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Sample records for xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis xgc

  1. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients.

  2. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a European and global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew David; Roberts, Keith J; Hodson, James; Scott, Nigel; Sheridan, Maria; Toogood, Giles J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is often mistaken for, and may predispose to, gallbladder carcinoma (GB Ca). This study reviews the worldwide variation of the incidence, investigations, management and outcome of patients with XGC. Methods Data from 29 studies, cumulatively containing 1599 patients, were reviewed and results summarized by geographical region (Europe, India, Far East and Americas) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to present variability within regions. The main study outcomes were incidence, association with GB Ca and treatment of patients with XGC. Results Overall, the incidence of XGC was 1.3–1.9%, with the exception of India where it was 8.8%. The incidence of GB Ca associated with XGC was lowest in European studies (3.3%) varying from 5.1–5.9% in the remaining regions. Confusion with or undiagnosed GB Ca led to 10.2% of patients receiving over or under treatment. Conclusions XGC is a global disease and is associated with GB Ca. Characteristic pathological, radiological and clinical features are shared with GB Ca and contribute to considerable treatment inaccuracy. Tissue sampling by pre-operative endoscopic ultrasound or intra-operative frozen section is required to accurately diagnose gallbladder pathology and should be performed before any extensive resection is performed. PMID:23991684

  3. Involvement of Escherichia coli in pathogenesis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis with scavenger receptor class A and CXCL16-CXCR6 interaction.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Seiko; Harada, Kenichi; Isse, Kumiko; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Kaizaki, Yasuharu; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2007-10-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is characterized by the infiltration of numerous foamy macrophages. Bacterial infection is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of XGC. Using XGC and cultured murine biliary epithelial cells (BEC), the participation of E. coli and the role of the scavenger receptor class A (SCARA), as well as chemokine(C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) and its receptor chemokine(C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (CXCR6), were examined in the pathogenesis of XGC. E. coli components and genes were detected in XGC on immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. SCARA-recognizing E. coli was found in foamy macrophages aggregated in xanthogranulomatous lesions. CXCL16, which functions as a membrane-bound molecule and soluble chemokine to induce adhesion and migration of CXCR6(+) cells, was detected on gallbladder epithelia, and CXCR6(+)/CD8(+) T cells and CXCR6(+)/CD68(+) macrophages were also accumulated. In cultured BEC, CXCL16 mRNA and secreted soluble CXCL16 were constantly detected and upregulated by treatment with E. coli and lipopolysaccharide through Toll-like receptor 4. These suggest that SCARA in macrophages is involved in the phagocytosis of E. coli followed by foamy changes and that bacterial infection causes the upregulation of CXCL16 in gallbladder epithelia, leading to the chemoattraction of macrophages via CXCL16-CXCR6 interaction and formation of the characteristic histology of XGC.

  4. XGC developments for a more efficient XGC-GENE code coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominski, Julien; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Cs

    2017-10-01

    In the Exascale Computing Program, the High-Fidelity Whole Device Modeling project initially aims at delivering a tightly-coupled simulation of plasma neoclassical and turbulence dynamics from the core to the edge of the tokamak. To permit such simulations, the gyrokinetic codes GENE and XGC will be coupled together. Numerical efforts are made to improve the numerical schemes agreement in the coupling region. One of the difficulties of coupling those codes together is the incompatibility of their grids. GENE is a continuum grid-based code and XGC is a Particle-In-Cell code using unstructured triangular mesh. A field-aligned filter is thus implemented in XGC. Even if XGC originally had an approximately field-following mesh, this field-aligned filter permits to have a perturbation discretization closer to the one solved in the field-aligned code GENE. Additionally, new XGC gyro-averaging matrices are implemented on a velocity grid adapted to the plasma properties, thus ensuring same accuracy from the core to the edge regions.

  5. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G. B. D.; Quigley, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The origin of the intracellular fat in human xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis has been the centre of some discussion in the past. A report of a case in a domestic cat is of interest as normal feline renal epithelium is rich in stainable fat. A comparison of the human and feline varieties of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis reveals certain fundamental differences between the two and reinforces the view that the fat concerned in the human disease does not originate in the renal epithelium. Images PMID:4114697

  6. Xanthogranulomatous Salpingooophoritis: The Youngest Documented Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Harshawardhan; Joshi, Avinash; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kini, Siddharth; Bachhav, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is an uncommon affection of the female genital tract. The youngest case reported of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis in literature was by Shilpa et al. in 2013 in an eighteen-year-old female. Case Report. We report a case of 2-year-old female child with right-sided xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis presented as mass in abdomen. This is a case report of the youngest documented case of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis in literature. As per abdominal examination, there was generalized distention of abdomen and a mass was palpable which was arising out of pelvis more on the right side. The ultrasonography (USG) abdomen and pelvis revealed a thick-walled mass measuring 9.2 cm × 6.0 cm × 7.6 cm in pelvis. We did right salpingooophorectomy of the patient. On histopathology, the diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis was confirmed. Conclusion. Clinical presentation, radiological appearance, and gross features of xanthogranulomatous lesions of ovary can mimic neoplastic lesions and lead to misdiagnosis. Though, it is very rare in pediatric age group, xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis as one of the differential diagnoses should be kept in mind while dealing with tuboovarian masses in this age group. PMID:26114000

  7. Adult Orbital and Adnexal Xanthogranulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael J; Whitehead, Kevin; Quagliotto, Gary; Wood, Dominic; Patheja, Rajan S; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa is a rare disease that can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Ophthalmologists are commonly the first clinicians to come in contact with affected patients and an understanding of the clinical features is essential. We present a retrospective case series of patients seen in the oculoplastic unit of a large tertiary referral hospital over a 20-year period. The clinical files of 7 patients with adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa were reviewed. Clinical, radiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings were examined. Periocular clinical features included cutaneous xanthogranulomatous lesions, decreased visual acuity, proptosis, diplopia, skin ulceration, cicatricial ectropion, and mechanical ptosis. Systemic features included adult-onset asthma, disseminated xanthogranulomatous lesions with long bone involvement, and hematological disturbances such as monoclonal gammopathy and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Lipid-laden macrophages and Touton multinucleated giant cells were histological hallmarks in all subtypes. Most lesions were strongly CD8 positive on immunohistochemistry. Radiologically, the lesions were diffuse and infiltrative in nature. Various treatments were employed with varying success including surgical excision, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, and systemic chemotherapy. Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa, although rare, may be sight or life threatening. Recognition by the ophthalmologist is critical as periocular features often constitute the initial presentation. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  8. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with colesional actinomycosis in a 63-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Gulwani, Hanni V.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon chronic destructive granulomatous disease of the kidney. A rare case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with extrarenal extension that had coexistence of renal actinomycosis is described in this article. PMID:25878419

  9. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J; Reda, E; Gill, B; Kogan, S; Levitt, S

    1987-11-01

    We report on a child with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis--an uncommon entity in children. A review of the literature revealed that in only 18 per cent was the diagnosis made correctly preoperatively. In children the disease is of a focal nature rather than a diffuse one, suggesting that possibly radical surgery would be less necessary for adequate treatment.

  10. Extension of the XGC code for global gyrokinetic simulations in stellarator geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Michael; Moritaka, Toseo; White, Roscoe; Hager, Robert; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the total-f, gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC is extended to treat stellarator geometries. Improvements to meshing tools and the code itself have enabled the first physics studies, including single particle tracing and flux surface mapping in the magnetic geometry of the heliotron LHD and quasi-isodynamic stellarator Wendelstein 7-X. These have provided the first successful test cases for our approach. XGC is uniquely placed to model the complex edge physics of stellarators. A roadmap to such a global confinement modeling capability will be presented. Single particle studies will include the physics of energetic particles' global stochastic motions and their effect on confinement. Good confinement of energetic particles is vital for a successful stellarator reactor design. These results can be compared in the core region with those of other codes, such as ORBIT3d. In subsequent work, neoclassical transport and turbulence can then be considered and compared to results from codes such as EUTERPE and GENE. After sufficient verification in the core region, XGC will move into the stellarator edge region including the material wall and neutral particle recycling.

  11. [Management of Acute Cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Ok; Yim, Sung Kyun

    2018-05-25

    Acute cholecystitis is a common serious complication of gallstones. The reported mortality of acute cholecystitis is approximately 3%, but the rate increases with age or comorbidity of the patient. If appropriate treatment is delayed, complications can develop as a consequence with a grave prognosis. The current standard of care in acute cholecystitis is an early laparoscopic cholecystectomy with the appropriate administration of fluid, electrolyte, and antibiotics. On the other hand, the severity of the disease and patient's operational risk must be considered. In those with high operational risks, gall bladder drainage can be performed as an alternative. Currently percutaneous and endoscopic drainage are available and show clinical success in most cases. After recovering from acute cholecystitis, the patients who have undergone drainage should be considered for cholecystectomy as a definitive treatment. However, in elderly patients or patients with significant comorbidity, operational risks may still be high, making cholecystectomy inappropriate. In these patients, gallstone removal using the percutaneous tract or endoscopy may be considered.

  12. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-sheng; Dong, Hong-yan; Zhang, Lei-lei; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Zhao, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported. Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1) one case affecting the endometrium, 2) one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3) one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains. Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging. PMID:22393333

  13. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis due to calculi: report of 63 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Saadat; Hussain, Israr; Ahmed, Sheir; Khan, Masha; Niazi, Nadeem

    2005-09-01

    To examine the relationship between clinical history and results of renal investigations in patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A retrospective review was conducted on 63 cases presenting with histopathological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis between 1995 to 2002, at the department of Urology, Bolan Medical College and Sandeman Provincial Teaching Hospital Quetta. There were 26 males and 37 females having an average follow up of two years. Positive findings on examination and investigations at presentation were fever and flank pain in 59 (93.6%) patients and pyuria in 34 (53.9%) patients. All the patients had renal and ureteric calculi with no or severe reduction in the function of the affected kidney on DTPA scan. Hypertrophy of the contra lateral kidney was seen in 56 (88.8%) patients. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a common entity in this part of the world. Late referral leads to loss of the kidney. Pre-operative diagnosis of the condition is desirable and if surgery is mandatory then all infected tissues have to be removed.

  14. Xanthogranulomatous cystitis: a challenging imitator of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-06-29

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature.

  15. Xanthogranulomatous Cystitis: A Challenging Imitator of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature. PMID:20602075

  16. Cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... digestive fluid that's released into your small intestine (bile). In most cases, gallstones blocking the tube leading ... your gallbladder cause cholecystitis. This results in a bile buildup that can cause inflammation. Other causes of ...

  17. Acute Cholecystitis in Patients with Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun; Ji, Misuk; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Lee, Ja-Yeon; Lee, Ju-Hyung; Chung, Kyung Min; Lee, Chang-Seop

    2015-11-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a rare complication of scrub typhus. Although a few such cases have been reported in patients with scrub typhus, the clinical course is not well described. Of 12 patients, acute cholecystitis developed in 66.7% (8/12) of patients older than 60 yr. The scrub typhus group with acute cholecystitis had marginal significant longer hospital stay and higher cost than the group without cholecystitis according to propensity score matching. Scrub typhus should be kept in mind as a rare etiology of acute cholecystitis in endemic areas because the typical signs of scrub typhus such as skin rash and eschar can present after the abdominal pain.

  18. Renal Collision Tumor in Association with Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Jennifer; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Collision tumor is a rare condition in which two neoplasms (usually benign and malignant), both growing in the same general area, collide with each other and become intermingled. We present histopathology and imaging correlation of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis coexistent with squamous cell carcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma of the kidney. PMID:21915390

  19. Implementation of non-axisymmetric mesh system in the gyrokinetic PIC code (XGC) for Stellarators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritaka, Toseo; Hager, Robert; Cole, Micheal; Chang, Choong-Seock; Lazerson, Samuel; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Ishiguro, Seiji

    2017-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulation is a powerful tool to investigate turbulent and neoclassical transports based on the first-principles of plasma kinetics. The gyrokinetic PIC code XGC has been developed for integrated simulations that cover the entire region of Tokamaks. Complicated field line and boundary structures should be taken into account to demonstrate edge plasma dynamics under the influence of X-point and vessel components. XGC employs gyrokinetic Poisson solver on unstructured triangle mesh to deal with this difficulty. We introduce numerical schemes newly developed for XGC simulation in non-axisymmetric Stellarator geometry. Triangle meshes in each poloidal plane are defined by PEST poloidal angle in the VMEC equilibrium so that they have the same regular structure in the straight field line coordinate. Electric charge of marker particle is distributed to the triangles specified by the field-following projection to the neighbor poloidal planes. 3D spline interpolation in a cylindrical mesh is also used to obtain equilibrium magnetic field at the particle position. These schemes capture the anisotropic plasma dynamics and resulting potential structure with high accuracy. The triangle meshes can smoothly connect to unstructured meshes in the edge region. We will present the validation test in the core region of Large Helical Device and discuss about future challenges toward edge simulations.

  20. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Can Simulate a Complex Cyst: Case Description and Review of Literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Butticè, Salvatore; Antonino, Inferrera; Giorgio, Ascenti; Valeria, Barresi; Stefano, Pergolizzi; Giuseppe, Mucciardi; Carlo, Magno

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and peculiar form of chronic pyelonephritis and is generally associated with renal lithiasis. Its incidence is higher in females. The peculiarity of this disease is that it requires a differential diagnosis, because it can often simulate dramatic pathologic conditions. In fact, in the literature are also described cases in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney The radiologic clinical findings simulate renal masses, sometimes in association with caval thrombus. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with radiologic aspects of a complex cyst of Bosniak class III in a man 40-year old. PMID:26955560

  1. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Can Simulate a Complex Cyst: Case Description and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Butticè, Salvatore; Antonino, Inferrera; Giorgio, Ascenti; Valeria, Barresi; Stefano, Pergolizzi; Giuseppe, Mucciardi; Carlo, Magno

    2014-05-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and peculiar form of chronic pyelonephritis and is generally associated with renal lithiasis. Its incidence is higher in females. The peculiarity of this disease is that it requires a differential diagnosis, because it can often simulate dramatic pathologic conditions. In fact, in the literature are also described cases in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney The radiologic clinical findings simulate renal masses, sometimes in association with caval thrombus. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with radiologic aspects of a complex cyst of Bosniak class III in a man 40-year old.

  2. CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications.

    PubMed

    Shakespear, Jonathan S; Shaaban, Akram M; Rezvani, Maryam

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and illustrate the CT findings of acute cholecystitis and its complications. CT findings suggesting acute cholecystitis should be interpreted with caution and should probably serve as justification for further investigation with abdominal ultrasound. CT has a relatively high negative predictive value, and acute cholecystitis is unlikely in the setting of a negative CT. Complications of acute cholecystitis have a characteristic CT appearance and include necrosis, perforation, abscess formation, intraluminal hemorrhage, and wall emphysema.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Yener, Nese; Ilter, Erdin; Midi, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

  4. Risk factors for acute cholecystitis and for intraoperative complications.

    PubMed

    Andercou, Octavian; Olteanu, Gabriel; Mihaileanu, Florin; Stancu, Bogdan; Dorin, Marian

    2017-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is still frequent in emergency surgical departments. As surgical technique, nowadays laparoscopy is widely used and with low complications and with low postoperative morbidity. We perform an analytical study about the safety of laparoscopic surgery in patients with acute cholecystitis in a single Surgical Department with an experience of over 20 years in laparoscopic surgery. We included 193 patient admitted in our department during 2014 and 2015. Of the 193 patients, 43% were diagnosed with acute lithiasic cholecystitis (ALC) whereas 56% had chronic lithiasic cholecystitis (CLC). We assessed the comorbidities of the patient via Pearson's Chi-Square test and we found out that there is a significant relationship between acute cholecystitis and high blood tension, obesity and diabetes. Surgical techniques performed were in 95% of cases laparoscopic cholecystectomy and only in 5% we performed open surgery. Experienced surgeons have a lower conversion rate as compared to less experienced surgeons. For this reason, postoperative assessment criteria have been proposed, with a view to identify the risk of conversion CONCLUSION: In our study laparoscopic surgery for acute cholecystitis is a safe procedure with low intraoperative complication rate and with a reduced hospital stay. Acute cholecystitis, Intraoperative adhesion, Intraoperative bleeding, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  5. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Euler de Medeiros Ázaro; Galvão, Thales Delmondes; Ettinger, João Eduardo Marques de Menezes; Silva Reis, Jadson Murilo; Lima, Marcos; Fahel, Edvaldo

    2006-01-01

    Background: Acute cholecystitis is the major complication of biliary lithiasis, for which laparoscopic treatment has been established as the standard therapy. With longer life expectancy, acute cholecystitis has often been seen in elderly patients (>65 years old) and is often accompanied by comorbity and severe complications. We sought to compare the outcome of laparoscopic treatment for acute cholecystitis with special focus on comparison between elderly and nonelderly patients. Method: This study was a prospective analysis of 190 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis or chronic acute cholecystitis, comparing elderly and nonelderly patients. Results: Of 190 patients, 39 (21%) were elderly (>65 years old) and 151 (79%) were not elderly (≤65 years), with conversion rates of 10.3% and 6.6% (P=0.49), respectively. The incidence of postoperative complications in elderly and nonelderly patients were the following, respectively: atelectasis 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27); respiratory infection 5.1% and 2.7% (P=0.6); bile leakage 5.1% and 2.0% (P=0.27), and intraabdominal abscess 1 case (0.7%) and no incidence (P=1). Conclusion: According to our data, laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and efficient procedure for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in patients older than 65 years of age. PMID:17575761

  6. Acute cholecystitis as a postoperative complication.

    PubMed Central

    Ottinger, L W

    1976-01-01

    The clinical course and management of 40 patients who underwent operation for acute cholecystitis developing as a postoperative complication were reviewed. Of note was the mortality of 47%, the high incidence of gangrene, perforation, empyema, and cholangitis, and the atypical clinical presentation of acute cholecystitis under these conditions. Awareness of this possible complication, knowledge of its clinical features, and early surgical intervention are important facets of successful management. PMID:952563

  7. Acute Cholecystitis Caused by Ceftriaxone Stones in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Christian D.; Fischer, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is a major health problem. There are multiple etiologies to be considered and early recognition of the condition is important to optimize management and outcome. We report the first case in the medical literature of symptomatic acute cholecystitis triggered by ceftriaxone-associated gallbladder sludge formation and, importantly, solid ceftriaxone gallstone formation in an adult patient with underlying mineral and pigment cholecystolithiasis, necessitating cholecystectomy. This case serves as a reminder for physicians to keep this uncommon cause of cholecystolithiasis and cholecystitis in mind in patients who receive prolonged ceftriaxone therapy. These patients should be cautioned to promptly report to their physicians any signs or symptoms of cholecystitis in order to ensure timely and appropriate evaluation. PMID:19707473

  8. Rare Co-existence of Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Infiltration of Renal Vein and Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A.V.; Patel, R.D.; Nigam, L. K.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. Most patients have history of chronic urolithiasis, analgesics abuse, radiotherapy or infection. Co-existence of SCC with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is exceedingly rare with only few reports in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old male presented with right flank pain and mild tenderness of abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed gross hydronephrosis with parenchymal thinning and irregular thick enhancing wall of pelvicalyceal system with multiple calculi in right kidney. Right renal vein appeared distended, filled with hypo dense material. Right nephrectomy was performed and sent for pathological examination. Histological evaluation revealed keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with infiltration of renal vein and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. PMID:26816904

  9. H pylori exist in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong-Feng; Hu, Lu; Yi, Ping; Liu, Wei-Wen; Fang, Dian-Chun; Cao, Hong

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study whether H pylori locate in the gallbladder mucosa of patients with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: Using Warthy-Starry (W-S) silver stain and immunohistochemistry stain with anti-H pylori antibodies, we screened paraffin specimens in 524 cases of cholecystitis. H pylori urease gene A (HPUA) and H pylori urease gene B (HPUB) were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the fresh tissue specimens from 81 cases of cholecystitis. RESULTS: H pylori-like bacteria were found in 13.55% of the gallbladders of the cholecystitis patients using W-S stain. Meanwhile, bacteria positive for H pylori antibodies were also found in 7.1% of the gallbladders of patients with cholecystitis by immunohistochemistry. Of 81 gallbladders, 11 were positive for both HPUA and HPUB, 4 were positive for HPUA only and 7 were positive for HPUB only. CONCLUSION: H pylori exist in the gallbladders of patients with chronic cholecystitis. PMID:17461457

  10. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in systemic lupus erythematosus: a rare initial manifestation.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Valdano; Pedro, Gertrudes Maria; Cordeiro, Lemuel Bornelli; de Miranda, Sandra Maria da Rocha Neto

    2016-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a very rare gastrointestinal manifestation in systemic lupus erythematosus and becomes rarer as an initial manifestation. There are only two cases reported. The authors report a 20-year-old black woman that presented acute acalculous cholecystitis revealed by abdominal computed tomography. During hospitalization, she was diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus. Conservative treatment with antibiotics was performed with complete remission of the symptoms. Corticosteroid was started in ambulatory. Cholecystectomy has been the treatment of choice in acute acalculous cholecystitis as a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus. The patient responded well to conservative treatment, and surgery was not required. This case is unique in the way that corticosteroid was started in ambulatory care. We should not forget that the acute acalculous cholecystitis can be the initial presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus although its occurrence is very rare. Conservative treatment should be considered. Abdominal computed tomography was a determinant exam for better assessment of acute acalculous cholecystitis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Cholelithiasis and Cholecystitis in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wingert, Willis A.; Mikity, Victor G.

    1967-01-01

    Six cases of cholecystitis and cholelithiasis confirmed by x-ray examination and surgical operation were observed in a ten-year period. Due to the wide variability in signs and symptoms in children, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis can be diagnosed only with a high degree of clinical suspicion and roentgenological examination. Gallbladder disease is uncommon in childhood but should be considered in children with vague abdominal pains or bouts of unexplained jaundice. If a normal appendix is found at laparotomy in the “acute abdomen,” the surgeon would be wise to palpate other specific organs within the abdomen, including the liver and gallbladder. The treatment of choice is cholecystectomy. The prognosis for recovery is excellent if there is no complicating systemic disease. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:6045485

  12. Verification of long wavelength electromagnetic modes with a gyrokinetic-fluid hybrid model in the XGC code

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert; Lang, Jianying; Chang, C. S.

    As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons. Here, two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfven waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries.

  13. Verification of long wavelength electromagnetic modes with a gyrokinetic-fluid hybrid model in the XGC code

    DOE PAGES

    Hager, Robert; Lang, Jianying; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2017-05-24

    As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons. Here, two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfven waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries.

  14. Endoscopic Gallbladder Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Widmer, Jessica; Alvarez, Paloma; Sharaiha, Reem Z.; Gossain, Sonia; Kedia, Prashant; Sarkaria, Savreet; Sethi, Amrita; Turner, Brian G.; Millman, Jennifer; Lieberman, Michael; Nandakumar, Govind; Umrania, Hiren; Gaidhane, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for cholecystitis. However, gallbladder stenting (GBS) has shown promise in debilitated or high-risk patients. Endoscopic transpapillary GBS and endoscopic ultrasound-guided GBS (EUS-GBS) have been proposed as safe and effective modalities for gallbladder drainage. Methods Data from patients with cholecystitis were prospectively collected from August 2004 to May 2013 from two United States academic university hospitals and analyzed retrospectively. The following treatment algorithm was adopted. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with sphincterotomy and cystic duct stenting was initially attempted. If deemed feasible by the endoscopist, EUS-GBS was then pursued. Results During the study period, 139 patients underwent endoscopic gallbladder drainage. Among these, drainage was performed in 94 and 45 cases for benign and malignant indications, respectively. Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was defined as decompression of the gallbladder without incidence of cholecystitis, and was achieved with ERCP and cystic duct stenting in 117 of 128 cases (91%). Successful endoscopic gallbladder drainage was also achieved with EUS-guided gallbladder drainage using transmural stent placement in 11 of 11 cases (100%). Complications occurred in 11 cases (8%). Conclusions Endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques are safe and efficacious methods for gallbladder decompression in non-surgical patients with comorbidities. PMID:26473125

  15. Utility of Drinking Water in Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy When Possible Acute Cholecystitis Was Considered.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Wang, Xuemei

    2018-06-19

    A 15-year-old boy underwent hepatobiliary scintigraphy for suspected acute cholecystitis. The initial images revealed an activity in the neighborhood of normal gallbladder fossa, suggestive of possible activity in the gallbladder, which would be inconsistent with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. However, after drinking 6 oz of water, the activity was no longer seen. Acute cholecystitis was confirmed pathologically after cholecystectomy.

  16. Antibiotic use in acute cholecystitis: practice patterns in the absence of evidence-based guidelines.

    PubMed

    Kanafani, Zeina A; Khalifé, Nadine; Kanj, Souha S; Araj, George F; Khalifeh, Mohammad; Sharara, Ala I

    2005-08-01

    Antibiotics are frequently administered in acute cholecystitis for preoperative prophylaxis or postoperative treatment. The optimal timing, choice, and duration of antibiotics are unclear. We conducted a retrospective review of all cases of acute cholecystitis between 1996 and 2001 at the American University of Beirut Medical Centre. A survey among general surgeons was also performed to describe the pattern of antibiotic prescribing in uncomplicated acute cholecystitis. A MEDLINE search for guidelines for antibiotic use in acute cholecystitis was conducted. The number of cases of acute cholecystitis was 79. The mean duration of postoperative antibiotic therapy was 5 days. There was no correlation between the severity of symptoms, gallbladder description, or positive gallbladder culture and the use of antibiotics postoperatively. Sixty five percent of interviewed surgeons would continue antibiotic therapy postoperatively for 3 or more days. Search of the medical literature failed to provide clear guidelines for antibiotic use in acute cholecystitis. The use of antibiotics in patients with acute cholecystitis is erratic and costly. Prospective studies are needed to better study the effectiveness of a short course of antibiotics in uncomplicated cases. The role of gallbladder culture in guiding antibiotic therapy should be defined as routine cultures add to the cost without evident benefit.

  17. Accuracy of ultrasound in the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with coexistent acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J; Afonso, A C; Constantino, J; Matos, A; Henriques, C; Zago, M; Pinheiro, L

    2017-02-01

    Acute cholecystitis and pancreatitis are acute forms of cholecystolithiasis. The presence of acute cholecystitis can lead to important changes in therapy in the early course of acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study was to identify the accuracy of ultrasonography in diagnosing acute cholecystitis with coexistent acute pancreatitis. Subjects were all those patients admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of acute pancreatitis between 1998 and 2015 who underwent cholecystectomy within 15 days of the ultrasonography performed on admittance. Patient data were analyzed retrospectively to compare the ultrasound findings with the pathological findings of the resected gallbladders. Patients were allocated to two groups according to the signs of acute cholecystitis on ultrasonography: group 1 negative and group 2 positive. One hundred and twenty patients were enrolled in the study: 77 in group 1 and 43 in group 2. Similar results were found for the two groups with respect to the pathological diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, i.e., 31.2 % for group 1 and 27.9 % for group 2. Analysis indicated that there was no correlation between the ultrasonography data and pathological findings (p = 0.708). On the basis of our study, ultrasound findings alone cannot be used to accurately diagnose acute cholecystitis in the setting of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Development of a fully implicit particle-in-cell scheme for gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence simulation in XGC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Seung-Hoe; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; Chacon, L.; Chen, G.; EPSI Team

    2016-10-01

    The cancelation problem has been a long-standing issue for long wavelengths modes in electromagnetic gyrokinetic PIC simulations in toroidal geometry. As an attempt of resolving this issue, we implemented a fully implicit time integration scheme in the full-f, gyrokinetic PIC code XGC1. The new scheme - based on the implicit Vlasov-Darwin PIC algorithm by G. Chen and L. Chacon - can potentially resolve cancelation problem. The time advance for the field and the particle equations is space-time-centered, with particle sub-cycling. The resulting system of equations is solved by a Picard iteration solver with fixed-point accelerator. The algorithm is implemented in the parallel velocity formalism instead of the canonical parallel momentum formalism. XGC1 specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma with magnetic separatrix geometry. A fully implicit scheme could be a way to accurate and efficient gyrokinetic simulations. We will test if this numerical scheme overcomes the cancelation problem, and reproduces the dispersion relation of Alfven waves and tearing modes in cylindrical geometry. Funded by US DOE FES and ASCR, and computing resources provided by OLCF through ALCC.

  19. [Laparascopic cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Tokin, A N; Chistiakov, A A; Mamalygina, L A; Zheliabin, D G; Osokin, G Iu

    2008-01-01

    Experience of diagnostics and treatment of 758 patients with acute cholecystitis was summarized. Authors attach the main importance to evaluation of ultrasound data and functional condition of respiratory and cardio-vascular sistem choosing the method of surgical treatment. Sparse use of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in treatment of acute cholecystitis compared with chronic may be explouned by presence of complications in patients which make problems in differentiation of tubular structures during the operation. Authors offered to use ultrasound dissection for clear identification of tubular structures and argon coagulation for hemostasis and safe mobilization of gall bladder. Stick to suggested tactics authors practically doubled the amount of performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies reducing at the same time the frequency of complications.

  20. Combination of Surgical Drainage and Renal Artery Embolization: An Alternative Treatment for Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Upasani, Anand, E-mail: anand.upasani@gosh.nhs.uk; Barnacle, Alex, E-mail: alex.barnacle@gosh.nhs.uk; Roebuck, Derek, E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk

    Conventionally, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics and drainage of abscess followed by nephrectomy for definitive treatment. Surgical excision of the affected kidney carries risk of significant complications. An alternative treatment modality is described in the form of embolization of the renal artery to devascularise the renal parenchyma and ablate the renal tissue, thus avoiding a major surgical procedure and the significant risks involved.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation Treatment in Proximity to the Gallbladder Without Subsequent Acute Cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Patti, Jay W.; Neeman, Ziv, E-mail: zneeman@cc.hih.gov; Wood, Bradford J.

    2003-08-15

    Initial reports have suggested that proximity of liver tumors to the gallbladder may increase the risk for cholecystitis after radiofrequency ablation. A colon adenocarcinoma metastasis to the liver in contact with the gallbladder was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation without subsequent cholecystitis.

  2. [A case of hemorrhagic cholecystitis associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Satomi; Kamisawa, Terumi; Kuruma, Sawako; Chiba, Kazuro; Tabata, Taku; Koizumi, Koichi; Kurata, Masanao; Horiguchi, Shinichiro; Hishima, Tsunekazu

    2016-01-01

    A woman in her 70s with Churg-Strauss syndrome presented with epigastric pain. She was being treated with steroids at the time of admission. Computed tomography showed swelling of the gallbladder, and percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography revealed bloody secretion. On duodenoscopy, bleeding was observed from the orifice of the major duodenal papilla. Emergency cholecystectomy was performed under a diagnosis of hemorrhagic cholecystitis;intraoperatively, extensive hematoma was detected in the thickened wall of the gallbladder. Subsequent histopathological examination revealed mucosal ulceration with infiltration of inflammatory cells, torn small vessels, and extensive transmural bleeding and abscess formation in the thickened wall of the gallbladder. We considered that the hemorrhagic cholecystitis was induced by either vasculitis or corticosteroid therapy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of hemorrhagic cholecystitis associated with Churg-Strauss syndrome.

  3. Verification of long wavelength electromagnetic modes with a gyrokinetic-fluid hybrid model in the XGC code

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Jianying; Ku, S.; Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Adams, M. F.

    2017-01-01

    As an alternative option to kinetic electrons, the gyrokinetic total-f particle-in-cell (PIC) code XGC1 has been extended to the MHD/fluid type electromagnetic regime by combining gyrokinetic PIC ions with massless drift-fluid electrons analogous to Chen and Parker [Phys. Plasmas 8, 441 (2001)]. Two representative long wavelength modes, shear Alfvén waves and resistive tearing modes, are verified in cylindrical and toroidal magnetic field geometries. PMID:29104419

  4. Does ultrasonography accurately diagnose acute cholecystitis? Improving diagnostic accuracy based on a review at a regional hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hamish; Marsh, Ian; Doyle, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common diseases requiring emergency surgery. Ultrasonography is an accurate test for cholelithiasis but has a high false-negative rate for acute cholecystitis. The Murphy sign and laboratory tests performed independently are also not particularly accurate. This study was designed to review the accuracy of ultrasonography for diagnosing acute cholecystitis in a regional hospital. Methods We studied all emergency cholecystectomies performed over a 1-year period. All imaging studies were reviewed by a single radiologist, and all pathology was reviewed by a single pathologist. The reviewers were blinded to each other’s results. Results A total of 107 patients required an emergency cholecystectomy in the study period; 83 of them underwent ultrasonography. Interradiologist agreement was 92% for ultrasonography. For cholelithiasis, ultrasonography had 100% sensitivity, 18% specificity, 81% positive predictive value (PPV) and 100% negative predictive value (NPV). For acute cholecystitis, it had 54% sensitivity, 81% specificity, 85% PPV and 47% NPV. All patients had chronic cholecystitis and 67% had acute cholecystitis on histology. When combined with positive Murphy sign and elevated neutrophil count, an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or acute cholecystitis yielded a sensitivity of 74%, specificity of 62%, PPV of 80% and NPV of 53% for the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis. Conclusion Ultrasonography alone has a high rate of false-negative studies for acute cholecystitis. However, a higher rate of accurate diagnosis can be achieved using a triad of positive Murphy sign, elevated neutrophil count and an ultrasound showing cholelithiasis or cholecystitis. PMID:24869607

  5. Acute acalculous cholecystitis with pericholecystitis in a patient with Epstein-Barr Virus infectious mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Pavel; Kaspar, Miroslav; Holub, Michal

    2009-02-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication of Epstein-Barr virus mononucleosis and involves thickening of the gallbladder wall. We describe the case of a 22-year-old woman with acute acalculous cholecystitis and pericholecystitis associated with Epstein-Barr virus primary infection. Surgical intervention was not performed, even though gallbladder perforation was suspected. The patient was treated conservatively with careful monitoring, including repeated ultrasonographic examinations. Epstein-Barr virus infections are usually self-limited, and surgical treatment of acute acalculous cholecystitis should only be considered when the ultrasonographic criteria persist on follow-up examinations or when they deteriorate. This is the first report of a severe course of acute acalculous cholecystitis with suspected gallbladder perforation associated with infectious mononucleosis.

  6. Soft tissue gas gangrene: a severe complication of emphysematous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Safioleas, Michael; Stamatakos, Michael; Kanakis, Meletios; Sargedi, Constantina; Safioleas, Constantinos; Smirnis, Anastasios; Vaiopoulos, George

    2007-12-01

    Soft tissue gas gangrene with myonecrosis is a severe complication of traumatic and non-traumatic conditions with a potentially lethal outcome. Emphysematous cholecystitis is a complication of acute cholecystitis, which is characterized by air accumulation in the gallbladder wall and is reported in the literature as a rare causative factor of soft tissue gas gangrene. Here we report 4 patients who developed soft tissue gas gangrene as a complication of emphysematous cholecystitis. Two patients were female octogenarians (one with a history of diabetes mellitus), and underwent percutaneous trans-gallbladder drainage and fascia incisions of the affected soft tissue with prompt administration of antibiotics. Finally, both of them died. The other two patients were male (32 years old diabetic and 47 years old with a history of chronic alcoholism). They underwent open cholecystectomy. Fascia incisions of the gangrenous areas and antibiotic therapy administration were also performed. Both of them were discharged from the hospital and are currently in excellent clinical status. We also present the ultrasonographic and/or radiologic images of these four patients. Soft tissue gas gangrene may complicate emphysematous cholecystitis, and clinicians should be aware of the coexistence of these two clinical conditions, since immediate management is needed in order to prevent fatal outcome.

  7. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as acute pleuritic chest pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chow, Justin; Kabani, Rameez; Lithgow, Kirstie; Sarna, Magdalena A

    2017-04-12

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and serious manifestation of chronic kidney inflammation that can be life-threatening if not recognized and treated appropriately, often with antibiotics and surgery. Affected patients are most commonly females in their fifth or sixth decade of life with a background of obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, or recurrent urinary tract infections who present with vague nonspecific symptoms. A 43-year-old woman of Russian ethnicity with a history of nephrolithiasis presented to our emergency department with new left-sided pleuritic chest pain amid a 6-week history of constitutional symptoms including fevers, night sweats, and 7 kg of weight loss. Workup for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in our emergency department was negative. Given that she was clinically unwell, she was admitted to internal medicine to expedite workup for the cause of her symptoms. A broad differential diagnosis for various infectious, inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic processes was considered. Based on classic radiographic and histopathologic findings, she was ultimately diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis of her left kidney, which was a direct consequence of chronic inflammation. This inflammation exhibited spread to local tissues and across her left hemidiaphragm, resulting in a unilateral pleural effusion which explained her chest discomfort. She was treated with antibiotics administered intravenously and urgent total nephrectomy with a good functional outcome. Our case illustrates an uncommon but clinically important do-not-miss diagnosis that underlies a common clinical presentation of pleuritic chest pain. The case underscores the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and organized approach when treating patients with undifferentiated clinical presentations.

  8. Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis in a Patient on Maintenance Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Shishida, Masayuki; Ikeda, Masahiro; Karakuchi, Nozomi; Ono, Kosuke; Tsukiyama, Naofumi; Shimomura, Manabu; Oishi, Koichi; Miyamoto, Kazuaki; Toyota, Kazuhiro; Sadamoto, Seiji; Takahashi, Tadateru

    2017-01-01

    The present paper describes a case of hemorrhagic cholecystitis in a patient on maintenance dialysis. The patient presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed swelling of the gallbladder, high- and isodensity contents of the gallbladder, and high-density stone in the gallbladder neck. He was hospitalized for suspected acute cholecystitis. After hospitalization, his levels of total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase increased. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging showed low-intensity contents expanded to include a wide area from the common bile duct to the cystic duct and gallbladder neck. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed clotting from the duodenal papilla. After cannulation of the bile duct, old blood and pus began to flow from the mammary papilla, and an endoscopic nasobiliary drainage tube was placed. After his liver function had improved, the patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. His sample revealed that the gallbladder was filled with blood clots and stones. His postoperative course was uneventful and he was discharged on day 19 after the procedure. Although hemorrhagic cholecystitis is rare, it should be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients on dialysis who have acute abdominal symptoms. PMID:29033767

  9. [Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a child with severe malnutrition and recurrent fever].

    PubMed

    Gramage Tormo, J; Gavilán Martín, C; Atienza Almarcha, T

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare inflammatory disease, characterized by replacement of renal parenchyma with granulomatous tissue. Initial clinical presentation includes abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms related to recurrent urinary infections. The microorganisms most commonly involved are Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Final diagnosis is made by histopathology, and the only curative treatment is total or partial nephrectomy. A recently diagnosed case in our unit is presented, as well as an update on the knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Study of no-man's land physics in the total-f gyrokinetic code XGC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, Seung Hoe; Chang, C. S.; Lang, J.

    2014-10-01

    While the ``transport shortfall'' in the ``no-man's land'' has been observed often in delta-f codes, it has not yet been observed in the global total-f gyrokinetic particle code XGC1. Since understanding the interaction between the edge and core transport appears to be a critical element in the prediction for ITER performance, understanding the no-man's land issue is an important physics research topic. Simulation results using the Holland case will be presented and the physics causing the shortfall phenomenon will be discussed. Nonlinear nonlocal interaction of turbulence, secondary flows, and transport appears to be the key.

  11. Training vs practice: A tale of opposition in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Purvi P; Daly, Shaun C; Velasco, Jose M

    2015-10-18

    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common surgical diagnoses encountered by general surgeons. Despite its high incidence there remains a range of treatment of approaches. Current practices in biliary surgery vary as to timing, intraoperative utilization of biliary imaging, and management of bile duct stones despite growing evidence in the literature defining best practice. Management of patients with acute cholecystitis with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in better patient outcomes when compared with delayed surgical management techniques including antibiotic therapy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Regardless of this data, many surgeons still prefer to utilize antibiotic therapy and complete an interval LC to manage acute cholecystitis. The use of intraoperative biliary imaging by cholangiogram or laparoscopic ultrasound has been demonstrated to facilitate the safe completion of cholecystectomy, minimizing the risk for inadvertent injury to surrounding structures, and lowering conversion rates, however it is rarely utilized. Choledocholithiasis used to be a diagnosis managed exclusively by surgeons but current practice favors referral to gastroenterologists for performance of preoperative endoscopic removal. Yet, there is evidence that intraoperative laparoscopic stone extraction is safe, feasible and may have added advantages. This review aims to highlight the differences between existing management of acute cholecystitis and evidence supported in the literature regarding best practice with the goal to change surgical practice to adopt these current recommendations.

  12. Training vs practice: A tale of opposition in acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Purvi P; Daly, Shaun C; Velasco, Jose M

    2015-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is one of the most common surgical diagnoses encountered by general surgeons. Despite its high incidence there remains a range of treatment of approaches. Current practices in biliary surgery vary as to timing, intraoperative utilization of biliary imaging, and management of bile duct stones despite growing evidence in the literature defining best practice. Management of patients with acute cholecystitis with early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) results in better patient outcomes when compared with delayed surgical management techniques including antibiotic therapy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. Regardless of this data, many surgeons still prefer to utilize antibiotic therapy and complete an interval LC to manage acute cholecystitis. The use of intraoperative biliary imaging by cholangiogram or laparoscopic ultrasound has been demonstrated to facilitate the safe completion of cholecystectomy, minimizing the risk for inadvertent injury to surrounding structures, and lowering conversion rates, however it is rarely utilized. Choledocholithiasis used to be a diagnosis managed exclusively by surgeons but current practice favors referral to gastroenterologists for performance of preoperative endoscopic removal. Yet, there is evidence that intraoperative laparoscopic stone extraction is safe, feasible and may have added advantages. This review aims to highlight the differences between existing management of acute cholecystitis and evidence supported in the literature regarding best practice with the goal to change surgical practice to adopt these current recommendations. PMID:26483868

  13. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Mayumi, Toshihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Solomkin, Joseph S; Schlossberg, David; Pitt, Henry A; Yoshida, Masahiro; Gomi, Harumi; Miura, Fumihiko; Garden, O James; Kiriyama, Seiki; Yokoe, Masamichi; Endo, Itaru; Asbun, Horacio J; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Umezawa, Akiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Itoi, Takao; Hata, Jiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Dervenis, Christos; Asai, Koji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Mukai, Shuntaro; Jagannath, Palepu; Cherqui, Daniel; Kozaka, Kazuto; Baron, Todd H; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Gouma, Dirk J; Deziel, Daniel J; Liau, Kui-Hin; Wakabayashi, Go; Padbury, Robert; Jonas, Eduard; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Singh, Harjit; Gabata, Toshifumi; Chan, Angus C W; Lau, Wan Yee; Fan, Sheung Tat; Chen, Miin-Fu; Ker, Chen-Guo; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Management bundles that define items or procedures strongly recommended in clinical practice have been used in many guidelines in recent years. Application of these bundles facilitates the adaptation of guidelines and helps improve the prognosis of target diseases. In Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13), we proposed management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Here, in Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18), we redefine the management bundles for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Critical parts of the bundles in TG18 include the diagnostic process, severity assessment, transfer of patients if necessary, and therapeutic approach at each time point. Observance of these items and procedures should improve the prognosis of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis. Studies are now needed to evaluate the dissemination of these TG18 bundles and their effectiveness. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Edmond SK; Wong, Chris LP; Lai, Kristi TW; Chan, Edmond CH; Yam, WC; Chan, Angus CW

    2005-01-01

    Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases. PMID:16029488

  15. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Edmond S K; Wong, Chris L P; Lai, Kristi T W; Chan, Edmond C H; Yam, W C; Chan, Angus C W

    2005-07-19

    Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  16. Outcomes of contemporary management of gangrenous and non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Nikfarjam, Mehrdad; Niumsawatt, Vachara; Sethu, Arun; Fink, Michael A; Muralidharan, Vijayaragavan; Starkey, Graham; Jones, Robert M; Christophi, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Background: Gangrenous cholecystitis (GC) is considered a more severe form of acute cholecystitis. The risk factors associated with this condition and its impact on morbidity and mortality compared with those of non-gangrenous acute cholecystitis (NGAC) are poorly defined and based largely on findings from older studies. Methods: Patients with histologically confirmed acute cholecystitis treated in specialized units in a tertiary hospital between 2005 and 2010 were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Data were reviewed retrospectively and patients with GC were compared with those with NGAC. Results: A total of 184 patients with NGAC and 106 with GC were identified. The risk factors associated with GC included older age (69 years vs. 57 years; P = 0.001), diabetes (19% vs. 10%; P = 0.049), temperature of >38 °C (36% vs. 16%; P < 0.001), tachycardia (31% vs. 15%; P = 0.002), detection of muscle rigidity on examination (27% vs. 12%; P = 0.01) and greater elevations in white cell count (WCC) (13.4 × 109/l vs. 10.7 × 109/l; P < 0.001), C-reactive protein (CRP) (94 mg/l vs. 17 mg/l; P = 0.001), bilirubin (19 µmol/l vs. 17 µmol/l; P = 0.029), urea (5.3 mmol/l vs. 4.7 mmol/l; P = 0.016) and creatinine (82 µmol/l vs. 74 µmol/l; P = 0.001). The time from admission to operation in days was greater in the GC group (median = 1 day, range: 0–14 days vs. median = 1 day, range: 0–10 days; P = 0.029). There was no overall difference in complication rates between the GC and NGAC groups (22% vs. 14%; P = 0.102). There was a lower incidence of common bile duct stones in the GC group (5% vs. 13%; P = 0.017). Gangrenous cholecystitis was associated with increased mortality (4% vs. 0%; P = 0.017), but this was not an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Gangrenous cholecystitis has certain clinical features and associated laboratory findings that may help to differentiate it from NGAC. It is not associated with an overall increase in

  17. Acute thoracolumbar pain due to cholecystitis: a case study.

    PubMed

    Carter, Chris T

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses the case of an adult female with cholecystitis characterized on initial presentation as acute thoracolumbar pain. A 34-year-old female presented for care with a complaint of acute right sided lower thoracic and upper lumbar pain with associated significant hyperalgesia and muscular hypertonicity. The patient was examined, referred, and later diagnosed by use of ultrasound imaging. Despite many initial physical examination findings of musculoskeletal dysfunction, this case demonstrates the significance of visceral referred pain, viscerosomatic hyperalgesia & hypertonicity, and how these neurological processes can mimic mechanical pain syndromes. A clinical neurological discussion of cholecystitis visceral pain and referred viscerosomatic phenomena is included.

  18. Protector effect of α-thalassaemia on cholecystitis and cholecystectomy in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Robéria M; Costa, Elaine S; Siqueira, Patrícia F R; Medeiros, Jussara F F; Soares, Andréa; de Mello, Fabiana V; Maioli, Maria C; Filho, Isaac L S; Alves, Liliane R; Land, Marcelo G P; Fleury, Marcos K

    2017-08-01

    Cholecystitis is one of the complications of symptomatic cholelithiasis responsible for high levels of morbidity of sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Here, we investigated the possible protective role of single gene deletions of α-thalassaemia in the occurrence of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis in SCD patients, as well as the cholecystectomy requirements. The α-globin genotype was determined in 83 SCD patients using the multiplex-polymerase chain reaction and compared with clinical events. Overall, in 23% of patients, -α 3.7 deletion was found. α-Thalassaemia concomitant to SCD was an independent protective factor to cholecystitis (OR = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.66; p = 0.020) and cholecystectomy requirement (OR = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.60; p = 0.008). The risk of cholelithiasis was not affected by the α-thalassaemia concomitance. To the best our knowledge, our study is the first to show the protective effect of α-thalassaemia on cholecystitis and cholecystectomy requirements in SCD, which may be due to an improved splenic function.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis: a rare and often mistaken pituitary lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Kothandapani, Jaya Sujatha; Bagga, Veejay; Wharton, Stephen B; Connolly, Daniel J; Sinha, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Summary Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process. Learning points XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal

  20. Acute cholecystitis is a common complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and is associated with the use of total parenteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Stephen J; Sehgal, Alison R; Gill, Saar; Frey, Noelle V; Hexner, Elizabeth O; Loren, Alison W; Mangan, James K; Porter, David L; Stadtmauer, Edward A; Reshef, Ran; Luger, Selina M

    2015-04-01

    The incidence and risk factors for acute cholecystitis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) are not well defined. Of 644 consecutive adult transplants performed at our institution between 2001 and 2011, acute cholecystitis occurred in the first year of transplant in 32 patients (5.0%). We conducted 2 retrospective case-control studies of this population to determine risk factors for cholecystitis after HSCT and to evaluate the performance of different methods of imaging to diagnosis cholecystitis in patients undergoing HSCT compared with non-HSCT patients. In the HSCT population, development of cholecystitis was associated with an increased 1-year overall mortality rate (62.5% versus 19.8%, P < .001). The risk of developing cholecystitis was higher in patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) (adjusted odds ratio, 3.41; P = .009). There was a trend toward more equivocal abdominal ultrasound findings in HSCT recipients with acute cholecystitis compared with nontransplant patients (50.0% versus 30.6%, P = .06). However, hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scans were definitively positive for acute cholecystitis in most patients in both populations (80.0% of HSCT recipients versus 77.4% of control subjects, P = .82). In conclusion, acute cholecystitis is a common early complication of HSCT, the risk is increased in patients who receive TPN, and it is associated with high 1-year mortality. In HSCT recipients with findings suggestive of acute cholecystitis, especially those receiving TPN, early use of HIDA scan may be considered over ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for an additional port in single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kenichiro; Shirabe, Ken; Watanabe, Akira; Kubo, Norio; Sasaki, Shigeru; Suzuki, Hideki; Asao, Takayuki; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Although single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy is now widely performed in patients with cholecystitis, some cases require an additional port to complete the procedure. In this study, we focused on risk factor of additional port in this surgery. We performed single-incision cholecystectomy in 75 patients with acute cholecystitis or after cholecystitis between 2010 and 2014 at Gunma University Hospital. Surgical indications followed the TG13 guidelines. Our standard procedure for single-incision cholecystectomy routinely uses two needlescopic devices. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the risk factors associated with use of an additional full-size port (5 or 10 mm). Surgical outcome was acceptable without biliary injury. Nine patients (12.0%) required an additional port, and one patient (1.3%) required conversion to open cholecystectomy because of severe adhesions around the cystic duct and common bile duct. In multivariate analysis, high C-reactive protein (CRP) values (>7.0 mg/dl) during cholecystitis attacks were significantly correlated with the need for an additional port (P = 0.009), with a sensitivity of 55.6%, specificity of 98.5%, and accuracy of 93.3%. This study indicated that the severe inflammation indicated by high CRP values during cholecystitis attacks predicts the need for an additional port. J. Med. Invest. 64: 245-249, August, 2017.

  2. Acute emphysematous cholecystitis preceded by symptoms of ileus: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ise, Norihito; Andoh, Hideaki; Furuya, Tomoki; Sato, Tsutomu; Yasui, Ouki; Yoshioka, Masato; Iida, Masatake; Takahashi, Tomokazu; Kotanagi, Hitoshi; Koyama, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    We herein describe a case of acute emphysematous cholecystitis in which the patient presented with symptoms of ileus. The patient was a 72-year-old man with no history of diabetes mellitus. He presented with epigastric pain, vomiting, and low-grade fever. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau, and he was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of ileus. The next day, the abdominal pain increased and was accompanied by muscular defense. Plain radiography and computed tomography of the abdomen were carried out, and an emergency laparotomy was performed under a diagnosis of panperitonitis due to a perforation of the gallbladder caused by acute emphysematous cholecystitis. The patient made favorable progress after the operation and was discharged on postoperative day 14. Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage has been increasingly performed for the treatment of acute emphysematous cholecystitis. but when a perforation of the gallbladder is suspected, a laparotomy first should be considered.

  3. Case of emphysematous cholecystitis in a patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ayu; Shikata, Kenichi; Uchida, Haruhito Adam; Shinoura, Susumu; Yokomichi, Naosuke; Ogawa, Daisuke; Sato-Horiguchi, Chicage; Yagi, Takahito; Wada, Jun; Makino, Hirofumi

    2012-12-20

    Emphysematous cholecystitis is a rare, but life-threatening, form of acute cholecystitis caused by gas-forming organisms in the gallbladder. A 73-year-old male patient with type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with neuropathy associated with schizophrenia was admitted to Okayama University Hospital, Okayama, Japan, because of a high fever and general malaise. On the fourth hospital day, despite normal liver function tests and little abdominal pain, his abdominal computed tomography showed huge gas formation in the gallbladder lumen along with a dilated gallbladder with a thickened wall, consistent with emphysematous cholecystitis. The patient underwent an emergency open cholecystectomy. Few abdominal symptoms appeared because of the hyposensitivity to pain caused by not only diabetic neuropathy, but also antipsychotic agents the patient was taking for schizophrenia. Emphysematous cholecystitis should be taken into consideration for the differential diagnosis of high fever in diabetic patients with schizophrenia, irrespective of the level of liver function tests and clinical symptoms.

  4. Caecal volvulus: a consequence of acute cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Anjum, Ghulam Ali; Jaberansari, Sarah; Habeeb, Kayode

    2013-01-01

    Caecal volvulus is an uncommon cause of closed loop intestinal obstruction which can lead to caecal gangrene and high mortality. Delay in diagnosis is one of the causes of this high mortality. Caecal volvulus is reported to be associated with previous abdominal surgery in most cases. We present the first reported case of caecal volvulus following/associated with acute cholecystitis. PMID:23749828

  5. Helicobacter Pylori infection of the gallbladder and the risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cen, Li; Pan, Jiaqi; Zhou, Boyan; Yu, Chaohui; Li, Youming; Chen, Weixing; Shen, Zhe

    2018-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is coexisted with various diseases, including chronic gastritis, ulcer, and gastric cancer. Besides, chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis are extremely widespread over the world, which are considered as high health-care cost burdens of digestive diseases. Epidemiologic evidence on Helicobacter pylori infection in gallbladder increasing the risk of biliary diseases has been contradictory. Conduct a meta-analysis of overall studies and investigate an association between Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis. We used PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library databases to identify all published studies before August 2017. Pooled odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using the random effects model. Heterogeneity, sensitivity, and stratified analyses were also performed. Eighteen studies involving 1544 participants and 1061 biliary cases with chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis were included. Helicobacter pylori infection of the gallbladder was significantly associated with an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholecystitis (OR = 3.022; 95% CI, 1.897-4.815; I 2  = 20.1%). In addition, country-based subgroup analysis also showed a positive association between Helicobacter pylori positivity and chronic cholecystitis/cholelithiasis risk. The ORs (95% CIs) for Asian and non-Asian region studies were 3.75 (1.83-7.71) and 2.25 (1.29-3.89), respectively. This meta-analysis suggests that infection of the gallbladder with Helicobacter pylori is closely related to an increased risk of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Use of antibiotics and nitrofurans in treating acute and chronic cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Venger, I K

    1984-02-01

    Sixty-two patients with acute cholecystitis and 108 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis were examined. High levels of contamination of the bile, gallbladder mucosa and gallstones were shown. E. coli, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus were most frequent among 20 species of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. Preoperative sanation of the hepatoduodenal area with antibiotics did not result in complete elimination of the bacteria in the bile, gallbladder mucosa and gallstones. The use of nitrofurans and especially furazolidone and furagin in the preoperative period prevented the microbial growth in the specimens collected during the operations. The data of the study allow recommending the use of furazolidone and furagin for preoperative sanation of the biliferous tract.

  7. ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS AS AN UNUSUAL PRESENTATION OF SCRUB TYPHUS: A REPORT OF TWO CASES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Charoenphak, Sirima; Rattanawong, Pattara; Sungkanuparph, Somnuek

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus rarely presents with acute cholecystitis. We present 2 cases of scrub typhus with cholecystitis. The first patient is a 62 year old female who presented to the hospital with fever and body aches for 1 week and right upper quadrant abdominal pain for 3 days. She gave a history of an insect bite 2 weeks previously. She was diagnosed as having acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. She continued with fever post-operatively and physical examination revealed an eschar. She had an immunofluorescence assay (IFA) performed that revealed a high IgM titer for Orientia tsutsugamushi. She was diagnosed as having scrub typhus, treated with doxycycline and she recovered completely. The second patient also presented to the hospital with a 1 week history of fever and upper quadrant abdominal pain. She was diagnosed with having cholecystitis. Her symptoms did not improve with intravenous antibiotics and further investigation revealed elevated titers for O. tsutsugamushi and Leptospira interrogans. She was diagnosed as having a co-infection of scrub typhus and leptospirosis and treated with doxycycline. She recovered completely. Patients from scrub typhus endemic regions who present with acute cholecystitis but do not respond to traditional treatment should be tested for scrub typhus and leptospirosis and should have a careful admission physical examination looking for eschar formation, since scrub typhus may present with acute cholecystitis.

  8. A fast low-to-high confinement mode bifurcation dynamics in the boundary-plasma gyrokinetic code XGC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; Churchill, R. M.; Tynan, G. R.; Cziegler, I.; Greenwald, M.; Hughes, J.; Parker, S. E.; Adams, M. F.; D'Azevedo, E.; Worley, P.

    2018-05-01

    A fast edge turbulence suppression event has been simulated in the electrostatic version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC1 in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under neutral particle recycling. The results show that the sequence of turbulent Reynolds stress followed by neoclassical ion orbit-loss driven together conspire to form the sustaining radial electric field shear and to quench turbulent transport just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. The main suppression action is located in a thin radial layer around ψN≃0.96 -0.98 , where ψN is the normalized poloidal flux, with the time scale ˜0.1 ms.

  9. Day versus night laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: A comparison of outcomes and cost.

    PubMed

    Siada, Sammy S; Schaetzel, Shaina S; Chen, Allen K; Hoang, Huy D; Wilder, Fatima G; Dirks, Rachel C; Kaups, Krista L; Davis, James W

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have suggested higher complication and conversion to open rates for nighttime laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and recommend against the practice. We hypothesize that patients undergoing night LC for acute cholecystitis have decreased hospital length of stay and cost with no difference in complication and conversion rates. A retrospective review of patients with acute cholecystitis who underwent LC from October 2011 through June 2015 was performed. Complication rates, length of stay, and cost of hospitalization were compared between patients undergoing day cholecystectomy and night cholecystectomy. Complication rates and costs did not differ between the day and night groups. Length of stay was shorter in the night group (2.4 vs 2.8 days, p = 0.002). Performing LC for acute cholecystitis during night-time hours does not increase risk of complications and decreases length of stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A fast low-to-high confinement mode bifurcation dynamics in the boundary-plasma gyrokinetic code XGC1

    DOE PAGES

    Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.; ...

    2018-04-18

    Here, a fast edge turbulence suppression event has been simulated in the electrostatic version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC1 in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under neutral particle recycling. The results show that the sequence of turbulent Reynolds stress followed by neoclassical ion orbit-loss driven together conspire to form the sustaining radial electric field shear and to quench turbulent transport just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. As a result, the main suppression action is located in a thin radial layer around ψ N≃0.96–0.98, where ψ N is the normalized poloidal flux, with the time scale ~0.1more » ms.« less

  11. /sup 99m/Tc-IDA imaging in the differential diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fonseca, C.; Greenberg, D.; Rosenthall, L.

    1979-02-01

    Technetium-/sup 99m/-labelled dimethly-acetanilide-iminodiacetic acid (/sup 99m/Tc-IDA) hepato-biliary imaging was evaluated for its efficacy in distinguishing acute cholecystitis from acute pancreatitis. In a retrospective review, gallbladders were demonstrated by /sup 99m/Tc-IDA in 13 of 15 patients (87%) with acute pancreatitis. This is significantly higher than reports on the frequency of gallbladder filling with oral and intravenous cholangiography in the presence of acute cholecystitis.

  12. Percutaneous Cholecystostomy as a First-Line Therapy in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients with Acute Cholecystitis with Midterm Follow-up

    SciTech Connect

    Gumus, Burcak, E-mail: burcakgumus73@yahoo.com

    Purpose: The purpose of this article was to share midterm results of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) as a first-line therapy in chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis. Methods: Fourteen chronic hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis underwent PC between March 2007 and May 2009 at our institute. On preoperative assessment, the patients were classified into the ASA score by the anesthesiology team. All patients were class IV because of severe underlying comorbidities. The patients were referred to interventional radiology unit for PC by consensus of the multidisciplinary team. Results: The PC was technically successful in all the patients without minor or majormore » complications related to the procedure. Clinical symptoms in three patients who presented with sepsis and multiorgan failure did not resolve after PC, and these patients died following urgent surgery, including open cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration. A new cholecystitis attack was detected in one patient in the acalculous group at the sixth month of the follow-up period. The mean catheterization time was 31.7 (range, 28-41) days. The mean follow-up time was 13.3 (range 4-21) months. Conclusions: The PC may come into consideration as a first-line treatment modality in the management of acute cholecystitis in poor surgical candidate chronic hemodialysis patients. This is the first report focusing on the midterm results of PC as a first-line therapy in hemodialysis patients with acute cholecystitis who could be operated on.« less

  13. Impact of treatment policies on patient outcomes and resource utilization in acute cholecystitis in Japanese hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Sekimoto, Miho; Imanaka, Yuichi; Hirose, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Murakami, Genki; Fukata, Yushi

    2006-01-01

    Background Although currently available evidence predominantly recommends early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for the treatment of acute cholecystitis, this strategy has not been widely adopted in Japan. Herein, we describe a hospital-based study of patients with acute cholecystitis in 9 Japanese teaching hospitals in order to evaluate the impact of different institutional strategies in treating acute cholecystitis on overall patient outcomes and medical resource utilization. Methods From an administrative database and chart review, we identified 228 patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis who underwent cholecystectomy between April 2001 and June 2003. In order to examine the relationship between hospitals' propensity to perform LC and patient outcomes and/or medical resource utilization, we divided the hospitals into three groups according to the observed to expected ratio of performing LC (LC propensity), and compared the postoperative complication rate, length of hospitalization (LOS), and medical charges. Results No hospital adopted the policy of early surgery, and the mean overall LOS among the subjects was 30.9 days. The use of laparoscopic surgery varied widely across the hospitals; the adjusted rates of LC to total cholecystectomies ranged from 9.5% to 77%. Although intra-operative complication rate was significantly higher among patients whom LC was initially attempted when compared to those whom OC was initially attempted (9.7% vs. 0%), there was no significant association between LC propensity and postoperative complication rates. Although the postoperative time to oral intake and postoperative LOS was significantly shorter in hospitals with high use of LC, the overall LOS did not differ among hospital groups with different LC propensities. Medical charges were not associated with LC propensity. Conclusion Under the prevailing policy of delayed surgery, in terms of the postoperative complication rate and medical resource utilization, our study

  14. Impact of treatment policies on patient outcomes and resource utilization in acute cholecystitis in Japanese hospitals.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Miho; Imanaka, Yuichi; Hirose, Masahiro; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Murakami, Genki; Fukata, Yushi

    2006-03-29

    Although currently available evidence predominantly recommends early laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for the treatment of acute cholecystitis, this strategy has not been widely adopted in Japan. Herein, we describe a hospital-based study of patients with acute cholecystitis in 9 Japanese teaching hospitals in order to evaluate the impact of different institutional strategies in treating acute cholecystitis on overall patient outcomes and medical resource utilization. From an administrative database and chart review, we identified 228 patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis who underwent cholecystectomy between April 2001 and June 2003. In order to examine the relationship between hospitals' propensity to perform LC and patient outcomes and/or medical resource utilization, we divided the hospitals into three groups according to the observed to expected ratio of performing LC (LC propensity), and compared the postoperative complication rate, length of hospitalization (LOS), and medical charges. No hospital adopted the policy of early surgery, and the mean overall LOS among the subjects was 30.9 days. The use of laparoscopic surgery varied widely across the hospitals; the adjusted rates of LC to total cholecystectomies ranged from 9.5% to 77%. Although intra-operative complication rate was significantly higher among patients whom LC was initially attempted when compared to those whom OC was initially attempted (9.7% vs. 0%), there was no significant association between LC propensity and postoperative complication rates. Although the postoperative time to oral intake and postoperative LOS was significantly shorter in hospitals with high use of LC, the overall LOS did not differ among hospital groups with different LC propensities. Medical charges were not associated with LC propensity. Under the prevailing policy of delayed surgery, in terms of the postoperative complication rate and medical resource utilization, our study did not show the superiority of LC in

  15. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome) Complicated by Perforation of the Small Intestine and Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Ohnuki, Yoichi; Moriya, Yusuke; Yutani, Sachiko; Mizuma, Atsushi; Nakayama, Taira; Ohnuki, Yuko; Uda, Shuji; Inomoto, Chie; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Nakamura, Naoya; Takizawa, Shunya

    2018-03-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA; formerly known as Churg-Strauss syndrome) complicated by perforation of the small intestine and necrotizing cholecystitis. A 69-year-old man with a history of bronchial asthma was admitted with mononeuritis multiplex. The laboratory findings included remarkable eosinophilia. He was treated with corticosteroids and his laboratory indices showed improvement; however, his functional deficits remained. His neuropathy gradually improved after the addition of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). He was subsequently treated with oral prednisolone (40 mg/day) as maintenance therapy. Within a month after finishing IVIG, he developed perforation of the small intestine and necrotizing cholecystitis. Intestinal perforation has often been reported as a gastrointestinal complication of EGPA. In contrast, cholecystitis is a rare complication. We report this case because the manifestation of more than one complication is extremely rare. Gastrointestinal symptoms may be a complication of EGPA itself and/or immunosuppressive treatment.

  16. Xanthogranulomatous pancreatitis: A review of the imaging characteristics of this rare and often misdiagnosed lesion of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Becker-Weidman, David; Floré, Bernard; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    Xanthogranulomatous pancreatitis (XGP) is an extremely rare cause of a cystic pancreatic mass. The pathophysiology of this process is not entirely clear but likely results from a combination of duct obstruction, infection, and repeated hemorrhage. It is difficult to differentiate this inflammatory lesion from a cystic neoplasm and, therefore, in the majority of cases XGP is misdiagnosed as a neoplasm on preoperative imaging. In this report, we describe a case of XGP, the imaging characteristics of XGP, and a differential diagnosis for a cystic pancreatic lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Cross-verification of the GENE and XGC codes in preparation for their coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenko, Frank; Merlo, Gabriele; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Chang, Cs; Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seunghoe; Parker, Scott; Lanti, Emmanuel

    2017-10-01

    A high-fidelity Whole Device Model (WDM) of a magnetically confined plasma is a crucial tool for planning and optimizing the design of future fusion reactors, including ITER. Aiming at building such a tool, in the framework of the Exascale Computing Project (ECP) the two existing gyrokinetic codes GENE (Eulerian delta-f) and XGC (PIC full-f) will be coupled, thus enabling to carry out first principle kinetic WDM simulations. In preparation for this ultimate goal, a benchmark between the two codes is carried out looking at ITG modes in the adiabatic electron limit. This verification exercise is also joined by the global Lagrangian PIC code ORB5. Linear and nonlinear comparisons have been carried out, neglecting for simplicity collisions and sources. A very good agreement is recovered on frequency, growth rate and mode structure of linear modes. A similarly excellent agreement is also observed comparing the evolution of the heat flux and of the background temperature profile during nonlinear simulations. Work supported by the US DOE under the Exascale Computing Project (17-SC-20-SC).

  18. DNA sequences and proteic antigens of H. pylori in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones.

    PubMed

    Neri, V; Margiotta, M; de Francesco, V; Ambrosi, A; Valle, N Della; Fersini, A; Tartaglia, N; Minenna, M F; Ricciardelli, C; Giorgio, F; Panella, C; Ierardi, E

    2005-10-15

    Although Helicobacter pylori DNA sequences have been detected in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones, controversial results are reported from different geographic areas. To detect H. pylori in cholecystic bile and tissue of patients with gallstones from a previously uninvestigated geographic area, southern Italy. Detection included both the bacterial DNA and the specific antigen (H. pylori stool antigen) identified in the stools of infected patients for diagnostic purposes. The study enclosed 33 consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for gallstones. DNA sequences of H. pylori were detected by polymerase chain reaction in both cholecystic bile and tissue homogenate. Moreover, we assayed H.pylori stool antigen on gall-bladder cytosolic and biliary proteins after their extraction. Bacterial presence in the stomach was assessed by urea breath test in all patients and Deltadelta13CPDB value assumed as marker of intragastric load. Fisher's exact probability and Student's t-tests were used for statistical analysis. DNA sequences of H. pylori in bile were found in 51.5% and significantly correlated with its presence in cholecystic tissue homogenate (P<0.005), H. pylori stool antigen in gall-bladder (P=0.0013) and bile (P=0.04) proteins, gastric infection (P<0.01) and intragastric bacterial load (P<0.001). No correlation was found, however, with sex and age of the patients. Our prevalence value of bacterial DNA in bile and gall-bladder of patients with gallstones agreed with that of the only other Italian study. The simultaneous presence of both bacterial DNA and proteic antigen suggests that the same prototype of bacterium could be located at both intestinal and cholecystic level and, therefore, the intestine represents the source of biliary contagion.

