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Sample records for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis xpn

  1. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Scott, G. B. D.; Quigley, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The origin of the intracellular fat in human xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis has been the centre of some discussion in the past. A report of a case in a domestic cat is of interest as normal feline renal epithelium is rich in stainable fat. A comparison of the human and feline varieties of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis reveals certain fundamental differences between the two and reinforces the view that the fat concerned in the human disease does not originate in the renal epithelium. Images PMID:4114697

  2. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J; Reda, E; Gill, B; Kogan, S; Levitt, S

    1987-11-01

    We report on a child with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis--an uncommon entity in children. A review of the literature revealed that in only 18 per cent was the diagnosis made correctly preoperatively. In children the disease is of a focal nature rather than a diffuse one, suggesting that possibly radical surgery would be less necessary for adequate treatment.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with colesional actinomycosis in a 63-year-old man

    PubMed Central

    Gulwani, Hanni V.

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is an uncommon chronic destructive granulomatous disease of the kidney. A rare case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with extrarenal extension that had coexistence of renal actinomycosis is described in this article. PMID:25878419

  4. Renal Collision Tumor in Association with Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Rothschild, Jennifer; Bhatt, Shweta; Dogra, Vikram S.

    2011-01-01

    Collision tumor is a rare condition in which two neoplasms (usually benign and malignant), both growing in the same general area, collide with each other and become intermingled. We present histopathology and imaging correlation of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis coexistent with squamous cell carcinoma and osteogenic sarcoma of the kidney. PMID:21915390

  5. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Can Simulate a Complex Cyst: Case Description and Review of Literature☆

    PubMed Central

    Butticè, Salvatore; Antonino, Inferrera; Giorgio, Ascenti; Valeria, Barresi; Stefano, Pergolizzi; Giuseppe, Mucciardi; Carlo, Magno

    2014-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and peculiar form of chronic pyelonephritis and is generally associated with renal lithiasis. Its incidence is higher in females. The peculiarity of this disease is that it requires a differential diagnosis, because it can often simulate dramatic pathologic conditions. In fact, in the literature are also described cases in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney The radiologic clinical findings simulate renal masses, sometimes in association with caval thrombus. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with radiologic aspects of a complex cyst of Bosniak class III in a man 40-year old. PMID:26955560

  6. Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis Can Simulate a Complex Cyst: Case Description and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Butticè, Salvatore; Antonino, Inferrera; Giorgio, Ascenti; Valeria, Barresi; Stefano, Pergolizzi; Giuseppe, Mucciardi; Carlo, Magno

    2014-05-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and peculiar form of chronic pyelonephritis and is generally associated with renal lithiasis. Its incidence is higher in females. The peculiarity of this disease is that it requires a differential diagnosis, because it can often simulate dramatic pathologic conditions. In fact, in the literature are also described cases in association with squamous cell carcinoma of the kidney The radiologic clinical findings simulate renal masses, sometimes in association with caval thrombus. We describe a case of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis with radiologic aspects of a complex cyst of Bosniak class III in a man 40-year old.

  7. Combination of Surgical Drainage and Renal Artery Embolization: An Alternative Treatment for Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    SciTech Connect

    Upasani, Anand, E-mail: anand.upasani@gosh.nhs.uk; Barnacle, Alex, E-mail: alex.barnacle@gosh.nhs.uk; Roebuck, Derek, E-mail: derek.roebuck@gosh.nhs.uk

    Conventionally, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is treated with antibiotics and drainage of abscess followed by nephrectomy for definitive treatment. Surgical excision of the affected kidney carries risk of significant complications. An alternative treatment modality is described in the form of embolization of the renal artery to devascularise the renal parenchyma and ablate the renal tissue, thus avoiding a major surgical procedure and the significant risks involved.

  8. Rare Co-existence of Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Infiltration of Renal Vein and Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Vanikar, A.V.; Patel, R.D.; Nigam, L. K.; Trivedi, H. L.

    2015-01-01

    Primary renal squamous cell carcinoma is a very rare malignancy of the upper urinary tract. Most patients have history of chronic urolithiasis, analgesics abuse, radiotherapy or infection. Co-existence of SCC with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is exceedingly rare with only few reports in the literature. We report a case of a 60-year-old male presented with right flank pain and mild tenderness of abdomen. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed gross hydronephrosis with parenchymal thinning and irregular thick enhancing wall of pelvicalyceal system with multiple calculi in right kidney. Right renal vein appeared distended, filled with hypo dense material. Right nephrectomy was performed and sent for pathological examination. Histological evaluation revealed keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma with infiltration of renal vein and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. PMID:26816904

  9. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis due to calculi: report of 63 cases and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Nawaz, Haq; Khan, Saadat; Hussain, Israr; Ahmed, Sheir; Khan, Masha; Niazi, Nadeem

    2005-09-01

    To examine the relationship between clinical history and results of renal investigations in patients with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. A retrospective review was conducted on 63 cases presenting with histopathological diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis between 1995 to 2002, at the department of Urology, Bolan Medical College and Sandeman Provincial Teaching Hospital Quetta. There were 26 males and 37 females having an average follow up of two years. Positive findings on examination and investigations at presentation were fever and flank pain in 59 (93.6%) patients and pyuria in 34 (53.9%) patients. All the patients had renal and ureteric calculi with no or severe reduction in the function of the affected kidney on DTPA scan. Hypertrophy of the contra lateral kidney was seen in 56 (88.8%) patients. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a common entity in this part of the world. Late referral leads to loss of the kidney. Pre-operative diagnosis of the condition is desirable and if surgery is mandatory then all infected tissues have to be removed.

  10. [Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a child with severe malnutrition and recurrent fever].

    PubMed

    Gramage Tormo, J; Gavilán Martín, C; Atienza Almarcha, T

    2015-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare inflammatory disease, characterized by replacement of renal parenchyma with granulomatous tissue. Initial clinical presentation includes abdominal pain and constitutional symptoms related to recurrent urinary infections. The microorganisms most commonly involved are Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis. Final diagnosis is made by histopathology, and the only curative treatment is total or partial nephrectomy. A recently diagnosed case in our unit is presented, as well as an update on the knowledge of this disease. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Delayed diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a quadriplegic patient with uncontrolled cutaneous fistula

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Shin, Jin Yong; Roh, Si-Gyun; Chang, Suk-Choo; Lee, Nae-Ho

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP) is a chronic destructive granulomatous inflammation that is characterized by urinary tract obstruction and invasion of the renal parenchyma. Although rare, XGP can lead to fatal complications, including perinephric inflammation, psoas abscess, and cutaneous fistula. Patient concerns: A quadriplegic patient initially presented to the hospital with a chronic open wound and cutaneous fistula. Diagnoses: Abdominal computed tomography revealed a renal obstructing stone and enlarged right kidney with a perinephric fluid collection that communicated with the cutaneous fistula. Interventions: The patient underwent a right nephrectomy at the department of urology. Outcomes: Two months after surgery, the patient was clinically well with no discharging fistula. Lessons: The XGP accompanied by complications requires an immediate evaluation and early diagnosis. In this case, the diagnosis was delayed because the state of quadriplegia rendered no symptoms of XGP. PMID:29480882

  12. Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis presenting as acute pleuritic chest pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chow, Justin; Kabani, Rameez; Lithgow, Kirstie; Sarna, Magdalena A

    2017-04-12

    Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare and serious manifestation of chronic kidney inflammation that can be life-threatening if not recognized and treated appropriately, often with antibiotics and surgery. Affected patients are most commonly females in their fifth or sixth decade of life with a background of obstructive uropathy, nephrolithiasis, or recurrent urinary tract infections who present with vague nonspecific symptoms. A 43-year-old woman of Russian ethnicity with a history of nephrolithiasis presented to our emergency department with new left-sided pleuritic chest pain amid a 6-week history of constitutional symptoms including fevers, night sweats, and 7 kg of weight loss. Workup for acute coronary syndrome and pulmonary embolism in our emergency department was negative. Given that she was clinically unwell, she was admitted to internal medicine to expedite workup for the cause of her symptoms. A broad differential diagnosis for various infectious, inflammatory/autoimmune, and neoplastic processes was considered. Based on classic radiographic and histopathologic findings, she was ultimately diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis of her left kidney, which was a direct consequence of chronic inflammation. This inflammation exhibited spread to local tissues and across her left hemidiaphragm, resulting in a unilateral pleural effusion which explained her chest discomfort. She was treated with antibiotics administered intravenously and urgent total nephrectomy with a good functional outcome. Our case illustrates an uncommon but clinically important do-not-miss diagnosis that underlies a common clinical presentation of pleuritic chest pain. The case underscores the importance of maintaining a broad differential diagnosis and organized approach when treating patients with undifferentiated clinical presentations.

  13. Anti-GBM disease after nephrectomy for xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis in a patient expressing HLA DR15 major histocompatibility antigens: a case report.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, Emma; Mallett, Tamara; Convery, Mairead; McKeever, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody disease is uncommon in the pediatric population. There are no cases in the literature describing the development of anti-GBM disease following XGP or nephrectomy. We report the case of a 7-year-old boy with no past history of urological illness, treated with antimicrobials and nephrectomy for diffuse, unilateral xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). Renal function and ultrasound scan of the contralateral kidney postoperatively were normal. Three months later, the child represented in acute renal failure with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis requiring hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed severe crescentic glomerulonephritis with 95% of glomeruli demonstrating circumferential cellular crescents. Strong linear IgG staining of the glomerular basement membranes was present, in keeping with anti-GBM disease. Circulating anti-GBM antibodies were positive. Treatment with plasma exchange, methylprednisolone, and cyclophosphamide led to normalization of anti-GBM antibody titers. Frequency of hemodialysis was reduced as renal function improved, and he is currently independent of dialysis with estimated glomerular filtration rate 20.7 mls/min/1.73 m 2 . Case studies in the adult literature have reported the development of a rapidly progressive anti-GBM antibody-induced glomerulonephritis following renal surgery where patients expressed HLA DR2/HLA DR15 major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. Of note, our patient also expresses the HLA DR15 MHC antigen.

  14. Liesegang Rings in Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Pegas, Karla Laís; Edelweiss, Maria Isabel; Cambruzzi, Eduardo; Zettler, Cláudio Galleano

    2010-01-01

    Liesegang rings are concentric noncellular lamellar structures, rarely seen in vivo, occurring as a consequence of the accumulation of insoluble products in a colloidal matrix. These characteristic structures are a rare phenomenon usually found in association with cystic or inflammatory lesions and may be mistaken for parasites. The authors examined Liesegang rings from an inflammatory kidney lesion identified previously as a tumoral lesion on computerized tomography. On microscopic evaluation, Liesegang rings can be mistaken for eggs and larvae of parasites, psammoma bodies and calcification. Special stains like PAS, Grocott, von Kossa and Masson's trichrome facilitate the diagnosis. PMID:21151725

  15. Xanthogranulomatous Salpingooophoritis: The Youngest Documented Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Tanwar, Harshawardhan; Joshi, Avinash; Wagaskar, Vinayak; Kini, Siddharth; Bachhav, Manoj

    2015-01-01

    Background. Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is an uncommon affection of the female genital tract. The youngest case reported of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis in literature was by Shilpa et al. in 2013 in an eighteen-year-old female. Case Report. We report a case of 2-year-old female child with right-sided xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis presented as mass in abdomen. This is a case report of the youngest documented case of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis in literature. As per abdominal examination, there was generalized distention of abdomen and a mass was palpable which was arising out of pelvis more on the right side. The ultrasonography (USG) abdomen and pelvis revealed a thick-walled mass measuring 9.2 cm × 6.0 cm × 7.6 cm in pelvis. We did right salpingooophorectomy of the patient. On histopathology, the diagnosis of xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis was confirmed. Conclusion. Clinical presentation, radiological appearance, and gross features of xanthogranulomatous lesions of ovary can mimic neoplastic lesions and lead to misdiagnosis. Though, it is very rare in pediatric age group, xanthogranulomatous salpingooophoritis as one of the differential diagnoses should be kept in mind while dealing with tuboovarian masses in this age group. PMID:26114000

  16. Adult Orbital and Adnexal Xanthogranulomatous Disease.

    PubMed

    Davies, Michael J; Whitehead, Kevin; Quagliotto, Gary; Wood, Dominic; Patheja, Rajan S; Sullivan, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa is a rare disease that can cause serious morbidity and mortality. Ophthalmologists are commonly the first clinicians to come in contact with affected patients and an understanding of the clinical features is essential. We present a retrospective case series of patients seen in the oculoplastic unit of a large tertiary referral hospital over a 20-year period. The clinical files of 7 patients with adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa were reviewed. Clinical, radiological, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings were examined. Periocular clinical features included cutaneous xanthogranulomatous lesions, decreased visual acuity, proptosis, diplopia, skin ulceration, cicatricial ectropion, and mechanical ptosis. Systemic features included adult-onset asthma, disseminated xanthogranulomatous lesions with long bone involvement, and hematological disturbances such as monoclonal gammopathy and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. Lipid-laden macrophages and Touton multinucleated giant cells were histological hallmarks in all subtypes. Most lesions were strongly CD8 positive on immunohistochemistry. Radiologically, the lesions were diffuse and infiltrative in nature. Various treatments were employed with varying success including surgical excision, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids, other immunosuppressants, and systemic chemotherapy. Adult xanthogranulomatous disease of the orbit and ocular adnexa, although rare, may be sight or life threatening. Recognition by the ophthalmologist is critical as periocular features often constitute the initial presentation. Copyright 2017 Asia-Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology.

  17. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: a European and global perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew David; Roberts, Keith J; Hodson, James; Scott, Nigel; Sheridan, Maria; Toogood, Giles J

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is often mistaken for, and may predispose to, gallbladder carcinoma (GB Ca). This study reviews the worldwide variation of the incidence, investigations, management and outcome of patients with XGC. Methods Data from 29 studies, cumulatively containing 1599 patients, were reviewed and results summarized by geographical region (Europe, India, Far East and Americas) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to present variability within regions. The main study outcomes were incidence, association with GB Ca and treatment of patients with XGC. Results Overall, the incidence of XGC was 1.3–1.9%, with the exception of India where it was 8.8%. The incidence of GB Ca associated with XGC was lowest in European studies (3.3%) varying from 5.1–5.9% in the remaining regions. Confusion with or undiagnosed GB Ca led to 10.2% of patients receiving over or under treatment. Conclusions XGC is a global disease and is associated with GB Ca. Characteristic pathological, radiological and clinical features are shared with GB Ca and contribute to considerable treatment inaccuracy. Tissue sampling by pre-operative endoscopic ultrasound or intra-operative frozen section is required to accurately diagnose gallbladder pathology and should be performed before any extensive resection is performed. PMID:23991684

  18. Xanthogranulomatous cystitis: a challenging imitator of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-06-29

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature.

