of piperonylic acid and H2O2. The growth of strain CT39-3 was inhibited by higher concentrations of piperonal in the culture medium. Together with this finding, the broad substrate specificity of this enzyme for various aldehydes suggests that it would play an important role in the defense mechanism against antimicrobial compounds derived from plant species. PMID:27905507

  11. Canine urolithiasis: A look at over 16 000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre from February 1998 to April 2003

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to report on the age, sex, breed, and mineral composition of 16 647 canine bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between February 1998 and April 2003. Each urolith submission was accompanied by a questionnaire. Of the submissions, approximately 43.8% were struvite and 41.5% oxalate. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs. Mixed breed dogs predominated, followed by the shih tzu, bichon frise, miniature schnauzer, Lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier. Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier. Urate uroliths were most common in male Dalmations. Other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported. A review of risk factors for the various uroliths is presented, along with some recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:15072194

  12. Nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory stability of gamma irradiated Kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Yook, Hong-Sun; Kim, Mee-Ree; Kim, Kyong-Soo; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2004-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on nutritional, physiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of the Korean lactic acid fermented vegetable, Kimchi, were investigated. The composition of amino acids and organic acids in Kimchi were not influenced by gamma irradiation less than 10 kGy. Angiotensine converting enzyme inhibitory, xanthin oxidase inhibitory, electron donating and antimicrobial activity of Kimchi extract were stable up to 10 kGy. There were no significant changes in pH and texture at less than 10 kGy. Color values were influenced at 10 kGy of gamma irradiation, and resulted in the increase of L*- and reduction of a*-value. About 90% of panelists identified a sensory difference between non-irradiated and 10 kGy-irradiated sample, and Kimchi irradiated at 10 kGy had lower scores in acceptability than those of the control or irradiated at 2.5 and 5 kGy.

  13. Effects of febuxostat on platelet-derived microparticles and adiponectin in patients with hyperuricemia.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Tohru; Taniura, Takehito; Nomura, Shosaku

    2015-12-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs) and adiponectin play an important role in the development of atherothrombosis. We investigated the effect of febuxostat on circulating PDMP levels and adiponectin in hyperuricemic patients. Levels of PDMP and biomarkers were measured using an ELISA at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Plasma levels of PDMPs and biomarkers were higher, while those of adiponectin were lower in hyperuricemic patients than in normouricemic controls. Uric acid and interleukin (IL)-6 levels decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after 2 months of febuxostat treatment. However, PDMP and biomarkers decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after only 6 months of febuxostat treatment and adiponectin increased significantly. These results suggest that the effects of febuxostat for PDMPs seen may be the effect on xanthine oxidase but not the decrease of uric acid, and febuxostat may be beneficial for primary prevention of atherothrombosis in hyperuricemic patients.

  14. Effects of febuxostat on platelet-derived microparticles and adiponectin in patients with hyperuricema

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Tohru; Taniura, Takehito; Nomura, Shosaku

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-derived microparticles (PDMPs) and adiponectin play an important role in the development of atherothrombosis. We investigated the effect of febuxostat on circulating PDMP levels and adiponectin in hyperuricemic patients. Levels of PDMP and biomarkers were measured using an ELISA at baseline and after 2 and 6 months of treatment. Plasma levels of PDMPs and biomarkers were higher, while those of adiponectin were lower in hyperuricemic patients than in normouricemic controls. Uric acid and interleukin (IL)-6 levels decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after 2 months of febuxostat treatment. However, PDMP and biomarkers decreased significantly in hyperuricemic patients after only 6 months of febuxostat treatment and adiponectin increased significantly. These results suggest that the effects of febuxostat for PDMPs seen may be the effect on xanthine oxidase but not the decrease of uric acid, and febuxostat may be beneficial for primary prevention of atherothrombosis in hyperuricemic patients. PMID:26164850

  15. Fatal caffeine overdose: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jabbar, Seema B; Hanly, Mark G

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that is consumed by large numbers of people on a routine basis, usually in the form of coffee or tea. However, if consumed in high doses, this xanthine alkaloid is profoundly toxic and can result in death. Increasingly being sold as a dietary supplement, many people, particularly those in the health and fitness community, where it is touted as a fitness and muscle building aid, are consuming caffeine anhydrous on a daily basis. We report a case of fatal caffeine overdose in a 39-year-old man resulting from the self-administered ingestion of approximately 12 g of pure caffeine anhydrous. Autopsy blood caffeine levels were 350 mg/L. We recommend mandated labeling of pure caffeine anhydrous, highlighting the toxicity risk of ingesting this chemical; and we recommend ensuring that caffeine levels are included in the comprehensive forensic toxicology panel performed on all cases.

  16. Inotropic effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate in isolated canine cardiac preparations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, J; Meissner, A; Bokník, P; Gombosová, I; Knapp, J; Lüss, H; Müller, F U; Schlüter, H; Zidek, W; Rolf, N; Van Aken, H; Vahlensieck, U; Schmitz, W

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effects of diadenosine tetraphosphate (AP4A) on the force of contraction in canine preparations. The force of contraction was measured in isolated electrically driven (1 Hz) atrial and ventricular cardiac trabeculae from adult dogs. AP4A (100 microM) alone and after prestimulation with 10 nM isoproterenol reduced force of contraction in atrial preparations by approximately 24%. Moreover, AP4A (100 microM) alone and after prestimulation with 10 nM isoproterenol reduced the force of contraction in ventricular preparations by 29 and 29%, respectively. The negative inotropic effects of AP4A were abolished by the A1-adenosine receptor antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-cyclopentyl-xanthine (DPCPX). In summary, in canine myocardium, AP4A alone and after prestimulation with a beta-adrenoceptor agonist exerts negative inotropic effects, which are probably mediated via A1-adenosine receptors.

  17. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Darío; Montes, Félix R.; Cabrera, Mariana; Galán, Angélica; Prieto, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, choc