  19. Diagnosis of complications associated with acute cholecystitis using computed tomography and diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression/T2 image fusion.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Tanaka, Satomi; Sunaoshi, Takafumi; Kano, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Eriko; Shite, Misaki; Haga, Ryouta; Fukamizu, Yoshiya; Fujita, Toshiyuki; Kagayama, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Rumiko; Shirai, Yoshinori; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-07-01

    In a clinical setting, it is important to diagnose complications of acute cholecystitis accurately. Diffusion-weighted whole body imaging with background body signal suppression/T2-weighted image fusion (DWIBS/T2) provides high signal intensity with a strong contrast against surrounding tissues in anatomical settings. In the present study, patients who were being treated for acute cholecystitis and underwent DWIBS/T2 in the National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital between December 2012 and August 2015 were enrolled. A total of 10 men and 4 women underwent DWIBS/T2. Records, including DWIBS/T2 and computed tomography (CT) imaging, were retrospectively analyzed for patients with acute cholecystitis. CT images revealed thickened gallbladder walls in patients with acute cholecystitis, and high signal intensity was observed in DWIBS/T2 images for the thickened gallbladder wall. Inflammation of the pericholecystic space and the liver resulted in high intensity signals with DWIBS/T2 imaging, whereas CT imaging revealed a low-density area in the cholecystic space. Plain CT scanning identified a low-density area in the liver, which became more obvious with contrast-enhanced CT. DWIBS/T2 imaging showed the inflammation of the liver and pericholesyctic space as an area of high signal intensity. Detectability of inflammation of the pericholecystic space and the liver was the same for DWIBS/T2 and CT, which suggests that DWIBS/T2 has the same sensitivity as CT scanning for the diagnosis of complicated acute cholecystitis. However, the strong contrast shown by DWIBS/T2 allows for easier evaluation of acute cholecystitis than CT scanning.

  20. Delayed diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a quadriplegic patient with uncontrolled cutaneous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Jin Yong; Roh, Si-Gyun; Chang, Suk-Choo; Lee, Nae-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by urinary tract obstruction and invasion of the renal parenchyma. Although rare, XGP can lead to fatal complications, including perinephric inflammation, psoas abscess, and cutaneous fistula. Patient concerns: A quadriplegic patient initially presented to the hospital with a chronic open wound and cutaneous fistula. Diagnoses: Abdominal computed tomography revealed a renal obstructing stone and enlarged right kidney with a perinephric fluid collection that communicated with the cutaneous fistula. Interventions: The patient underwent a right nephrectomy at the department of urology. Outcomes: Two months after surgery, the patient was clinically well with no discharging fistula. Lessons: The XGP accompanied by complications requires an immediate evaluation and early diagnosis. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because the state of quadriplegia rendered no symptoms of XGP. PMID:29480882

  1. Histopathology of acute acalculous cholecystitis in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Laurila, J J; Ala-Kokko, T I; Laurila, P A; Saarnio, J; Koivukangas, V; Syrjälä, H; Karttunen, T J

    2005-11-01

    To illustrate the histopathological features of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) of critically ill patients and to compare them with those of acute calculous cholecystitis (ACC) and normal gallbladders. We studied 34 gallbladders with AAC and compared them with 28 cases of ACC and 14 normal gallbladders. Histological features were systematically evaluated. Typical features in AAC were bile infiltration, leucocyte margination of blood vessels and lymphatic dilation. Bile infiltration in the gallbladder wall was more common and extended wider and deeper into the muscle layer in AAC compared with ACC. Epithelial degeneration and defects and widespread occurrence of inflammatory cells were typical features in ACC. Necrosis in the muscle layer was also more common and extended wider and deeper in ACC. There were no differences in the occurrence of capillary thromboses, lymphatic follicles or Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses between the AAC and ACC samples. There are characteristic differences in histopathology between AAC and ACC, although due to overlap, none appeared to be specific as such for either condition. These results suggest that AAC is largely a manifestation of systemic critical illness, whereas ACC is a local disease of the gallbladder.

  2. [A Case of Acute Acalculous Cholecystitis During Infectious Mononucleosis Caused by the Epstein-Barr Virus in a Young Woman].

    PubMed

    Ono, Shiro; Kobayashi, Tadanao; Nishio, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a common disease and is mainly asymptomatic during childhood, whereas infectious mononucleosis with clinical signs such as fever, pharyngitis, lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly often occurs in adolescents and adults with primary infection. Acalculous cholecystitis has been reported as a rare complication. We report herein a case of acalculous cholecystitis accompanied by infectious mononucleosis by EBV, which was treated successfully by medical treatment. A 33-year-old woman who had been admitted by fever, pharyngitis and lymphadenopathy developed a right upper quadrant pain, that was diagnosed as acalculous cholecystitis based on an imaging study. Antibiotic treatment did not resolve the symptoms, and surgical intervention was considered. We diagnosed her as having infectious mononucleosis based on a typical physical presentation and seropositivity for the EBV viral capsid antigen, suggesting that the acalculous cholecystatis might have been a complication of the EBV infection. After the administration of glucocorticoid and acyclovir, the patient became afebrile and the abdominal pain disappeared. Though acalculous cholecystitis rarely accompanies infectious mononucleosis caused by EBV, clinicians should be aware of this complication to avoid unnecessary cholecystectomy.

  3. Riddle Me This: Acalculous Cholecystitis as an Unusual Complication of Immunoglobulin M Negative Mononucleosis.

    PubMed

    Höhn, Philipp; Braumann, Chris; Uhl, Waldemar; Luu, Andreas M

    2018-04-19

    Infectious mononucleosis is a common disease of the adolescent caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). We present a rare case of a male adult with acalculous cholecystitis due to infectious mononucleosis. A correct diagnosis was challenging due to a false negative antibody test. Laboratory values were significant for a marked lymphocytosis and an early Immunoglobulin G (IgG) response without initial Immunoglobulin M (IgM) elevation. However, IgM antibodies were elevated two weeks later. Symptoms resolved quickly under symptomatic therapy. Antibody level patterns in asplenic patients with infectious mononucleosis are characterized by an atypical course with a delayed rise in IgM antibodies, which complicates the correct diagnosis of an EBV-induced acalculous cholecystitis.

  4. Cholecystectomy vs. percutaneous cholecystostomy for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis: a protocol for a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ambe, Peter C; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Papadakis, Marios; Weber, Sebastian A; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2015-05-30

    Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy. Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p < 0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and

  5. Lipid deposits and lipo-mucosomes in human cholecystitis and epithelial metaplasia in chronic cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, Jacques; Tomasello, Lisa M; Elgison, Deborah A

    2003-01-01

    Among the inflammatory changes seen in cholecystitis, the ultrastructural alterations of the human gallbladder epithelium include lipid and lipofuscin deposits, fusions of lipid deposits and mucus-containing vesicles forming complex substructural formations called lipo-mucosomes, and microvillar changes of sparse microvilli and basal bodies. Small, lipid-laden structures, such as VLDL-like vesicles, also are fused with the mucus vesicles. Epithelial cell sloughing could liberate and add lipo-mucosomes to the biliary sludge and participate in gallstone formation. With chronic cholelithiasis, fatty degeneration of scattered epithelial cells appears to alter the epithelial lining and favors metaplastic change that could lead to other pathologic changes, including carcinoma in situ-like lesions. In addition to lipid deposition in macrophages, lipid is also incorporated in other cells and tissues of the gallbladder wall (endothelium of capillaries, smooth muscles and fibrocytes).

  6. Operative Outcome and Patient Satisfaction in Early and Delayed Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy for Acute Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Hokkam, Emad N.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is usually associated with reduced hospital stay, sick leave, and health care expenditures. Early diagnosis and treatment of acute cholecystitis reduce both mortality and morbidity and the accurate diagnosis requires specific diagnostic criteria of clinical data and imaging studies. Objectives. To compare early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy regarding the operative outcome and patient satisfaction. Patients and Methods. Patients with acute cholecystitis were divided into two groups, early (A) and delayed (B) cholecystectomy. Diagnosis of acute cholecystitis was confirmed by clinical examination, laboratory data, and ultrasound study. The primary end point was operative and postoperative outcome and the secondary was patient's satisfaction. Results. The number of readmissions in delayed treatment group B was three times in 10% of patients, twice in 23.3%, and once in 66.7% while the number of readmissions was once only in patients in group A and the mean total hospital stays were higher in group B than in group A. The overall patient's satisfaction was 92.66 ± 6.8 in group A compared with 75.34 ± 12.85 in group B. Conclusion. Early laparoscopic cholecystectomy resulted in significant reduction in length of hospital stay and accepted rate of operative complications and conversion rates when compared with delayed techniques. PMID:25197568

  7. Percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy and delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy in critically ill patients with acute calculus cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Spira, Ram M; Nissan, Aviran; Zamir, Oded; Cohen, Tzeela; Fields, Scott I; Freund, Herbert R

    2002-01-01

    The ultimate therapy for acute cholecystitis is cholecystectomy. However, in critically ill elderly patients the mortality of emergency cholecystectomy may reach up to 30%. Open cholecystostomy performed under local anesthesia was considered to be the procedure of choice for treatment of acute cholecystitis in high-risk patients. In recent years, ultrasound- or computed tomography (CT)-guided percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy (PTHC) replaced open cholecystostomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the results of a 5-year protocol using PTHC followed by delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the treatment of acute cholecystitis in critically ill patients. We reviewed the charts of 55 patients who underwent PTHC at the Hadassah University Hospital Mount Scopus during the years 1994 to 1999. The main indications for PTHC among this group of severely sick and high-risk patients was biliary sepsis and septic shock in 23 patients (42%); and severe comorbidities in 32 patients (58%). The median age was 74 (32 to 98) years, 33 were female and 22 male. Successful biliary drainage by PTHC was achieved in 54 of 55 (98%) of the patients. The majority of the patients (31 of 55) were drained transhepaticlly under CT guidance. The rest, (24 of 55) were drained using ultrasound guidance followed by cholecystography for verification. Complications included hepatic bleeding that required surgical intervention in 1 patient and dislodgment of the catheter in 9 patients that was reinserted in 2 patients. Three patients died of multisystem organ failure 12 to 50 days following the procedure. The remaining 52 patients recovered well with a mean hospital stay of 15.5 plus minus 11.4 days. Thirty-one patients were able to undergo delayed surgery: 28 underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy of whom 4 (14%) were converted to open cholecystectomy. This was compared with a 1.9% conversion rate in 1

  8. Embryonic cholecystitis and defective gallbladder contraction in the Sox17-haploinsufficient mouse model of biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Fujino, Ko; Igarashi, Hitomi; Imaimatsu, Kenya; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Hirate, Yoshikazu; Kurohmaru, Masamichi; Saijoh, Yukio; Kanai-Azuma, Masami

    2017-01-01

    The gallbladder excretes cytotoxic bile acids into the duodenum through the cystic duct and common bile duct system. Sox17 haploinsufficiency causes biliary atresia-like phenotypes and hepatitis in late organogenesis mouse embryos, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this remain unclear. In this study, transcriptomic analyses revealed the early onset of cholecystitis in Sox17+/− embryos, together with the appearance of ectopic cystic duct-like epithelia in their gallbladders. The embryonic hepatitis showed positive correlations with the severity of cholecystitis in individual Sox17+/− embryos. Embryonic hepatitis could be induced by conditional deletion of Sox17 in the primordial gallbladder epithelia but not in fetal liver hepatoblasts. The Sox17+/− gallbladder also showed a drastic reduction in sonic hedgehog expression, leading to aberrant smooth muscle formation and defective contraction of the fetal gallbladder. The defective gallbladder contraction positively correlated with the severity of embryonic hepatitis in Sox17+/− embryos, suggesting a potential contribution of embryonic cholecystitis and fetal gallbladder contraction in the early pathogenesis of congenital biliary atresia. PMID:28432216

  9. Introducing a distributed unstructured mesh into gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code, XGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Eisung; Shephard, Mark; Seol, E. Seegyoung; Kalyanaraman, Kaushik

    2017-10-01

    XGC has shown good scalability for large leadership supercomputers. The current production version uses a copy of the entire unstructured finite element mesh on every MPI rank. Although an obvious scalability issue if the mesh sizes are to be dramatically increased, the current approach is also not optimal with respect to data locality of particles and mesh information. To address these issues we have initiated the development of a distributed mesh PIC method. This approach directly addresses the base scalability issue with respect to mesh size and, through the use of a mesh entity centric view of the particle mesh relationship, provides opportunities to address data locality needs of many core and GPU supported heterogeneous systems. The parallel mesh PIC capabilities are being built on the Parallel Unstructured Mesh Infrastructure (PUMI). The presentation will first overview the form of mesh distribution used and indicate the structures and functions used to support the mesh, the particles and their interaction. Attention will then focus on the node-level optimizations being carried out to ensure performant operation of all PIC operations on the distributed mesh. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation (EPSI) Grant No. DE-SC0008449 and Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling (CEMM) Grant No. DE-SC0006618.

  10. Acute cholecystitis: comparing clinical outcomes with TG13 severity and intended laparoscopic versus open cholecystectomy in difficult operative cases.

    PubMed

    Gerard, Justin; Luu, Minh B; Poirier, Jennifer; Deziel, Daniel J

    2018-03-09

    The revised Tokyo Guidelines include criteria for determining the severity of acute cholecystitis with treatment algorithms based on severity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of the revised Tokyo Guidelines severity grade to clinical outcomes of cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. We identified 66 patients with acute cholecystitis from a prior study of difficult cholecystectomy cases. We examined the relationship between severity grade and multiple variables related to perioperative and postoperative outcomes. A more severe revised Tokyo Guidelines grade was associated with a higher number of complications (p = 0.03) and a higher severity of complications (p = 0.01). Severity grade did not predict operative time, estimated blood loss, intensive care unit admission or length of stay. Compared to planned open cholecystectomy, intended laparoscopic cholecystectomy was associated with significantly fewer total and Clavien-Dindo grade 3 complications, fewer intensive care unit admissions, and shorter length of stay (p values range from 0.03 to < 0.0001). In technically difficult operations for acute cholecystitis, the revised Tokyo guidelines severity grade correlates with the number and severity of complications. However, intended performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy rather than open cholecystectomy in difficult operations predicts broader beneficial outcomes than severity grade.

  11. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: antimicrobial therapy for acute cholangitis and cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Harumi; Solomkin, Joseph S; Schlossberg, David; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Ukai, Tomohiko; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A; Matsunaga, Naohisa; Takamori, Yoriyuki; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O James; Miura, Fumihiko; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J; Deziel, Daniel J; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C W; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Mukai, Shuntaro; Higuchi, Ryota; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a mainstay of the management for patients with acute cholangitis and/or cholecystitis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) provides recommendations for the appropriate use of antimicrobials for community-acquired and healthcare-associated infections. The listed agents are for empirical therapy provided before the infecting isolates are identified. Antimicrobial agents are listed by class-definitions and TG18 severity grade I, II, and III subcategorized by clinical settings. In the era of emerging and increasing antimicrobial resistance, monitoring and updating local antibiograms is underscored. Prudent antimicrobial usage and early de-escalation or termination of antimicrobial therapy are now important parts of decision-making. What is new in TG18 is that the duration of antimicrobial therapy for both acute cholangitis and cholecystitis is systematically reviewed. Prophylactic antimicrobial usage for elective endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is no longer recommended and the section was deleted in TG18. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2018 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: management strategies for gallbladder drainage in patients with acute cholecystitis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Itoi, Takao; Baron, Todd H; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Pitt, Henry A; Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Teoh, Anthony Yuen Bun; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Yokoe, Masamichi; Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Wakabayashi, Go; Han, Ho-Seong; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Garden, O James; Singh, Harjit; Liau, Kui-Hin; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Gouma, Dirk J; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Windsor, John A; Lau, Wan Yee; Cherqui, Daniel; Jagannath, Palepu; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Deziel, Daniel J; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Jonas, Eduard; Padbury, Robert; Mukai, Shuntaro; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; Asai, Koji; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    Since the publication of the Tokyo Guidelines in 2007 and their revision in 2013, appropriate management for acute cholecystitis has been more clearly established. Since the last revision, several manuscripts, especially for alternative endoscopic techniques, have been reported; therefore, additional evaluation and refinement of the 2013 Guidelines is required. We describe a standard drainage method for surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis and the latest developed endoscopic gallbladder drainage techniques described in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Our study confirmed that percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage should be considered the first alternative to surgical intervention in surgically high-risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Also, endoscopic transpapillary gallbladder drainage or endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage can be considered in high-volume institutes by skilled endoscopists. In the endoscopic transpapillary approach, either endoscopic naso-gallbladder drainage or gallbladder stenting can be considered for gallbladder drainage. We also introduce special techniques and the latest outcomes of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gallbladder drainage studies. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  13. A Pediatric Case of Bacteremia and Possible Cholecystitis Due to Moraxella osloensis.

    PubMed

    Minami, Kisei; Higuchi, Tsukasa; Cho, Yoshiaki; Koike, Yumi; Takeuchi, Koichi; Kubota, Noriko; Hidaka, Eiko; Horiuchi, Ayaka; Kawakami, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    We encountered a pediatric case of bacteremia and possible cholecystitis due to Moraxella osloensis that was treated successfully. We confirmed the diagnosis with the presence of a high serum titer of the antibody to the organism. Furthermore, 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to identify the bacteria.

  14. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of acute cholecystitis with /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA cholescintigraphy. [HIDA = dimethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Weissmann, H.S.; Frank, M.S.; Bernstein, L.H.

    1979-04-01

    Technetium-99m dimethyl acetanilide iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) cholescintigraphy was performed on 90 patients with suspected acute cholecytitis. Visualization of the gallbladder established patency of the cystic duct and excluded the diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 50 of 52 patients. Nonvisualization of the gallbladder with visualization of the common bile duct was diagnostic of acute cholecystitis in 38 patients, all subsequently proven at surgery. The observed accuracy of this procedure is 98% and specificity is 100%. The false negative rate is 5% and false positive rate is zero. Technetium-99m-HILDA has many advantages which make it the procedure of choice in evaluating amore » patient for suspected acute cholecystitis. It is a rapid, simple, safe examination which provides functional as well as anatomic information about the hepatobiliary system in individuals with a serum bilirubin level up to 8 mg/100 ml.« less

  15. Perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in the treatment of acute cholecystitis (PEANUTS II trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Loozen, Charlotte S; van Santvoort, Hjalmar C; van Geloven, Antoinette A W; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; de Reuver, Philip R; Besselink, Mark H G; Vlaminckx, Bart; Kelder, Johannes C; Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Boerma, Djamila

    2017-08-23

    The additional value of perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in preventing infectious complications after emergency cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis is a much-debated subject in the surgical community. Evidence-based guidelines are lacking, and consequently the use of antibiotic prophylaxis varies greatly among surgeons and hospitals. Recently, high-level evidence became available demonstrating that postoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with acute cholecystitis does not reduce the risk of infectious complications. Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in relation to the risk of infectious complications, however, has never been studied. The PEANUTS II trial is a randomized, controlled, multicenter, open-label noninferiority trial whose aim is to determine the utility of preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing emergency cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis. Patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis, as defined according the Tokyo Guidelines, will be randomly assigned to a single preoperative dose of antibiotic prophylaxis (2000 mg of first-generation cephalosporin delivered intravenously) or no antibiotic prophylaxis before emergency cholecystectomy. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint consisting of all postoperative infectious complications occurring during the first 30 days after surgery. Secondary endpoints include all the individual components of the primary endpoint, all other complications, duration of hospital stay, and total costs. The hypothesis is that the absence of antibiotic prophylaxis is noninferior to the presence of antibiotic prophylaxis. A noninferiority margin of 10% is assumed. With a 1-sided risk of 2.5% and a power of 80%, a total of 454 subjects will have to be included. Analysis will be performed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The PEANUTS II trial will provide evidence-based advice concerning the utility of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing

  16. Better treatment strategies for patients with acute cholecystitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification 3 or greater.

    PubMed

    Yun, Sung Su; Hwang, Dae Wook; Kim, Se Won; Park, Sang Hwan; Park, Sang Jin; Lee, Dong Shick; Kim, Hong Jin

    2010-07-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the best treatment choice for acute cholecystitis. However, it still carries high conversion and mortality rates. The purpose of this study was to find out better treatment strategies for high surgical risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Between January 2002 and June 2008, we performed percutaneous cholecystostomy instead of emergency cholecystectomy in 44 patients with acute cholecystitis and American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification 3 or greater. This was performed in 31 patients as a bridge procedure before elective cholecystectomy (bridge group) and as a palliative procedure in 11 patients (palliation group). The mean age of patients was 71.6 years (range 52-86 years). The mean ASA classifications before and after percutaneous cholecystostomy were 3.3 +/- 0.5 and 2.5 +/- 0.6, respectively, in the bridge group, and 3.6 +/- 0.7 and 3.1 +/- 1.0, in the palliation group, respectively. Percutaneous cholecystostomy was technically successful in all patients. There were two deaths after percutaneous cholecystostomy in the palliation group due to underlying ischemic heart disease and multiple organ failure. Resumption of oral intake was possible 2.9 +/- 1.8 days in the bridge group and 3.9 +/- 3.5 days in the palliation group after percutaneous cholecystostomy. We attempted 17 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and experienced one failure due to bile duct injury (success rate: 94.1%). The postoperative course of all cholecystectomy patients was uneventful. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is an effective bridge procedure before cholecystectomy in patients with acute cholecystitis and ASA classification 3 or greater.

  17. [Effect of fenicaberan on liver function in patients with chronic noncalculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Skroban, N V

    1989-06-01

    The author studied the effect of fenicaberan on the functional state of the liver in 34 patients with chronic noncalculous cholecystitis. It was found that fenicaberan favours improvement of the functional state of the liver but complete normalization of all liver values indicates necessity continuation of treatment in outpatient conditions.

  18. Pedestal and edge electrostatic turbulence characteristics from an XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Churchill, R. M.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; ...

    2017-08-30

    Understanding the multi-scale neoclassical and turbulence physics in the edge region (pedestal + scrape-off layer (SOL)) is required in order to reliably predict performance in future fusion devices. We explore turbulent characteristics in the edge region from a multi-scale neoclassical and turbulent XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation in a DIII-D like tokamak geometry, here excluding neutrals and collisions. For an H-mode type plasma with steep pedestal, it is found that the electron density fluctuations increase towards the separatrix, and stay high well into the SOL, reaching a maximum value ofmore » $$\\delta {n}_{e}/{\\bar{n}}_{e}\\sim 0.18$$. Blobs are observed, born around the magnetic separatrix surface and propagate radially outward with velocities generally less than 1 km s –1. Strong poloidal motion of the blobs is also present, near 20 km s –1, consistent with E × B rotation. The electron density fluctuations show a negative skewness in the closed field-line pedestal region, consistent with the presence of 'holes', followed by a transition to strong positive skewness across the separatrix and into the SOL. These simulations indicate that not only neoclassical phenomena, but also turbulence, including the blob-generation mechanism, can remain important in the steep H-mode pedestal and SOL. Lastly, qualitative comparisons will be made to experimental observations.« less

  19. Pedestal and edge electrostatic turbulence characteristics from an XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, R. M.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Dominski, J.

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the multi-scale neoclassical and turbulence physics in the edge region (pedestal + scrape-off layer (SOL)) is required in order to reliably predict performance in future fusion devices. We explore turbulent characteristics in the edge region from a multi-scale neoclassical and turbulent XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation in a DIII-D like tokamak geometry, here excluding neutrals and collisions. For an H-mode type plasma with steep pedestal, it is found that the electron density fluctuations increase towards the separatrix, and stay high well into the SOL, reaching a maximum value of δ {n}e/{\\bar{n}}e˜ 0.18. Blobs are observed, born around the magnetic separatrix surface and propagate radially outward with velocities generally less than 1 km s-1. Strong poloidal motion of the blobs is also present, near 20 km s-1, consistent with E × B rotation. The electron density fluctuations show a negative skewness in the closed field-line pedestal region, consistent with the presence of ‘holes’, followed by a transition to strong positive skewness across the separatrix and into the SOL. These simulations indicate that not only neoclassical phenomena, but also turbulence, including the blob-generation mechanism, can remain important in the steep H-mode pedestal and SOL. Qualitative comparisons will be made to experimental observations.

  20. An observational study of the timing of surgery, use of laparoscopy and outcomes for acute cholecystitis in the USA and UK.

    PubMed

    Murray, A C; Markar, S; Mackenzie, H; Baser, O; Wiggins, T; Askari, A; Hanna, G; Faiz, O; Mayer, E; Bicknell, C; Darzi, A; Kiran, R P

    2018-01-08

    Evidence supports early laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. Differences in treatment patterns between the USA and UK, associated outcomes and resource utilization are not well understood. In this retrospective, observational study using national administrative data, emergency patients admitted with acute cholecystitis were identified in England (Hospital Episode Statistics 1998-2012) and USA (National Inpatient Sample 1998-2011). Proportions of patients who underwent emergency cholecystectomy, utilization of laparoscopy and associated outcomes including length of stay (LOS) and complications were compared. The effect of delayed treatment on subsequent readmissions was evaluated for England. Patients with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis totaled 1,191,331 in the USA vs. 288 907 in England. Emergency cholecystectomy was performed in 628,395 (52.7% USA) and 45,299 (15.7% England) over the time period. Laparoscopy was more common in the USA (82.8 vs. 37.9%; p < 0.001). Pre-treatment (1 vs. 2 days; p < 0.001) and total ( 4 vs. 7 days; p < 0.001) LOS was lower in the USA. Overall incidence of bile duct injury was higher in England than the USA (0.83 vs. 0.43%; p < 0.001), but was no different following laparoscopic surgery (0.1%). In England, 40.5% of patients without an immediate cholecystectomy were subsequently readmitted with cholecystitis. An additional 14.5% were admitted for other biliary complications, amounting to 2.7 readmissions per patient in the year following primary admission. This study highlights management practices for acute cholecystitis in the USA and England. Despite best evidence, index admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed less in England, which significantly impacts subsequent healthcare utilization.

  1. Full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic study of improved ion energy confinement from impurity stabilization of ITG turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyuho; Kwon, Jae-Min; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; Ku, S.; Choe, W.

    2017-06-01

    Flux-driven full-f gyrokinetic simulations are performed to study carbon impurity effects on the ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence and ion thermal transport in a toroidal geometry. Employing the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1, both main ions and impurities are evolved self-consistently including turbulence and neoclassical physics. It is found that the carbon impurity profile self-organizes to form an inwardly peaked density profile, which weakens the ITG instabilities and reduces the overall fluctuations and ion thermal transport. A stronger reduction appears in the low frequency components of the fluctuations. The global structure of E × B flow also changes, resulting in the reduction of global avalanche like transport events in the impure plasma. Detailed properties of impurity transport are also studied, and it is revealed that both the inward neoclassical pinch and the outward turbulent transport are equally important in the formation of the steady state impurity profile.

  2. Acalculous cholecystitis and septicemia caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae: first reported case and review of biliary infections with Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    West, B C; Silberman, R; Otterson, W N

    1998-03-01

    The first case of septicemic acute acalculous cholecystitis caused by non-O1 Vibrio cholerae is described in a healthy traveler, and biliary tract infections from V. cholerae are reviewed. Immediately after a vacation in Cancun, Mexico, a 55-year-old man developed acute cholecystitis. Blood and bile cultures grew non-O1 V. cholerae. At surgery, the gallbladder was acalculous, inflamed, distended, and nearly ruptured. Pathogenetic factors may have included diarrhea prophylaxis with bismuth subsalicylate, distension of the gallbladder from illness-induced fasting, and bacterial toxins in the gallbladder. The patient received i.v. cephapirin, followed by oral cephradine for a total of 10 days, and he made a quick and complete recovery. V. cholerae should be considered in the differential diagnosis of persons from endemic areas who present with cholecystitis or acute jaundice.

  3. What is the effect of treatment modality on red blood cell distribution width in patients with acute cholecystitis?

    PubMed

    Yazıcı, Pınar; Demir, Uygar; Bozdağ, Emre; Bozkurt, Emre; Işıl, Gürhan; Bostancı, Özgür; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has recently been used as a marker to predict outcome in various patient groups. In this study, we aimed to examine how RDW is influenced during the treatment and follow-up of cases of acute cholecystitis which is a common inflammatory disease. Seventy-two patients who were treated for acute cholecystitis, were included into the study. The demographic data, leukocyte count, RDW, C-reactive protein (CRP) values and treatment protocols of these patients were prospectively recorded. The patients who received medical treatment for acute cholecystitis (Group A, n=33) and those who underwent surgery (Group B, n=39) were examined in separate groups. There were 27 male and 45 female patients with a mean age of 50.1±18 years (min-max: 21-94). In Group B, 33 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, whereas 6 patients underwent open cholecystectomy. The RDW values on admission were not significantly different between two groups. However the post-treatment/pre-discharge RDW values were significantly lower in the surgical group (14.4±1.9 to 13.6±1.1, respectively, p<0.05). Also, no significant RDW change was identified in the medical treatment group based on an intra-group assessment, whereas a significant decrease was observed in Group B (on admission and following surgical treatment: 14.3±1.3, 13.6±1.1, respectively, p=0.015). No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of CRP and leucocyte values. There was a significant decrease in RDW values in patients who were treated with surgery for acute cholecystitis, while this response could not be observed with medical treatment.

  4. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: are intended operative approach, timing and outcome affected by BMI? A multicenter retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lauro, A; Vaccari, S; Cervellera, M; Casella, Giuseppina; D'Andrea, V; Di Matteo, F M; Panarese, A; Santoro, A; Cirocchi, R; Tonini, V

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopy is the gold-standard for cholecystectomy after acute cholecystitis, but the issue is controversial in obese subjects. We reviewed 464 patients operated for acute cholecystitis (59 open and 405 laparoscopic) over the last five years at St Orsola University Hospital-Bologna and Umberto I University Hospital-Rome, comparing retrospectively: 1) BMI < 30 (397 patients) and BMI =/> 30 (67 patients) and moreover 2) BMI < 25 (207 patients) and BMI =/> 25 (257 patients). In the first comparison, obese patients showed higher cardiovascular co-morbidity (61.1% vs 44.5%, p=0.01), worse symptoms (Murphy's sign positive in 92.5% vs 80.8%, p=0.02; fever >38.5°C in 88.0% vs 76.0 %, p=0.02) and significant radiologic imaging (95.5% vs 85.1%, p=0.01) of acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopy was used in 83.6% of obese patients vs 87.9% without any difference, and operative time or conversion rate were similar. According to Tokyo Guidelines 2013, the number of patients who underwent surgery within 3 days or after 6 weeks was similar without statistical difference between the two groups. Hospital stay, morbidity and mortality were similar. Complications were seen in 25.4% of obese patients vs 15.9% (p= 0.03), mainly represented by wound infections. The second comparison did show no difference between two groups BMI =/>25 and BMI < 25. Our retrospective multicenter study showed no difference related to intended operative approach, timing and outcome in higher BMI versus lower BMI patients operated for acute cholecystitis.

  5. Managing acute cholecystitis among Medicaid insured in New York State: opportunities to optimize care.

    PubMed

    Stey, Anne M; Greenstein, Alexander J; Aufses, Arthur; Moskowitz, Alan J; Egorova, Natalia N

    2018-05-01

    Identifying sources of unnecessary cost within Medicaid will help focus cost containment efforts. This study sought to identify differences in surgical management and associated costs of cholecystitis between Medicaid and privately insured in New York State. The New York State all-payer mandatory discharge database from 2003 to 2013, had 297,635 patients with Medicaid (75,512) and privately (222,123) insurance who underwent cholecystectomy for cholecystitis. Patients were stratified by insurance. Four surgical management approaches were delineated based on cholecystectomy timing: primary, interval, emergency, and delayed cholecystectomy. Delayed cholecystectomy was defined as more than one hospital visit from diagnosis to definitive cholecystectomy. Medicaid and privately insured patients were propensity score matched. Surgical management approach and associated costs were compared between matched cohorts. A greater proportion of Medicaid patients underwent delayed cholecystectomy compared to matched privately insured patients, 8.5 versus 4.8%; P < 0.001. Primary initial cholecystectomy was performed in fewer Medicaid compared to privately insured patients, 55.4 versus 66.0%, P < 0.001. Primary initial cholecystectomy was the cheapest surgical management approach, with the median cost of $3707, and delayed cholecystectomy was the most expensive, $12,212, P < 0.001. The median cost per Medicaid patient was $6170 versus $4804 per matched privately insured patient, P < 0.001. The annual predicted cost savings for New York State Medicaid would be $13,097,371, if the distribution of surgical management approaches were proportionally similar to private insurance. Medicaid patients with cholecystitis were more frequently managed with delayed cholecystectomy than privately insured patients, which had substantial cost implications for the New York Medicaid Program.

  6. What is the effect of treatment modality on red blood cell distribution width in patients with acute cholecystitis?

    PubMed Central

    Yazıcı, Pınar; Demir, Uygar; Bozdağ, Emre; Bozkurt, Emre; Işıl, Gürhan; Bostancı, Özgür; Mihmanlı, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has recently been used as a marker to predict outcome in various patient groups. In this study, we aimed to examine how RDW is influenced during the treatment and follow-up of cases of acute cholecystitis which is a common inflammatory disease. Material and Methods: Seventy-two patients who were treated for acute cholecystitis, were included into the study. The demographic data, leukocyte count, RDW, C-reactive protein (CRP) values and treatment protocols of these patients were prospectively recorded. The patients who received medical treatment for acute cholecystitis (Group A, n=33) and those who underwent surgery (Group B, n=39) were examined in separate groups. Results: There were 27 male and 45 female patients with a mean age of 50.1±18 years (min-max: 21-94). In Group B, 33 patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, whereas 6 patients underwent open cholecystectomy. The RDW values on admission were not significantly different between two groups. However the post-treatment/pre-discharge RDW values were significantly lower in the surgical group (14.4±1.9 to 13.6±1.1, respectively, p<0.05). Also, no significant RDW change was identified in the medical treatment group based on an intra-group assessment, whereas a significant decrease was observed in Group B (on admission and following surgical treatment: 14.3±1.3, 13.6±1.1, respectively, p=0.015). No significant differences were observed between groups in terms of CRP and leucocyte values. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in RDW values in patients who were treated with surgery for acute cholecystitis, while this response could not be observed with medical treatment. PMID:25931948

  7. Gallbladder torsion with acute cholecystitis and gross necrosis

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Bencsath, Kalman

    2014-01-01

    A 92-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of worsening right-sided abdominal pain. On examination she had right mid-abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies demonstrated leukocytosis with normal liver function tests. A CT of the abdomen was remarkable for a large fluid collection in the right abdomen and no discernible gallbladder in the gallbladder fossa. An ultrasound confirmed the suspicion of a distended, floating gallbladder. The patient was taken to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The gallbladder was found to have volvulised in a counter -clockwise manner around its pedicle, with gross necrosis of the gallbladder. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Pathological examination revealed acute necrotising calculus cholecystitis. PMID:24862426

  8. Concurrent presentation of appendicitis and acute cholecystitis: diagnosis of rare occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Jamish; Tan, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    A 67-year-old woman presented with a 2-day history of central abdominal pain migrating to the right upper and lower abdomen. On examination she was normothermic but tachycardic. Inflammatory markers were noted to be elevated with a white cell count of 18.5×109/L and C reactive protein of 265 mg/L. A CT scan revealed dual pathology of appendicitis and acute cholecystitis, which was confirmed intraoperatively and histologically. PMID:26396122

  9. The fusion code XGC: Enabling kinetic study of multi-scale edge turbulent transport in ITER [Book Chapter

    SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Abbott, Stephen; Koskela, Tuomas

    The XGC fusion gyrokinetic code combines state-of-the-art, portable computational and algorithmic technologies to enable complicated multiscale simulations of turbulence and transport dynamics in ITER edge plasma on the largest US open-science computer, the CRAY XK7 Titan, at its maximal heterogeneous capability, which have not been possible before due to a factor of over 10 shortage in the time-to-solution for less than 5 days of wall-clock time for one physics case. Frontier techniques such as nested OpenMP parallelism, adaptive parallel I/O, staging I/O and data reduction using dynamic and asynchronous applications interactions, dynamic repartitioning for balancing computational work in pushing particlesmore » and in grid related work, scalable and accurate discretization algorithms for non-linear Coulomb collisions, and communication-avoiding subcycling technology for pushing particles on both CPUs and GPUs are also utilized to dramatically improve the scalability and time-to-solution, hence enabling the difficult kinetic ITER edge simulation on a present-day leadership class computer.« less

  10. Complete treatment with partial cystectomy in giant xanthogranulomatous cystitis case imitating bladder tumor.

    PubMed

    Balasar, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Oltulu, Pembe; Kandemir, Abdülkadir; Kılıç, Mehmet; Gürbüz, Recai

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a very rare chronic benign inflammatory disease of the bladder. It may cause local invasion although it is not a malign lesion and may occur together with malign lesions. It has a clinical importance as the distinction from malign lesions is difficult clinically and pathologically. Sharing a 37-year-old female case with giant XC imitating bladder tumor referring to the hospital with hematuria and stomach ache, together with current literature, we wanted to present that the disease can be treated with bladder-preserving approaches instead of radical approaches even though the mass is big in these cases. Application of basic excision and partial resection for small masses and radical cystectomy for large masses was reported in literature. We think that our case may provide a contribution to literature in treatment approach since we provided surgical cure with partial resection in a big mass with dimensions of 9 cm × 8 cm which is different from the present literature. Even though XC is a rare disease, it should be considered in prediagnosis for especially big dimensioned masses, and treatment should be planned according to the pathology result after together with cystoscopy in suitable patients.

  11. HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR CHOLECYSTITIS AND CHOLELITHIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    NUNES, Emeline Caldana; ROSA, Roger dos Santos; BORDIN, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The cholelithiasis is disease of surgical resolution with about 60,000 hospitalizations per year in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System) of the Rio Grande do Sul state. Aim: To describe the profile of hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis performed by the SUS of Rio Grande do Sul state, 2011-2013. Methods: Hospital Information System data from the National Health System through morbidity list for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (ICD-10 K80-K81). Variables studied were sex, age, number of hospitalizations and approved Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH), total amount and value of hospital services generated, days and average length of stay, mortality, mortality and case fatality ratio, from health regions of the Rio Grande do Sul. Results: During 2011-2013 there were 60,517 hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, representing 18.86 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year, most often in the age group from 60 to 69 years (41.34 admissions per 10,000 inhabitants/year) and female (27.72 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year). The fatality rate presented an inverse characteristic: 13.52 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year for males, compared with 7.12 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year in females. The state had an average total amount spent and value of hospital services of R$ 16,244,050.60 and R$ 10,890,461.31, respectively. The health region "Capital/Gravataí Valley" exhibit the highest total expenditure and hospital services, and the largest number of deaths, and average length of stay. Conclusion: The hospitalization and lethality coefficients, the deaths, the length of stay and spending related to admissions increased from 50 years old. Females had a higher frequency and higher values ​​spent on hospitalization, while the male higher coefficient of mortality and mean hospital stay. PMID:27438030

  12. Acute cholecystitis in high risk surgical patients: percutaneous cholecystostomy versus laparoscopic cholecystectomy (CHOCOLATE trial): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Percutaneous cholecystostomy may be an alternative treatment option but the current literature does not provide the surgical community with evidence based advice. Methods/Design The CHOCOLATE trial is a randomised controlled, parallel-group, superiority multicenter trial. High risk patients, defined as APACHE-II score 7-14, with acute calculous cholecystitis will be randomised to laparoscopic cholecystectomy or percutaneous cholecystostomy. During a two year period 284 patients will be enrolled from 30 high volume teaching hospitals. The primary endpoint is a composite endpoint of major complications within three months following randomization and need for re-intervention and mortality during the follow-up period of one year. Secondary endpoints include all other complications, duration of hospital admission, difficulty of procedures and total costs. Discussion The CHOCOLATE trial is designed to provide the surgical community with an evidence based guideline in the treatment of acute calculous cholecystitis in high risk patients. Trial Registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR2666 PMID:22236534

  13. Detailed study of spontaneous rotation generation in diverted H-mode plasma using the full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Janghoon; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Kwon, J. M.; Yoon, E. S.

    2013-10-01

    The Full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to study the details of toroidal momentum generation in H-mode plasma. Diverted DIII-D geometry is used, with Monte Carlo neutral particles that are recycled at the limiter wall. Nonlinear Coulomb collisions conserve particle, momentum, and energy. Gyrokinetic ions and adiabatic electrons are used in the present simulation to include the effects from ion gyrokinetic turbulence and neoclassical physics, under self-consistent radial electric field generation. Ion orbit loss physics is automatically included. Simulations show a strong co-Ip flow in the H-mode layer at outside midplane, similarly to the experimental observation from DIII-D and ASDEX-U. The co-Ip flow in the edge propagates inward into core. It is found that the strong co-Ip flow generation is mostly from neoclassical physics. On the other hand, the inward momentum transport is from turbulence physics, consistently with the theory of residual stress from symmetry breaking. Therefore, interaction between the neoclassical and turbulence physics is a key factor in the spontaneous momentum generation.

  14. Study on relationship of nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic chole-cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun-Fu; Cai, Dong; Zhu, You-Gen; Yang, Jin-Lu; Peng, Cheng-Hong; Yu, Yang-Hai

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study relationship of injury induced by nitric oxide, oxidation, peroxidation, lipoperoxidation with chronic cholecystitis. METHODS: The values of plasma nitric oxide (P-NO), plasma vitamin C (P-VC), plasma vitamin E (P-VE), plasma β-carotene (P-β-CAR), plasma lipoperoxides (P-LPO), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (E-SOD), erythrocyte catalase (E-CAT), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (E-GSH-Px) activities and erythrocyte lipoperoxides (E-LPO) level in 77 patients with chro nic cholecystitis and 80 healthy control subjects were determined, differences of the above average values between t he patient group and the control group and differences of the average values bet ween preoperative and postoperative patients were analyzed and compared, linear regression and correlation of the disease course with the above determination values as well as the stepwise regression and correlation of the course with th e values were analyzed. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO, E-LPO were significantly increased (P < 0.01), and of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px decreased (P < 0.01) in the patient group. The analysis of the lin ear regression and correlation s howed that with prolonging of the course, the values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO in the patients were gradually ascended and the values of P-VC, P-VE, P-β-CAR, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px descended (P < 0.01). The analysis of the stepwise regression and correlation indicated that the correlation of the course with P-NO, P-VE and P-β-CAR values was the closest. Compared with the preoperative patients, the average values of P-NO, P-LPO and E-LPO were significantly decre ased (P < 0.01) and the average values of P-VC, E-SOD, E-CAT and E-GSH-Px in postoperative pa tients increased (P < 0.01) in postoperative patients. But there was no signif icant difference in the average values of P-VE, P-β-CAR preope rative and postoperative patients. CONCLUSION: Chronic

  15. Protocol for extended antibiotic therapy after laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis (Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial, CHART).

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Pablo; Campana, Juan Pablo; Dietrich, Agustín; Goransky, Jeremías; Glinka, Juan; Giunta, Diego; Barcan, Laura; Alvarez, Fernando; Mazza, Oscar; Sánchez Claria, Rodrigo; Palavecino, Martin; Arbues, Guillermo; Ardiles, Victoria; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Pekolj, Juan; de Santibañes, Martin

    2015-11-18

    Acute calculous cholecystitis represents one of the most common complications of cholelithiasis. While laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment in mild and moderate forms, the need for antibiotic therapy after surgery remains undefined. The aim of the randomised controlled Cholecystectomy Antibiotic Randomised Trial (CHART) is therefore to assess if there are benefits in the use of postoperative antibiotics in patients with mild or moderate acute cholecystitis in whom a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is performed. A single-centre, double-blind, randomised trial. After screening for eligibility and informed consent, 300 patients admitted for acute calculus cholecystitis will be randomised into two groups of treatment, either receiving amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Postoperative evaluation will take place during the first 30 days. Postoperative infectious complications are the primary end point. Secondary end points are length of hospital stay, readmissions, need of reintervention (percutaneous or surgical reinterventions) and overall mortality. The results of this trial will provide strong evidence to either support or abandon the use of antibiotics after surgery, impacting directly in the incidence of adverse events associated with the use of antibiotics, the emergence of bacterial resistance and treatment costs. This study and informed consent sheets have been approved by the Research Projects Evaluating Committee (CEPI) of Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires (protocol N° 2111). The results of the trial will be reported in a peer-reviewed publication. NCT02057679. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Cholecystitis and nephrotic syndrome complicating Epstein-Barr virus primary infection.

    PubMed

    Rodà, Diana; Huici, Malka; Ricart, Sílvia; Vila, Jordi; Fortuny, Clàudia; Alsina, Laia

    2017-02-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection results in a spectrum of clinical manifestations. The host immune response to EBV plays a key role in the extent and degree of clinical features, which in children under 4 years of age are usually mild, non-specific and self-limiting. A 2-year-old boy in whom no known immune disorder could be found presented with acute acalculous cholecystitis, renal dysfunction with massive proteinuria, ascites, pleural effusion, minimal peripheral oedema and a severe systemic inflammatory response. Improvement occurred after initiation of corticosteroids and antiviral treatment with gancyclovir. In severely symptomatic or complicated EBV infection, a primary immunodeficiency must be suspected. If a primary immunodeficiency has been ruled out, the correct management of severe EBV infection in the immunocompetent host remains controversial.

  17. Microbiologic Data in Acute Cholecystitis: Ten Years' Experience from Bile Cultures Obtained during Percutaneous Cholecystostomy.

    PubMed

    Nitzan, Orna; Brodsky, Yuri; Edelstein, Hana; Hershko, Dan; Saliba, Walid; Keness, Yoram; Peretz, Avi; Chazan, Bibiana

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the microbiology and susceptibility patterns in acute cholecystitis by examining bile culture results from patients who underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy and examine concordance with empiric treatment. A total of 124 patients with acute cholecystitis underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy between 2003 and 2012 at Emek Medical Center, Israel. Data on bile and blood culture results, isolate susceptibility, and clinical outcomes were retrieved from patient files. Bile cultures obtained from 116 patients were positive in 70 (60.3%) patients. Blood cultures obtained from 77 patients were positive in 23 (31.1%). Escherichia coli was the most common isolate in 28.6% of bile cultures and 43.5% of blood cultures. The concordance between empiric treatment coverage and culture isolate susceptibility was 67.6%. In most discordant cases, the isolates were Enterobacter spp. (40.9%) and Enterococcus spp. (31.8%). Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 7%: 2% in patients with concordant treatment compared with 14% in patients with discordant treatment (p = 0.09). Empiric antibiotic regimens were adequate in only two-thirds of patients. There might be a trend for poorer outcome in patients treated with inadequate antibiotic agents, emphasizing the importance of tailoring antibiotic treatment.

  18. [Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis associated with viral hepatitis A].

    PubMed

    Arcana, Ronald; Frisancho, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    We report the case of a 14 year-old male from Lima. He is a student with a history of bronchial asthma since age 4 receives conditional salbutamol, corticosteroids used for asthma attacks (a crisis in 2010, 1 month ago) Refuses surgery or transfusions. He presented with a two weeks for abdominal pain, nausea, fever, and jaundice. Epigastric pain is colicky and radiated back to righ upper quadrant, refers in addition to nausea and fever, for ten days notice jaundice of skin and sclera. On examen he was lucid, with jaundice of skin and mucous membranes. There was no palpable lymph nodes, abdomen with bowel sounds, soft, depressible, liver span of 15cm, positive Murphy, no peritonitis. The laboratory findings showed hemoglobin 13gr, MCV 90, platelets 461.000/mm3, WBC 4320/mm, lymphocytes 1700 (39%). total bilirubin: 8.8, B Direct: 7.6, ALT (alanine aminotransferase): 3016, AST (aspartate aminotransferase): 984, alkaline phosphatase: 250, albumin: 3.34gr%, globulin: 2.8, amylase: 589 (high serum amylase), TP: 17, INR: 1.6, VHA IgM positive. 89 mg glucose, urea 19 mg%, creatinine 0.5 mg Hemoglobin 13gr, MCV 90 Platelet 461000/mm3, WBC 4320/mm, Lymphocytes 1700 (39%). The nuclear magnetic resonance showed hepatomegaly associated with thickening of gallbladder wall without stones up to 11mm inside. No bile duct dilatation, bile duct 4mm, pancreas increased prevalence of body size. Mild splenomegaly and free fluid in the space of Morrison and right flank. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a gallbladder wall thickness (11mm), without stones in his light. Pancreas to increase volume with peripancreatic fluid free perivesicular with a volume of 430 cc. Findings consistent with acute acalculous cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis. CT-scan showed enlarged pancreas with predominance of body and tail with peripancreatic edema; the gallbladder was thickening. We report this case because the extrahepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis A infection are uncommon, specially the

  19. Importance of nutritional status in recovery from acute cholecystitis: benefit from enteral nutrition supplementation including medium chain triglycerides.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yukinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji; Wakabayashi, Takao; Okushima, Kazumu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Miyoshi, Hironao; Nakamura, Yuta

    2007-09-01

    This study was undertaken to clarify the importance of nutritional status in patients with acute cholecystitis, and also evaluate whether they benefited from enteral nutrition supplementation, including medium-chain triglycerides (MCT), during the convalescent stage. Patients with acute cholecystitis admitted to our hospital between April 1994 and March 2002 were classified into a poor nutrition group (n=40; total serum protein<5.0 g/dl) or a fair nutrition group (n=71; >5.0 g/dl). Patients with poor nutrition were significantly more elderly than those with fair nutrition, and had significantly higher serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations. The two groups did not differ significantly with respect to other laboratory data, gender distribution, or medical treatment. We supplemented ordinary meals with enteral nutrition including MCT in 16 patients during the convalescent stage (MCT group). We compared their length of hospital stay and days required to recovery to pre-admission functional status for activities of daily living (ADL) with the same intervals in 16 patients without supplementation (non-MCT group) selected to match for age, gender, and fair or poor nutritional status from among 111 patients. Hospitalizations were significantly longer in the poor nutrition group (43.0+/-2.2 days) than in the fair nutrition group (27.0+/-8.2 days). Significantly more days were required to recover ADL status in the poor nutrition group (12.0+/-7.2 days) than in the fair group (9.4+/-5.2 days). Hospitalizations were significantly shorter in the MCT group (20.1+/-15 days) than in the non-MCT group (35.4+/-12.8 days). Significantly fewer days were required to recover ADL status in the MCT group (10.9+/-7 days) than in the non-MCT group (13.1+/-6.8 days). Administration of enteral nutrition including MCT during convalescence from acute cholecystitis thus appears to promote functional recovery shorten hospital stay.

  20. A gold nanoparticle coated porcine cholecyst-derived bioscaffold for cardiac tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Nair, Reshma S; Ameer, Jimna Mohamed; Alison, Malcolm R; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu V

    2017-09-01

    Extracellular matrices of xenogeneic origin have been extensively used for biomedical applications, despite the possibility of heterogeneity in structure. Surface modification of biologically derived biomaterials using nanoparticles is an emerging strategy for improving topographical homogeneity when employing these scaffolds for sophisticated tissue engineering applications. Recently, as a tissue engineering scaffold, cholecyst derived extracellular matrix (C-ECM) has been shown to have several advantages over extracellular matrices derived from other organs such as jejunum and urinary bladder. This study explored the possibility of adding gold nanoparticles, which have a large surface area to volume ratio on C-ECM for achieving homogeneity in surface architecture, a requirement for cardiac tissue engineering. In the current study, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized and functionalised for conjugating with a porcine cholecystic extracellular matrix scaffold. The conjugation of nanoparticles to C-ECM was achieved by 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl aminopropyl)-carbodiimide/N-hydroxysuccinimide chemistry and further characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The physical properties of the modified scaffold were similar to the original C-ECM. Biological properties were evaluated by using H9c2 cells, a cardiomyoblast cell line commonly used for cellular and molecular studies of cardiac cells. The modified scaffold was found to be a suitable substrate for the growth and proliferation of the cardiomyoblasts. Further, the non-cytotoxic nature of the modified scaffold was established by direct contact cytotoxicity testing and live/dead staining. Thus, the modified C-ECM appears to be a potential biomaterial for cardiac tissue engineering. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical outcomes of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis: a multicentre analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Mittapalli, Devender; Marioud, Aseel; White, Richard D; Ram, Rishi; Alijani, Afshin

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to review a series of consecutive percutaneous cholecystostomies (PC) to analyse the clinical outcomes. Methods All patients who underwent a PC between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively for indications, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes. Results Fifty-three patients underwent a PC with a median age was 74 years (range 14–93). 92.4% (n = 49) of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) III and IV. 82% (43/53) had ultrasound-guided drainage whereas 18% (10/53) had computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage. 71.6% (n = 38) of PC's employed a transhepatic route and 28.4% (n = 15) transabdominal route. 13% (7/53) of patients developed complications including bile leaks (n = 5), haemorrhage (n = 1) and a duodenal fistula (n = 1). All bile leaks were noted with transabdominal access (5 versus 0, P = 0.001). 18/53 of patients underwent a cholecystectomy of 4/18 was done on the index admission. 6/18 cholecystectomies (33%) underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the remaining required conversion to an open cholecystectomy (67%). 13/53 (22%) patients were readmitted with recurrent cholecystitis during follow-up of which 7 (54%) had a repeated PC. 12/53 patients died on the index admission. The overall 1-year mortality was 37.7% (20/53). Conclusions Only a small fraction of patients undergoing a PC proceed to a cholecystectomy with a high risk of conversion to an open procedure. A quarter of patients presented with recurrent cholecystitis during follow-up. The mortality rate is high during the index admission from sepsis and within the 1 year of follow-up from other causes. PMID:23750493

  2. Clinical outcomes of a percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis: a multicentre analysis.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Pandanaboyana; Mittapalli, Devender; Marioud, Aseel; White, Richard D; Ram, Rishi; Alijani, Afshin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review a series of consecutive percutaneous cholecystostomies (PC) to analyse the clinical outcomes. All patients who underwent a PC between 2000 and 2010 were reviewed retrospectively for indications, complications, and short- and long-term outcomes. Fifty-three patients underwent a PC with a median age was 74 years (range 14-93). 92.4% (n = 49) of patients were American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) III and IV. 82% (43/53) had ultrasound-guided drainage whereas 18% (10/53) had computed tomography (CT)-guided drainage. 71.6% (n = 38) of PC's employed a transhepatic route and 28.4% (n = 15) transabdominal route. 13% (7/53) of patients developed complications including bile leaks (n = 5), haemorrhage (n = 1) and a duodenal fistula (n = 1). All bile leaks were noted with transabdominal access (5 versus 0, P = 0.001). 18/53 of patients underwent a cholecystectomy of 4/18 was done on the index admission. 6/18 cholecystectomies (33%) underwent a laparoscopic cholecystectomy and the remaining required conversion to an open cholecystectomy (67%). 13/53 (22%) patients were readmitted with recurrent cholecystitis during follow-up of which 7 (54%) had a repeated PC. 12/53 patients died on the index admission. The overall 1-year mortality was 37.7% (20/53). Only a small fraction of patients undergoing a PC proceed to a cholecystectomy with a high risk of conversion to an open procedure. A quarter of patients presented with recurrent cholecystitis during follow-up. The mortality rate is high during the index admission from sepsis and within the 1 year of follow-up from other causes. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  3. [The effect of thermal-vibration massage on the function of the hepatobiliary system in patients with chronic cholecystitis and opisthorchiasis].

    PubMed

    Poddubnaia, O A; Levitskiĭ, E F; Beloborodova, E I

    1999-01-01

    The study made by the authors has proved that thermovibration massage of infrasound frequency (10 Hz) used as an adjuvant in combined treatment of chronic cholecystitis and opisthorchiasis promotes normalization of motor-evacuatory function of the biliary system and intrahepatic hemodynamics, improves biochemical structure of the bile. This improves overall efficacy of the treatment measures.

  4. Etiological misidentification by routine biochemical tests of bacteremia caused by Gordonia terrae infection in the course of an episode of acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Gil-Sande, E; Brun-Otero, M; Campo-Cerecedo, F; Esteban, E; Aguilar, L; García-de-Lomas, J

    2006-07-01

    Gordonia terrae has been reported to be a rare cause of bacteremia. We report the first case of bacteremia associated with acute cholecystitis. Commercial biochemical testing was not able to identify the strain at the genus level, classifying it instead as Rhodococcus sp. Definitive identification was obtained by sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene.

  5. Infectious mononucleosis - not always a benign condition: a case report of infectious mononucleosis-associated acute acalculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Andrew; Akilan, Kosalan; Carr, David

    2018-03-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is typically a self-limited viral infection of adolescence and early adulthood that resolves in a period of weeks, causing no major sequelae. We describe a case of a healthy 18-year-old female diagnosed with infectious mononucleosis who also presented with right upper quadrant abdominal pain, moderate transaminitis, and cholestatic biochemistry. An ultrasound revealed acute acalculous cholecystitis, generally a condition seen in the context of critical illness. Further investigating emergency department patients with infectious mononucleosis is often not indicated, but may be important for those who present atypically.

  6. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles-Costa, Adriana Lúcia Agnelli; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Bresciani, Barbara Helou; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida C.; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others) in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required. PMID:20186297

  7. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-06-07

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies.

  8. True left-sided gallbladder with variations of bile duct and cholecystic vein

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Hiromichi; Noguchi, Akinori; Onishi, Mie; Takao, Koji; Maruyama, Takahiro; Taiyoh, Hiroaki; Araki, Yasunobu; Shimizu, Takeshi; Izumi, Hiroyuki; Tani, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Masahide; Yamane, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    A left-sided gallbladder without a right-sided round ligament, which is called a true left-sided gallbladder, is extremely rare. A 71-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to a gallbladder polyp. Computed tomography (CT) revealed not only a gallbladder polyp but also the gallbladder located to the left of the round ligament connected to the left umbilical portion. CT portography revealed that the main portal vein diverged into the right posterior portal vein and the common trunk of the left portal vein and right anterior portal vein. CT cholangiography revealed that the infraportal bile duct of segment 2 joined the common bile duct. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed for a gallbladder polyp, and the intraoperative finding showed that the cholecystic veins joined the round ligament. A true left-sided gallbladder is closely associated with several anomalies; therefore, surgeons encountering a true left-sided gallbladder should be aware of the potential for these anomalies. PMID:26074714

  9. Gall bladder rupture associated with cholecystitis in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius).

    PubMed

    Huynh, M; Guillaumot, P; Hernandez, J; Ragetly, G

    2014-09-01

    A six-year-old neutered female albino ferret was presented with an acute episode of lethargy and anorexia. Clinical examination revealed marked cranial abdominal pain. A severe neutrophilic leukocytosis was present. Abdominal ultrasound was consistent with a diffuse peritonitis and severe bile duct inflammation. Cytology of the abdominal effusion revealed bile peritonitis. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and the gall bladder appeared inflamed with multiple perforations. A cholecystectomy was performed. The ferret recovered without complication. Bacteriological culture of the bile and gall bladder yielded a pure growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Histopathological analysis of the gall bladder and liver was consistent with a marked cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis. On the basis of sensitivity testing, the ferret was treated with marbofloxacin for one month. No complications or reoccurrence were seen up to 1 year after the diagnosis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of bile peritonitis secondary to gall bladder rupture in a ferret. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. MORTALITY OF URGENCY VERSUS ELECTIVE VIDEOLAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY FOR ACUTE CHOLECYSTITIS.

    PubMed

    Felício, Saulo José Oliveira; Matos, Ediriomar Peixoto; Cerqueira, Antonio Maurício; Farias, Kurt Wolfgang Schindler Freire de; Silva, Ramon de Assis; Torres, Mateus de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    Surgical approach is still controversial in patients with acute cholecystitis: to treat clinically the inflammatory process and operate electively later or to operate immediately on an emergency basis? To test the hypothesis that urgent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis has a higher mortality than elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. From the data available in Datasus, mortality was compared between patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis and in urgency. Calculations were made of the relative reduction in risk of death, absolute reduction of risk of death and number needed to treat. From 2009 to 2014 in Brazil, there were 250.439 laparoscopic cholecystectomy and 74.6% were electives. Mortality in the emergency group was 4.8 times higher compared to the elective group (0.0023% vs. 0.00048%). Despite the relative reduction in risk of death (RRR) was 83%, in the calculation of absolute risk was found 0.0018 and number needed to treat of 55,555. Despite the relative risk reduction for mortality was high comparing elective vs. urgent basis, the absolute risk reduction was minimal, since this outcome is very low in both groups, suggesting that mortality should not have much influence on surgical decision. Continua controversa a conduta nos pacientes com colecistite aguda: compensar o processo inflamatório e operar eletivamente ou operar imediatamente em caráter de urgência? Testar a hipótese de que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica de urgência por colecistite aguda apresenta maior mortalidade que a colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva. A partir dos dados disponíveis no Datasus, foi comparada a mortalidade entre os pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia videolaparoscópica eletiva por colelitíase e a de urgência. Foram realizados cálculos da redução relativa de risco de morte, redução absoluta do risco de morte e número necessário para tratar . De 2009 a 2014 no Brasil, foram realizadas

  11. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: surgical management of acute cholecystitis: safe steps in laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (with videos).

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Go; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Suzuki, Kenji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Okamoto, Kohji; Pitt, Henry A; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Garden, O James; Gouma, Dirk J; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Jagannath, Palepu; Chan, Angus C W; Lau, Wan Yee; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nakamura, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Tagaya, Nobumi; Fujioka, Shuichi; Higuchi, Ryota; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Ukai, Tomohiko; Yokoe, Masamichi; Cherqui, Daniel; Honda, Goro; Sugioka, Atsushi; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Tokumura, Hiromi; Kimura, Taizo; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    In some cases, laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) may be difficult to perform in patients with acute cholecystitis (AC) with severe inflammation and fibrosis. The Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18) expand the indications for LC under difficult conditions for each level of severity of AC. As a result of expanding the indications for LC to treat AC, it is absolutely necessary to avoid any increase in bile duct injury (BDI), particularly vasculo-biliary injury (VBI), which is known to occur at a certain rate in LC. Since the Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13), an attempt has been made to assess intraoperative findings as objective indicators of surgical difficulty; based on expert consensus on these difficulty indicators, bail-out procedures (including conversion to open cholecystectomy) have been indicated for cases in which LC for AC is difficult to perform. A bail-out procedure should be chosen if, when the Calot's triangle is appropriately retracted and used as a landmark, a critical view of safety (CVS) cannot be achieved because of the presence of nondissectable scarring or severe fibrosis. We propose standardized safe steps for LC to treat AC. To achieve a CVS, it is vital to dissect at a location above (on the ventral side of) the imaginary line connecting the base of the left medial section (Segment 4) and the roof of Rouvière's sulcus and to fulfill the three criteria of CVS before dividing any structures. Achieving a CVS prevents the misidentification of the cystic duct and the common bile duct, which are most commonly confused. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2018 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  12. A case of acalculous cholecystitis in the course of dengue fever in a traveller returned from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Kuna, Anna; Wroczyńska, Agnieszka; Gajewski, Michał; Felczak-Korzybska, Iwona; Nahorski, Wacław L

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is the second cause of fever after malaria in travellers returning from the tropics. The infection may be asymptomatic or it may manifest itself with fever only, some patients, however, may develop haemorrhagic symptoms and shock. A 58-year-old woman came to the University Centre of Tropical Medicine in Gdynia after returning from a tourist journey to Brazil because of fever up to 39°C and malaise. She had lived in South America many years and then moved to Europe 3 years before hospitalisation. On admission physical examination revealed fever, dry mucosa, moderate hypotension and tachycardia. In the laboratory test results, leukopoenia, thrombocytopoenia and elevated transaminases were observed. On the second day of the hospitalisation, the patient reported epigastric pain, clinical examination revealed tenderness of the abdomen and macular rash on the skin of the trunk and thighs. The ultrasonography revealed an enlarged gallbladder with thickened walls, with hypoechogenic area surrounding it, a dilated common biliary duct of heterogenic echo, and some free fluid in the peritoneal cavity. An exploratory laparotomy was performed after 24 h because of the persisting strong abdominal pain and high fever. Intraoperatively, enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were found, with no symptoms of gallbladder pathology. The postoperative course was uncomplicated and the positive result of immunochromatographic assay for dengue was obtained. The acalculous cholecystitis has been described in the course of various diseases and conditions. The typical symptoms include pain in the right hypochondriac region, fever, positive Murphy's sign, and abnormal liver function tests, which were observed in the presented case. Cholecystectomy is not usually indicated in the course of dengue (typically a self-limiting disease) due to a high risk of bleeding. The case provides a rationale for the inclusion of acalculous cholecystitis in the differential diagnosis in patients with

  13. [Comparative analysis of application of highly intensive laser irradiation and electrocoagulation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed for destructive forms of an acute calculous cholecystitis].

    PubMed

    Nichitayio, M Yu; Bazyak, A M; Klochan, V V; Grusha, P K; Goman, A V

    2015-02-01

    Comparative analysis of results of the laser diode (the wave length 940 nm) and elec- trocoagulation application while performing laparoscopic cholecystectomy was con- ducted. For an acute calculous cholecystitis 52 patients were operated, in whom instead of electrocoagulation the laser was applied, provide for reduction of thermal impact on tissues, the complications absence, reduction of the patients stationary treatment duration postoperatively from (5.2 ± 1.2) to (4.9 ± 0.6) days.

  14. Anti-GBM disease after nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a patient expressing HLA DR15 major histocompatibility antigens: a case report.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Emma; Mallett, Tamara; Convery, Mairead; McKeever, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease is uncommon in the pediatric population. There are no cases in the literature describing the development of anti-GBM disease following XGP or nephrectomy. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with no past history of urological illness, treated with antimicrobials and nephrectomy for diffuse, unilateral xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). Renal function and ultrasound scan of the contralateral kidney postoperatively were normal. Three months later, the child represented in acute renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed severe crescentic glomerulonephritis with 95% of glomeruli demonstrating circumferential cellular crescents. Strong linear IgG staining of the glomerular basement membranes was present, in keeping with anti-GBM disease. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were positive. Treatment with plasma exchange, methylprednisolone, and cyclophosphamide led to normalization of anti-GBM antibody titers. Frequency of hemodialysis was reduced as renal function improved, and he is currently independent of dialysis with estimated glomerular filtration rate 20.7 mls/min/1.73 m 2 . Case studies in the adult literature have reported the development of a rapidly progressive anti-GBM antibody-induced glomerulonephritis following renal surgery where patients expressed HLA DR2/HLA DR15 major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. Of note, our patient also expresses the HLA DR15 MHC antigen.

  15. Sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging and real-time ultrasonography in the detection of acute cholecystitis

    SciTech Connect

    Fink-Bennett, D.; Freitas, J.E.; Ripley, S.D.