  19. Xanthogranulomatous Cystitis: A Challenging Imitator of Bladder Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ekici, Sinan; Dogan Ekici, Isin; Ruacan, Sevket; Midi, Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis is a rare, benign, chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder, mimicking malignancy with unknown etiology. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man who presented with pollakiuria, nocturia, dysuria, left flank pain, and a palpable mass on the right lower abdomen. Computerized tomography demonstrated an obstructing 10-mm stone in the lower third of the left ureter and a 6-cm solid mass on the right at the anterolateral wall of the bladder. The mass presented local perivesical invasion at the anterolateral side. Cystouretroscopy revealed a mass protruding into the bladder cavity with edematous smooth surface. Frozen section analysis of the partial cystectomy specimen could not rule out malignancy. Therefore, radical cystoprostatectomy and ureterolithotomy were performed. Histologically, fibrosis, numerous plasma cells, eosinophils, and, immunohistochemically, CD68-positive epithelioid and foamy macrophages were detected. Localized prostatic adenocarcinoma was also found. The present case of xanthogranulomatous cystitis is the 23rd to be reported in the world literature. PMID:20602075

  20. Levofloxacin for the treatment of pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Rafat, Cédric; Debrix, Isabelle; Hertig, Alexandre

    2013-06-01

    Levofloxacin , the l-isomer of ofloxacin has become one of the cornerstones of antibiotic therapy of pyelonephritis since its introduction in the 1990s, thanks to its exceptional pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile, broad-spectrum antibacterial action and satisfactory tolerance. However, the emergence of widespread fluoroquinolone resistance over the past decade, has prompted to re-examine its place in the treatment of urinary tract infection. This review covers the medical literature in any language through December 2012, on 'levofloxacin'. To identify relevant articles, the search terms 'pyelonephritis', 'urinary tract infections', 'levofloxacin', 'levaquin' and 'ofloxacin' were obtained through PubMed, MEDLINE and Clinicaltrials.gov queries. The authors focus on clinical trials, articles related to the PK and PD properties of levofloxacin as well as recent development in the mechanisms and prevalence of levofloxacin resistance. Major points stemming from international guidelines are also reviewed. Levofloxacin has achieved satisfactory bacterial eradication rates and clinical success across all available trials, similar to the antibiotic comparator. High-dose (750 mg) orally administrated levofloxacin over a short 5-day course is a reasonable option for patients eligible for outpatient management. Levofloxacin is no longer a suitable option for first-line empirical treatment of pyelonephritis in areas where resistance rates are high (> 10%) when pyelonephritis is hospital-acquired. Efforts to promote fluoroquinolone-sparing agents should be encouraged and its prescription should be performed in compliance with antimicrobial guidelines.

  1. Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis: a rare and often mistaken pituitary lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gopal-Kothandapani, Jaya Sujatha; Bagga, Veejay; Wharton, Stephen B; Connolly, Daniel J; Sinha, Saurabh

    2015-01-01

    Summary Xanthogranulomatous hypophysitis (XGH) is a very rare form of pituitary hypophysitis that may present both clinically and radiologically as a neoplastic lesion. It may either be primary with an autoimmune aetiology and can occur in isolation or as a part of autoimmune systemic disease or secondary as a reactive degenerative response to an epithelial lesion (e.g. craniopharyngioma (CP), Rathke's cleft cyst, germinoma and pituitary adenomas) or as a part of a multiorgan systemic involvement such as tuberculosis, sarcoidosis or granulomatosis. It may also present with a variation of symptoms in children and adults. Our case series compares the paediatric and adult presentations of XGH and the differential diagnoses considered in one child and two adult patients, highlighting the wide spectrum of this condition. Endocrine investigations suggested panhypopituitarism in all three patients and imaging revealed a suprasellar mass compressing the optic chiasm suggestive of CP or Rathke's cleft cyst in one patient and non-functioning pituitary macroadenoma in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. Following endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery, histological analysis revealed necrotic material with a xanthogranulomatous reaction confirming XGH in two patients and a necrobiotic granulomatous chronic inflammatory infiltrate with neutrophils in one patient, which is not typical of current descriptions of this disorder. This case series describes the wide spectrum of XGH disease that is yet to be defined. Mixed signal intensities on T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences may indicate XGH and diagnosis is confirmed by histology. Histological variation may indicate an underlying systemic process. Learning points XGH is a rare form of pituitary hypophysitis with a wide clinical and histological spectrum and can mimic a neoplastic lesion.XGH primarily presents with growth arrest in children and pubertal

  2. Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis: differentiation from associated gall bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rao, R V Raghavendra; Kumar, Ashok; Sikora, Sadiq S; Saxena, Rajan; Kapoor, Vinay K

    2005-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a destructive form of chronic cholecystitis. In some patients it coexists with gall bladder carcinoma (GBC) and is often difficult to differentiate between the two. Present study was performed with an aim to identify differentiating features of XGC and those of XGC with associated Gall bladder carcinoma (XGC ass. GBC). A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained data of 4800 cholecystectomies performed from January 1988 to December 2003 was carried out. On histopathology 453 cholecystectomy specimens revealed XGC. These patients were divided into two groups, those with associated GBC (n=26) and those without GBC (n=427). Clinical, radiological and operative findings were compared in these two groups. P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The incidence of associated GBC in present series was 6%. XGC patients with associated GBC, at presentation were older than those with XGC alone and there was male preponderance. XGC patients with associated GBC were more likely to present with anorexia, weight loss, palpable lump and jaundice. Gall stones were present in majority of patients in both the groups. GB wall thickening, GB mass, enlarged abdominal lymph nodes may be found on imaging in both the groups but more so in patients with associated GBC. Both preoperative FNAC and peroperative FNAC/imprint cytology failed to reveal the associated GBC with XGC in some patients.

  3. Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis as a rare pathologic aspect of chronic active pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Yener, Nese; Ilter, Erdin; Midi, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous salpingitis (XGS) is a rare form of chronic inflammation of the fallopian tubes. A 41-year old woman with a history of secondary infertility for 2 years is presented. The patient underwent bilateral salpingooopherectomy with presumptive diagnosis of adnexal mass with cystic component. Intraoperative pathology consultation was done. The diagnosis of bilateral XGS associated with chronic active follicular salpingitis was made. XGS is reported to be caused by an unsuccesfully treated pelvic inflammatory disease. Its association with chronic active follicular salpingitis has not been previously reported. Chronic active follicular salpingitis with xanthogranulomatous inflammation might give the impression of a cystic adnexal mass with septations on preoperative pelvic computed tomography. Frozen sections are necessary to rule out malignancy as done in our case.

  4. Antibiotics for acute pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Strohmeier, Yvonne; Hodson, Elisabeth M; Willis, Narelle S; Webster, Angela C; Craig, Jonathan C

    2014-07-28

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in infants. The most severe form of UTI is acute pyelonephritis, which results in significant acute morbidity and may cause permanent kidney damage. There remains uncertainty regarding the optimum antibiotic regimen, route of administration and duration of treatment. This is an update of a review that was first published in 2003 and updated in 2005 and 2007. To evaluate the benefits and harms of antibiotics used to treat children with acute pyelonephritis. The aspects of therapy considered were 1) different antibiotics, 2) different dosing regimens of the same antibiotic, 3) different duration of treatment, and 4) different routes of administration. We searched the Cochrane Renal Group's Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings without language restriction to 10 April 2014. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing different antibiotic agents, routes, frequencies or durations of therapy in children aged 0 to 18 years with proven UTI and acute pyelonephritis were selected. Four authors independently assessed study quality and extracted data. Statistical analyses were performed using the random-effects model and the results expressed as risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes or mean difference (MD) for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals (CI). This updated review included 27 studies (4452 children). This update included evidence from three new studies, and following re-evaluation, a previously excluded study was included because it now met our inclusion criteria.Risk of bias was assessed as low for sequence generation (12 studies), allocation concealment (six studies), blinding of outcome assessors (17 studies), incomplete outcome reporting (19 studies) and selective outcome reporting (13 studies). No study was blinded for participants or investigators. The 27 included studies evaluated 12 different

  5. Xanthogranulomatous Inflammation of the Female Genital Tract: Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-sheng; Dong, Hong-yan; Zhang, Lei-lei; Desouki, Mohamed Mokhtar; Zhao, Chengquan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose and Methods: This is a series of three cases diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital with emphasis on the etiology, clinical-pathologic features and biological behavior. Clinical, pathologic, radiologic and follow up data are reported. Results: The three cases of Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract are the followings: 1) one case affecting the endometrium, 2) one case affecting the fallopian tube, and 3) one case confined to the ovary. The patient's age was 37, 22 and 62 year-old, respectively. Histologic examination revealed extensive infiltration of foamy histiocytes admixed with variable amount of inflammatory cells. The later include plasma cells, lymphocytes, and occasional multinucleated giant cells. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for CD68, a histiocytic marker, in foamy histiocytes, CD3, a T cell marker, and CD20, a B cell marker, in the background lymphocytes. The plasma cells were polyclonal with expression of both κ and λ light chains. Conclusion: Xanthogranulomatous inflammation of the female genital tract is an unusual lesion, and clinically forms mass- like lesion in the pelvic cavity that invades the surrounding tissues, which may mimic the tumor clinically and by imaging. PMID:22393333

  6. Screening and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy prevent pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Gratacós, E; Torres, P J; Vila, J; Alonso, P L; Cararach, V

    1994-06-01

    Although asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis, the effectiveness of screening programs to reduce this risk is controversial. A sharp reduction in the annual incidence of pyelonephritis (1.8% to 0.6%, P < .001) occurred after the introduction of a program to screen and treat asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women followed at a large teaching hospital. The data provide retrospective and prospective evidence that screening and treatment programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy reduce the risk of pyelonephritis in a population with a moderate to high prevalence of bacteriuria.

  7. Emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculus: Management strategies.

    PubMed

    Goel, Tanmaya; Reddy, Sreedhar; Thomas, Joseph

    2007-07-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with calculus is well recognized but with very few reports on its treatment. Our aim is to elucidate our experience in its successful management. Over four years, we diagnosed seven cases (eight renal units) of EPN, out of which two patients (three renal units) had EPN with urinary calculi. After the initial conservative management of EPN, the stones were tackled appropriately. EPN was initially managed effectively with antibiotics and supportive care. Once the patient was stable, the stones were cleared in a step-wise fashion. The associated postoperative complications were also tackled efficiently with preservation of renal function. In EPN with stones, nephrectomy is not the sole option available and they can be effectively managed with open / endoscopic measures.

  8. Emphysematous pyelonephritis with calculus: Management strategies

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Tanmaya; Reddy, Sreedhar; Thomas, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) with calculus is well recognized but with very few reports on its treatment. Our aim is to elucidate our experience in its successful management. Materials and Methods: Over four years, we diagnosed seven cases (eight renal units) of EPN, out of which two patients (three renal units) had EPN with urinary calculi. After the initial conservative management of EPN, the stones were tackled appropriately. Results: EPN was initially managed effectively with antibiotics and supportive care. Once the patient was stable, the stones were cleared in a step-wise fashion. The associated postoperative complications were also tackled efficiently with preservation of renal function. Conclusion: In EPN with stones, nephrectomy is not the sole option available and they can be effectively managed with open / endoscopic measures. PMID:19718324

  9. Probiotics prophylaxis in pyelonephritis infants with normal urinary tracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Joo; Cha, Jihae; Lee, Jung Won

    2016-11-01

    Pyelonephritis in infants is considered as a major factor for the formation of renal scar. To prevent recurrent pyelonephritis and renal damage, prophylaxis is extremely important. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of probiotic and antibiotic prophylaxis or no-prophylaxis in infants with pyelonephritis and normal urinary tract. Altogether 191 infants, who were diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis, proven to have normal urinary tracts and followed up for 6 months on prophylaxis, were retrospectively evaluated. According to the types of prophylaxis, the infants were divided into three groups [probiotics (Lactobacillus species), antibiotics (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, TMP/SMX), and noprophylaxis]. The incidence of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) during 6 months after the development of pyelonephritis, main causative uropathogens, and its antimicrobial sensitivities were compared. The incidence of recurrent UTI in the probiotic group was 8.2%, which was significantly lower than 20.6% in the no-prophylaxis group (P=0.035) and was not significantly different from 10.0% of the antibiotic group (P=0.532). The significant difference between the probiotic and no-prophylaxis groups was seen only in male infants (P=0.032). The main causative organism of recurrent UTI was Escherichia coli (E.coli), which was not different among the three groups (P=0.305). The resistance rate of E. coli to TMP/SMX was 100% in the antibiotic group, which was significantly higher than 25.0% in the probiotic group and 41.7% in the no-prophylaxis group (P=0.008). Probiotic prophylaxis was more effective in infants with pyelonephritis and normal urinary tract than in those with no-prophylaxis. It could be used as a natural alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis.

  10. Segmentation of acute pyelonephritis area on kidney SPECT images using binary shape analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chia-Hsiang; Sun, Yung-Nien; Chiu, Nan-Tsing

    1999-05-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is a serious disease in children that may result in irreversible renal scarring. The ability to localize the site of urinary tract infection and the extent of acute pyelonephritis has considerable clinical importance. In this paper, we are devoted to segment the acute pyelonephritis area from kidney SPECT images. A two-step algorithm is proposed. First, the original images are translated into binary versions by automatic thresholding. Then the acute pyelonephritis areas are located by finding convex deficiencies in the obtained binary images. This work gives important diagnosis information for physicians and improves the quality of medical care for children acute pyelonephritis disease.

  11. Complete treatment with partial cystectomy in giant xanthogranulomatous cystitis case imitating bladder tumor.

    PubMed

    Balasar, Mehmet; Sönmez, Mehmet Giray; Oltulu, Pembe; Kandemir, Abdülkadir; Kılıç, Mehmet; Gürbüz, Recai

    2017-01-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cystitis (XC) is a very rare chronic benign inflammatory disease of the bladder. It may cause local invasion although it is not a malign lesion and may occur together with malign lesions. It has a clinical importance as the distinction from malign lesions is difficult clinically and pathologically. Sharing a 37-year-old female case with giant XC imitating bladder tumor referring to the hospital with hematuria and stomach ache, together with current literature, we wanted to present that the disease can be treated with bladder-preserving approaches instead of radical approaches even though the mass is big in these cases. Application of basic excision and partial resection for small masses and radical cystectomy for large masses was reported in literature. We think that our case may provide a contribution to literature in treatment approach since we provided surgical cure with partial resection in a big mass with dimensions of 9 cm × 8 cm which is different from the present literature. Even though XC is a rare disease, it should be considered in prediagnosis for especially big dimensioned masses, and treatment should be planned according to the pathology result after together with cystoscopy in suitable patients.

  12. Xanthogranulomatous pancreatitis: A review of the imaging characteristics of this rare and often misdiagnosed lesion of the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Becker-Weidman, David; Floré, Bernard; Mortelé, Koenraad J

    Xanthogranulomatous pancreatitis (XGP) is an extremely rare cause of a cystic pancreatic mass. The pathophysiology of this process is not entirely clear but likely results from a combination of duct obstruction, infection, and repeated hemorrhage. It is difficult to differentiate this inflammatory lesion from a cystic neoplasm and, therefore, in the majority of cases XGP is misdiagnosed as a neoplasm on preoperative imaging. In this report, we describe a case of XGP, the imaging characteristics of XGP, and a differential diagnosis for a cystic pancreatic lesion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Involvement of Escherichia coli in pathogenesis of xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis with scavenger receptor class A and CXCL16-CXCR6 interaction.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Seiko; Harada, Kenichi; Isse, Kumiko; Sato, Yasunori; Sasaki, Motoko; Kaizaki, Yasuharu; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    2007-10-01

    Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is characterized by the infiltration of numerous foamy macrophages. Bacterial infection is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of XGC. Using XGC and cultured murine biliary epithelial cells (BEC), the participation of E. coli and the role of the scavenger receptor class A (SCARA), as well as chemokine(C-X-C motif) ligand 16 (CXCL16) and its receptor chemokine(C-X-C motif) receptor 6 (CXCR6), were examined in the pathogenesis of XGC. E. coli components and genes were detected in XGC on immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), respectively. SCARA-recognizing E. coli was found in foamy macrophages aggregated in xanthogranulomatous lesions. CXCL16, which functions as a membrane-bound molecule and soluble chemokine to induce adhesion and migration of CXCR6(+) cells, was detected on gallbladder epithelia, and CXCR6(+)/CD8(+) T cells and CXCR6(+)/CD68(+) macrophages were also accumulated. In cultured BEC, CXCL16 mRNA and secreted soluble CXCL16 were constantly detected and upregulated by treatment with E. coli and lipopolysaccharide through Toll-like receptor 4. These suggest that SCARA in macrophages is involved in the phagocytosis of E. coli followed by foamy changes and that bacterial infection causes the upregulation of CXCL16 in gallbladder epithelia, leading to the chemoattraction of macrophages via CXCL16-CXCR6 interaction and formation of the characteristic histology of XGC.

  14. Transition Hand-Off from Inpatient to Outpatient Treatment of Acute Pyelonephritis in an Elderly Male.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Patricia L; Shane-McWhorter, Laura

    2017-04-01

    Pyelonephritis is the progression of a urinary tract infection (UTI) to the kidney. In younger patients the infection may not be as severe and may even be treated with oral antibiotics. However, in elderly males pyelonephritis can be more complex and may require hospitalization and treatment with intravenous antibiotics. In the United States UTIs are responsible for frequent visits to emergency departments by elderly individuals. Current literature suggests that pyelonephritis in elderly males is a serious infection that may result in significant morbidity and mortality. Pharmacists are in a unique position to oversee the transition of antibiotic treatment from the inpatient to outpatienT SETTING.

  15. [Etiology of acute and chronic pyelonephritis in children in Khabarovsk region].

    PubMed

    Kozlova, E A; Kholodok, G N; Alekseeva, I N; Kozlov, V K

    2008-01-01

    Microflora of urinary tract was studied in 419 children aged 1 - 17 years and hospitalized due to acute or chronic pyelonephritis. Etiology of inflammatory process was established in 57.8% of cases. According to our study, etiologic structure of causative agents of pyelonephritis did not differ from all-Russian data. The leading positions belonged to Gram-negative microorganisms from Enterobacteriaceae family: Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Klebsiella spp. Results of the study point to high susceptibility of main causative agents of pyelonephritis to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. High resistance to aminopenicillines was noted. In several isolates from Enterobacteriaceae family significant resistance to nalidixic acid and furazidin was observed.

  16. Challenges in preventing pyelonephritis in pregnant women in Indigenous communities.

    PubMed

    Bookallil, M; Chalmers, E; Andrew, B

    2005-01-01

    To measure the quality of antenatal care in rural and remote regions of the Northern Territory, using asymptomatic bacteruria as an indicator. Indigenous Australian women and their babies have a greater frequency of adverse outcomes in pregnancy than their non-Indigenous counterparts. It is well established that asymptomatic bacteriuria may have serious outcomes in pregnancy, including an increased risk of pyelonephritis and a strong association with preterm and low birth weight delivery. Ensuring good quality antenatal care can reduce the individual risks of pregnancy for mothers and their babies. In the Northern Territory there are well established guidelines for antenatal care in rural and remote Indigenous communities. These are documented in the Women's Business Manual. Audit and feedback is one method that has been shown to have a small to moderate effect in changing clinician behaviour, in this case improving compliance with guidelines. A retrospective chart audit of antenatal clients was conducted at 10 rural and remote primary health care clinics in the Northern Territory, Australia. The audit reviewed all the available charts (n = 268) of pregnant women, from the participating communities, who gave birth in 2002 or 2003. The diagnosis and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria was chosen as the indicator of quality antenatal care, as it is one of five areas of antenatal care where there is evidence that appropriate management improves outcomes. The quality of care was measured against the local guidelines, the Women's Business Manual. Women frequently had urine tests with where the dipstick showed an abnormal result, with 75% (95% CI [0.70,0.80]) of women having at least one episode of abnormal urinalysis during pregnancy. Six hundred and twenty episodes of abnormal urinalysis in pregnancy were identified. The incidence of bacteriuria at first visit was 16%, (95%-confidence interval = 95% CI [0.10, 0.21]). Compliance with the guidelines was poor. Fifty

  17. [Bacterial toxic shock as a complication of calculous pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lopatkin, N A; Rumiantsev, V B; Ianenko, E K

    1994-01-01

    The causes of bacteriotoxic shock were examined in 33 patients (11 lethal outcomes). It has arisen as a complication of treatment given to 7830 patients for urolithiasis. Aggravation of chronic pyelonephritis, occlusion of the urinary tracts, urogenital mucosal and parenchymal injuries, low resistance to infection contribute to microbacteria and their toxins entering blood with resultant bacteriotoxic shock. Transcutaneous operative interventions, therapeutic and diagnostic procedures also produce high risk of blood infection with gram-negative microflora, especially in violation of asepsis and antisepsis rules. As shown by microflora tests, the dominating bacteria consisted of opportunistic agents which had acquired the resistance to antibacterial drugs. In view of rapid progression of bacteriotoxic shock therapeutic efforts should be concentrated on fast normalization of hemodynamics, recovery of urine passage, introduction of sorption detoxication, prevention of DIC syndrome. The schemes of combined antibiotic treatment adjusted to the kind of infectious agent are suggested.

  18. Necrotizing Fasciitis of Thoracic and Abdominal Wall with Emphysematous Pyelonephritis and Retroperitoneal Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Khaladkar, Sanjay Mhalasakant; Jain, Kunaal Mahesh; Kuber, Rajesh; Gandage, Sidappa

    2018-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a life-threatening severe form of pyelonephritis usually occurring in patients with diabetes mellitus with or without obstructive uropathies in whom there is necrotizing infection leading to the gas production of an unclear mechanism involving the renal parenchyma and the collecting system. Necrotizing fasciitis is characterized by progressive necrosis of fat and fascia due to deep-seated infection of subcutaneous tissue. It has a fulminant course with considerable mortality. Diabetes Mellitus is a common predisposing factor. The combined occurrence of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis is extremely unusual. Early recognition and management is mandatory to avoid mortality. We report a case of a 53-year-old female, a known case of Type II diabetes mellitus, who presented with necrotizing fasciitis of thoracic and abdominal wall with emphysematous pyelonephritis in the left kidney with a retroperitoneal abscess. PMID:29541493

  19. Acute antepartum pyelonephritis in pregnancy: a critical analysis of risk factors and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Farkash, Evelina; Weintraub, Adi Y; Sergienko, Ruslan; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Zlotnik, Alex; Sheiner, Eyal

    2012-05-01

    To test the incidence and sonographic parameters of pyelonephritis during pregnancy, and to examine risk factors and pregnancy outcomes of women with acute antepartum pyelonephritis. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of patients with and without acute antepartum pyelonephritis was performed. Patients lacking prenatal care as well as multiple gestations were excluded from the study. Multiple logistic regression models were used to control for confounders. Out of 219,612 singleton deliveries in 1988-2010, 165 women (0.07%) suffered from acute antepartum pyelonephritis. Abnormal sonographic findings were found in 85.7% of the patients with pyelonephritis. Pyelonephritis was significantly associated with nulliparity (46.1% vs. 24.4%, p<0.001), younger maternal age (26.3 ± 6.0 vs. 28.6 ± 5.8 years, p<0.001), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) (6.7% vs. 2.1%, p<0.001), placental abruption (3.6% vs. 0.7%, p<0.001), low 1 min Apgar scores (10.3% vs. 6.0%, p<0.05), urinary tract infection (UTI) (4.2% vs. 0.4%, p<0.001) and preterm delivery (less than 37 weeks gestation; 20.0% vs. 7.8%; p<0.001). Using a multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for acute antepartum pyelonephritis were nulliparity (OR 2.0; 95% C.I 1.4-2.9; p<0.001), UTI (OR 10.3; 95% C.I 4.8-22.1; p<0.001) and younger maternal age (OR 0.96; 95% C.I 0.93-0.99; p=0.009). Using another multivariable analysis, with preterm delivery as the outcome variable, acute antepartum pyelonephritis was found as an independent risk factor for preterm delivery (OR 2.6; 95% C.I 1.7-3.9; p<0.001). Acute antepartum pyelonephritis is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and specifically is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Cryopresipitate in comprehensive conservative therapy of patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Neimark, A I; Samchuk, Yu G; Gatkin, M Ya; Momot, A P

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy of patients with acute purulent pyelonephritis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of medical records of patients who were diagnosed with acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis from 2007to 2015. During this period, a total of 3912 patients with acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis were treated at the Department of Urology. Patients were assigned to either receive or not receive cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy. The comprehensive conservative therapy of both groups included antibacterial agents, detoxification, anti-inflammatory therapy. In the study group, patients received additional treatment with cryoprecipitate. By that way we estimated the number of patients who avoided surgery in both groups. There were 3912 patients divided into two groups. The first group included 756 patients (19.3%) who received cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive therapy of pyelonephritis. Of them, 735 patients (97.3%) did not require surgical treatment, and only 21 patients (2.7%) underwent surgery. The second group comprised 3156 patients (80.7%) who did not receive cryoprecipitate. Of them, 2974 patients (94.2%) were treated conservatively without surgical intervention and 182 patients (5.8%) received conservative therapy concurrently with surgical treatment. Therefore, including cryoprecipitate in the comprehensive conservative therapy of acute non-obstructive pyelonephritis results in twice smaller percentage of patients (2.7% vs 5.8%) requiring surgery compared to the comprehensive conservative therapy alone.

  1. Secondary polycythaemia associated with high plasma erythropoietin concentrations in a dog with a necrotising pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kessler, M

    2008-07-01

    An 11-year-old mixed breed dog was presented with anorexia, apathy and intermittent macrohaematuria, absolute polycythaemia (packed cell volume, 80 per cent; red blood cell, 12.2 x 10(6)/microl) and elevated erythropoietin concentrations. A renal mass was detected by ultrasonography and, following total nephrectomy, diagnosed as necrotising pyelonephritis. After surgery, the haematological parameters and erythropoietin values returned to normal, suggesting that the pyelonephritis was the cause of the polycythaemia. While secondary polycythaemia because of a non-neoplastic condition of the kidneys occasionally occurs in human beings, it has only extremely rarely been reported in dogs. This is the first case report of a unilateral pyelonephritis causing secondary polycythaemia in a dog.

  2. Predictors of septic shock in obstructive acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Mitsuhiro; Okegawa, Takatsugu; Shishido, Toshihide; Higashihara, Eiji; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2014-06-01

    Acute pyelonephritis (APN) with obstructive uropathy is not uncommon and often causes serious conditions including sepsis and septic shock. We assessed the risk factors for septic shock in patients with obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi. We retrospectively studied 69 patients with obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi who were admitted to our hospital. Emergency drainage for decompression of the renal collecting system was performed for empirical treatment in cases of failure of initial treatment and for severe cases. We assessed the risk factors for septic shock by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Overall, 45 patients (65.2 %) underwent emergency drainage and 23 (33.3 %) patients showed septic shock. Poor performance status and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the septic shock group were more common than in the non-septic shock group (p = 0.012 and p = 0.011, respectively). The platelet count and serum albumin level in the septic shock group were significantly lower than in the non-septic shock group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.003, respectively). Positive rates of midstream urine culture and blood culture in the septic shock group were significantly higher than in the non-septic shock group (p = 0.022 and p = 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that decreases in the platelet count (OR 5.43, p = 0.014) and serum albumin level (OR 5.88, p = 0.023) were independent risk factors for septic shock. Patients with obstructive APN associated with upper urinary tract calculi who have decreases in platelet count and serum albumin level should be treated with caution against the development of septic shock.

  3. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: Our experience with conservative management in 14 cases.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ritu; Vijay, Mukesh K; Tiwari, Punit; Goel, Amit; Kundu, Anup K

    2013-07-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare, severe, acute, necrotizing infection of the kidney. In this study, we present the clinical details, the management strategies, and the outcome of fourteen patients of EPN managed at our center. A retrospective analysis of the hospital records was done. A total of fourteen patients with EPN were admitted in our hospital from August 2007 to February 2011. All the patients were managed conservatively. Follow-up ranged from six months to one year. Of the fourteen patients, four belonged to class I, five to class II, four to class IIIA and one to class IIIB. All the patients had history of fever, 43% had localized flank pain while 36% had vague abdominal discomfort. Renal angle tenderness was the most common sign, seen in 86% of the patients. E. coli was the most common bacteria, which was isolated from urine in 57% of the patients. On the risk factor stratification, three patients had simultaneous presence of 2 or more risk factors (thrombocytopenia-2 patients; renal function impairment-7 patients; shock-1 patient). All the patients were initially managed with aggressive fluid and electrolyte resuscitation, control of blood sugar levels, and broad spectrum antibiotics. Intervention, in the form of percutaneous drainage or DJ stenting, was done in six patients. One patient failed to respond to this minimally invasive modality of treatment and had to undergo an open drainage. Thus, the acute episode was managed with conservative management strategies in all the patients; however, three patients underwent nephrectomy due to poorly-functioning kidney during follow-up. EPN is now being more readily diagnosed, at an early stage, making conservative management of EPN a safe, effective, and feasible option.

  4. Emphysematous pyelonephritis: Our experience with conservative management in 14 cases

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Sharma, Ritu; Vijay, Mukesh K.; Tiwari, Punit; Goel, Amit; Kundu, Anup K.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a rare, severe, acute, necrotizing infection of the kidney. In this study, we present the clinical details, the management strategies, and the outcome of fourteen patients of EPN managed at our center. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the hospital records was done. A total of fourteen patients with EPN were admitted in our hospital from August 2007 to February 2011. All the patients were managed conservatively. Follow-up ranged from six months to one year. Results: Of the fourteen patients, four belonged to class I, five to class II, four to class IIIA and one to class IIIB. All the patients had history of fever, 43% had localized flank pain while 36% had vague abdominal discomfort. Renal angle tenderness was the most common sign, seen in 86% of the patients. E. coli was the most common bacteria, which was isolated from urine in 57% of the patients. On the risk factor stratification, three patients had simultaneous presence of 2 or more risk factors (thrombocytopenia-2 patients; renal function impairment-7 patients; shock-1 patient). All the patients were initially managed with aggressive fluid and electrolyte resuscitation, control of blood sugar levels, and broad spectrum antibiotics. Intervention, in the form of percutaneous drainage or DJ stenting, was done in six patients. One patient failed to respond to this minimally invasive modality of treatment and had to undergo an open drainage. Thus, the acute episode was managed with conservative management strategies in all the patients; however, three patients underwent nephrectomy due to poorly-functioning kidney during follow-up. Conclusions: EPN is now being more readily diagnosed, at an early stage, making conservative management of EPN a safe, effective, and feasible option. PMID:24049377

  5. A NOVEL SCORING SYSTEM: PREDICTING SEPTIC SHOCK AT DIAGNOSIS EASILY IN ACUTE COMPLICATED PYELONEPHRITIS PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Masashi; Kanno, Toru; Nishiyama, Ryuichi; Okada, Takashi; Higashi, Yoshihito; Yamada, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    (Objectives) Because acute complicated pyelonephritis can easily cause sepsis and concomitant shock status, it is a potentially lethal disease. However, the predictors for the severity of pyelonephritis is not well analyzed. In this study, we aimed at clarifying the clinical characteristic risk factors associated with septic shock in patients with acute complicated pyelonephritis. (Materials and methods) From May 2009 to March 2014, 267 patients with acute complicated pyelonephritis were treated at our institution. We investigated the characteristics of the patients associated with septic shock, and assessed risk factors in these patients. By using these risk factors, we established a novel scoring system to predict septic shock. (Results) 267 patients included 145 patients with ureteral calculi and 75 patients with stent-related pyelonephritis. Septic shock occurred in 35 patients (13%), and the mortality rate was 0.75%. Multivariate analysis revealed that (P): Performance Status ≥3 (p=0.0014), (U): Presence of Ureteral calculi (p=0.043), (S): Sex of female (p=0.023), and (H): the presence of Hydronephrosis (p=0.039) were independent risk factors for septic shock. P.U.S.H. scoring system (range 0-4), which consists of these 4 factors, were positively correlated with the rate of septic shock (score 0: 0%, 1: 5.3%, 2: 3.4%, 3: 25.0%, 4: 42.3%). Importantly, patients with 3-4 P.U.S.H. scores were statistically more likely to become septic shock than those with 0-2 score (p=0.00014). (Conclusions) These results suggest that P.U.S.H. scoring system using 4 clinical factors is useful to predict the status of septic shock in patients with acute complicated pyelonephritis.