    To determine the sensitivity of hepatobiliary imaging (HBI) and strict- and liberal-criteria real-time ultrasonography (RTUS), the authors retrospectively analyzed 100 cases of pathologically proved acute cholecystitis (AC). A positive HBI was one in which there was nonvisualization of the gallbladder up to four hours after the administration of technetium 99m-disofenin. In the absence of hypoalbuminemia, cirrhosis, or ascites, pathognomonic RTUS findings (strict criteria) for AC were wall edema and/or pericholecystic fluid. Findings indicative of AC (liberal criteria) included the demonstration of stones, a thick gallbladder wall, nonshadowing echoes, or the ultrasonographic Murphy's sign. Of the 100 cases of AC, 91more » were calculous, and nine were acalculous. Four of 100 patients had associated choledocholithiasis. The sensitivities in detecting calculous AC were as follows: HBI, 97%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 86%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 24%. The sensitivities in detecting acalculous AC were as follows: HBI, 100%; liberal-criteria RTUS, 89%; and strict-criteria RTUS, 44%.« less

  16. Identification by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing of Lactobacillus salivarius Bacteremic Cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Fung, Ami M. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2002-01-01

    An anaerobic, nonsporulating, gram-positive bacterium was isolated from blood and bile pus cultures of a 70-year-old man with bacteremic acute cholecystitis. The API 20A system showed that it was 70% Actinomyces naeslundii and 30% Bifidobacterium species, whereas the Vitek ANI system and the ATB ID32A Expression system showed that it was “unidentified.” The 16S rRNA gene of the strain was amplified and sequenced. There were 3 base differences between the nucleotide sequence of the isolate and that of Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius or L. salivarius subsp. salicinius, indicating that the isolate was a strain of L. salivarius. The patient responded to cholecystectomy and a 2-week course of antibiotic treatment. Identification of the organism in the present study was important because the duration of antibiotic therapy would have been entirely different depending on the organism. If the bacterium had been identified as Actinomyces, penicillin for 6 months would have been the regimen of choice. However, it was Lactobacillus, and a 2-week course of antibiotic was sufficient. PMID:11773128

  17. Gallbladder Volvulus: A Rare Emergent Cause of Acute Cholecystitis, if Untreated, Progresses to Necrosis and Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Justin L, Regner, E-mail: Justin.Regner@BSWHealth.org; Angela, Lomas

    An 86 year-old woman with a past medical history significant for abdominal hernia and Alzheimer dementia presented to the Emergency Department with a 24 hour history of acute right upper quadrant pain associated with nausea and non-bilious emesis. Physical exam revealed right sided abdominal tenderness with associated mass. All laboratory values were within normal ranges. Both abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography of the abdomen/pelvis revealed a large distended gallbladder with wall thickening and gallstones. Based on presentation and radiologic findings, the emergency general surgery service was consulted for suspected acute cholecystitis. The patient was then admitted for intravenous antibiotics andmore » scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy the following day. Intra-operative findings revealed volvulus with acute necrosis of the entire gallbladder. The gallbladder had a long pedunculated cystic duct and artery that was detorsed before proceeding with resection. Postoperatively, the patient did well and was discharged a few days later tolerating a regular diet.« less

  18. HOSPITALIZATIONS FOR CHOLECYSTITIS AND CHOLELITHIASIS IN THE STATE OF RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Emeline Caldana; Rosa, Roger Dos Santos; Bordin, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    The cholelithiasis is disease of surgical resolution with about 60,000 hospitalizations per year in the Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS - Brazilian National Health System) of the Rio Grande do Sul state. To describe the profile of hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis performed by the SUS of Rio Grande do Sul state, 2011-2013. Hospital Information System data from the National Health System through morbidity list for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis (ICD-10 K80-K81). Variables studied were sex, age, number of hospitalizations and approved Hospitalization Authorizations (AIH), total amount and value of hospital services generated, days and average length of stay, mortality, mortality and case fatality ratio, from health regions of the Rio Grande do Sul. During 2011-2013 there were 60,517 hospitalizations for cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, representing 18.86 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year, most often in the age group from 60 to 69 years (41.34 admissions per 10,000 inhabitants/year) and female (27.72 hospitalizations per 10,000 inhabitants/year). The fatality rate presented an inverse characteristic: 13.52 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year for males, compared with 7.12 deaths per 1,000 admissions/year in females. The state had an average total amount spent and value of hospital services of R$ 16,244,050.60 and R$ 10,890,461.31, respectively. The health region "Capital/Gravataí Valley" exhibit the highest total expenditure and hospital services, and the largest number of deaths, and average length of stay. The hospitalization and lethality coefficients, the deaths, the length of stay and spending related to admissions increased from 50 years old. Females had a higher frequency and higher values ​​spent on hospitalization, while the male higher coefficient of mortality and mean hospital stay. A colelitíase é doença de resolução cirúrgica com cerca de 60.000 internações por ano no Sistema Único de Saúde no estado do Rio

  19. Tokyo Guidelines 2018: flowchart for the management of acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Kohji; Suzuki, Kenji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Asbun, Horacio J; Endo, Itaru; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Pitt, Henry A; Umezawa, Akiko; Asai, Koji; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Mori, Yasuhisa; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Jagannath, Palepu; Garden, O James; Miura, Fumihiko; Nakamura, Masafumi; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Go; Cherqui, Daniel; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Shikata, Satoru; Noguchi, Yoshinori; Ukai, Tomohiko; Higuchi, Ryota; Wada, Keita; Honda, Goro; Supe, Avinash Nivritti; Yoshida, Masahiro; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Gouma, Dirk J; Deziel, Daniel J; Liau, Kui-Hin; Chen, Miin-Fu; Shibao, Kazunori; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Chan, Angus C W; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Choi, In-Seok; Jonas, Eduard; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Fan, Sheung Tat; Ker, Chen-Guo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Inui, Kazuo; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2018-01-01

    We propose a new flowchart for the treatment of acute cholecystitis (AC) in the Tokyo Guidelines 2018 (TG18). Grade III AC was not indicated for straightforward laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C). Following analysis of subsequent clinical investigations and drawing on Big Data in particular, TG18 proposes that some Grade III AC can be treated by Lap-C when performed at advanced centers with specialized surgeons experienced in this procedure and for patients that satisfy certain strict criteria. For Grade I, TG18 recommends early Lap-C if the patients meet the criteria of Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≤5 and American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA-PS) ≤2. For Grade II AC, if patients meet the criteria of CCI ≤5 and ASA-PS ≤2, TG18 recommends early Lap-C performed by experienced surgeons; and if not, after medical treatment and/or gallbladder drainage, Lap-C would be indicated. TG18 proposes that Lap-C is indicated in Grade III patients with strict criteria. These are that the patients have favorable organ system failure, and negative predictive factors, who meet the criteria of CCI ≤3 and ASA-PS ≤2 and who are being treated at an advanced center (where experienced surgeons practice). If the patient is not considered suitable for early surgery, TG18 recommends early/urgent biliary drainage followed by delayed Lap-C once the patient's overall condition has improved. Free full articles and mobile app of TG18 are available at: http://www.jshbps.jp/modules/en/index.php?content_id=47. Related clinical questions and references are also included. © 2017 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  20. [Condition of neurohumoral regulation of bronchial tone and gallbladder in patients with chronic cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Dudka, T V; Khukhlina, O S; Dudka, I V

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The paper presents data from a study of the neuroendocrine regulation of nonstriated muscles, bronchial tree and the gallbladder tones by means of an assessment of the adrenergic and cholinergic systems state in patients, suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic acalculous cholecystitis. Adrenergic and cholinergic activities as well as cortisol secretion have significantly changed. To study the features of adrenergic and cholinergic regulations of bronchial tone and that of the gallbladder in patients with combined course of chronic acalculous cholecystitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 92 patients were involved in the study: 30 patients with COPD (1st group), 30 patients with COPD of comorbid CAC in the acute phase (2nd group), 32 patients with CAC in the acute phase (3rd group) and a control group--30 practically healthy individuals (PHI) of the respective age. All the patients with COPD and COPD combined with CAC had a marked predominance of the parasympathetic nervous system, as evidenced by the established significant decrease of CDE (Table) in patients with isolated COPD is 1.4 times (p < 0.05), in patients with COPD combined with CAC--there was more intense inhibition of enzyme activity--in 1.8 times (p < 0.05) and in patients with CAC of the 3rd group there were identical changes--a decreased activity of CDE in 1.6 times (p < 0.05) with significant intergroup differences between the groups (p < 0.05). An analysis of the studies showed significant changes in the CDE of the surveyed individuals. For instance, the CDA in the individuals of groups 1 and 2 was lower by 1.6 and 2.4 times respectively (p < 0.001) than in the group of PHI; in the patients of the 3rd group--the changes were minor--a decline of 14.6% (p < 0.05) compared with practically healthy individuals (Table). Participation of sympathoadrenal system in the pathogenesis of COPD occurrence has been proved, however, in patients with COPD and CAC, the

  1. Emergent cholecystectomy is superior to percutaneous cholecystostomy tube placement in critically ill patients with emergent calculous cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Bradley R; Armijo, Priscila R; Krause, Crystal; Burnett, Tyler; Oleynikov, Dmitry

    2018-07-01

    The role of percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is undefined in patients with multiple comorbidities presenting with emergent calculous cholecystitis (CC). This study compared outcomes between PC, laparoscopic (LC), and open cholecystectomy (OC). The Vizient UHC database was queried for high-risk patients with CC who underwent PC, LC, OC, or laparoscopic converted to open cholecystectomy (CONV). Demographics, outcomes, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and direct cost were compared between the groups. LC was the most common approach with the lowest risk of death, complications, LOS, and cost. Complication risk was highest in OC. Nearly 20% of patients underwent PC. Complication rate, LOS, infection, aspiration pneumonia, and mortality were higher in PC. Direct cost was lowest in LC, followed by CONV, PC, and OC. Emergent cholecystectomy for CC in high-risk patients is safer and more cost effective than PC and this study supports the use of cholecystectomy as the primary treatment approach in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management for preventing recurrent symptoms and complications in adults presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andrew; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 10-15% of the adult population suffer from gallstone disease, cholelithiasis, with more women than men being affected. Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for people who present with biliary pain or acute cholecystitis and evidence of gallstones. However, some people do not experience a recurrence after an initial episode of biliary pain or cholecystitis. As most of the current research focuses on the surgical management of the disease, less attention has been dedicated to the consequences of conservative management. To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management in people presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones (biliary pain) or cholecystitis. We searched all major electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Bioscience Information Service, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1980 to September 2012 and we contacted experts in the field. Evidence was considered from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies that enrolled people with symptomatic gallstone disease (pain attacks only and/or acute cholecystitis). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Standard meta-analysis techniques were used to combine results from included studies. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. Two Norwegian RCTs involving 201 participants were included. Eighty-eight per cent of people randomised to surgery and 45% of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications [risk ratio = 6.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 28.51; p = 0.01], in particular acute cholecystitis (risk ratio = 9.55; 95% CI 1.25 to 73.27; p = 0

  3. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management for preventing recurrent symptoms and complications in adults presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis: a systematic review and economic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andrew; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Approximately 10-15% of the adult population suffer from gallstone disease, cholelithiasis, with more women than men being affected. Cholecystectomy is the treatment of choice for people who present with biliary pain or acute cholecystitis and evidence of gallstones. However, some people do not experience a recurrence after an initial episode of biliary pain or cholecystitis. As most of the current research focuses on the surgical management of the disease, less attention has been dedicated to the consequences of conservative management. OBJECTIVES To determine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cholecystectomy compared with observation/conservative management in people presenting with uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones (biliary pain) or cholecystitis. DATA SOURCES We searched all major electronic databases (e.g. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Bioscience Information Service, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) from 1980 to September 2012 and we contacted experts in the field. REVIEW METHODS Evidence was considered from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies that enrolled people with symptomatic gallstone disease (pain attacks only and/or acute cholecystitis). Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Standard meta-analysis techniques were used to combine results from included studies. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the interventions. RESULTS Two Norwegian RCTs involving 201 participants were included. Eighty-eight per cent of people randomised to surgery and 45% of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications [risk ratio = 6.69; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.57 to 28.51; p = 0.01], in particular acute

  4. Systematic review of the clinical and cost effectiveness of cholecystectomy versus observation/conservative management for uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones or cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Brazzelli, Miriam; Cruickshank, Moira; Kilonzo, Mary; Ahmed, Irfan; Stewart, Fiona; McNamee, Paul; Elders, Andy; Fraser, Cynthia; Avenell, Alison; Ramsay, Craig

    2015-03-01

    Gallstone disease is a common gastrointestinal disorder in industrialised countries. Although symptoms can be severe, some people can be symptom free for many years after the original attack. Surgery is the current treatment of choice, but evidence suggests that observation is also feasible and safe. We reviewed the evidence on cholecystectomy versus observation for uncomplicated symptomatic gallstones and conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis. We searched six electronic databases (last search April 2014). We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised comparative studies where adults received either cholecystectomy or observation/conservative management for the first episode of symptomatic gallstone disease (biliary pain or cholecystitis) being considered for surgery in secondary care. Meta-analysis was used to combine results. A de novo Markov model was developed to assess the cost effectiveness of the interventions. Two RCTs (201 participants) were included. Eighty-eight percent of people randomised to surgery and 45 % of people randomised to observation underwent cholecystectomy during the 14-year follow-up period. Participants randomised to observation were significantly more likely to experience gallstone-related complications (RR = 6.69, 95 % CI = 1.57-28.51, p = 0.01), in particular acute cholecystitis (RR = 9.55, 95 % CI = 1.25-73.27, p = 0.03), and less likely to undergo surgery (RR = 0.50, 95 % CI = 0.34-0.73, p = 0.0004) or experience surgery-related complications (RR = 0.36, 95 % CI = 0.16-0.81, p = 0.01) than those randomised to surgery. Fifty-five percent of people randomised to observation did not require surgery, and 12 % of people randomised to cholecystectomy did not undergo surgery. On average, surgery costs £1,236 more per patient than conservative management, but was more effective. Cholecystectomy is the preferred treatment for symptomatic gallstones. However, approximately half the observation group did not require

  5. Evaluation of management and surgical outcomes in pregnancies complicated by acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    El-Messidi, Amira; Alsarraj, Ghazi; Czuzoj-Shulman, Nicholas; Mishkin, Daniel S; Abenhaim, Haim Arie

    2018-01-25

    To evaluate the management of pregnancies complicated by acute cholecystitis (AC) and determine whether pregnant women are more likely to have medical and surgical complications. We carried out a population-based matched cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2003 to 2011. Pregnant women with AC were age matched to non-pregnant women with AC on a 1:5 ratio. Management and outcomes were compared using descriptive analysis and conditional logistic regression. There were 11,835 pregnant women admitted with AC who were age matched to 59,175 non-pregnant women. As compared to non-pregnant women, women with AC were more commonly managed conservatively, odds ratio (OR) 6.1 (5.8-6.4). As compared to non-pregnant women, pregnant women with AC more commonly developed sepsis [OR 1.4 (1.0-1.9)], developed venous thromboembolism [OR 8.7 (4.3-17.8)] and had bowel obstruction [OR 1.3 (1.1-1.6)]. Among pregnant women with AC, surgical management was associated with a small but significant increased risk of septic shock and bile leak. AC, in the context of pregnancy, is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes. Although the literature favors early surgical intervention, pregnancies with AC appear to be more commonly managed conservatively with overall comparable outcomes to surgically managed AC. Conservative management may have a role in select pregnant women with AC.

  6. Effect of anomalous transport on kinetic simulations of the H-mode pedestal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateman, G.; Pankin, A. Y.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Park, G. Y.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.

    2009-11-01

    The MMM08 and MMM95 Multi-Mode transport models [1,2], are used to investigate the effect of anomalous transport in XGC0 gyrokinetic simulations [3] of tokamak H-mode pedestal growth. Transport models are implemented in XGC0 using the Framework for Modernization and Componentization of Fusion Modules (FMCFM). Anomalous transport is driven by steep temperature and density gradients and is suppressed by high values of flow shear in the pedestal. The radial electric field, used to calculate the flow shear rate, is computed self-consistently in the XGC0 code with the anomalous transport, Lagrangian charged particle dynamics and neutral particle effects. XGC0 simulations are used to provide insight into how thermal and particle transport, together with the sources of heat and charged particles, determine the shape and growth rate of the temperature and density profiles. [1] F.D. Halpern et al., Phys. Plasmas 15 (2008) 065033; J.Weiland et al., Nucl. Fusion 49 (2009) 965933; A.Kritz et al., EPS (2009) [2] G. Bateman, et al, Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1793 [3] C.S. Chang, S. Ku, H. Weitzner, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2649

  7. Analysis of actual healthcare costs of early versus interval cholecystectomy in acute cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheryl H M; Pang, Tony C Y; Woon, Winston W L; Low, Jee Keem; Junnarkar, Sameer P

    2015-03-01

    Healthcare cost modeling have favored early (ELC) over interval laparoscopic cholecystectomy (ILC) for acute cholecystitis (AC). However, actual costs of treatment have never been studied. The aim of the present study was to compare actual hospital costs involved in ELC and ILC in patients with AC. Retrospective study of patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for AC was conducted. Demographic, clinical, operative data and costs were extracted and analyzed. Between 2011 and 2013, 201 had laparoscopic surgery for AC at Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore. One hundred and thirty-four (67%) patients underwent ELC (≤7 days of presentation, within index admission). Median total length of stay (LOS) was 4.6 and 6.8 days for ELC and ILC groups, respectively (P = 0.006). Patients who had ELC also had significantly lesser total number of admissions (P < 0.001). The median (IQR) total inpatient costs were €4.4 × 10(3) (3.6-5.6) and €5.5 × 10(3) (4.0-7.5) for ELC and ILC patients, respectively (P < 0.007). Costs associated with investigations were significantly higher in the ILC group (P = 0.039), of which serological costs made most difference (P < 0.005). The ward costs were also significantly higher in the ILC group. The cost differences reflect the significantly increased total LOS, and repeat presentations associated with ILC. Therefore, ELC should be the preferred management strategy for AC. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  8. Gyrokinetic simulation of edge blobs and divertor heat-load footprint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Churchill, M.; D'Azevedo, E.; Worley, P.

    2015-11-01

    Gyrokinetic study of divertor heat-load width Lq has been performed using the edge gyrokinetic code XGC1. Both neoclassical and electrostatic turbulence physics are self-consistently included in the simulation with fully nonlinear Fokker-Planck collision operation and neutral recycling. Gyrokinetic ions and drift kinetic electrons constitute the plasma in realistic magnetic separatrix geometry. The electron density fluctuations from nonlinear turbulence form blobs, as similarly seen in the experiments. DIII-D and NSTX geometries have been used to represent today's conventional and tight aspect ratio tokamaks. XGC1 shows that the ion neoclassical orbit dynamics dominates over the blob physics in setting Lq in the sample DIII-D and NSTX plasmas, re-discovering the experimentally observed 1/Ip type scaling. Magnitude of Lq is in the right ballpark, too, in comparison with experimental data. However, in an ITER standard plasma, XGC1 shows that the negligible neoclassical orbit excursion effect makes the blob dynamics to dominate Lq. Differently from Lq 1mm (when mapped back to outboard midplane) as was predicted by simple-minded extrapolation from the present-day data, XGC1 shows that Lq in ITER is about 1 cm that is somewhat smaller than the average blob size. Supported by US DOE and the INCITE program.

  9. Acute acalculous cholecystitis: A new safety risk for patients with MS treated with alemtuzumab.

    PubMed

    Croteau, David; Flowers, Charlene; Kulick, Corrinne G; Brinker, Allen; Kortepeter, Cindy M

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) as a potential safety risk for patients treated with alemtuzumab. The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System and the medical literature were searched for cases of AAC in conjunction with alemtuzumab for all clinical indications. Eight spontaneously reported cases meeting the case definition of AAC in close temporal association with alemtuzumab use were identified. Based on established criteria within the Food and Drug Administration Division of Pharmacovigilance for causality assessment, 4 cases were assessed as probable while 4 were possible. All cases occurred in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Seven of the 8 cases presented with AAC during or shortly after alemtuzumab treatment, thereby suggesting an acute cytokine release syndrome as a putative pathogenic mechanism. The cases identified in this review differ from the typical AAC cases described in the medical literature based on female preponderance, lack of concurrent critical illnesses, inconsistent presence of other risk factors, and resolution with conservative treatment in the majority of cases. AAC represents a new and potentially life-threatening adverse event associated with alemtuzumab use in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. In cases seen to date, early and conservative treatment resulted in good clinical outcome, although the natural history of AAC in this population without critical illness is not well defined. Awareness of this safety risk by general and specialty neurologists is important for prompt recognition and optimal management. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Kul'chyns'kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems.

  11. The learning curve of resident physicians using emergency ultrasonography for cholelithiasis and cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Timothy B; Ruggeri, Wendy; Dyne, Pamela; Kaji, Amy H

    2010-11-01

    Emergency department bedside ultrasonography (EUS) can expedite treatment for patients. However, it is unknown how much experience is required for competency in the sonographic diagnosis of cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. The objective was to assess the learning curve of physicians training in right upper quadrant (RUQ) EUS. This was a prospective study at an urban, academic emergency department from August 1999 to July 2006. Patients with suspected biliary tract disease underwent RUQ EUS followed by abdominal ultra sonography (AUS) by the Department of Radiology. Results of EUS were compared to AUS using a predesigned, standardized data sheet. A total of 1,837 patients underwent EUS by 127 physicians. The overall sensitivity and specificity of EUS for cholelithiasis were 84% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 81% to 86%) and 86% (95% CI = 83% to 88%), respectively. The overall sensitivity of EUS for ductal dilation, gallbladder wall thickening, pericholecystic fluid, and sludge were each < 60%. When analyzing the EUS test characteristics, for every increase in 10 examinations up to 50 examinations, there was no significant improvement in the sensitivity or specificity for any of these sonographic findings. Moreover, on probit regression analysis, accounting for clustering or correlation among the examinations performed by each of the operators, there was no improvement for detecting any of the sonographic findings except for pericholecystic fluid for every 10 additional examinations performed. When adjusting for operator dependence, performing up to 50 EUS examinations appears to have little effect on the accuracy of RUQ EUS. Rather than simply requiring an arbitrary number of examinations, another method of competency assessment may be necessary. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  12. Same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis: is the "golden 72 hours" rule still relevant?

    PubMed

    Tan, Jarrod K H; Goh, Joel C I; Lim, Janice W L; Shridhar, Iyer G; Madhavan, Krishnakumar; Kow, Alfred W C

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that same admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SALC) is superior to delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis (AC). While some proposed a"golden 72-hour" for SALC, the optimal timing remains controversial. The aim of the study was to compare the outcomes of SALC in AC patients with different time intervals from symptom onset. A retrospective analysis of 311 patients who underwent SALC for AC from June 2010-June 2015 was performed. Patients were divided into three groups based on the time interval between symptom onset and surgery: <4 days (E-SALC), 4-7 days (M-SALC), >7 (L-SALC). The mean duration of symptoms was 2(1-3), 5(4-7) and 9 (8-13) days for E-SALC, M-SALC and L-SALC, respectively (p < 0.001). Conversion rates were higher in the L-SALC group [E-SALC, 8.2% vs M-SALC, 9.6% vs L-SALC, 21.4%] (p = 0.048). The total length of stay was longer in patients with longer symptom duration [E-SALC, 4 (2-33) vs M-SALC, 2 (2-23) vs L-SALC, 7 (2-49)] (p < 0.001). Patients with AC presenting beyond 7 days of symptoms have higher conversion rates and longer length of stay associated with SALC. However, patients with less than a week of symptoms should be offered SALC. Copyright © 2016 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Long-term outcome of patients with acute cholecystitis receiving antibiotic treatment: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Hung; Chou, Hao-Chang; Liu, Kao-Lang; Lien, Wan-Ching; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Wu, Yao-Ming

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have followed patients who received antibiotic treatment for acute cholecystitis (AC). The present retrospective study investigated recurrence rates of AC and analyzed factors associated with recurrence after antibiotic treatment in adult AC patients. We analyzed patients treated with antibiotics for AC between October 1, 2004, and November 30, 2010. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify factors associated with early recurrence. Generalized additive models were applied to detect the nonlinear effects of continuous covariates. The study included 226 patients (mean age: 62.2 years; 144 men [63.7 %]). The average duration of parenteral antibiotics was 8.0 days. Second-generation cephalosporins were administered to 199 patients (88.1 %). The Kaplan-Meier plot indicated that recurrences were more frequent within 100 days of AC; these were defined as early recurrences. The recurrence rate was 13.7 % (31/226) at a median follow-up of 308.5 days (early recurrences: 19/226 [8.4 %]). The duration of parenteral antibiotic use significantly correlated with early recurrence (hazard ratio: 0.83; 95 % confidence interval, 0.73-0.95; p = 0.005). Generalized additive models revealed that patients using parenteral antibiotics longer than 8 days were less likely to suffer from early recurrence. The rate of recurrence of AC in patients who received antibiotics alone was low. The recurrence rate was higher within 100 days of AC. Because of the inherent limitations of a retrospective study, further research is needed to identify factors associated with early recurrence.

  14. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Kul’chyns’kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. Methods In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG (“NeuroCom Standard”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV (“Cardiolab+VSR”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Results Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Conclusion Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:28730179

  15. Index admission laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis restores Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) score.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongyan; Chan, Esther Ern-Hwei; Lingam, Pravin; Lee, Jingwen; Woon, Winston Wei Liang; Low, Jee Keem; Shelat, Vishal G

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have evaluated quality of life (QoL) in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for cholelithiasis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate QoL after index admission LC in patients diagnosed with acute cholecystitis (AC) using the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaire. Patients ≥21 years admitted to Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore for AC and who underwent index admission LC between February 2015 and January 2016 were evaluated using the GIQLI questionnaire preoperatively and 30 days postoperatively. A total of 51 patients (26 males, 25 females) with a mean age of 60 years (24-86 years) were included. Median duration of abdominal pain at presentation was 2 days (1-21 days). 45% of patients had existing comorbidities, with diabetes mellitus being most common (33%). 31% were classified as mild AC, 59% as moderate and 10% as severe AC according to Tokyo Guideline 2013 (TG13) criteria. Post-operative complications were observed in 8 patients, including retained common bile duct stone (n=1), wound infection (n=2), bile leakage (n=2), intra-abdominal collection (n=1) and atrial fibrillation (n=2). 86% patients were well at 30 days follow-up and were discharged. A significant improvement in GIQLI score was observed postoperatively, with mean total GIQLI score increasing from 106.0±16.9 (101.7-112.1) to 120.4±18.0 (114.8-125.9) ( p <0.001). Significant improvements were also observed in GIQLI subgroups of gastrointestinal symptoms, physical status, emotional status and social function status. Index admission LC restores QoL in patients with AC as measured by GIQLI questionnaire.

  16. Acute acalculous cholecystitis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A unique form of disease flare.

    PubMed

    Yang, H; Bian, S; Xu, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, X

    2017-09-01

    Objective We aimed to investigate the clinical features of acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods SLE patients with AAC hospitalized in the Peking Union Medical College Hospital (PUMCH) from January 2001 to September 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Their medical records were systematically reviewed. The diagnosis of AAC was based on clinical manifestations and confirmed by radiologic findings including a distended gallbladder with thickened wall, pericholecystic fluid and absence of gallstones. Results Among the 8411 hospitalized SLE patients in PUMCH, 13 (0.15%) were identified to have SLE-AAC. Eleven (84.6%) of them were female, with a mean age of 30.1 ± 8.6 years. AAC was the initial manifestation of SLE in four (30.8%) cases. Eleven (84.6%) patients complained of fever and abdominal pain, four (30.8%) had positive Murphy's sign and six (46.2%) had elevated liver enzymes. The median SLE Disease Activity Index was 8.0 (range 0-20.0) at the time of AAC. Other affected organs in SLE-AAC included kidney (11, 84.6%) and hematologic system (11, 84.6%), followed by mucocutaneous (seven, 53.8%), musculoskeletal (seven, 53.8%) and neuropsychiatric (two, 15.4%) systems. All patients received treatment of glucocorticoids and immunosuppressants but none underwent surgical intervention. During a median follow-up of 28 months (range, 2-320 months), 12 cases (92.4%) responded to treatment with no relapse and one patient (7.6%) died of septic shock. Conclusion Our study suggests that AAC is a relatively uncommon and underestimated gastrointestinal involvement of SLE that is often associated with active disease. For patients with AAC in SLE, treatment with aggressive glucocorticoids could result in a good prognosis.

  17. EUS-FNA for suspected malignant biliary strictures after negative endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Ichiro; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Iwashita, Takuji; Doi, Shinpei; Nakashima, Masanori; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Asaka, Masahiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2011-07-01

    Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy are widely used for the pathological diagnosis of suspected malignant biliary strictures (MBS). However, the sensitivity of these methods remains insufficient, and it can be difficult to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the impact of this technique on clinical management in patients with suspected MBS where endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy yielded negative results. This study included 225 consecutive patients with suspected MBS, who underwent endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy at our institutions. Negative results were obtained for these pathological tests in 75 patients, and EUS-FNA was performed in 22 of these patients. We retrospectively compared the EUS-FNA results with the final diagnosis and examined the influence of the EUS-FNA diagnosis on treatment selection. FNA specimens were successfully obtained in all patients, and the pathological results confirmed malignancy in 16 cases and predicted that the other 6 cases were benign. Of the 6 cases that were suspected to be benign, 3 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis by surgical pathology, and the remaining 3 patients were diagnosed with benign diseases at a follow-up after 12-18 months. Thus, the EUS-FNA-based diagnosis was proven correct for all the patients. In addition, the treatment strategy was altered as a result of the EUS-FNA results in the above 6 patients (27%). EUS-FNA is a sensitive and safe diagnostic modality for patients with suspected MBS and can be an additional option in cases where endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy have produced negative results.

  18. Single-Incision Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy after Endoscopic Nasogallbladder Drainage: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Igami, Tsuyoshi; Ebata, Tomoki; Yokoyama, Yukihiro; Sugawara, Gen; Mizuno, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Junpei; Nagino, Masato

    2015-01-01

    Objective To report a single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for a patient with cholecystitis that required endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage (ENGBD). Clinical Presentation and Intervention A 75-year-old man was diagnosed with moderate acute cholecystitis and underwent antiplatelet therapy for a history of brain infarction. An ENGBD was performed as an initial treatment for his cholecystitis. After recovery from the cholecystitis, a SILC was performed using a SILS Port with an additional forceps. Because neither Rouviere's sulcus nor Calot's triangle could be identified with a favorable laparoscopic view, the fundus-first procedure was selected. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful, and he was discharged from the hospital on day 3 after surgery. Conclusion In this case of a patient who had cholecystitis that required ENGBD, a SILC was successful performed using a combination of SILS Port with additional forceps and fundus-first procedure. PMID:26022235

  19. SciTech Connect

    Miyayama, Shiro, E-mail: s-miyayama@fukui.saiseikai.or.jp; Yamashiro, Masashi; Takeda, Taro

    We report the successful management of acute cholecystitis using cystic duct stent placement in 3 patients with inoperable malignant cystic duct obstruction (2 cholangiocarcinoma and 1 pancreatic carcinoma). All patients underwent stent placement in the bile duct, using an uncovered stent in 2 and a covered stent in 1, to relieve jaundice occurring 8-184 days (mean 120 days) before the development of acute cholecystitis. The occluded cystic duct was traversed by a microcatheter and a stent was implanted 4-17 days (mean 12 days) after cholecystostomy. Acute cholecystitis was improved after the procedure in all patients. Two patients died 3 andmore » 10 months later, while 1 has survived without cholecystitis for 22 months after the procedure to date.« less

  20. Effect of emodin on mobility signal transduction system of gallbladder smooth muscle in Guinea pig with cholelithiasis.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bang-Jiang; Shen, Jun-Yi; Zhang, Hua; Zhou, Shuang; Lyu, Chuan-Zhu; Xie, Yi-Qiang

    2016-10-01

    To study the effect of emodin on protein and gene expressions of the massagers in mobility signal transduction system of cholecyst smooth muscle cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, such as control group, gall-stone (GS) group, emodin group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UA) group. Cholesterol calculus models were induced in guinea pigs of GS, emodin and UA groups by lithogenic diet, while emodin or UA were given to the corresponding group for 7 weeks. The histomorphological and ultrastructure change of gallbladder were detected by microscope and electron microscope, the content of plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and [Ca 2+ ] i were analyzed successively by radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry. The protein and mRNA of Gsα, Giα and Cap in cholecyst cells were determined by western blotting and real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Emodin or UA can relieve pathogenic changes in epithelial cells and muscle cells in gallbladder of guinea pig with cholesterol calculus by microscope and transmission electron microscope. In the cholecyst cells of GS group, CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i decreased, the protein and mRNA of GS were down-regulated, the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap were up-regulated. Emodin significantly decreased the formative rate of gallstone, improved the pathogenic change in epithelial cells and muscle cells, increased CCK levels in plasma and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, enhanced the protein and mRNA of Gs in cholecyst cells, reduced the protein and mRNA of Gi and Cap in cholecyst cells in guinea pig with cholesterol calculus. The dysfunction of gallbladder contraction gives rise to the disorders of mobility signal transduction system in cholecyst smooth muscle cells, including low content of plasma CCK and [Ca 2+ ] i in cholecyst cells, abnormal protein and mRNA of Gs, Gi and Cap. Emodin can enhance the contractibility of gallbladder and alleviate cholestasis by regulating plasma

  1. Study of neoclassical effects on the pedestal structure in ELMy H-mode plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Park, G. Y.; Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Snyder, P. B.

    2009-11-01

    The neoclassical effects on the H-mode pedestal structure are investigated in this study. First principles' kinetic simulations of the neoclassical pedestal dynamics are combined with the MHD stability conditions for triggering ELM crashes that limit the pedestal width and height in H-mode plasmas. The neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code [1] is used to produce systematic scans over plasma parameters including plasma current, elongation, and triangularity. As plasma profiles evolve, the MHD stability limits of these profiles are analyzed with the ideal MHD stability ELITE code [2]. The scalings of the pedestal width and height are presented as a function of the scanned plasma parameters. Simulations with the XGC0 code, which include coupled ion-electron dynamics, yield predictions for both ion and electron pedestal profiles. Differences in the electron and ion pedestal scalings are investigated. [1] C.S. Chang et al, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2649. [2] P.B. Snyder et al, Phys. Plasmas, 9 (2002) 2037.

  2. Toward a first-principles integrated simulation of tokamak edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C S; Klasky, Scott A; Cummings, Julian

    2008-01-01

    Performance of the ITER is anticipated to be highly sensitive to the edge plasma condition. The edge pedestal in ITER needs to be predicted from an integrated simulation of the necessary firstprinciples, multi-scale physics codes. The mission of the SciDAC Fusion Simulation Project (FSP) Prototype Center for Plasma Edge Simulation (CPES) is to deliver such a code integration framework by (1) building new kinetic codes XGC0 and XGC1, which can simulate the edge pedestal buildup; (2) using and improving the existing MHD codes ELITE, M3D-OMP, M3D-MPP and NIMROD, for study of large-scale edge instabilities called Edge Localized Modes (ELMs); andmore » (3) integrating the codes into a framework using cutting-edge computer science technology. Collaborative effort among physics, computer science, and applied mathematics within CPES has created the first working version of the End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulation (EFFIS), which can be used to study the pedestal-ELM cycles.« less

  3. Acute cholecystitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... that forms in the wall of the gallbladder) Pancreatitis (inflamed pancreas) Persistent bile duct blockage Inflammation of ... draining the liver (may occur after gallbladder surgery) Pancreatitis Perforation Peritonitis (inflammation of the lining of the ...

  4. Gyrokinetic projection of the divertor heat-flux width from present tokamaks to ITER

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, Choong Seock; Ku, Seung -Hoe; Loarte, Alberto; ...

    2017-07-11

    Here, the XGC1 edge gyrokinetic code is used to study the width of the heat-flux to divertor plates in attached plasma condition. The flux-driven simulation is performed until an approximate power balance is achieved between the heat-flux across the steep pedestal pressure gradient and the heat-flux on the divertor plates.

  5. Coupled Kinetic-MHD Simulations of Divertor Heat Load with ELM Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Julian; Chang, C. S.; Park, Gunyoung; Sugiyama, Linda; Pankin, Alexei; Klasky, Scott; Podhorszki, Norbert; Docan, Ciprian; Parashar, Manish

    2010-11-01

    The effect of Type-I ELM activity on divertor plate heat load is a key component of the DOE OFES Joint Research Target milestones for this year. In this talk, we present simulations of kinetic edge physics, ELM activity, and the associated divertor heat loads in which we couple the discrete guiding-center neoclassical transport code XGC0 with the nonlinear extended MHD code M3D using the End-to-end Framework for Fusion Integrated Simulations, or EFFIS. In these coupled simulations, the kinetic code and the MHD code run concurrently on the same massively parallel platform and periodic data exchanges are performed using a memory-to-memory coupling technology provided by EFFIS. The M3D code models the fast ELM event and sends frequent updates of the magnetic field perturbations and electrostatic potential to XGC0, which in turn tracks particle dynamics under the influence of these perturbations and collects divertor particle and energy flux statistics. We describe here how EFFIS technologies facilitate these coupled simulations and discuss results for DIII-D, NSTX and Alcator C-Mod tokamak discharges.

  6. Partnership for Edge Physics (EPSI), University of Texas Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moser, Robert; Carey, Varis; Michoski, Craig

    Simulations of tokamak plasmas require a number of inputs whose values are uncertain. The effects of these input uncertainties on the reliability of model predictions is of great importance when validating predictions by comparison to experimental observations, and when using the predictions for design and operation of devices. However, high fidelity simulation of tokamak plasmas, particular those aimed at characterization of the edge plasma physics, are computationally expensive, so lower cost surrogates are required to enable practical uncertainty estimates. Two surrogate modeling techniques have been explored in the context of tokamak plasma simulations using the XGC family of plasma simulationmore » codes. The first is a response surface surrogate, and the second is an augmented surrogate relying on scenario extrapolation. In addition, to reduce the costs of the XGC simulations, a particle resampling algorithm was developed, which allows marker particle distributions to be adjusted to maintain optimal importance sampling. This means that the total number of particles in and therefore the cost of a simulation can be reduced while maintaining the same accuracy.« less

  7. History, Physical Examination, Laboratory Testing, and Emergency Department Ultrasonography for the Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ashika; Mehta, Ninfa; Secko, Michael; Schechter, Joshua; Papanagnou, Dimitri; Pandya, Shreya; Sinert, Richard

    2017-03-01

    Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a common differential for patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with abdominal pain. The diagnostic accuracy of history, physical examination, and bedside laboratory tests for AC have not been quantitatively described. We performed a systematic review to determine the utility of history and physical examination (H&P), laboratory studies, and ultrasonography (US) in diagnosing AC in the ED. We searched medical literature from January 1965 to March 2016 in PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS using a strategy derived from the following formulation of our clinical question: patients-ED patients suspected of AC; interventions-H&P, laboratory studies, and US findings commonly used to diagnose AC; comparator-surgical pathology or definitive diagnostic radiologic study confirming AC; and outcome-the operating characteristics of the investigations in diagnosing AC were calculated. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated using Meta-DiSc with a random-effects model (95% CI). Study quality and risks for bias were assessed using the Quality Assessment Tool for Diagnostic Accuracy Studies. Separate PubMed, Embase, and SCOPUS searches retrieved studies for H&P (n = 734), laboratory findings (n = 74), and US (n = 492). Three H&P studies met inclusion/exclusion criteria with AC prevalence of 7%-64%. Fever had sensitivity ranging from 31% to 62% and specificity from 37% to 74%; positive LR [LR+] was 0.71-1.24, and negative LR [LR-] was 0.76-1.49. Jaundice sensitivity ranged from 11% to 14%, and specificity from 86% to 99%; LR+ was 0.80-13.81, and LR- was 0.87-1.03. Murphy's sign sensitivity was 62% (range = 53%-71%), and specificity was 96% (range = 95%-97%); LR+ was 15.64 (range = 11.48-21.31), and LR- was 0.40 (range = 0.32-0.50). Right upper quadrant pain had sensitivity ranging from 56% to 93% and specificity of 0% to 96%; LR+ ranged from 0.92 to 14.02, and LR- from 0.46 to 7.86. One laboratory study met

  8. The Air Force Global Reach Laydown (GR1): An Allowance Standard Review Using the Estimating Supplies Program to Develop a Requirements-Based Materiel Solution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-02

    Cystitis, Prostatitis, Orchitis, Including Testicular Torsion, All Cases 280 Balanoposthitis All Cases 282 Infectious Mononucleosis All Cases 283...Hepatitis Infectious Viral All Cases 285 Cholecystitis Acute w/ Stones/cholecystitis All Cases 286 Pancreatitis Acute All Cases 287 Cirrhosis All...PEST AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION Z580 MONITOR HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS Z600 SCREEN TREATMENT LOGS FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASE CASES Z601 COMPILE/REPORT

  9. Spontaneous asymptomatic gallbladder perforation

    PubMed Central

    Seçil, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Gallstone disease is common. However, a proportion of patients are asymptomatic and remain undiagnosed until the occurrence of complications. Common complications include acute cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, acute pancreatitis and cholangitis. Severe complications include gallbladder perforation, Mirizzi syndrome and fistula formation are usually associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of asymptomatic spotaneous gallbladder perforation due to acute cholecystitis. PMID:24914424

  10. Kinetic studies of divertor heat fluxes in Alcator C-Mod

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.; Park, G. Y.; Chang, C. S.; Brunner, D.; Hughes, J. W.; Labombard, B.; Terry, J.

    2010-11-01

    The kinetic XGC0 code [C.S. Chang et al, Phys. Plasmas 11 (2004) 2649] is used to model the H- mode pedestal and SOL regions in Alcator C-Mod discharges. The self-consistent simulations in this study include kinetic neoclassical physics and anomalous transport models along with the ExB flow shear effects. The heat fluxes on the divertor plates are computed and the fluxes to the outer plate are compared with experimental observations. The dynamics of the radial electric field near the separatrix and in the SOL region are computed with the XGC0 code, and the effect of the anomalous transport on the heat fluxes in the SOL region is investigated. In particular, the particle and thermal diffusivities obtained in the analysis mode are compared with predictions from the theory-based anomalous transport models such as MMM95 [G. Bateman et al, Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 1793] and DRIBM [T. Rafiq et al, to appear in Phys. Plasmas (2010)]. It is found that there is a notable pinch effect in the inner separatrix region. Possible physical mechanisms for the particle and thermal pinches are discussed.

  11. Antibiotics May be Safely Discontinued Within One Week of Percutaneous Cholecystostomy.

    PubMed

    Loftus, Tyler J; Brakenridge, Scott C; Dessaigne, Camille G; Sarosi, George A; Zingarelli, William J; Moore, Frederick A; Jordan, Janeen R; Croft, Chasen A; Smith, R Stephen; Efron, Phillip A; Mohr, Alicia M

    2017-05-01

    For patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC), the optimal duration of post-procedural antibiotic therapy is unknown. Our objective was to compare short versus long courses of antibiotics with the hypothesis that patients with persistent signs of systemic inflammation 72 h following PC would receive prolonged antibiotic therapy and that antibiotic duration would not affect outcomes. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 81 patients who underwent PC for acute cholecystitis at two hospitals during a 41-month period ending November 2014. Patients who received short (≤7 day) courses of post-procedural antibiotics were compared to patients who received long (>7 day) courses. Treatment response to PC was evaluated by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria. Logistic and linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between antibiotic duration and outcomes. Patients who received short (n = 30) and long courses (n = 51) of antibiotics had similar age, comorbidities, severity of cholecystitis, pre-procedural vital signs, treatment response, and culture results. There were no differences in recurrent cholecystitis (13 vs. 12%), requirement for open/converted to open cholecystectomy (23 vs. 22%), or 1-year mortality (20 vs. 18%). On logistic and linear regressions, antibiotic duration as a continuous variable was not predictive of any salient outcomes. Patients who received short and long courses of post-PC antibiotics had similar baseline characteristics and outcomes. Antibiotic duration did not predict recurrent cholecystitis, interval open cholecystectomy, or mortality. These findings suggest that antibiotics may be safely discontinued within one week of uncomplicated PC.

  12. Prophylactic Embolization of the Cystic Artery Prior to Radioembolization of Liver Malignancies—An Evaluation of Necessity

    SciTech Connect

    Powerski, Maciej, E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de; Busse, Anke, E-mail: anke.busse@med.ovgu.de; Seidensticker, Max, E-mail: max.seidensticker@med.ovgu.de

    PurposePrior to radioembolization (RE) of hepatic tumors, many centers prophylactically occlude the cystic artery (CA) during evaluation angiography (EVA) to prevent radiation-induced cholecystitis. There is no conclusive evidence for the protective effect of CA embolization and it bears the risk of inducing ischemic cholecystitis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the justification for CA embolization by comparing clinical and morphologic imaging parameters between patients undergoing coil occlusion of the cystic artery (COCA) and those with uncoiled CA (UCCA).Materials and MethodsRetrospective comparison of 37 patients with UCCA versus 68 patients with COCA in terms of clinical findings (CRP, leukocytemore » count, body temperature, upper abdominal pain) and morphologic imaging parameters associated with cholecystitis (gallbladder (GB) wall thickness, free fluid in GB bed, bremsstrahlung SPECT) after EVA, after RE, and at 6-week follow-up.ResultsAt none of the 3 time points (EVA, RE, 6-week follow-up) was there any significant difference in CRP, leukocyte count, body temperature, or upper abdominal pain between the UCCA and COCA group. There was also no significant difference between the two groups with regard to GB wall thickness, fluid in the GB bed, and bremsstrahlung in SPECT. One patient of the UCCA group and two patients of the COCA developed cholecystitis requiring treatment.ConclusionComparison of clinical and imaging findings between patients with and without CA embolization prior to RE identified no predictors of radiogenic or ischemic cholecystitis after RE. Our study provides no evidence for a benefit of prophylactic CA embolization before RE.« less

  13. Feasibility, efficacy, and predictive factors for the technical success of endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Yane, Kei; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Katanuma, Akio; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Osanai, Manabu; Kin, Toshifumi; Takaki, Ryo; Matsumoto, Kazuyuki; Gon, Katsushige; Matsumori, Tomoaki; Tomonari, Akiko; Nojima, Masanori

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have shown the useful-ness of endoscopic nasogallbladder drainage (ENGBD) in patients with acute cholecystitis. However, the procedure is difficult, and factors that affect technical success have not yet been clarified. We conducted a prospective study to eval-uate the technical feasibility, efficacy, and predictive factors for the technical success of ENGBD in patients with acute cholecystitis. All patients with moderate or severe acute cholecystitis who were enrolled underwent ENGBD between April 2009 and April 2011. Patients with surgically altered anatomy or pancreatobiliary malignancies were ex-cluded. The primary outcomes included technical success, clinical success, and complications. Factors that could affect the technical success were also examined. Of the 27 patients who underwent ENGBD during the study period, technical success was achieved in 21 (78%) and clinical improvement was achieved in 20 (95%). Early complications were encountered in four patients (15%). Gallbladder wall thickness (odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08 to 2.47) and age (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.35) were effective predictors of technical failure. ENGBD was effective in resolving acute cholecystitis; however, this modality was technically challenging and had a limited suc-cess rate. Because of technical difficulties, ENGBD should be reserved for limited indications. (Gut Liver, 2015;9239-246).

  14. Unit Ministry Team Religious Support to Casualties on the Airland Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-28

    282 Mononucleosis , Mod 283 Hepatitis, Infectious 284 Cholecystitis, Severe 285 Cholecystitis, Mod 286 Pancreatitis Acute, Sev 287 Cirrhosis, Severe...Ministry A-5 APPENDIX B - Methodology B-l APPENDIX C - Modal C-l APPENDIX D - Data D-l Patient Description and Treatment Data D-l Hospital Suamary...Support, AirLand Battla E-l Echelons of Medical Treatment E-3 Mass Casualtias E-5 Evacuation E-5 Madical Regulating E-6 Employment E-7

  15. Fully non-linear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collisions for gyrokinetic particle-in-cell simulations of fusion plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; D'Azevedo, E. F.; Worley, P. H.; Chang, C. S.

    2015-11-01

    We describe the implementation, and application of a time-dependent, fully nonlinear multi-species Fokker-Planck-Landau collision operator based on the single-species work of Yoon and Chang [Phys. Plasmas 21, 032503 (2014)] in the full-function gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 [Ku et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 115021 (2009)] and XGCa. XGC simulations include the pedestal and scrape-off layer, where significant deviations of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian can occur. Thus, in order to describe collisional effects on neoclassical and turbulence physics accurately, the use of a non-linear collision operator is a necessity. Our collision operator is based on a finite volume method using the velocity-space distribution functions sampled from the marker particles. Since the same fine configuration space mesh is used for collisions and the Poisson solver, the workload due to collisions can be comparable to or larger than the workload due to particle motion. We demonstrate that computing time spent on collisions can be kept affordable by applying advanced parallelization strategies while conserving mass, momentum, and energy to reasonable accuracy. We also show results of production scale XGCa simulations in the H-mode pedestal and compare to conventional theory. Work supported by US DOE OFES and OASCR.

  16. Ultrasound guided percutaneous cholecystostomy in high-risk patients for surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Yanar, Hakan; Guloglu, Recep; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tunca, Fatih; Aksoy, Murat; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Poyanli, Arzu

    2006-11-28

    To assess the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) in the treatment of acute cholecystitis in a well-defined high risk patients under general anesthesia. The data of 27 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy for the management of acute cholecystitis from January 1999 to June 2003 was retrospectively evaluated. All of the patients had both clinical and sonographic signs of acute cholecystitis and had comorbid diseases. Ultrasound revealed gallbladder stones in 25 patients and acalculous cholecystitis in two patients. Cholecystostomy catheters were removed 14-32 d (mean 23 d) after the procedure in cases where complete regression of all symptoms was achieved. There were statistically significant reductions in leukocytosis, (13.7 x 10(3)+/-1.3 x 10(3) microg/L vs 13 x 10(3)+/-1 x 10(3) microg/L, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 13.7 x 10(3)+/-1.3 x 10(3) microg/L vs 8.3 x 10(3)+/-1.2 x 10(3) microg/L, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC), C -reactive protein (51.2+/-18.5 mg/L vs 27.3+/-10.4 mg/L, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 51.2+/-18.5 mg/L vs 5.4+/-1.5 mg/L, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC), and fever (38+/-0.35 centigrade vs 37.3+/-0.32 centigrade, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 38+/-0.35 centigrade vs 36.9+/-0.15 centigrade, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC). Sphincterotomy and stone extraction was performed successfully with endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in three patients. After cholecystostomy, 5 (18%) patients underwent delayed cholecystectomy without any complications. Three out of 22 patients were admitted with recurrent acute cholecystitis during the follow-up and recovered with medical treatment. Catheter dislodgement occurred in three patients spontaneously, and two of them were managed by reinsertion of the catheter. As an alternative to surgery, percutaneous cholecystostomy seems to be a safe method in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis and can be performed with

  17. Can abdominal surgical emergencies be treated in an ambulatory setting?

    PubMed

    Genser, L; Vons, C

    2015-12-01

    The performance of emergency abdominal surgery in an outpatient setting is increasingly the order of the day in France. This review evaluates the feasibility and reliability of ambulatory surgical treatment of the most common abdominal emergencies: appendectomy for acute appendicitis and cholecystectomy for acute complications of gallstone disease (acute cholecystitis and gallstone pancreatitis). This study evaluates surgical procedures performed on an ambulatory basis according to the international definition (admission in the morning, discharge in the evening with a hospital stay of less than 12 hours). Just as for elective surgery, eligibility of patients for an ambulatory approach depends on the capacities of the surgical and anesthesia team: to manage the risks, particularly the risk of deferring surgery until the morning); to prevent or treat post-operative symptoms like pain, nausea, vomiting, re-ambulation in order to permit rapid post-operative discharge. Recent studies have shown that appendectomy for non-complicated acute appendicitis can be deferred for up to 12 hours without any increase in danger. Many other studies have shown that early discharge after appendectomy for acute non-complicated appendicitis is feasible and safe. Nonetheless, there is only one published series of truly ambulatory appendectomies. The results were excellent. Patients who presented in the afternoon were brought back for operation the following morning. The appropriate timing for performance of cholecystectomy in patients with acute calculous cholecystitis or gallstone pancreatitis has not been well defined, but is always somewhat delayed relative to the onset of symptoms. To minimize operative complications, cholecystectomy for acute calculous cholecystitis should probably be performed between 24 and 72 hours after diagnosis. Cholecystectomy for gallstone pancreatitis should probably not be delayed longer than a week; the need to keep the patient hospitalized during the

  18. Stenting of the Cystic Duct in Benign Disease: A Definitive Treatment for the Elderly and Unwell

    SciTech Connect

    Hersey, N., E-mail: naomi.hersey@sth.nhs.uk; Goode, S. D., E-mail: s.goode@sheffield.sc.uk; Peck, R. J., E-mail: robert.peck@sth.nhs.uk

    PurposeThere have been few case reports describing cystic duct stent insertion in the management of acute cholecystitis secondary to benign disease with no case series published to date. We present our series demonstrating the role of cystic duct stents in managing benign gallbladder disease in those patients unfit for surgery.Materials and MethodsThirty three patients unfit for surgery in our institution underwent cystic duct stent insertion for the management of acute cholecystitis in the period June 2008 to June 2013. Patients underwent a mixture of transperitoneal and transhepatic gallbladder puncture. The cystic duct was cannulated with a hydrophilic guidewire which wasmore » subsequently passed through the common bile duct and into the duodenum. An 8Fr 12-cm double-pigtail stent was placed with the distal end lying within the duodenum and the proximal end within the gallbladder.ResultsTen patients presented with gallbladder perforation, 21 patients with acute cholecystitis, 1 with acute cholangitis and 1 with necrotising pancreatitis. The technical success rate was 91 %. We experienced a 13 % complication rate with 3 % mortality rate at 30 days.ConclusionCystic duct stent insertion can be successfully used to manage acute cholecystitis, gallbladder empyema or gallbladder perforations in those unfit for surgery and should be considered alongside external gallbladder drainage as a definitive mid-term treatment option.« less

  19. Ultrasound guided percutaneous cholecystostomy in high-risk patients for surgical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bakkaloglu, Huseyin; Yanar, Hakan; Guloglu, Recep; Taviloglu, Korhan; Tunca, Fatih; Aksoy, Murat; Ertekin, Cemalettin; Poyanli, Arzu

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the efficacy and safety of ultrasound guided percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) in the treatment of acute cholecystitis in a well-defined high risk patients under general anesthesia. METHODS: The data of 27 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous transhepatic cholecystostomy for the management of acute cholecystitis from January 1999 to June 2003 was retrospectively evaluated. All of the patients had both clinical and sonographic signs of acute cholecystitis and had comorbid diseases. RESULTS: Ultrasound revealed gallbladder stones in 25 patients and acalculous cholecystitis in two patients. Cholecystostomy catheters were removed 14-32 d (mean 23 d) after the procedure in cases where complete regression of all symptoms was achieved. There were statistically significant reductions in leukocytosis, (13.7 × 103 ± 1.3 × 103 μg/L vs 13 × 103 ± 1 × 103 μg/L, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 13.7 × 103 ± 1.3 × 103 μg/L vs 8.3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 103 μg/L, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC), C -reactive protein (51.2 ± 18.5 mg/L vs 27.3 ± 10.4 mg/L, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 51.2 ± 18.5 mg/L vs 5.4 ± 1.5 mg/L, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC), and fever (38 ± 0.35°C vs 37.3 ± 0.32°C, P < 0.05 for 24 h after PC; 38 ± 0.35°C vs 36.9 ± 0.15°C, P < 0.0001 for 72 h after PC). Sphincterotomy and stone extraction was performed successfully with endoscopic retrograde cholangio-pancreatography (ERCP) in three patients. After cholecystostomy, 5 (18%) patients underwent delayed cholecystectomy without any complications. Three out of 22 patients were admitted with recurrent acute cholecystitis during the follow-up and recovered with medical treatment. Catheter dislodgement occurred in three patients spontaneously, and two of them were managed by reinsertion of the catheter. CONCLUSION: As an alternative to surgery, percutan-eous cholecystostomy seems to be a safe method in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis and can be performed with low

  20. Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M. J.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal region of five Alcator C-Mod discharges, representing a collisionality scan is analyzed. The understanding of anomalous transport in the pedestal region is important for the development of a comprehensive model for the H-mode pedestal slope. In this research, a possible role of the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (Rafiq et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 082511) in the edge of Alcator C-Mod discharges is analyzed. The stability analysis, carried out using the TRANSP code, indicates that the DRIBM modes are strongly unstable in Alcator C-Mod discharges with large electron collisionality. An improved interpretive analysis of H-mode pedestal experimental data is carried out utilizing the additive flux minimization technique (Pankin et al 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102501) together with the guiding-center neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code. The neoclassical and neutral physics are simulated in the XGC0 code and the anomalous fluxes are computed using the additive flux minimization technique. The anomalous fluxes are reconstructed and compared with each other for the collisionality scan Alcator C-Mod discharges. It is found that the electron thermal anomalous diffusivities at the pedestal top increase with the electron collisionality. This dependence can also point to the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes as the modes that drive the anomalous transport in the plasma edge of highly collisional discharges.

  1. Gallbladder removal - laparoscopic - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy laparoscopic - discharge; Cholelithiasis - laparoscopic discharge; Biliary calculus - laparoscopic discharge; Gallstones - laparoscopic discharge; Cholecystitis - laparoscopic discharge

  2. A prospective study of radionuclide biliary scanning in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Neoptolemos, J. P.; Fossard, D. P.; Berry, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Early surgery for biliary pancreatitis has resulted in a need for an accurate method of gallstone detection in acute pancreatitis. Fifty patients with acute pancreatitis were studied prospectively to assess the diagnostic value of Radionuclide Biliary Scanning (RBS) performed within 72 hours of an attack. To assess the general accuracy of RBS a further 154 patients with suspected acute cholecystitis or biliary colic were similarly studied. There were 34 patients with biliary pancreatitis and 18 (53%) had a positive scan (no gallbladder seen). There were 16 patients with non-biliary pancreatitis and 5 (31%) had a positive scan. All 51 patients with acute cholecystitis had a positive scan, as did 82% of the 51 patients with biliary colic. There were 52 patients with no biliary or pancreatic disease and none of these had a positive scan. RBS is highly accurate in confirming a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis or biliary colic. However, it cannot be relied on to differentiate between biliary and non-biliary pancreatitis and should certainly not be used as the basis for biliary surgery in these patients. PMID:6859781

  3. Management of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takeshi; Kawabe, Takao; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yashima, Yoko; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Arizumi, Toshihiko; Togawa, Osamu; Ito, Yukiko; Matsubara, Saburo; Nakai, Yousuke; Sasashira, Naoki; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Omata, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Patients with untreated gallbladder stones in situ are at high risk for late biliary complications after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and bile duct stone extraction. Few data exist on the short-term and long-term results in these patients after the recurrence of bile duct stones and acute cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after EPBD. Fifty-six patients who developed late biliary complications, including bile duct stone recurrence (n=43) and acute cholecystitis (n=13), were managed at our institutions. We investigated the short-term and long-term outcomes after the management of late biliary complications. Complete removal of recurrent bile duct stones was achieved in 38 of 43 patients (88%) by repeated EPBD alone. Pancreatitis after repeated EPBD occurred in two patients (5%). After successful bile duct stone extraction by EPBD, none of the 16 patients who underwent cholecystectomy developed late biliary complications (mean follow-up period of 5.2 years), wheras re-recurrent bile duct stones occurred in three of the 21 patients (14%) with gallbladder stones left in situ (mean follow-up period of 4.4 years)(P=0.1148). Re-recurrent bile duct stones were successfully treated endoscopically. One of the eight patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis had a recurrence of cholecystitis, which was managed conservatively. The long-term outcomes of late biliary complications are favorable when patients with concomitant gallbladder stones undergo cholecystectomy. Re-recurrent bile duct stones are considerable when gallbladder stones are left in situ, but should be treated endoscopically.

  4. Management of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Takeshi; Kawabe, Takao; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Yashima, Yoko; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Takashi; Arizumi, Toshihiko; Togawa, Osamu; Ito, Yukiko; Matsubara, Saburo; Nakai, Yousuke; Sasashira, Naoki; Hirano, Kenji; Tada, Minoru; Omata, Masao

    2009-04-01

    Patients with untreated gallbladder stones in situ are at high risk for late biliary complications after endoscopic papillary balloon dilation (EPBD) and bile duct stone extraction. Few data exist on the short-term and long-term results in these patients after the recurrence of bile duct stones and acute cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of late biliary complications in patients with gallbladder stones in situ after EPBD. Fifty-six patients who developed late biliary complications, including bile duct stone recurrence (n=43) and acute cholecystitis (n=13), were managed at our institutions. We investigated the short-term and long-term outcomes after the management of late biliary complications. Complete removal of recurrent bile duct stones was achieved in 38 of 43 patients (88%) by repeated EPBD alone. Pancreatitis after repeated EPBD occurred in two patients (5%). After successful bile duct stone extraction by EPBD, none of the 16 patients who underwent cholecystectomy developed late biliary complications (mean follow-up period of 5.2 years), whereas re-recurrent bile duct stones occurred in three of the 21 patients (14%) with gallbladder stones left in situ (mean follow-up period of 4.4 years)(P=0.1148). Re-recurrent bile duct stones were successfully treated endoscopically. One of the eight patients who did not undergo cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis had a recurrence of cholecystitis, which was managed conservatively. The long-term outcomes of late biliary complications are favorable when patients with concomitant gallbladder stones undergo cholecystectomy. Re-recurrent bile duct stones are considerable when gallbladder stones are left in situ, but should be treated endoscopically.

  5. Liesegang Rings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pegas, Karla Laís; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano

    2010-01-01

    Liesegang rings are concentric noncellular lamellar structures, rarely seen in vivo, occurring as a consequence of the accumulation of insoluble products in a colloidal matrix. These characteristic structures are a rare phenomenon usually found in association with cystic or inflammatory lesions and may be mistaken for parasites. The authors examined Liesegang rings from an inflammatory kidney lesion identified previously as a tumoral lesion on computerized tomography. On microscopic evaluation, Liesegang rings can be mistaken for eggs and larvae of parasites, psammoma bodies and calcification. Special stains like PAS, Grocott, von Kossa and Masson's trichrome facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:21151725

  6. Telesonography Adaptation and Use to Improve the Standard of Patient Care Within a Dominican Community

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-05-06

    Ascites; Blunt Abdominal Trauma; Cholelithiasis; Cholecystitis; Cholangitis; Pancreatitis; Hydronephrosis; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Hepatitis; Portal Hypertension; Urolithiasis; Abnormal Uterine Bleeding; Ovarian Mass; Ovarian Torsion

  7. Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection After Cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B.; Wallace, Anna E.; Mines, Daniel; Tian, Fang; Symons, William J.; Fraser, Victoria J.; Olsen, Margaret A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. There are limited data on risk factors for surgical site infection (SSI) after open or laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods. A retrospective cohort of commercially insured persons aged 18–64 years was assembled using International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) procedure or Current Procedural Terminology, 4th edition codes for cholecystectomy from December 31, 2004 to December 31, 2010. Complex procedures and patients (eg, cancer, end-stage renal disease) and procedures with pre-existing infection were excluded. Surgical site infections within 90 days after cholecystectomy were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to identify independent risk factors for SSI. Results. Surgical site infections were identified after 472 of 66566 (0.71%) cholecystectomies; incidence was higher after open (n = 51, 4.93%) versus laparoscopic procedures (n = 421, 0.64%; P < .001). Independent risk factors for SSI included male gender, preoperative chronic anemia, diabetes, drug abuse, malnutrition/weight loss, obesity, smoking-related diseases, previous Staphylococcus aureus infection, laparoscopic approach with acute cholecystitis/obstruction (hazards ratio [HR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27–1.96), open approach with (HR, 4.29; 95% CI, 2.45–7.52) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 4.04; 95% CI, 1.96–8.34), conversion to open approach with (HR, 4.71; 95% CI, 2.74–8.10) or without acute cholecystitis/obstruction (HR, 7.11; 95% CI, 3.87–13.08), bile duct exploration, postoperative chronic anemia, and postoperative pneumonia or urinary tract infection. Conclusions. Acute cholecystitis or obstruction was associated with significantly increased risk of SSI with laparoscopic but not open cholecystectomy. The risk of SSI was similar for planned open and converted procedures. These findings suggest that stratification by operative factors is

  8. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation of the gall bladder), cirrhosis, and liver metastases. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls...

  9. Evaluation of Implementation of a National Point-of-Care Ultrasound Training Program

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-05-09

    Other Acute Illnesses Presenting to the Hospital; Heart Failure; Pneumonia; Deep Venous Thrombosis; Cellulitis; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Acute Cholecystitis; Peritoneal Free Fluid; Hydronephrosis; Pleural Effusion; Urinary Retention

  10. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    Cholecystectomy - open; Gallbladder - open cholecystectomy; Cholecystitis - open cholecystectomy; Gallstones - open cholecystectomy ... a medical instrument called a laparoscope ( laparoscopic ... Open gallbladder surgery is used when laparoscopic surgery cannot ...

  11. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications. PMID:24772345

  12. Carcinoma transverse colon masquerading as carcinoma gall bladder.

    PubMed

    Munghate, Anand; Kumar, Ashwani; Singh, Harnam; Singh, Gurpreet; Singh, Bimaljot; Chauhan, Mahak

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancer worldwide .Its incidence is reported to be increasing in developing countries. It commonly presents with weight loss, anaemia, lump abdomen, change of bowel habit, obstruction or fresh rectal bleeding. Beside these common modes of presentations, there are some rare manifestations which masqueraded as different disease like obstructive jaundice, empyema gall bladder or cholecystitis. A 60-year-old male presented to hospital with right sided pain abdomen. On abdominal examination mild tenderness was present in right hypochondrium. Intra operatively gall bladder was separated from the adjoining gut, peritoneum and liver bed and was removed. On further exploration, there was a large mass in the vicinity of the gall bladder related to transverse colon. Extended right hemicolectomy was done. Histopathological examination of gut mass revealed adenocarcinoma of transverse colon with free margins and gall bladder showed cholecystitis with no evidence of malignancy. We present an interesting case of colon cancer colon that caused diagnostic confusion by mimicking as cholecystitis. Colorectal cancer constitutes a major public health issue globally. Therefore, public awareness, screening of high-risk populations, early diagnosis and effective treatment and follow-up will help to reduce its occurance and further complications.

  13. Performing the Difficult Cholecystectomy Using Combined Endoscopic and Robotic Techniques: How I Do It.

    PubMed

    Magge, Deepa; Steve, Jennifer; Novak, Stephanie; Slivka, Adam; Hogg, Mellissa; Zureikat, Amer; Zeh, Herbert J

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard of care for cholelithiasis as well as cholecystitis. However, in the setting of Mirizzi syndrome or gangrenous cholecystitis where the critical view cannot be ascertained, subtotal cholecystectomy may be necessary. Using the robot-assisted approach, difficult cholecystectomies can be performed upfront without need for partial cholecystectomy. Even in the setting of Mirizzi syndrome where severe scarring and fibrosis are evident, definitive cholecystectomy and takedown of the cholechystocholedochal fistula can be performed in a safe and feasible fashion following successful endoscopic common bile duct stent placement. The purposes of this report are to review the history of Mirizzi syndrome as well as its traditional and novel treatment techniques and highlight technical pearls of the robotic approach to this diagnosis.

  14. [The Einstein sign].

    PubMed

    Treska, V

    2003-02-01

    Untreated rupture of an aneurysm of the abdominal aorta is fatal in almost 100% of the patients. In the majority of cases the assessment of a correct, early diagnosis is simple (hypotension, backache, abdominal pain, pulsating resistance in the abdomen) and makes a prompt surgical or endovascular operation possible. In some instances however rupture of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta simulates other clinical conditions (acute cholecystitis, acute diverculitis of the sigmoid) which may delay the correct diagnosis and reduce the patient's chance of survival. The author describes, based on historical documents, the treacherous course of the disease in the scientific genius Albert Einstein where rupture of an aneurysm simulated acute cholecystitis, and in the world literature this symptomatology was subsequently described as Einstein's sign.

  15. Diagnostic laparoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... from inside the uterus grow in other areas ( endometriosis ) Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis) Ovarian cysts or ... team. Abdominal Pain Read more Appendicitis Read more Endometriosis Read more A.D.A.M., Inc. is ...

  16. Neutral recycling effects on ITG turbulence

    DOE PAGES

    Stotler, D. P.; Lang, J.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2017-07-04

    Here, the effects of recycled neutral atoms on tokamak ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence have been investigated in a steep edge pedestal, magnetic separatrix configuration, with the full-f edge gryokinetic code XGC1. An adiabatic electron model has been used; hence, the impacts of neutral particles and turbulence on the density gradient are not considered, nor are electromagnetic turbulence effects. The neutral atoms enhance the ITG turbulence, first, by increasing the ion temperature gradient in the pedestal via the cooling effects of charge exchange and, second, by a relative reduction in themore » $$E\\times B$$ shearing rate.« less

  17. SciTech Connect

    D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Abbott, Stephen; Koskela, Tuomas

    The XGC fusion gyrokinetic code combines state-of-the-art, portable computational and algorithmic technologies to enable complicated multiscale simulations of turbulence and transport dynamics in ITER edge plasma on the largest US open-science computer, the CRAY XK7 Titan, at its maximal heterogeneous capability, which have not been possible before due to a factor of over 10 shortage in the time-to-solution for less than 5 days of wall-clock time for one physics case. Frontier techniques such as nested OpenMP parallelism, adaptive parallel I/O, staging I/O and data reduction using dynamic and asynchronous applications interactions, dynamic repartitioning.

  18. Neutral recycling effects on ITG turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Stotler, D. P.; Lang, J.; Chang, C. S.

    Here, the effects of recycled neutral atoms on tokamak ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence have been investigated in a steep edge pedestal, magnetic separatrix configuration, with the full-f edge gryokinetic code XGC1. An adiabatic electron model has been used; hence, the impacts of neutral particles and turbulence on the density gradient are not considered, nor are electromagnetic turbulence effects. The neutral atoms enhance the ITG turbulence, first, by increasing the ion temperature gradient in the pedestal via the cooling effects of charge exchange and, second, by a relative reduction in themore » $$E\\times B$$ shearing rate.« less

  19. Gallbladder Polyp Mimicking an Obstructive Calculus

    PubMed Central

    Bass, James; Fegelman, Ronald H.

    1978-01-01

    The second documented case of obstructing polyp of the gallbladder—an extremely rare lesion—is presented. Symptoms were indistinguishable from those of acute obstructive cholecystitis. The mechanism of obstruction is hypothesized. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:702555

  20. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in cirrhotic patients: the role of subtotal cholecystectomy and its variants.