  6. Routine blood cultures in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnancy for improving outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gomi, Harumi; Goto, Yoshihito; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Usui, Rie; Mori, Rintaro

    2015-02-13

    Pyelonephritis is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that affects the upper urinary tract and kidneys, and is one of the most common conditions for hospitalisation among pregnant women, aside from delivery. Samples of urine and blood are obtained and used for cultures as part of the diagnosis and management of the condition. Acute pyelonephritis requires hospitalisation with intravenous administration of antimicrobial agents. Several studies have questioned the necessity of obtaining blood cultures in addition to urine cultures, citing cost and questioning whether blood testing is superfluous. Pregnant women with bacteraemia require a change in the initial empirical treatment based on the blood culture. However, these cases are not common, and represent approximately 15% to 20% of cases. It is unclear whether blood cultures are essential for the effective management of the condition. To assess the effectiveness of routine blood cultures to improve health outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnant women. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register without language or date restrictions (31 December 2014). Randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials comparing outcomes among pregnant women with pyelonephritis who received initial management with or without blood cultures. Cluster-randomised trials were eligible for inclusion in this review but none were identified. Clinical trials using a cross-over design were not eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed one trial report for inclusion. We identified one trial report but this was excluded. No clinical trials met the inclusion criteria for this review. There are no large-scale randomised controlled trials to assess outcomes in the management of pyelonephritis in pregnancy with or without blood cultures. Randomised controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of managing pyelonephritis in pregnant women with or without

  7. A Comparison of Hospital Versus Outpatient Parenteral Antibiotic Therapy at Home for Pyelonephritis and Meningitis.

    PubMed

    Hensey, Conor C; Sett, Arun; Connell, Tom G; Bryant, Penelope A

    2017-09-01

    Despite the benefits of home treatment with outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT), children with pyelonephritis and meningitis are rarely included. We aimed to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes between hospital and home treatment for these conditions and to identify factors influencing home treatment. Children admitted to the hospital with pyelonephritis or proven and presumed bacterial meningitis from January 1, 2012, to December 31, 2013 were identified retrospectively. Patients who received any OPAT (home group) received daily visits via our Hospital-in-the-Home (HITH) program; inpatients (hospital group) received standard care. Clinical and demographic features, length of stay, readmission rate and cost were compared between hospital and home groups. One hundred thirty-nine children with pyelonephritis and 70 with meningitis were identified, of which 127 and 44 were potentially suitable for OPAT, respectively. Of these, 12 (9%) with pyelonephritis received OPAT, contrasting with 29 (66%) with meningitis. Clinical features did not differ between hospital- and home-treated patients for either condition. Patients with meningitis in the hospital group were younger than those transferred to HITH (1 vs. 2 months; P = 0.01). All patients were afebrile before transfer to HITH. Admissions for pyelonephritis were brief with inpatients having a shorter length of stay than home patients (median: 3 vs. 4.5 days; P = 0.002). Unplanned readmission rates were comparable across all groups. Transfer to HITH resulted in a saving of AU$178,180. Children with pyelonephritis and meningitis can feasibly receive OPAT. Age, treatment duration and fever influence this decision. None of these should be barriers to OPAT, and the cost savings support change in practice.

  8. The Peripheral Whole Blood Transcriptome of Acute Pyelonephritis in Human Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Madan, Ichchha; Than, Nandor Gabor; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Miranda, Jezid; Tarca, Adi L.; Bhatti, Gaurav; Draghici, Sorin; Yeo, Lami; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2018-01-01

    Objective Human pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response and suppression of adaptive immunity. The former is thought to provide protection against infection to the mother, and the latter, tolerance against paternal antigens expressed in fetal cells. Acute pyelonephritis is associated with an increased risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and sepsis in pregnant (vs. nonpregnant) women. The objective of this study was to describe the gene expression profile (transcriptome) of maternal whole blood in acute pyelonephritis. Method A case-control study was conducted to include pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis (n=15) and women with a normal pregnancy (n=34). Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA) were used for gene expression profiling. A linear model was used to test the association between the presence of pyelonephritis and gene expression levels while controlling for white blood cell count and gestational age. A fold change of 1.5 was considered significant at a false discovery rate of 0.1. A subset of differentially expressed genes (n=56) was tested with real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) (cases, n=19; controls, n=59). Gene ontology and pathway analysis were applied. Results A total of 983 genes were differentially expressed in acute pyelonephritis: 457 were up-regulated and 526 were down-regulated. Significant enrichment of 300 biological processes and 63 molecular functions was found in pyelonephritis. Significantly impacted pathways in pyelonephritis included a) cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction; b) T-cell receptor signaling; c) Jak-STAT signaling; and d) complement and coagulation cascades. Of 56 genes tested by qRT-PCR, 48 (85.7%) had confirmation of differential expression. Conclusion This is the first study of the transcriptomic signature of whole blood in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis. Acute infection during pregnancy is

  9. Diagnostic and treatment difficulties of pyelonephritis in pregnancy in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    McGready, Rose; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Tan, Saw Oo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Viladpai-Nguen, Samuel Jacher; Jesadapanpong, Wilarat; Blacksell, Stuart D; Proux, Stephane; Day, Nicholas P; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François; Peacock, Sharon J

    2010-12-01

    Limited microbiology services impede adequate diagnosis and treatment of common infections such as pyelonephritis in resource-limited settings. Febrile pregnant women attending antenatal clinics at Shoklo Malaria Research Unit were offered urine dipstick, sediment microscopy, urine culture, and a 5-mL blood culture. The incidence of pyelonephritis was 11/1,000 deliveries (N = 53 in 4,819 pregnancies) between January 7, 2004 and May 17, 2006. Pyelonephritis accounted for 20.2% (41/203) of fever cases in pregnancy. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated pathogen: 87.5% (28/32) of organisms cultured. Susceptibility of E. coli to ampicillin (14%), cotrimoxazole (21%), and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (48%) was very low. E. coli was susceptible to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. The rate of extended spectrum β-lactamase (4.2%; 95% confidence interval = 0.7-19.5) was low. The rate and causes of pyelonephritis in pregnant refugee and migrant women were comparable with those described in developed countries. Diagnostic innovation in microbiology that permits affordable access is a high priority for resource-poor settings.

  10. Asymptomatic Emphysematous Pyelonephritis - Positron Emission Tomography Computerized Tomography Aided Diagnostic and Therapeutic Elucidation

    PubMed Central

    Pathapati, Deepti; Shinkar, Pawan Gulabrao; kumar, Satya Awadhesh; Jha; Dattatreya, Palanki Satya; Chigurupati, Namrata; Chigurupati, Mohana Vamsy; Rao, Vatturi Venkata Satya Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    The authors report an interesting coincidental unearthing by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18F-FDG PET/CT) of a potentially serious medical condition of emphysematous pyelonephritis in a case of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The management by conservative ureteric stenting and antibiotics was done with gratifying clinical outcome. PMID:28242985

  11. [Formation of microbial biofilms in causative agents of acute and chronic pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lagun, L V; Atanasova, Iu V; Tapal'skiĭ, D V

    2013-01-01

    Study the intensity of formation of microbial biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated during various forms of pyelonephritis. 150 clinical isolates of microorganisms isolated from urine ofpatientswith acute and chronic pyelonephritiswere included into the study. Determination of intensity of film-formation was carried out by staining of the formed biofilms by crystal violet with consequent extraction of the dye and measurement of its concentration in washout solution. Among causative agents ofpyelonephritis P. aeruginosa isolates had the maximum film-forming ability. The intensity of biofilm formation of these isolates was 2-3 time higher than staphylococcus and enterobacteria strains. Strains isolated from patients with chronic pyelonephritis by ability to form biofilms significantly surpassed strains isolated from acute pyelonephritis patients. A higher ability to form microbial biofilms for microorganisms--causative agents of pyelonephritis progressing against the background ofurolithiasis was noted. The ability to form biofilms is determined by both causative agent species and character of the infectious process in which this microorganism participates. Intensive formation of biofilms by E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, S. aureus clinical isolates may be an important factor of chronization of urinary tract infections.

  12. The role of procalcitonin for acute pyelonephritis and subsequent renal scarring in infants and young children.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chang, Hung-Ming; Chen, Shan-Ming; Hung, Tung-Wei; Lue, Ko-Huang

    2011-11-01

    We assessed the usefulness of procalcitonin as a biological marker in diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and for predicting subsequent renal scarring in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. Children 2 years old or younger with a first febrile urinary tract infection were prospectively studied. Renal parenchymal involvement was assessed by (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan within 5 days of admission and after 6 months. Serum samples from all patients were tested for procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count measurements. The 112 enrolled patients (age range 24 days to 24 months old) were divided into acute pyelonephritis (76) and lower urinary tract infection (36) groups according to the results of (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans. Median values of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and white blood cell count at hospitalization were significantly higher in patients with acute pyelonephritis than in those with lower urinary tract infection. The area under receiver operating characteristic curves showed that procalcitonin was superior to C-reactive protein and white blood cell count as a marker for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis. Initial and post-antibiotic treatment procalcitonin values were significantly higher in children with renal scarring than in those without scarring (p <0.001). Procalcitonin values at hospitalization and after treatment were independent predictors of later renal scarring on logistic regression analysis. Our results indicate the superior diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin for predicting acute pyelonephritis in children 2 years old or younger. Higher initial and posttreatment procalcitonin values are independent risk factors for later renal scarring. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal serum soluble CD30 is increased in pregnancies complicated with acute Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Soto, Eleazar; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia

    2007-01-01

    Objectives Normal pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immunity and suppression of the adaptive limb of the immune response. However, pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of infection and microbial products than non-pregnant women. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is preferentially expressed by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) is proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. High serum concentrations of sCD30 have been found in the acute phase of viral infections, such as HIV-1 and hepatitis B. There is, however, conflicting evidence about serum sCD30 concentration in patients with bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the serum concentration of sCD30 in pregnant women with pyelonephritis. Methods This cross-sectional study included normal pregnant women (N=89) and pregnant women with pyelonephritis (N=41). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results (1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median serum concentration of sCD30 than those with a normal pregnancy (median: 44.3 U/ml, range: 16–352.5 vs. median: 29.7 U/ml, range: 12.2–313.2, respectively; p<0.001); and (2) No significant differences were found in the median maternal serum concentration of sCD30 between pregnant women with pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture compared to those with a negative blood culture (median:47.7 U/mL, range: 17.1–118.8 vs. median: 42.6 U/mL, range: 16–352.5, respectively; p=0.86). Conclusions Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher maternal serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnancy. This finding is novel, and suggests that pregnant women with pyelonephritis may

  14. Maternal serum soluble CD30 is increased in pregnancies complicated with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Romero, Roberto; Esoinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Edwin, Samuel; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Mittal, Pooja; Soto, Eleazar; Erez, Offer; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Than, Nandor Gabor; Friel, Lara A; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Mazor, Moshe; Hassan, Sonia S

    2007-11-01

    Normal pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immunity and suppression of the adaptive limb of the immune response. However, pregnant women are more susceptible to the effects of infection and microbial products than non-pregnant women. CD30 is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily and is preferentially expressed by activated T cells producing Th2-type cytokines. Its soluble form (sCD30) is proposed to be an index of Th2 immune response. High serum concentrations of sCD30 have been found in the acute phase of viral infections, such as HIV-1 and hepatitis B. There is, however, conflicting evidence about serum sCD30 concentration in patients with bacterial infections. The objective of this study was to determine whether there are changes in the serum concentration of sCD30 in pregnant women with pyelonephritis. This cross-sectional study included normal pregnant women (N = 89) and pregnant women with pyelonephritis (N = 41). Maternal serum concentration of sCD30 was measured by a specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immunoassay. Non-parametric tests were used for comparisons. A p value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. (1) Pregnant women with pyelonephritis had a significantly higher median serum concentration of sCD30 than those with a normal pregnancy (median 44.3 U/mL, range 16-352.5 vs. median 29.7 U/mL, range 12.2-313.2, respectively; p < 0.001), and (2) No significant differences were found in the median maternal serum concentration of sCD30 between pregnant women with pyelonephritis who had a positive blood culture compared to those with a negative blood culture (median 47.7 U/mL, range 17.1-118.8 vs. median 42.6 U/mL, range 16-352.5, respectively; p = 0.86). Acute pyelonephritis during pregnancy is associated with a higher maternal serum concentration of sCD30 than normal pregnancy. This finding is novel and suggests that pregnant women with pyelonephritis may have a complex immune state in which there is

  15. Severe renal hemorrhage caused by pyelonephritis in 7 horses: clinical and ultrasonographic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Kisthardt, K K; Schumacher, J; Finn-Bodner, S T; Carson-Dunkerley, S; Williams, M A

    1999-01-01

    Case records of 7 horses diagnosed with pyelonephritis were reviewed to determine common features that might aid in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of this disease. All 7 horses had been admitted for evaluation of hematuria. During cystoscopy of 5 horses, hemorrhage was observed from one or both ureters. Renal biopsy of 1 horse, laboratory analysis of ureteral discharge of 2 horses, and renal ultrasonography of all horses indicated that pyelonephritis was the cause of hemorrhage. Sonographic renal changes included decreased length, increased echogenicity, abnormal outline, loss of corticomedullary distinction, pyelectasia, and focal hypoechoic or hyperechoic cortical defects. Renal hemorrhage in all horses eventually resolved but recurred in 4 of 5 horses that were followed long-term. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4A. Figure 4B. Figure 4C. Figure 5A. Figure 5B. Figure 5C. Figure 6A. Figure 6B. Figure 7. PMID:12001337

  16. [Bilateral nephrectomy in patients with end-stage renal failure and chronic active pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, M A; Vtorenko, V I; Trushkin, R N; Lubennikov, A E; Sysoev, A M; Sokolov, A A

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzed the results of bilateral nephrectomy in 14 patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and chronic active pyelonephritis. Seven patients had urosepsis, and 10 patients had a purulent form of pyelonephritis, which was one-sided in 7 of them. In the early postoperative period, on average, after 9.3 days, 9 patients died. Statistically significant risk factors for death were: chronic hemodialysis, long-term antibiotic therapy, and existing sepsis. Intraoperative complications and postoperative morbidity were not significantly associated with death. The study results imply the need of differentiated approach to bilateral nephrectomy in patients with ESRD and risk factors for fatal outcome. It must be performed on the strong indications since the intervention does not lead to eradication of sepsis. It is advisable to perform "preventive, sanation" bilateral nephrectomy in the "cold period" in patients at risk for developing urosepsis.

  17. Nephrolithiasis and pyelonephritis in two West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus spp.).

    PubMed

    Keller, Martha; Moliner, José L; Vásquez, Grettys; Cruz, Danilo; Bello, Orestes; Costidis, Alex M; Rommel, Sentiel A; Mays, Maron B Calderwood; Gearhart, Scott

    2008-07-01

    Two West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus spp.) were reported with severe emaciation. One animal was a Florida manatee from the Everglades; the other was an Antillean manatee from Cuba. On necropsy, both animals had nephrolithiasis, pyelonephritis, and moderate to severe renomegaly. Histopathology revealed multifocal to diffuse pyelonephritis, interstitial nephritis, and nephrocalcinosis. The stones were analyzed and consisted primarily of calcium carbonate. Serum chemistry values for the Florida animal revealed no renal abnormalities. The mechanism of calculus formation remains unclear in manatees. In horses, another hindgut fermenter, the most common urolith is also calcium carbonate. Urinalyses performed on manatees are very similar to those of horses (i.e., alkaline urine, low specific gravity, and calcium carbonate crystals). Formation of uroliths in manatees may have a pathogenesis similar to equine urolithiasis.

  18. [A giant fecalith complicated by acute urinary retention, hydronephrosis and acute obstructive pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Davidov, M I

    2016-04-01

    The article reports a rare case of a 30-year-old man with Hirschsprung's disease, who developed a giant fecalith in the rectum and sigmoid (weight 3.5 kg, the largest diameter 20 cm). The fecalith impaired urine flow by compressing urinary tract, thereby causing acute urinary retention and right-sided hydronephrosis with acute obstructive pyelonephritis. Removing fecalith resulted in the patient recovery and normal functioning of genitourinary system.

  19. [Comparative efficacy of nitrofurans in children and adolescents with pyelonephritis in presence of crystalluria].

    PubMed

    Aver'anova, N I; Balueva, L G; Ivanova, N V

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of nitrofurans in children and adolescents with pyelonephritis in the presence of crystalluria. The study included 50 patients aged 4-14 years with chronic pyelonephritis in the presence of dysmetabolism. The patients underwent general blood test, general urinalysis with an urocytogram, bacteriological examination of urine, biochemical test of serum (uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, urea, and creatinine) and 24-hour urinary excretion (uric acid, oxalates, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium) at hospital admission and over time. The treatment regimen for Group 1 patients after antibiotic therapy involved furamag, Group 2 received furagin. The drugs were used in a dosage of 2 mg/kg/day in 2 divided doses for 14 days. Complaints, major clinical manifestations, crystalluria patterns, and a number of laboratory findings were analyzed over time. The urinary sediment showed leukocyturia and bacteriuria in all the patients, oxaluria in 70% of the patients, uraturia in 10%, and mixed crystalluria in 20%. The main etiological agent of pyelonephritis was Escherichia coli (48.4%). Increased serum uric acid concentrations were revealed in 14% of the patients. Daily urine tests revealed hyperoxaluria, hyperuricosuria, and hypercalciuria in 86, 18, and 8% of the patients, respectively; urinary magnesium excretion was reduced in 86%. After treatment, Group 1 patients showed a more marked therapeutic effect in terms of a number of indicators (leukocyturia, crystalluria, uricosuria, magnesuria). The results of the study showed that the antibacterial therapy involving antibiotics and nitrofurans for an exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis in the presence of crystalluria not only provides an anti-inflammatory effect, but also leads to reductions in the level of crystalluria and the urinary content of uric acid and calcium. There was a significantly marked reduction in crystalluria, serum uric acid, and urinary oxalates and calcium in the children

  20. [Shmakovka narzan mineral water in the treatment of chronic pyelonephritis in children].

    PubMed

    Olofinskiĭ, L A; Alekseeva, I L

    1990-01-01

    The impact of "Pasechnyĭ" spa of the Shmakovka health resort on the circadian urinary output, renal excretion of magnesium, calcium, nonorganic phosphorus, oxalates, uric acid, phospholipids, acido- and ammoniogenases, daily fluctuations of urinary pH was studied for the first time in 65 children with chronic pyelonephritis. In the presence of spa treatment the authors revealed a 75-100 per cent increase in the circadian urinary output, urinary excretion of magnesium, uric acid, ammonia, titrated acids, a decrease in the levels of calcium, oxalates, nonorganic phosphorus and acidification of the urine at 9 o'clock in the morning mainly in children with primary pyelonephritis and at 9 and 6 o'clock in the morning in patients with concurrent uricosuria. Other parameters were not significantly different from those in the controls. Acidification of the urine in the presence of high uricosuria resulted in crystalluria of urates and oxalates in 26.31 per cent of patients with the concurrent urate diathesis. The water of Shmakovka mineral springs is recommended for patients with primary pyelonephritis, phosphaturia and calcium oxalate crystalluria with alkaline reaction of the urine and unjustified for those who suffered from urate diathesis.

  1. Nephroureterectomy for emphysematous pyelonephritis: An aggressive approach is sometimes necessary. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Nana, Gael R; Brodie, Andrew; Akhter, Waseem; Karim, Omer; Motiwala, Hanif

    2015-01-01

    Emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) is a life-threatening urological emergency. A high index of suspicion is required for diagnosis as such patients may present to physicians with typical features of pyelonephritis. A 67 year old lady presented atypically to the Emergency Department with symptoms of renal colic. The diagnosis of emphysematous pyelonephritis was established on prompt CT scanning. She did not respond to conservative management. Due to acute, critical deterioration, she underwent a radical right nephroureterectomy. The resected kidney involved a long segment of necrotic, gangrenous ureter. The patient had a smooth post-operative recovery and was successfully discharged. She remains well on follow-up after one year. Early radiological diagnosis is imperative for risk stratification of EPN. Current evidence recommends percutaneous catheter drainage with interval nephrectomy as the gold standard treatment. We review the literature for pathophysiology and clinical prognostic factors. This case adds onto the limited evidence base on ureteric involvement in EPN, suggesting a revision of EPN classification. Further research on ureteric involvement and treatment outcomes in EPN is required. Even in the current era of minimally invasive surgery and renal preservation therapies, early open nephrectomy still has a role in the management of EPN. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. [Pyelonephritis with massive renal tissue necrosis in child with urinary tract malformation--a case report].

    PubMed

    Pawlak-Bratkowska, Monika; Finke, Daria; Olejniczak, Dariusz; Midel, Anna; Tkaczyk, Marcin

    2009-04-01

    The aim of the case report is presentation of unusual and heavy clinical course of pyelonephritis with renal tissue necrosis in a child with urinary tract malformation. Nine month old girl was admitted to hospital in heavy clinical status due to pyelonephritis--urosepsis. It was complicated by acute renal insufficiency. Patient was treated by broad-spectrum antibiotics and parenteral nutrition. She was feverish for 14 days. Computed tomography done in order to exclude abdominal abscess showed massive renal tissue necrosis of on both sides. Antibiotic treatment was successful after 6 weeks. Urological evaluation revealed bilateral vesico-ureteral refluxes grade IV. Scintigraphy showed multiple scars. Patient was treated Deflux injections (twice). We noted 5 urinary tract recurrences despite antibiotic profilaxis. GFR of 75 ml/min/1.73 m2 was estimated at age of 16 m. Immunodeficiency or malignancy as background of clinical course were excluded. The case we describe presents severe clinical course of pyelonephritis due to complex urinary tract malformation that is to be considered despite based on modern publications "sparing" strategies of diagnosis and profilaxis in urinary tract malformations.

  3. Antibiotic treatment for pyelonephritis in children: multicentre randomised controlled non-inferiority trial

    PubMed Central

    Toffolo, Antonella; Zucchetta, Pietro; Dall'Amico, Roberto; Gobber, Daniela; Calderan, Alessandro; Maschio, Francesca; Pavanello, Luigi; Molinari, Pier Paolo; Scorrano, Dante; Zanchetta, Sergio; Cassar, Walburga; Brisotto, Paolo; Corsini, Andrea; Sartori, Stefano; Dalt, Liviana Da; Murer, Luisa; Zacchello, Graziella

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of oral antibiotic treatment alone with treatment started parenterally and completed orally in children with a first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Design Multicentre, randomised controlled, open labelled, parallel group, non-inferiority trial. Setting 28 paediatric units in north east Italy. Participants 502 children aged 1 month to <7 years with clinical pyelonephritis. Intervention Oral co-amoxiclav (50 mg/kg/day in three doses for 10 days) or parenteral ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg/day in a single parenteral dose) for three days, followed by oral co-amoxiclav (50 mg/kg/day in three divided doses for seven days). Main outcomes measures Primary outcome was the rate of renal scarring. Secondary measures of efficacy were time to defervescence (<37°C), reduction in inflammatory indices, and percentage with sterile urine after 72 hours. An exploratory subgroup analysis was conducted in the children in whom pyelonephritis was confirmed by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 10 days after study entry. Results Intention to treat analysis showed no significant differences between oral (n=244) and parenteral (n=258) treatment, both in the primary outcome (scarring scintigraphy at 12 months 27/197 (13.7%) v 36/203 (17.7%), difference in risk −4%, 95% confidence interval −11.1% to 3.1%) and secondary outcomes (time to defervescence 36.9 hours (SD 19.7) v 34.3 hours (SD 20), mean difference 2.6 (−0.9 to 6.0); white cell count 9.8×109/l (SD 3.5) v 9.5×109/l (SD 3.1), mean difference 0.3 (−0.3 to 0.9); percentage with sterile urine 185/186 v 203/204, risk difference −0.05% (−1.5% to 1.4%)). Similar results were found in the subgroup of 278 children with confirmed acute pyelonephritis on scintigraphy at study entry. Conclusions Treatment with oral antibiotics is as effective as parenteral then oral treatment in the management of the first episode of clinical pyelonephritis in children. Trial registration Clinical Trials

  4. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily in young women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay; Duckworth, Heather; Sitar, Dan; Bryski, Lisa; Harding, Godfrey; Zhanel, George

    2008-03-01

    This pilot study was undertaken to characterise the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and potential clinical efficacy of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days for treatment of women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis. Four women diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis were enrolled. Following pre-therapy specimen collection, an initial oral dose of 750 mg levofloxacin was administered. The mean pharmacokinetic parameters for the first dose were: maximum serum concentration (C(max)) 12.5+/-4.7 mg/L (range 5.6-16.0mg/L) (fC(max) 8.8+/-3.3, where f indicates the levofloxacin free or non-protein-bound fraction), area under the serum concentration-time curve (AUC) 85.4+/-14.1 mgh/L (range 66.2-96.8 mgh/L) (fAUC 59.8+/-9.9) and serum half-life (t(1/2)) 6.7+/-0.5h. Mean urine concentrations were 88.0+/-100mg/L at the 0-3 h collection, 307+/-143 mg/L at 3-6 h, 170+/-107 mg/L at 6-12 h and 85+/-8 mg/L at 12-24 h. Mean levofloxacin serum pharmacodynamics for infecting Escherichia coli were: C(max)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 323+/-185(fC(max)/MIC 226+/-129); and AUC/MIC 2339+/-830(fAUC/MIC 1647+/-579). Mean urine levofloxacin concentration/MIC ratios were: 900+/-1389 for 0-3 h, 12100+/-4950 for 3-6 h, 5922+/-3912 for 6-12 h and 2233+/-1037 for 12-24 h. Levofloxacin eradicated E. coli from the urine by 3-6 h after the first dose. Levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days has pharmacodynamics that support further evaluation of this regimen for treatment of women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

  5. Characterization of subclinical bacteriuria, bacterial cystitis, and pyelonephritis in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jonathan D; Krishnan, Harathi; Cole, Stephen

    2018-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of bacteriuria (ie, a positive microbial culture result for ≥ 1 urine sample) in dogs with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and characterize findings of subclinical bacteriuria (SBU), bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis in these patients. DESIGN Retrospective, observational study. ANIMALS 182 dogs. PROCEDURES Medical records from January 2010 through July 2015 were reviewed to identify dogs with CKD that underwent urinalysis and urine microbial culture. Signalment, clinicopathologic data, stage of CKD according to previously published guidelines, results of urinalysis and urine culture, and abdominal ultrasonographic findings were recorded. Dogs with positive urine culture results were categorized as having SBU, bacterial cystitis, or pyelonephritis on the basis of these data. Prevalence of bacteriuria was calculated. Associations between CKD stage, presence of bacteriuria, and diagnosis category were analyzed statistically. RESULTS 33 of 182 (18.1%) dogs (40/235 [17.0%] urine samples) had positive culture results. All dogs received antimicrobials on the basis of culture and susceptibility test findings. Most positive culture results (18/40 [45%] samples) were found for dogs with SBU, followed by dogs with pyelonephritis (16/40 [40%]) and cystitis (6/40 [15%]). Escherichia coli was the most frequently observed isolate (29/40 [73%] cultures from 25/33 dogs). The CKD stage was not associated with presence of bacteriuria or diagnosis category. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The prevalence of positive urine culture results in dogs with CKD was lower than that reported for dogs with some systemic diseases that may predispose to infection. Prospective research is needed to assess the clinical importance of SBU in dogs with CKD.

  6. Flexible ureteroscopy versus laparoscopy for the treatment of patients who initially presented with obstructive pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Sahin, Selcuk; Resorlu, Berkan; Eksi, Mithat; Aras, Bekir; Atar, Arda; Tugcu, Volkan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the safety and effectiveness of flexible ureteroscopy (F-URS) with transperitoneal laparoscopic ureterolithotomy (TPLU) in cases of obstructive pyelonephritis secondary to large proximal ureteral stones. Methods: A series of 42 patients presenting with obstructive pyelonephritis due to proximal ureteral stones larger than 1.5 cm were included from April 2006 to February 2015 in this comparative study. After drainage of pyonephrosis and resolution of sepsis, 22 patients treated with TPLU (Group I), and 20 patients were treated with F-URS (Group II). Preoperative patient and stone characteristics, procedure-related parameters and clinical outcomes were assessed for each group. Results: It was seen that both methods were effective in the treatment of large proximal ureteral stones. However TPLU provided a higher stone- free rate (100% vs 80%. p=0.043) and lower retreatment rate. There was no difference between the groups for the operative time and complication rate. On the other hand, patients treated with F-URS had less postoperative pain (p=0.008), a shorter hospital stay (p<0.001) and a faster return to daily activities (p<0.001). Conclusions: The results of our study show that both F-URS and TPLU are safe and effective surgical procedures for treatment of large proximal ureteral stones after controlling obstructive pyelonephritis. However, TPLU has a higher stone-free rate with comparable operating time and complication rate as compared to F-URS. On the other hand F-URS has the advantages of less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stay and faster return to daily activities. PMID:27375691

  7. The role of serum and urine interleukin-8 on acute pyelonephritis and subsequent renal scarring in children.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chen, Shan-Ming; Meng, Meng-Hsiao; Lue, Ko-Huang

    2009-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 acts as a potent neutrophils chemoattractant responsible for the migration of neutrophils into the infected renal tissue to protect against invading pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the role of IL-8 on acute-phase pyelonephritis and later renal scarring in children. A total of 124 children with a first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was confirmed by Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 124 children with UTI and 20 healthy children for IL-8 measurement. The 124 children were divided into acute pyelonephritis (n = 70) and lower UTI (n = 54) groups according to the results of DMSA scans. The initial serum and urine IL-8 values of children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher when compared with lower UTI and healthy controls (all P < 0.001). Renal scarring was seen in 26 (38.8%) of these 67 children with acute pyelonephritis at follow-up DMSA scans. Both the initial serum and urine IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in children with renal scarring than in those without (both P < 0.001). The mean age of children with renal scarring was also significantly lower than those without scarring (P = 0.004). Multivariate analysis showed that the highest initial IL-8 values, age <20 months and reflux grades > or =III all were independent predictors of renal scarring. Those children younger than 2 years of age with the highest IL-8 concentrations during the acute phase of pyelonephritis as well as children with reflux grades of III or greater are at a high-risk for developing renal scarring in the future.