    PubMed

    Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Rajan, Pidigu Seshiyer; Jani, Kalpesh; Shetty, Alangar Roshan; Sendhilkumar, Karuppasamy; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarthi, Ramakrishnan

    2006-08-01

    Open cholecystectomy is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy may offer a better option because of the magnification available and the availability of newer instruments like the ultrasonic shears. We present our experience of 265 laparoscopic cholecystectomies and attempt to identify the difficulties encountered in this group of patients. Between 1991 and 2005, 265 cirrhotic patients of Child-Pugh Classification A and B, with symptomatic gallstones, were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We describe here our tailored approach and our techniques of subtotal cholecystectomy. Features of acute cholecystitis were present in 35.1% of the patients, and 64.9% presented with chronic cholecystitis. In 81.5% of the patients, the diagnosis of cirrhosis was established preoperatively. In 8.3% of the patients, a fundus first method was adopted when the hilum could not be approached despite additional ports. Modified subtotal cholecystectomy was performed in a total of 206 patients. Mean operative time in the subtotal cholecystectomy group was 72 minutes; in the standard group, it was 41 minutes. There was no mortality. In 15% of patients, postoperative deterioration in liver function occurred. Worsening of ascites, port site infection, port site bleeding, intraoperative hemorrhage, bilious drainage, and stone formation in the remnant were the other complications encountered. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a safe and effective treatment for calculous cholecystitis in cirrhotic patients. Appropriate modification of subtotal cholecystectomy should be practiced, depending on the risk factors present, to avoid complications.

  1. Methamphetamine consumption and life-threatening abdominal complications: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zou, Xiaojing; Huang, Haiyan; Yang, Le; Liu, Hong; Li, Yongfeng; Xia, Qin; Yuan, Shiying; Yao, Shanglong

    2018-05-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is increasing rapidly all over the world and becoming a significant public health concern in China. However, abdominal complications secondary to METH abuse are usually overlooked. We describe an unusual case of gangrenous cholecystitis and small intestinal ischemia due to METH abuse. In this report, a 44-year-old male patient with abdominal pain and hematochezia has a history of crystal meth abuse. The patient was diagnosed as septic shock, paralytic ileus, gangrenous cholecystitis, and small intestinal ischemia due to METH abuse based on computed tomography (CT) scan, endoscopy examination, laparotomy, and pathology. Antishock treatment, broad-spectrum antibiotics, and exploratory laparotomy were given. The patient survived. Six months later, he tolerated oral intake and stopped using crystal METH. Visceral ischemia should be considered if an adult patient with a history of METH abuse is accompanied by abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  2. Synchronous gallbladder squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, both as primary tumors in one patient.

    PubMed

    Vahedi, Amir; Azimpouran, Mahzad; Ghavidel, Ali; Karbasi, Mahsa; Farhadi, Mehrdad

    2018-01-01

    Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are extremely rare. In this paper, we report a case of double primary carcinomas in gallbladder CASE REPORT: A 65 year old male was admitted to the hospital for surgical removal of gallbladder, which was diagnosed as cholecystitis in ultrasonography. Macroscopic examination disclosed a single whitish mass in gallbladder neck and another distinct mass in the fundus as wall thickening. Pathologic findings revealed squamous cell carcinoma of the neck and adenocarcinoma in the fundus. This study represents an example of misdiagnosis. Being cautious is mandatory in order to manage the patient properly. Synchronous primary carcinomas of gallbladder are rare. However this diagnosis should be taken into account in patients with cholecystitis features in order to seeking for the best surgical approach. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. SciTech Connect

    Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Hager, R.

    Here, a fast edge turbulence suppression event has been simulated in the electrostatic version of the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell code XGC1 in a realistic diverted tokamak edge geometry under neutral particle recycling. The results show that the sequence of turbulent Reynolds stress followed by neoclassical ion orbit-loss driven together conspire to form the sustaining radial electric field shear and to quench turbulent transport just inside the last closed magnetic flux surface. As a result, the main suppression action is located in a thin radial layer around ψ N≃0.96–0.98, where ψ N is the normalized poloidal flux, with the time scale ~0.1more » ms.« less

  4. 21 CFR 862.1535 - Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Test Systems § 862.1535 Ornithine carbamyl transferase test system. (a) Identification. An ornithine carbamyl transferase test system is a device intended to measure the activity of the enzyme ornithine... and treatment of liver diseases, such as infectious hepatitis, acute cholecystitis (inflammation of...

  5. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in transplant patients].

    PubMed

    Coelho, Júlio Cezar Uili; Contieri, Fabiana L C; de Freitas, Alexandre Coutinho Teixeira; da Silva, Fernanda Cristina; Kozak, Vanessa Nascimento; da Silva Junior, Alzemir Santos

    2010-02-01

    This study reviews our experience with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the treatment of cholelithiasis in transplant patients. Demographic data, medications used, and operative and postoperative data of all transplant recipients who were subjected to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis at our hospital were obtained. A total of 15 transplant patients (13 renal transplantation and 2 bone marrow transplantation) underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients were admitted to the hospital on the day of the operation. The immunosuppressive regimen was not modified during hospitalization. Clinical presentation of cholelithiasis was biliary colicky (n=12), acute cholecystitis (n=2), and jaundice (n=1). The operation was uneventful in all patients. Postoperative complications were nausea and vomiting in 2 patients, prolonged tracheal intubation in 1, wound infection in 1 and large superficial hematoma in 1 patient. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated to a low morbidity and mortality and good postoperative outcome in transplant patients with uncomplicated cholecystitis.

  6. [Anaesthetic management of patients in the third trimester of pregnancy undergoing urgent laparoscopic surgery. Experience in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    López-Collada Estrada, María; Olvera Martínez, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery is well accepted as a safe technique when performed on a third trimester pregnant woman. The aim is to describe the anaesthetic management of a group of patients undergoing this type of surgery. An analysis was made of records of 6 patients in their third trimester of pregnancy and who underwent urgent laparoscopic surgery from 2011 to 2013. The study included 6 patients, with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis in 4 of them. The other 2 patients had acute appendicitis, both of who presented threatened preterm labour. The most frequent indications for laparoscopic surgery during the last trimester of birth were found to be acute cholecystitis and acute appendicitis. Acute appendicitis is related to an elevated risk of presenting threatened preterm labour. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Connective tissue growth factor immunohistochemical expression is associated with gallbladder cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Patricia; Leal, Pamela; Alvarez, Hector; Brebi, Priscilla; Ili, Carmen; Tapia, Oscar; Roa, Juan C

    2013-02-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasia associated with late diagnosis, unsatisfactory treatment, and poor prognosis. Molecular mechanisms involved in GBC pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) is thought to play a role in the pathologic processes and is overexpressed in several human cancers, including GBC. No information is available about CTGF expression in early stages of gallbladder carcinogenesis. Objective.- To evaluate the expression level of CTGF in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder and its correlation with clinicopathologic features and GBC prognosis. Connective tissue growth factor protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing tissue samples of chronic cholecystitis (n = 51), dysplasia (n = 15), and GBC (n = 169). The samples were scored according to intensity of staining as low/absent and high CTGF expressers. Statistical analysis was performed using the χ(2) test or Fisher exact probability test with a significance level of P < .05. Survival analysis was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. Connective tissue growth factor expression showed a progressive increase from chronic cholecystitis to dysplasia and then to early and advanced carcinoma. Immunohistochemical expression (score ≥2) was significantly higher in advanced tumors, in comparison with chronic cholecystitis (P < .001) and dysplasia (P = .03). High levels of CTGF expression correlated with better survival (P = .04). Our results suggest a role for CTGF in GBC progression and a positive association with better prognosis. In addition, they underscore the importance of considering the involvement of inflammation on GBC development.

  8. Infected Peri-Pancreatic Necrosis Causing Gallbladder Necrosis by Direct Extension

    PubMed Central

    Assalia, Ahmad; Schmulevski, Pavel; Meislin, Vladimir; Hashmonai, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis may develop in patients suffering from necrotizing pancreatitis. Conversely, acute pancreatitis may complicate acute gallbladder disease. We present a case that lends support to the existence of another possibility: gallbladder necrosis caused by direct extension of the necrotizing pancreatitic process. PMID:8260438

  9. [Spontaneous perforation of the hepatic duct during biliary lithiasis complicated by acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Assadourian, R; Chometowski, S; Bourde, J; Poitout, D; Lamy, J

    1975-10-01

    The association of perforation of the common bile duct, cholecystitis and acute pancreatitis, should be emphasized. Physiopathology of perforation of the bile duct may be compared with that of pancreatitis. Repair of the bile duct may be delicate requiring hepatico-jejunostomy on an isolated loop.

  10. Haemorrhagic cholecystitis in a newly anticoagulated patient.

    PubMed

    Kinnear, Ned; Hennessey, Derek Barry; Thomas, Rebecca

    2017-04-12

    A 74-year-old man undergoing rehabilitation after pneumonia developed right upper quadrant abdominal pain. Five days earlier he had been commenced on apixaban for a new diagnosis of atrial fibrillation. Ultrasound and CT scans revealed an acalculous grossly thickened gallbladder, with high attenuation non-echogenic material both within and surrounding the structure. Active contrast extravasation was seen at the neck. On laparotomy, a perforated internally bleeding gallbladder containing a single calculus was found, with significant free blood within the abdomen. After cholecystectomy, the patient recovered slowly in hospital before nursing home placement. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Kinetic neoclassical calculations of impurity radiation profiles

    DOE PAGES

    Stotler, D. P.; Battaglia, D. J.; Hager, R.; ...

    2016-12-30

    Modifications of the drift-kinetic transport code XGC0 to include the transport, ionization, and recombination of individual charge states, as well as the associated radiation, are described. The code is first applied to a simulation of an NSTX H-mode discharge with carbon impurity to demonstrate the approach to coronal equilibrium. The effects of neoclassical phenomena on the radiated power profile are examined sequentially through the activation of individual physics modules in the code. Orbit squeezing and the neoclassical inward pinch result in increased radiation for temperatures above a few hundred eV and changes to the ratios of charge state emissions atmore » a given electron temperature. As a result, analogous simulations with a neon impurity yield qualitatively similar results.« less

  12. Sorting the Alphabet Soup of Renal Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Curran-Melendez, Sheilah M; Hartman, Matthew S; Heller, Matthew T; Okechukwu, Nancy

    2016-01-28

    Diseases of the kidney often have their names shortened, creating an arcane set of acronyms which can be confusing to both radiologists and clinicians. This review of renal pathology aims to explain some of the most commonly used acronyms within the field. For each entity, a summary of the clinical features, pathophysiology, and radiological findings is included to aid in the understanding and differentiation of these entities. Discussed topics include acute cortical necrosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipoma, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, acute tubular necrosis, localized cystic renal disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, medullary sponge kidney, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, renal papillary necrosis, transitional cell carcinoma, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gyroaveraging operations using adaptive matrix operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Chang, Choong-Seock

    2018-05-01

    A new adaptive scheme to be used in particle-in-cell codes for carrying out gyroaveraging operations with matrices is presented. This new scheme uses an intermediate velocity grid whose resolution is adapted to the local thermal Larmor radius. The charge density is computed by projecting marker weights in a field-line following manner while preserving the adiabatic magnetic moment μ. These choices permit to improve the accuracy of the gyroaveraging operations performed with matrices even when strong spatial variation of temperature and magnetic field is present. Accuracy of the scheme in different geometries from simple 2D slab geometry to realistic 3D toroidal equilibrium has been studied. A successful implementation in the gyrokinetic code XGC is presented in the delta-f limit.

  14. Comparing the treatment outcomes of endoscopic papillary dilation and endoscopic sphincterotomy for removal of bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Ochi, Y; Mukawa, K; Kiyosawa, K; Akamatsu, T

    1999-01-01

    To compare the clinical usefulness of endoscopic papillary dilation (EPD) and endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) for removal of bile duct stones, 110 patients with stones up to 15 mm in diameter and less than 10 in number were randomly treated with either EPD (55 patients) or EST (55 patients). The patients were followed up for a median period of 23 months and endoscopic manometry with the administration of morphine was carried out in 17 patients who were observed more than 12 months after the procedures to evaluate the post-procedure papillary function. Duct clearance was achieved in 51 EPD (92.7%) and 54 EST patients (98.1%, not significantly different). Forty EPD (78.4%) and 51 EST patients (94.4%) achieved duct clearance in the initial procedure (P=0.02). Early complications occurred in one EPD (2.0%) and in three EST patients (5.6%, P=0.62). Complications during the follow-up period occurred in two EPD and eight EST patients. Recurrence of bile duct stones was observed in two EPD and three EST patients (P=0.98). Acute cholecystitis was observed in one EPD and five EST patients (P=0.06) and among patients with gall-bladder stones in situ, the rate of acute cholecystitis after EPD was significantly lower than that after EST (P=0.03). Endoscopic manometry showed the existence of a choledochoduodenal pressure gradient only after EPD, while papillary contractile function was observed after both procedures. In conclusion, both EPD and EST are safe therapeutic modalities, although EPD is more clinically effective in decreasing the risk of acute cholecystitis in patients with gall-bladder stones in situ and in preserving post-procedure papillary function.

  15. [Synchronous acute cholecystolithiasis and perforated acute appendicitis. Case report].

    PubMed

    Padrón-Arredondo, Guillermo; de Atocha Rosado-Montero, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis and acute cholecystitis are among the most common diagnoses that general surgeons operate on. However, it is rarely described in its synchronous form. A 43 year-old woman attending the clinic for right upper quadrant pain of 11 days duration. The patient refers to intermittent radiating pain in the right side, with positive Murphy, tachycardia, and fever. The laboratory results showed white cells 16,200/mm(3), glucose 345 mg/dl, abnormal liver function tests. Acute cholecystitis was reported with ultrasound. A Masson-type incision was made, noting an enlarged pyogenic gallbladder with thickened walls, sub-hepatic abscess of approximately 300 ml, greenish-yellow colour, and foetid. An anterograde subtotal cholecystectomy is performed due to difficulty in identifying elements of Calot triangle due to the inflammatory process, opening it and extracting stones. The right iliac fossa is reviewed, finding a plastron and a sub-serous retrocaecal appendix perforated in its middle third with free fecalith and an abscess in the pelvic cavity. An anterograde appendectomy was performed and the patient progressed satisfactorily, later being discharged due to improvement. In this patient, with a history of recurrent episodes of gallbladder pain and disseminated acute abdominal pain without peritoneal irritation, clinical suspicion was exacerbated cholecystitis with probable empyema of the gallbladder. Open surgery approach for this patient allowed access to both the appendix and gallbladder in order to perform a complete exploration of the abdominal cavity. The synchronous presentation of cholecystolithiasis and complicated appendicitis has not been reported in the literature. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  16. Chyle leak following laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Gogalniceanu, Petrut; Purkayastha, Sanjay; Spalding, Duncan

    2010-01-01

    Gallstone disease is a highly prevalent condition which is commonly and safely treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present the third reported case of chyle leakage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the setting of acute cholecystitis. The report reviews current literature on the prevalence, diagnosis and management of this condition. PMID:20699054

  17. Prognostic Indicators as Provided by the EPIC ClearView

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-18

    Coronary Artery Disease; Congestive Heart Failure; Valvular Heart Disease; Atrial Fibrillation; Hypertension; Pyelonephritis; Acute Renal Failure; Renal Failure; Viral Hepatitis; Alcoholic Hepatitis; Steatohepatitis; Cirrhosis; Asthma; COPD; Bronchitis; Emphysema; Pneumonia; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Diverticulitis; Peptic Ulcer Disease; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Cholecystitis; Pancreatitis; Malabsorption Disorders; Celiac Sprue; Diabetes

  18. Bile peritonitis associated with gastric dilation-volvulus in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Saundra A; Brisson, Brigitte A; Holmberg, David L

    2005-03-01

    This report describes a case of septic peritonitis and gall bladder rupture in German shepherd dog that developed 7 d after surgical treatment for gastric dilation-volvulus. Histological examination confirmed gall bladder necrosis, secondary to an acute ischemic event. Postoperative acute necrotizing cholecystitis has not been a previously reported complication in dogs.

  19. Investigation of the plasma shaping effects on the H-mode pedestal structure using coupled kinetic neoclassical/MHD stability simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Park, G. Y.; Snyder, P. B.; Chang, C. S.

    2017-06-01

    The effects of plasma shaping on the H-mode pedestal structure are investigated. High fidelity kinetic simulations of the neoclassical pedestal dynamics are combined with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability conditions for triggering edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities that limit the pedestal width and height in H-mode plasmas. The neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)] is used in carrying out a scan over plasma elongation and triangularity. As plasma profiles evolve, the MHD stability limits of these profiles are analyzed with the ideal MHD ELITE code [Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2037 (2002)]. Simulations with the XGC0 code, which includes coupled ion-electron dynamics, yield predictions for both ion and electron pedestal profiles. The differences in the predicted H-mode pedestal width and height for the DIII-D discharges with different elongation and triangularities are discussed. For the discharges with higher elongation, it is found that the gradients of the plasma profiles in the H-mode pedestal reach semi-steady states. In these simulations, the pedestal slowly continues to evolve to higher pedestal pressures and bootstrap currents until the peeling-ballooning stability conditions are satisfied. The discharges with lower elongation do not reach the semi-steady state, and ELM crashes are triggered at earlier times. The plasma elongation is found to have a stronger stabilizing effect than the plasma triangularity. For the discharges with lower elongation and lower triangularity, the ELM frequency is large, and the H-mode pedestal evolves rapidly. It is found that the temperature of neutrals in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) region can affect the dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup. However, the final pedestal profiles are nearly independent of the neutral temperature. The elongation and triangularity affect the pedestal widths of plasma density and electron temperature profiles differently. This provides a new

  20. Investigation of the plasma shaping effects on the H-mode pedestal structure using coupled kinetic neoclassical/MHD stability simulations

    DOE PAGES

    Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; ...

    2017-06-08

    The effects of plasma shaping on the H-mode pedestal structure are investigated. High fidelity kinetic simulations of the neoclassical pedestal dynamics are combined with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability conditions for triggering edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities that limit the pedestal width and height in H-mode plasmas. We use the neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)] to carry out a scan over plasma elongation and triangularity. As plasma profiles evolve, the MHD stability limits of these profiles are analyzed with the ideal MHD ELITE code [Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2037 (2002)]. In simulationsmore » with the XGC0 code, which includes coupled ion-electron dynamics, yield predictions for both ion and electron pedestal profiles. The differences in the predicted H-mode pedestal width and height for the DIII-D discharges with different elongation and triangularities are discussed. For the discharges with higher elongation, it is found that the gradients of the plasma profiles in the H-mode pedestal reach semi-steady states. In these simulations, the pedestal slowly continues to evolve to higher pedestal pressures and bootstrap currents until the peeling-ballooning stability conditions are satisfied. The discharges with lower elongation do not reach the semi-steady state, and ELM crashes are triggered at earlier times. The plasma elongation is found to have a stronger stabilizing effect than the plasma triangularity. For the discharges with lower elongation and lower triangularity, the ELM frequency is large, and the H-mode pedestal evolves rapidly. It is found that the temperature of neutrals in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) region can affect the dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup. But the final pedestal profiles are nearly independent of the neutral temperature. The elongation and triangularity affect the pedestal widths of plasma density and electron temperature profiles differently. This provides a new

  1. Investigation of the plasma shaping effects on the H-mode pedestal structure using coupled kinetic neoclassical/MHD stability simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Pankin, A. Y.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.

    The effects of plasma shaping on the H-mode pedestal structure are investigated. High fidelity kinetic simulations of the neoclassical pedestal dynamics are combined with the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability conditions for triggering edge localized mode (ELM) instabilities that limit the pedestal width and height in H-mode plasmas. We use the neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)] to carry out a scan over plasma elongation and triangularity. As plasma profiles evolve, the MHD stability limits of these profiles are analyzed with the ideal MHD ELITE code [Snyder et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2037 (2002)]. In simulationsmore » with the XGC0 code, which includes coupled ion-electron dynamics, yield predictions for both ion and electron pedestal profiles. The differences in the predicted H-mode pedestal width and height for the DIII-D discharges with different elongation and triangularities are discussed. For the discharges with higher elongation, it is found that the gradients of the plasma profiles in the H-mode pedestal reach semi-steady states. In these simulations, the pedestal slowly continues to evolve to higher pedestal pressures and bootstrap currents until the peeling-ballooning stability conditions are satisfied. The discharges with lower elongation do not reach the semi-steady state, and ELM crashes are triggered at earlier times. The plasma elongation is found to have a stronger stabilizing effect than the plasma triangularity. For the discharges with lower elongation and lower triangularity, the ELM frequency is large, and the H-mode pedestal evolves rapidly. It is found that the temperature of neutrals in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) region can affect the dynamics of the H-mode pedestal buildup. But the final pedestal profiles are nearly independent of the neutral temperature. The elongation and triangularity affect the pedestal widths of plasma density and electron temperature profiles differently. This provides a new

  2. Gyroaveraging operations using adaptive matrix operators

    SciTech Connect

    Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seung -Hoe; Chang, Choong -Seock

    A new adaptive scheme to be used in particle-in-cell codes for carrying out gyroaveraging operations with matrices is presented. This new scheme uses an intermediate velocity grid whose resolution is adapted to the local thermal Larmor radius. The charge density is computed by projecting marker weights in a field-line following manner while preserving the adiabatic magnetic moment μ. These choices permit to improve the accuracy of the gyroaveraging operations performed with matrices even when strong spatial variation of temperature and magnetic field is present. Accuracy of the scheme in different geometries from simple 2D slab geometry to realistic 3D toroidalmore » equilibrium has been studied. As a result, a successful implementation in the gyrokinetic code XGC is presented in the delta-f limit.« less

  3. Gyroaveraging operations using adaptive matrix operators

    DOE PAGES

    Dominski, Julien; Ku, Seung -Hoe; Chang, Choong -Seock

    2018-05-17

    A new adaptive scheme to be used in particle-in-cell codes for carrying out gyroaveraging operations with matrices is presented. This new scheme uses an intermediate velocity grid whose resolution is adapted to the local thermal Larmor radius. The charge density is computed by projecting marker weights in a field-line following manner while preserving the adiabatic magnetic moment μ. These choices permit to improve the accuracy of the gyroaveraging operations performed with matrices even when strong spatial variation of temperature and magnetic field is present. Accuracy of the scheme in different geometries from simple 2D slab geometry to realistic 3D toroidalmore » equilibrium has been studied. As a result, a successful implementation in the gyrokinetic code XGC is presented in the delta-f limit.« less

  4. Optimizing fusion PIC code performance at scale on Cori Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Koskela, T. S.; Deslippe, J.

    In this paper we present the results of optimizing the performance of the gyrokinetic full-f fusion PIC code XGC1 on the Cori Phase Two Knights Landing system. The code has undergone substantial development to enable the use of vector instructions in its most expensive kernels within the NERSC Exascale Science Applications Program. We study the single-node performance of the code on an absolute scale using the roofline methodology to guide optimization efforts. We have obtained 2x speedups in single node performance due to enabling vectorization and performing memory layout optimizations. On multiple nodes, the code is shown to scale wellmore » up to 4000 nodes, near half the size of the machine. We discuss some communication bottlenecks that were identified and resolved during the work.« less

  5. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. A total of 60,064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n= 2527) and 6.9% (n= 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥ 50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥ 6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21).   Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. © 2012 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

  6. Clinicopathologic significance of minichromosome maintenance protein 2 and Tat-interacting protein 30 expression in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-cai; Yang, Zhu-lin

    2011-11-01

    Gallbladder cancers are aggressive tumors with a poor prognosis and high mortality rate. To find specific biological markers for early diagnosis and prognosis and to develop possible alternative treatment strategies, we examined minichromosome maintenance protein 2 (MCM2) and Tat-interacting protein 30 (TIP30) expression in 108 gallbladder adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using immunohistochemistry. Expression of MCM2 was significantly higher in adenocarcinomas than in peritumoral tissues (χ² = 8.41; P < .01), adenomatous polyps (χ² = 6.81; P < .01), and chronic cholecystitis (χ² = 21.00; P < .01). In contrast, Tat-interacting protein 30 expression was significantly less in adenocarcinomas than in peritumoral tissues (χ² = 13.26; P < .01), adenomatous polyps (χ² = 4.76; P < .05), and chronic cholecystitis (χ² = 18.93; P < .01). The benign lesions in gallbladder epithelium with positive MCM2 or negative Tat-interacting protein 30 expression showed moderate to severe atypical hyperplasia. Expression of MCM2 and absence of Tat-interacting protein 30 were significantly associated with poor differentiation, large tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, and invasion of adenocarcinoma. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that either elevated MCM2 (P = .006) or lowered Tat-interacting protein 30 (P = .006) expression was closely associated with shorter overall survival. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that expression of MCM2 (P = .007) or nonexpression of Tat-interacting protein 30 (P = .009) was an independent predictor of a poor prognosis in adenocarcinoma. Our results suggest that overexpression of MCM2 or loss of expression of Tat-interacting protein 30 is closely related to carcinogenesis, progression, biological behavior, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps in a large Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qing; Tao, Lian-yuan; Wu, Qiao; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Feng-liang; Yuan, Li; He, Xiao-dong

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to identify the prevalences of and risk factors associated with the development of gallbladder stones and polyps in a large Chinese population. Methods Prevalences of and risk factors for biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were retrospectively investigated among subjects who underwent a general check-up at the Health Screening Centres of Peking Union Medical College Hospital and Beijing Charity Hospital between January 2007 and June 2010. Results A total of 60 064 people were enrolled in the study. Overall prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps were 4.2% (n = 2527) and 6.9% (n = 4119), respectively. Risk factors associated with increased odds ratios (ORs) for the development of biliary stones were female gender (OR = 1.51), age ≥50 years (OR = 2.09), history of hypertension (OR = 1.37), thickened gallbladder wall (cholecystitis) (OR = 1.98), fasting blood glucose ≥6.10 mmol/l (OR = 1.27), body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 (OR = 1.25), systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (OR = 1.31) and diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg (OR = 1.44). Factors associated with gallbladder polyps were female gender (OR = 0.66), thickened gallbladder wall (OR = 2.09), negativity for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and positivity for hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) (OR = 2.61), and positivity for both HBsAg and anti-HBc (OR = 3.21). Conclusions Prevalences of biliary stones and gallbladder polyps among Chinese people are similar to those reported for other populations. Biliary stones appear to be associated with female gender, age, obesity, blood glucose, blood pressure and cholecystitis. Male gender, hepatitis B virus infection and cholecystitis were strong risk factors for the formation of gallbladder polyps. PMID:22568413

  8. A prospective, multicenter study of a double stent system for palliative treatment of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstructions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Woo; Gwon, Dong Il; Han, Young-Min; Won, Je Hwan; Hong, Hyun Pyo; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2015-10-01

    A double stent system (covered stent in uncovered stent) was designed to provide long-term patency without tumor ingrowth or stent-related complications, such as stent migration, cholecystitis, or pancreatitis. To investigate the safety and efficacy of double stents in patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstructions. This prospective, nonrandomized, multicenter study enrolled 160 consecutive patients (102 men; mean age, 64 years; range, 33-91 years) with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstructions treated with a double stent system from January 2010 to March 2012. The technical success rate of the double stent placement was 100%. No stent migration was observed. Procedure-related minor (self-limiting hemobilia [n = 6] and cholangitis [n = 2]) and major (pancreatitis [n = 16], cholecystitis [n = 3], and hepatic abscess [n = 2]) complications occurred in a total of 29 patients. The mean serum bilirubin level, which was 8.9 ± 5.6 mg/dL before drainage, decreased to 2.2 ± 4.6 mg/dL 1 month after stent placement (P < 0.001). Successful internal drainage was achieved in 148 patients (92.5%). During the mean follow-up period of 205 days, acute cholecystitis (n = 3) and hepatic abscess (n = 2) occurred in five patients. The median patient survival and stent patency time were 135 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 96-160 days) and 114 days (95% CI, 83-131 days), respectively. Of 153 patients, 22 (14.4%) presented with stent dysfunction due to sludge incrustation (n = 17), tumor overgrowth (n = 4), or blood clot (n = 1), and required repeat intervention. Tumor ingrowth was not observed in any of these patients. Percutaneous treatment of malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction using a double stent safely and effectively achieves internal biliary drainage. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  9. Predicting Infected Bile Among Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Cholecystostomy

    SciTech Connect

    Beardsley, Shannon L.; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D.; Patel, Aalpen

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. Patients may not achieve a clinical benefit after percutaneous cholecystostomy due to the inherent difficulty in identifying patients who truly have infected gallbladders. We attempted to identify imaging and biochemical parameters which would help to predict which patients have infected gallbladders. Methods. A retrospective review was performed of 52 patients undergoing percutaneous cholecystostomy for clinical suspicion of acute cholecystitis in whom bile culture results were available. Multiple imaging and biochemical variables were examined alone and in combination as predictors of infected bile, using logistic regression. Results. Of the 52 patients, 25 (48%) had infected bile. Organisms cultured included Enterococcus,more » Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, E. coli, Citrobacter and Candida. No biochemical parameters were significantly predictive of infected bile; white blood cell count >15,000 was weakly associated with greater odds of infected bile (odds ratio 2.0, p = NS). The presence of gallstones, sludge, gallbladder wall thickening and pericholecystic fluid by ultrasound or CT were not predictive of infected bile, alone or in combination, although a trend was observed among patients with CT findings of acute cholecystitis toward a higher 30-day mortality. Radionuclide scans were performed in 31% of patients; all were positive and 66% of these patients had infected bile. Since no patient who underwent a radionuclide scan had a negative study, this variable could not be entered into the regression model due to collinearity. Conclusion. No single CT or ultrasound imaging variable was predictive of infected bile, and only a weak association of white blood cell count with infected bile was seen. No other biochemical parameters had any association with infected bile. The ability of radionuclide scanning to predict infected bile was higher than that of ultrasound or CT. This study illustrates the continued challenge to identify bacterial

  10. Bile peritonitis associated with gastric dilation-volvulus in a dog

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This report describes a case of septic peritonitis and gall bladder rupture in German shepherd dog that developed 7 d after surgical treatment for gastric dilation-volvulus. Histological examination confirmed gall bladder necrosis, secondary to an acute ischemic event. Postoperative acute necrotizing cholecystitis has not been a previously reported complication in dogs. PMID:15884650

  11. SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Hirotoshi; Inoue, Hiroki; Ueno, Kazuto

    We encountered a case of hepatic hilar cholangiocarcinoma resulting in cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of self-expandable metallic biliary stents (EMBSs). To our knowledge, there has been no report of cholecystoduodenal fistula after insertion of EMBSs. This case suggests that immediate gallbladder decompression may be necessary if acute cholecystitis occurs after insertion of EMBSs.

  12. Laparoscopic management of Bouveret syndrome.

    PubMed

    Newton, Richard Charles; Loizides, Sofronis; Penney, Nicholas; Singh, Krishna Kumar

    2015-04-22

    Bouveret syndrome is a proximal form of gallstone ileus where a large gallstone lodges in the pylorus or proximal duodenum, having passed through a bilioenteric fistula that has formed secondary to previous cholecystitis. We describe the laparoscopic extraction of a giant 'Bouveret' gallstone from the duodenum of an elderly man with morbid obesity. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. A System Approach to Navy Medical Education and Training. Appendix 29. Competency Curriculum for Advanced General Duty Corpsman.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-31

    c. Perform qualitative tests for fecal fat , bilirubin, urobilirubin and starch granules by staining methods PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE f (Stimulus) Upon...myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism Gastrointestinal: gastroenteritis, stomatitis, appendicitis, ulcer, gastritis, intestinal obstruction, cholecystitis... fractured tooth J. Reinsert temporary crown k. Treat dry socket, cellulitis, gingivitis, etc. 1. Evaluate patient’s progress/response to therapeutic regime M

  14. Acute gall bladder perforation--a dilemma in early diagnosis.

    PubMed Central

    Ong, C L; Wong, T H; Rauff, A

    1991-01-01

    Gall bladder perforation is a rare complication of cholecystitis. A definitive diagnosis is uncommon before surgery and the morbidity and mortality associated with this condition are high. We report six patients with gall bladder perforation to show the difficulty of making an early diagnosis. The history and the clinical findings of these patients are reviewed to highlight diagnostic pitfalls. PMID:1885081

  15. Edge-core interaction of ITG turbulence in Tokamaks: Is the Tail Wagging the Dog?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ku, S.; Chang, C. S.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Diamond, P. H.

    2010-11-01

    A full-f XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation of ITG turbulence, together with the neoclassical dynamics without scale separation, has been performed for the whole-volume plasma in realistic diverted DIII-D geometry. The simulation revealed that the global structure of the turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas results from a synergy between edge-driven inward propagation of turbulence intensity and the core-driven outward heat transport. The global ion confinement and the ion temperature gradient then self-organize quickly at turbulence propagation time scale. This synergy results in inward-outward pulse scattering leading to spontaneous production of strong internal shear layers in which the turbulent transport is almost suppressed over several radial correlation lengths. Co-existence of the edge turbulence source and the strong internal shear layer leads to radially increasing turbulence intensity and ion thermal transport profiles.

  16. Synthetic diagnostics platform for fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L., E-mail: lshi@pppl.gov; Valeo, E. J.; Tobias, B. J.

    A Synthetic Diagnostics Platform (SDP) for fusion plasmas has been developed which provides state of the art synthetic reflectometry, beam emission spectroscopy, and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostics. Interfaces to the plasma simulation codes GTC, XGC-1, GTS, and M3D-C{sup 1} are provided, enabling detailed validation of these codes. In this paper, we give an overview of SDP’s capabilities, and introduce the synthetic diagnostic modules. A recently developed synthetic ECE Imaging module which self-consistently includes refraction, diffraction, emission, and absorption effects is discussed in detail. Its capabilities are demonstrated on two model plasmas. The importance of synthetic diagnostics in validation ismore » shown by applying the SDP to M3D-C{sup 1} output and comparing it with measurements from an edge harmonic oscillation mode on DIII-D.« less

  17. Synthetic diagnostics platform for fusion plasmas (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Valeo, E. J.; Tobias, B. J.

    A Synthetic Diagnostics Platform (SDP) for fusion plasmas has been developed which provides state of the art synthetic reflectometry, beam emission spectroscopy, and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostics. Interfaces to the plasma simulation codes GTC, XGC-1, GTS, and M3D-C-1 are provided, enabling detailed validation of these codes. In this paper, we give an overview of SDP's capabilities, and introduce the synthetic diagnostic modules. A recently developed synthetic ECE Imaging module which self-consistently includes refraction, diffraction, emission, and absorption effects is discussed in detail. Its capabilities are demonstrated on two model plasmas. Finally, the importance of synthetic diagnostics in validation ismore » shown by applying the SDP to M3D-C 1 output and comparing it with measurements from an edge harmonic oscillation mode on DIII-D.« less

  18. Synthetic diagnostics platform for fusion plasmas (invited)

    DOE PAGES

    Shi, L.; Valeo, E. J.; Tobias, B. J.; ...

    2016-08-26

    A Synthetic Diagnostics Platform (SDP) for fusion plasmas has been developed which provides state of the art synthetic reflectometry, beam emission spectroscopy, and Electron Cyclotron Emission (ECE) diagnostics. Interfaces to the plasma simulation codes GTC, XGC-1, GTS, and M3D-C-1 are provided, enabling detailed validation of these codes. In this paper, we give an overview of SDP's capabilities, and introduce the synthetic diagnostic modules. A recently developed synthetic ECE Imaging module which self-consistently includes refraction, diffraction, emission, and absorption effects is discussed in detail. Its capabilities are demonstrated on two model plasmas. Finally, the importance of synthetic diagnostics in validation ismore » shown by applying the SDP to M3D-C 1 output and comparing it with measurements from an edge harmonic oscillation mode on DIII-D.« less

  19. Balancing Particle and Mesh Computation in a Particle-In-Cell Code

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, Patrick H; D'Azevedo, Eduardo; Hager, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The XGC1 plasma microturbulence particle-in-cell simulation code has both particle-based and mesh-based computational kernels that dominate performance. Both of these are subject to load imbalances that can degrade performance and that evolve during a simulation. Each separately can be addressed adequately, but optimizing just for one can introduce significant load imbalances in the other, degrading overall performance. A technique has been developed based on Golden Section Search that minimizes wallclock time given prior information on wallclock time, and on current particle distribution and mesh cost per cell, and also adapts to evolution in load imbalance in both particle and meshmore » work. In problems of interest this doubled the performance on full system runs on the XK7 at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility compared to load balancing only one of the kernels.« less

  20. Partnership for Edge Physics Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kritz, Arnold H.; Rafiq, Tariq

    A major goal of our participation in the Edge Physics Simulation project has been to contribute to the understanding of the self-organization of tokamak turbulence fluctuations resulting in the formation of a staircase structure in the ion temperature. A second important goal is to demonstrate how small scale turbulence in plasmas self-organizes with dynamically driven quasi-stationary flow shear. These goals have been accomplished through the analyses of the statistical properties of XGC1 flux driven Gyrokinetic electrostatic ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence simulation data in which neutrals are included. The ITG turbulence data, and in particular fluctuation data, were obtained frommore » a massively parallel flux-driven gyrokinetic full-f particle-in-cell simulation of a DIII-D like equilibrium. Below some the findings are summarized. It was observed that the emergence of staircase structure is related to the variations in the normalized temperature gradient length (R/LT) and the poloidal flow shear. Average turbulence intensity is found to be large in the vicinity of minima in R/LTi, where ITG growth is expected to be lower. The distributions of the occurrences of potential fluctuation are found to be Gaussian away from the staircase-step locations, but they are found to be non-Gaussian in the vicinity of staircase-step locations. The results of analytically derived expressions for the distribution of the occurrences of turbulence intensity and intensity flux were compared with the corresponding quantities computed using XGC1 simulation data and good agreement is found. The derived expressions predicts inward and outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux in an intermittent fashion. The outward propagation of turbulence intensity flux occurs at staircase-step locations and is related to the change in poloidal flow velocity shear and to the change in the ion temperature gradient. The standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis for turbulence

  1. Original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute inflammation of the gallbladder

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Kazunari; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi; Hashimoto, Masaji

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and feasibility of our original single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) for acute inflamed gallbladder (AIG). METHODS: One hundred and ten consecutive patients underwent original SILC for gallbladder disease without any selection criteria and 15 and 11 of these were diagnosed with acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis, respectively. A retrospective review was performed not only between SILC for AIG and non-AIG, but also between SILC for AIG and traditional laparoscopic cholecystectomy (TLC) for AIG in the same period. RESULTS: Comparison between SILC for AIG and non-AIG revealed that the operative time was longer in SILC for AIG (97.5 min vs 85.0 min, P = 0.03). The open conversion rate (2/26 vs 2/84, P = 0.24) and complication rate (1/26 vs 3/84, P = 1.00) showed no differences, but a need for additional trocars was more frequent in SILC for AIG (5/24 vs 3/82, P = 0.01). Comparison between SILC for AIG and TLC for AIG revealed no differences based on statistical analysis. CONCLUSION: Our original SILC technique was adequately safe and feasible for the treatment of acute cholecystitis and acute gallstone cholangitis. PMID:22408354

  2. Resected case of eosinophilic cholangiopathy presenting with secondary sclerosing cholangitis

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Fumihiko; Asano, Takehide; Amano, Hodaka; Yoshida, Masahiro; Toyota, Naoyuki; Wada, Keita; Kato, Kenichiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Fukushima, Junichi; Kondo, Fukuo; Takikawa, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic cholangiopathy is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the biliary tract and causes sclerosing cholangitis. We report a patient with secondary sclerosing cholangitis with eosinophilic cholecystitis. A 46-year-old Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Computed tomography revealed dilatation of both the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts, diffuse thickening of the wall of the extrahepatic bile duct, and thickening of the gallbladder wall. Under the diagnosis of lower bile duct carcinoma, he underwent pylorus-preserving pancreatoduodenectomy and liver biopsy. On histopathological examination, conspicuous fibrosis was seen in the lower bile duct wall. In the gallbladder wall, marked eosinophilic infiltration was seen. Liver biopsy revealed mild portal fibrosis. He was diagnosed as definite eosinophilic cholecystitis with sclerosing cholangitis with unknown etiology. The possible etiology of sclerosing cholangitis was consequent fibrosis from previous eosinophilic infiltration in the bile duct. The clinicopathological findings of our case and a literature review indicated that eosinophilic cholangiopathy could cause a condition mimicking primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). Bile duct wall thickening in patients with eosinophilic cholangitis might be due to fibrosis of the bile duct wall. Eosinophilic cholangiopathy might be confused as PSC with eosinophilia. PMID:19294772

  3. 1291 cases of cholelithiasis treated with electric shock on otoacupoints.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, L; Yang, H; Zhang, H; Zhu, Y

    1991-06-01

    Since 1985, the authors began to use electric shock on otoacupoints of varying electric resistance for the treatment of cholelithiasis. The instrument used was the Channel Therapeutic Instrument made in China, and the otoacupoints of varying electric resistance were Sympathetic, Pancreas--Gall Bladder, Stomach, Liver, Sanjiao, Endocrine, and Ermigen. In the 1291 cases treated, the total effective rate was 99.69%, the rate of calculus excretion was 91.32%, and the rate of total excretion was 19.51%. The composition of the calculi was cholesterol crystals (31.25%), bilirubin crystals (28.17%), and mixed crystals (40.58%). The largest calculus excreted was an extrahepatic biliary duct calculus of 1.75 cm X 1.5 cm; the largest number of calculi excreted was 152 cholecystic stones 0.3 cm X 0.5 cm in size. In 100 random cases, the biliary system was shown to manifest vigorous dilations and constrictions under Ultrasonic B-scan when the relevant otoacupoints were stimulated with electric shock. Among the 78 control cases, no cholecystic stones were excreted, inspite of the Magnesium Sulfate, Folium Cassiae and fatty meals administered to many cases with constipation.

  4. Expanding the scope of quality measurement in surgery to include nonoperative care: Results from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program emergency general surgery pilot.

    PubMed

    Wandling, Michael W; Ko, Clifford Y; Bankey, Paul E; Cribari, Chris; Cryer, H Gill; Diaz, Jose J; Duane, Therese M; Hameed, S Morad; Hutter, Matthew M; Metzler, Michael H; Regner, Justin L; Reilly, Patrick M; Reines, H David; Sperry, Jason L; Staudenmayer, Kristan L; Utter, Garth H; Crandall, Marie L; Bilimoria, Karl Y; Nathens, Avery B

    2017-11-01

    Patients managed nonoperatively have been excluded from risk-adjusted benchmarking programs, including the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP). Consequently, optimal performance evaluation is not possible for specialties like emergency general surgery (EGS) where nonoperative management is common. We developed a multi-institutional EGS clinical data registry within ACS NSQIP that includes patients managed nonoperatively to evaluate variability in nonoperative care across hospitals and identify gaps in performance assessment that occur when only operative cases are considered. Using ACS NSQIP infrastructure and methodology, surgical consultations for acute appendicitis, acute cholecystitis, and small bowel obstruction (SBO) were sampled at 13 hospitals that volunteered to participate in the EGS clinical data registry. Standard NSQIP variables and 16 EGS-specific variables were abstracted with 30-day follow-up. To determine the influence of complications in nonoperative patients, rates of adverse outcomes were identified, and hospitals were ranked by performance with and then without including nonoperative cases. Two thousand ninety-one patients with EGS diagnoses were included, 46.6% with appendicitis, 24.3% with cholecystitis, and 29.1% with SBO. The overall rate of nonoperative management was 27.4%, 6.6% for appendicitis, 16.5% for cholecystitis, and 69.9% for SBO. Despite comprising only 27.4% of patients in the EGS pilot, nonoperative management accounted for 67.7% of deaths, 34.3% of serious morbidities, and 41.8% of hospital readmissions. After adjusting for patient characteristics and hospital diagnosis mix, addition of nonoperative management to hospital performance assessment resulted in 12 of 13 hospitals changing performance rank, with four hospitals changing by three or more positions. This study identifies a gap in performance evaluation when nonoperative patients are excluded from surgical quality

  5. A fully non-linear multi-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator for simulation of fusion plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, Robert, E-mail: rhager@pppl.gov; Yoon, E.S., E-mail: yoone@rpi.edu; Ku, S., E-mail: sku@pppl.gov

    2016-06-15

    Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. In this article, the non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. The finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable onmore » high-performance computing systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. The collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.« less

  6. A fully non-linear multi-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator for simulation of fusion plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Hager, Robert; Yoon, E. S.; Ku, S.; ...

    2016-04-04

    Fusion edge plasmas can be far from thermal equilibrium and require the use of a non-linear collision operator for accurate numerical simulations. The non-linear single-species Fokker–Planck–Landau collision operator developed by Yoon and Chang (2014) [9] is generalized to include multiple particle species. Moreover, the finite volume discretization used in this work naturally yields exact conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The implementation of this new non-linear Fokker–Planck–Landau operator in the gyrokinetic particle-in-cell codes XGC1 and XGCa is described and results of a verification study are discussed. Finally, the numerical techniques that make our non-linear collision operator viable on high-performance computingmore » systems are described, including specialized load balancing algorithms and nested OpenMP parallelization. As a result, the collision operator's good weak and strong scaling behavior are shown.« less

  7. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  8. Complicated Genitourinary Tract Infections and Mimics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Michael; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary; Menias, Christine

    This article provides pictorial review of complicated upper and lower genitourinary infections and their mimics. Imaging features of upper urinary tract infections including uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN), emphysematous pyelonephritis, perirenal abscess, and pyonephrosis are first reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including contrast-associated nephrotoxicity, renal infarcts, malakoplakia, renal cell cancer, leukemia or lymphoma and Castleman's disease. Next, imaging features of lower urinary tract infections including cystitis, emphysematous cystitis, enterovesical, colovesical and vesicovaginal fistulas, Fournier gangrene, prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis are reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including gas in the bladder and perineum related to instrumentation, radiation cystitis, bladder cancer, testicular torsion, testicular trauma, and testicular cancer and lymphoma. Recognizing imaging characteristics of complicated genitourinary infections and their mimics would allow clinicians to provide appropriate timely management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Nonoperative options for management of residual stones after cholecystostomy in high-risk patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, David M.; Daye, S. S.; Lincer, R. M.

    1993-05-01

    Cholecystostomy is frequently performed to obtain control of sepsis in high risk patients with acute cholecystitis. Retained stones in the gallbladder may cause future clinical problems. We present two patients with cholecystostomy tubes managed non-operatively. A review of other reported methods for stone extraction or destruction is also presented. Knowledge of safe and effective techniques for removal of these stones, using minimally invasive techniques is useful to the general surgeon.

  10. Removal of a Trapped Endoscopic Catheter from the Gallbladder via Percutaneous Transhepatic Cholecystostomy: Technical Innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Stay, Rourke M.; Sonnenberg, Eric van; Goodacre, Brian W.

    2006-12-15

    Background. Percutaneous cholecystostomy is used for a variety of clinical problems. Methods. Percutaneous cholecystostomy was utilized in a novel setting to resolve a problematic endoscopic situation. Observations. Percutaneous cholecystostomy permitted successful removal of a broken and trapped endoscopic biliary catheter, in addition to helping treat cholecystitis. Conclusion. Another valuable use of percutaneous cholecystostomy is demonstrated, as well as emphasizing the importance of the interplay between endoscopists and interventional radiologists.

  11. Incidental gall bladder carcinoma in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of 6 cases and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; Mj, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases.

  12. [Celioscopic cholecystectomy. A survey of the French Society of Endoscopic Surgery and Operative Radiology. Apropos of 937 cases].

    PubMed

    Collet, D

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-eight surgeons, members of the Société Française de Chirurgie Endoscopique et de Radiologie Opératoire, took part in this multicenter study, carried out between March 1989 and January 1991. Nine hundred and thirty-seven patients were entered into the study, 934 of whom presented with biliary lithiasis and 3 with gallbladder polyps. Biliary colic was found in 918 (98 percent) of patients. One hundred and twenty-five patients (13.3 percent) presented with acute cholecystitis. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy had to be converted to traditional laparotomy in 50 cases (5.3 percent). The most frequent causes of conversion were the presence of cholecystitis (34 percent) and the occurrence of hemorrhage which could not be controlled laparoscopically (18 percent). There was one death (mortality rate: 0.1 percent) and there were 37 postoperative complications (morbidity rate: 3.9 percent) which required reoperation in 11 instances: 4 laparatomies, 5 laparoscopies and 2 ultrasonography guided drainages. The mean duration of postoperative hospital stay for patients without complications or conversion was 3.8 days. These results show both the limits and the advantages of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This new technique is now well established and should be added to other therapies used in the treatment of patients with biliary lithiasis.

  13. [Photographic documentation during safe laparoscopic cholecystectomy].

    PubMed

    Bolívar-Rodríguez, Martín A; Pamanes-Lozano, Adrián; Matus-Rojas, Jaime; Cázarez-Aguilar, Marcel A; Fierro-López, Rodolfo

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the most frequent procedure for the general surgeon. Biliary injury is a concern that must be addressed with the purpose of lowering the rate. The critical view of safety (CVS) is a target of dissection that impulses safety during the procedure. Determine by an ambispective analysis the safety during dissection of laparoscopic cholecystectomy in Hospital Civil de Culiacán (México). Descriptive, ambispective, observational, cross-sectional. Patients admitted to the operating room for a laparoscopic cholecystectomy were scored with Doublet photography rating criteria from January 1 st 2015 to January 31, 2017. 321 patients were evaluated, 77.9% were female and 22.1% male. The mean age was 45.57 ± 16.17 years. 65.4% had admission diagnosis of cholelithiasis, 24.3% acute cholecystitis, 5.9% chronic cholecystitis, 3.7% hydrocolecist and 0.6% pyocolecist. Surgeries were scored with Doublet photography. The CVS was obtained in 41.4% of the procedures with a statistical significance between a HPB surgeon and a general surgery resident (p ≤ 0.05). Recording Doublet photography provides a reliable CVS dissection criterion. It can be easily reproduced during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The identification of cystic structures adds to the culture of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Copyright: © 2018 Permanyer.

  14. Direct measurements and comparisons between deuterium and impurity rotation and density profiles in the H-mode steep gradient region on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, S. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Chrystal, C.; Stagner, L.; Burrell, K.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H.; Nazikian, R.

    2016-10-01

    The recently commissioned edge deuterium charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy diagnostic on DIII-D is providing direct measurements of the deuterium rotation, temperature, and density in H-mode pedestals. The deuterium temperature and temperature scale length can be 50 % lower than the carbon measurement in the gradient region of the pedestal, indicating that the ion pedestal pressure can deviate significantly from that inferred from carbon CER. In addition, deuterium exhibits a larger toroidal rotation in the co-Ip direction near the separatrix compared with the carbon. These differences are qualitatively consistent with theory-based models that identify thermal ion orbit loss across the separatrix as a source of intrinsic angular momentum. The first direct measurements of the deuterium density pedestal profile show an inward shift of the impurity pedestal compared with the main ions, validating neoclassical predictions from the XGC0 code. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  15. Fusion PIC code performance analysis on the Cori KNL system

    SciTech Connect

    Koskela, Tuomas S.; Deslippe, Jack; Friesen, Brian

    We study the attainable performance of Particle-In-Cell codes on the Cori KNL system by analyzing a miniature particle push application based on the fusion PIC code XGC1. We start from the most basic building blocks of a PIC code and build up the complexity to identify the kernels that cost the most in performance and focus optimization efforts there. Particle push kernels operate at high AI and are not likely to be memory bandwidth or even cache bandwidth bound on KNL. Therefore, we see only minor benefits from the high bandwidth memory available on KNL, and achieving good vectorization ismore » shown to be the most beneficial optimization path with theoretical yield of up to 8x speedup on KNL. In practice we are able to obtain up to a 4x gain from vectorization due to limitations set by the data layout and memory latency.« less

  16. Incidental Gall Bladder Carcinoma in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Report of 6 Cases and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Sujata, Jetley; S, Rana; Sabina, Khan; MJ, Hassan; Jairajpuri, Zeeba Shamim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Gall bladder carcinoma accounts for 98% of all the gall bladder malignancies and it is the sixth most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract worldwide. The incidence of incidental gall bladder carcinoma which is diagnosed during or after a laparoscopic cholecystectomy is reported to be around 0.19-3.3% in the literature. Aim: This study was aimed at detecting the incidence of gall bladder carcinomas which were diagnosed incidentally during or after laparoscopic cholecystectomies which were done for gall stone disease and cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the medical records of patients with symptomatic gallstone disease and acute or chronic cholecystitis, who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomies at the Hakeem Abdul Hameed Centenary Hospital during the period from January 2007 to June 2012. Results: A total of 622 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our institute during the study period of five and a half years. In 6 (0.96%) cases, incidental carcinomas of the gallbladder were discovered. Conclusion: A laparoscopic cholecystectomy which is performed for benign gall bladder disease rarely results in a diagnosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer. The microscopic examination of the specimens, with special attention to the depth of invasion, range of the mucosal spread and the lymphovascular involvement, is critical in diagnosing the incidental malignancies as well as for the subsequent management of the cases. PMID:23449518

  17. Acute pancreatitis associated with scrub typhus.

    PubMed

    Sv, Padmavathi Devi; M, Aruna; Kumar, Anil Cv; Krishna Reddy, Hari; Bl, Sangeetha; Siva Kumar, V

    2017-01-01

    Scrub typhus, or tsutsugamushi fever, is a zoonosis of rural Asia and the western Pacific islands. The causative organism, Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, is transmitted to humans by the bite of a larval Leptotrombidium mite (chigger). Scrub typhus may have gastrointestinal presentations, such as acute acalculous cholecystitis, duodenal ulcer perforation, peritonitis and gastric ulceration. Acute pancreatitis with scrub typhus has been reported rarely. We report a patient of scrub typhus complicated by acute pancreatitis and acute kidney injury. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Computer Assisted Medical Diagnosis (CAMD) System. Version 1.0. User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-10-01

    ULCERA CHOLECYSTITIS SMALL BOWEL OBSTRUCTION PEPTIC ULCER DISEASE MESENTERIC ADENITIS DIVERTICULITIS V <S;e > < View > <Cancel> Computer Assisted Medical...JOHN SSN 123-45-6789 Diseases on File <Complaint > APPENDL1X iT!rS~ A <Sym NONS ECIAICABDOMINAL PAIN sist> -VA RENAL COLIC AGE PERFORATED DUODENAL...elevated unless perforation occurs. <OK> 4.4.4 SF600 Report. This option extracts the encounter data and compiles it into the SF600 report format. The

  19. Association of BDNF and BMPR1A with clinicopathologic parameters in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neurotrophic factors such as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are synthesized in a variety of neural and non-neuronal cell types and regulate survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In addition, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) inhibit the proliferation of pulmonary large carcinoma cells bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type IA (BMPR1A). Little is known about the expression of BDNF or BMPR1A in malignant gall bladder lesions. This study was to evaluate BDNF and BMPR1A expression and evaluate the clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesions of the gallbladder. Methods The BDNF and BMPR1A expression of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyp and chronic cholecystitis were Immunohistochemically determined. Results BDNF expression was significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenoma, polyps and chronic cholecystitis samples. However, BMPR1A expression was significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, adenomas, polyps and chronic cholecystitis tissues. The specimens with increased expression of BDNF in the benign lesions exhibited moderate- or severe-dysplasia of gallbladder epithelium. BDNF expression was significantly lower in well-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximum tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis to lymph nodes, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. BMPR1A expression were significantly higher in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with maximal tumor diameter <2 cm, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas with maximal tumor diameter >2 cm, metastasis of lymph node, and invasiveness of regional tissues in gallbladder. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated

  20. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A resected case of medullary carcinoma of the ascending colon followed by infarction of the greater omentum mimicking anastomotic leakage.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Masaki; Kono, Hiroshi; Yasuhara, Yumiko; Tsujimura, Naoto; Nakahara, Yujiro; Matsumoto, Takashi; Takemoto, Hiroyoshi; Takachi, Ko; Nishioka, Kiyonori; Yoshida, Kyotaro; Oshima, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma is a rare type of colorectal adenocarcinoma, and omental infarction is a rare cause of acute abdomen. A 72-year-old woman underwent single-incision laparoscopic right hemicolectomy for ascending colon cancer. Pathological examination showed a medullary carcinoma (MC) of T4aN0M0 Stage IIB. Her postoperative course was uneventful, and she was discharged on postoperative day (POD) 6. From POD 7, she suffered from fever, and she returned to the hospital on POD 9. Plain computed tomography showed free air beside the anastomotic site around the elevated density of fat tissue and gallbladder wall thickening with a gallstone. Suspecting anastomotic leakage with acute cholecystitis, probe laparotomy was performed. Intraoperative observation confirmed omental infarction with acute cholecystitis, and no leakage was found at the anastomotic site. Therefore, the necrotic part of the greater omentum was resected, and cholecystectomy was performed. She has remained well, with no evidence of recurrent cancer during the 12 months of follow-up without chemotherapy after the surgery for MC of the ascending colon. MC should be distinguished from other more aggressive, non-glandular tumors of the colon because MC appears to have a better survival outcome than undifferentiated colon adenocarcinoma. Omental infarction should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen after surgery. A rare case of medullary carcinoma of the ascending colon followed by infarction of the greater omentum mimicking anastomotic leakage is presented.

  2. [Hepatobiliary System Diseases as the Predictors of Psoriasis Progression].

    PubMed

    Smirnova, S V; Barilo, A A; Smolnikova, M V

    2016-01-01

    To assess the state of the hepatobiliary system in psoriasis andpsoriatic arthritis in order to establish a causal relationship and to identify clinical and functional predictors of psoriatic disease progression. The study includedpatients with extensive psoriasis vulgaris (n = 175) aged 18 to 66 years old and healthy donors (n = 30), matched by sex and age: Group 1--patients with psoriasis (PS, n = 77), group 2--patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA, n = 98), group 3--control. The evaluation of functional state of the hepatobiliary system was performed by the analysis of the clinical and anamnestic data and by the laboratory-instrumental methods. We identified predictors of psoriasis: triggers (stress and nutritionalfactor), increased total bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, eosinophilia, giardiasis, carriers of hepatitis C virus, ductal changes andfocal leisons in the liver, thickening of the walls of the gallbladder detected by ultrasound. Predictors ofpsoriatic arthritis: age over 50 years, dyspeptic complaints, the presence of hepatobiliary system diseases, the positive right hypochondrium syndrome, the clinical symptoms of chronic cholecystitis, excess body weight, high levels of bilirubin, cholesterol and low density lipoprotein, hepatomegaly, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. High activity of hepatocytes cytolysis, cholestasis, inflammation, metabolic disorders let us considerpsoriatic arthritis as a severe clinical stage psoriatic disease when the hepatobiliary system, in turn, is one of the main target organs in systemic psoriatic process. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic cholecystitis are predictors of psoriatic disease progression.

  3. Noninvasive Imaging of the Biliary System Relevant to Percutaneous Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephen; Jahangir, Kayleen

    2016-01-01

    Clinical data such as history, physical examination, and laboratory tests are useful in identifying patients with biliary obstruction and biliary sources of infection. However, if intervention is planned, noninvasive imaging is needed to confirm the presence, location, and extent of the disease process. Currently, the most commonly available and used noninvasive modalities are ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR), and nuclear medicine hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HIDA). US is quick, portable, readily available, and is commonly the first imaging modality used when biliary pathology is suspected. It is excellent in the detection of cholelithiasis and acute cholecystitis but is limited in detecting choledocholithiasis. CT is excellent at detecting infected postoperative fluid collections, bilomas, biliary obstruction, and biliary infection but is limited in the detection of cholelithiasis. Therefore, US may be more useful than CT for the initial screening of acute biliary disease. MR has inherent advantages over CT, as it does not use ionizing radiation, can be done without intravenous contrast, and its detection of cholelithiasis is not affected by the internal composition of the stone. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography can be used to determine the cause and location of biliary obstruction but is limited in the detection of small stones and the evaluation of the biliary tract near the ampulla. HIDA is used to evaluate for cholecystitis, biliary obstruction, and bile leaks. The main limitation is its lack of anatomical detail, and it is therefore frequently performed in conjunction with other described modalities. PMID:27904246

  4. Factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of congenital choledochal malformation: a retrospective case study in Southeast China

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wan-liang; Zhan, Yang; Fang, Fang; Deng, Yan-bing; Zhao, Jun-gang

    2018-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of congenital choledochal malformation (CCM). Design A 3-year retrospective study was undertaken between January 2013 and December 2015 in four centres in China. Setting This involved a retrospective chart review of paediatric patients with CCM in four large hospitals in Southeast China. Participants Sixty-five paediatric patients with CCM were included in this study. We derived all available information on patient demographics, clinical characteristics, preoperative complications and surgical methods from the charts of all these patients. Interventions Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate factors significantly affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of CCM. Results Twenty-three of the 65 case surgeries were performed using laparoscopic technique, and 42 surgeries were performed by conventional open surgery. The median operating time was 215 min (range 120–430 min). The morphological subtype of CCM and the presence of cholecystitis or cholangitis were the only factors found to affect the operating time (p<0.05). Logistic regression analysis confirmed cholangitis as an independent risk factor. Conclusions The morphological subtype of CMM and the presence of cholecystitis or cholangitis are factors affecting the operating time for complete cyst excision and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy in paediatric cases of CCM, whereas cholangitis is an independent risk factor. PMID:29804066

  5. [A domestic cat infected with a large number of Clonorchis sinensis].

    PubMed

    Qiang, Chai; Xiao-Dong, Zhan; Chao-Pin, Li

    2016-07-18

    Adult Clonorchis sinensis not only occurs in human hepatic duct, but also in the liver, gallbladder and bile ducts of animals, including dogs and cats, thus causing clonorchiasis-one of important parasitic zoonoses. In present study, we dissected a domestic cat in which a total of 736 pieces of trematodes, identified as Clonorchis sinensis , were detected in the liver and cholecyst. The findings indicate that Clonorchis sinensis may be endemic in domestic animals in Wuhu area, and observe our awareness in prevention of the parasites in house pets.

  6. Opisthorchiasis in Thailand: review and current status.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya-J; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2008-04-21

    Opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini (O. viverrini) remains a major public health problem in many parts of Southeast Asia including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The infection is associated with a number of hepatobiliary diseases, including cholangitis, obstructive jaundice, hepatomegaly, cholecystitis, chole-lithiasis and cholangiocarcinoma. The liver fluke infection was induced by eating raw or uncooked fish products that is the tradition and popular in the northeastern and northern region, particularly in rural areas of Thailand. Health education programs to prevent and control opisthorchiasis are still required in high-risk areas.

  7. [Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm following blunt abdominal injury].

    PubMed

    Kargl, S; Breitwieser, J; Gitter, R; Pumberger, W

    2012-12-01

    Posttraumatic hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms are a rare but life-threatening complication of blunt abdominal trauma with liver damage. We report the case of a child who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the right hepatic artery after a bicycle accident with central liver rupture. After an episode of hemodynamically relevant hemobilia due to delayed bleeding, the asymptomatic pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed coincidentally by ultrasound. Because of the progression in size angiographic coiling was performed and led to thrombotic occlusion of the pseudoaneurysm. After a symptom-free period of 1 month the child required surgery because of acute cholecystitis.

  8. Is cholecystectomy necessary after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones in patients older than 80 years of age?

    PubMed

    Yasui, Takaharu; Takahata, Shunichi; Kono, Hiroshi; Nagayoshi, Yosuke; Mori, Yasuhisa; Tsutsumi, Kosuke; Sadakari, Yoshihiko; Ohtsuka, Takao; Nakamura, Masafumi; Tanaka, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Although patients with cholecystocholedocholithiasis are generally referred to cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy (ES) and common bile duct clearance, we often have a conflict whether cholecystectomy is necessary in very elderly patients with comorbid diseases. The aim of this study is to assess whether cholecystectomy in very elderly patients is justified after ES. Patients with cholecystocholedocholithiasis who underwent ES and stone extraction and were followed-up for more than 10 years were retrospectively reviewed. We divided these patients into two groups: the elderly group (equal to or more than 80 years old) and young group (less than 80 years old) and compared late biliary complications and mortality. The 10-year cumulative incidence of overall biliary complications was significantly lower in cholecystectomized patients than in patients with gallbladder in situ in the young group (7.5 vs. 21.7%, p = 0.0037), but not different in the elderly group (8.3 vs. 7.4%, p = 0.92). When each complication was evaluated separately, the rate of recurrent common bile duct stones (CBDS) was not different, but that of acute cholecystitis was significantly lower in the elderly group than in the young group (4.1 vs. 22.6%, p = 0.011). In very elderly patients the incidence of acute cholecystitis is low even when the gallbladder is preserved after endoscopic treatment of CBDS, with a similar risk of CBDS recurrence. Thus, it may not be necessary to recommend cholecystectomy after ES for CBDS in very elderly patients.

  9. Dual pathology—An unreported case

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Darren; Rasheed, Ashraf; Rashid, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Symptomatic biliary disease in children and young adults requiring surgical intervention are uncommon. However even rarer is the occurrence of a spontaneous gallbladder necrosis in a child. We report a case of spontaneous necrosis in a child with no apparent causative factors. Case Fit and well 16 year-old boy presented with acute generalized lower abdominal pain. Examination revealed mild epigastric pain with rebound tenderness and guarding of the right iliac fossa. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed a necrotic gallbladder and incidental finding of a Meckel’s diverticulum. He had a cholecystectomy and Meckel’s diverticulum resection. Patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. He was reviewed 2 months later and recovered well with no evidence of any post-operative complication. He was discharged without any further follow up. Discussion Gall bladder necrosis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. We present the first reported case of a spontaneous gallbladder necrosis with no apparent cause. Literature review showed various causes of gall bladder necrosis including trauma, acalculous cholecystitis, gallbladder torsion, gangrenous cholecystitis and etc. Conclusion We report a case of spontaneous gallbladder necrosis in a young healthy male with no family history of thrombotic disorders or any history of sepsis, intervention, trauma and no obvious underlying anatomical or histological abnormalities. This is an exceedingly rare pathology and one would be forgiven for not including it on the list of a differential diagnosis in such circumstance. However it is important to send tissue sample to exclude any underlying histological aetiological factors. PMID:26657530

  10. Dual pathology-An unreported case.

    PubMed

    Yap, Darren; Rasheed, Ashraf; Rashid, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic biliary disease in children and young adults requiring surgical intervention are uncommon. However even rarer is the occurrence of a spontaneous gallbladder necrosis in a child. We report a case of spontaneous necrosis in a child with no apparent causative factors. Fit and well 16 year-old boy presented with acute generalized lower abdominal pain. Examination revealed mild epigastric pain with rebound tenderness and guarding of the right iliac fossa. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed a necrotic gallbladder and incidental finding of a Meckel's diverticulum. He had a cholecystectomy and Meckel's diverticulum resection. Patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home. He was reviewed 2 months later and recovered well with no evidence of any post-operative complication. He was discharged without any further follow up. Gall bladder necrosis is a rare cause of an acute abdomen. We present the first reported case of a spontaneous gallbladder necrosis with no apparent cause. Literature review showed various causes of gall bladder necrosis including trauma, acalculous cholecystitis, gallbladder torsion, gangrenous cholecystitis and etc. We report a case of spontaneous gallbladder necrosis in a young healthy male with no family history of thrombotic disorders or any history of sepsis, intervention, trauma and no obvious underlying anatomical or histological abnormalities. This is an exceedingly rare pathology and one would be forgiven for not including it on the list of a differential diagnosis in such circumstance. However it is important to send tissue sample to exclude any underlying histological aetiological factors. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Overexpression of MTA1 and loss of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions are associated with invasion, metastasis, and poor-prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenjun; Yang, Zhu-lin; Liu, Jie-qiong; Yang, Le-ping; Yang, Xiao-jing; Fu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Over 90% of patients with gallbladder cancer have invasion and/or metastasis when they are diagnosed at the clinic. Such patients usually have an extremely poor prognosis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the high prevalence of invasion and metastasis remains unknown. We investigated the expression of two metastasis-suppression genes--KAI-1 and KiSS-1--and a metastasis-associated gene--MTA1--in 108 adenocarcinomas, 15 gallbladder polyps, 35 chronic cholecystitis tissues, and 46 peritumoral tissues using in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry. We demonstrated that positive MTA1 expression was significantly higher whereas positive expressions of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 genes were significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than in peritumoral tissues, polyps, and chronic cholecystitis. Positive MTA1 expression was significantly lower, but positive KAI-1 and KiSS-1 expressions were significantly higher in cases with well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, smaller tumor mass, no metastasis of lymph node, and no invasion of regional tissues than in cases having poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, larger tumor mass, metastasis and invasion. Univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that increased expression of MTA1 and lowered expression of KAI-1 and KiSS-1 were significantly associated with decreased overall survival. Cox regression analysis showed that tumor mass, lymph node metastasis, invasion, and MTA1 expression levels negatively correlated with survival. Our study suggested that KAI-1, KiSS-1, and MTA1 might be important biological markers involved in the carcinogenesis, metastasis, and invasion of gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but MTA1 is an independent factor of prognosis.