  8. [Intravesical electrostimulation and magnetotherapy in chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in children with urodynamic disorders].

    PubMed

    Sharkov, S M; Iatsik, S P; Bolotova, N V; Raĭgorodskiĭ, Iu M; Konova, O M; Tkacheva, E N

    2011-01-01

    The results of the treatment of 38 children (6 boys and 32 girls, age 6-14 years) with chronic pyelonephritis and/or cystitis complicated with neurogenic dysfunction of the urinary bladder (NDUB) and/or vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) of the first-third degree demonstrate efficacy of intravesical electrostimulation (IVES) and adrenal magnetotherapy. IVES was conducted with high-frequency current impulses (2.2 kHz) by means of INTRASTIM attachment to the device AMUS-01-INTRAMAG in the region of the urethrovesical anastomosis via solution of the drugs for instillation. As the result of exposure to both physical factors in the presence of standard medication, NDUB symptoms alleviated (by E.L. Vishnevsky's criteria) by 59.5% against 38.1% in the control group. Dopplerographic examination of renal vessels stated a 24.3% increase in blood flow in the major renal artery in the study group against 10.5% in the control. The proposed complex pharmacological plus physiotherapeutic treatment of chronic pyelonephritis and cystitis in abnormal urodynamics resulted in a 2.2-fold decrease in the number of recurrences compared to the standard treatment.

  9. Incidence of abnormal imaging and recurrent pyelonephritis after first febrile urinary tract infection in children 2 to 24 months old.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Trisha M; Stephany, Heidi A; Clayton, Douglass B; Thomas, John C; Pope, John C; Adams, Mark C; Brock, John W; Tanaka, Stacy T

    2013-10-01

    The AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics) no longer recommends voiding cystourethrogram in children 2 to 24 months old who present with a first urinary tract infection if renal-bladder ultrasound is normal. We identified factors associated with abnormal imaging and recurrent pyelonephritis in this population. We retrospectively evaluated children diagnosed with a first episode of pyelonephritis at age 2 to 24 months using de-identified electronic medical record data from an institutional database. Data included age at first urinary tract infection, gender, race/ethnicity, need for hospitalization, intravenous antibiotic use, history of abnormal prenatal ultrasound, renal-bladder ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram results, urinary tract infection recurrence and surgical intervention. Risk factors for abnormal imaging and urinary tract infection recurrence were analyzed by univariate logistic regression, the chi-square test and survival analysis. We identified 174 patients. Of the 154 renal-bladder ultrasounds performed 59 (38%) were abnormal. Abnormal prenatal ultrasound (p = 0.01) and the need for hospitalization (p = 0.02) predicted abnormal renal-bladder ultrasound. Of the 95 patients with normal renal-bladder ultrasound 84 underwent voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was more likely in patients who were white (p = 0.003), female (p = 0.02) and older (p = 0.04). Despite normal renal-bladder ultrasound, 23 of 84 patients (24%) had dilating vesicoureteral reflux. Of the 95 patients with normal renal-bladder ultrasound 14 (15%) had recurrent pyelonephritis and 7 (7%) went on to surgical intervention. Despite normal renal-bladder ultrasound after a first pyelonephritis episode, a child may still have vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent pyelonephritis and the need for surgical intervention. If voiding cystourethrogram is deferred, parents should be counseled on these risks. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  10. [Once-daily gentamicin dosing versus thrice-daily dosing in infants with acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Calvo Rey, C; García Díaz, B; Nebreda Pérez, V; García García, M L; Maderuelo Sánchez, A I; Cilleruelo Pascual, M L; García Lacalle, C

    2003-03-01

    Once-daily dosing (ODD) of gentamicin is advocated as an effective and safe treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections in adults. There are insufficient data in the literature to justify its use in infants. To compare the efficacy of ODD of gentamicin with that of classical thrice-daily (t.i.d.) administration in infants with acute pyelonephritis. We performed a quasi-experimental study comparing 33 infants who received ODD of gentamicin with a historical control group of 25 infants treated with gentamicin t.i.d. Leukocytosis, C-reactive protein, creatinine, gentamicin dose, peak and trough values, time required for disappearance of fever, and outcome were analyzed. The mean doses of gentamicin (mg/kg/day) were higher in the t.i.d. group (6.4 1.14) than in the ODD group (5.06 0.22; p < 0.001). Peak serum gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were significantly higher in the ODD group (9.32 1.4) than in the t.i.d. group (5.09 1.15; p < 0.001). Mean trough gentamicin concentrations (micro g/ml) were lower in the ODD group than in the t.i.d. group (0.23 0.26 vs 0.78 0.45; p 0.001). There were no significant differences in the duration of fever between the groups (30.64 32 hours in the t.i.d. group vs. 28.57 32 hours in the ODD group). Serum creatinine levels were normal during treatment in both groups. In all patients outcome was good and no adverse effects were noted. Treatment with ODD of gentamicin in our population of infants with acute pyelonephritis was as effective as traditional administration t.i.d. and possibly was equally safe or safer.

  11. Vitamin E as adjuvant treatment for urinary tract infection in girls with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Kahbazi, Manigeh; Rasti, Sara; Rafeie, Mohammad; Sharafkhah, Mojtaba

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that functions as an antioxidant. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamins E supplementation in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of girls with acute pyelonephritis. This double-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted on 152 girls aged 5 to 12 years with a first acute pyelonephritis episode based on technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA). They were randomized to receive a 14-day treatment with only antibiotics (control group; n = 76) and 14-day treatment with supplements of vitamin E (intervention group; n = 76) in addition to the antibiotics. Patients' clinical symptoms were monitored for 14 days and urine culture was performed 3 to 4 days and 7 to 10 days after the start of the treatment and its completion, respectively. All of the girls once underwent DMSA scan 4 to 6 months after the treatment. During the follow-up days, the mean frequency of fever (P = .01), urinary frequency (P = .001), urgency (P = .003), dribbling (P = .001), and urinary incontinence (P = .006) were significantly lower in the intervention group compared to the control group. There was no significant difference in the results of urine culture 3 to 4 days after the start of treatment (P = .16) and 7 to 10 days after its termination (P = .37). There was also no significant difference between the results of DMSA scan 4 to 6 months after the start of treatment (P = .31). Vitamin E supplementation has a significant effect in ameliorating sign and symptoms of UTI. However, further studies are recommended to confirm these findings.

  12. Best oral empirical treatment for pyelonephritis in children: Do we need to differentiate between age and gender?

    PubMed

    Salomonsson, Petra; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Heiberg, Ida; Mola, Gylli; Wenger, Therese Ramstad; Cortes, Dina; Nygaard, Ulrikka

    2016-10-01

    Pyelonephritis is a common infection in childhood and may cause renal scarring. The aim was to determine an effective oral antibiotic treatment of first time pyelonephritis in children. The study is a retrospective analysis of positive urine cultures collected at a Danish paediatric department from 2010-2013. Urine samples from 378 children aged 0-15.9 years, without renal anomalies and treated for first time pyelonephritis, were included. The urine pathogens and antimicrobial susceptibilities were analysed. The most common aetiologic agents found were Escherichia coli (85%), Klebsiella species and other Enterobacteriaecea (9.7%) and Enterococcus species (5.3%). Escherichia coli was significantly more common in girls than in boys (90% vs 74%, p < 0.001) and in children older than 6 months (89% vs 77%, p < 0.001). Children younger than 6 months had a higher prevalence of other Gram-negative rods (16% vs 7%, p < 0.001). These differences may be due to boys representing 63% of patients in the youngest age group compared to 16% of older children (p < 0.001). For all urine isolates, piv-mecillinam and amoxicillin-clavulanate had the lowest resistance rates of 6.9% and 7.2%, respectively, and 6% for both antimicrobials in patients older than 6 months. Uropathogens from boys above 6 months of age were more resistant to piv-mecillinam compared to girls (25% vs 2.4%, p < 0.001). This study recommends piv-mecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanate as empirical treatment of first time pyelonephritis in Danish children from 6 months of age. Age and gender of patients should be taken into consideration when initiating empirical treatment.

  13. Acute Pyelonephritis: Clinical Characteristics and the Role of the Surgical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Gi; Jeon, Seung Hyun; Lee, Choong-Hyun; Lee, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jin Il

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of acute pyelonephritis (APN) has changed with time. Therefore we investigated the current clinical characteristics of APN and the significance of proper surgical management for treatment of 1,026 APN patients in South Korea for the past 5 yr. The male-to-female ratio was about 1:8. The peak ages of female patients were 20s (21.3%) and over 60s (23.7%), while that of male was over 60s (38.1%). The occurrence of sepsis was 10.1%. Complicated APN patients were 35.4%. Ninety-four patients (9.2%) needed urological procedures. The duration of the flank pain and of the costovertebral angle tenderness in complicated APN patients was statistically significantly longer than that with simple APN patients (4.3 vs. 3.4 days, 4.4 vs. 4.0 days). If flank pain and costovertebral angle tenderness sustain over 4 days, proper radiologic studies should be performed immediately with the consideration of surgical procedure. Also the resistance to antibiotics was increasing. As the sensitivities to ampicillin (27.2%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (44.7%) of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae were very low, it is necessary to take the careful choice of antibiotics into consideration. PMID:19399273

  14. Previously undiagnosed hereditary spherocytosis in a patient with jaundice and pyelonephritis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Yuki; Suzuki, Ryoji; Kitamura, Yukihiro

    2016-12-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis is autosomal dominant inherited extravascular hemolytic disorder and is the commonest cause of inherited hemolysis in northern Europe and the United States. The classical clinical features of hereditary spherocytosis are anemia, jaundice, and splenomegaly. However, all of these classical features are not always revealed in the case of mild hemolysis or when hemolysis is well compensated. Patients with hereditary spherocytosis may remain undiagnosed for years if their hemolysis is mild. A 42-year-old Asian woman presented to our clinic with a sudden onset of high fever with shaking chills and jaundice, suggesting septicemia; however, following detailed investigation, the patient was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and accelerated hemolysis of hereditary spherocytosis due to infection. It is important to note that transient anemia or jaundice can sometimes be the only initial presenting symptoms in cases of undiagnosed latent hereditary spherocytosis. This case also highlights the fact that physicians should consider concomitant hemolytic disease in patients in whom jaundice and infections that rarely cause jaundice coexist.

  15. Percutaneous drainage and/or nephrectomy in the treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, Jack H; Maybee, Gabrielle J; Ali-Khan, Mustafa M

    2003-01-01

    To assess the current and past literature relating to the differential treatment of emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN). Some of the newer literature suggests percutaneous drainage (PCD), as compared to the standard nephrectomy, as a better modality. Since these two may complement each other, we sought to seek indications when to perform each treatment. Medline and MD Consult were used for our journal review. Ten articles, ranging from 1980 to 2000, were chosen, which covered 162 patients. The criteria for selecting these articles were study size (n < 3 were excluded) and non-overlapping of patient information. Patient data was then used to certain risks of the various treatment modalities. Due to the lack of randomization of the studies, it is difficult to say whether PCD is superior to nephrectomy or not. It appears to be that each treatment may complement each other, and that treatment should be individualized based on the severity of the EPN and the medical condition of the patient. PCD though appears to be acceptable for use in the initial phases of the disease. However, long-term data is lacking to corroborate the overall benefit of PCD compared to nephrectomy. PCD could be utilized initially in some cases of EPN if certain conditions exist. This treatment may complement nephrectomy if the need exists, and therefore, treatment may be staged. Truly randomized studies need to be done to determine if one treatment is better than the other, and provide documented long-term follow-up of these patients.

  16. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids prevent experimental pyelonephritis by Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Balagué, Claudia E; de Ruiz, Clara Silva; Rey, Rosario; de Duffard, Ana María Evangelista; Nader-Macías, María Elena

    2004-11-01

    Interfering Escherichia coli attachment to the urinary tract, using P-fimbriation inhibitors, can prevent pyelonephritis. Clofibric and ethacrynic acids are organic compounds structurally related, but with different pharmacological uses. These agents are potentially active in the urinary tract due to its elimination in an unaltered form by the renal route. This study described a pyelonephritogenic E. coli strain, grown in the presence of sub-inhibitory concentrations of clofibric or ethacrynic acids (0.1 and 1 mM, respectively), which exhibits inhibition of P1 erythrocytes agglutination and a drastic decrease in fimbriation, using electron microscopy and quantitative analyses of superficial proteins (decrease to a 17-25% in comparison with the control). In vivo assays were performed using ascending urinary tract infection in mice. The treatment with therapeutic doses of the drugs, administered 2 days before the bacterial challenge and daily until the end of the experiment (22 days), abolished renal infection after 7-10 days of drug exposure. Within this period clofibric acid did not produce adverse effects on the renal parenchyma. However, ethacrynic acid caused pyelitis and tubular cellular desquamation. These results suggested that clofibric acid might be useful in the short-term prophylaxis of urinary tract infection.