  12. Concomitant endometrial and gallbladder metastasis in advanced multiple metastatic invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bezpalko, Kseniya; Mohamed, Mohamed A; Mercer, Leo; McCann, Michael; Elghawy, Karim; Wilson, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    At time of presentation, fewer than 10% of patients have metastatic breast cancer. The most common sites of metastasis in order of frequency are bone, lung, pleura, soft tissue, and liver. Breast cancer metastasis to the uterus or gallbladder is rare and has infrequently been reported in the English literature. A 47 year old female with a recent history of thrombocytopenia presented with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Pelvic ultrasound revealed multiple uterine fibroids and endometrial curettings revealed cells consistent with lobular carcinoma of the breast. Breast examination revealed edema and induration of the lower half of the right breast. Biopsy of the right breast revealed invasive lobular carcinoma. Bone marrow aspiration obtained at a previous outpatient visit revealed extensive involvement by metastatic breast carcinoma. Shortly after discharge, the patient presented with acute cholecystitis and underwent cholecystectomy. Microscopic examination of the gallbladder revealed metastatic infiltrating lobular carcinoma. The final diagnosis was invasive lobular carcinoma of the right breast with metastasis to the bone marrow, endometrium, gallbladder, regional lymph nodes, and peritoneum. The growth pattern of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast is unique and poses a challenge in diagnosing the cancer at an early stage. Unlike other types of breast cancer, it tends to metastasize more to the peritoneum, ovary, and gastrointestinal tract. Metastasis to the endometrium or gallbladder is rare. Metastatic spread should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with invasive lobular breast carcinoma presenting with abnormal vaginal bleeding or acute cholecystitis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Cystoisospora belli Infection of the Gallbladder in Immunocompetent Patients: A Clinicopathologic Review of 18 Cases.

    PubMed

    Lai, Keith K; Goyne, Hannah E; Hernandez-Gonzalo, David; Miller, Kennon A; Tuohy, Marion; Procop, Gary W; Lamps, Laura W; Patil, Deepa T

    2016-08-01

    Cystoisospora belli, previously known as Isospora belli, is an obligate intracellular coccidian parasite that is most often associated with gastrointestinal disease in immunocompromised patients. In this study, we detail the clinicopathologic features of 18 cases of Cystoisospora infection affecting the gallbladder in immunocompetent individuals and compare them with a control group. Each case was reviewed for cholecystitis (none, acute, chronic), epithelial disarray, presence of intraepithelial lymphocytes (none, rare [≤5 per 20 epithelial cells], present [>5 per 20 epithelial cells]), architectural distortion, intramucosal eosinophilia, and mural thickening/serositis. The mean age of patients with Cystoisospora infection was 33 years and the male to female ratio 1:4.3. Cholecystectomy was performed for biliary dyskinesia (n=7), abdominal pain (n=7), suspected cholelithiasis (n=5), and cholecystitis (n=3). In 2 cases, Cystoisospora was found in donor gallbladders resected at the time of liver transplantation. Each case was characterized by eosinophilic, oval or banana-shaped intraepithelial parasites within perinuclear parasitophorous vacuoles. Most cases showed epithelial disarray and minimal intraepithelial lymphocytosis. Of the 11 cases with an average follow-up of 15 months, none had evidence of disease related to Cystoisospora infection within the biliary tract or elsewhere in the gastrointestinal tract. We present the largest series of gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent patients to date. Cystoisospora infection is underrecognized in the gallbladders of immunocompetent patients, in part due to the subtle findings in routine cholecystectomy specimens. On the basis of the clinical follow-up, gallbladder cystoisosporiasis in immunocompetent individuals appears to be a self-limited infection.

  14. Plastic biliary stents for benign biliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Perri, Vincenzo; Familiari, Pietro; Tringali, Andrea; Boskoski, Ivo; Costamagna, Guido

    2011-07-01

    Biliary plastic stenting plays a key role in the endoscopic management of benign biliary diseases. Complications following surgery of the biliary tract and liver transplantation are amenable to endoscopic treatment by plastic stenting. Insertion of an increasing number of plastic stents is currently the method of choice to treat postoperative biliary strictures. Benign biliary strictures secondary to chronic pancreatitis or primary sclerosing cholangitis may benefit from plastic stenting in select cases. There is a role for plastic stent placement in nonoperative candidates with acute cholecystitis and in patients with irretrievable bile duct stones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Video-laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Results of 281 treated cases].

    PubMed

    Sammartino, P; De Cesare, A; Barillari, P; Bononi, M; Chirletti, P; Bovino, A; Atella, F; Cioè, I

    1995-01-01

    From March 1992 to September 1994, 281 patients were submitted to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholelithiasis. 27 patients were admitted with diagnosis of acute cholecystitis and in 17 patients common duct stones were discovered and managed by ERCP before laparoscopic procedure. Surgical procedure was the standard one described by Cox. The mean duration of the operation was 60 minutes and was significantly related to the surgeon's experience; the incedence of conversion to open procedure was 5.7%. There was no postoperative mortality; the total morbility rate was 2.8%, with 3 major complications, and 5 minor complications.

  16. Understanding the Mechanical forces of Self-Expandable Metal Stents in the Biliary Ducts.

    PubMed

    Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Saburo; Kogure, Hirofumi; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) was an effective biliary endoprosthesis. Mechanical properties of SEMS, radial and axial force (RF, AF), may play important roles in the bile duct after placement. RF was well known dilation force and influenced on the occurrence of migration. AF, newly proposed by this author, was defined as the recovery force when the SEMS vended. AF was related with the cause of bile duct kinking, pancreatitis, and cholecystitis due to the compression of the bile duct, orifice of the cystic duct, and pancreatic orifice. Ideal SEMS may show high RF and low AF.

  17. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Su, Shou-hsin; Cheng, Yu-Hsin; Chou, Yu-lin; Tsai, Tai-Hsin; Lieu, Ann-Shung

    2010-04-27

    Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus.

  18. [Prophylaxis of pulmonary complications after traditional cholecystectomy at senior patients].

    PubMed

    Usovich, A K; Tesfaĭe, Volde; Sachek, M G

    2008-01-01

    Results of complex treatment of 238 patients undergone operations due to cholelithiasis with acute cholecystitis are analyzed; 198 of them were aged 60 years. At perioperative period patients were treated traditionally, 76 patients were additionally treated with alkaline inhalations, bronchodilatators, cardiac drugs, Bemithyl antihypoxant, broad spectrum antibiotics, oxygen therapy through nasopharyngeal catheter and oxygen cocktail, physical exercise therapy and prolonged lung ventilation (in postoperative period). Pulmonary complications were registered in 2.5 times more at traditional treatment in senior patients compared with ones less than 60 years. Original complex treatment permitted to reduce the rate of postoperative complications in 2.96 times.

  19. Expression of phospho-ERK1/2 and PI3-K in benign and malignant gallbladder lesions and its clinical and pathological correlations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qinglong; Yang, Zhulin

    2009-01-01

    Background An increasing number of studies have shown that ERK and PI3-K/AKT signaling pathways are involved in various human cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. However, few studies have examined gallbladder cancer specimens, and little is known about the clinical and pathological significance of ERK1/2 and PI3-K/AKT signaling changes in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. In this study, we examined phospho-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2) and PI3K expression and analyzed its clinicopathological impact in gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Methods Immunohistochemistry was used to detect and compare the frequency of p-ERK1/2 and PI3-K expression in gallbladder adenocarcinoma, peri-tumor tissues, adenomatous polyps, and chronic cholecystitis specimens. Results The positive staining for p-EKR1/2 and PI3-K were 63/108 (58.3%) and 55/108 (50.9%) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma; 14/46 (30.4%) and 5/46 (10.1%) in peri-tumor tissues; 3/15 (20%) and 3/15 (20%) in adenomatous polyps; and 4/35 (11.4%) and 3/35 (8.6%) in chronic cholecystitis. The positive rate of p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K in gallbladder adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than that in peri-tumor tissue (both, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyps (p-ERK1/2, P < 0.01; PI3-K, P < 0.05), and chronic cholecystitis (both, P < 0.01). The positive staining for p-ERK1/2 or PI3-K was significantly lower in well/highly-differentiated adenocancinomas with maximal diameter < 2.0 cm, no metastasis to lymph node, and no infiltration of regional tissues or organs compared to poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas which are characterized by a maximal diameter ≥ 2.0 cm, with metastasis to lymph node and infiltration of regional tissues or organs (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of p-ERK1/2 expression in gallbladder adenocarcinomas without gallstone was significantly lower than those with gallstones. Increased expression of p-ERK1/2 (P < 0.05) and PI3K (P = 0.062) was associated with decreased overall survival

  20. Roofline Analysis in the Intel® Advisor to Deliver Optimized Performance for applications on Intel® Xeon Phi™ Processor

    SciTech Connect

    Koskela, Tuomas S.; Lobet, Mathieu; Deslippe, Jack

    In this session we show, in two case studies, how the roofline feature of Intel Advisor has been utilized to optimize the performance of kernels of the XGC1 and PICSAR codes in preparation for Intel Knights Landing architecture. The impact of the implemented optimizations and the benefits of using the automatic roofline feature of Intel Advisor to study performance of large applications will be presented. This demonstrates an effective optimization strategy that has enabled these science applications to achieve up to 4.6 times speed-up and prepare for future exascale architectures. # Goal/Relevance of Session The roofline model [1,2] is amore » powerful tool for analyzing the performance of applications with respect to the theoretical peak achievable on a given computer architecture. It allows one to graphically represent the performance of an application in terms of operational intensity, i.e. the ratio of flops performed and bytes moved from memory in order to guide optimization efforts. Given the scale and complexity of modern science applications, it can often be a tedious task for the user to perform the analysis on the level of functions or loops to identify where performance gains can be made. With new Intel tools, it is now possible to automate this task, as well as base the estimates of peak performance on measurements rather than vendor specifications. The goal of this session is to demonstrate how the roofline feature of Intel Advisor can be used to balance memory vs. computation related optimization efforts and effectively identify performance bottlenecks. A series of typical optimization techniques: cache blocking, structure refactoring, data alignment, and vectorization illustrated by the kernel cases will be addressed. # Description of the codes ## XGC1 The XGC1 code [3] is a magnetic fusion Particle-In-Cell code that uses an unstructured mesh for its Poisson solver that allows it to accurately resolve the edge plasma of a magnetic fusion device

  1. Nonlinear Two Fluid and Kinetic ELM Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, H. R.; Sugiyama, L.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Hientzsch, B.; Breslau, J.; Park, W.; Samtaney, R.; Adams, M.; Jardin, S.

    2006-04-01

    Simulations of ELMs using dissipative MHD, two fluid MHD, and neoclassical kinetic physics models are being carried out using the M3D code [1]. Resistive MHD simulations of nonlinear edge pressure and current driven instabilities have been performed, initialized with realistic DIIID equilibria. Simulations show the saturation of the modes and relaxation of equilbrium profiles. Linear simulations including two fluid effects show the stabilization of toroidal mode number n = 10 modes, when the Hall parameter H, the ratio of ion skin depth to major radius, exceeds a threshhold. Nonlinear simulations are being done including gyroviscous stabilization. Kinetic effects are incorporated by coupling with the XGC code [2], which is able to simulate the edge plasma density and pressure pedestal buildup. These profiles are being used to initialize M3D simulations of an ELM crash and pedestal relaxation. The goal is to simulate an ELM cycle. [1] Park, W., Belova, E.V., Fu, G.Y., Tang, X.Z., Strauss, H.R., Sugiyama, L.E., Phys. Plas. 6, 1796 (1999).[2] Chang, C.S., Ku, S., and Weitzner, H., Phys. Plas. 11, 2649 (2004)

  2. Recent Progress and Future Plans for Fusion Plasma Synthetic Diagnostics Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Lei; Kramer, Gerrit; Tang, William; Tobias, Benjamin; Valeo, Ernest; Churchill, Randy; Hausammann, Loic

    2015-11-01

    The Fusion Plasma Synthetic Diagnostics Platform (FPSDP) is a Python package developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. It is dedicated to providing an integrated programmable environment for applying a modern ensemble of synthetic diagnostics to the experimental validation of fusion plasma simulation codes. The FPSDP will allow physicists to directly compare key laboratory measurements to simulation results. This enables deeper understanding of experimental data, more realistic validation of simulation codes, quantitative assessment of existing diagnostics, and new capabilities for the design and optimization of future diagnostics. The Fusion Plasma Synthetic Diagnostics Platform now has data interfaces for the GTS and XGC-1 global particle-in-cell simulation codes with synthetic diagnostic modules including: (i) 2D and 3D Reflectometry; (ii) Beam Emission Spectroscopy; and (iii) 1D Electron Cyclotron Emission. Results will be reported on the delivery of interfaces for the global electromagnetic PIC code GTC, the extended MHD M3D-C1 code, and the electromagnetic hybrid NOVAK eigenmode code. Progress toward development of a more comprehensive 2D Electron Cyclotron Emission module will also be discussed. This work is supported by DOE contract #DEAC02-09CH11466.

  3. Collisionality and temperature dependence of the edge main-ion co-current rotation profile feature on DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskey, Shaun; Grierson, Brian; Ashourvan, Arash; Battaglia, Devon; Chrystal, Colin; Burrell, Keith; Groebner, Richard; Degrassie, John; Stagner, Luke; Stoltzfus-Dueck, Timothy; Pablant, Novimir

    2017-10-01

    A new edge main-ion (D+) CER system and upgraded edge impurity system are revealing clear differences between the main-ion and dominant impurity (C6+) toroidal rotation from the pedestal top to the scrape off layer on DIII-D with implications for intrinsic rotation studies. A peaked co-current edge toroidal rotation is observed for the main ion species near the outboard midplane separatrix with values up to 140 km/s for low collisionality QH modes. In lower power (PNBI = 0.8MW) H-modes the edge rotation is still present but reduced to 50km/s. D+ and C6+ toroidal rotation differences are presented for a variety of scenarios covering a significant range of edge collisionality and Ti. Observations are compared with predictions from several models including collisionless ion orbit loss calculations and more complete modeling using the XGC0 code, which also predicts 140km/s edge rotation for low collisionality QH mode cases. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466, No. DE-FC02-04ER54698, and DE-FC02-95ER54309.

  4. Selective Internal Radiotherapy (SIRT) of Hepatic Tumors: How to Deal with the Cystic Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Theysohn, Jens M., E-mail: jens.theysohn@uni-due.de; Mueller, Stefan; Schlaak, Joerg F.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeSelective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) with the beta emitter yttrium-90 (Y90) is a rapidly developing therapy option for unresectable liver malignancies. Nontarget irradiation of the gallbladder is a complication of SIRT. Thus, we aimed to assess different strategies to avoid infusion of Y90 into the cystic artery (CA).MethodsAfter hepatic digital subtraction angiography and administration of technetium-99m-labeled human serum albumin ({sup 99}mTc-HSA), 295 patients with primary or secondary liver tumors underwent single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Different measures were taken before repeated Y90 mapping and SIRT to avoid unintended influx into the CA where necessary. Clinical symptoms, including pain, fever, ormore » a positive Murphy sign, were assessed during patient follow-up.ResultsA significant {sup 99}mTc-HSA accumulation in the gallbladder wall (higher {sup 99}mTc-HSA uptake than in normal liver tissue) was seen in 20 patients. The following measures were taken to avoid unintended influx into the CA: temporary/permanent occlusion of the CA with gelfoam (n = 5)/microcoil (n = 1), induction of vasospasm with a microwire (n = 4), or altering catheter position (n = 10). Clinical signs of cholecystitis were observed in only one patient after temporary CA occlusion with gelfoam and were successfully treated by antibiotics. Cholecystectomy was not required for any patient.ConclusionIt is important to identify possible nontarget irradiation of the gallbladder. The risk for radiation-induced cholecystitis can be easily minimized by temporary or permanent CA embolization, vasospasm induction, or altering the catheter position.« less

  5. US of Right Upper Quadrant Pain in the Emergency Department: Diagnosing beyond Gallbladder and Biliary Disease.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Gayatri; Crawford, Kevin A; Hanna, Tarek N; Herr, Keith D; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Menias, Christine O

    2018-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis is the most common diagnosable cause for right upper quadrant abdominal (RUQ) pain in patients who present to the emergency department (ED). However, over one-third of patients initially thought to have acute cholecystitis actually have RUQ pain attributable to other causes. Ultrasonography (US) is the primary imaging modality of choice for initial imaging assessment and serves as a fast, cost-effective, and dynamic modality to provide a definitive diagnosis or a considerably narrowed list of differential possibilities. Multiple organ systems are included at standard RUQ US, and a variety of ultrasonographically diagnosable disease processes can be identified, including conditions of hepatic, pancreatic, adrenal, renal, gastrointestinal, vascular, and thoracic origin, all of which may result in RUQ pain. In certain cases, subsequent computed tomography, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR cholangiopancreatography, or cholescintigraphy may be considered, depending on the clinical situation and US findings. Familiarity with the spectrum of disease processes outside of the gallbladder and biliary tree that may manifest with RUQ pain and recognition at US of these alternative conditions is pivotal for early diagnosis and appropriate management. Diagnosis at the time of initial US can reduce unnecessary imaging and its consequences, including excess cost, radiation exposure, nephrotoxic contrast medium use, and time to diagnosis, thereby translating into improved patient care and outcome. This article (a) reviews the causes of RUQ pain identifiable at US using an organ-system approach, (b) illustrates the US appearance of select conditions from each organ system with multimodality imaging correlates, and (c) discusses the relevant pathophysiology and treatment of these entities to aid in efficient direction of management. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2018.

  6. Success of elective cholecystectomy treatment plans after emergency department visit.

    PubMed

    Bingener, Juliane; Thomsen, Kristine M; McConico, Andrea; Hess, Erik P; Habermann, Elizabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation between patients with acute cholecystitis and patients with severe biliary colic can be challenging. Patients with undiagnosed acute cholecystitis can incur repeat emergency department (ED) visits, which is resource intensive. Billing records from 2000-2013 of all adults who visited the ED in the 30 d preceding their cholecystectomy were analyzed. Patients who were discharged from the ED and underwent elective cholecystectomy were compared with those who were discharged and returned to the ED within 30 d. T-tests, chi-square tests, and multivariable analysis were used as appropriate. From 2000-2013, 3138 patients (34%) presented to the ED within 30 d before surgery, 63% were women, mean age 51 y, and of those 1625 were directly admitted from the ED for cholecystectomy, whereas 1513 patients left the ED to return for an elective cholecystectomy. Patients who were discharged were younger (mean age 49 versus 54 y, P < 0.001) and had shorter ED stays (5.9 versus 7.2 h, P < 0.001) than the patients admitted immediately. Of the discharged patients, 303 (20%) returned to the ED within 30 d to undergo urgent cholecystectomy. Compared with patients with successful elective cholecystectomy after the ED visit, those who failed the pathway were more likely to have an American Society of Anesthesiologists score ≥3 and were <40 or ≥60 compared with the successful group. One in five patients failed the elective cholecystectomy pathway after ED discharge, leading to additional patient distress and use of resources. Further risk factor assessment may help design efficient care pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clonazepam-associated Bradycardia in a Disabled Elderly Woman with Multiple Complications

    PubMed Central

    Maruyoshi, Hidetomo; Maruyoshi, Natsue; Hirosue, Motone; Ikeda, Komei; Shimamoto, Masaaki

    2017-01-01

    We herein report an 87-year-old woman who was taking clonazepam at 1.5 mg/day. She was hospitalized with an old cerebral infarction complicated with symptomatic epilepsy, dementia, dyslipidemia, and chronic cholecystitis. Electrocardiogram revealed severe bradycardia at 31 beats/min. The bradycardia disappeared on day 3 after clonazepam withdrawal, although the serum clonazepam level had been within normal limits. She was diagnosed with clonazepam-associated bradycardia, which was likely related to the potential calcium channel-blocking properties of clonazepam. Because of age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, the adverse effects of clonazepam should be considered, especially in disabled elderly individuals with multiple comorbidities. PMID:28794360

  8. Clonazepam-associated Bradycardia in a Disabled Elderly Woman with Multiple Complications.

    PubMed

    Maruyoshi, Hidetomo; Maruyoshi, Natsue; Hirosue, Motone; Ikeda, Komei; Shimamoto, Masaaki

    2017-09-01

    We herein report an 87-year-old woman who was taking clonazepam at 1.5 mg/day. She was hospitalized with an old cerebral infarction complicated with symptomatic epilepsy, dementia, dyslipidemia, and chronic cholecystitis. Electrocardiogram revealed severe bradycardia at 31 beats/min. The bradycardia disappeared on day 3 after clonazepam withdrawal, although the serum clonazepam level had been within normal limits. She was diagnosed with clonazepam-associated bradycardia, which was likely related to the potential calcium channel-blocking properties of clonazepam. Because of age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes, the adverse effects of clonazepam should be considered, especially in disabled elderly individuals with multiple comorbidities.

  9. Kocuria varians infection associated with brain abscess: A case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Kocuria, established by Stackebrandt et al., previously was classified into Micrococcus. Only two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae are reported to be associated as pathogenic and found with catheter-related bacteremia and acute cholecystitis. Case presentation We herein report the first case of brain abscess caused by Kocuria varians, a gram-positive microorganism, in a 52-year-old man. Hematogenous spread is the probable pathogenesis. Conclusions This report presents a case of Kocuria varians brain abscess successfully treated with surgical excision combined with antimicrobial therapy. In addition, Vitek 2 system has been used to identify and differentiate between coagulase-negative staphylococcus. PMID:20423506

  10. Multiple metastatic malignant melanoma presenting intraluminal gallbladder bleeding.

    PubMed

    Onozawa, Hisashi; Saito, Motonobu; Yoshida, Sayaka; Sakuma, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Masami; Katagata, Naoto; Watanabe, Fumiaki; Yamaguchi, Yoshiko; Takenoshita, Seiichi; Nomizu, Tadashi

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of malignant melanoma of unknown primary origin presenting metastasis in various organs as well as intraluminal gallbladder bleeding due to gallbladder metastasis. A 58-year-old woman was diagnosed with stage IV metastatic malignant melanoma. Because she exhibited acute cholecystitis and hemobilia due to malignant melanoma of the gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed to relieve the symptoms. The resected gallbladder specimen showed a pedunculated black mass indicating malignant melanoma. Pathologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis revealed malignant melanoma of the gallbladder. Only a few cases of gallbladder malignant melanoma presenting hemobilia have been reported; here we present our case, including the experience of multidisciplinary treatment.

  11. A rare case of perforated "sub-hepatic appendicitis" - a challenging differential diagnosis of acute abdomen based on the combination of appendicitis and maldescent of the caecum.

    PubMed

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Jannasch, Olof; Petersen, Manuela; Lessel, Wiebke; Bruns, Christiane; Meyer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Unusual locations of the appendix vermiformis can result in delay in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis. So an inflamed appendix in a sub-hepatic caecum caused by caecal maldescent for example can mimic cholecystitis, the pain being localized in the right upper quadrant. Here, we present a case of perforated sub-hepatic appendicitis with peritonitis, requiring open ileocaecal resection. Review of the existing literature has demonstrated that this pathology is uncommon, yet not so rare as one might presume. In conclusion, surgeons should be aware of this possibility in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Hematoma of the falciform ligament: a rare cause of acute abdomen.

    PubMed

    Sari, Serkan; Ersöz, Feyzullah; Güneş, Mehmet Emin; Paşaoğlu, Esra; Arikan, Soykan

    2011-01-01

    Hematoma or abscess of the liver ligaments is extremely rare, and hematoma of the falciform ligament has been sporadically reported. We report the case of a 70-year-old female who presented with a three-day history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain, fever and nausea. With a preoperative diagnosis of probable perforated acalculous cholecystitis, the patient underwent emergency surgery. Hematoma of the falciform ligament was found. Wide excision of the falciform ligament including the hematoma with abscess was performed. Although pathology of the falciform ligament is rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen, especially in the case of antiaggregant drug usage.

  13. Histopathologic Findings of Cholecystectomy Specimens in Patients Who Underwent Donor Hepatectomy for Living Donor Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Akbulut, S; Karagul, S; Ertugrul, I; Aydin, C; Yilmaz, M; Yilmaz, S

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to discuss the macroscopic and microscopic properties of gallbladder specimens obtained from living liver donors. The study retrospectively analyzed the clinical and histopathological data of 1088 donors who underwent living donor hepatectomy between March 2005 and September 2014 at Inonu University Faculty of Medicine, Liver Transplantation Center. Age, sex, macroscopic, and microscopic properties of the gallbladder (bladder length, diameter, content, and histopathological properties) were recorded by 2 researchers. A total of 1009 donors aged 17 to 66 years (31.1 ± 9.5) met the inclusion criteria, whereas 79 donors were excluded due to missing data. In total, 587 donors were male (30.5 ± 9.1 years [16-63 years]) and 422 were female (31.8 ± 9.8 years [18-66 years]). Preoperative tests revealed Gilbert syndrome in 3 subjects, whereas other donors' biochemical tests were within normal ranges. The macroscopic examination of gallbladders revealed mean gallbladder wall thickness, length, and width of 1.82 ± 0.8 mm (1-10 mm), 72 ± 11.4 mm (40-120 mm), and 52.5 ± 14 mm (15-90 mm), respectively. The microscopic gallbladder examination showed that 740 donors had a normal gallbladder, 193 had chronic cholecystitis (1 donor had antral metaplasia and 1 had intestinal metaplasia), 40 had cholesterolosis (1 donor had both tubular adenoma and intestinal metaplasia), 15 had minimal chronic cholecystitis (1 donor had pyloric metaplasia), 14 had cholelithiasis, 2 had adenomyosis, 2 had muscular hypertrophy, 1 had papillary hyperplasia, 1 had microdiverticulitis, and 1 had mucosal lymphatic ectasia. The results of this study reflect the actual gallbladder pathologies that can be detected in healthy people. Clearer conclusions can be reached about the epidemiological data on gallbladder as the number of living liver donors increases in the future. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventional Radiology-Operated Cholecystoscopy for the Management of Symptomatic Cholelithiasis: Approach, Technical Success, Safety, and Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nishant; Chick, Jeffrey Forris Beecham; Gemmete, Joseph J; Castle, Jordan C; Dasika, Narasimham; Saad, Wael E; Srinivasa, Ravi N

    2018-05-01

    The objective of our study was to report the technique, complications, and clinical outcomes of interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal for the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis. Ten (77%) men and three (23%) women (mean age, 65 years) with symptomatic cholelithiasis underwent cholecystostomy followed by interventional radiology-operated cholecystoscopy with stone removal. Major comorbidities precluding cholecystectomy included prior cardiac, pulmonary, or abdominal surgery; cirrhosis; sepsis with hyponatremia; seizure disorder; developmental delay; and cholecystoduodenal fistula. Cholecystostomy access, time between cholecystostomy and cholecystoscopy, endoscopic and fragmentation devices used, technical success, procedure time, fluoroscopy time, complications, length of hospital stay, time between cholecystoscopy and cholecystostomy removal, follow-up, and acute cholecystitis recurrence were recorded. Eleven (85%) patients underwent transhepatic cholecystostomy, and two (15%) patients underwent transperitoneal cholecystostomy. The mean time from cholecystostomy to cholecystoscopy was 151 days. Flexible endoscopy was used in eight (62%) patients, rigid endoscopy in three (23%), and both flexible and rigid in two (15%). Electrohydraulic lithotripsy was used in eight procedures, nitinol baskets in seven, ultrasonic lithotripsy in two, and percutaneous thrombectomy devices in one. Primary technical success was achieved in 11 (85%) patients, and secondary technical success was achieved in 13 (100%) patients. The mean procedure time was 164 minutes, and the mean number of procedures required to clear all gallstones was 1. One (8%) patient developed acute pancreatitis, and one (8%) patient died of gastrointestinal hemorrhage. The median hospital length of stay after cholecystoscopy was 1 day for postoperative monitoring. The mean time between cholecystoscopy and cholecystostomy removal was 39 days. One (8%) patient developed recurrent

  15. Viral Hepatitis A in 108 Adult Patients During an Eight-Year Observation at a Single Center in Poland.

    PubMed

    Bura, Maciej; Michalak, Michał; Chojnicki, Michał K; Kowala-Piaskowska, Arleta; Mozer-Lisewska, Iwona

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis A is related to significant morbidity and occasional mortality. Based on data from the Polish National Institute of Hygiene, from 2000 to 2013 a mean of 213 hepatitis A cases were reported yearly. The aim of the study was to assess selected data in adults hospitalized for symptomatic hepatitis A during an eight-year period in a single center in the Wielkopolska Region of Poland. All the hepatitis A patients hospitalized in the center from 2005 to 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were extracted from the medical records of these individuals. The disease was confirmed by anti-HAV IgM testing. In total, 108 patients (71 men and 37 women), aged 18-65 years, were identified. All but 1 patient recovered (99.1%) and in 6 cases (5.6%) a relapse occurred. Risk factors for hepatitis A were identified in 56 patients (52%), with travel abroad being the most common one (32 patients); 19 cases were secondary and 5 patients were men who have sex with men. One hepatitis A outbreak was noted in the region during the study period. Acalculous cholecystitis was found in 33.3% of the patients who underwent abdominal ultrasound. This tended to be more common among older individuals (47.8% in patients over 40 vs. 22.6% in patients aged 18-40, p=0.0521). Patients with this finding had significantly higher mean peak ALT in comparison to those with no gallbladder abnormalities. Although hepatitis A in adults is typically a benign, self-limited disease, it can occasionally have a fatal course. In a significant proportion of patients with an evident risk factor for hepatitis A, the possibility of active prophylaxis was not used. Hepatitis A should be regarded as a sexually transmitted infection. Acalculous cholecystitis is a frequent finding among adults with symptomatic hepatitis A.

  16. Erdheim-Chester Disease Involving the Central Nervous System with the Unique Appearance of a Coated Vertebral Artery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hime; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kaya, Mitsunori; Takada, Kohichi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by multiple xanthogranulomatous masses throughout the body, predominantly in the tibia. One of the characteristic radiological findings of the lesions associated with ECD is a "coated artery," which is often observed in the aorta. Although approximately one-fourth of ECD cases involve the central nervous system (CNS), an intracranial-coated artery has only been reported in four cases. We report a case of ECD that involves the CNS and has the unique appearance of a coated vertebral artery (VA). These tumors entirely encase the bilateral VAs without stenosis and are attached to the dura. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging also showed multiple extra-axial tumors in the cavernous sinus, the frontal convexity, and the orbital cavity. Further investigation revealed additional extracranial lesions around the cervical carotid artery, at the bilateral tibia, and at the elbow joint. A biopsy of the cervical and tibial lesions confirmed ECD. Steroid therapy resulted in a month-long improvement of preoperative symptoms. However, the patient's condition gradually progressed and he died of pneumonia 1 year after ECD diagnosis. The encasement of the intracranial artery by the tumor without stenosis and the dural attachment suggest ECD, which requires whole body investigation.

  17. Erdheim-Chester Disease Involving the Central Nervous System with the Unique Appearance of a Coated Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hime; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kaya, Mitsunori; Takada, Kohichi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by multiple xanthogranulomatous masses throughout the body, predominantly in the tibia. One of the characteristic radiological findings of the lesions associated with ECD is a “coated artery,” which is often observed in the aorta. Although approximately one-fourth of ECD cases involve the central nervous system (CNS), an intracranial-coated artery has only been reported in four cases. We report a case of ECD that involves the CNS and has the unique appearance of a coated vertebral artery (VA). These tumors entirely encase the bilateral VAs without stenosis and are attached to the dura. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging also showed multiple extra-axial tumors in the cavernous sinus, the frontal convexity, and the orbital cavity. Further investigation revealed additional extracranial lesions around the cervical carotid artery, at the bilateral tibia, and at the elbow joint. A biopsy of the cervical and tibial lesions confirmed ECD. Steroid therapy resulted in a month-long improvement of preoperative symptoms. However, the patient’s condition gradually progressed and he died of pneumonia 1 year after ECD diagnosis. The encasement of the intracranial artery by the tumor without stenosis and the dural attachment suggest ECD, which requires whole body investigation. PMID:28664013

  18. Clinicopathological Overview of Granulomatous Prostatitis: An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Nandkumar; Nikumbh, Dhiraj; Patil, Ashish; Nagappa, Karibasappa Gundabaktha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the prostate. Granulomatous prostatitis is important because, it mimics prostatic carcinoma clinically and hence the diagnosis can be made only by histopathological examination. Aim To study the histomorphological features and to know the prevalence of granulomatous prostatitis. Materials and Methods Histopathological records of 1,203 prostatic specimens received in the Department of the Pathology over a period of five years (June 2009 – June 2014). Seventeen cases of histopathologically, diagnosed granulomatous prostatitis were retrieved and reterospective data was collected from the patient’s records. Results Out of 17 cases of granulomatous prostatitis, we encountered 9 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 5 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis and 3 cases of specific tubercular prostatitis. The common age ranged from 51-75 years (mean 63 years) with mean PSA level of 15.8ng/ml. Six patients showed focal hypoechoic areas on TRUS and 11 cases revealed hard and fixed nodule on DRE. Conclusion Non-specific granulomatous prostatitis is the most common type of granulomatous prostatitis. There is no specific pattern of clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings that allows the diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis or differentiates it from prostatic carcinoma. Hence, histomorphological diagnosis is the gold standard in differentiating various prostatic lesions. PMID:27014642

  19. A case report of esophageal perforation: Complication of nasogastric tube placement

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Arda; Firat, Deniz; Peker, Kemal; Sayar, Ilyas; Idiz, Oguz; Soytürk, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 70 Final Diagnosis: Esophageal perforation Symptoms: Abdominal pain • nausea • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Esophageal perforation is a well-defined and severe clinical condition. There are several etiologies of esophagus perforation. Case Report: We report the case of a 70-year-old Caucasian man who underwent an emergency cholecystectomy due to acute cholecystitis. Two days after surgery, his condition deteriorated. Thorax computerized tomography revealed an esophageal perforation. Conclusions: Esophageal perforation due to nasogastric application is relatively rare but the consequences are potentially serious. The anatomy of the upper gastrointestinal system should be understood by all healthcare professionals involved in the treatment. PMID:24803977

  20. Giant gallstone: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Pablo; Becerra, Valentina; Aguilar, Christian; Modragon, Itziar; Cooper, David K.C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction There is a high incidence of gallstones in the Chilean population. Presentation of case We report on a 57-year-old man who complained of abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant. Abdominal ultrasound indicated acute cholecystitis and a single, extremely large pear-shaped gallstone (16.8 cm long, and 7.8 cm at its widest point and 4.1 cm at its narrowest point). Its fresh weight (at operation) was 278.0 g and, after 4 years, its dry weight was 259.5 g. Emergency classical cholecystectomy was carried out successfully. Discussion and Conclusion We have been unable to find a report of a larger gallstone in the English or Spanish language medical literature. PMID:22096735

  1. Right Upper Quadrant Pain: Ultrasound First!

    PubMed

    Revzin, Margarita V; Scoutt, Leslie M; Garner, Joseph G; Moore, Christopher L

    2017-10-01

    Acute right upper quadrant (RUQ) pain is a common presenting symptom in emergency departments and outpatient medical practices, and is most commonly attributable to biliary and hepatic pathology. Ultrasound should be used as a first-line imaging modality for the diagnosis of gallstones and cholecystitis, as it allows the differentiation of medical and surgical causes of upper abdominal pathology, and in many circumstances is sufficient to guide patient management. Knowledge of strengths and limitations of ultrasound in the evaluation of RUQ is paramount in correct diagnosis. A spectrum of RUQ pathology for which a RUQ ultrasound examination should reasonably be considered as the initial imaging modality of choice will be reviewed. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Kinetic neoclassical transport in the H-mode pedestal

    DOE PAGES

    Battaglia, D. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2014-07-16

    Multi-species kinetic neoclassical transport through the QH-mode pedestal and scrapeoff layer on DIII-D is calculated using XGC0, a 5D full-f particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. We achieved quantitative agreement between the fluxdriven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles by adding random-walk particle diffusion to the guiding-center drift motion. Furthermore, we computed the radial electric field (Er) that maintains ambipolar transport across flux surfaces and to the wall self-consistently on closed and open magnetic field lines, and is in excellent agreement with experiment. The Ermore » inside the separatrix is the unique solution that balances the outward flux of thermal tail deuterium ions against the outward neoclassical electron flux and inward pinch of impurity and colder deuterium ions. Particle transport in the pedestal is primarily due to anomalous transport, while the ion heat and momentum transport is primarily due to the neoclassical transport. The full-f treatment quantifies the non-Maxwellian energy distributions that describe a number of experimental observations in low-collisionallity pedestals on DIII-D, including intrinsic co-Ip parallel flows in the pedestal, ion temperature anisotropy and large impurity temperatures in the scrape-off layer.« less

  3. SciTech Connect

    Churchill, R. M.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.

    Understanding the multi-scale neoclassical and turbulence physics in the edge region (pedestal + scrape-off layer (SOL)) is required in order to reliably predict performance in future fusion devices. We explore turbulent characteristics in the edge region from a multi-scale neoclassical and turbulent XGC1 gyrokinetic simulation in a DIII-D like tokamak geometry, here excluding neutrals and collisions. For an H-mode type plasma with steep pedestal, it is found that the electron density fluctuations increase towards the separatrix, and stay high well into the SOL, reaching a maximum value ofmore » $$\\delta {n}_{e}/{\\bar{n}}_{e}\\sim 0.18$$. Blobs are observed, born around the magnetic separatrix surface and propagate radially outward with velocities generally less than 1 km s –1. Strong poloidal motion of the blobs is also present, near 20 km s –1, consistent with E × B rotation. The electron density fluctuations show a negative skewness in the closed field-line pedestal region, consistent with the presence of 'holes', followed by a transition to strong positive skewness across the separatrix and into the SOL. These simulations indicate that not only neoclassical phenomena, but also turbulence, including the blob-generation mechanism, can remain important in the steep H-mode pedestal and SOL. Lastly, qualitative comparisons will be made to experimental observations.« less

  4. [Characteristics of eating behavior in overweight young people with biliary tract diseases among Bashkortostan population].

    PubMed

    Volevach, L V; Khismatullina, G Ia; Uliamaeva, V V; Gur'ev, R D; Kamalova, A A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present research was to study the types of nutritional behavior disturbances in overweight patients with the pathology biliary tract. 132 patients with chronic noncalculous cholecystitis aged from 18 to 35 were examined. The comprehensive clinical examination was conducted and types of eating behavior disturbances with the help DEBQ test (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire) were examined. It was discovered that disturbances of eating behavior are observed in 82,9 percent of normal weight patients, in 100 percent of overweight and in 93,3 percent of patients with obesity. Restraint and emotional eating are more often observed in obesity. External eating is more often observed in overweight and normal weight persons than that emotional eating. Rational eating is rarely observed in all groups of examined persons.

  5. Effects of ingestion of cold and hot water on the course of thermal changes in the stomach and intestine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batinkov, Y. L.

    1979-01-01

    With the use of a thermocouple and mirror galvanometer, calibrated before the experiment and after each test, it was found that the normal temperature in the esophagus is 0.1-0.4 C higher than in the oral cavity, the temperature in the duodenum is somewhat less than in the stomach, but higher with cholecystitis, duodenitis or gastritis, the temperature in the normal stomach equals or is somewhat higher than in the esophagus, and that the temperature of distended stomachs frequently is lower than in the esophagus. It was found that hot water is retained in the stomach longer than cold water, and that both hot and cold water are allowed to pass into the duodenum when the water temperature becomes approximately equal to that of the surrounding organs.

  6. Spontaneous acalculous gallbladder perforation in a man secondary to chemotherapy and radiation: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jungang; Shen, Guoliang; Shi, Ying; Zhang, Chengwu; Hong, Defei; Jin, Li; Yang, Hongguo; Sun, Wei; Cai, Hanhui; Hu, Zhiming; Wu, Weiding

    2018-05-01

    Gallbladder perforation is a serious clinical condition and associated with high morbidity and mortality. A definitive diagnosis is contentious before surgery. We herein report a case of perforation of the gallbladder neck secondary to chemotherapy and radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patient. Gallbladder perforation secondary to chemotherapy and radiation. To decrease the mortality associated with gallbladder perforation, Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and peritoneal lavage were performed followed for gallbladder perforation patient because of chemotherapy and radiation. The patient recovered fully without serious complication and discharged on the 10th postoperative day. A pathological examination of the resected gallbladder revealed cholecystitis in the thinning of the neck. Early diagnosis and surgical intervention of gallbladder perforation in relation to asopharyngeal carcinoma chemotherapy and radiation are of prime importance. The laparoscopic procedure is safe and feasible in the selected patients.

  7. Spontaneous Cholelithiasis in a Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri sciureus)

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, Mia T.; Wachtman, Lynn M.; Marini, Robert P.; Bakthavatchalu, Vasu; Fox, James G.

    2016-01-01

    A mature female squirrel monkey was noted during routine semiannual examinations to have moderate progressive weight loss. Serum chemistry panels revealed marked increases in hepatic enzyme, bilirubin, and bile salt concentrations and hypoalbuminemia. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed echogenic, shadowing debris in the gallbladder, consistent with cholelithiasis. At necropsy, marked thickening and distension of the gallbladder, cystic duct, and common bile duct was noted, and more than 50 irregularly shaped, black gallstones were removed from the biliary tract. Gallbladder tissue, bile, and gallstones cultured positive for Escherichia coli and Proteus spp., suggesting a brown-pigment gallstone type secondary to a bacterial nidus. Histopathology revealed severe chronic–active diffuse cholecystitis and severe chronic-active hepatic degeneration and necrosis with severe cholestasis. To our knowledge, this report is the first description of spontaneous choleilthiasis in a squirrel monkey. PMID:26884412

  8. Cola-colored dialysate as a gastrointestinal sequelae of cardiac surgery in a patient who underwent peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Ling, Eng-Kian; Lin, Bing-Shi; Chiang, Shou-Shan; Tsai, Ming-Hsien

    2012-01-01

    The discoloration of effluent peritoneal dialysate, which is transparent in origin, is seen in some particular conditions including chyloperitoneum, calcium channel blocker usage, hemoperitoneum, perforated cholecystitis, iron administration, and hemorrhagic pancreatitis. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman who underwent peritoneal dialysis for 3 years and presented with conspicuous cola-colored (brownish-black) dialysate after a cardiac surgery. The findings of the dialysate analysis and the abdominal computed tomography showed that this discoloration could be due to the presence of methemalbumin caused by pancreatitis (not hemorrhagic) combined with intra-abdominal bleeding-both of which are rare gastrointestinal complications of cardiac surgery. She eventually died of pulseless electrical activity due to severe sepsis with profound shock. Therefore, the rare event of cola-colored peritoneal dialysate could present as severe gastrointestinal sequelae of cardiac surgery and may indicate a poor prognosis.

  9. Unusual causes of abdominal pain: sickle cell anemia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Shahid, Rabia K; Russo, Linda A

    2005-04-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive painful crises. The vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease is a complex process and accounts for the majority of the clinical manifestation of the disease. Abdominal pain is an important component of vaso-occlusive painful crises. It often represents a substantial diagnostic challenge in this population of patients. These episodes are often attributed to micro-vessel occlusion and infarcts of mesentery and abdominal viscera. Abdominal pain due to sickle cell vaso-occlusive crisis is often indistinguishable from an acute intra-abdominal disease process such as acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis, hepatic infarction, ischemic colitis and acute appendicitis. In the majority of cases, however, no specific cause is identified and spontaneous resolution occurs. This chapter will focus on etiologies, pathophysiology and management of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease.

  10. THE RESULTS OF USING RADIOIODINE FOR STUDIES OF THE FUNCTIONAL STATE OF THE THYROID GLAND IN CARDIOVASCULAR AND ALIMENTARY DISEASES (in Russian)

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyuzhnii, I.T.

    1962-04-01

    The thyroid function in 60 healthy persons and 2000 patients was assessed. An elevated capacity of the thyroid gland to concentrate radioiodine was observed in almost 50% of rheumocarditis patients, one-third of lamblious cholecystitis cases, one-fourth of patients with rheumatic disease of the heart and circulatory insufficiency of the 1st and 2nd degrees, and more rarely in patients with neurosis, peptic ulcer, and hypertensive vascular disease of the 1st stage. Moderately low indexes of radioiodine accumulation in the thyroid gland were found in patients with subacute septic endocarditis, in two-thirds of patients with atherosclerosis and hypertensive vascular disease (2nd andmore » 3rd stages), in half of cases with rheumatic heart disease and circulatory insufficiency of the 3rd degree, as well as in pulmonary heart, chronic gastritis, and ulcerous disease. (auth)« less

  11. Therapy of umbilical hernia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Zoricić, Ivan; Vukusić, Darko; Rasić, Zarko; Schwarz, Dragan; Sever, Marko

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to show our experience with umbilical hernia herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, both in the same act. During last 10 years we operated 89 patients with cholecystitis and pre-existing umbilical hernia. In 61 of them we performed standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional sutures of abdominal wall, and in 28 patients we performed in the same act laparoscopic cholecystectomy and herniorrhaphy of umbilical hernia. We observed incidence of postoperative herniation, and compared patients recovery after herniorrhaphy combined with laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the same act, and patients after standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional sutures of abdominal wall. Patients, who had in the same time umbilical hernia herniorrhaphy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, shown better postoperative recovery and lower incidence of postoperative umbilical hernias then patients with standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy and additional abdominal wall sutures.

  12. What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon; ...

    2017-01-24

    Here, in order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the fullmore » torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ|, and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.« less

  13. What happens to full-f gyrokinetic transport and turbulence in a toroidal wedge simulation?

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Kyuho; Chang, C. S.; Seo, Janghoon

    Here, in order to save the computing time or to fit the simulation size into a limited computing hardware in a gyrokinetic turbulence simulation of a tokamak plasma, a toroidal wedge simulation may be utilized in which only a partial toroidal section is modeled with a periodic boundary condition in the toroidal direction. The most severe restriction in the wedge simulation is expected to be in the longest wavelength turbulence, i.e., ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven turbulence. The global full-f gyrokinetic code XGC1 is used to compare the transport and turbulence properties from a toroidal wedge simulation against the fullmore » torus simulation in an ITG unstable plasma in a model toroidal geometry. It is found that (1) the convergence study in the wedge number needs to be conducted all the way down to the full torus in order to avoid a false convergence, (2) a reasonably accurate simulation can be performed if the correct wedge number N can be identified, (3) the validity of a wedge simulation may be checked by performing a wave-number spectral analysis of the turbulence amplitude |δΦ| and assuring that the variation of δΦ between the discrete kθ values is less than 25% compared to the peak |δΦ|, and (4) a frequency spectrum may not be used for the validity check of a wedge simulation.« less

  14. Improved kinetic neoclassical transport calculation for a low-collisionality QH-mode pedestal

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, D. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.

    The role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL) structure in an ELM-free QH-mode discharge on DIII-D is explored using XGC0, a 5D full-f multi-species particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. The work in this paper builds on previous work aimed at achieving quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles. Improved quantitative agreement is achieved by performing the calculations with a more realistic electron mass, larger neutral density and including finite-Larmor-radius corrections self-consistentlymore » in the drift-kinetic motion of the particles. Consequently, the simulations provide stronger evidence that the radial electric field (E r) in the pedestal is primarily established by the required balance between the loss of high-energy tail main ions against a pinch of colder main ions and impurities. The kinetic loss of a small population of ions carrying a large proportion of energy and momentum leads to a separation of the particle and energy transport rates and introduces a source of intrinsic edge torque. Ion orbit loss and finite orbit width effects drive the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describe the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the T i profile.« less

  15. Improved kinetic neoclassical transport calculation for a low-collisionality QH-mode pedestal

    DOE PAGES

    Battaglia, D. J.; Burrell, K. H.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2016-07-15

    The role of neoclassical, anomalous and neutral transport to the overall H-mode pedestal and scrape-off layer (SOL) structure in an ELM-free QH-mode discharge on DIII-D is explored using XGC0, a 5D full-f multi-species particle-in-cell drift-kinetic solver with self-consistent neutral recycling and sheath potentials. The work in this paper builds on previous work aimed at achieving quantitative agreement between the flux-driven simulation and the experimental electron density, impurity density and orthogonal measurements of impurity temperature and flow profiles. Improved quantitative agreement is achieved by performing the calculations with a more realistic electron mass, larger neutral density and including finite-Larmor-radius corrections self-consistentlymore » in the drift-kinetic motion of the particles. Consequently, the simulations provide stronger evidence that the radial electric field (E r) in the pedestal is primarily established by the required balance between the loss of high-energy tail main ions against a pinch of colder main ions and impurities. The kinetic loss of a small population of ions carrying a large proportion of energy and momentum leads to a separation of the particle and energy transport rates and introduces a source of intrinsic edge torque. Ion orbit loss and finite orbit width effects drive the energy distributions away from Maxwellian, and describe the anisotropy, poloidal asymmetry and local minimum near the separatrix observed in the T i profile.« less

  16. An Unusual Presentation of Plasma Cells - Castleman Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mihăilă, Mariana; Herlea, V; Dobrea, Camelia; Lupescu, Ioana; Munteanu, Gina Rusu; Chiriac, Grethi; Micu, L; Serescu, R; Copaci, I

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 76 year old female patient admitted in the Department of Cardiology for physical asthenia, profuse sweating and dyspnea with orthopnea for about one month. Clinical and paraclinical assessments performed at admission confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade. Surgical intervention was performed and 400 mL of clear effusion were drained. Post-operative evolution was marked by recurrence of symptoms, requiring after 3 weeks a new drainage of 600 mL of clear effusion, and biopsy of the pericardium was performed. Pathological exam described serous pericarditis with chronic inflammatory infiltrate, xanthogranulomatous reaction intricated in the pericardium and mesothelial hyperplasia. The patient was subsequently transferred to the Department of Internal Medicine for further investigations. Physical examination showed a patient with altered general status, pallor, vesicular murmur absent in both bases, presenting cutaneous hyperpigmentation at the level of the right hemi-abdomen and hip with posterior extension, and a peripheral indurated erythematous plaque. The patient presented nodular masses of 3 cm in the right latero-cervical and bilateral axillary regions, non-adherent to the superficial structures, as well as adenopathic blocks in both inguinal regions. CT scan of the thorax and abdomen showed moderate bilateral pleuresia, minimal pericardial effusion (15 mm) and multiple adenopathies on both sides of the diaphragm. Skin biopsy was performed, as well as bone marrow aspirate and excision of a right axillary lymph node. Pathological exams and immunohistochemistry tests confirmed the diagnosis of Plasma Cells Castleman disease.

  17. Single-Organ Gallbladder Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Tan, Carmela D.; Rodríguez, E. René; Hoffman, Gary S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Systemic vasculitis (SV) involving abdominal structures usually has a poor prognosis. Gallbladder vasculitis (GV) has been reported as part of SV (GB-SV) and focal single-organ vasculitis (GB-SOV). We analyzed clinical and histologic characteristics of patients with GV to identify features that differentiate GB-SOV from the systemic forms of GV. To identify affected patients with GV we used pathology databases from our institution and an English-language PubMed search. Clinical manifestations, laboratory and histologic features, treatment administered, and outcomes were recorded. Patients were divided in 2 groups, GB-SOV and GB-SV. As in previous studies of single-organ vasculitis, GB-SOV was only considered to be a sustainable diagnosis if disease beyond the gallbladder was not apparent after a follow-up period of at least 6 months. Sixty-one well-characterized patients with GV were included (6 from our institution). There was no significant sex bias (32 female patients, 29 male). Median age was 52 years (range, 18–94 yr). GB-SOV was found in 20 (33%) and GB-SV in 41 (67%) patients. No differences were observed in age, sex frequency, or duration of gallbladder symptoms between groups. Past episodes of recurrent right-upper quadrant or abdominal pain and lithiasic cholecystitis were more frequent in GB-SOV patients, whereas acalculous cholecystitis occurred more often in GB-SV. In GB-SV, gallbladder-related symptoms occurred more often concomitantly with or after the systemic features, but they sometimes appeared before SV was fully developed (13.5%). Constitutional and musculoskeletal symptoms were reported only in GB-SV patients. Compared to GB-SOV, GB-SV patients presented more often with fever (62.5% vs 20%; p = 0.003) and exhibited higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate levels (80 ± 28 vs 37 ± 25 mm/h, respectively; p = 0.006). All GB-SV patients required glucocorticoids and 50% of them also received cytotoxic agents. Mortality in

  18. Small Gallstone Size and Delayed Cholecystectomy Increase the Risk of Recurrent Pancreatobiliary Complications After Resolved Acute Biliary Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung Bum; Kim, Tae Nyeun; Chung, Hyun Hee; Kim, Kook Hyun

    2017-03-01

    Acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP) is a severe complication of gallstone disease with considerable mortality, and its recurrence rate is reported as 50-90% for ABP patients who do not undergo cholecystectomy. However, the incidence of and risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications after the initial improvement of ABP are not well established in the literature. The aims of this study were to determine the risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications and to compare the outcomes between early (within 2 weeks after onset of pancreatitis) and delayed cholecystectomy in patients with ABP. Patients diagnosed with ABP at Yeungnam University Hospital from January 2004 to July 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. The following risk factors for recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (acute pancreatitis, acute cholecystitis, and acute cholangitis) were analyzed: demographic characteristics, laboratory data, size and number of gallstones, severity of pancreatitis, endoscopic sphincterotomy, and timing of cholecystectomy. Patients were categorized into two groups: patients with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications (Group A) and patients without pancreatobiliary complications (Group B). Of the total 290 patients with ABP (age 66.8 ± 16.0 years, male 47.9%), 56 (19.3%) patients developed recurrent pancreatobiliary complications, of which 35 cases were acute pancreatitis, 11 cases were acute cholecystitis, and 10 cases were acute cholangitis. Endoscopic sphincterotomy and cholecystectomy were performed in 134 (46.2%) patients and 95 (32.8%) patients, respectively. Age, sex, BMI, diabetes, number of stone, severity of pancreatitis, and laboratory data were not significantly correlated with recurrent pancreatobiliary complications. The risk of recurrent pancreatobiliary complications was significantly increased in the delayed cholecystectomy group compared with the early cholecystectomy group (45.5 vs. 5.0%, p < 0.001). Based on the multivariate

  19. Stepwise approach to curative surgery using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage and portal vein embolization for severe bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Honmyo, Naruhiko; Kuroda, Shintaro; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Ishiyama, Kohei; Ide, Kentaro; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Ohira, Masahiro; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has been recently adapted to acute cholecystitis. Major bile duct injury during LC, especially Strasberg-Bismuth classification type E, can be a critical problem sometimes requiring hepatectomy. Safety and definitive treatment without further morbidities, such as posthepatectomy liver failure, is required. Here, we report a case of severe bile duct injury treated with a stepwise approach using (99m)Tc-galactosyl human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-GSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT fusion imaging to accurately estimate liver function.A 52-year-old woman diagnosed with acute cholecystitis underwent LC at another hospital and was transferred to our university hospital for persistent bile leakage on postoperative day 20. She had no jaundice or infection, although an intraperitoneal drainage tube discharged approximately 500 ml of bile per day. Recorded operation procedure showed removal of the gallbladder with a part of the common bile duct due to its misidentification, and each of the hepatic ducts and right hepatic artery was injured. Abdominal enhanced CT revealed obstructive jaundice of the left liver and arterial shunt through the hilar plate to the right liver. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed type E4 or more advanced bile duct injury according to the Bismuth-Strasberg classification. We planned a stepwise approach using percutaneous transhepatic cholangiodrainage (PTCD) and portal vein embolization (PVE) for secure right hemihepatectomy and biliary-jejunum reconstruction and employed (99m)Tc-GSA SPECT/CT fusion imaging to estimate future remnant liver function. The left liver function rate had changed from 26.2 % on admission to 26.3 % after PTCD and 54.5 % after PVE, while the left liver volume rate was 33.8, 33.3, and 49.6 %, respectively. The increase of liver function was higher than that of volume (28.3 vs. 15.8 %). On postoperative day 63, the curative operation, right

  20. Rare combination of familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder polyps.

    PubMed

    Mori, Yasuhisa; Sato, Norihiro; Matayoshi, Nobutaka; Tamura, Toshihisa; Minagawa, Noritaka; Shibao, Kazunori; Higure, Aiichiro; Nakamoto, Mitsuhiro; Taguchi, Masashi; Yamaguchi, Koji

    2014-12-14

    Familial adenomatous polyposis is associated with a high incidence of malignancies in the upper gastrointestinal tract (particularly ampullary adenocarcinomas). However, few reports have described a correlation between familial adenomatous polyposis and gallbladder neoplasms. We present a case of a 60-year-old woman with familial adenomatous polyposis who presented with an elevated mass in the neck of the gallbladder (measuring 16 mm × 8 mm in diameter) and multiple small cholecystic polyps. She had undergone a total colectomy for ascending colon cancer associated with familial adenomatous polyposis 22 years previously. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy under a preoperative diagnosis of multifocal gallbladder polyps. Pathologic examination of the resected gallbladder revealed more than 70 adenomatous lesions, a feature consistent with adenoma of the gallbladder. This case suggests a requirement for long-term surveillance of the biliary system in addition to the gastrointestinal tract in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis.

  1. Biosocial and other characteristics of the large bowel cancer patients in Belgrade (Yugoslavia).

    PubMed

    Jarebinski, M; Vlajinac, H; Adanja, B

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparative biosocial study between 186 patients with large bowel cancer and two groups of matched controls, each with 186 persons. One of these groups was from hospitalized patients, the other from the neighbourhood of the cancer patients. Bowel cancer patients and their controls were compared with regard to level of education, profession, physical activity in job, smoking habits, alcohol and coffee consumption and previous illnesses. The only parameters that were statistically different between cancer patients and both controls were haemorrhoids and use of laxatives, that were found to be increased in the cancer group. Higher education level, coffee consumption, polyposis, appendectomia were significantly more presented in bowel cancer patients but only in comparison to one control group. Out of the other diseases of the digestive tract, cases and controls differed with respect to cholecystitis, cholecystectomy and to diabetes.

  2. Population morbidity in the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant observation zone as an integral part of public health.

    PubMed

    Khomenko, I M; Zakladna, N V; Orlova, N M

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the health status of adult population living in the Ukrainian nuclear power industry obser vation zone on the example of Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant. System review, analytic, sociological survey and statistical methods. There was established an increase in the incidence of digestive diseases among adult population in Nikopol of Dnipropetrovsk region, which is included in the Zaporizhzhia NPP observation zone. The highest increase was observed in the incidence of peptic ulcer, gastritis and duodenitis, cholecystitis and cholangitis by 340 %, 305 % and 83 %, respectively. In connection with the residence in industrially developed region and NPP life extension in Ukraine, the possible influence of harmful factors on health status of the population of observation zones, an increase in the incidence of digestive diseases among adult population, there is required continuous monitoring and detailed study of public health. I. M. Khomenko, N. V. Zakladna, N. M. Orlova.

  3. Abdominal pain in children with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Melissa M; Bates, David Gregory; Andrews, Tina; Adkins, Laura; Thornton, Jennifer; Denham, Jolanda M

    2014-02-01

    The differential diagnosis of abdominal pain is broad in any child, and further complicated in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Acute causes of abdominal pain may require emergent surgery, such as for appendicitis or obstruction caused by a bezoar. Rapid intervention is necessary and life-saving in children with SCD and acute splenic or hepatic sequestration. The majority of children with SCD presenting to the physician's office or emergency department will have subacute reasons for their abdominal pain, including but not limited to constipation, urinary tract infection, peptic ulcer disease, and cholecystitis. Vaso-occlusive pain often presents in children as abdominal pain, but is a diagnosis of exclusion. The case of a 10-year-old girl with intermittent abdominal pain is used as a starting point to review the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the most acute and common causes of abdominal pain in children with SCD.

  4. A case of recurrent cholangitis after bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: value of scintigraphy with Tc-99m GSA and hepatobiliary scintigraphy for indication of lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Nishiguchi, S; Shiomi, S; Sasaki, N; Iwata, Y; Tanaka, H; Kubo, S; Hirohashi, K; Ochi, H

    2000-10-01

    A 39-year-old woman with acute cholecystitis and gallstones underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. She suffered from recurrent episodes of cholangitis due to injury of the major bile ducts during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy with Tc-99m Sn-N-pyridoxyl-5-methyltryptophan was performed. Although normal bile excretion was found from the left hepatic duct to the percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube, excretion from the right hepatic lobe was prolonged. Scintigraphy with Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-galactosyl human serum albumin demonstrated atrophy of the right hepatic lobe and enlargement of the left hepatic lobe. Cholangiography via the PTBD tube revealed complete obstruction of the left hepatico-jejunal anastomosis and could not enhance the right intrahepatic bile duct. A right hepatic lobectomy was performed because of the atrophy, glissonitis and the absence of an appropriate bile duct for reconstruction. Postoperatively she was active and exhibited no evidence of recurrent cholangitis.

  5. Preoperative evaluation of renal anatomy and renal masses with helical CT, 3D-CT and 3D-CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Uğur; Erdoğan, Aysun; Gülbay, Mutlu; Karademir, Mehmet Alp; Paşaoğlu, Eşref; Akar, Okkeş Emrah

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the efficacy of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) that were reconstructed by using the axial images of the multiphasic helical CT in the preoperative evaluation of renal masses and demonstration of renal anatomy. Twenty patients that were suspected of having renal masses upon initial physical examination and ultrasonographic evaluation were examined through multiphasic helical CT. Two authors executed CT evaluations. Axial images were first examined and then used to reconstruct 3D-CT and 3D- CTA images. Number, location and size of the renal masses and other findings were noted. Renal vascularization and relationships of the renal masses with the neighboring renal structures were further investigated with 3D-CT and 3D-CTA images. Out of 20 patients, 13 had histopathologically proven renal cell carcinoma. The diagnoses of the remaining seven patients were xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, abscess, simple cyst, infected cyst, angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma and arteriovenous fistula. In the renal cell carcinoma group, 3 patients had stage I, 7 patients had stage II, and 3 patients had stage III disease. Sizes of renal cell carcinoma masses were between 23 mm to 60 mm (mean, 36 mm). Vascular invasion was shown in 2 renal cell carcinoma patients. Collecting system invasion was identified in 11 of 13 renal cell patients. These radiologic findings were confirmed with surgical specimens. Three-dimensional CT and 3D-CTA are non-invasive, effective imaging techniques for the preoperative evaluation of renal masses.

  6. Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic disease in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shibin; Kou, Changgui; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; D'Arcy, Carl; Shi, Jieping; Wu, Yanhua; Liu, Jianwei; Zhu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin

    2015-05-01

    Rural-urban differences in the prevalence of chronic diseases in the adult population of northeast China are examined. The Jilin Provincial Chronic Disease Survey used personal interviews and physical measures to research the presence of a range of chronic diseases among a large sample of rural and urban provincial residents aged 18 to 79 years (N = 21 435). Logistic regression analyses were used. After adjusting for age and gender, rural residents had higher prevalence of hypertension, chronic ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic low back pain, arthritis, chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer, chronic cholecystitis/gallstones, and chronic lower respiratory disease. Low education, low income, and smoking increased the risk of chronic diseases in rural areas. Reducing rural-urban differences in chronic disease presents a formidable public health challenge for China. The solution requires focusing attention on issues endemic to rural areas such as poverty, lack of chronic disease knowledge, and the inequality in access to primary care. © 2014 APJPH.

  7. Acute Liver Failure in a Patient Travelling From Asia: The Other Face of the Coin of Infectious Disease.

    PubMed

    Abdulrahman, Balen; Ahmed, Mohamed H; Ramage, John

    2017-08-01

    We present a case of a 63-year-old male who had travelled from South India to United Kingdom (UK) visiting relatives. He had developed episodes of diarrhea, vomiting and fevers while travelling and on assessment in hospital, mild abdominal distension was noted with rapid deterioration to hypovolemic shock. Initial blood test showed a low platelet count with deranged liver function tests (LFTs). It was noted that during admission to intensive care unit (ICU), blood continued to ooze from a previous surgical laparoscopy wound, central and arterial line access sites. Blood results revealed ongoing derangement of clotting and LFT. Computed tomography (CT) scan showed possible acute cholecystitis and a laparoscopy showed an ischemic-looking liver and gut but no significant gallbladder abnormality. The virology screen was positive for dengue virus antibodies IgM and IgG. The patient developed multi-organ failure and deteriorated despite intensive support. Post mortem showed fulminant hepatic failure and acute tubular necrosis of kidneys.

  8. Vibrios on the half shell: what the walrus and the carpenter didn't know.

    PubMed

    Blake, P A

    1983-10-01

    At least nine Vibrio species have been associated with disease in the United States. Vibrio fluvialis, V. hollisae, V. mimicus, and V. parahaemolyticus cause diarrheal diseases, but may also be encountered in extraintestinal infections such as wound and ear infections, septicemia, and cholecystitis. Vibrio alginolyticus, V. damsela, V. metschnikovii, and V. vulnificus primarily cause extraintestinal disease. Toxigenic V. cholerae O1 is the cause of epidemic cholera, whereas nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 and non-O1 V. cholerae have been associated with both diarrheal and extraintestinal diseases. Most reports of vibrio infections have come from states along the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico and from Hawaii, and most of the infections have occurred during summer and fall. Wound and ear infections have occurred after exposure to salty or brackish water or to drippings from raw seafoods. Foodborne vibrio infections are almost all caused by seafoods, especially oysters eaten raw. Thorough cooking and careful handling will render seafoods safe for consumption.

  9. [Combined forecasting system of peritonitis outcome].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, N V; Klimov, A E; Agrba, S B; Gaidukevich, E K

    To create a reliable system for assessing of severity and prediction of the outcome of peritonitis. Critical analysis of the systems for peritonitis severity assessment is presented. The study included outcomes of 347 patients who admitted at the Department of Faculty Surgery of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia in 2015-2016. The cause of peritonitis were destructive forms of acute appendicitis, cholecystitis, perforated gastroduodenal ulcer, various perforation of small and large intestines (including tumor). Combined forecasting system for peritonitis severity assessment is created. The system includes clinical, laboratory data, assessment of systemic inflammatory response (SIRS) and severity of organ failure (qSOFA). The authors focused on easily identifiable parameters which are available in virtually any surgical hospital. Threshold value (lethal outcome probability over 50%) is 8 scores in this system. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 93.3, 99.7 and 98.9%, respectively according to ROC-curve that exceeds those parameters of MPI and APACHE II.

  10. [Childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  11. Multiple primary malignancies of the liver and the colon: a complex diagnostic and decisional process with a final unanswered question.

    PubMed

    Portolani, Nazario; Baiocchi, Gianluca; Baronchelli, Carla; Gheza, Federico; Giulini, Stefano Maria

    2014-03-29

    We herein present the case of a 78-year-old man with an incidental finding of a solid hepatic mass without symptoms and only a laparotomic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the past surgical history. A colonoscopy, a magnetic resonance imaging scan, a positron emission tomography scan, and a computed tomography scan completed the preoperative workup: a neoplastic lesion 4.3×3 cm in size was diagnosed at segments IV and V, associated with a neoplastic involvement of the splenic flexure without signs of colonic occlusion. After colonic resection, a frozen section on a granulomatous-like tissue at gastric border suggested a diagnosis of an adenocarcinoma of bilio-pancreatic type, changing the surgical strategy to include gastric resection and hepatic pedicle node dissection. The discussion turns around the idea that a final diagnosis of colon cancer with regional nodal involvement (pT3N1) and metastatic gallbladder cancer with multiple peritoneal seedings cannot be excluded.

  12. Prehepatocholedochal proper hepatic artery. Rare anatomical variant. Surgical considerations. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ardeleanu, V; Chicoş, S; Tutunaru, D; Georgescu, C

    2014-01-01

    In classical anatomic variants, the proper hepatic artery (PHA)continues the common hepatic artery (CHA) after the gastroduodenal artery (GDA) detaches itself and divides into the right hepatic artery (RHA) and left hepatic artery (LHA), the proper hepatic artery being located to the left of the hepatocholedochal duct (HCD). This paper presents an abnormal positioning of the PHA placed before the HCD with an increased diameter of about 5-7 mm, which could be confused with the HCD. We present the case of a 57 year-old woman diagnosed with acute lithiasic cholecystitis, associated with hypersplenism and hypertension. The literature mentions manifold anatomical variants of arterial liver vascularization,including PHA. For this reason, this paper presents an overview of similar cases that can be found in medical literature. The aforementioned case is a rare topographic anatomy for the PHA that can easily pass for HCD especially during celioscopy, therefore it is crucial for this to be acknowledged by all surgeons. Celsius.

  13. Emergency Medicine Management of Sickle Cell Disease Complications: An Evidence-Based Update.

    PubMed

    Simon, Erica; Long, Brit; Koyfman, Alex

    2016-10-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) affects approximately 100,000 individuals in the United States. Due to alterations in the structural conformation of hemoglobin molecules under deoxygenated conditions, patients with SCD are predisposed to numerous sequelae, many of which require acute intervention. Our aim was to provide emergency physicians with an evidence-based update regarding the diagnosis and management of SCD complications. SCD patients experience significant morbidity and mortality secondary to cerebrovascular accident, acute chest syndrome, acute vaso-occlusive pain crises, SCD-related multi-organ failure, cholecystitis, acute intrahepatic cholestasis, acute sickle hepatic crisis, acute hepatic sequestration, priapism, and renal disease. Emergency physicians must recognize acute manifestations of SCD in order to deliver timely management and determine patient disposition. A comprehensive review of the emergency department management of acute SCD complications is provided. Comprehensive understanding of these aspects of SCD can assist physicians in expediting patient evaluation and treatment, thus decreasing the morbidity and mortality associated with this hemoglobinopathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute pancreatitis during sickle cell vaso-occlusive painful crisis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Shahid; Siddiqui, Anita K; Siddiqui, Rina K; Kimpo, Miriam; Russo, Linda; Mattana, Joseph

    2003-07-01

    Sickle cell disease is characterized by chronic hemolytic anemia and vaso-occlusive painful crisis. The vascular occlusion in sickle cell disease is a complex process and accounts for the majority of the clinical manifestations of the disease. Abdominal pain is an important component of vaso-occlusive painful crisis and may mimic diseases such as acute appendicitis and cholecystitis. Acute pancreatitis is rarely included as a cause of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease. When it occurs it may result form biliary obstruction, but in other instances it might be a consequence of microvessel occlusion causing ischemia. In this series we describe four cases of acute pancreatitis in patients with sickle cell disease apparently due to microvascular occlusion and ischemic injury to the pancreas. All patients responded to conservative management. Acute pancreatitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain in patients with sickle cell disease. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. [Epidemic situation and prevention and control strategy of clonorchiasis in Guangdong Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhuo-Hui, Deng; Yue-Yi, Fang

    2016-05-24

    Clonorchiasis is one of the food-borne parasitic diseases. Adult parasites live in the human liver and gallbladder tube system, causing serious complications, such as gallstones, cholecystitis and cholangitis, and even bile duct cancer. The disease is very popular in our country, and the population infection rate is high. It is an important public health problem. Guangdong Province is the earliest province being found of clonorchiasis and with serious epidemic. In the second national human parasitic diseases distribution survey, the results showed that the average infection rate of Clonorchis sinensis in the epidemic areas in Guangdong was 16.42%. It is estimated that the population of C. sinensis infection is over 6 million. The prevention and control of clonorchiasis in China is still in the initial stage currently and we face many challenges such as unclear epidemic characteristics and transmission mode, and lack of long-term prevention and control mechanism. This article introduces the epidemic situation of clonorchiasis and prevention and control strategies and measures in Guangdong.

  16. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding and hepatic infarction after liver biopsy.

    PubMed

    Bishehsari, Faraz; Ting, Peng-Sheng; Green, Richard M

    2014-02-21

    Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysms (HAP) are rare events, particularly after liver biopsy, but can be associated with serious complications. Therefore a high suspicion is necessary for timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We report on a case of HAP that potentially formed after a liver biopsy in a patient with sarcoidosis. The HAP in our case was virtually undetectable initially by angiography but resulted in several complications including recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhagic cholecystitis and finally hepatic infarction with abscess formation until it became detectable at a size of 5-mm. The patient remains asymptomatic over a year after endovascular embolization of the HAP. In this report, we demonstrate that a small HAP can avoid detection by angiography at an early stage while being symptomatic for a prolonged course. A high clinical suspicion with a close clinical/radiological follow-up is needed in symptomatic patients with history of liver biopsy despite initial negative work up. Once diagnosed, HAP can be safely and effectively treated by endovascular embolization.

  17. System of polarization correlometry of polycrystalline layers of urine in the differentiation stage of diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ushenko, Yu. O.; Pashkovskaya, N. V.; Marchuk, Y. F.; Dubolazov, O. V.; Savich, V. O.

    2015-08-01

    The work consists of investigation results of diagnostic efficiency of a new azimuthally stable Muellermatrix method of analysis of laser autofluorescence coordinate distributions of biological liquid layers. A new model of generalized optical anisotropy of biological tissues protein networks is proposed in order to define the processes of laser autofluorescence. The influence of complex mechanisms of both phase anisotropy (linear birefringence and optical activity) and linear (circular) dichroism is taken into account. The interconnections between the azimuthally stable Mueller-matrix elements characterizing laser autofluorescence and different mechanisms of optical anisotropy are determined. The statistic analysis of coordinate distributions of such Mueller-matrix rotation invariants is proposed. Thereupon the quantitative criteria (statistic moments of the 1st to the 4th order) of differentiation of human urine polycrystalline layers for the sake of diagnosing and differentiating cholelithiasis with underlying chronic cholecystitis (group 1) and diabetes mellitus of degree II (group 2) are estimated.

  18. Quality of surgical randomized controlled trials for acute cholecystitis: assessment based on CONSORT and additional check items.

    PubMed

    Shikata, Satoru; Nakayama, Takeo; Yamagishi, Hisakazu

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a limited survey of reports of surgical randomized controlled trials, using the consolidated standards of reporting trials (CONSORT) statement and additional check items to clarify problems in the evaluation of surgical reports. A total of 13 randomized trials were selected from two latest review articles on biliary surgery. Each randomized trial was evaluated according to 28 quality measures that comprised items from the CONSORT statement plus additional items. Analysis focused on relationships between the quality of each study and the estimated effect gap ("pooled estimate in meta-analysis" -- "estimated effect of each study"). No definite relationships were found between individual study quality and the estimated effect gap. The following items could have been described but were not provided in almost all the surgical RCT reports: "clearly defined outcomes"; "details of randomization"; "participant flow charts"; "intention-to-treat analysis"; "ancillary analyses"; and "financial conflicts of interest". The item, "participation of a trial methodologist in the study" was not found in any of the reports. Although the quality of reporting trials is not always related to a biased estimation of treatment effect, the items used for quality measures must be described to enable readers to evaluate the quality and applicability of the reporting. Further development of an assessment tool is needed for items specific to surgical randomized controlled trials.

  19. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

    DOE PAGES

    Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.; ...

    2016-04-01

    In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles providemore » scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. In conclusion, the numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.« less

  20. Adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial recurrent mature teratoma and featuring mutated KRAS and wild-type BRAF genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-02-01

    Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  1. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, S.; Hager, R.; Chang, C. S.

    In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles providemore » scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. In conclusion, the numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.« less

  2. A new hybrid-Lagrangian numerical scheme for gyrokinetic simulation of tokamak edge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ku, S., E-mail: sku@pppl.gov; Hager, R.; Chang, C.S.

    In order to enable kinetic simulation of non-thermal edge plasmas at a reduced computational cost, a new hybrid-Lagrangian δf scheme has been developed that utilizes the phase space grid in addition to the usual marker particles, taking advantage of the computational strengths from both sides. The new scheme splits the particle distribution function of a kinetic equation into two parts. Marker particles contain the fast space-time varying, δf, part of the distribution function and the coarse-grained phase-space grid contains the slow space-time varying part. The coarse-grained phase-space grid reduces the memory-requirement and the computing cost, while the marker particles providemore » scalable computing ability for the fine-grained physics. Weights of the marker particles are determined by a direct weight evolution equation instead of the differential form weight evolution equations that the conventional delta-f schemes use. The particle weight can be slowly transferred to the phase space grid, thereby reducing the growth of the particle weights. The non-Lagrangian part of the kinetic equation – e.g., collision operation, ionization, charge exchange, heat-source, radiative cooling, and others – can be operated directly on the phase space grid. Deviation of the particle distribution function on the velocity grid from a Maxwellian distribution function – driven by ionization, charge exchange and wall loss – is allowed to be arbitrarily large. The numerical scheme is implemented in the gyrokinetic particle code XGC1, which specializes in simulating the tokamak edge plasma that crosses the magnetic separatrix and is in contact with the material wall.« less

  3. Polarization-correlation diagnostics and differentiation of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  4. Polarization-correlation diagnostics and differentiation of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchuk, Yu F.; Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, I. O.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2012-01-01

    The principles of optical modeling of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The main types of polycrystalline structures are detailed. It has been proposed and founded the scenarios of formation of bile microscopic images polarization structure in coherent radiation. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of intensity of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  5. Clinical Spectrum of Infections Due to the Newly Described Actinomyces Species A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus

    PubMed Central

    Sabbe, Luc J. M.; Van De Merwe, Dick; Schouls, Leo; Bergmans, Anneke; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Vandamme, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Over a 7-year period, we isolated 294 Actinomyces-like organisms (ALOs) which were not clearly identifiable. Using well-defined probes coding for sequences specific for recently described Actinomyces species (A. turicensis, A. radingae, and A. europaeus), we were able to identify 128 strains. The majority belonged to the A. turicensis species. A. radingae was found only in patients with skin-related pathologies. A. europaeus was also detected in patients with urinary tract infections. The main sources of A. turicensis were genital infections, followed by skin-related and urinary tract infections. Additional clinical pictures were appendicitis, cholecystitis, ear, nose, and throat infections, and bacteremia. In a small number of patients these ALOs were found as the only pathogen. Strains of the three species were tested by two widely used biochemical identification methods. A. turicensis was easily identifiable by both these methods. We conclude that these ALOs are not infrequent pathogens and are found in a wide range of human infections. At least A. turicensis is easily identifiable by clinical diagnostic laboratories. PMID:9854055

  6. Surveillance of Populations at Risk of Cholangiocarcinoma Development in Rural Communities of Thailand Using the Korat-CCA Verbal Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Soraya J; Rujirakul, Ratana; Loyd, Ryan A; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kompor, Porntip; Norkaew, Jun; Chavengkun, Wasugree; Wakkhuwattapong, Parichart; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Phatisena, Tanida; Eaksunti, Thawatchai; Polsripradist, Poowadol; Joosiri, Apinya; Sukkasam, Inchat; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut

    2016-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a serious problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeastern region. Active surveillance in rural communities with an appropriat low-cost screening tool is required to facilitate early detection. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the population at risk of CCA in Bua Yai district, Nakhon Ratchasima province, Northeastern Thailand using the Korat-CCA verbal screening test (KCVST) during June to October 2015. Reliability of KCVST demonstrated a Cronbach alpha coefficient=0.75 Stepwise-multiple regression showed that alcohol consumption was important for CCA screened, followed by agriculture and pesticide use, under-cooked cyprinoid fish consumption, praziquantel use, naïve northeastern people, opisthorchiasis, family relatives with CCA, and cholangitis or cholecystitis or gallstones, respectively. Population at risk for CCA was classified to low risk (63.4%), moderate risk (33.7%), and high risk (1.32%) for CCA. When CCA was screened using ultrasonography, 4 of 32 high risk participants had an abnormal biliary tract with dilated bile ducts. This study indicates that KCVST is a potential useful too which decrease the cost of large scale CCA screening.

  7. Cholecystectomy in patients with sickle cell disease: experience at a regional hospital in southeast Georgia.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, R.; Williams, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of patients with sickle cell disease and cholelithiasis is controversial. This retrospective study assesses the outcome of preoperative transfusion and timely cholecystectomy in symptomatic sickle cell disease patients. Fourteen patients who had undergone cholecystectomy were determined to have sickle cell disease. The patients' mean age was 17.9 years. Eleven patients were female. Thirteen patients had complained of abdominal pain. Ultrasound confirmed the diagnosis of cholelithiasis in 12 of 13 patients tested. Hemoglobin before treatment averaged 7.7 g/dL. Transfusion or exchange transfusion was given to 12 patients, raising the average hemoglobin to 10.3 g/dL. Postoperative morbidity was 14%: one patient had a urinary tract infection and another a left-lower-lobe pneumonia. No sickle cell crises or deaths occurred. Postoperative hospital stay averaged 4.4 days. With judicious use of preoperative transfusion, early cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones was well tolerated by sickle cell disease patients and is advisable to avoid the morbid sequelae of acute cholecystitis and peroperative sickle cell crisis. PMID:1507260

  8. Technology advances in hospital practices: robotics in treatment of patients.

    PubMed

    Rosiek, Anna; Leksowski, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is widely considered as the treatment of choice for acute cholecystitis. The safety of the procedure and its minimal invasiveness made it a valid treatment option for a patient not responding to antibiotic therapy. Our research shows that patients positively assess this treatment method, but the world's tendency is to turn to a more sophisticated method utilizing robot-assisted surgery as a gold standard. Providing patient with minimally invasive surgical procedures that utilize the state-of-the-art equipment like the da Vinci Robotic Surgical System underscores the commitment to high-quality patient care while enhancing patient safety. The advantages include minimal invasive scarring, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and shorter hospital stay. The move toward less invasive and less morbid procedures and a need to re-create the true open surgical experience have paved the way for the development and application of robotic and computer-assisted systems in surgery in Poland as well as the rest of the world. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. [Demographic and clinical aspects of hepatic fascioliasis between 2013-2010 in National Hospital Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Chang Wong, Millie Rocío; Pinto Elera, Jesús Omar Andrés; Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine

    2016-01-01

    To describe the demographic and clinical aspects of hepatic fascioliasis as well as the complications and associations between various factors and the disease in a reference hospital. This is a descriptive and retrospective case series study; we included all patients who had a recent diagnosis of hepatic fascioliasis from 2003 to 2010 in the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia. Demographic and clinical variables were analyzed including complications and treatment received. 68 medical records were found eligible for the study. The mean age was 36 years. Ancash department was the most frequent place of origin and residence. Most of them were diagnosed in the chronic phase, the most common symptom was abdominal pain and eight patients had complications: 3 hepatic abscess, 1 subcapsular hematoma, 1 cholangitis and 1 cholangitis plus cholecystitis. There were the following associations: Age under 15 years with chronic phase and hyporexia, being a student with a positive stool analysis; and between being born in an endemic area with the absence of complications. Hepatic fascioliasis has unspecific clinical presentation so the epidemiological or dietary history and specially eosinophilia should guide the diagnosis.

  10. Hepatotoxicity due to red bush tea consumption: a case report.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Shamantha; Mishra, Pragnyadipta; Qureshi, Sana; Nair, Singh; Straker, Tracey

    2016-12-01

    Many conventional drugs used today, including isoniazid, dapsone, and acetaminophen, are well recognized culprits of hepatotoxicity. With increasing use of complementary and alternative medical therapies, several herbal medicines, such as Ma-Huang, kava, and chaparral leaf, have been implicated as hepatotoxins. Hepatotoxicity may be the most frequent adverse reaction to these herbal remedies when taken in excessive quantities. A myriad of liver dysfunctions may occur including transient liver enzyme abnormalities due to acute and chronic hepatitis. These herbal products are often overlooked as the causal etiologic agent during the evaluation of a patient with elevated liver function tests. We describe a case of hepatotoxicity due to ingestion of red bush tea diagnosed during preoperative assessment of a patient scheduled for laparoscopic appendectomy. Elevated liver enzymes and thrombocytopenia detected in the patient's laboratory work up confounded the initial diagnosis of acute appendicitis and additional investigations were required to rule out cholecystitis and other causes of hepatitis. Open appendectomy was done uneventfully under spinal anesthesia without any further deterioration of hepatic function. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Gallbladder volvulus with segmental right liver lobe hypoplasia/atrophy: a preoperative diagnostic dilemma.

    PubMed

    Musthafa, Shameel; Aftab, Zia; Ali, Syed Muhammad; Khanna, Maneesh

    2018-06-08

    Gallbladder volvulus (GBV) due to rotation of the gall bladder (GB) around its own mesentery is a rare surgical emergency and often identified intraoperatively. Typically, cholecystitis is the initial clinical diagnosis, but a high index of suspicion on imaging can alert the physician for the possibility of GBV requiring urgent surgical intervention. We describe a case of a young female patient with hypoplasia/atrophy of the posterior segment of the right liver lobe and a GB with no hepatic attachments but only mesenteric pedicle. She presented with first episode of sudden-onset, severe right subcostal pain. The ultrasonogram and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatogram findings were suggestive of GBV. She underwent laparoscopic exploration that confirmed GBV of a free-floating GB with a thrombosed cystic artery. The GB was detorted, and cholecystectomy was performed. She had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged with no complications. Histopathological examination showed intramural haematoma of the GB with wall necrosis. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Plasma Rotation and Radial Electric Field Response to Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in DIII-D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyer, R. A.

    2012-10-01

    Analysis of DIII-D experiments have revealed a complex picture of the evolution of the toroidal rotation vtor and radial electric field Er when applying edge resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) in H-mode plasmas. Measurements indicate that RMPs induce changes to the plasma rotation and Er across the plasma profile, well into the plasma core where islands or stochasticity are not expected. In the pedestal, the change in Er comes primarily from the vxB changes even though the ion diamagnetic contribution to Er is larger. This allows the RMP to change Er faster than the transport timescale for altering the pressure gradient. For n=3 RMPs, the pedestal vtor goes to zero as fast as the RMP current rises, suggesting increased toroidal viscosity with the RMP, followed by a slow rise in co-plasma current vtor (pedestal ``spin-up'') as the pedestal density pumps out. This spin-up could result from a reduction in ELM-induced momentum transport or a resonant jxB torque due to radial current. As vtor becomes more positive and the pressure pedestal narrows, the electron perpendicular rotation ˜0 point moves out toward the top of the pedestal; increasing the RMP current moves this crossing point closer to the top of the pedestal. These changes reduce the mean ExB shearing rate across the outer half of the discharge from several times the linear growth rate for intermediate-scale turbulence to less than the linear growth rate, consistent with increased turbulent transport. Full-f kinetic simulations with self-consistent plasma response and Er using the XGC0 code have qualitatively reproduced the observed profile and Er changes. These results suggest that similar to their role in regulating H-mode plasma transport and stability, plasma rotation and Er play a critical role in the effect of RMPs on plasma performance.

  13. Ion Loss as an Intrinsic Momentum Source in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boedo, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    A series of coupled experiments in DIII-D and simulations provide strong support for the kinetic loss of thermal ions from the edge as the mechanism for toroidal momentum generation in tokamaks. Measurements of the near-separatrix parallel velocity of D+ with Mach probes show a 1-2 cm wide D+ parallel velocity peak at the separatrix reaching 40-60 km/s, up to half the thermal velocity, always in the direction of the plasma current. The magnitude and width of the velocity layer are in excellent agreement with a first-principle, collissionless, kinetic computation of selective particle loss due to the loss cone including for the first time the measured radial electric field, Er in steady state. C6+ rotation in the core, measured with charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy is correlated with the edge D+ velocity. XGC0 computations, which include collisions and kinetic ions and electrons, show results that agree with the measurements, and indicate that two mechanisms are relevant: 1) ion orbit loss and 2) a growing influence of the Pfirsch-Schluter mechanism in H-mode gradients. The inclusion of the measured Er in the loss-cone model drastically affects the width and magnitude of the velocity profile and improves agreement with the Mach probe measurements. A fine structure in Er is found, still of unknown origin, featuring large (10-20 kV/m) positive peaks in the SOL and at, or slightly inside, the separatrix of low power L- or H-mode conditions. This high resolution probe measurement of Er agrees with CER measurements where the techniques overlap. The flow is attenuated in higher collisionality conditions, consistent with a depleted loss-cone mechanism. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FG02-07ER54917, DE-FC02-08ER54977, & DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  14. Polarization-phase diagnostics of latent course of cholelithiasis in patients with chronic cholecystitis combined with diabetes mellitus type 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fediv, O. I.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Marchuk, Yu. F.; Andriychuk, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    The principles of optical model of human bile polycrystalline structure are described. The three optical levels - isotropic, liquid-crystal and solid-crystal have been proposed. It has been introduced and proposed the scenarios of phase distribution formation in the boundary field of laser radiation, transformed by bile layers. The experimental scheme of direct measurement of coordinate phase distributions has been presented. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation and fractal parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of bile smears of cholelithiasis patients in combination with other pathologies. The diagnostic criteria of the cholelithiasis nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  15. [Therapy concepts for diffuse peritonitis: When laparoscopic lavage and when open abdomen?].

    PubMed

    Güsgen, C; Schwab, R; Willms, A

    2016-01-01

    Secondary diffuse peritonitis still has a high morbidity and mortality even now; therefore, the various strategies and options for the different surgical therapies are undergoing an evidence-based review. Laparoscopic lavage without resection of the focus of sepsis for example is a profoundly different approach in the treatment of diffuse peritonitis from the damage control-based strategy of surgery with initial laparostomy and deferred anastomosis. The evidential data for minimally invasive therapy are comparatively well-reviewed for appendicitis, cholecystitis and ulcerated perforation of the stomach and duodenum. In contrast, the evidence for laparoscopy and minimally invasive surgery with lavage and deferred anastomosis or damage control in secondary peritonitis has improved but is still low and cannot yet be clearly recommended. This article presents an overview of the currently available therapeutic methods for diffuse peritonitis and a critical consideration of the evidence-based data. The key recommendation is that the decision to use a surgical procedure based on the currently available data depends more on the severity of the abdominal sepsis, the duration, the age of the patient and comorbidities than on the individual technique.

  16. Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in an octogenarian.

    PubMed

    Lutwak, Nancy; Dill, Curt

    2012-09-01

    Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that occurs at all ages. Its management is determined by presenting symptoms and previous history of the patient. Patients present with a continuum of symptoms ranging from palpitations to syncope. The incidence of supraventricular tachycardia increases with age. To discuss the etiology, precipitating factors, and acute management of supraventricular tachycardia; and to discuss nodal reentry circuits and representative electrocardiographic findings. We present the case of an 84-year-old man with gallstone pancreatitis, choledolcholithiasis, and cholecystitis complicated by paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. We review this dysrhythmia, emphasizing its significance in elderly patients. Supraventricular tachycardia is a common dysrhythmia that can result in syncope or myocardial infarction. We present a case of an elderly man with new-onset atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentry tachycardia, possibly precipitated by overdrive of his autonomic nervous system due to pain and infection. As the percentage of the elderly in our population is growing rapidly and the incidence of AV nodal reentry tachycardia increases with age, emergency physicians should be familiar with this dysrhythmia-its etiology, precipitating factors, presentations, and treatment. It will present more frequently in the future. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The role of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Younis, Saeed Nadhim

    2014-01-01

    To study the usefulness of abdominal ultrasound in the diagnosis of typhoid fever and to determine the common ultrasound findings early in the course of the disease. Abdominal ultrasound examination was performed within the first week of initiation of symptoms in 350 cases with clinical diagnosis of typhoid fever. Subsequent ultrasound follow-up examination was done 15 days later (beginning of the third week). All the patients proved to have positive Widal test and Sallmonella culture. The study was performed in Erbil-Iraq from the period January 1993 to October 2010. The following ultrasound findings were reported: hepatomegaly (31.4%), prominent intrahepatic bile ducts (64.85%), splenomegaly (100%), mesenteric lymphadenopathy (42.85%), bowel wall thickening (35.71%), acalculous cholecystitis (16.28%), perforations (1.14%), and ascites in (3.4%). The current study showed that the findings are typical enough to justify initiation of treatment for typhoid fever when serology is equivocal and culture is negative, and is fairly safe to say that normal ultrasound examination early in the course of febrile illness rules out typhoid fever. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Duodenal Ulcer Induced by Hem-o-Lok clip after Reduced Port Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Soga, Koichi; Kassai, Kyoichi; Itani, Kenji

    2016-03-01

    The patient was a 66-year-old woman who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy (Lap-C) secondary to chronic cholecystitis status post endoscopic choledocholithotomy 13 months previously. During surgery, Hem-o-Lok clips were used to control the cystic duct and the cystic artery. Due to the presence of extensive adhesions of the cystic duct and surrounding tissue, the surgeons had difficulty in debriding the area. Thirteen months after Lap-C, the patient underwent a screening esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD), which demonstrated clip appearance at the inferior wall of the first part of the duodenum. In the EGD, duodenal erosions and edema were observed around the clip. We appreciated that endoscopic clip removal would be difficult because of the presence of severe adhesions and inflammation of the duodenal bulb. On clinical examination of the patient, no major abnormalities or physical findings were noted. Therefore, we decided not to attempt to remove the clip. The patient was treated with an oral proton pump inhibitor to prevent extensive duodenal mucosal injury. Two months later, we repeated the EGD, which revealed that the clip was no longer present, and the duodenum was covered with normal mucosa surrounding the scar.

  19. [The efficacy of the combined rehabilitative treatment of the patients presenting with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system].

    PubMed

    Cherchinian, A S

    2012-01-01

    A total of 80 patients presenting with exogenous constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and diseases of the hepatobiliary system (including chronic non-calculous cholecystitis and fatty hepatosis) were enrolled to participate in the present study. The basal treatment consisted of the adequate reducing diet, remedial gymnastics, massage, reflexo-acupuncture, the application of galvanic muds, and controlled intake of chofitol. It was supplemented with magnetic laser irradiation of selected abdominal regions, and electrical stimulation of femoral, dorsal, and abdominal muscles. It was shown that the combination of the above procedures and physical factors significantly improves the overall outcome of the treatment. The patients suffering intestinal dysbacteriosis were prescribed the intake of probiotic Nor Narine together with Jermuk mineral water; they were found to benefit from such treatment due to normalization of intestinal biocenosis and improvement of their general condition. The clinical and paraclinical data obtained in this study give evidence of the therapeutic efficacy of certain physical factors and especially their combination used for the medical rehabilitation of the patients presenting with constitutional obesity, metabolic syndrome, and digestive disorders. Moreover, the well-apparent positive results were documented from the combined treatment with magnetic laser radiation and therapeutic muds.

  20. Preoperative biliary drainage using a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent for pancreatic head cancer: A prospective feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Togawa, Osamu; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Nakai, Yousuke; Mohri, Dai; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Sakamoto, Naoya; Koike, Kazuhiko; Kita, Hiroto

    2018-01-01

    The role of endoscopic preoperative biliary drainage (PBD) for pancreatic head cancer is controversial because of the high incidence of stent occlusion before surgery. This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of PBD using a fully covered self-expandable metallic stent (FCSEMS). This multicenter prospective study involved 26 patients treated for pancreatic head cancer with distal bile duct obstruction from April 2011 to March 2013. An FCSEMS was endoscopically placed in 24 patients. Among these, 7 patients were diagnosed with unresectable cancer, and 17 underwent surgery at a median of 18 days after FCSEMS placement. The main outcome measure was preoperative and postoperative adverse events. Two adverse events (cholecystitis and insufficient resolution of jaundice) occurred between FCSEMS placement and surgery (12%). Postoperative adverse events occurred in eight patients (47%). The cumulative incidence of stent-related adverse events 4 and 8 weeks after FCSEMS placement among the 24 patients who underwent this procedure were 19%. PBD using an FCSEMS is feasible in patients with resectable pancreatic head cancer. Placement of an FCSEMS can be an alternative PBD technique when surgery without delay is impossible. A larger randomized controlled trial is warranted.

  1. A comparative clinical trial of Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara on Amlapitta.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Panda, P K; Acharya, G; Mohanty, N; Nathsharma, P K; Dash, S C

    2011-10-01

    A clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients of Amlapitta aged between 20 to 35 years with complaints of Avipaka, hrit-kanthadaha, tikta-amlodgara, utklesa, udarasula, adhmana and aruchi, who were registered from OPD and IPD of Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri. They were equally divided into three groups Chincha kshara, Kadali kshara and placebo (who were administered with fresh wheat powder) for 30 days in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily with water. Investigations was done in order to exclude upper gastrointestinal tract ulcer, carcinoma in stomach, cholecystitis, carcinoma gall bladder, and heart diseases. The clinical assessments were carried out on the 30(th) day by subjective and objective parameters and it was inferred that both Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara were effective and reduced the symptoms of amlapitta. Chincha kshara was found to be more effective than Kadali kshara. The study shows the effect of Chincha and Kadali kshara which led to cure in 4(40%) and 3(30%) patients respectively, and maximum improvement in 4(40%) and 5(50%) patients affected with amlapitta disease, respectively. No untoward effect was noticed due to administration of ksharas during the clinical trial period.

  2. A comparative clinical trial of Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara on Amlapitta

    PubMed Central

    Acharya, S.; Panda, P. K.; Acharya, G.; Mohanty, N.; Nathsharma, P. K.; Dash, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    A clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients of Amlapitta aged between 20 to 35 years with complaints of Avipaka, hrit-kanthadaha, tikta-amlodgara, utklesa, udarasula, adhmana and aruchi, who were registered from OPD and IPD of Gopabandhu Ayurveda Mahavidyalaya, Puri. They were equally divided into three groups Chincha kshara, Kadali kshara and placebo (who were administered with fresh wheat powder) for 30 days in a dose of 500 mg thrice daily with water. Investigations was done in order to exclude upper gastrointestinal tract ulcer, carcinoma in stomach, cholecystitis, carcinoma gall bladder, and heart diseases. The clinical assessments were carried out on the 30th day by subjective and objective parameters and it was inferred that both Chincha kshara and Kadali kshara were effective and reduced the symptoms of amlapitta. Chincha kshara was found to be more effective than Kadali kshara. The study shows the effect of Chincha and Kadali kshara which led to cure in 4(40%) and 3(30%) patients respectively, and maximum improvement in 4(40%) and 5(50%) patients affected with amlapitta disease, respectively. No untoward effect was noticed due to administration of ksharas during the clinical trial period. PMID:22661843

  3. Traditional Uighur Medicine Karapxa decoction, inhibits liver xanthine oxidase and reduces serum uric acid concentrations in hyperuricemic mice and scavenges free radicals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Amat, Nurmuhammat; Umar, Anwar; Hoxur, Parida; Anaydulla, Mihrigul; Imam, Guzalnur; Aziz, Ranagul; Upur, Halmurat; Kijjoa, Anake; Moore, Nicholas

    2015-04-25

    Karapxa decoction (KD) is a Traditional Uighur Medicine used for hepatitis, cholecystitis, gastralgia, oedema, gout and arthralgia. Because of its purported effect in gout, its effects were tested in hyperuricemic mice models induced by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate, as well as its capacity to scavenge free radicals in vitro. Hyperuricemia was induced in mice by yeast extract paste or potassium oxonate. KD was given orally for 14 days at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, with Allopurinol 10 mg/kg/day as positive control. Serum uric acid (UA), and liver xanthine oxidase activity (XO) were measured. Scavenging activity of KD on 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPP•), nitric oxide (•NO), superoxide (O2•-), efficiency against lipid peroxidation, and XO inhibition were determined in vitro. KD inhibited liver XO activity and reduced serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. KD also showed noticeable antioxidant activity, scavenging free radicals (DPP•, •NO and O2•-). It was effective against lipid peroxidation and inhibited XO in vitro. This study supports the traditional use of Karapxa decoction to treat hyperuricemia and gout.

  4. [Bouveret's syndrome: A rare presentation of gallstone ileus].

    PubMed

    Franco-Avilés, Luis; Arce-Guridi, Héctor Tonalli; Mercado, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Bouveret's syndrome is defined as gastric outlet obstruction caused by duodenal impaction of a gallstone which passes into the duodenal bulb through a cholecystoduodenal fistula. We reported the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented intermittent epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss of 2-months duration. The patient admitted alcohol and methamphetamine abuse. She had not fever, dehydration or jaundice. Amylase, electrolytes, enzymes, and creatinine level were within normal limits. Seven months previously she was seen in the emergency department for acute cholecystitis. In that occasion, an abdominal ultrasound was reported with cholelithiasis without dilatation of the intra/extra-hepatic bile duct. Abdominal plain radiographs showed no relevant findings. A laparoscopic surgery was performed. During the procedure a sub-hepatic plastron with firm adhesions was found. The gallbladder was found attached to the duodenal bulb and an impacted calculus in the duodenum. The procedure was converted to surgery. Surgeon decided to perform a Bilroth 1 as the best choice. Seven days later, she was discharged. The clinical manifestations of the Bouveret's syndrome are nonspecific. Preoperative diagnosis is a challenge for clinicians because of the rarity of this condition. Treatment must be individualized.

  5. [Case of pulmonary edema due to excessive hypertension following extubation].

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Reina; Tajiri, Osamu; Ito, Hiroyuki; Yago, Yasuko

    2010-12-01

    A 54-year-old man had emergency laparoscopic chelecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. General inflammatory change (CRP 26.6 mg x dl(-1), WBC 26,800) was noted preoperatively. Anesthesia was induced with propofol and remifentanil and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen and remifentanil. Operation was performed uneventfully within 128 min. At the end of the surgery, 0.1 mg of fentanyl was administrated. After confirming adequate respiration and oxygenation, endotracheal tube was removed. At that period, hypertension (SBP 220 mmHg) and tachycardia (HR 122 beats x min(-1)) developed. Soon thereafter, he became agitated and complained of dyspnea with desaturation (Spo2 < 70%). After reintubation, massive pinkish babbly secretion flowed out from the endotracheal tube. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse bilateral infiltration of the lungs without cardiomegaly. He was transferred to the intensive care unit for mechanical ventilation. His condition improved progressively and was extubated on the POD 6. The cause of pulmonary edema is thought to be profound centralization of circulating volume associated with catecholamine-induced vasoconstriction due to rapid disappearance of remifentanil effect. Adequate analgesia is necessary during remifentanil-based anesthesia especially in patients suffering from general inflammatory changes.

  6. Cholecystectomy improves long-term success after endoscopic treatment of CBD stones.

    PubMed

    Hoem, D; Viste, A; Horn, A; Gislason, H; Søndenaa, K

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study prospectively primary endoscopic treatment of CBD stones and further the long-term need for renewed gallstone disease interventions, defined as short- and long-term outcome. Seven years prospective follow-up of 101 consecutive patients with CBD stones who underwent endoscopic treatment with the intent of primarily achieving duct clearance. Many patients underwent several endoscopy sessions before stone clearance was completed in 83%. Eleven patients were treated surgically, 2 patients received a permanent stent, and the remaining 3 became stone free with other means. Complications occurred in 47 patients. During follow-up, 31 patients were readmitted for gallstone disease and 15 of these had recurrent CBD stones. Ten percent (8/78) of patients with the gallbladder in situ had acute cholecystitis during follow-up and late cholecystectomy was carried out in 22%. Risk factors for new gallstone disease were an in situ gallbladder containing stones and previous episodes of CBD stones. A goal of complete CBD stone clearance with ERC and ES proved to be relatively resource consuming. Subsequent cholecystectomy after duct clearance for CBD should be advised when the gallbladder lodges gallstones, especially in younger patients. Recurrent CBD stones were not influenced by cholecystectomy.

  7. Hospital Admissions for Acute Myocardial Infarction, Angina, Stroke, and Asthma After Implementation of Arizona's Comprehensive Statewide Smoking Ban

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michele E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of Arizona's May 2007 comprehensive statewide smoking ban on hospital admissions for diagnoses for which there is evidence of a causal relationship with secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure (acute myocardial infarction [AMI], angina, stroke, and asthma). Methods. We compared monthly hospital admissions from January 2004 through May 2008 for these primary diagnoses and 4 diagnoses not associated with SHS (appendicitis, kidney stones, acute cholecystitis, and ulcers) for Arizona counties with preexisting county or municipal smoking bans and counties with no previous bans. We attributed reductions in admissions to the statewide ban if they occurred only in diagnoses associated with SHS and if they were larger in counties with no previous bans. We analyzed the data with Poisson regressions, controlling for seasonality and admissions trends. We also estimated cost savings. Results. Statistically significant reductions in hospital admissions were seen for AMI, angina, stroke, and asthma in counties with no previous bans over what was seen in counties with previous bans. No ban variable coefficients were statistically significant for diagnoses not associated with SHS. Conclusions. Arizona's statewide smoking ban decreased hospital admissions for AMI, stroke, asthma, and angina. PMID:20466955

  8. Therapeutic approaches for portal biliopathy: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Franceschet, Irene; Zanetto, Alberto; Ferrarese, Alberto; Burra, Patrizia; Senzolo, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy (PB) is defined as the presence of biliary abnormalities in patients with non-cirrhotic/non-neoplastic extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) and portal cavernoma (PC). The pathogenesis of PB is due to ab extrinseco compression of bile ducts by PC and/or to ischemic damage secondary to an altered biliary vascularization in EHPVO and PC. Although asymptomatic biliary abnormalities can be frequently seen by magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in patients with PC (77%-100%), only a part of these (5%-38%) are symptomatic. Clinical presentation includes jaundice, cholangitis, cholecystitis, abdominal pain, and cholelithiasis. In this subset of patients is required a specific treatment. Different therapeutic approaches aimed to diminish portal hypertension and treat biliary strictures are available. In order to decompress PC, surgical porto-systemic shunt or transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt can be performed, and treatment on the biliary stenosis includes endoscopic (Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography with endoscopic sphincterotomy, balloon dilation, stone extraction, stent placement) and surgical (bilioenteric anastomosis, cholecystectomy) approaches. Definitive treatment of PB often requires multiple and combined interventions both on vascular and biliary system. Liver transplantation can be considered in patients with secondary biliary cirrhosis, recurrent cholangitis or unsuccessful control of portal hypertension. PMID:28018098

  9. Percutaneous trans-papillary elimination of common bile duct stones using an existing gallbladder drain for access.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli; Neiman, Chaim; Ram, Eduard; Almog, Mazal; Gadiel, Itai; Belenky, Alexander

    2012-06-01

    The presence of stones in the common bile duct (CBD) may cause complications such as obstructing jaundice or ascending cholangitis, and the stones should be removed. To assess the efficacy of percutaneous elimination of CBD stones from the gallbladder through the papilla. During a 4 year period, six patients (five men and one woman, mean age 71.5 years) who had CBD stones and an existing gallbladder drain underwent percutaneous stone push into the duodenum after balloon dilatation of the papilla, with a diameter equal to that of the largest stone. Access into the CBD was from the gallbladder, using an already existing percutaneous gallbladder drain (cholecystostomy tube). Each patient had one to three CBD stones measuring 7-14 mm. Successful CBD stone elimination into the duodenum was achieved in five of the six patients. The single failure occurred in a patient with choledochal diverticulum, who was operated successfully. There were no major or minor complications during or after the procedures. Trans-cholecystic CBD stone elimination is a safe and feasible percutaneous technique that utilizes existing tracts, thus obviating the need to create new percutaneous access. This procedure can replace endoscopic or surgical CBD exploration.

  10. [Clinical studies on SM-4300].

    PubMed

    Sawae, Y; Nagafuchi, S

    1985-09-01

    Use of SM-4300, which is a newly developed human immunoglobulin preparation for intravenous administration, has clinically been evaluated in the patients with severe or intractable bacterial infections. Of total 13 cases of the admitted patients at the 1st department of internal medicine, faculty of medicine, Kyushu university, 10-pneumonia case were associated with blood diseases like acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and multiple myeloma (MM), and in addition, with other underlying diseases like lung cancer and bronchiectasis, 1 was prosthetic valve endocarditis, 1 cholecystitis associated with pericarditis and 1 fever of undetermined origin (FUO). SM-4300 of 5 g single bolus or 3 daily doses of 2.5 g per day were infused with chemotherapy drugs preceedingly administered for more than 3 days and the results were evaluated; good in 4, fair 4, poor 2 and unknown 3, and the efficacy rate was 40%. Bacteriologically, the results were decreased in 1, persisted 1 and the majority was unknown. Observed were no side reactions nor the changes in clinical examination variables incurred by this drug. It is therefore considered that SM-4300 is of use for the treatment of intractable bacterial infections when used with antibiotics.

  11. [Study on genetic instability of nm23H1 gene in Chinese with original gallbladder tumor].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hai Ying; Zhang, Guo Qiang; Li, Ji Cheng

    2006-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the microsatellite instability (MSI) and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of locus D17S396 on chromosome 17 and their influence on the expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder tumors, which may provide experimental basis for the tumor occurrence and metastasis. Techniques such as DNA extraction from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP), ordinary silver stain were used to study MSI and LOH of locus D17S396. Envision immunohistochemistry and Leica-Qwin computer imaging techniques were used to assess the expression of gene nm23H1. In our experiment, the frequency of genetic instability of malignant gallbladder tumors was 42.55%, which was higher than that of gallbladder adenomas, while there were no genetic instability occurred in chronic cholecystitis tissue. The frequency of LOH seemed higher with the deteriorism of gallbladder tumor. Among 47 gallbladder carcinomas, the frequency of LOH and MSI were different between different differentiation cases (P < 0.05), and the frequency of LOH in liver and lymph node metastasis cases was significantly higher than those without metastasis (P < 0.01). Moreover, the frequency of LOH was higher in stage Nevin IV and V when compared with stage I, II and III. However, the frequency of MSI showed contrary correlation with some clinicopathologic characteristics. The expression of nm23H1 in gallbladder carcinoma, gallbladder adenoma and chronic cholecystitis tissue were different (P < 0.05). The case with lymph node metastasis showed significantly lower nm23H1 expression than those without lymph node metastasis (P < 0.01). Nevin stage IV and V also exhibited lower nm23H1 expression levels compared with stage I, II and Ill. Furthermore, there was no difference in nm23H1 protein expression intensity analyzed by computer imaging techniques. In gallbladder carcinomas, the positive frequency of nm23H1 protein in LOH positive

  12. [Expression of ephrin-A7 and metadherin and its clinicopathological significances in the benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-cai; Yang, Zhu-lin

    2011-03-01

    To study the expression of ephrin-A7 (EphA7) and metadherin (MTDH) and their clinicopathological significances in the benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder. EnVisiom immunohistochemical methods was used for determining the expressions of EphA7 and MTDH in routinely paraffin-embedded sections of surgically-resected specimens from 108 cases with gallbladder adenocarcinoma, 15 cases with adenomatous polyp and 35 cases with chronic cholecystitis treated from June 1996 to June 2006. And 46 cases of peritumoral tissues were also harvested as controls (n = 35). The positive expression rates of EphA7 and MTDH were significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than those in peritumoral tissues (χ(2)(EphA7) = 12.65, χ(2)(MTDH) = 13.00; P < 0.01), adenomatous polyp (χ(2)(EphA7) = 8.21, χ(2)(MTDH) = 9.39; P < 0.01) and chronic cholecystitis (χ(2)(EphA7) = 21.21, χ(2)(MTDH) = 23.68; P < 0.01); Moderately-or severely-atypical hyperplasia of gallbladder epithelium was found in the benign lesions with positive expression of EphA7 and/or MTDH. The positive rates of EphA7 and MTDH were significantly lower in the cases of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, maximal diameter of tumor < 2 cm, no-metastasis of lymph node, and tumor with no-invasiveness of regional tissues than those in the poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma (χ(2)(EphA7) = 12.34, χ(2)(MTDH) = 12.80; P < 0.01), maximal diameter of tumor ≥ 2 cm (χ(2)(EphA7) = 5.22, χ(2)(MTDH) = 5.00; P < 0.05), cases with metastasis of lymph node (χ(2)(EphA7) = 5.15, χ(2)(MTDH) = 5.86; P < 0.05) and cases with invasiveness of regional tissues (χ(2)(EphA7) = 7.06, P < 0.01; χ(2)(MTDH) = 4.13; P < 0.05) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05). The high consistency was found between the expressive levels of EphA7 and MTDH in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (χ(2) = 13.11, P < 0.01). The univariate Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the increased expression of EphA7 (P = 0.023) and MTDH (P = 0.034) was negatively

  13. Frequency and prevention of laparoscopic port site infection.

    PubMed

    Taj, Muhammad Naeem; Iqbal, Yasmeen; Akbar, Zakia

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness and safety of the nonpowder surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The study was carried out in Capital Hospital Islamabad and in a private hospital. The duration of study was from March 2009 to March 2012. This was an observational study carried out in 492 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder and compared with the conventional method of gall bladder removal in two hospitals were analyzed. The operative findings, port site infection and co morbid conditions were evaluated. Postoperative wound infection was found in 27 (5.48%) of 492 cases. Umbilical port infection was found in 26 (5.28%) of cases in which gall bladder was removed without endogloves and only one case (0.2%) had infection when gall bladder was removed with the endogloves. Wound infection was more in acute cholecystitis (25.9%) and empyema of Gall Bladder (44.4%). Among the co morbid conditions, diabetes mellitus has got higher frequency of wound infection (44%). The use of the surgical glove for extraction of the gallbladder is safe, cheap, simple and potentially reduces significant morbidity. Its routine use at laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mandatory in all cases.

  14. Abdominal wall sinus due to impacting gallstone during laparoscopic cholecystectomy: an unusual complication.

    PubMed

    Pavlidis, T E; Papaziogas, B T; Koutelidakis, I M; Papaziogas, T B

    2002-02-01

    During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, perforation of the gallbladder can occurs in < or = 20% of cases, while gallstone spillage occurs in < or = 6% of cases. In most cases, there are no consequences. Gallstones can be lost in the abdominal wall as well as the abdomen during extraction of the gallbladder. The fate of such lost gallstones, which can lead to the formation of an abscess, an abdominal wall mass, or a persistent sinus, has not been studied adequately. Herein we report the case of a persistent sinus of the abdominal wall after an emergent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in an 82-year-old woman with gangrenous cholecystitis and perforation of the friable wall in association with an empyema of the gallbladder. The culture of the obtained pus was positive for Escherichia coli. After a small leak of dirty fluid from the wound of the epigastric port site of 4 months' duration, surgical exploration under local anesthesia revealed that the sinus was caused by spilled gallstones impacting into the abdominal wall between the posterior sheath and left rectus abdominalis muscle. The removal of the stones resulted in complete healing. Long-term complications after laparoscopic cholecystectomy involving the abdominal wall are rare but important possible consequences that could be avoided.

  15. Improvement of the complex medical treatment for the patients wіth chronic biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Babinets, L S; Kytsai, K Yu; Kotsaba, Yu Ya; Halabitska, I M; Melnyk, N A; Semenova, I V; Zemlyak, O S

    The most common reason of chronic pancreatitis is liver and bile ducts disease: functional disorders, chronic cholecystitis, cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy in medical history. All these changes are associated with the colloidal structure of bile, increased lithogenicity, gallstones formation, Oddi's sphincter dysfunction, dysmotility and inflammation in the bile ducts. to study the effectiveness of using medicine Liveria IC (metadoxine) in standard therapy as well as effect on spectrum of blood serum lipids and structural condition of liver (stiffness) and pancreas in patients with chronic biliary pancreatitis combined with obesity. 115 patients suffering from chronic biliary pancreatitis and obesity were the subjects of the study. They were compared to etiological factor socioeconomic conditions and nutrition (regular food 5 times a day without aggressive food (fatty, spicy, sour, fried products)). Also the effect of the alcohol factor was excluded. The obtained decrease in stiffness of the liver and pancreas indicates an improvement of their structural state. Using medication LiveriaIC (metadoxine) as the part of the complex therapy for the patients who are suffering from CBP combined with obesity gives some improvement of the lipid profile indices and the structural condition of liver and pancreas (according to the data of SWE) (р<0.05).

  16. [Gastroesophageal reflux disease associated with duodenogastroesophageal reflux in patients with biliary pathology: the specific features of the course and esophagogastroduodenal microbial biocenosis].

    PubMed

    Dzhulai, G S; Sekareva, E V; Chervinets, V M; Mikhailova, E S; Dzhulai, T E

    2014-01-01

    To study the specific features of the clinical course of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) associated with duodenogastroesophageal reflux (DGER) in patients with chronic acalculous cholecystitis (CAC) and cholelithiasis (CL), as well as qualitative and quantitative characteristics. The clinical, morphological, motor tonic characteristics of the esophagogastroduodenal area, mucosal microbial biocenosis in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum were studied in detail in 83 patients with GERD that was associated with DGER and ran concurrently with CAC or CL. Impaired duodenal propulsive activity as a concomitance of the signs of gastrostasis and duodenal dyskinesia with dyscoordination of both anthroduodenal and duodenojejunal propulsion and with the development of duodenogastric reflux and DGER, which in turn determine esophageal and gastric pH values is shown to be of importance in CAC and CL, which match GERD. Abnormal microbiocenosis in the upper digestive tract is characterized by the higher quantitative and qualitative content of the mucous microflora. Opportunistic microorganisms exhibit cytotoxic, hemolytic, lecithinase, caseinolytic, urease, and RNAase activities. The found specific features of the course of GERD associated with DGER in patients with biliary tract abnormalities lead us to search for novel therapeutic approaches based on the correction of digestive motor tonic disorders and abnormal microbiocenoses of the mucous flora in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.

  17. Early versus delayed laparoscopic cholecystectomy after percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage.

    PubMed

    Han, In Woong; Jang, Jin-Young; Kang, Mee Joo; Lee, Kyoung Bun; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2012-03-01

    Percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) is a procedure to resolve acute cholecystitis (AC). It may decrease the technical difficulty of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and thus may facilitate successful surgery when a patients' condition improves. However, the timing of LC after PTGBD remains controversial. From 2004 to 2010, cholecystectomy after PTGBD was performed in 67 patients with AC. Group I members underwent LC within 72 h of PTGBD (n = 21), whereas group II members underwent LC at more than 72 h after PTGBD (n = 46). The open conversion rate was similar in the two groups. The perioperative complication rate was higher in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (19.0 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.07). Mean operative time was longer in group I than in group II (79.3 ± 25.3 vs. 53.7 ± 45.3 min; p = 0.02). However, overall hospital stay was shorter in group I than in group II, but with marginal significance (10.8 ± 4.5 vs. 14.7 ± 9.3 days; p = 0.08). Pros and cons were well balanced between the two groups. Decisions on the timing of cholecystectomy after PTGBD should be made based on considerations of patient condition, hospital facilities, and surgical experience.

  18. RNA sequencing-based analysis of gallbladder cancer reveals the importance of the liver X receptor and lipid metabolism in gallbladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Mingxin; Rashid, Asif; Wang, Ying; Jain, Apurva; Li, Donghui; Behari, Anu; Kapoor, Vinay Kumar; Koay, Eugene J.; Chang, Ping; Vauthey, Jean Nicholas; Li, Yanan; Espinoza, Jaime A.; Roa, Juan Carlos; Javle, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is an aggressive malignancy. Although surgical resection may be curable, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced unresectable disease stage. Cholelithiasis is the major risk factor; however the pathogenesis of the disease, from gallstone cholecystitis to cancer, is still not understood. To understand the molecular genetic underpinnings of this cancer and explore novel therapeutic targets for GBC, we examined the key genes and pathways involved in GBC using RNA sequencing. We performed gene expression analysis of 32 cases of surgically-resected GBC along with normal gallbladder tissue controls. We observed that 519 genes were differentially expressed between GBC and normal GB mucosal controls. The liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) /RXR pathways were the top canonical pathways involved in GBC. Key genes in these pathways, including SERPINB3 and KLK1, were overexpressed in GBC, especially in female GBC patients. Additionally, ApoA1 gene expression suppressed in GBC as compared with normal control tissues. LXR and FXR genes, known to be important in lipid metabolism also function as tumor suppressors and their down regulation appears to be critical for GBC pathogenesis. LXR agonists may have therapeutic value and as potential therapeutic targets. PMID:27167107

  19. A Double-Layered Covered Biliary Metal Stent for the Management of Unresectable Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Multicenter Feasibility Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Seok; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Kyu Taek; Dong, Seok Ho

    2016-11-15

    The covered self-expandable metal stent (CMS) was developed to prevent tumor ingrowth-induced stent occlusion during the treatment of malignant biliary obstruction. However, complications such as cholecystitis, pancreatitis, and stent migration can occur after the endoscopic insertion of CMSs. The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a double-layered CMS (DCMS) for the management of malignant bile duct obstruction. DCMSs were endoscopically introduced into 59 patients with unresectable malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction at four tertiary referral centers, and the patient medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Both the technical and functional success rates were 100%. Procedure-related complications including pancreatitis, cholangitis, stent migration, and liver abscess occurred in five patients (8.5%). The median follow-up period was 265 days (range, 31 to 752 days). Cumulative stent patency rates were 68.2% and 40.8% at 6 and 12 months, respectively. At the final follow-up, the rate of stent occlusion was 33.9% (20/59), and the median stent patency period was 276 days (range, 2 to 706 days). The clinical outcomes of DCMSs were comparable to the outcomes previously reported for CMSs with respect to stent patency period and complication rates.

  20. Antireflux Metal Stent as a First-Line Metal Stent for Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Nakai, Yousuke; Togawa, Osamu; Takahara, Naminatsu; Uchino, Rie; Mizuno, Suguru; Mohri, Dai; Yagioka, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Matsubara, Saburo; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Ito, Yukiko; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-15

    In distal malignant biliary obstruction, an antireflux metal stent (ARMS) with a funnel-shaped valve is effective as a reintervention for metal stent occlusion caused by reflux. This study sought to evaluate the feasibility of this ARMS as a first-line metal stent. Patients with nonresectable distal malignant biliary obstruction were identified between April and December 2014 at three Japanese tertiary centers. We retrospectively evaluated recurrent biliary obstruction and adverse events after ARMS placement. In total, 20 consecutive patients were included. The most common cause of biliary obstruction was pancreatic cancer (75%). Overall, recurrent biliary obstruction was observed in seven patients (35%), with a median time to recurrent biliary obstruction of 246 days (range, 11 to 246 days). Stent occlusion occurred in five patients (25%), the causes of which were sludge and food impaction in three and two patients, respectively. Stent migration occurred in two patients (10%). The rate of adverse events associated with ARMS was 25%: pancreatitis occurred in three patients, cholecystitis in one and liver abscess in one. No patients experienced nonocclusion cholangitis. The ARMS as a first-line biliary drainage procedure was feasible. Because the ARMS did not fully prevent stent dysfunction due to reflux, further investigation is warranted.

  1. [Common abdominal emergency cases a the end of the 20th century].

    PubMed

    Rozsos, I

    1998-06-21

    Despite the marked decline in mortality of acute appendicitis over the past 50 years, the rate of perforation and negative appendectomy remains unchanged. The most effective means of controlling human suffering and economic cost associated with appendicitis is the identification and correction of factors responsible for perforation. Negative appendectomy rates have been relatively stable over the decades. Progress in diagnosis and diagnostic imaging still has not provided a foolproof non-invasive test to rule out the presence of appendicitis accurately. Clinical assessment determines the treatment and the clinical observation should be done by the surgeon. The use of H2-receptor antagonists has not reduced emergency admission of patients with duodenal ulcer. Mortality associated with perforated peptic ulcer remains high in spite of advances in surgical management. The patients with acute obstructed cholecystitis usually reach the surgeon with more advanced stage of the disease which results in increased morbidity and subsequently increased cost for undergoing cholecystectomy. If the patient develops severe diffuse peritonitis, the mortality could reach 30%. This is in spite of aggressive surgical treatment, potent antibiotics, modern intensive care and diagnostic procedures. To improve the results, more advanced treatment to avoid the development of peritonitis and more effective antibiotics to control the inflammation will be needed.

  2. Frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in dengue fever in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the frequency, pattern and management of acute abdomen in patients with dengue fever. This descriptive case series is a prospective analysis of acute abdomen in dengue fever that was performed at three secondary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan from June 1, 2005 to December 31, 2008. The inclusion criterion was all patients with confirmed diagnosis of dengue fever. Patients with incomplete laboratory, ultrasound or histopathology data were excluded. Among 357 patients with dengue fever, 43 (12.04%) had acute abdomen. There were 15 men and 28 women, with a median age of 29 years. These included 26 cases of acute cholecystitis, 7 cases of acute appendicitis, 7 cases of nonspecific peritonitis, and 3 cases of acute pancreatitis. Dengue hemorrhagic fever/shock syndrome was found in acute pancreatitis, and two of these patients died. Emergency surgery was required in eight patients (5 appendectomy and 3 open cholecystectomy). Substantial transfusion of blood and its components was required in eight patients who underwent emergency surgery. Early diagnosis and prompt conservative management of dengue acute abdomen is necessary to avoid mortality and emergency surgery-related morbidity. However, if needed, surgery can be performed with acceptable morbidity. Copyright © 2010 Asian Surgical Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cavernous Transformation of Portal Vein Secondary to Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Radhames; Park, Yoojin; Shazad, Ghulamullah; A.Garcia, Christine; Cohen, Ronny

    2012-01-01

    There are few reported cases of cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV) in adults. We present a case of a 58 year-old male who was found to have this complication due to portal vein thrombosis (PVT). A 58-year old African American male with chronic alcohol and tobacco use presented with a 25-day history of weakness, generalized malaise, nausea and vomiting associated with progressively worsening anorexia and weight loss. The patient was admitted for severe anemia in conjunction with abnormal liver function tests and electrolyte abnormalities, and to rule out end stage liver disease or hepatic malignancy. The work-up for anemia showed no significant colon abnormalities, cholecystitis, liver cirrhosis, or liver abnormalities but could not rule out malignancy. An esophageogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) was suspicious for a mass compressing the stomach and small bowel. After further work-up, the hepatic mass has been diagnosed as a cavernous transformation of the portal vein (CTPV), a very rare complication of portal vein thrombosis (PVT). Cavernous Transformation of the Portal Vein (CTPV) is a rare and incurable complication of portal vein thrombosis (PVT) that should be considered as one of the differential diagnoses of a hepatic mass. Keywords Cavernous transformation of the portal vein; Portal vein thrombosis; Portal hypertension; Hyperbilirubinemia; Hepatic mass PMID:22383935

  4. [Surgical treatment for liver haematoma following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; An unusual case].

    PubMed

    González-López, Rogelio; García-Cano, Eugenio; Espinosa-González, Omar; Cruz-Salgado, Ángel; Montiel-Jarquin, Álvaro-José; Hernández-Zamora, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Even in expert hands, there can be serious complications when performing an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The most frequent complications are pancreatitis, cholangitis, bleeding, perforation, and acute cholecystitis. The hepatic subcapsular haematoma is a rare complication, with few cases described worldwide. A case is presented of an extremely rare complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which required surgical treatment for its resolution without success. This is second case of mortality reported in the literature. Female patient of 30 years old, with indication for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography due to benign strictures. A hydro-pneumatic dilation and stent placement of 2 gauge 10 fr was performed. She presented abdominal pain after the procedure and significant decline in haemoglobin with no evidence of haemodynamic instability so an abdominal tomography scan was performed, showing no evidence of liver injury. The patient was haemodynamic unstable within 72 h. A laparotomy was required for damage control, with fatal outcome in the intensive care unit due to multiple organ failure. Subcapsular hepatic haematoma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a rare complication, with few cases reported in the literature. Treatment described in the literature is conservative, resulting in a satisfactory resolution. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  5. MRI and histopathologic study of a novel cholesterol-fed rabbit model of xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanxin; Hamilton, Amanda M; Parkins, Katie M; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Rogers, Kem A; Zeineh, Michael M; Rutt, Brian K; Ronald, John A

    2016-09-01

    To develop a rabbit model of xanthogranuloma based on supplementation of dietary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to analyze the xanthogranulomatous lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological examination. Rabbits were fed a low-level cholesterol (CH) diet (n = 10) or normal chow (n = 5) for 24 months. In vivo brain imaging was performed on a 3T MR system using fast imaging employing steady state acquisition, susceptibility-weighted imaging, spoiled gradient recalled, T1 -weighted inversion recovery imaging and T1 relaxometry, PD-weighted and T2 -weighted spin-echo imaging and T2 relaxometry, iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation, ultrashort TE MRI (UTE-MRI), and T2* relaxometry. MR images were evaluated using a Likert scale for lesion presence and quantitative analysis of lesion size, ventricular volume, and T1 , T2 , and T2* values of lesions was performed. After imaging, brain specimens were examined using histological methods. In vivo MRI revealed that 6 of 10 CH-fed rabbits developed lesions in the choroid plexus. Region-of-interest analysis showed that for CH-fed rabbits the mean lesion volume was 8.5 ± 2.6 mm(3) and the volume of the lateral ventricle was significantly increased compared to controls (P < 0.01). The lesions showed significantly shorter mean T2 values (35 ± 12 msec, P < 0.001), longer mean T1 values (1581 ± 146 msec, P < 0.05), and shorter T2* values (22 ± 13 msec, P < 0.001) compared to adjacent brain structures. The ultrashort T2* components were visible using UTE-MRI. Histopathologic evaluation of lesions demonstrated features of human xanthogranuloma. Rabbits fed a low-level CH diet develop sizable intraventricular masses that have similar histopathological features as human xanthogranuloma. Multiparametric MRI techniques were able to provide information about the complex composition of these lesions. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016

  6. Laparoscopic completion cholecystectomy and common bile duct exploration for retained gallbladder after single-incision cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Kroh, Matthew; Chalikonda, Sricharan; Chand, Bipan; Walsh, R Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Recent enthusiasm in the surgical community for less invasive surgical approaches has resulted in widespread application of single-incision techniques. This has been most commonly applied in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in general surgery. Cosmesis appears to be improved, but other advantages remain to be seen. Feasibility has been demonstrated, but there is little description in the current literature regarding complications. We report the case of a patient who previously underwent single-incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease. After a brief symptom-free interval, she developed acute pancreatitis. At evaluation, imaging results of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography demonstrated a retained gallbladder with cholelithiasis. The patient was subsequently referred to our hospital, where she underwent further evaluation and surgical intervention. Our patient underwent 4-port laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy with transcystic common bile duct exploration. Operative exploration demonstrated a large remnant gallbladder and a partially obstructed cystic duct with many stones. Transcystic exploration with balloon extraction resulted in duct clearance. The procedure took 75 minutes, with minimal blood loss. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. Final pathology results demonstrated a remnant gallbladder with cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. This report is the first in the literature to describe successful laparoscopic remnant cholecystectomy and transcystic common bile duct exploration after previous single-port cholecystectomy. Although inadvertent partial cholecystectomy is not unique to this technique, single-port laparoscopic procedures may result in different and significant complications.

  7. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy in double gallbladder with dual pathology.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sumanta Kumar

    2014-04-01

    Double gallbladder is a rare embryological anomaly of clinical significance. Despite availability of modern imaging, only 50% of recently reported cases had preoperative diagnosis, which is desirable in every case to avoid serious operative complications. Double pathology in double gallbladder is extremely rare with only 3 reporting's available till date to the best of author's knowledge. With a preoperative diagnosis of double gallbladder, laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be safely and successfully performed with meticulous dissection, aided by operative cholangiogram. However in all such attempts a lower threshold should be kept for conversion to open surgery. Awareness about this anomaly amongst radiologists and surgeons is of crucial importance. Double gallbladder does not present with any specific symptom, neither it increases disease possibility in either lobe. Prophylactic cholecystectomy has no role in asymptomatic cases diagnosed accidentally. Author reports a case of a symptomatic young male with double gallbladder who presented with short history of dyspepsia, abdominal pain and fever. Definite preoperative diagnosis was reached with ultrasound scan and magnetic resonance cholangio pancreatography and subsequently dealt with laparoscopically. Calculous cholecystitis affected one lobe and acalculous empyema the other. While the 1st lobe drained though a cystic duct into common bile duct (CBD), the 2nd was without any communication with either CBD or its counterpart, thus remained as a blind vesicle.

  8. Implication of Gastric Cancer Molecular Genetic Markers in Surgical Practice.

    PubMed

    Nemtsova, Marina V; Strelnikov, Vladimir V; Tanas, Alexander S; Bykov, Igor I; Zaletaev, Dmitry V; Rudenko, Viktoria V; Glukhov, Alexander I; Kchorobrich, Tatiana V; Li, Yi; Tarasov, Vadim V; Barreto, George E; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2017-10-01

    We have investigated aberrant methylation of genes CDH1, RASSF1A, MLH1, N33, DAPK, expression of genes hTERT, MMP7, MMP9, BIRC5 (survivin), PTGS2, and activity of telomerase of 106 gastric tumor samples obtained intra-operatively and 53 gastric tumor samples from the same group of patients obtained endoscopically before surgery. Biopsy specimens obtained from 50 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis were used as a control group. Together with tissue samples obtained from different sites remote to tumors, a total of 727 samples have been studied. The selected parameters comprise a system of molecular markers that can be used in both diagnostics of gastric cancer and in dynamic monitoring of patients after surgery. Special attention was paid to the use of molecular markers for the diagnostics of malignant process in the material obtained endoscopically since the efficacy of morphological diagnostics in biopsies is compromised by intratumoral heterogeneity, which may prevent reliable identification of tumor cells in the sampling. Our data indicated that certain molecular genetic events provided more sensitive yet specific markers of the tumor. We demonstrated that molecular profiles detected in preoperative biopsies were confirmed by the material obtained intra-operatively. The use of endoscopic material facilitates gastric tumors pre-operative diagnostics, improving early detection of gastric cancer and potential effective treatment strategies.

  9. Bactibilia and surgical site infection after open cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Mendoza, José Dolores; Alvarez-Mora, Moisés; Velázquez-Morales, César Augusto; Anaya-Prado, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Bactibilia is the presence of bacteria in gall bladder bile and may play a role in the appearance of septic complications. It has been related to increased rates of surgical site infection after cholecystectomy. In this study we investigated whether bactibilia correlates with the presence of surgical site infection after cholecystectomy. In this observational and descriptive study we investigated those patients operated by open cholecystectomy because of chronic cholecystitis. Patients had bile culture during surgery (January-December 2006). There were two study groups: patients with negative biliary culture (group 1) and patients with positive biliary culture (group 2). Variables were age, gender, biliary culture reports, abscess, cellulitis, seroma, and hematoma. Statistical analysis included Pearson chi(2) or Fisher's exact test. For independent variables, Student t-test was used. Eighty patients were included (n = 40 per group). There were 24 males (30%) and 56 females (70%) who had open cholecystectomy and had biliary culture. General morbidity was 42.50% and surgical site infection rate in general was 11.25%. There were two patients with abscesses and two patients with cellulitis in group 1. There were four patients with abscesses and one patient with cellulitis in group 2. There was no statistically significant difference when comparing surgical site infection in both groups. The presence of bacteria in gall bladder cultures does not correlate with the development of surgical site infection after open cholecystectomy.

  10. The risk of malignancy in ultrasound detected gallbladder polyps: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Elmasry, Mohamed; Lindop, Don; Dunne, Declan F J; Malik, Hassan; Poston, Graeme J; Fenwick, Stephen W

    2016-09-01

    Gallbladder polyps (GBPs) are a common incidental finding on ultrasound (US) examination. The malignant potential of GBPs is debated, and there is limited guidance on surveillance. This systematic review sought to assess the natural history of ultrasonographically diagnosed GBPs and their malignant potential. The keywords: "Gallbladder" AND ("polyp" OR "polypoid lesion") were used to conduct a search in four reference libraries to identify studies which examined the natural history of GBPs diagnosed by US. Twelve studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. Of the 5482 GBPs reported, malignant GBPs had an incidence of just 0.57%. True GBPs had an incidence of 0.60%. Sixty four patients of adenomatous and malignant polyps were reported. Only in one patient was a malignant GBP reported to be <6mm. Risk factors associated with increased risk of malignancy were GBP >6mm, single GBPs, symptomatic GBPs, age >60 years, Indian ethnicity, gallstones and cholecystitis. With the reported incidence of GBP malignancy at just 0.57%, a management approach based on risk assessment, clear surveillance planning, and multi disciplinary team (MDT) discussion should be adopted. The utilization of endoscopic ultrasound(EUS) should be Only considered on the grounds of its greater sensitivity and specificity when compared to US scans. Copyright © 2016 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Incidental non-benign gallbladder histopathology after cholecystectomy in an United Kingdom population: Need for routine histological analysis?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krashna; Dajani, Khaled; Iype, Satheesh; Chatzizacharias, Nikolaos A; Vickramarajah, Saranya; Singh, Prateush; Davies, Susan; Brais, Rebecca; Liau, Siong S; Harper, Simon; Jah, Asif; Praseedom, Raaj K; Huguet, Emmanuel L

    2016-01-01

    AIM To analyse the range of histopathology detected in the largest published United Kingdom series of cholecystectomy specimens and to evaluate the rational for selective histopathological analysis. METHODS Incidental gallbladder malignancy is rare in the United Kingdom with recent literature supporting selective histological assessment of gallbladders after routine cholecystectomy. All cholecystectomy gallbladder specimens examined by the histopathology department at our hospital during a five year period between March 2008 and March 2013 were retrospectively analysed. Further data was collected on all specimens demonstrating carcinoma, dysplasia and polypoid growths. RESULTS The study included 4027 patients. The majority (97%) of specimens exhibited gallstone or cholecystitis related disease. Polyps were demonstrated in 44 (1.09%), the majority of which were cholesterol based (41/44). Dysplasia, ranging from low to multifocal high-grade was demonstrated in 55 (1.37%). Incidental primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was detected in 6 specimens (0.15%, 5 female and 1 male), and a single gallbladder revealed carcinoma in situ (0.02%). This large single centre study demonstrated a full range of gallbladder disease from cholecystectomy specimens, including more than 1% neoplastic histology and two cases of macroscopically occult gallbladder malignancies. CONCLUSION Routine histological evaluation of all elective and emergency cholecystectomies is justified in a United Kingdom population as selective analysis has potential to miss potentially curable life threatening pathology. PMID:27830040

  12. Evolution of segmental anesthesia for Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Ross, S B; Mangar, D; Karlnoski, R; Patel, R S; Camporesi, E M; Barry, L K; Luberice, K; Sprenker, C J; Rosemurgy, A S

    2012-06-01

    Transumbilical Laparo-Endoscopic Single Site (LESS) surgery promises improved cosmesis, quick recovery, reduced postoperative pain and shorter length of hospital stay. Since only a simple umbilical incision is used, LESS surgery can be completed with segmental epidural anesthesia. This study describes the evolution of our technique of LESS cholecystectomy from a combination of spinal and epidural anesthesia to thoracic epidural alone and presents our experience with its safety, the observed morbidity, and the reported patient satisfaction. In August 2009, a prospective evaluation of LESS cholecystectomy with regional anesthesia was undertaken. We recruited patients with chronic cholecystitis or symptomatic cholelithasis. Blood loss, operative time, complications, and length of hospital stay were measured. Preoperatively and 14 days postoperatively, outcome and symptom resolution were scored. Fifteen consecutive patients underwent LESS cholecystectomy; first with combined spinal-epidural (CSE), and then with thoracic epidural anesthesia alone. Immediate postoperative pain and discomfort were well tolerated. VAS scores upon admission to PACU were 0.4 (1.7±2.2). At postoperative day 14, the patients scored high values for "Satisfaction", 10 (10±1.0) and "Cosmesis", 10 (9.3±1.5). LESS cholecystectomy with epidural anesthesia can be undertaken safely. Patient satisfaction and cosmesis are particularly prominent amongst our patients. Our experience supports further utilization of epidural anesthesia for selected patients undergoing LESS cholecystectomy.