  17. Endocan, a putative endothelial cell marker, is elevated in preeclampsia, decreased in acute pyelonephritis, and unchanged in other obstetrical syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Adekola, Henry; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Endocan, a dermatan sulphate proteoglycan produced by endothelial cells, is considered a biomarker for endothelial cell activation/dysfunction. Preeclampsia is characterized by systemic vascular inflammation, and endothelial cell activation/dysfunction. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether: (1) plasma endocan concentrations in preeclampsia differ from those in uncomplicated pregnancies; (2) changes in plasma endocan concentration relate to the severity of preeclampsia, and whether these changes are specific or observed in other obstetrical syndromes such as small-for-gestational age (SGA), fetal death (FD), preterm labor (PTL) or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PROM); (3) a correlation exists between plasma concentration of endocan and angiogenic (placental growth factor or PlGF)/anti-angiogenic factors (soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor or sVEGFR-1, and soluble endoglin or sEng) among pregnancies complicated by preeclampsia; and (4) plasma endocan concentrations in patients with preeclampsia and acute pyelonephritis (both conditions in which there is endothelial cell activation) differ. Method: This cross-sectional study included the following groups: (1) uncomplicated pregnancy (n = 130); (2) preeclampsia (n = 102); (3) pregnant women without preeclampsia who delivered an SGA neonate (n = 51); (4) FD (n = 49); (5) acute pyelonephritis (AP; n = 35); (6) spontaneous PTL (n = 75); and (7) preterm PROM (n = 64). Plasma endocan concentrations were determined in all groups, and PIGF, sEng and VEGFR-1 plasma concentrations were measured by ELISA in the preeclampsia group. Results: (1) Women with preeclampsia had a significantly higher median plasma endocan concentration than those with uncomplicated pregnancies (p = 0.004); (2) among women with preeclampsia, the median plasma endocan concentration did not differ significantly according to disease severity (p = 0

  18. Once daily, extended release ciprofloxacin for complicated urinary tract infections and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Talan, David A; Klimberg, Ira W; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Song, James; Kowalsky, Steven F; Church, Deborah A

    2004-02-01

    We assessed the efficacy and safety of 1,000 mg extended release ciprofloxacin orally once daily vs conventional 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally twice daily, each for 7 to 14 days, in patients with a complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP). In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, North American multicenter clinical trial adults were stratified based on clinical presentation of cUTI or AUP and randomized to extended release ciprofloxacin or ciprofloxacin twice daily. Efficacy valid patients had positive pretherapy urine cultures (105 or greater cFU/ml) and pyuria within 48 hours of study entry. Bacteriological and clinical outcomes were assessed at the test of cure visit (5 to 11 days after therapy) and the late followup visit (28 to 42 days after therapy). The intent to treat population comprised 1,035 patients (extended release ciprofloxacin in 517 and twice daily in 518), of whom 435 were efficacy valid (cUTI in 343 and AUP in 92). For efficacy valid patients (cUTI and AUP combined) bacteriological eradication rates at test of cure were 89% (183 of 206) vs 85% (195 of 229) (95% CI -2.4%, 10.3%) and clinical cure rates were 97% (198 of 205) vs 94% (211 of 225) (95% CI -1.2%, 6.9%) for extended release vs twice daily ciprofloxacin. Late followup outcomes were consistent with test of cure findings. Eradication rates for Escherichia coli, which accounted for 58% of pathogens, were 97% or greater per group. Drug related adverse event rates were similar for extended release and twice daily ciprofloxacin (13% and 14%, respectively). Extended release ciprofloxacin at a dose of 1,000 mg once daily was as safe and effective as conventional treatment with 500 mg ciprofloxacin twice daily, each given orally for 7 to 14 days in adults with cUTI or AUP. It provides a convenient, once daily, empirical treatment option.

  19. Plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin: a marker of acute pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Kwan; Yim, Hyung Eun; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of plasma neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cells (WBCs) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children with febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). In total, 138 children with febrile UTIs (APN 59, lower UTI 79) were reviewed retrospectively. Levels of NGAL, PCT, CRP, and WBCs in blood were measured on admission. The diagnostic accuracy of the biomarkers was investigated. Independent predictors of APN were identified by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analyses showed good diagnostic profiles of NGAL, PCT, CRP, and WBCs for identifying APN [area under the curve (AUC) 0.893, 0.855, 0.879, and 0.654, respectively]. However, multivariate analysis revealed only plasma NGAL level was an independent predictor of APN (P = 0.006). At the best cutoff values of all examined biomarkers for identifying APN, sensitivity (86 %), specificity (85 %), positive predictive value (81 %), and negative predictive value (89 %) of plasma NGAL levels were the highest. The optimal NGAL cutoff value was 117 ng/ml. The positive likelihood ratio [odds ratio (OR) 5.69, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 3.56-8.78], and negative likelihood ratio (OR 0.16, 95 % CI 0.08-0.29) of plasma NGAL for APN diagnosis also showed it seemed to be more accurate than serum PCT, CRP, and WBCs. Plasma NGAL can be more useful than serum PCT, CRP, and WBC levels for identifying APN in children with febrile UTIs.

  20. Distinctive inflammatory profile between acute focal bacterial nephritis and acute pyelonephritis in children.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Makoto; Hasegawa, Shunji; Matsushige, Takeshi; Ohta, Naoki; Kittaka, Setsuaki; Hoshide, Madoka; Kusuda, Takeshi; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Ohga, Shouichi

    2017-11-01

    Acute focal bacterial nephritis (AFBN) is a severe form of upper urinary tract infection (UTI) with neurological manifestations and focal renal mass lesions on computed tomography (CT). Prolonged antibiotic therapy may improve the renal outcome, but the early differential diagnosis of AFBN from acute pyelonephritis (APN) is challenging. We searched for effective biomarkers of AFBN based on the pathophysiology of upper UTIs. Of 52 upper UTI cases treated at Yamaguchi University between 2009 and 2016, 38 pediatric patients with AFBN (n=17) or APN (n=21) who underwent ultrasonography and/or CT were enrolled. The clinical data and serum cytokine concentrations were analyzed to differentiate AFBN from APN. AFBN patients tended to be older, and have a higher body temperature, longer febrile period, more frequent neurological symptoms, higher immature neutrophil count, lower lymphocyte count, higher procalcitonin and urine β 2 -microglobulin levels. AFBN patients showed higher serum levels of IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-10 and soluble TNF-receptor 1 (sTNFR1) (all p<0.05). Although the cytokine levels were variably correlated among each other, multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that combination of IFN-γ and IL-6 levels were most relevant for distinguishing AFBN from APN. The discriminant power of the logistic equation was 0.86 in terms of the area under the curve by the ROC analysis. Circulating 4 out of 7 cytokines in AFBN patients were at higher levels compared with those in APN patients. IFN-γ and IL-6 levels might most effectively distinguish AFBN from APN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diagnostic performance of procalcitonin for hospitalised children with acute pyelonephritis presenting to the paediatric emergency department.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shan-Ming; Chang, Hung-Ming; Hung, Tung-Wei; Chao, Yu-Hua; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2013-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common bacterial infection in children that can result in permanent renal damage. This study prospectively assessed the diagnostic performance of procalcitonin (PCT) for predicting acute pyelonephritis (APN) among children with febrile UTI presenting to the paediatric emergency department (ED). Children aged ≤10 years with febrile UTI admitted to hospital from the paediatric ED were prospectively studied. Blood PCT, C reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count were measured in the ED. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, multilevel likelihood ratios, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and multivariate logistic regression were used to assess quantitative variables for diagnosing APN. The 136 enrolled patients (56 boys and 80 girls; age range 1 month to 10 years) were divided into APN (n=87) and lower UTI (n=49) groups according to (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan results. The cut-off value for maximum diagnostic performance of PCT was 1.3 ng/ml (sensitivity 86.2%, specificity 89.8%). By multivariate regression analysis, only PCT and CRP were retained as significant predictors of APN. Comparing ROC curves, PCT had a significantly greater area under the curve than CRP, WBC count and fever for differentiating between APN and lower UTI. PCT has better sensitivity and specificity than CRP and WBC count for distinguishing between APN and lower UTI. PCT is a valuable marker for predicting APN in children with febrile UTI. It may be considered in the initial investigation and therapeutic strategies for children presenting to the ED.

  2. Association of procalcitonin with acute pyelonephritis and renal scars in pediatric UTI.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Sandrine; Fernandez-Lopez, Anna; Nikfar, Roya; Romanello, Carla; Bouissou, François; Gervaix, Alain; Gurgoze, Metin K; Bressan, Silvia; Smolkin, Vladislav; Tuerlinckx, David; Stefanidis, Constantinos J; Vaos, Georgos; Leblond, Pierre; Gungor, Firat; Gendrel, Dominique; Chalumeau, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common childhood bacterial infections that may involve renal parenchymal infection (acute pyelonephritis [APN]) followed by late scarring. Prompt, high-quality diagnosis of APN and later identification of children with scarring are important for preventing future complications. Examination via dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning is the current clinical gold standard but is not routinely performed. A more accessible assay could therefore prove useful. Our goal was to study procalcitonin as a predictor for both APN and scarring in children with UTI. A systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data were performed; all data were gathered from children with UTIs who had undergone both procalcitonin measurement and dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning. A total of 1011 patients (APN in 60.6%, late scarring in 25.7%) were included from 18 studies. Procalcitonin as a continuous, class, and binary variable was associated with APN and scarring (P < .001) and demonstrated a significantly higher (P < .05) area under the receiver operating characteristic curve than either C-reactive protein or white blood cell count for both pathologies. Procalcitonin ≥0.5 ng/mL yielded an adjusted odds ratio of 7.9 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.8-10.9) with 71% sensitivity (95% CI: 67-74) and 72% specificity (95% CI: 67-76) for APN. Procalcitonin ≥0.5 ng/mL was significantly associated with late scarring (adjusted odds ratio: 3.4 [95% CI: 2.1-5.7]) with 79% sensitivity (95% CI: 71-85) and 50% specificity (95% CI: 45-54). Procalcitonin was a more robust predictor compared with C-reactive protein or white blood cell count for selectively identifying children who had APN during the early stages of UTI, as well as those with late scarring.

  3. [Acute complicated and uncomplicated pyelonephritis in the emergency department: process-of-care indicators and outcomes].

    PubMed

    Delgado Vicente, Miriam; Lecaroz Agara, Mª Concepción; Barrios Andrés, José Luis; Canut Blasco, Andrés

    2017-02-01

    To assess process-of-care indicators and outcomes in acute pyelonephritis (APN) in a general hospital emergency department, and compare them between uncomplicaed and complicated APN. Retrospective study of consecutive patients discharged with a diagnosis of APN. We studied health processof- care indicators (percentage admitted, avoidable hospitalization, appropriate initial antibiotic therapy, urine and blood cultures) and outcomes (hospital length of stay [LOS], discharge from the emergency department, revisits, mortality, yields of microbiological tests ordered). A total of 529 cases (59% of them complicated) were included. Patients with uncomplicated APN were significantly younger on average (mean, 39 years) than patients with complicated APN (56 years). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen identified, although the percentage of E coli infection was lower in patients with complicated APN (78%) than in patients with uncomplicated APN (95%). The rates of admission and orders for urine and blood cultures were significantly higher and hospital LOS was longer in the group with complicated APN. Moreover, these patients had even longer stays if the initial antibiotic therapy was inappropriate. Significantly more patients with uncomplicated APN were discharged from the emergency department. Sixty-one percent of patients with uncomplicated APN were admitted; 9% of these cases were considered avoidable hospitalizations. Complicated APN is diagnosed more often in older patients, and E coli infection causes a smaller proportion of these cases. Hospital LOS is longer in complicated APN and more urine and blood cultures are ordered. Patients with uncomplicated APN are more often discharged from the emergency department, although the number of avoidable hospitalizations seems high based on the rate found in this study.

  4. [Renal scarring in children under 36 months hospitalised for acute pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Azor, Begoña; Ramos Fernández, José Miguel; Sánchiz Cárdenas, Sonia; Cordón Martínez, Ana; Carazo Gallego, Begoña; Moreno-Pérez, David; Urda Cardona, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most common causes of serious bacterial infection in infants. Renal scarring is the most prevalent long-term complication. To review the incidence of renal scarring within 6 months after an episode of APN in children under 36 months and its relationship with imaging studies, clinical settings, and bacteriology. A retrospective study of previously healthy patients aged one to 36 months, admitted for a first episode of APN, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Demographic and clinical variables were collected along with bacteriology, renal and bladder ultrasound scan, voiding cystourethrography, DMSA-scintigraphy, and re-infection events. A total of 125 patients were included in the study, of which 60% were male, the large majority (92%) febrile, and due to E. coli (74.6%). There was a history of prenatal ultrasound scan changes in 15.4%. Ultrasound scan found dilation of the urinary tract in 22.1%. Voiding cystourethrography was performed on 70 patients: 54.3% no abnormalities, 12.8% vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade i-iii, and 32.9% iv-v grade VUR. Six patients had iv-v grade VUR with a normal ultrasound scan. Adherence to DMSA-scintigraphy at 6 months was only 61% of that indicated. Renal scarring was found in 44.3% of those in which it was performed (60 cases). Almost half (44%) DMSA-scintigraphy in children aged one to 36 months hospitalised for APN show renal scarring at 6 months, which was found to be associated with the re-infection events and the iv-v grade VUR. There was no relationship between scarring and the bacteriology or the elevations of inflammatory biochemical markers. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The climate impact on female acute pyelonephritis in Taiwan: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jui-Ming; Chang, Yu-Lung; Hsu, Ren-Jun; Su, Her-Young; Teng, Sen-Wen; Chang, Fung-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the main reason of community-acquired infection which causes large losses in social economy. The individual as well as climate factors make changes on the incidence. Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is one of the most serious UTI in female. The object of our study is to analyze whether climate factors will have effect on the incidence of female APN in Taiwan. This study consisted of 14,568 female patients with APN from 2001 to 2013 in Taiwan and patients with repeated APN were excluded. The monthly climate data was collected from the Central Weather Bureau. The available monthly climate data included highest, lowest, and average level of temperatures, humidity, rainfall, total rain days, and sunshine hours. The total incidence of female APN was 23.44 each 10,000 populations. The incidence of APN was positively correlated with temperature (r = 0.66), sunshine hours (r = 0.45), rainfall (r = 0.42), rain days (r = 0.29), and humidity (r = 0.23) per month. There is the strongest correlation between the average monthly temperature and the incidence of APN (β = 0.54). The correlation with the incidence of APN was also followed by rain days (β = 0.28) and humidity (β = 0.27). There is a significant expression on the incidence of female APN affected by seasonality and climate parameters. The monthly average temperature has the strongest correlation with female APN. The results of this research may facilitate the potential preventive strategies on female APN. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Clinical use of ultrasonography associated with color Doppler in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Dell'Atti, Lucio; Borea, Pier Andrea; Ughi, Gianni; Russo, Gian Rosario

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the current role of the Ultrasound associated with the color-Doppler in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) and to compare ultrasound images with CT images in order to reduce the amount radiation absorbe without significant loss of diagnostic efficacy, since this disease in most cases affects young adults. We studied 38 patients (aged 17-65 years) who presented from September 2007 to March 2010 to the emergency department with suspected diagnosis of APN. All patients underwent first to an ultrasound study, then to abdominal CT. Renal, perirenal and extrarenal tomographic findings usually associated with acute pyelonephritis were analyzed, in an attempt to identify what are the differences with respect to the images obtained with an ultrasound study. All patients then performed ultrasonography and/or abdominal CT evaluation one month later, 25 patients repeated both examinations, while the other 13 repeated only ultrasound. In 38 subjects with suspected APN, CT assessed the presence in 79% and in 21% the absence of the disease. Ultrasonography in 68% of cases diagnosed APN, by an increase in kidney size related to the presence of hypoechoic areas associated to edema, blurred margins and reduction of the color-Doppler vascularity. Ultrasound associated with the use of color-Doppler revealed a sensibility of 76% and specificity of 75%. Color and power-Doppler have better diagnostic accuracy than basic gray scale ultrasound, in the diagnosis of focal pyelonephritis. Therefore the combined use of ultrasound and color-Doppler can obtain useful information about the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease, with an improvement in terms of cost, without significantly altering the diagnostic efficacy and reducing the amount of radiation absorbed.

  7. The effect of vitamin E or vitamin A on the prevention of renal scarring in children with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Sobouti, Behnam; Hooman, Nakysa; Movahed, Mansour

    2013-02-01

    Numerous factors may contribute to renal tissue injury after urinary tract infection. We have evaluated the effects of vitamins A or E supplementation in combination with antibiotics for the prevention of renal scarring in acute pyelonephritis. A simple non-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 61 children aged 1 month to 10 years between 2004 and 2006. The inclusion criteria were positive urine culture, clinical findings, and 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy-based evidence in favor of acute pyelonephritis. The children were randomized into three treatment groups: 10-day treatment with only antibiotics (control group; n = 25) and 10-day treatment with supplements of vitamin A (n = 17) or vitamin E (n = 18) in addition to antibiotics during the acute phase of infection. The final analysis was performed after excluding male patients. Each patient was evaluated twice by 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy performed at least 6 months apart. P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The analysis included 108 kidney units. The frequency of inflammation at the beginning of therapy was not significantly different in the three groups (63.3 % in vitamin A, 61 % in vitamin E, and 76.2 % in the control group). A worsening of lesions, based on the second 99mTc-DMSA scan, was observed in 42.5, 0, and 23.3 % of the control, vitamin E, and vitamin A patients, respectively (LR = 26.3, P < 0.001). Vitamins A or E supplements were effective in reducing renal scarring secondary to acute pyelonephritis.