  13. Single-step simultaneous side-by-side placement of a self-expandable metallic stent with a 6-Fr delivery system for unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Kudo, Taiki; Abe, Yoko; Kawahata, Shuhei; Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2015-02-01

    Bilateral self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement for the management of unresectable malignant hilar biliary obstruction (UMHBO) is technically challenging to perform using the existing metallic stents with thick delivery systems. The recently developed 6-Fr delivery systems could facilitate a single-step simultaneous side-by-side placement through the accessory channel of the duodenoscope. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this procedure. Between May and September 2013, 13 consecutive patients with UMHBO underwent a single-step simultaneous side-by-side placement of SEMS with the 6-Fr delivery system. The technical success rate, stent patency, and rate of complications were evaluated from the prospectively collected database. Technical success was achieved in 11 (84.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 57.8-95.8) patients. The median procedure time was 25 min. Early and late complications were observed in 23% (one segmental cholangitis and two liver abscesses) and 15% (one segmental cholangitis and one cholecystitis) patients, respectively. Median dysfunction free patency was 263 days (95% CI: 37-263). Five patients (38%) experienced stent occlusion that was successfully managed by endoscopic stent placement. A single-step simultaneous side-by-side placement of SEMS with a 6-Fr delivery system was feasible for the management of UMHBO. © 2014 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  14. Should laparoscopic cholecystectomy be practiced in the developing world?: the experience of the first training program in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Manning, Richard G; Aziz, Abdul Qayoume

    2009-05-01

    We address the controversial issue of whether or not it is wise to perform and train laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in a developing nation by reviewing the results of the first large series done in Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been devastated by 3 decades of war leaving it with deficiencies in training programs, medical technologies, and overall medical infrastructure that are among the worst in the developing world. We retrospectively reviewed 137 consecutive cholecystectomies, 102 laparoscopic and 35 open, performed by 4 senior and 3 junior surgeons trained at our hospital in Kabul from July 2005 until February 2008. Deaths, complications, conversion rate, operative time, and hospital length of stay were compared. Unrecognized major operative injuries occurred in 4 LC patients, 3 bile leaks, and 1 duodenal perforation, although there were no such injuries in the open cholecystectomy group. Complication rates were much higher for patients operated on for acute cholecystitis for both surgeon groups. Even though junior surgeons converted to open cholecystectomy more frequently than senior surgeons, they had a higher major complication rate. Hospital length of stay was 28% shorter for the laparoscopic group. The high rate of major unrecognized intraoperative complications during LC in our series underscores the difficulties inherent in performing and training LC in developing nations. Practical changes are suggested to make LC more efficient and safer in a developing world hospital.

  15. Liver Function Assessment by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Emre; Akata, Deniz; Karcaaltincaba, Musturay

    2016-12-01

    Liver function assessment by hepatocyte-specific contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging is becoming a new biomarker. Liver function can be assessed by T1 mapping (reduction rate) and signal intensity measurement (relative enhancement ratio) before and after GD-EOB-DTPA (gadoxetic acid) administration, as alternative to Tc-99m galactosyl serum albumin scintigraphy, 99m Tc-labeled mebrofenin scintigraphy, and indocyanine green clearance test. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of liver function can enable diagnosis of cirrhosis, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease associated fibrosis and steatohepatitis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, toxic hepatitis, and chemotherapy and radiotherapy-related changes, which may be only visible on hepatobiliary phase images. Simple visual assessment of signal intensity at hepatobiliary phase images is important for the diagnosis of different patterns of liver dysfunction including diffuse, lobar, segmental, and subsegmental forms. Furthermore, preoperative assessment of liver function is feasible before oncologic hepatic surgery, which may be important to prevent posthepatectomy liver failure and to estimate future remnant volume. Functional magnetic resonance cholangiography obtained by T1-weighted images at hepatobiliary phase can allow diagnosis of acalculous cholecystitis, biliary leakage, bile reflux to the stomach, sphincter of oddi dysfunction, and lesions with communication to biliary tree. Functional information can be easily obtained when Gd-EOB-DTPA is used for liver magnetic resonance imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

    2015-12-01

    Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Damage-control laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy with an endoscopic linear stapler.

    PubMed

    Özçınar, Beyza; Memişoğlu, Ecem; Gök, Ali Fuat Kaan; Ağcaoğlu, Orhan; Yanar, Fatih; İlhan, Mehmet; Yanar, Hakan Teoman; Günay, Kayıhan

    2017-01-01

    Several damage-control procedures have been described in the literature in case of severe Calot's triangle inflammation and fibrosis. In this report, we describe patients who underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy using an endoscopic linear stapler. Five patients with acute cholecystitis underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy in our clinic between January - December 2011. All patients had severe fibrosis and inflammation of Calot's triangle. The anterior and posterior walls of the gallbladder were totally resected if possible. The gallbladder was transected at its neck or Hartmann's pouch, leaving a remnant gallbladder pouch behind. Five patients had laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy with an endoscopic linear stapler. The main symptom of all patients on admission to the emergency room was abdominal pain. The mean time for the surgical procedure was 140 minutes (range, 120-180 minutes). Inflammation and fibrosis of Calot's triangle was detected in all patients during surgery and a phlegmonous gallbladder was detected in one patient. Surgical drains were used in all patients and no biliary leakage was detected. Remnant common bile duct calculi were detected in one patient and this patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography one month after surgery. When a reliable view of Calot's triangle cannot be obtained due to severe inflammation and fibrosis during laparoscopy, laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy seems to be a safe and feasible alternative to open surgery with an acceptable morbidity rate.

  18. Fluorescent Imaging With Indocyanine Green During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Patients at Increased Risk of Bile Duct Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ankersmit, Marjolein; van Dam, Dieuwertje A.; van Rijswijk, Anne-Sophie; van den Heuvel, Baukje; Tuynman, Jurriaan B.; Meijerink, Wilhelmus J. H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Although rare, injury to the common bile duct (CBD) during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) can be reduced by better intraoperative visualization of the cystic duct (CD) and CBD. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy of early visualization of the CD and the added value of CBD identification, using near-infrared (NIR) light and the fluorescent agent indocyanine green (ICG), in patients at increased risk of bile duct injury. Materials and Methods. Patients diagnosed with complicated cholecystitis and scheduled for LC were included. The CBD and CD were visualized with NIR light before and during dissection of the liver hilus and at critical view of safety (CVS). Results. Of the 20 patients originally included, 2 were later excluded due to conversion. In 6 of 18 patients, the CD was visualized early during dissection and prior to imaging with conventional white light. The CBD was additionally visualized with ICG-NIR in 7 of 18 patients. In 1 patient, conversion was prevented due to detection of the CD and CBD with ICG-NIR. Conclusions. Early visualization of the CD or additional identification of the CBD using ICG-NIR in patients with complicated cholecystolithiasis can be helpful in preventing CBD injury. Future studies should attempt to establish the optimal dosage and time frame for ICG administration and bile duct visualization with respect to different gallbladder pathologies. PMID:28178882

  19. Obesity Increases Operative Time in Children Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Pandian, T K; Ubl, Daniel S; Habermann, Elizabeth B; Moir, Christopher R; Ishitani, Michael B

    2017-03-01

    Few studies have assessed the impact of obesity on laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in pediatric patients. Children who underwent LC were identified from the 2012 to 2013 American College of Surgeons' National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatrics data. Patient characteristics, operative details, and outcomes were compared. Multivariable logistic regression was utilized to identify predictors of increased operative time (OT) and duration of anesthesia (DOAn). In total, 1757 patients were identified. Due to low rates of obesity in children <9 years old, analyses were limited to those 9-17 (n = 1611, 43% obese). Among obese children, 80.6% were girls. A higher proportion of obese patients had diabetes (3.0% versus 1.0%, P < .01) and contaminated or dirty/infected wounds (15.1% versus 9.4%, P < .01). Complication rates were low. The most frequent indications for surgery were cholelithiasis/biliary colic (34.3%), chronic cholecystitis (26.9%), and biliary dyskinesia (18.2%). On multivariable analysis, obesity was an independent predictor of OT >90 (odds ratio [OR] 2.02; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.55-2.63), and DOAn >140 minutes (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.42-2.43). Obesity is an independent risk factor for increased OT in children undergoing LC. Pediatric surgeons and anesthesiologists should be prepared for the technical and physiological challenges that obesity may pose in this patient population.

  20. Clinical strategies to aim an adequate safety profile for patients and effective training for surgical residents: The laparoscopic cholecystectomy model.

    PubMed

    Bresadola, Vittorio; Pravisani, Riccardo; Pighin, Marina; Seriau, Luca; Cherchi, Vittorio; Giuseppe, Sergio; Risaliti, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Training programs for resident surgeons represent a challenge for the mentoring activity. The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of our training program for laparoscopic cholecystectomy on patient's safety and on the modulation of the residents' exposure to clinical scenario with different grades of complexity. This is a retrospective study based on a clinical series of laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in a teaching hospital. Study population was grouped according to the expertise of the attending primary operator among resident surgeons. Four groups were identified: consultant (C), senior resident (SR); intermediate level resident (IR); junior resident (JR). The intraoperative and postoperative outcomes were confronted to evaluate the patient's safety profile. 447 patients were submitted to LC: 96 cases were operated by a C, 200 by SR, 112 by IR and 39 by JR. The mean operative time was the longest for the JR group. A statistically higher rate of conversion to open approach was registered in C and IR groups in comparison to JR and SR groups. However, in C and IR groups, patients had worse ASA score, higher BMI and more frequent past history of previous abdominal surgery, cholecystitis or pancreatitis. Overall, it was not registered any statistically significant difference among the groups in terms of length of hospital stay and prevalence of major postoperative complications. Applying an educational model based on both graduated levels of responsibility and modulated grade of clinical complexity can guarantee an high safety profile.

  1. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  2. Intraabdominal contamination after gallbladder perforation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its complications.

    PubMed

    Kimura, T; Goto, H; Takeuchi, Y; Yoshida, M; Kobayashi, T; Sakuramachi, S; Harada, Y

    1996-09-01

    Gallbladder perforation often occurs during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The frequency and causes of gallbladder perforation as well as the relevant clinical background factors were investigated in 110 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We also evaluated intraperitoneal contamination by bacteria and gallstones at the time of gallbladder perforation and investigated whether perforation caused early or late postoperative complications. Intraoperative gallbladder perforation occurred in 29 of the 110 patients (26.3%). It was caused by injury with an electric knife during dissection of the gallbladder bed, injury during gallbladder retraction with grasping forceps, injury during gallbladder extraction from the abdomen, and slippage of cystic duct clips (potentially causing bile and stone spillage). Perforation was more frequent in patients with positive bile cultures and in those with pigment stones (p < 0.02), but not in patients with cholecystitis or cystic duct obstruction. The peritoneal cavity was contaminated by bacteria in 11/29 patients (37.9%) and by spilled stones in 3/29 patients (10.3%). There was no difference in the incidence of postoperative complications between the patients with and without perforation either in the early postoperative period or during follow-up for 24-42 months. Only one patient developed abdominal pain and fever in the early postoperative period, and they were probably related to perforation. Although gallbladder perforation is sometimes unavoidable during laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the risk of severe complications appears to be minimized by early closure of perforation, retrieval of as many of the spilled stones as possible, and intraperitoneal lavage.

  3. Hepatitis E in Qatar imported by expatriate workers from Nepal: epidemiological characteristics and clinical manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Abdulsalam Saif; Alkhal, Abdulatif; Jacob, Joyal; Ghadban, Wisam; Almarri, Ajayeb

    2009-06-01

    Prompted by cases of acute hepatitis in expatriate workers presenting at Alkhor Hospital, Qatar, a limited prospective observational study was conducted from July 2005 to June 2006 to determine the epidemiological and clinical features of patients (predominantly Nepalese) presenting with acute hepatitis. Countrywide during that period samples from 86 Nepalese presenting at different centers were found to be anti-HEV IgG positive and 50 of these were also positive for anti-HEV IgM. Fifty-eight of those Nepalese were seen and treated at Alkhor Hospital and of them 43 were confirmed as cases of acute HEV, being positive for both anti-HEV IgM and IgG. The remaining 15 were diagnosed as probable cases of acute HEV on the basis of clinical and epidemiological similarity. It seems likely that transit in Kathmandu in reportedly unsanitary conditions was the focus of infection. In some of those examined at Alkhor, ultrasound detected a thickened gallbladder wall in 30 of 39 (76.9%) with two cases having clinical acalcular cholecystitis. Higher levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were associated with severe disease and derangement in coagulation. On the available evidence hepatitis E was imported by expatriate workers and it is clear that medical screening of these workers pre- and post-arrival must be improved to prevent further outbreaks. It is also essential that health care workers in Qatar are made aware of this ongoing problem of imported HEV and understand the variable presentation of the condition.

  4. Trends of Gallbladder Cancer in Jordan Over 2 Decades: Where Are We?

    PubMed Central

    Al Manasra, Abdel Rahman; Bani Hani, Mohammed; Qandeel, Haitham; Al Asmar, Samer; Alqudah, Mohammad; Al-Zoubi, Nabil; Nadig, Satish; Hamouri, Shadi; Obeidat, Khaled; Al-Muqaimi, Nada

    2018-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The prevalence of gallbladder cancer (GBC) varies between different parts of the world. This study is a review of literature and an update of a previously published study conducted in our university and aims to reassess the incidence of GBC over the past 2 decades. Patients and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study between 2002 and 2016. Data regarding demographics, clinical presentation, risk factors, histopathology, investigations, and treatments were obtained. A diagnosis of GBC established during surgery or primarily detected in the surgical specimen was classified as incidental. Results: Of 11 391 cholecystectomies performed, 31 cases (0.27%) of GBC were found. The mean age of patients with GBC was 68 years (43-103 years), 74% were women. The annual incidence of GBC was 0.2/100 000 (men: 0.1/100 000; women: 0.3/100 000). Biliary colic and acute cholecystitis were the main presentations. Diagnosis of GBC was “incidental” in 67% of cases. About 75% of patients with GBC had gallstones, 13% had polyps, and 3% had porcelain gallbladder. Adenocarcinoma was the dominant (87%) histologic type. Conclusions: The GBC rate in our region, similar to others parts of the world, is still low and has not changed over the past 2 decades. This study consolidates the previously published recommendations regarding the high index of suspicion of GBC in elderly with cholelithiasis. PMID:29760576

  5. Gallstones and gallbladder cancer-volume and weight of gallstones are associated with gallbladder cancer: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Roa, Iván; Ibacache, Gilda; Roa, Juan; Araya, Juan; de Aretxabala, Xabier; Muñoz, Sergio

    2006-06-15

    Gallstones are considered the most important risk factor for gallbladder cancer. To identify differences in the number, weight, volume, and density of gallstones associated with chronic cholecystitis (CC), gallbladder dysplasia (GD), and gallbladder cancer (GBC). A total of 125 cases were selected, of which 93 had gallstones associated with GBC and 31 had gallstones associated with GD. The controls were those with CC, matched by sex and age. The number, weight, volume, and density of these gallstones were examined in order to determine differences and relative cancer risk. Number: Multiple gallstones were present in over 76% of cases (GBC and GD) and controls (P = ns). The average number of multiple stones was 21 in GBC versus 14 in controls (P < 0.01). Weight: The average weight of the gallstones was 9.6 g in GBC versus 6.0 g in controls (P = 0.0004). The average weight in multiple stones over 10 g had strong association with GBC (P = 0.0006). Volume: The average volume was 11.7 and 6.48 ml in GBC and controls (P = 0.0002). Average volumes of 6, 8, and 10 ml had a relative cancer risk of 5, 7, and 11 times, respectively. Size: No differences were shown between GBC, GD, and controls. The volume of gallstones associated with other risk factors of GBC may be helpful in prioritizing cholecystectomies in symptomatic patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Profile and predictors of bile infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Mahafzah, Azmi M; Daradkeh, Salam S

    2009-08-01

    To study the bacteriological profile, and to determine predictors of bile infection and septic complications following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This cross-sectional study reviewed 1248 laparoscopic cholecystectomy cases performed between January 1994 and December 2007 by one surgical team at the Jordan University Hospital, Amman, Jordan. Bile cultures were performed for all patients and statistical analysis was performed on culture results and postoperative complications as well as, on the possible predictors of bile infection including age, gender, associated diseases, preoperative retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and indications for surgery. Uncomplicated gallstone disease was diagnosed in 993 patients (79.6%), 221 patients (17.7%) had acute cholecystitis, and 34 patients (2.7%) had jaundice. Associated morbidities were present in 513 patients (41.1%), preoperative ERCP was performed for 132 patients (10.6%), and postoperative septic complications developed in 25 patients (2%). Bile culture was positive in 250 patients (20%), 134 (53.6%) of whom had gram negative bacteria, 73 (29.2%) had gram positive bacteria, and 43 (17.2%) had mixed cultures. The chi-square test has shown that positive bile culture is significantly associated with age, gender, preoperative ERCP, associated morbidities, and complicated gallbladder disease, whereas multinomial regression analysis has shown that age and preoperative ERCP were the only significant predictors of bile infection. Bile infection commonly complicates gallstone disease, and it can be influenced by age and preoperative endoscopic interventions, but it does not influence the occurrence of postoperative septic complications.

  7. [Pylephlebitis: a rare but possible complication of intra-abdominal infections].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bru, Susana; Nofuentes-Riera, Carmen; García-Marín, Andrés; Luri-Prieto, Paloma; Morales-Calderón, Miguel; García-García, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Pylephlebitis or septic thrombophlebitis of the portal venous system is a rare but serious complication of intra-abdominal infections which drain into the portal venous system. Its diagnosis is based on clinical suspicion and imaging tests, mainly a computed tomography scan, given the lack of specificity of the signs and symptoms. Spread of septic emboli is the major cause of morbidity and mortality. The aim of the study was to analyse patients diagnosed in our hospital. Retrospective descriptive study of patients diagnosed with pylephlebitis in our hospital. Four patients were included, 3 men and one woman. In 3 cases it was acute cholecystitis that led to the diagnosis of pylephlebitis at the same time as the intra-abdominal infection. Emergency surgery was performed in one case, whilst the other 2 were treated conservatively. Blood cultures were performed in all cases, and empirical antibiotic treatment was used. In the only case of acute appendicitis, diagnosis of pylephlebitis was achieved during the study of postoperative fever, with empirical antibiotic treatment also being started. The haematologist was requested to start the required anticoagulation therapy in all cases. Pylephlebitis is a rare complication of intra-abdominal infections that may make lead to a worse outcome. A high level of suspicion is required as well as imaging tests to make an early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. The mystery of the Hawaii liver disease cluster in summer 2013: A pragmatic and clinical approach to solve the problem.

    PubMed

    Teschke, Rolf; Schwarzenboeck, Alexander; Frenzel, Christian; Schulze, Johannes; Eickhoff, Axel; Wolff, Albrecht

    2016-01-01

    In the fall of 2013, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published a preliminary report on a cluster of liver disease cases that emerged in Hawaii in the summer 2013. This report claimed a temporal association as sufficient evidence that OxyELITE Pro (OEP), a dietary supplement (DS) mainly for weight loss, was the cause of this mysterious cluster. However, the presented data were inconsistent and required a thorough reanalysis. To further investigate the cause(s) of this cluster, we critically evaluated redacted raw clinical data of the cluster patients, as the CDC report received tremendous publicity in local and nationwide newspapers and television. This attention put regulators and physicians from the medical center in Honolulu that reported the cluster, under enormous pressure to succeed, risking biased evaluations and hasty conclusions. We noted pervasive bias in the documentation, conclusions, and public statements, also poor quality of case management. Among the cases we reviewed, many causes unrelated to any DS were evident, including decompensated liver cirrhosis, acute liver failure by acetaminophen overdose, acute cholecystitis with gallstones, resolving acute hepatitis B, acute HSV and VZV hepatitis, hepatitis E suspected after consumption of wild hog meat, and hepatotoxicity by acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Causality assessments based on the updated CIOMS scale confirmed the lack of evidence for any DS including OEP as culprit for the cluster. Thus, the Hawaii liver disease cluster is now best explained by various liver diseases rather than any DS, including OEP.

  9. Pilot study of a novel, large-bore, fully covered self-expandable metallic stent for unresectable distal biliary malignancies.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Iwashita, Takuji; Itoi, Takao; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Nakai, Yousuke

    2016-09-01

    In patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction, covered self-expandable metallic stents (CSEMS) may remain patent longer than uncovered self-expandable metallic stents as a result of tumor ingrowth prevention. One main cause of recurrent biliary obstruction (RBO) in CSEMS is sludge formation, which can be prevented using a large-bore stent. Therefore, we developed a novel, 12-mm diameter fully covered SEMS (FCSEMS) and investigated its clinical safety, efficacy, and rate of adverse events. This prospective, multicenter pilot study, which ran between June 2011 and November 2012, included 38 consecutive patients with unresectable malignant distal biliary obstruction. All patients underwent endoscopic insertion of our novel stent. Primary endpoint was non-RBO rate 6 months after placement. Technical and functional success rates of the procedures were 100%. Six-month non-RBO rate was 50%, and median time to RBO was 184 days. Median survival time was 241 days. Twelve patients died within 6 months after stent placement without RBO. RBO was observed in 10 patients (26%), with seven experiencing stent occlusion and three experiencing stent migration. Adverse events other than RBO (at <30 days) developed in six patients (16%; cholecystitis, one; pancreatitis, one; hyperamylasemia, one; pancreatic ductitis, one; abdominal pain, two). Stent removal for reintervention was successfully completed in eight patients. Our novel FCSEMS may be safe and effective for managing malignant distal obstruction with an acceptable incidence of adverse events. © 2016 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  10. Identification of an Enterocytozoon bieneusi-like microsporidian parasite in simian-immunodeficiency-virus-inoculated macaques with hepatobiliary disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, K. G.; Carville, A.; Shvetz, D.; MacKey, J.; Tzipori, S.; Lackner, A. A.

    1997-01-01

    Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a common opportunistic pathogen of human patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) causing significant morbidity and mortality. In a retrospective analysis utilizing conventional histochemical techniques, in situ hybridization, polymerase chain reaction, and ultrastructural examination, we identified 18 simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infected macaques (16 Macaca mulatta, 1 M. nemestrina, and 1 M. cyclopis) with Enterocytozoon infection of the hepatobiliary system and small intestine. The organisms were readily identified in the bile ducts and gall bladder by special stains and by in situ hybridization using a probe directed against the small subunit ribosomal RNA of human origin E. bieneusi. Infection of the biliary system was associated with a nonsuppurative and proliferative cholecystitis and choledochitis. Hepatic involvement was characterized by bridging portal fibrosis and nodular hepatocellular regeneration accompanied by marked bile ductular and septal duct hyperplasia. Ultrastructurally, all developmental stages of the organism were found in direct contact with the host cell cytoplasm; spores and sporoblasts contained a double layer of polar tubes. Sequencing of a 607-bp segment of the small subunit ribosomal RNA revealed 97 and 100% identity to two clones of small subunit ribosomal RNA derived from E. bieneusi of human origin. Extensive morphological and genetic similarities between the simian and human enterocytozoons suggest that experimentally infected macaques may serve as a useful model of microsporidial infection in AIDS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9094995

  11. CT angiography in the setting of suspected acute mesenteric ischemia: prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Henes, Frank Oliver; Pickhardt, Perry J; Herzyk, Andrzej; Lee, Scott J; Motosugi, Utaroh; Derlin, Thorsten; Lubner, Meghan G; Adam, Gerhard; Schön, Gerhard; Bannas, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses and the diagnostic accuracy of CT angiography (CTA) in the setting of suspected acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI). We included 959 patients undergoing CTA for the evaluation of suspected AMI. The final clinical diagnosis was used to determine the prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses and to calculate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA. Prevalence of diagnoses by age, sex, and admission status was compared using Cochran-Armitage and χ 2 tests. Prevalence was 18.8% (180/959) for AMI and 61.2% (587/959) for specific alternative diagnoses. In the remaining 20.0% (192/959), no clear clinical diagnosis was established. The most frequent alternative diagnoses were small-bowel obstruction (10.4%; 61/587), infectious colitis (8.7%; 51/587), pneumonia (6.5%; 38/587), cholecystitis (6.1%; 36/587), and diverticulitis (5.6%; 33/587). Prevalence of specific alternative diagnoses varied significantly according to both age (p < .013) and admissions status (p < 0.001). CTA had a sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing AMI of 89.4%/99.5% and for alternative diagnoses of 86.7%/96.9%, respectively. In the setting of suspected AMI, the prevalence of ischemic and alternative diagnoses varies significantly by age, sex, and admission status. CTA provides for rapid and non-invasive assessment of ischemic and alternative diagnoses with high diagnostic accuracy.

  12. Gallbladder cancer worldwide: geographical distribution and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Randi, Giorgia; Franceschi, Silvia; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2006-04-01

    Gallbladder cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm that shows, however, high incidence rates in certain world populations. The interplay of genetic susceptibility, lifestyle factors and infections in gallbladder carcinogenesis is still poorly understood. Age-adjusted rates were calculated by cancer registry-based data. Epidemiological studies on gallbladder cancer were selected through searches of literature, and relative risks were abstracted for major risk factors. The highest gallbladder cancer incidence rates worldwide were reported for women in Delhi, India (21.5/100,000), South Karachi, Pakistan (13.8/100,000) and Quito, Ecuador (12.9/100,000). High incidence was found in Korea and Japan and some central and eastern European countries. Female-to-male incidence ratios were generally around 3, but ranged from 1 in Far East Asia to over 5 in Spain and Colombia. History of gallstones was the strongest risk factor for gallbladder cancer, with a pooled relative risk (RR) of 4.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 3.3-7.4]. Consistent associations were also present with obesity, multiparity and chronic infections like Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi [pooled RR 4.8 (95% CI: 1.4-17.3)] and Helicobacter bilis and H. pylori [pooled RR 4.3 (95% CI: 2.1-8.8)]. Differences in incidence ratios point to variations in gallbladder cancer aetiology in different populations. Diagnosis of gallstones and removal of gallbladder currently represent the keystone to gallbladder cancer prevention, but interventions able to prevent obesity, cholecystitis and gallstone formation should be assessed.

  13. Financial cost to institutions on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery.

    PubMed

    Waqas, Ahmed; Qasmi, Shahzad Ahmed; Kiani, Faran; Raza, Ahmed; Khan, Khizar Ishtiaque; Manzoor, Shazia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the financial costs to institution on patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery and suggest measures to reduce them. This multi-centre prospective descriptive survey was performed on all patients who underwent an elective cholecystectomy by three consultants at secondary care hospitals in Pakistan between Jan 2010 to Jan 2012. Data was collected on demographics, the duration of mean waiting time, specific indications and nature of disease for including the patients in the waiting list, details of emergency re-admissions while awaiting surgery, investigations done, treatment given and expenditures incurred on them during these episodes. A total of 185 patients underwent elective open cholecystectomy. The indications for listing the patients for surgery were biliary colic in 128 patients (69%), acute cholecystitis in 43 patients (23%), obstructive jaundice in 8 patients (4.5%) and acute pancreatitis in 6 patients (3.2%). 146 (78.9%) and 39 (21.1%) of patients were listed as outdoor electives and indoor emergencies respectively. Of the 185 patients, 54 patients (29.2%) were re-admitted. Financial costs in Pakistani rupees per episode of readmission were 23050 per episode in total and total money spent on all readmissions was Rs. 17,05,700/-. Financial costs on health care institutions due to readmissions in patients waiting for gall bladder disease surgery are high. Identifying patients at risk for these readmissions and offering them early laparoscopic cholecystectomy is very important.

  14. Acute abdominal conditions in people with sickle cell disease: a 10-year experience in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jebbin, N J; Adotey, J M

    2011-01-01

    Abdominal crises (vaso-occlusive) are not infrequent in patients with sickle cell anemia. They usually present as acute abdomen. These patients none the less present with other causes of acute abdomen like others without hemoglobinopathy. Six cases of surgical acute abdomen in sickle cell disease patients treated in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) are presented. Six sickle cell anaemia patients presenting with acute abdominal conditions from 1999 to 2008 (inclusive) in the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital were studied retrospectively (two patients) and prospectively (four patients). After initial resuscitation, appropriate surgical procedures, namely, appendicectomy (2), cholecystectomy (1), open drainage of splenic abscess (1), and release of adhesive band (1) were performed. Six cases were treated (female/male ratio 2:1). Four patients were in the 11-20 year age group. Two patients had appendicectomy and two presented with acute cholecystitis/cholelithiasis, one of whom had open cholecystectomy. One young girl had drainage of splenic abscess and a 42-year-old male had division of obstructive adhesive band at laparotomy. There were two complications, namely, postoperative haemorrhage (in cholecystectomy patient) and acute chest syndrome (in one appendicectomy patient). These were successfully managed with blood transfusion and antibiotic/oxygen therapy, respectively. There was no mortality. Sickle cell anaemia patients are not exempt from acute abdominal conditions requiring surgery. A high index of suspicion coupled with repeated clinical examination is needed for early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  15. Primary omental gangrene mimicking appendicular perforation peritonitis-A case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Shah, J; Vaidya, P

    2016-01-01

    Primary omental torsion is a rare cause of acute abdomen in adults and presents with variable signs and symptoms. Establishing a preoperative diagnosis may be difficult in the emergency setting. It is rarely diagnosed preoperatively as it mimics common surgical emergencies such as acute appendicitis, appendicular perforation, acute cholecystitis and perforated peptic ulcers and can lead to the clinical deterioration of patient if missed A 47 years old male was taken to the operating room with a diagnosis of appendicular perforation peritonitis and during surgery was found to have a primary omental gangrene with pyoperitoneum, for which omentectomy and peritoneal lavage was performed. Torsion of the omentum is a condition in which the organ twists on its long axis to such an extent that its vascularity is compromised. Omental torsion can be primary (idiopathic) or secondary, depending on an underlying cause. Primary omental torsion was first described by Eitel in 1899. However, very few cases have been reported. Our case was a rare case presenting with omental gangrene with pyoperitoneum mimicking appendicular perforation peritonitis. Primary omental torsion is a rare diagnosis. A high index of clinical suspicion is required for a preoperative diagnosis. In doubtful cases a CT scan may be helpful. Surgical excision of the omentum remains the treatment of choice; however, conservative management may be attempted in an uncomplicated omental torsion. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Carcinoma gallbladder.

    PubMed

    Biswas, P K

    2010-07-01

    Carcinoma gallbladder (CaGb) is a rare disease. The aetiology of CaGb is yet not known. However the risk of CaGb is increased in anomalous pancreaticobiliary duct junction (APBDJ), gall stones, xanthogranulomatus cholecystitis, calcified or porcelain gallbladder, cholelithiasis with typhoid carriers, gallbladder adenoma, red meat consumption and tobacco uses. There are protective effects of vegetables on CaGb. Most of the cases present with advanced disease. In early carcinoma of a gallbladder sign and symptoms mimic benign disease. The diagnosis is established by ultrasonography, computerized tomography and guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). Biochemical tests are of very little value in making a diagnosis. The treatment depends on the clinical stage at presentation. Surgery offers the best chance of cure. In stage T1a, laparoscopic or open cholecystectomy alone is curative, and in T1b, cholecystectomy with hepatoduodenal lymph node dissection without combined resection of an adjacent organ is required. Segment S4a+5 hepatectomy combined with extrahepatic bile duct resection (BDR) and D2 lymph node dissection is a highly recommended operation for the treatment of T2 and T3 CaGb. The dye injection method is useful in determining the appropriate extent of hepatic resection for advanced CaGb. Resurgery is required only in those cases where tumour has invaded the serosa and/ or adjacent structures when diagnosed postoperatively. Biliary bypass is required for palliation. Prognosis depends on early diagnosis and appropriate surgical excision.

  17. Short-term outcome of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy for complicated gallbladder stones in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mohamed I; Hassouna, Ehab M

    2018-03-01

    Cirrhotic patients have been known to be more affected with gallstones than their non-cirrhotic counterparts; since laparoscopy was introduced, it has been generally approved as the standard approach for cholecystectomies with the exception of end-stage cirrhosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using the harmonic scalpel in complicated cholelithiasis in cirrhotic patients. This prospective study was conducted on 62 cirrhotic patients presenting to the Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit in Alexandria Main University Hospital with complicated gallstones between March 2013 and March 2016. Both intraoperative time and blood loss were calculated in addition to rates of conversion to open cholecystectomy, morbidity and mortality. Most of our cases were females with a ratio of 1.7:1, with a mean age of 45.21 years, ranging from 25 to 65 years. The most common cause of cirrhotic liver was hepatitis C in 45.1% of patients. Among the 62 patients included in the study, 56 patients (90.3%) were presenting with acute cholecystitis and six patients were operated at the onset of acute biliary pancreatitis. The mean operative time was 72.9 min with mean blood loss 45.45 mL. The study concluded safety of total clipless laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a harmonic scalpel in Child A and B type cirrhotic patients, who presented with complicated gallstones. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Dabigatran in Secondary Stroke Prevention: Clinical Experience with 106 Patients

    PubMed Central

    DeFelipe-Mimbrera, Alicia; Cánovas, Araceli Alonso; Guillán, Marta; Matute, Consuelo; Cruz, Antonio; Vera, Rocío; Masjuan, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Our aim was to analyze our clinical experience with dabigatran etexilate in secondary stroke prevention. Methods. We retrospectively included patients starting dabigatran etexilate for secondary stroke prevention from March 2010 to December 2012. Efficacy and safety variables were registered. Results. 106 patients were included, median follow-up of 12 months (range 1–31). Fifty-six females (52.8%), mean age 76.4 (range 50–95, SD 9.8), median CHADS2 4 (range 2–6), CHA2DS2-VASc 5 (range 2–9), and HAS-BLED 2 (range 1–5). Indication for dabigatran etexilate was ischemic stroke in 101 patients and acute cerebral hemorrhage (CH) due to warfarin in 5 (4.7%). Dabigatran etexilate 110 mg bid was prescribed in 71 cases (67%) and 150 mg bid was prescribed in the remaining. Seventeen patients (16%) suffered 20 complications during follow-up. Ischemic complications (10) were 6 transient ischemic attacks (TIA), 3 ischemic strokes, and 1 acute coronary syndrome. Hemorrhagic complications (10) were CH (1), gastrointestinal bleeding (6), mild hematuria (2), and mild metrorrhagia (1), leading to dabigatran etexilate discontinuation in 3 patients. Patients with previous CH remained uneventful. Three patients died (pneumonia, congestive heart failure, and acute cholecystitis) and 9 were lost during follow-up. Conclusions. Dabigatran etexilate was safe and effective in secondary stroke prevention in clinical practice, including a small number of patients with previous history of CH. PMID:25133166

  19. Financial Aspects of Bile Duct Injuries.

    PubMed

    Palaz Alı, Ozgkıour; Ibis, Abdil Cem; Gurtekin, Basak

    2017-11-04

    BACKGROUND Major bile duct injury is the most worrisome complication of cholecystectomy. There is no detailed data about the incidence or treatment-related costs of bile duct injuries in Turkey. We aimed to determine prevalence and therapeutic costs of patients with major biliary duct injuries managed in our department, and further estimate a projection of these parameters at the national level. MATERIAL AND METHODS All patients admitted due to bile duct injury during cholecystectomy from 2011 to 2014 were included. Healthcare costs were calculated by summing of their all treatment-related costs in Istanbul Medical Faculty. We collected 2014-2015 data on number of patients diagnosed with cholecystitis in Turkey, the number of cholecystectomies, and the number of the interventions performed following these initial surgeries, which were obtained from the Turkish Social Security Institution. RESULTS Forty-nine patients were enrolled and bilioenteric diversion was performed in 39 patients: 20.4% of patients had Bismuth II, 38.8% had Bismuth III, and 40.8% had Bismuth IV biliary stricture. Comparison of stricture types with total costs, days of hospitalization, and outpatient clinic costs revealed significant differences. Mean total cost of corrective surgeries was 9199 TRY. We estimated that 1.5% to 2.4% of patients who underwent cholecystectomy in Turkey have bile duct injury (including 0.3% with major bile duct injury). CONCLUSIONS New preventive strategies should be used to avoid bile duct injuries, which have a huge financial impact on the national economy.

  20. The "right" way is not always popular: comparison of surgeons' perceptions during laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis among experts from Japan, Korea and Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hibi, Taizo; Iwashita, Yukio; Ohyama, Tetsuji; Honda, Goro; Yoshida, Masahiro; Takada, Tadahiro; Han, Ho-Seong; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Shinya, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenji; Umezawa, Akiko; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; Choi, In-Seok; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Chen, Kuo-Hsin; Miura, Fumihiko; Watanabe, Manabu; Abe, Yuta; Misawa, Takeyuki; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Yoon, Dong-Sup; Jang, Jin-Young; Yu, Hee Chul; Ahn, Keun Soo; Kim, Song Cheol; Song, In Sang; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yun, Sung Su; Choi, Seong Ho; Jan, Yi-Yin; Sheen-Chen, Shyr-Ming; Shan, Yan-Shen; Ker, Chen-Guo; Chan, De-Chuan; Wu, Cheng-Chung; Toyota, Naoyuki; Higuchi, Ryota; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Mizuguchi, Yoshiaki; Takeda, Yutaka; Ito, Masahiro; Norimizu, Shinji; Yamada, Shigetoshi; Matsumura, Naoki; Shindoh, Junichi; Sunagawa, Hiroki; Gocho, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Kitano, Seigo; Tokumura, Hiromi; Yamashita, Yuichi; Watanabe, Goro; Nakagawa, Kunitoshi; Kimura, Taizo; Yamakawa, Tatsuo; Wakabayashi, Go; Endo, Itaru; Miyazaki, Masaru; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-01-01

    Generally, surgeons' perceptions of surgical safety are based on experience and institutional policy. Our recent pilot survey demonstrated that the acceptable duration of surgery and criteria for open conversion during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) vary among workplaces. A web-based survey was distributed to 554 expert LC surgeons in Japan, Korea, and Taiwan. The questionnaire covered LC experience, safety measures and recognition of landmarks, decision-making regarding conversion to open/partial cholecystectomy and the implications of this decision. Overall responses were compared among nations, and then stratified by LC experience level (lifetime cases 200-499, 500-999, and ≥1,000). The response rate was 92.6% (513/554); 67 surgeons with ≤199 LCs were excluded, and responses from 446 surgeons were analyzed. We observed significant differences among nations on almost all questions. Differences that remained after stratification by LC experience were on questions related to acceptable duration of surgery, adoption rates of intraoperative cholangiography, the "critical view of safety" technique, identification of Rouvière's sulcus, recognition of the SS-Inner layer theory, and intraoperative judgment to abandon conventional LC. Even among experts, surgeons' perceptions during LC are workplace-dependent. A novel grading system of surgical difficulty and standardized LC procedures are paramount to generate high-level evidence. © 2016 Japanese Society of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery.

  1. C-Kit expression in the gallbladder of guinea pig with chronic calculous cholecystitis and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal.

    PubMed

    Feng, Hua; Wang, Fang; Wang, Changmiao

    2016-07-01

    To study the c-Kit expression in the gallbladder of cholesterol lithogenic guinea pig model and the effect of Artemisia capillaris Thunb on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs). A total of 45 guinea pigs were randomly assigned into three groups: the control group (guinea pigs fed a standard diet, normal group); the model group (guinea pigs fed a cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet); and the Chinese medicine group (guinea pigs fed the cholesterol gallstone-inducing diet and treated with A. capillaris through intragastric administration, therapy group). Each group had 15 guinea pigs. The gallbladders of the guinea pigs were harvested after 8 weeks. C-Kit expression was detected using an immunohistochemistry staining, real-time PCR, and Western blot analyses. The effect of A. capillaris on ICCs was evaluated by muscle strip contraction experiments. C-Kit expression significantly decreased in the gallbladder of model group, but increased in the Chinese medicine group. The Contractility of guinea pig gallbladder muscle strip significantly improved in the Chinese medicine group. Our results indicated that A. capillaris improves gallbladder impairment by up-regulating c-Kit expression, and it also can improve the contractile response of in vitro guinea pig gallbladder muscle strips.

  2. Outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical management of primary bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming-Guo; Shi, Wei-Jin; Wen, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Hai-Wen; Huo, Jing-Shan; Zhou, Dong-Feng

    2003-08-01

    To evaluate the methods and outcome of gallbladder preservation in surgical treatment of primary bile duct stones. Thirty-five patients with primary bile duct stones and intact gallbladders received stone extraction by two operative approaches, 23 done through the intrahepatic duct stump (RBD-IDS, the RBD-IDS group) after partial hepatectomy and 12 through the hepatic parenchyma by retrograde puncture (RBD-RP, the RBD-RP group). The gallbladders were preserved and the common bile duct (CBD) incisions were primarily closed. The patients were examined postoperatively by direct cholangiography and followed up by ultrasonography once every six months. In the RBD-IDS group, residual bile duct stones were found in three patients, which were cleared by a combination of fibrocholedochoscopic extraction and lithotripsy through the drainage tracts. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 22 (range: 16-42 days). In the RBD-RP group, one patient developed hemobilia and was cured by conservative therapy. The tubes were removed on postoperative day 8 (range: 7-11 days). Postoperative cholangiography showed that all the gallbladders were well opacified, contractile and smooth. During 54 (range: 6-120 months) months of follow-up, six patients had mildly thickened cholecystic walls without related symptoms and further changes, two underwent laparotomies because of adhesive intestinal obstruction and gastric cancer respectively, three died of cardiopulmonary diseases. No stones were found in all the preserved gallbladders. The intact gallbladders preserved after surgical extraction of primary bile duct stones will not develop gallstones. Retrograde biliary drainage is an optimal approach for gallbladder preservation.

  3. Effect of bag extraction to prevent wound infection on umbilical port site wound on elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a prospective randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Comajuncosas, Jordi; Hermoso, Judit; Jimeno, Jaime; Gris, Pere; Orbeal, Rolando; Cruz, Antonio; Parés, David

    2017-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard treatment for gallbladder stones. Complications due to laparoscopic procedure are rare, but rate of wound infection in some studies is about 8 %. From January 2007 to December 2008, 320 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed at our hospital, and in 4.7 % of them, wound infection of the umbilical trocar was identified. We believe that this infection rate could be lower and that it is necessary to implement a new technique to reduce the wound infection. The aim of the study was to evaluate the benefits of bag extraction of gallbladder to prevent the wound infection. Two-arm, parallel, 1:1, randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN38095251). All patients suffering from symptomatic gallbladder stones of low risk were enrolled for this study and were divided into two groups in basics gallbladder extraction: with (80 patients) or, as usually, without bag (76 patients). All patients with cholecystitis or accidental gallbladder perforation were excluded. We compared all the results to establish whether meaningful differences were found. The final sample analysed (156 patients) consisted of 121 women and 35 men; there were 80 in the control group and 76 in the study group. There were 15 (9.6 %) diagnosed wound infections, eight cases in the study group and seven in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences. The determinant of wound infection in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy is not the direct contact of the gallbladder with the wound; therefore, bag extraction is not necessary.

  4. Intractable Postoperative Wounds Caused by Self-Inflicted Trauma in a Patient with Cutaneous Munchausen Syndrome Presenting as a Pyoderma Gangrenosum-Like Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Inui, Keiko; Hanafusa, Takaaki; Namiki, Takeshi; Ueno, Makiko; Igawa, Ken; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old Japanese woman consulted the emergency department of our hospital for bleeding due to an intractable postoperative wound on the lower abdomen; the postoperative wound was owing to a laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed 1 year previously for acute cholecystitis. She presented with a painful ulcer on her right lower abdomen. She also presented with multiple scars, skin grafts on the extremities, and a missing left lower leg, the causes for all of which were unexplained. The results of her blood test were normal, except for the hemoglobin level. Histology of the skin biopsy specimen from the ulcer did not show any specific findings. The previous surgeon who had performed the laparoscopic cholecystectomy revealed that surgical wound dehiscence had occurred during her admission. After a body restraint had been applied, the ulcer improved. Medical records indicated that she had been admitted to the department of plastic surgery at our hospital for skin grafting of a leg ulcer. During that admission, she refused to consult with the department of psychiatry, al-though the staff suspected mental disorders. Therefore, we diagnosed her with cutaneous Munchausen syndrome. After vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) therapy had been performed to prevent her from traumatizing the ulcer again, it rapidly became granulated and reepithelialized. Munchausen syndrome is characterized by feigning physical symptoms to seek attention. Patients self-inflict numerous lesions, keep getting admitted to different hospitals, and feign acute illness, usually spectacular diseases. VAC therapy may be effective for preventing patients with cutaneous Munchausen syndrome from traumatizing their wounds. PMID:27194978

  5. Role of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for treatment of benign biliary strictures and bile leaks.

    PubMed

    Pausawasadi, Nonthalee; Soontornmanokul, Tanassanee; Rerknimitr, Rungsun

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks.

  6. Cholecystectomy after breast reconstruction with a pedicled autologous tram flap. Types of surgical access

    PubMed Central

    Kostro, Justyna; Jankau, Jerzy; Bigda, Justyna; Skorek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    The number of breast reconstruction procedures has been increasing in recent years. One of the suggested treatment methods is breast reconstruction with a pedicled skin and muscle TRAM flap (transverse rectus abdominis muscle – TRAM). Surgical incisions performed during a cholecystectomy procedure may be located in the areas significant for flap survival. The aim of this paper is to present anatomical changes in abdominal walls secondary to pedicled skin and muscle (TRAM) flap breast reconstruction, which influence the planned access in cholecystectomy procedures. The authors present 2 cases of cholecystectomy performed due to cholelithiasis in female patients with a history of TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedures. The first patient underwent a traditional method of surgery 14 days after the reconstruction due to acute cholecystitis. The second patient underwent a laparoscopy due to cholelithiasis 7 years after the TRAM procedure. In both cases an abdominal ultrasound scan was performed prior to the operation, and surgical access was determined following consultation with a plastic surgeon. The patient who had undergone traditional cholecystectomy developed an infection of the postoperative wound. The wound was treated with antibiotics, vacuum therapy and skin grafting. After 7 weeks complete postoperative wound healing and correct healing of the TRAM flap were achieved. The patient who had undergone laparoscopy was discharged home on the second postoperative day without any complications. In order to plan a safe surgical access, it is necessary to know the changes in the anatomy of abdominal walls following a pedicled TRAM flap breast reconstruction procedure. PMID:25337177

  7. The analysis of 146 patients with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    PubMed Central

    Bat, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi’s syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Material and Method: All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot’s triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. Results: A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Conclusion: Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot’s triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate. PMID:26629124

  8. The analysis of 146 patients with difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    PubMed

    Bat, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) is very commonly performed surgical intervention. Acute or chronic cholecystitis, adhesions due to previous upper abdomen surgeries, Mirrizi's syndrome and obesity are common clinical conditions that can be associated with difficult cholecystectomy. In this study, we evaluated and scored the patients with difficult surgical exploration during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. All patients who underwent LC from 2010 to 2015 were retrospectively rewieved. According to intraoperative findings DLC cases were described and classified. Class I difficulty: Adhesion of omentum majus, transverse colon, duodenum to the fundus of the gallbladder. Class II difficulty: Adhesions in Calot's triangle and difficulty in dissection of cystic artery and cystic duct Class III difficulty: Difficulty in dissection of gallbladder bed (scleroathrophic gallbladder, hemorrhage from liver during dissection of gallbladder, chirotic liver). Class IV difficulty: Difficulty in exploration of gallbladder due to intraabdominal adhesions including technical problems. A total of 146 patients were operated with DLC. The most common difficulty type was Class I difficulty (88 patients/60.2%). Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was converted to laparotomy in 98 patients. Operation time was found to be related with conversion to open surgery (P<0.05). Wound infection rate was also statistically higher in conversion group (P<0.05). The opertion time was found to be longest with Class II difficulty. Conversion rate to open surgery was also highest with Class II difficulty group. Class II difficulty characterized by severe adhesions in calot's triangle is most serious problem among all DLC cases. They have longer operation time and higher conversion rate.

  9. Antibiotic use among older adults on an acute care general surgery service

    PubMed Central

    Pollmann, André S.; Bailey, Jon G.; Davis, Philip J.B.; Johnson, Paul M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Antibiotics play an important role in the treatment of many surgical diseases that affect older adults, and the potential for inappropriate use of these drugs is high. Our objective was to describe antibiotic use among older adults admitted to an acute care surgery service at a tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods Detailed data regarding diagnosis, comorbidities, surgery and antibiotic use were retrospectively collected for patients 70 years and older admitted to an acute care surgery service. We evaluated antibiotic use (perioperative prophylaxis and treatment) for appropriateness based on published guidelines. Results During the study period 453 patients were admitted to the acute care surgery service, and 229 underwent surgery. The most common diagnoses were small bowel obstruction (27.2%) and acute cholecystitis (11.0%). In total 251 nonelective abdominal operations were performed, and perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis was appropriate in 49.5% of cases. The most common prophylaxis errors were incorrect timing (15.5%) and incorrect dose (12.4%). Overall 206 patients received treatment with antibiotics for their underlying disease process, and 44.2% received appropriate first-line drug therapy. The most common therapeutic errors were administration of second- or third-line antibiotics without indication (37.9%) and use of antibiotics when not indicated (12.1%). There was considerable variation in the duration of treatment for patients with the same diagnoses. Conclusion Inappropriate antibiotic use was common among older patients admitted to an acute care surgery service. Quality improvement initiatives are needed to ensure patients receive optimal care in this complex hospital environment. PMID:28930045

  10. Prospective evaluation of a newly designed T-configured stent graft system for palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignant biliary obstructions.

    PubMed

    Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Gi-Young; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Lee, Jae Myeong; Ohm, Joon-Young; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the technical and clinical safety and efficacy of using a newly designed T-configured stent graft for palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignant biliary obstructions. This is a prospective study that enrolled 30 patients who had malignant hilar obstructions from May 2007 to November 2008. All patients were treated with percutaneous transhepatic placement of two specially designed stent grafts in a T configuration. Technical success, evaluation of blocked branching ducts, complications, clinical success, stent patency time, and patient survival rates were analyzed. Stent graft deployment was technically successful in all patients. The bilirubin level and the bile duct diameter decreases were statistically significant after stent placement (P < .001), and all patients showed clinical improvement. Minor complications, including procedure-related complications (self-limiting hemobilia [n = 3], perihepatic biloma [n = 1], and acute pancreatitis [n = 1]) and rapidly resolving cholangitis (n = 5), occurred in ten patients (33.3%). Major complications, including acute cholecystitis, occurred in three patients (10%). Stent occlusion occurred in 12 patients (40%) after a mean period of 160 days (range, 82-307 days). The median survival and stent patency times were 334 days (range, 195.6-472.4 days) and 279 days (range, 194.7-363.3 days), respectively. There were no statistical differences in age, sex, Bismuth type, or number of blocked branching ducts. The initial results of percutaneous palliative treatment of advanced hilar malignancies with T-configured stent grafts suggest that they are safe and potentially clinically effective. Copyright 2010 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Is it necessary to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy for asymptomatic subjects with gallbladder polyps and gallstones?

    PubMed

    Choi, Sung Youn; Kim, Tae Sun; Kim, Hong Joo; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the clinical characteristics of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis compared with those with gallbladder polyps only. Between August 1999 and December 2005, 176 subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis (study group) by transabdominal ultrasonography performed during a medical check-up at our institution were recruited and compared with a control group of 185 subjects who had gallbladder polyps only. No significant difference in the mean interval change (delta) of polyp size during the follow-up period between the study and control groups (0.85 +/- 1.39 mm vs 0.84 +/- 1.58 mm, respectively, P = 0.927) was noted. A significantly higher proportion (9/176 [5.1%]) of examinees in the study group had attacks of acute cholecystitis compared with the control group (1/185 [0.5%], P < 0.01). By multivariate logistic regression analysis, gallbladder wall thickening on initial ultrasonography (odds ratio, 13.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-178.0; P = 0.046) and the interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps (odds ratio, 14.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-126.9; P = 0.014) were independent risk factors for cholecystectomy. No gallbladder cancer occurred during the follow-up period. There was no significant difference in delta polyp size between the examinees with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis and those with gallbladder polyps only. Hence, a small proportion of subjects with gallbladder polyps and cholelithiasis, such as those with thickened gallbladder walls and an interval increase in the size of the gallbladder polyps are candidates for prophylactic cholecytectomy.

  12. MUC Expression in Gallbladder Epithelial Tissues in Cholesterol-Associated Gallbladder Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Choi, Ho Soon; Jun, Dae Won; Lee, Hang Lak; Lee, Oh Young; Yoon, Byung Chul; Lee, Kyeong Geun; Paik, Seung Sam; Kim, Yong Seok; Lee, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Gallstone pathogenesis is linked to mucin hypersecretion and bacterial infection. Several mucin genes have been identified in gallbladder epithelial cells (GBECs). We investigated MUC expression in cholesterol-associated gallbladder disease and evaluated the relationship between mucin and bacterial infection. Methods The present study involved 20 patients with cholesterol stones with cholecystitis, five with cholesterol stones with cholesterolosis, six with cholesterol polyps, two with gallbladder cancer, and six controls. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide were also studied. MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 antibodies were used for dot/slot immunoblotting and immunohistochemical studies of the gallbladder epithelial tissues, canine GBECs, and bile. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction was performed to evaluate MUC3 and MUC5B expression. Results MUC3, MUC5AC, MUC5B, and MUC6 were expressed in the normal gallbladder epithelium, and of those, MUC3 and MUC5B exhibited the highest expression levels. Greatly increased levels of MUC3 and MUC5B expression were observed in the cholesterol stone group, and slightly increased levels were observed in the cholesterol polyp group; MUC3 and MUC5B mRNA was also upregulated in those groups. Canine GBECs treated with lipopolysaccharide also showed upregulation of MUC3 and MUC5B. Conclusions The mucin genes with the highest expression levels in gallbladder tissue in cholesterol-associated diseases were MUC3 and MUC5B. Cholesterol stones and gallbladder infections were associated with increased MUC3 and MUC5B expression. PMID:27563024

  13. Association between Gallbladder Ultrasound Findings and Bacterial Culture of Bile in 70 Cats and 202 Dogs.

    PubMed

    Policelli Smith, R; Gookin, J L; Smolski, W; Di Cicco, M F; Correa, M; Seiler, G S

    2017-09-01

    Bacterial cholecystitis often is diagnosed by combination of gallbladder ultrasound (US) findings and positive results of bile culture. The value of gallbladder US in determining the likelihood of bile bacterial infection in cats and dogs with suspected biliary disease is unknown. To determine the value of gallbladder US in predicting bile bacterial culture results, identify most common bacterial isolates from bile, and describe complications after cholecystocentesis in cats and dogs with suspected hepatobiliary disease. Cats (70) and dogs (202) that underwent an abdominal US and submission of bile for culture were included in the study. A cross-sectional study design was used to determine the association of gallbladder US abnormalities and the results of bile cultures, and complications of cholecystocentesis. Abnormal gallbladder US had high sensitivity (96%) but low specificity (49%) in cats with positive and negative results of bile bacterial culture, respectively. Cats with normal gallbladder US findings were unlikely to have positive bile bacterial culture (negative predictive value of 96%). Gallbladder US had lower sensitivity (81%), specificity (31%), positive predictive value (20%), and negative predictive value (88%) in dogs. The most common bacterial isolates were of enteric origin, the prevalence being higher in cats. Incidence of complications after cholecystocentesis was 3.4%. Gallbladder US has a high negative predictive value for bile culture results in cats. This modality is less predictive of infection in dogs. Percutaneous US-guided cholecystocentesis has a low complication rate. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Diagnostic transgastric flexible peritoneoscopy: is pure natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery a fantasy?

    PubMed

    Hyder, Q; Zahid, M A; Ahmad, W; Rashid, R; Hadi, S F; Qazi, S; Haider, H K H

    2008-12-01

    We present the first transgastric peritoneoscopy in a 20-year-old man. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of the site of viscerotomy on the technical feasibility of natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), assess transgastric peritoneoscopy as a complementary procedure, determine the safety and efficacy of NOTES, and attempt inspection/biopsy of the gallbladder. The patient was admitted with a benign gastric outlet obstruction, chronic cholecystitis and radiological suspicion of a mass in the gallbladder which was not visualised on diagnostic laparoscopy. Complementary transgastric peritoneoscopy was performed to gain deeper penetration of the tumour with the flexible tip of the gastroscope. The visceral "aperture" was created in the antrum where gastrojejunal anastomosis would be fashioned. Laparoscopic transillumination of the anterior gastric wall facilitated this part of the procedure. During transgastric peritoneoscopy, the gallbladder and structures in the upper and left hemi-abdomen appeared retrograde due to the unusual location of the gastrotomy. The right hemi-abdomen and pelvis were easily examined with a "straight shaft" approach. The gallbladder could not be identified with exploratory laparoscopy and transgastric peritoneoscopy. Due to risk of visceral injury, open gastrojejunal anastomosis and cholecystectomy were performed. Intraoperatively, an inflamed, thick-walled gallbladder was found adherent to the proximal duodenum. Transgastric peritoneoscopy was safely performed in our patient. The postoperative course was uneventful. Our patient showed significant improvement at 13 weeks after surgery without any procedure-related complication. In conclusion, transgastric peritoneoscopy may be used to complement diagnostic laparoscopy. Laparoscopic assistance during transluminal access facilitates simple tasks inside the peritoneal cavity to be performed safely.

  15. Are hospital process quality indicators influenced by socio-demographic health determinants.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Canavese, Daniel; Furlan, Patrizia; Lago, Laura; Saia, Mario; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-10-01

    This population-level health service study aimed to address whether hospitals assure the same quality of care to people in equal need, i.e. to see if any associations exist between social determinants and adherence to four hospital process indicators clearly identified as being linked to better health outcomes for patients. This was a retrospective cohort study based on administrative data collected in the Veneto Region (northeast Italy). We included residents of the Veneto Region hospitalized for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), hip fracture, or cholecystitis, and women giving birth, who were discharged from any hospital operating under the Veneto Regional Health Service between January 2012 and December 2012. The following quality indicator rates were calculated: patients with STEMI-AMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, elderly patients with hip fractures who underwent surgery within 48 h of admission, laparoscopic cholecystectomies and women who underwent cesarean section. A multilevel, multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the association between age, gender, formal education or citizenship and the quality of hospital care processes. All the inpatient hospital care process quality indicators measured were associated with an undesirable number of disparities concerning the social determinants. Monitoring the evidence-based hospital health care process indicators reveals undesirable disparities. Administrative data sets are of considerable practical value in broad-based quality assessments and as a screening tool, also in the health disparities domain. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Partially covered versus uncovered self-expandable nitinol stents with anti-migration properties for the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min Jae; Kim, Jin Hong; Yoo, Byung Moo; Hwang, Jae Chul; Yoo, Jun Hwan; Lee, Ki Seong; Kang, Joon Koo; Kim, Soon Sun; Lim, Sun Gyo; Shin, Sung Jae; Cheong, Jae Youn; Lee, Kee Myung; Lee, Kwang Jae; Cho, Sung Won

    2015-01-01

    Covered self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) are increasingly used as alternatives to uncovered SEMSs for the palliation of inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction to counteract tumor ingrowth. We aimed to compare the outcomes of partially covered and uncovered SEMSs with identical mesh structures and anti-migration properties, such as low axial force and flared ends. One hundred and three patients who were diagnosed with inoperable malignant distal biliary obstruction between January 2006 and August 2013 were randomly assigned to either the partially covered (n = 51) or uncovered (n = 52) SEMS group. There were no significant differences in the cumulative stent patency, overall patient survival, stent dysfunction-free survival and overall adverse events, including pancreatitis and cholecystitis, between the two groups. Compared to the uncovered group, stent migration (5.9% vs. 0%, p = 0.118) and tumor overgrowth (7.8% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.205) were non-significantly more frequent in the partially covered group, whereas tumor ingrowth showed a significantly higher incidence in the uncovered group (5.9% vs. 19.2%, p = 0.041). Stent migration in the partially covered group occurred only in patients with short stenosis of the utmost distal bile duct (two in ampullary cancer, one in bile duct cancer), and did not occur in any patients with pancreatic cancer. For the palliation of malignant distal biliary obstruction, endoscopic placement of partially covered SEMSs with anti-migration designs and identical mesh structures to uncovered SEMSs failed to prolong cumulative stent patency or reduce stent migration.

  17. Role of Fully Covered Self-Expandable Metal Stent for Treatment of Benign Biliary Strictures and Bile Leaks

    PubMed Central

    Pausawasadi, Nonthalee; Soontornmanokul, Tanassanee

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic therapy by balloon dilation and placement of multiple large-bore plastic stents is the treatment of choice for benign biliary stricture. This approach is effective but it typically requires multiple endoscopic sessions given the short duration of stent patency. The endoscopic approach for treatment of bile leak involves the placement of a stent with or without biliary sphincterotomy. The self-expandable metal stent (SEMS) has traditionally been used for palliation of malignant biliary strictures given the long duration of stent patency owing to their larger stent diameter. Recently, SEMS has been used in a variety of benign biliary strictures and leaks, especially with the design of the covered self-expandable metal stent (CSEMS), which permits endoscopic-mediated stent removal. The use of CSEMS in benign biliary stricture could potentially result in a decrease in endoscopic sessions and it is technically easier when compared to placement of multiple plastic stents. However, complications such as cholecystitis due to blockage of cystic duct, stent migration, infection and pancreatitis have been reported. The potential subsegmental occlusion of contralateral intrahepatic ducts also limits the use of CSEMS in hilar stricture. Certain techniques and improvement of stent design may overcome these challenges in the future. Thus, CSEMS may be appropriate in only highly selected conditions, such as refractory benign biliary stricture, despite multiple plastic stent placement or difficult to treat bile duct stricture from chronic pancreatitis, and should not be used routinely. This review focuses on the use of fully covered self-expandable metal stent for benign biliary strictures and bile leaks. PMID:22563290

  18. Technical difficulties and its remedies in laparoscopic cholecystectomy in situs inversus totalis: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Arya, S V; Das, Anupam; Singh, Sunil; Kalwaniya, Dheer Singh; Sharma, Ashok; Thukral, B B

    2013-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is considered to be the gold standard surgical procedure for cholelithiasis and is one of the commonest surgical procedures in the world today. However, in rare cases of previously undiagnosed situs inversus totalis (with dextrocardia), the presentation of the cholecystitis, its diagnosis and the operative procedure can pose problems. We present here one such case and discuss how the diagnosis was made and difficulties encountered during surgery and how they were coped with. A 35 year old female presented with left hypochondrium pain and dyspepsia, for 2 years. A diagnosis of cholelithiasis with situs inversus was confirmed after thorough clinical examination, abdominal and chest X-rays and ultrasonography of the abdomen. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which is the standard treatment, was performed with numerous modifications in the positioning of the monitor, insufflator, ports and the position of the members of the surgical team and the laparoscopic instruments. The patient had an uneventful recovery. Situs inversus totalis is itself a rare condition and when associated with cholelithiasis poses a challenge in the management of the condition. We must appreciate the necessity of setting up the operating theatre, the positioning of the ports, the surgical team and the instruments. Therefore, it becomes important for the right handed surgeons to modify their techniques and establish a proper hand eye coordination to adapt to the mirror image anatomy of the Calot's triangle in a patient of situs inversus totalis. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Intra-Abdominal Candidiasis: The Importance of Early Source Control and Antifungal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vergidis, Pascalis; Clancy, Cornelius J.; Shields, Ryan K.; Park, Seo Young; Wildfeuer, Brett N.; Simmons, Richard L.; Nguyen, M. Hong

    2016-01-01

    Intra-abdominal candidiasis (IAC) is poorly understood compared to candidemia. We described the clinical characteristics, microbiology, treatment and outcomes of IAC, and identified risk factors for mortality. We performed a retrospective study of adults diagnosed with IAC at our center in 2012–2013. Risk factors for mortality were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression. We identified 163 patients with IAC, compared to 161 with candidemia. Types of IAC were intra-abdominal abscesses (55%), secondary peritonitis (33%), primary peritonitis (5%), infected pancreatic necrosis (5%), and cholecystitis/cholangitis (3%). Eighty-three percent and 66% of secondary peritonitis and abscesses, respectively, stemmed from gastrointestinal (GI) tract sources. C. albicans (56%) and C. glabrata (24%) were the most common species. Bacterial co-infections and candidemia occurred in 67% and 6% of patients, respectively. Seventy-two percent of patients underwent an early source control intervention (within 5 days) and 72% received early antifungal treatment. 100-day mortality was 28%, and highest with primary (88%) or secondary (40%) peritonitis. Younger age, abscesses and early source control were independent predictors of survival. Younger age, abscesses and early antifungal treatment were independently associated with survival for IAC stemming from GI tract sources. Infectious diseases (ID) consultations were obtained in only 48% of patients. Consulted patients were significantly more likely to receive antifungal treatment. IAC is a common disease associated with heterogeneous manifestations, which result in poor outcomes. All patients should undergo source control interventions and receive antifungal treatment promptly. It is important for the ID community to become more engaged in treating IAC. PMID:27123857

  20. Hospital readmission after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy: incidence and predictors.

    PubMed

    Rosero, Eric B; Joshi, Girish P

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the rate of 30-d hospital readmissions after ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The 2009 to 2011 State Ambulatory Surgery and Services and State Inpatient Databases from California, Florida, and New York were analyzed to evaluate the incidence of 30-d readmissions after laparoscopic cholecystectomy performed in outpatient settings. Hospital transfers and the principal diagnoses of hospital readmission were analyzed as secondary outcomes. Multilevel generalized mixed linear regression analyses with fixed and random effects were used to evaluate variables associated with increased likelihood of readmissions. A total of 230,745 encounters for ambulatory laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed in 890 ambulatory facilities between 2009 and 2011 in the three states were analyzed. The rate of 30-d readmission was 20.2 per 1000 discharges. The rate of direct transfers from the ambulatory surgery center to an acute care hospital was 0.6 per 1000 discharges. The most common diagnoses of readmission were surgical complications, postoperative pain, infection, and nausea or vomiting. After adjusting for comorbidities, increasing age, male sex, non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, any nonprivate insurance type, diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, use of intraoperative cholangiography, and having the procedure performed on a weekend were significantly associated with increased odds of 30-d readmissions. This large-state data analysis reveals that the unplanned admission and readmission rates after laparoscopic cholecystectomy are very low. Some causes of readmission (e.g., pain, nausea, and vomiting) are modifiable by the intervention of surgeons and anesthesia providers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Metronidazole-induced encephalopathy: not always a reversible situation.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Kyle; Stern-Nezer, Sara; Buckwalter, Marion S; Fischbein, Nancy; Finley Caulfield, Anna

    2015-06-01

    Metronidazole is a nitroimidazole antimicrobial drug prescribed to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and protozoa. Uncommonly, it causes central nervous system (CNS) toxicity manifesting as metronidazole-induced encephalopathy (MIE). Case report. A 65-year-old woman with hepatitis B cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C, MELD 21) developed progressive encephalopathy to GCS 4 during a 3-week course of metronidazole for cholecystitis. Initial MRI was consistent with CNS metronidazole toxicity, with symmetrical T2 hyperintensity and generally restricted diffusion in bilateral dentate nuclei, corpus callosum, midbrain, superior cerebellar peduncles, internal capsules, and cerebral white matter. Laboratory values did not demonstrate significant electrolyte shifts, and continuous EEG was without seizure. High-dose thiamine was empirically administered. Lumbar puncture was not performed due to coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia. Despite discontinuation of metronidazole and keeping ammonia levels near normal, the patient did not improve. MRI was repeated 1 week after discontinuation of metronidazole. Although there was decreased DWI hyperintensity in the dentate nuclei, diffuse T2 hyperintensity persisted and even progressed in the brainstem, basal ganglia, and subcortical white matter. Petechial hemorrhages developed in bilateral corticospinal tracts and subcortical white matter. T1 hypointensity appeared in the corpus callosum. She was transitioned to comfort measures only and died 12 days later. MIE is an uncommon adverse effect of treatment with metronidazole that characteristically affects the dentate nuclei but may also involve the brainstem, corpus callosum, subcortical white matter, and basal ganglia. While the clinical symptoms and neuroimaging changes are usually reversible, persistent encephalopathy with poor outcome may occur.

  2. Effects of a national smoking ban on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases: a time-series analysis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yue-Nin; Huang, Yu-Tung; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2017-01-01

    On January 11, 2009, a comprehensive smoking ban was implemented in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of this ban on hospital admissions for ischemic heart disease (IHD). Trends in the country-level monthly hospital admission rates for IHD were determined and frequency compared to other conditions such as control conditions cholecystitis, bowel obstruction, and appendicitis from January 1997 (1 year before the first phase of smoke-free laws was implemented) to December 2012 (3 years after the second phase of the ban). Poisson regression with a monthly time-series model was used to determine alterations in the trend of admission rates for IHD with comparison to rates of other disorders after the ban. Hospital admissions for IHD decreased by 0.8% (incidence rate ratio [RR]: 0.992; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.991-0.994) and 1.1% (incidence RR: 0.989; 95% CI = 0.988-0.991) following the first (September 19, 1997 to January 10, 2009) and second (January 11, 2009 to December 31, 2012) phases of the ban, respectively, compared with those prior to the pre-ban period, the corresponding values for the control conditions were 0.6% (95% CI = 0.5%-0.7%) and 0.7% (95% CI = 0.6%-0.9%). The admission rates significantly fell for both men and women and for all examined age categories after both first and second phases of the ban. The present findings provide evidence of a significant reduction in hospital admissions for IHD in Taiwan following smoking bans.

  3. Epidural analgesia is infrequently used in patients with acute pancreatitis : a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sasabuchi, Y; Yasunaga, H; Matsui, H; Lefor, A K; Fushimi, K; Sanui, M

    2017-01-01

    Epidural analgesia is an option for pain control in patients with acute pancreatitis. The aim of this study is to describe characteristics, morbidity and mortality of patients with acute pancreatitis treated with epidural analgesia. Data was extracted from a national inpatient database in Japan on patients hospitalized with acute pancreatitis between July 2010 and March 2013. A total of 44,146 patients discharged from acute care hospitals were included in this retrospective cohort study. The patient background, timing and duration of epidural analgesia, complications (epidural hematoma or abscess), surgery (for cholelithiasis / cholecystitis or complications) and mortality were verified. Epidural analgesia was used in 307 patients (0.70 %). The mean age was 64.0 years (standard deviation, 15.4 years) and 116 (37.8%) of the patients were female. The median duration of epidural analgesia was four days (interquartile range, 3-5 days). No patient underwent surgery for epidural hematoma or abscess. Six (2.0%) patients died during hospitalization. Most likely causes of death were pulmonary embolism, multiple organ failure, sepsis, and methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus enterocolitis. The responsible physician for 250 of the patients (81.4%) was a gastroenterological surgeon. Epidural analgesia was started on the day of surgery in 278 (90.6%) patients. Epidural analgesia is rarely used in patients with acute pancreatitis. None of the patients included in the study required surgery for epidural hematoma or abscess. Further research to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epidural analgesia in patients with acute pancreatitis is warranted. © Acta Gastro-Enterologica Belgica.

  4. Hepatic lesions in 90 captive nondomestic felids presented for autopsy.

    PubMed

    Bernard, J M; Newkirk, K M; McRee, A E; Whittemore, J C; Ramsay, E C

    2015-03-01

    Hepatic lesions in nondomestic felids are poorly characterized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hepatic lesions in 90 captive, nondomestic felids including tigers, cougars, and lions. Hepatic lesions were histologically characterized as vacuolar change (lipidosis or glycogenosis), biliary cysts, biliary hyperplasia, hepatitis, necrosis, neoplasia, fibrosis, veno-occlusive disease, cholestasis, hematoma, congestion, or hemorrhage. Stepwise logistic regression analyses were performed for vacuolar change, benign biliary lesions, hepatitis, lipogranulomas, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and hepatic stellate cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, with species as the outcome variable. Ninety cats met the inclusion criteria. Seventy livers (78%) contained 1 or more lesions. Hepatocellular vacuolar change (41/90 [46%]) was the most common lesion overall. Extramedullary hematopoiesis, lipogranulomas, and hepatic stellate cell hyperplasia were also common. One snow leopard had veno-occlusive disease. Tigers were more likely than other felids to have no significant hepatic histologic lesions (odds ratio [OR], 12.687; P = .002), and lions were more likely to have biliary cysts (OR, 5.97; P = .021). Six animals (7%) died of hepatic disease: cholangiocellular carcinoma (n = 2) and 1 each of hepatic lipidosis, hepatocellular necrosis, pyogranulomatous hepatitis, and suppurative cholecystitis. Hepatocellular iron and copper accumulations were present in 72 of 90 (80%) and 10 of 90 (11%) sections, respectively. Sinusoidal fibrosis was common (74/90 [82%]) and primarily centrilobular (65/74 [88%]). Hepatocellular iron, copper, and fibrosis were not significantly associated with hepatic lesions. Primary hepatic disease was not a common cause of death in nondomestic felids in this study. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis, and the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer in diabetic patients: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Tsai, I-Ju; Chen, Pei-Chun; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Chou, Jen-Wei; Peng, Cheng-Yuan; Lai, Shih-Wei; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Morisky, Donald E

    2013-06-01

    The causal association between diabetes and pancreatic cancer remains unclear in Asian populations. This study examined whether gallstones, a cholecystectomy, chronic pancreatitis and the treatment of antidiabetic agents affect the risk of subsequent pancreatic cancer for patients with diabetes in a Taiwanese population. Using claims data from the universal health insurance program in Taiwan, 449,685 newly diagnosed diabetic cases among insured people from 2000 to 2003 were identified as the case group. The comparison group, matched for gender, age, and the index year of the diabetes cohort, consisted of 325,729 persons without diabetes. Pancreatic cancer incidence was measured in both groups until the end of 2008. Other risk factors associated with this cancer were also measured. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in the diabetic cohort was 2-fold greater than that in the comparison group (1.46 vs. 0.71 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 1.75 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.45-2.10]. The risk slightly increased for diabetic patients with gallstones, cholecystitis, and a cholecystectomy (HR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18-3.11), but greatly increased for those with comorbidity of chronic pancreatitis (HR 22.9, 95% CI 12.6-41.4). Pancreatic cancer risk also increased significantly for those patients who used more insulin for treating diabetes (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.40-3.45). Our data suggest that the risk of pancreatic cancer is moderately increased in patients with diabetes, especially those using insulin therapy. The risk is greatly increased for diabetic patients with chronic pancreatitis.

  6. Chronic pancreatitis with secondary diabetes mellitus treated by use of insulin in an adult California sea lion.

    PubMed

    Meegan, Jenny M; Sidor, Inga F; Steiner, Jörg M; Sarran, Delphine; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2008-06-01

    A 21-year-old neutered male captive California sea lion developed chronic polyuria; polydipsia; polyphagia; accelerated development of existing cataracts; and frequent episodes of gastrointestinal upset including anorexia, signs of abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and vomiting. Chronic hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria were identified. During episodes of gastrointestinal abnormalities, transient hyperbilirubinemia and increased serum J-glutamyltransferase activities developed. Clinical findings strongly suggested chronic pancreatitis with secondary diabetes mellitus and intermittent cholestasis. Multiple diagnostic tests, including abdominal ultrasonography, serial hematologic and serum biochemical analyses, fecal examinations, urinalyses and bacteriologic culture of urine, measurement of serum fructosamine and insulin concentrations, and evaluation of thyroid and adrenal function, did not reveal any specific parasitic, endocrine, hepatic, or neoplastic etiologies. For 1.5 years, the sea lion received once-daily administration of glargine insulin, gastrointestinal protectants, and a strict high-protein, low-fat diet. Daily monitoring of glucose regulation was achieved by training the sea lion to submit to blood and urine sampling. Glucose regulation ranged from fair to good, and clinical signs of diabetes mellitus lessened. Episodes of gastrointestinal upset still occurred, although the frequency and severity decreased. Ultimately, a severe episode developed, associated with diabetic ketoacidosis and sepsis, and the sea lion died. Severe fibrosing pancreatitis with exocrine and endocrine atrophy and abscesses arising from ectatic pancreatic ducts were found. Peripancreatic fibrosis caused stricture of the common bile duct, resulting in gallbladder distension without cholecystitis. Diabetes mellitus can occur secondary to chronic pancreatitis in California sea lions and insulin therapy should be considered.

  7. Cholecystectomy or gallbladder in situ after endoscopic sphincterotomy and bile duct stone removal in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Lau, James Y W; Leow, Chon-Kar; Fung, Terence M K; Suen, Bing-Yee; Yu, Ly-Mee; Lai, Paul B S; Lam, Yuk-Hoi; Ng, Enders K W; Lau, Wan Yee; Chung, Sydney S C; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2006-01-01

    In patients with stones in their bile ducts and gallbladders, cholecystectomy is generally recommended after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of bile duct stones. However, only approximately 10% of patients with gallbladders left in situ will return with further biliary complications. Expectant management is alternately advocated. In this study, we compared the treatment strategies of laparoscopic cholecystectomy and gallbladders left in situ. We randomized patients (>60 years of age) after endoscopic sphincterotomy and clearance of their bile duct stones to receive early laparoscopic cholecystectomy or expectant management. The primary outcome was further biliary complications. Other outcome measures included adverse events after cholecystectomy and late deaths from all causes. One hundred seventy-eight patients entered into the trial (89 in each group); 82 of 89 patients who were randomized to receive laparoscopic cholecystectomy underwent the procedure. Conversion to open surgery was needed in 16 of 82 patients (20%). Postoperative complications occurred in 8 patients (9%). Analysis was by intention to treat. With a median follow-up of approximately 5 years, 6 patients (7%) in the cholecystectomy group returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 1). Among those with gallbladders in situ, 21 (24%) returned with further biliary events (cholangitis, n = 13; acute cholecystitis, n = 5; biliary pain, n = 2; and jaundice, n = 1; log rank, P = .001). Late deaths were similar between groups (cholecystectomy, n = 19; gallbladder in situ, n = 11; P = .12). In the Chinese, cholecystectomy after endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones reduces recurrent biliary events and should be recommended.

  8. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery

    PubMed Central

    Milella, Marialessia; Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Leuratti, Luca; McCall, James; Bonanomi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallstones are a common condition in bariatric patients after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The management of ductal stones is challenging due to the altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Various techniques have been reported to manage bile duct stones. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present the successful percutaneous trans hepatic management of common bile duct stones after LRYGB. One year after a LRYGB for morbid obesity, a 59-year-old female presented with acute cholecystitis. One month after laparoscopic cholecystectomy a 1 cm calculus was found within the distal CBD and patient underwent a percutaneous trans hepatic cholangiography under local anesthetic. This involved a right sided anterior segmental duct puncture. With the sphincter dilated to 10 mm, a balloon catheter was used to push the stone into the duodenum leaving an internal- external drain. Patient recovered completely at follow up. DISCUSSION Patients with morbid obesity have a higher incidence of gallstones. After LRYGB, the altered anatomy does not allow the conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis. Various techniques have been reported as means of managing bile duct stones in LRYGB patients. These include a double balloon enteroscope-assisted ERCP, laparoscopic transgastric ERCP, laparoscopic or open biliary surgery and interventional radiology. We report a non-surgical approach using percutaneous transhepatic technique under local anesthetic that resulted effective and could be applied more extensively. CONCLUSION Due to the increase of global obesity, bariatric centers need to strategically plan resources such as interventional radiology in order to manage post LRYGB choledocholithiasis safely, efficiently and in a cost effective manner. PMID:24705194

  9. Quantitative analysis of tumor-derived methylated RUNX3 sequences in the serum of gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Sakakura, Chouhei; Hamada, Takuo; Miyagawa, Koji; Nishio, Minoru; Miyashita, Atushi; Nagata, Hiroyuki; Ida, Hiroshi; Yazumi, Shujiro; Otsuji, Eigo; Chiba, Tsutomu; Ito, Kosei; Ito, Yoshiaki

    2009-07-01

    Using real-time quantitative methylation-specific PCR (RTQ-MSP), methylated RUNX3 sequences were quantified and the fractional concentrations of circulating tumor DNA in serum were determined, along with peripheral blood cells collected preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively from 65 patients with gastric cancer. RTQ-MSP was sufficiently sensitive to detect RUNX3 methylation. Quantitative MSP data were expressed in terms of the methylation index, which was defined as the relative amount of methylated RUNX3 sequences divided by the concentration of methylated actin. High levels of methylated RUNX3 sequences were detected in the peripheral circulation of 29% (19 of 65) of the gastric cancer patients. The RUNX3 methylation index was concordant with cancer stage, histology, lymphatic and vascular invasion, and was more sensitive than carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) as a biomarker. Twenty-nine percent (19 out of 65) of preoperative serum samples had methylated RUNX3 sequences, ranging from 5.2 to 1625955 (median quantity=43 m-index, sensitivity 95.5%, specificity 62.5%, AUC 0.8651). After surgical resection, the median RUNX3 methylation index in serum significantly decreased. These results demonstrate the clinical usefulness and effectiveness of peripheral blood RTQ-MSP for detecting and monitoring gastric cancer after treatment. Furthermore, 5 out of the 30 preoperative control samples of benign disease (cases of panperitonitis due to acute appendicitis or cholecystitis) showed transient RUNX3 methylation which decreased after the operation in accordance with recovery. Quantification of epigenetic changes in serum RUNX3 methylation using RTQ-MSP is useful for the detection and monitoring of gastric cancer.

  10. Two-Trocar Cholecystectomy by Strategic Laparoscopy for Improved Cosmesis (SLIC)

    PubMed Central

    Mirhaidari, Shayda; Pozsgay, Mark; Standerwick, Andrew; Bohon, Ashley; Zografakis, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Until the advent of single-incision laparoscopic surgery, few advances were aimed at improving cosmesis with laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Criticisms of the single-incision laparoscopic surgery technique include a larger incision and increased incidence of wound-related complications. We present our initial experience with a novel technique aimed at performing strategic laparoscopy for improved cosmesis (SLIC) for cholecystectomy. Methods: Twenty-five patients with biliary symptoms were selected for SLIC cholecystectomy. Access to the abdomen was obtained with a 5-mm optical trocar in the left upper quadrant and a 5-mm trocar in the umbilicus. Retraction was performed by a transabdominal suture in the dome of the gallbladder and a needlescopic grasper. Age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, body mass index, operative time, length of stay, pathology results, and short-term complications at follow-up were prospectively recorded. Results: The 25 female patients had a mean age of 34.3 years and mean body mass index of 24 kg/m2. American Society of Anesthesiologists scores ranged from 1 to 3. The mean operative time was 51.3 minutes. Pathology revealed chronic cholecystitis in all patients. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis. The only complication was one ultrasonography-documented deep vein thrombosis. All 25 planned SLIC cholecystectomies were successfully completed. Conclusions: SLIC cholecystectomy is feasible and safe. This technique decreases the cumulative incision length, as well as the number of incisions, leading to very desirable cosmetic results in patients with a favorable body habitus and surgical history. PMID:24398200

  11. Pathology and Neurotoxicity in Dogs after Repeat Dose Exposure to a Serotonin 5-HT1B Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jane C.F.; Ciaccio, Paul; Schroeder, Patricia; Wright, Lindsay; Westwood, Russell; Berg, Anna-Lena

    2014-01-01

    AZD3783, a cationic amphiphilic drug and a potent inhibitor of the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B) receptor, was explored as a potential treatment for depression. To support clinical trials, repeat dose toxicity studies in rats and dogs were conducted. Here we report toxicity findings in dogs after dosing from 1 to 3 months. In the 1-month study, there were minimal neuronal vacuolation in the brain, a marked increase in liver enzymes accompanied by hepatocellular degeneration/necrosis and phospholipidosis (PLD), and PLD/cholecystitis in the gallbladder of animals dosed at 47 mg/kg/day. In the 3-month study, neurotoxicity resulted in euthanasia of one animal dosed at 30 mg/kg/day after 86 days. Extensive pathologic changes were seen in all animals in retina epithelium (inclusion bodies), brain (neuronal vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis and nerve fiber degeneration), spinal ganglia (vacuolation, degeneration, or necrosis), as well as sciatic and optic nerves (degeneration). Pigment-laden macrophages were observed in the lung, kidney, liver, gallbladder, bone marrow, gastrointestinal tract, and lymphoid tissues. Also seen were vitrel and retinal hemorrhage in the eyes. A brain concentration and pathology study showed that the concentration of AZD3783 in the brain was approximately 4 times higher than in the plasma after 4 weeks of dosing, however, they were similar in all regions examined, and did not correlate with areas with pathologic findings. Our findings with AZD3783 in dogs have not been reported previously with other CNS compounds that effect through serotonergic pharmacology. PMID:24791065

  12. Medical judgement analogue studies with applications to spaceflight crew medical officer.

    PubMed

    McCarroll, Michele L; Ahmed, Rami A; Schwartz, Alan; Gothard, Michael David; Atkinson, Steven Scott; Hughes, Patrick; Brito, Jose Cepeda; Assad, Lori; Myers, Jerry; George, Richard L

    2017-10-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed plans for potential emergency conditions from the Exploration Medical Conditions List. In an effort to mitigate conditions on the Exploration Medical Conditions List, NASA implemented a crew medical officer (CMO) designation for eligible astronauts. This pilot study aims to add knowledge that could be used in the Integrated Medical Model. An analogue population was recruited for two categories: administrative physicians (AP) representing the physician CMOs and technical professionals (TP) representing the non-physician CMOs. Participants completed four medical simulations focused on abdominal pain: cholecystitis (CH) and renal colic (RC) and chest pain: cardiac ischaemia (STEMI; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) and pneumothorax (PX). The Medical Judgment Metric (MJM) was used to evaluate medical decision making. There were no significant differences between the AP and TP groups in age, gender, race, ethnicity, education and baseline heart rate. Significant differences were noted in MJM average rater scores in AP versus TP in CH: 13.0 (±2.25), 4.5 (±0.48), p=<0.001; RC: 12.3 (±2.66), 4.8 (±0.94); STEMI: 12.1 (±3.33), 4.9 (±0.56); and PX: 13.5 (±2.53), 5.3 (±1.01), respectively. There could be a positive effect on crew health risk by having a physician CMO. The MJM demonstrated the ability to quantify medical judgement between the two analogue groups of spaceflight CMOs. Future studies should incorporate the MJM in a larger analogue population study to assess the medical risk for spaceflight crewmembers.

  13. Bootstrap Current for the Edge Pedestal Plasma in a Diverted Tokamak Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, S.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.

    The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. It has a narrow passing particle region in velocity space that can be easily modified or destroyed by Coulomb collisions. At the same time, the edge pedestal plasma has steep pressure and electrostatic potential gradients whose scale-lengths are comparable with the ion banana width, and includes a magnetic separatrix surface, across which the topological properties of the magnetic field and particle orbits change abruptly. Amore » driftkinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the weakly collisional banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions [represented by O. Sauter et al. , Phys. Plasmas 6 , 2834 (1999)] are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. The agreement arises from the dominance of the electron contribution to the bootstrap current compared with ion contribution and from a reasonable separation of the trapped-passing dynamics without a strong collisional mixing. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas, mainly due to large effective collisionality of the passing and the boundary layer trapped particles in edge region. In a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, the edge bootstrap current from kinetic simulation can be significantly less than that from the Sauter formula if the electron collisionality is high. On the other hand, when the aspect ratio is close

  14. Bootstrap current for the edge pedestal plasma in a diverted tokamak geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Koh, S.; Choe, W.; Chang, C. S.

    The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. It has a narrow passing particle region in velocity space that can be easily modified or destroyed by Coulomb collisions. At the same time, the edge pedestal plasma has steep pressure and electrostatic potential gradients whose scale-lengths are comparable with the ion banana width, and includes a magnetic separatrix surface, across which the topological properties of the magnetic field and particle orbits change abruptly. Amore » drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the weakly collisional banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions [represented by O. Sauter et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 2834 (1999)] are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. The agreement arises from the dominance of the electron contribution to the bootstrap current compared with ion contribution and from a reasonable separation of the trapped-passing dynamics without a strong collisional mixing. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas, mainly due to large effective collisionality of the passing and the boundary layer trapped particles in edge region. In a conventional aspect ratio tokamak, the edge bootstrap current from kinetic simulation can be significantly less than that from the Sauter formula if the electron collisionality is high. On the other hand, when the aspect ratio is close to

  15. Chemoembolization of Neuroendocrine Liver Metastases Using Streptozocin and Tris-acryl Microspheres: Embozar (EMBOsphere + ZAnosaR) Study

    SciTech Connect

    Pelage, Jean-Pierre, E-mail: pelage-jp@chu-caen.fr; Fohlen, Audrey; Mitry, Emmanuel

    PurposeThe purpose of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for neuroendocrine liver metastases using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres.Patients and MethodsA total of 16 men and 9 women aged 59.6 ± 11.3 years, all with predominant liver disease, underwent 54 courses of TACE using an emulsion of 1.5 g of streptozocin and 10 ml of Lipiodol. Additional embolization was performed using 300–500 µm tris-acryl microspheres. Morphological response was evaluated using the RECIST criteria on multi-detector computed tomography or MRI. Clinical efficacy was evaluated particularly in patients with carcinoid syndrome.ResultsThe primary tumor was located inmore » the small bowel or pancreas in 21 (84%) patients. Eleven (44%) patients presented with a carcinoid syndrome. Nineteen (76%) patients presented with more than 10 liver nodules. One delayed case of ischemic cholecystitis was treated conservatively. After a median follow-up of 36.1 months, 1 (4%) patient had a complete response, 12 (48%) patients had a partial response, and 7 (28%) patients had a stable disease corresponding to a disease control rate of 80%. All patients with carcinoid syndrome had significant improvement. Median time to progression was 18.8 months and overall survival was 100, 100, and 92% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively. Seven patients presented with extrahepatic progression with abdominal lymphadenopathies or metastases to the brain, ovary, adrenal gland, or lung.ConclusionOptimized TACE using a combination of streptozocin, Lipiodol, and tris-acryl microspheres is effective and well tolerated.« less

  16. Association between chronic pancreatitis and pyogenic liver abscess: a nationwide population study.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chih-Wei; Chen, Yu-Tso; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liang, Ji-An

    2017-03-01

    The relationship between chronic pancreatitis (CP) and subsequent pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is not well understood. We investigated the risk of PLA in patients with CP using inpatient claims data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program for the period 2000-2010. We identified 17,810 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP group) and 71,240 patients without CP (non-CP group). Both cohorts were followed until a diagnosis of PLA, until they were censored from the study because of loss to follow-up, death, or termination of insurance, or until the study cut-off date of 31 December 2011. Incidence and risk factors for development of PLA, and the effects of comorbidities, were assessed. The incidence of PLA in the CP group was 12.9 times that in the non-CP group (38.3 vs. 2.89 events per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.5-15.8). After adjusting for age, sex, and the comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cerebral vascular accident, cirrhosis, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, cancer, alcoholism, other diseases of the pancreas, cholecystitis, and cholelithiasis and other disorders of the biliary tract and endoscopic insertion of stent (tube) into the bile duct, the risk of PLA remained higher among CP patients than among the comparison cohort (adjusted hazard ratio, 6.40; 95% CI, 4.83-8.49). CP patients with five or more comorbidities had a significantly higher risk of PLA (adjusted hazard ratio, 24.9; 95% CI, 18.3-33.8). CP was associated with increased risk of subsequent PLA. The risk of PLA was higher in patients with five or more comorbidities.

  17. [Design of a preoperative predictive score for choledocholithiasis].

    PubMed

    Bueno Lledó, Jose; Ibáñez Cirión, Jose Luis; Torregrosa Gallud, Antonio; López Andújar, Rafael

    2014-11-01

    Choledocholithiasis is the most common cause of obstructive jaundice and occurs in 5-10% of patients with cholelithiasis. To design a preoperative predictive score for choledocholithiasis. A prospective study was carried out in 556 patients admitted to our department for biliary disease. Preoperative clinical, laboratory, and ultrasound variables were compared between patients without choledocholithiasis and 65 patients with this diagnosis. A multivariate logistic analysis was performed to obtain a predictive model of choledocholithiasis, determining sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Predictors of choledocholithiasis were the presence of a prior history of biliary disease (history of biliary colic, acute cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis or acute biliary pancreatitis) (p=0.021, OR=2.225, 95% CI: 1.130-4.381), total bilirubin values >4mg/dl (p=0.046, OR=2.403, 95% CI: 1.106-5.685), alkaline phosphatase values >150mg/dl (p=0.022 income, OR=2.631, 95%: 1.386-6.231), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) values >100mg/dl (p=0.035, OR=2.10, 95% CI: 1.345-5.850), and an ultrasound finding of biliary duct >8mm (p=0.034, OR=3.063 95% CI: 1086-8649). A score superior to 5 had a specificity and PPV of 100% for detecting choledocholithiasis and a score less than 3 had a sensitivity and NPV of 100% for excluding this diagnosis. The preoperative score can exclude or confirm the presence of choledocholithiasis and allows patients to directly benefit from laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) or prior endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Therapeutic roles of curcumin: lessons learned from clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Subash C; Patchva, Sridevi; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research over the past half century has shown that curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a component of the golden spice turmeric (Curcuma longa), can modulate multiple cell signaling pathways. Extensive clinical trials over the past quarter century have addressed the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of this nutraceutical against numerous diseases in humans. Some promising effects have been observed in patients with various pro-inflammatory diseases including cancer, cardiovascular disease, arthritis, uveitis, ulcerative proctitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel disease, tropical pancreatitis, peptic ulcer, gastric ulcer, idiopathic orbital inflammatory pseudotumor, oral lichen planus, gastric inflammation, vitiligo, psoriasis, acute coronary syndrome, atherosclerosis, diabetes, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic microangiopathy, lupus nephritis, renal conditions, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, β-thalassemia, biliary dyskinesia, Dejerine-Sottas disease, cholecystitis, and chronic bacterial prostatitis. Curcumin has also shown protection against hepatic conditions, chronic arsenic exposure, and alcohol intoxication. Dose-escalating studies have indicated the safety of curcumin at doses as high as 12 g/day over 3 months. Curcumin's pleiotropic activities emanate from its ability to modulate numerous signaling molecules such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, apoptotic proteins, NF-κB, cyclooxygenase-2, 5-LOX, STAT3, C-reactive protein, prostaglandin E(2), prostate-specific antigen, adhesion molecules, phosphorylase kinase, transforming growth factor-β, triglyceride, ET-1, creatinine, HO-1, AST, and ALT in human participants. In clinical trials, curcumin has been used either alone or in combination with other agents. Various formulations of curcumin, including nanoparticles, liposomal encapsulation, emulsions, capsules, tablets, and powder, have been examined. In this review, we discuss in detail the various human diseases in which the

  19. [GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOMS IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS): A REVIEW OF ONE HUNDRED CASES AT "ARZOBISPO LOAYZA" HOSPITAL

    PubMed

    Uribe M , Rosario; Valdivia R , Mario; Carrasco E , Juan

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, one hundred health histories of HIV serum positive patients were reviewed using the Elisa and Western Blot techniques at the Arzobispo Loayza National Hospital. Such cases were defined according to Case Definition 1987 CDC/WHO. 70% of HIV serum positive patients showed gastrointestinal symptoms according to the first medical examination. 57% of the patients were younger than 30 years old, most of them were men (men/ women ratio: 2.7/1). 59% of the patients were heterosexual, 26% bisexual, and 15% homosexual. Chronic diarrhea was the main symptom, characterized by watering depositions over 10c/d. Giardia lamblia was isolated in 32% of the cases, while Isospora Belli in 16% and Criptosporidium in 12.5%. The laboratory findings of 7 patients (12.5%) were negative. Patients showed more than 10% weight loss. 10% of the patients had an anorectal disease while 7 of the patients (10%) had an hepatic-billiary disease. The odynophagia and dysphagia were explained by oropharyngeal candidiasis. 2.8% of the patients had acalculous cholecystitis; 2.8% suffered from acute pancreatic disease and 1.4% ascitis. The hepatic biochemistry was affected by the serum albumin reduction, the transaminases increase over 2-3 times compared to normal levels and the alkaline phosphatase, bilirrubina was about 5 mg. The high endoscopic diagnostic was in connection to the candida esophagitis and inflammatory pathology. In proctoscopy, condyloma acuminatum and perianal fistula were the most usual findings. The counting of CD4 leukocytes in 20 patients showed a great reduction of CD4 lymphocytes, in values lesser than 200 cel/mm3. The relation CD4/CD8 goes from 0.01 to 0.91 rates.

  20. PATHOLOGIC EVALUATION AND REPORTING OF INTRADUCTAL PAPILLARY MUCINOUS NEOPLASMS (IPMNs) OF THE PANCREAS AND OTHER TUMORAL INTRAEPITHELIAL NEOPLASMS OF PANCREATOBILIARY TRACT: RECOMMENDATIONS OF VERONA CONSENSUS MEETING

    PubMed Central

    Adsay, Volkan; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Furukawa, Toru; Basturk, Olca; Zamboni, Giuseppe; Marchegiani, Giovanni; Bassi, Claudio; Salvia, Roberto; Malleo, Giuseppe; Paiella, Salvatore; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Matthaei, Hanno; Offerhaus, G. Johan; Adham, Mustapha; Bruno, Marco J.; Reid, Michelle; Krasinskas, Alyssa; Klöppel, Günter; Ohike, Nobuyuki; Tajiri, Takuma; Jang, Kee-Taek; Roa, Juan Carlos; Allen, Peter; Castillo, Carlos Fernández-del; Jang, Jin-Young; Klimstra, David S.; Hruban, Ralph H.

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no established guidelines for pathologic diagnosis/reporting of IPMNs. Design An international multidisciplinary group brought together by the Verona Pancreas Group in Italy-2013, was tasked to devise recommendations. Results 1) Crucial to rule out invasive carcinoma with extensive (if not complete) sampling. 2) Invasive component is to be documented in a full synoptic report including its size, type, grade, stage. 3) The term “minimally invasive” should be avoided; instead, invasion size with stage and substaging of T1 (1a, b, c; ≤0.5, >0.5–≤1, >1 cm), is to be documented. 4) Largest diameter of the invasion, not the distance from the nearest duct, is to be used. 5) A category of “indeterminate/(suspicious) for invasion” is acceptable for rare cases. 6) The term “malignant” IPMN should be avoided. 7) The highest grade of dysplasia in the non-invasive component is to be documented separately. 8) Lesion size is to be correlated with imaging findings in cysts with rupture. 9) The main duct diameter, and if possible, its involvement is to be documented; however, it is not required to provide main vs branch duct classification in the resected tumor. 10) Subtyping as gastric/intestinal/pancreatobiliary/oncocytic/mixed is of value. 11) Frozen section is to be performed highly selectively, with appreciation of its shortcomings. 12) These principles also apply to other similar tumoral intraepithelial neoplasms (mucinous cystic neoplasms, intra-ampullary, intra-biliary/cholecystic). Conclusion These recommendations will ensure proper communication of salient tumor characteristics to the management teams, accurate comparison of data between analyses, and development of more effective management algorithms. PMID:25775066

  1. Comparison of diagnostic performance between single- and multiphasic contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic computed tomography in patients admitted to the emergency department with abdominal pain: potential radiation dose reduction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Shin Hye; You, Je Sung; Song, Mi Kyong; Choi, Jin-Young; Kim, Myeong-Jin; Chung, Yong Eun

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate feasibility of radiation dose reduction by optimal phase selection of computed tomography (CT) in patients who visited the emergency department (ED) for abdominal pain. We included 253 patients who visited the ED for abdominal pain. They underwent multiphasic CT including precontrast, late arterial phase (LAP), and hepatic venous phase (HVP). Three image sets (HVP, precontrast + HVP, and precontrast + LAP + HVP) were reviewed. Two reviewers determined the most appropriate diagnosis with five-point confidence scale. Diagnostic performances were compared among image sets by weighted-least-squares method or DeLong's method. Linear mixed model was used to assess changes of diagnostic confidence and radiation dose. There was no difference in diagnostic performance among three image sets, although diagnostic confidence level was significantly improved after review of triphasic images compared with both HVP images only or HVP with precontrast images (confidence scale, 4.64 ± 0.05, 4.66 ± 0.05, and 4.76 ± 0.04 in the order of the sets; overall P = 0.0008). Similar trends were observed in the subgroup analysis for diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease and cholecystitis. There is no difference between HVP-CT alone and multiphasic CT for the diagnosis of causes of abdominal pain in patients admitted to the ED without prior chronic disease or neoplasia. • There was no difference in diagnostic performance of HVP CT and multiphasic CT. • The diagnostic confidence level was improved after review of the LAP images. • HVP CT can achieve diagnostic performance similar to that of multiphasic CT, while minimizing radiation.

  2. Metformin treatment prevents gallstone formation but mimics porcelain gallbladder in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Dorvash, Mohammad Reza; Khoshnood, Mohammad Javad; Saber, Hossein; Dehghanian, Amirreza; Mosaddeghi, Pouria; Firouzabadi, Negar

    2018-06-05

    Gallstone disease (GD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and its related illnesses including type II diabetes (DMII) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). While previous studies claimed that metformin decreases the chance of developing GD in PCOS patients, this phenomenon has not been investigated in animal models to date. Here we fed a high fat diet (HFD) containing 2% of cholesterol and 1% of cholic acid to ten-week-old male C57Bl/6 mice for 105 days. The groups were as follows: Low fat diet; HFD; HFD + Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (day 1-105); HFD + Metformin (Met) (day 64-105). All drugs were administered by oral gavage (Met = 300 mg/kg & UDCA = 750 mg/kg). Serum lipid profile and gross organ examination were performed after euthanasia. A microscopic evaluation of the paraffin-embedded gallbladders was done after hematoxylin & eosin and Von Kossa staining. HFD successfully induces gallstone (4 out of 4 of the HFD members). While both UDCA and metformin (d 1-105) prevented gallstone formation and cholecystitis, Metformin (d 64-105) group had a few small stones. Additionally, metformin induces mucosal calcification in gallbladder (porcelain GB) of more than 80% of the HFD + Met (day 1-105) and HFD + Met (day 64-105) groups, collectively, which can be a potential problem by itself. While metformin shows a noticeable benefit towards GB health by reducing the chance for gallstone formation, if it induces porcelain gallbladder in humans as well, it might inflict patients with preventable medical charges. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of emergency general surgery care based on formally developed quality indicators.

    PubMed

    Ingraham, Angela; Nathens, Avery; Peitzman, Andrew; Bode, Allison; Dorlac, Gina; Dorlac, Warren; Miller, Preston; Sadeghi, Mahsa; Wasserman, Deena D; Bilimoria, Karl

    2017-08-01

    Emergency general surgery outcomes vary widely across the United States. The utilization of quality indicators can reduce variation and assist providers in administering care aligned with established recommendations. Previous quality indicators have not focused on emergency general surgery patients. We identified indicators of high-quality emergency general surgery care and assessed patient- and hospital-level compliance with these indicators. We utilized a modified Delphi technique (RAND Appropriateness Methodology) to develop quality indicators. Through 2 rankings, an expert panel ranked potential quality indicators for validity. We then examined historic compliance with select quality indicators after 4 nonelective procedures (cholecystectomy, appendectomy, colectomy, small bowel resection) at 4 academic centers. Of 25 indicators rated as valid, 13 addressed patient-level quality and 12 addressed hospital-level quality. Adherence with 18 indicators was assessed. Compliance with performing a cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis within 72 hours of symptom onset ranged from 45% to 76%. Compliance with surgery start times within 3 hours from the decision to operate for uncontained perforated viscus ranged from 20% to 100%. Compliance with exploration of patients with small bowel obstructions with ischemia/impending perforation within 3 hours of the decision to operate was 0% to 88%. For 3 quality indicators (auditing 30-day unplanned readmissions/operations for patients previously managed nonoperatively, monitoring time to source control for intra-abdominal infections, and having protocols for bypass/transfer), none of the hospitals were compliant. Developing indicators for providers to assess their performance provides a foundation for specific initiatives. Adherence to quality indicators may improve the quality of emergency general surgery care provided for which current outcomes are potentially modifiable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Utility of Diagnostic Laparoscopy in Post-Bariatric Surgery Patients with Chronic Abdominal Pain of Unknown Etiology.

    PubMed

    Alsulaimy, Mohammad; Punchai, Suriya; Ali, Fouzeyah A; Kroh, Matthew; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A; Aminian, Ali

    2017-08-01

    Chronic abdominal pain after bariatric surgery is associated with diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. The aim of this study was to evaluate the yield of laparoscopy as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool in post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain who had negative imaging and endoscopic studies. A retrospective analysis was performed on post-bariatric surgery patients who underwent laparoscopy for diagnosis and treatment of chronic abdominal pain at a single academic center. Only patients with both negative preoperative CT scan and upper endoscopy were included. Total of 35 post-bariatric surgery patients met the inclusion criteria, and all had history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Twenty out of 35 patients (57%) had positive findings on diagnostic laparoscopy including presence of adhesions (n = 12), chronic cholecystitis (n = 4), mesenteric defect (n = 2), internal hernia (n = 1), and necrotic omentum (n = 1). Two patients developed post-operative complications including a pelvic abscess and an abdominal wall abscess. Overall, 15 patients (43%) had symptomatic improvement after laparoscopy; 14 of these patients had positive laparoscopic findings requiring intervention (70% of the patients with positive laparoscopy). Conversely, 20 (57%) patients required long-term medical treatment for management of chronic abdominal pain. Diagnostic laparoscopy, which is a safe procedure, can detect pathological findings in more than half of post-bariatric surgery patients with chronic abdominal pain of unknown etiology. About 40% of patients who undergo diagnostic laparoscopy and 70% of patients with positive findings on laparoscopy experience significant symptom improvement. Patients should be informed that diagnostic laparoscopy is associated with no symptom improvement in about half of cases.

  5. Percutaneous unilateral biliary metallic stent placement in patients with malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion.

    PubMed

    Son, Rak Chae; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Ko, Gi-Young

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous unilateral metallic stent placement in patients with a malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion. Sixty patients with a malignant hilar obstruction and unilobar portal vein steno-occlusion caused by tumor invasion or preoperative portal vein embolization were enrolled in this retrospective study from October 2010 to October 2013. All patients were treated with percutaneous placement of a biliary metallic stent, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stents in 27 patients and uncovered stents in 33 patients. A total of 70 stents were successfully placed in 60 patients. Procedural-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia (n = 2) and cholangitis (n = 4) occurred in six (10%) patients. Acute cholecystitis occurred in two patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 54 (90%) of the 60 patients. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time was 210 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 135-284 days), and median stent patency time was 133 days (95% CI, 94-171 days). No significant difference in stent patency was observed between covered and uncovered stents (p = 0.646). Stent dysfunction occurred in 16 (29.6%) of 54 patients after a mean of 159 days (range, 65-321 days). Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered and uncovered stents in the hepatic lobe with a patent portal vein is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion caused by an advanced hilar malignancy or portal vein embolization. No significant difference in stent patency was detected between covered and uncovered metallic stents.

  6. Percutaneous Unilateral Biliary Metallic Stent Placement in Patients with Malignant Obstruction of the Biliary Hila and Contralateral Portal Vein Steno-Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Son, Rak Chae; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jong Woo; Ko, Gi-Young

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the outcomes of percutaneous unilateral metallic stent placement in patients with a malignant obstruction of the biliary hila and a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion. Materials and Methods Sixty patients with a malignant hilar obstruction and unilobar portal vein steno-occlusion caused by tumor invasion or preoperative portal vein embolization were enrolled in this retrospective study from October 2010 to October 2013. All patients were treated with percutaneous placement of a biliary metallic stent, including expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE)-covered stents in 27 patients and uncovered stents in 33 patients. Results A total of 70 stents were successfully placed in 60 patients. Procedural-related minor complications, including self-limiting hemobilia (n = 2) and cholangitis (n = 4) occurred in six (10%) patients. Acute cholecystitis occurred in two patients. Successful internal drainage was achieved in 54 (90%) of the 60 patients. According to a Kaplan-Meier analysis, median survival time was 210 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 135-284 days), and median stent patency time was 133 days (95% CI, 94-171 days). No significant difference in stent patency was observed between covered and uncovered stents (p = 0.646). Stent dysfunction occurred in 16 (29.6%) of 54 patients after a mean of 159 days (range, 65-321 days). Conclusion Unilateral placement of ePTFE-covered and uncovered stents in the hepatic lobe with a patent portal vein is a safe and effective method for palliative treatment of patients with a contralateral portal vein steno-occlusion caused by an advanced hilar malignancy or portal vein embolization. No significant difference in stent patency was detected between covered and uncovered metallic stents. PMID:25995688

  7. Medical judgement analogue studies with applications to spaceflight crew medical officer

    PubMed Central

    McCarroll, Michele L; Ahmed, Rami A; Schwartz, Alan; Gothard, Michael David; Atkinson, Steven Scott; Hughes, Patrick; Brito, Jose Cepeda; Assad, Lori; Myers, Jerry; George, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Background The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) developed plans for potential emergency conditions from the Exploration Medical Conditions List. In an effort to mitigate conditions on the Exploration Medical Conditions List, NASA implemented a crew medical officer (CMO) designation for eligible astronauts. This pilot study aims to add knowledge that could be used in the Integrated Medical Model. Methods An analogue population was recruited for two categories: administrative physicians (AP) representing the physician CMOs and technical professionals (TP) representing the non-physician CMOs. Participants completed four medical simulations focused on abdominal pain: cholecystitis (CH) and renal colic (RC) and chest pain: cardiac ischaemia (STEMI; ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction) and pneumothorax (PX). The Medical Judgment Metric (MJM) was used to evaluate medical decision making. Results There were no significant differences between the AP and TP groups in age, gender, race, ethnicity, education and baseline heart rate. Significant differences were noted in MJM average rater scores in AP versus TP in CH: 13.0 (±2.25), 4.5 (±0.48), p=<0.001; RC: 12.3 (±2.66), 4.8 (±0.94); STEMI: 12.1 (±3.33), 4.9 (±0.56); and PX: 13.5 (±2.53), 5.3 (±1.01), respectively. Discussion There could be a positive effect on crew health risk by having a physician CMO. The MJM demonstrated the ability to quantify medical judgement between the two analogue groups of spaceflight CMOs. Future studies should incorporate the MJM in a larger analogue population study to assess the medical risk for spaceflight crewmembers. PMID:29354280

  8. Anxiolytic-like effect of Shigyakusan extract with low side effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Machiko; Satou, Tadaaki; Koike, Kazuo

    2013-10-01

    Shigyakusan is a traditional Japanese herbal (Kampo) medicine used to treat inflammatory conditions such as cholecystitis and gastritis as well as psychiatric disorders. This study examined the anxiolytic-like effect of Shigyakusan extract (SS), and evaluated the activity of the main compound. Three behavioral tests in mice were used to evaluate the activity of SS. Samples were administered orally over a 10-day period. A light and dark box (LDB) test was performed on the 8th day, while an open field (OF) test was done on the 9th day, and an elevated plus maze (EPM) test was performed on the 10th day. Diazepam (DZ), a typical anxiolytic drug, was used as the positive control. Administration of 10 mg/kg DZ resulted in a significant anxiolytic-like effect in the LDB and EPM tests, while administration of 0.3 g/kg SS resulted in a weak anxiolytic-like effect. In the OF test, while DZ caused a significant reduction of locomotor activity, SS did not cause any changes compared to the water controls. This suggests that locomotor activity may be a side effect of DZ, and thus SS, which lacks this response, may be a more useful treatment. Quantitative analysis performed to clarify the activity of the main compound also determined that SS contained 51.4 mg/g naringin, which also has been reported to have anxiolytic-like activity. Since these results suggested that this compound might be responsible for the activity of SS, we subsequently examined the oral administration of a similar dose of naringin. Although we observed a tendency for a weak anxiolytic-like effect, this effect was not greater than that seen for SS.

  9. A Quantitative Risk-Benefit Analysis of Prophylactic Surgery Prior to Extended-Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Danielle; Reyes, David; Kerstman, Eric; Walton, Marlei; Antonsen, Erik

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Among otherwise healthy astronauts undertaking deep space missions, the risks for acute appendicitis (AA) and cholecystitis (AC) are not zero. If these conditions were to occur during spaceflight they may require surgery for definitive care. The proposed study quantifies and compares the risks of developing de novo AA and AC in-flight to the surgical risks of prophylactic laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) and cholecystectomy (LC) using NASA's Integrated Medical Model (IMM). METHODS: The IMM is a Monte Carlo simulation that forecasts medical events during spaceflight missions and estimates the impact of these medical events on crew health. In this study, four Design Reference Missions (DRMs) were created to assess the probability of an astronaut developing in-flight small-bowel obstruction (SBO) following prophylactic 1) LA, 2) LC, 3) LA and LC, or 4) neither surgery (SR# S-20160407-351). Model inputs were drawn from a large, population-based 2011 Swedish study that examined the incidence and risks of post-operative SBO over a 5-year follow-up period. The study group included 1,152 patients who underwent LA, and 16,371 who underwent LC. RESULTS: Preliminary results indicate that prophylactic LA may yield higher mission risks than the control DRM. Complete analyses are pending and will be subsequently available. DISCUSSION: The risk versus benefits of prophylactic surgery in astronauts to decrease the probability of acute surgical events during spaceflight has only been qualitatively examined in prior studies. Within the assumptions and limitations of the IMM, this work provides the first quantitative guidance that has previously been lacking to this important question for future deep space exploration missions.

  10. Accuracy and Radiation Dose Reduction of Limited-Range CT in the Evaluation of Acute Appendicitis in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Jin, Michael; Sanchez, Thomas R; Lamba, Ramit; Fananapazir, Ghaneh; Corwin, Michael T

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to determine the accuracy and radiation dose reduction of limited-range CT prescribed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis in children with suspected acute appendicitis. We performed a retrospective study of 210 consecutive pediatric patients from December 11, 2012, through December 11, 2014, who underwent abdominopelvic CT for suspected acute appendicitis. Two radiologists independently reviewed the theoretic limited scans from the superior L2 vertebral body to the top of the pubic symphysis, to assess for visualization of the appendix, acute appendicitis, alternative diagnoses, and incidental findings. Separately, the same parameters were assessed on the full scan by the same two reviewers. Whole-body effective doses were determined for the full- and limited-range scans and were compared using the paired t test. The appendix or entire cecum was visualized on the limited scan in all cases, and no cases of acute appendicitis were missed on the simulated limited scan compared with the full scan. Two alternative diagnoses were missed with the limited scan: one case of hydronephrosis and one of acute acalculous cholecystitis. The mean effective dose for the original scan was 5.6 mSv and that for the simulated limited scan was 3.0 mSv, resulting in a dose reduction of 46.4% (p < 0.001). A limited-range CT examination performed from the top of L2 to the top of the pubic symphysis is as accurate as a full-range abdominopelvic CT in evaluating pediatric patients with suspected appendicitis and reduces the dose by approximately 46%.

  11. Robot-assisted single port radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy: description and technical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Francisco Hidelbrando Alves; Sávio, Luis Felipe; Sakata, Rafael Eiji; Ivanovic, Renato Fidelis; da Silva, Marco Antonio Nunes; Maia, Ronaldo Soares; Passerotti, Carlo Camargo

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction Robot-Assisted Single Site Radical Nephrectomy (RASS-RN) has been reported by surgeons in Europe and United States (1–3). To our best knowledge this video presents the first RASS-RN with concomitant cholecystectomy performed in Latin America. Case A 66 year-old renal transplant male due to chronic renal failure presented with an incidental 1.3cm nodule in the upper pole of the right kidney. In addition, symptomatic gallbladder stones were detected. Results Patient was placed in modified flank position. Multichannel single port device was placed using Hassan's technique through a 3 cm supra-umbilical incision. Standard radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy were made using an 8.5mm camera, two 5mm robotic arms and an assistant 5mm access. Surgery time and estimated blood loss were 208 minutes and 100mL, respectively. Patient did well and was discharged within less than 48 hours, without complications. Pathology report showed benign renomedullary tumor of interstitial cells and chronic cholecystitis. Discussion Robotic technology improves ergonomics, gives better precision and enhances ability to approach complex surgeries. Robot-assisted Single Port aims to reduce the morbidity of multiple trocar placements while maintaining the advantages of robotic surgery (2). Limitations include the use of semi-rigid instruments providing less degree of motion and limited space leading to crash between instruments. On the other hand, it is possible to perform complex and concomitant surgeries with just one incision. Conclusion RASS-RN seems to be safe and feasible option for selected cases. Studies should be performed to better understand the results using single port technique in Urology. PMID:29039889

  12. Robot-assisted single port radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy: description and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Mota Filho, Francisco Hidelbrando Alves; Sávio, Luis Felipe; Sakata, Rafael Eiji; Ivanovic, Renato Fidelis; da Silva, Marco Antonio Nunes; Maia, Ronaldo; Passerotti, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Robot-Assisted Single Site Radical Nephrectomy (RASS-RN) has been reported by surgeons in Europe and United States (1-3). To our best knowledge this video presents the first RASS-RN with concomitant cholecystectomy performed in Latin America. A 66 year-old renal transplant male due to chronic renal failure presented with an incidental 1.3cm nodule in the upper pole of the right kidney. In addition, symptomatic gallbladder stones were detected. Patient was placed in modified flank position. Multichannel single port device was placed using Hassan's technique through a 3cm supra-umbilical incision. Standard radical nephrectomy and cholecystectomy were made using na 8.5mm camera, two 5mm robotic arms and an assistant 5mm access. Surgery time and estimated blood loss were 208 minutes and 100mL, respectively. Patient did well and was discharged within less than 48 hours, without complications. Pathology report showed benign renomedullary tumor of interstitial cells and chronic cholecystitis. Robotic technology improves ergonomics, gives better precision and enhances ability to approach complex surgeries. Robot-assisted Single Port aims to reduce the morbidity of multiple trocar placements while maintaining the advantages of robotic surgery (2). Limitations include the use of semi-rigid instruments providing less degree of motion and limited space leading to crash between instruments. On the other hand, it is possible to perform complex and concomitant surgeries with just one incision. RASS-RN seems to be safe and feasible option for selected cases. Studies should be performed to better understand the results using single port technique in Urology. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  13. Routine Sub-hepatic Drainage versus No Drainage after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: Open, Randomized, Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Surgeons are still following the old habit of routine subhepatic drainage following laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC). This study aims to compare the outcome of subhepatic drainage with no drainage after LC. This prospective study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was open, randomized controlled trial (RCT), conducted in Civil Hospital Karachi, from August 2004 to June 2005. Phase II was descriptive case series, conducted in author's practice hospitals of Karachi, from July 2005 to December 2009. In phase I, 170 patients with chronic calculous cholecystitis underwent LC. Patients were divided into two groups, subhepatic drainage (group A: 79 patients) or no drainage (group B: 76 patients). The rest 15 patients were excluded either due to conversion or elective subhepatic drainage. In phase II, 218 consecutive patients were enrolled, who underwent LC with no subhepatic drainage. Duration of operation, character, and amount of drain fluid (if placed), postoperative ultrasound for subhepatic collection, postoperative chest X-ray for the measurement of subdiaphragmatic air, postoperative pain, postoperative nausea/vomiting, duration of hospital stay, and preoperative or postoperative complications were noted and analyzed. Duration of operation and hospital stay was slightly longer in group A patients (P values 0.002 and 0.029, respectively); postoperative pain perception, nausea/vomiting, and postoperative complications were nearly same in both groups (P value 0.064, 0.078, and 0.003, respectively). Subhepatic fluid collection was more in group A (P = 0.002), whereas subdiaphragmatic air collection was more in group B (P = 0.003). Phase II results were nearly similar to group B patients in phase I. Routine subhepatic drainage after LC is not necessary in uncomplicated cases.

  14. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for biliary dyskinesia in children: frequency increasing.

    PubMed

    Lacher, Martin; Yannam, Govardhana R; Muensterer, Oliver J; Aprahamian, Charles J; Haricharan, Ramanath N; Perger, Lena; Bartle, Donna; Talathi, Sonia S; Beierle, Elizabeth A; Anderson, Scott A; Chen, Mike K; Harmon, Carroll M

    2013-08-01

    The treatment of children with biliary dyskinesia (BD) is controversial. As we recently observed an increasing frequency of referrals for BD in our institution the aim of the study was to re-evaluate the long-term outcome in children with BD. Children with laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) for suspected BD between 8/2006 and 5/2011 were included. A pathologic ejection fraction (EF) was defined as <35%. The long-term effect of cholecystectomy was assessed via a Likert scale symptom questionnaire. 82 children (median age 13.5 years, mean BMI 25.8) were included. CCK-HIDA scan was pathologic in 74 children (90.2%). Mean EF was 16.4%. Histology revealed chronic cholecystitis in 48 (58.5%) children and was normal in 30 children (36.5%). The frequency of LC for suspected BD increased by a factor of 4.3 in the last 10 years. Long term follow-up showed that only 23/52 children (44.2%) were symptom-free after LC. Patients with chronic inflammation were more likely to have persistent symptoms (p=0.017). An EF<15% was associated with a resolution of symptoms (p=0.031). The frequency of LC for suspected BD in our institution has increased significantly during recent years. The long-term efficacy in our cohort was only 44.2%. We believe that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is likely helpful in patients with an EF<15%. However, in children with an EF of 15%-35%, based upon our data, we would highly recommend an appropriately thorough pre-op testing to exclude other gastrointestinal disorders prior to consideration of operative management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Updates in Mirizzi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Espejel-Deloiza, Mariana; Chernitzky-Camaño, Jonathan; Barrera Mera, Baltazar; Estrada-Mata, Aranza Guadalupe; Ceballos-Villalva, Jesús Carlos; Acuña Campos, Jonathan; Argüero-Sánchez, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome, known as extrinsic bile compression syndrome, is a rare complication of cholecystitis and chronic cholelithiasis, secondary to the obliteration of the infundibulum of the gallbladder or cystic duct caused by the impact of one or more calculations in these anatomical structures, which leads to compression of the adjacent bile duct, resulting in partial or complete obstruction of the common hepatic duct, triggering liver dysfunction. Our aim is to identify and describe the current epidemiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment of Mirizzi syndrome. A literature search was performed using different databases, including Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Medscape, PubMed, using keywords: Mirizzi syndrome, epidemiology, markers, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Selected original articles, review articles or case reports from 1997 to 2015 were collected, written in English or Spanish. The endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most accurate diagnostic method. The traditional treatment has been surgery and involves an incision at the bottom of the gallbladder and calculus removal. If fistulas are observed, it is performed a partial cholecystectomy; otherwise, a cholecystocholedochoduodenostomy is an alternative. Endoscopic treatment includes biliary drainage and stone extraction. Many surgeons claim that laparoscopic cholecystectomy is contraindicated in Mirizzi syndrome because of the presence of inflammatory tissue and adhesions in the Calot’s triangle. If dissection is attempt, it can cause unnecessary injury to the bile duct. However, other surgeons consider the laparoscopic approach is feasible, although technically challenging. Currently, laparoscopic cholecystectomy for this condition is considered controversial and technically challenging; however, it has shown that with the right skills and equipment, it is a safe and feasible way to treat some cases of Mirizzi syndrome type I and II. PMID

  16. Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography for choledocholithiasis after laparoscopic gastric bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Milella, Marialessia; Alfa-Wali, Maryam; Leuratti, Luca; McCall, James; Bonanomi, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Gallstones are a common condition in bariatric patients after a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). The management of ductal stones is challenging due to the altered gastrointestinal anatomy. Various techniques have been reported to manage bile duct stones. We present the successful percutaneous trans hepatic management of common bile duct stones after LRYGB. One year after a LRYGB for morbid obesity, a 59-year-old female presented with acute cholecystitis. One month after laparoscopic cholecystectomy a 1cm calculus was found within the distal CBD and patient underwent a percutaneous trans hepatic cholangiography under local anesthetic. This involved a right sided anterior segmental duct puncture. With the sphincter dilated to 10mm, a balloon catheter was used to push the stone into the duodenum leaving an internal- external drain. Patient recovered completely at follow up. Patients with morbid obesity have a higher incidence of gallstones. After LRYGB, the altered anatomy does not allow the conventional endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for choledocholithiasis. Various techniques have been reported as means of managing bile duct stones in LRYGB patients. These include a double balloon enteroscope-assisted ERCP, laparoscopic transgastric ERCP, laparoscopic or open biliary surgery and interventional radiology. We report a non-surgical approach using percutaneous transhepatic technique under local anesthetic that resulted effective and could be applied more extensively. Due to the increase of global obesity, bariatric centers need to strategically plan resources such as interventional radiology in order to manage post LRYGB choledocholithiasis safely, efficiently and in a cost effective manner. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Population-based cohort study of variation in the use of emergency cholecystectomy for benign gallbladder diseases.

    PubMed

    2016-11-01

    The aims of this prospective population-based cohort study were to identify the patient and hospital characteristics associated with emergency cholecystectomy, and the influences of these in determining variations between hospitals. Data were collected for consecutive patients undergoing cholecystectomy in acute UK and Irish hospitals between 1 March and 1 May 2014. Potential explanatory variables influencing the performance of emergency cholecystectomy were analysed by means of multilevel, multivariable logistic regression modelling using a two-level hierarchical structure with patients (level 1) nested within hospitals (level 2). Data were collected on 4744 cholecystectomies from 165 hospitals. Increasing age, lower ASA fitness grade, biliary colic, the need for further imaging (magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography), endoscopic interventions (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography) and admission to a non-biliary centre significantly reduced the likelihood of an emergency cholecystectomy being performed. The multilevel model was used to calculate the probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy for a woman aged 40 years or over with an ASA grade of I or II and a BMI of at least 25·0 kg/m 2 , who presented with acute cholecystitis with an ultrasound scan showing a thick-walled gallbladder and a normal common bile duct. The mean predicted probability of receiving an emergency cholecystectomy was 0·52 (95 per cent c.i. 0·45 to 0·57). The predicted probabilities ranged from 0·02 to 0·95 across the 165 hospitals, demonstrating significant variation between hospitals. Patients with similar characteristics presenting to different hospitals with acute gallbladder pathology do not receive comparable care. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Enteric fever in the Pacific: a regional retrospective study from Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Lane, R J; Holland, D; McBride, S; Perera, S; Zeng, I; Wilson, M; Read, K; Jelleyman, T; Ingram, R J H

    2015-02-01

    There are limited clinical data on enteric fever in the Pacific and New Zealand (NZ) compared with the Indian subcontinent (ISC) and South-East Asia (SEA). Our objective was to describe enteric fever in Auckland - a large Pacific city, focusing on disease acquired in these regions. We reviewed enteric fever cases hospitalised in Auckland from January 2005 to December 2010. Microbiologically confirmed EF was identified in 162 patients. Travel regions: Pacific, 40 cases (25%) (Samoa, 38; Fiji, two), ISC, 72 (44%), SEA, seven (4%), other, three (2%), no travel, 40 (25%). Enteric fever rates for Auckland resident travellers were: India 50.3/100 000; Samoa 19.7/100 000.All Pacific cases were Salmonella Typhi. Of local isolates (without travel history), 38 were S. Typhi (36 fully susceptible, one multi-drug resistant (MDR) + nalidixic acid resistant (NAR), one unknown) and two S. Paratyphi (both NAR). Of non-Pacific travel, 56/82 (69%) isolates were S. Typhi, the remainder S. Paratyphi (15 isolates were fully susceptible, only 1% were MDR). Significant associations of serotype and antibiotic resistance with different travel regions and similarity of phage types (local and Pacific) were observed. Headache, vomiting and acute kidney injuries were more frequent with Pacific travel, while abdominal distension and cholecystitis with local disease. Shorter duration of treatment in the Pacific group was seen despite length of stay in hospital not being reduced. Local cases were associated with longer hospital admissions. One half of cases in Auckland are acquired either from Pacific or locally. Similarities mean that disease acquired locally is likely of Pacific origin. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  19. GI complications after lung transplantation in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, Marita; Chaparro, Cecilia; Tullis, Elizabeth; Chan, Charles; Keshavjee, Shaf; Hutcheon, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Lung transplantation is now available for patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease. While pulmonary graft function is often considered the major priority following transplantation, the nonpulmonary complications of this systemic disease also continue. We examined the GI complications in a cohort of patients who underwent transplantation. This was a retrospective study of all patients with CF who underwent transplantation between March 1988 and December 1998 in Toronto. Medical records were reviewed, and a short questionnaire was mailed to patients who were alive as of December 1998. There were 80 bilateral lung transplants performed in 75 patients. The questionnaire was distributed to 43 patients, of whom 27 patients (63%) responded. Pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme intake was evident in 72 of 75 patients (96%) at the time of surgery. Of three pancreatic-sufficient patients (4%), pancreatic insufficiency was diagnosed in two patients later. Biliary cirrhosis was diagnosed in three patients prior to transplantation. Distal intestinal obstruction syndrome (DIOS) was recorded for 15 patients (20%). Ten patients had a single episode, of which eight episodes occurred early in the postoperative period. Five patients had recurrent episodes. All were medically treated, except for two patients who underwent surgery. Other complications included cholecystitis (n = 3), mucocele of the appendix (n = 1), peptic ulcer disease (n = 3), and colonic carcinoma (n = 1). GI complications after lung transplantation are common in patients with CF, and attention should be paid to the risk for DIOS in the early postoperative period. Prevention and early medical treatment are important in order to avoid acute surgery. Close collaboration with the CF clinic, in order to diagnose and treat CF-related complications, is recommended.

  20. Percutaneous cholecystostomy for high-risk patients with acute cholangitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Lin; Wong, Kin-Hoi; Chiu, Keith Wan-Hang; Cheng, Andrew Kai-Chun; Cheung, Ronald Kin-On; Yam, Max Kai-Ho; Chan, Angie Lok-Chi; Chan, Victor Siang-Hua; Law, Martin Wai-Ming; Lee, Paul Sing-Fun

    2018-05-01

    Percutaneous cholecystostomy (PC) is a well-established treatment for acute cholecystitis. We investigate the performance and role of PC in managing acute cholangitis.Retrospective review on all patients who underwent PC for acute cholangitis between January 2012 and June 2017 at a major regional hospital in Hong Kong.Thirty-two patients were included. The median age was 84 years and median American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) physical status was Class III (severe systemic disease). All fulfilled Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13) diagnostic criteria for moderate or severe cholangitis. Eighty-four percent of the patients were shown to have lower common bile duct stones on imaging. The majority had previously failed intervention by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (38%), percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (38%), or both (13%)The technical success rate for PC was 100% with no procedure-related mortality. The overall 30-day mortality was 9%. Rest of the patients (91%) had significant improvement in clinical symptoms and could be discharged with median length of stay of 14 days. Significant postprocedural biochemical improvement was observed in terms of white cell count (P < .001), serum bilirubin (P < .001), alkaline phosphatase (P = .001), and alanine transaminase levels (P < .001). Time from admission to PC was associated with excess mortality (P = .002).PC is an effective treatment for acute cholangitis in high-risk elderly patients. Early intervention is associated with lower mortality. PC is particularly valuable as a temporising measure before definitive treatment in critical patients or as salvage therapy where other methods endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography/percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (ERCP/PTBD) have failed.

  1. Thyrotoxic Valvulopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Keniel; Gadde, Sushee; Omar, Bassam; Awan, G. Mustafa; Malozzi, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    We report a 42-year-old female who was admitted for abdominal pain, and also endorsed dyspnea, fatigue and chronic palpitations. Past medical history included asthma, patent ductus arteriosus repaired in childhood and ill-defined thyroid disease. Physical examination revealed blood pressure of 136/88 mm Hg and heart rate of 149 beats per minute. Cardiovascular exam revealed an irregularly irregular rhythm, and pulmonary exam revealed mild expiratory wheezing. Abdomen was tender. Electrocardiogram revealed atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response which responded to intravenous diltiazem. Labs revealed TSH of < 0.1 mU/L and free T4 of 2.82 ng/dL, a positive TSH-receptor and thyroid peroxidase antibodies suggesting Grave’s thyrotoxicosis. A transthoracic echocardiogram reported an ejection fraction of 55-60%, with mild to moderate mitral regurgitation (MR) and moderate to severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) and dilated right heart chambers. Pulmonary artery systolic pressure was 52 mm Hg. Transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a myxomatous tricuspid valve with thickening and malcoaptation of the leaflets and moderate to severe TR, mild to moderate MR with mild thickening of the mitral valve leaflets. Abdominal ultrasound revealed wall thickening of the gall bladder concerning for acute cholecystitis. She underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy and was discharged in stable condition on methimazole for her thyroid disease, and on oral diltiazem for rate control and anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation. Follow-up visit with her cardiologist few months later documented absence of cardiac symptoms, and no murmurs were reported on physical examination. This case underscores the importance of maintaining a high index of suspicion for hyperthyroidism when faced with significant newly diagnosed pulmonary hypertension and TR, as treatment of the thyroid abnormalities can reverse these cardiac findings. PMID:28725332

  2. Endoscopic treatment of benign biliary strictures using covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS).

    PubMed

    Irani, Shayan; Baron, Todd H; Akbar, Ali; Lin, Otto S; Gluck, Michael; Gan, Ian; Ross, Andrew S; Petersen, Bret T; Topazian, Mark; Kozarek, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Traditional endoscopic management of benign biliary strictures (BBS) consists of placement of one or more plastic stents. Emerging data support the use of covered self-expandable metal stents (CSEMS). We sought to assess outcome of endoscopic temporary placement of CSEMS in patients with BBS. This was a retrospective study of CSEMS placement for BBS between May 2005 and July 2012 from two tertiary care centers. A total of 145 patients (81 males, median age 59 years) with BBS were identified; 73 of which were classified as extrinsic and were caused by chronic pancreatitis, and 70 were intrinsic. Main outcome measures were resolution of stricture and adverse events (AEs) due to self-expandable metal stents (SEMS)-related therapy. Fully covered and partially covered 8-10 mm diameter SEMS were placed and subsequently removed in 121/125 (97 %) attempts in BBS (failure to remove four partially covered stents). Stricture resolution occurred in 83/125 (66 %) patients after a median stent duration of 26 weeks (median follow-up 90 weeks). Resolution of extrinsic strictures was significantly lower compared to intrinsic strictures (31/65, 48 % vs. 52/60, 87 %, p = 0.004) despite longer median stent duration (30 vs. 20 weeks). Thirty-seven AEs occurred in 25 patients (17 %), with 12 developing multiple AEs including cholangitis (n = 17), pancreatitis (n = 5), proximal stent migration (n = 3), cholecystitis (n = 2), pain requiring SEMS removal and/or hospitalization (n = 3), inability to remove (n = 4), and new stricture formation (n = 3). Benign biliary strictures can be effectively treated with CSEMS. Successful resolution of biliary strictures due to extrinsic disease is seen significantly less often than those due to intrinsic disease. Removal is successful in all patients with fully covered SEMS.

  3. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A.; Kpolugbo, James U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission

  4. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Eze, Kenneth C; Salami, Taofeek A; Kpolugbo, James U

    2014-05-01

    To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission.

  5. Intractable duodenal ulcer caused by transmural migration of gossypiboma into the duodenum - a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gossypiboma is a term used to describe a mass that forms around a cotton sponge or abdominal compress accidentally left in a patient during surgery. Transmural migration of an intra-abdominal gossypiboma has been reported to occur in the digestive tract, bladder, vagina and diaphragm. Open surgery is the most common approach in the treatment of gossypiboma. However, gossypibomas can be extracted by endoscopy while migrating into the digestive tract. We report a case of intractable duodenal ulcer caused by transmural migration of gossypiboma successfully treated by duodenorrhaphy. A systemic literature review is provided and a scheme of the therapeutic approach is propo