  8. Randomised controlled trial of three day versus 10 day intravenous antibiotics in acute pyelonephritis: effect on renal scarring

    PubMed Central

    Benador, D; Neuhaus, T; Papazyan, J; Willi, U; Engel-Bicik, I; Nadal, D; Slosman, D; Mermillod, B; Girardin, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Acute pyelonephritis often leaves children with permanent renal scarring.
AIMS—To compare the prevalence of scarring following initial treatment with antibiotics administered intravenously for 10 or three days.
METHODS—In a prospective two centre trial, 220 patients aged 3 months to 16 years with positive urine culture and acute renal lesions on initial DMSA scintigraphy, were randomly assigned to receive intravenous ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg once daily) for 10 or three days, followed by oral cefixime (4 mg/kg twice daily) to complete a 15 day course. After three months, scintigraphy was repeated in order to diagnose renal scars.
RESULTS—Renal scarring developed in 33% of the 110 children in the 10 day intravenous group and 36% of the 110 children in the three day group. Children older than 1 year had more renal scarring than infants (42% (54/129) and 24% (22/91), respectively). After adjustment for age, sex, duration of fever before treatment, degree of inflammation, presence of vesicoureteric reflux, and the patients' recruitment centres, there was no significant difference between the two treatments on renal scarring. During follow up, 15 children had recurrence of urinary infection with no significant difference between the two treatment groups.
CONCLUSION—In children with acute pyelonephritis, initial intravenous treatment for 10 days, compared with three days, does not significantly reduce the development of renal scarring.

 PMID:11207174

  9. Effectiveness and Toxicity of Gentamicin in an Experimental Model of Pyelonephritis: Effect of the Time of Administration

    PubMed Central

    LeBrun, Michel; Grenier, Louis; Gourde, Pierrette; Bergeron, Michel G.; Labrecque, Gaston; Beauchamp, Denis

    1999-01-01

    Temporal variations in the renal toxicity of aminoglycosides have been reported for experimental animals as well as for humans. In fact, maximal renal toxicity of aminoglycosides was observed when the drug was given during the rest period, while a lower toxicity was observed when the drug was injected during the activity period. The aim of the present study was to evaluate temporal variations in the effectiveness and renal toxicity of gentamicin in an experimental model of pyelonephritis in rats. The experiments were carried out with female Sprague-Dawley rats (185 to 250 g). They had free access to food and water throughout the study and were maintained on a 14-h light–10-h dark cycle. Animals were divided into four groups corresponding to the respective time of induction of pyelonephritis and treatment: 0700, 1300, 1900, and 0100 h. Pyelonephritis was induced by a direct inoculation of Escherichia coli (107 to 108 CFU) in the left kidney. Animals were treated for 3 and 7 days with a single daily dose of gentamicin (20 and 40 mg/kg of body weight, respectively) or saline (NaCl, 0.9%) at either 0700, 1300, 1900, or 0100 h. Animals treated at 0100 h for 3 days with gentamicin (20 mg/kg) showed a significantly lower number of bacteria in their kidneys than did all other groups (P < 0.01). After 7 days of treatment, the efficacy, evaluated by the log CFU per gram of tissue and by the percentage of sterilized kidneys, was also higher when gentamicin was administered at 0100 h. The β-galactosidase and the N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activities were significantly higher in urine of rats given gentamicin at 1300 h than in urine of rats treated at another time of day (P < 0.05). Gentamicin injected at 1300 h induced a significantly greater increase of [3H]thymidine incorporation into DNA of renal cortex (P < 0.01), a significantly greater inhibition of sphingomyelinase activity (P < 0.05), and significantly more histopathological lesions than the same dose injected at

  10. Soluble TRAIL in Normal Pregnancy and Acute Pyelonephritis: a Potential Explanation for the Susceptibility of Pregnant Women to Microbial Products and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J.; Schwartz, Alyse G.; Stampalija, Tamara; Dong, Zhong; Yeo, Lami; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Hassan, Sonia S; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Pregnancy is characterized by activation of the innate immune response demonstrated by phenotypic and metabolic changes in granulocytes and monocytes. This state of activation has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiorgan dysfunction of pregnant women with acute viral or bacterial infection. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is one of the mediators responsible for neutrophil apoptosis. Gene deletion of TRAIL results in delayed neutrophil apoptosis and resolution of inflammation after the administration of bacterial endotoxin. The aim of this study was to determine if maternal plasma concentrations of the soluble form of TRAIL (sTRAIL) differ in women with uncomplicated pregnancy and those with acute pyelonephritis. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted to include women in the following groups: 1) non-pregnant (n=23); 2) uncomplicated pregnancies (n=93); and 3) pregnancies with acute pyelonephritis (n=23). Plasma concentrations of sTRAIL were determined by ELISA. Results 1) Women with uncomplicated pregnancies had a lower mean plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) than non-pregnant women (31.5 ± 10.1 vs. 53.3 ± 12.5; p < 0.001); 2) plasma sTRAIL concentrations did not change as a function of gestational age (Pearson correlation = −0.1; p=0.4); 3) the mean plasma sTRAIL concentration (pg/mL) was significantly lower in pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis than in those with uncomplicated pregnancies (20.5 ± 6.6 vs. 31.5 ± 10.1; p<0.001); and 4) among patients with acute pyelonephritis, patients with bacteremia had a significantly lower mean plasma concentration of sTRAIL (pg/mL) than those without bacteremia (15.1 ± 4.8 vs. 24.7 ± 4.6; p< 0.001). Conclusion Women with uncomplicated pregnancies are associated with a significantly lower mean maternal plasma concentration of sTRAIL than that observed in non-pregnant women. Moreover, a further decrease of plasma sTRAIL concentration was observed in

  11. [Changes in the structure of pathogens of calculous pyelonephritis complicated with diabetes mellitus type ii, in the hospital urology of the city of Volgograd].

    PubMed

    Petrov, V I; Vinarov, A Z; Vekilyan, M A; Kulchenko, N G

    2016-08-01

    Among the diseases complicating the course of calculous pyelonephritis, are among the leaders of diabetes mellitus, which is associated with reduced immune response, deterioration of renal hemodynamics, the reduced sensitivity to antibacterial drugs. The purpose of the study is to improve the results of treatment of patients with calculous pyelonephritis and diabetes mellitus type 2. The materials and methods of research. We studied 179 people. This was a retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological analysis of medical records of patients who were treated in 2009 and 2013, in hospital of Volgograd. Women in the study was greater than 99(by 55.4%), males - 80 (44,6%). All patients underwent standard clinical examination, with mandatory bacteriological urine analysis, ultrasound study of kidneys. During the observation period of 2009 and 2013 in patients with calculous pyelonephritis and type 2 diabetes, the major pathogens were representatives of the family Enterobacteriaceae. E.coli strains are constituted - 12 (54,5%), K. pneumoniae - 4 (18.1%) strains. In other etiologically significant microorganisms were Enterococcus spp. - 3 (13.6%) strain, P. aeruginosa - strain 2 (9%). The group of other (4.5%), we have carried pathogens isolated in the singular: Erobacter spp, S. aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. In patients with infection of the upper urinary tract and diabetes, there is a pronounced trend to decrease sensitivity to all groups of antibiotics. Sensitivity to unprotected penicillins and fluoroquinolones has decreased almost twice. Resistance to aminoglycosides of patients in this group increased by 23%. In patients with chronic calculous pyelonephritis and diabetes mellitus type 2 is high sensitivity of the main causative agents of infection to cephalosporins of the third and fourth generation (92%), protected beta-lactam penicillins (amoxicillin/clavulanate) - 86,4%, to carbapenemam is 89.4%. For the empiric treatment of infections of the upper urinary tract in

  12. Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-1 (CNF1) does not promote E. coli infection in a murine model of ascending pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Jason E; Kim, Kwang Sik; Harty, William; Kasprenski, Matthew; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2017-05-25

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common and costly infections in both hospitalized and ambulatory patients. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) represent the majority of UTI isolates and are a diverse group of bacteria that utilize a variety of virulence factors to establish infection of the genitourinary tract. The virulence factor cytotoxic necrotizing factor-1 (CNF1) is frequently expressed in clinical UPEC isolates. To date, there have been conflicting reports on the role of CNF1 in the pathogenesis of E. coli urinary tract infections. We examined the importance of CNF1 in a murine ascending kidney infection/ pyelonephritis model by performing comparative studies between a clinical UPEC isolate strain and a CNF1-deletion mutant. We found no alterations in bacterial burden with the loss of CNF1, whereas loss of the virulence factor fimH decreased bacterial burdens. In addition, we found no evidence that CNF1 contributed to the recruitment of inflammatory infiltrates in the kidney or bladder in vivo. While further examination of CNF-1 may reveal a role in UTI pathogenesis, our data casts doubt on the role of CNF-1 in the pathogenesis of UPEC UTI. As with other infections, different models and approaches are needed to elucidate the contribution of CNF1 to E. coli UTI.

  13. Clinical utility of FDG PET/CT in acute complicated pyelonephritis-results from an observational study.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chih-Hsing; Tseng, Jing-Ren; Lee, Ming-Hsun; Yang, Lan-Yan; Yen, Tzu-Chen

    2018-03-01

    Acute complicated pyelonephritis (ACP) is an upper urinary tract infection associated with coexisting urinary tract abnormalities or medical conditions that could predispose to serious outcomes or treatment failures. Although CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are frequently used in patients with ACP, the clinical value of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) has not been systematically investigated. This single-center retrospective study was designed to evaluate the potential usefulness of FDG PET/CT in patients with ACP. Thirty-one adult patients with ACP who underwent FDG PET/CT were examined. FDG PET/CT imaging characteristics, including tracer uptake patterns, kidney volumes, and extrarenal imaging findings, were reviewed in combination with clinical data and conventional imaging results. Of the 31 patients, 19 (61%) showed focal FDG uptake. The remaining 12 study participants showed a diffuse FDG uptake pattern. After volumetric approximation, the affected kidneys were found to be significantly enlarged. Patients who showed a focal uptake pattern had a higher frequency of abscess formation requiring drainage. ACP patients showing diffuse tracer uptake patterns had a more benign clinical course. Seven patients had suspected extrarenal coinfections, and FDG PET/CT successfully confirmed the clinical suspicion in five cases. FDG PET/CT was as sensitive as CT in identifying the six patients (19%) who developed abscesses. Notably, FDG PET/CT findings caused a modification to the initial antibiotic regimen in nine patients (29%). FDG PET/CT may be clinically useful in the assessment of patients with ACP who have a progressive disease course.

  14. Qualitative and quantitative radiological analysis of non-contrast CT is a strong indicator in patients with acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    El-Merhi, Fadi; Mohamad, May; Haydar, Ali; Naffaa, Lena; Nasr, Rami; Deeb, Ibrahim Al-Sheikh; Hamieh, Nadine; Tayara, Ziad; Saade, Charbel

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the performance of non-contrast computed tomography (CT) by reporting the difference in attenuation between normal and inflamed renal parenchyma in patients clinically diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis (APN). This is a retrospective study concerned with non-contrast CT evaluation of 74 patients, admitted with a clinical diagnosis of APN and failed to respond to 48h antibiotics treatment. Mean attenuation values in Hounsfield units (HU) were measured in the upper, middle and lower segments of the inflamed and the normal kidney of the same patient. Independent t-test was performed for statistical analysis. Image evaluation included receiver operating characteristic (ROC), visual grading characteristic (VGC) and kappa analyses. The mean attenuation in the upper, middle and lower segments of the inflamed renal cortex was 32%, 25%, and 29% lower than the mean attenuation of the corresponding cortical segments of the contralateral normal kidney, respectively (p<0.01). The mean attenuation in the upper, middle, and lower segments of the inflamed renal medulla was 48%, 21%, and 30%, lower than the mean attenuation of the corresponding medullary segments of the contralateral normal kidney (p<0.02). The mean attenuation between the inflamed and non-inflamed renal cortex and medulla was 29% and 30% lower respectively (p<0.001). The AUCROC (p<0.001) analysis demonstrated significantly higher scores for pathology detection, irrespective of image quality, compared to clinical and laboratory results with an increased inter-reader agreement from poor to substantial. Non-contrast CT showed a significant decrease in the parenchymal density of the kidney affected with APN in comparison to the contralateral normal kidney of the same patient. This can be incorporated in the diagnostic criteria of APN in NCCT in the emergency setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Usefulness of analytical parameters in the management of paediatric patients with suspicion of acute pyelonephritis. Is procalcitonin reliable?

    PubMed

    Bañuelos-Andrío, L; Espino-Hernández, M; Ruperez-Lucas, M; Villar-Del Campo, M C; Romero-Carrasco, C I; Rodríguez-Caravaca, G

    To investigate the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) and other analytical parameters (white blood cell count [WBC], C-reactive protein [CRP]) as markers of acute renal damage in children after a first febrile or afebrile urinary tract infection (UTI). A retrospective study was conducted on children with a first episode of UTI admitted between January 2009 to December 2011, and in whom serum PCT, CRP and white blood cell count were measured, as well as assessing the acute renal damage with renal scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA) within the first 72h after referral. A descriptive study was performed and ROC curves were plotted, with optimal cut-off points calculated for each parameter. The 101 enrolled patients were divided into two groups according to DMSA scintigraphy results, with 64 patients being classified with acute pyelonephritis (APN), and 37 with UTI. The mean WBC, CRP and PCT values were significantly higher in patients with APN with respect to normal acute DMSA. The area under the ROC curve was 0.862 for PCR, 0.774 for WBC, and 0.731 for PCT. The optimum statistical cut-off value for PCT was 0.285ng/ml (sensitivity 71.4% and specificity 75%). Although the mean levels of fever, WBC, CRP, and PCT were significantly increased in patients with APN than in those who had UTI, the sensitivity and specificity of these analytical parameters are unable to predict the existence of acute renal damage, making the contribution by renal DMSA scintigraphy essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  16. Hemoadsorption in a Case of Severe Septic Shock and Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Nontraumatic Renal Rupture due to Pyelonephritis with Obstructive Uropathy.

    PubMed

    Kousoulas, Lampros; Wittel, Uwe; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Utzolino, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Nontraumatic renal rupture due to pyelonephritis with obstructive uropathy is an uncommon but life-threatening situation. A 25-year-old female presented to the emergency department with acute worsening of abdominal pain that began four weeks earlier. She was found to have peritonitis, leukocytosis, severe lactic acidosis, and a pronounced anemia and imaging was consistent with nontraumatic renal rupture with retroperitoneal abscess, perforation of the colon, and severe necrotizing fasciitis of the right lower limb. She underwent a right nephrectomy, a right hemicolectomy, surgical debridement of the retroperitoneum, and an upper thigh amputation. Due to severe septic shock and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure we performed a combined treatment of hemoadsorption using a Cytosorb hemoadsorber and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Subsequently the patient recovered and was discharged home with no signs of infections and with normal renal function. We present a case of pyelonephritis with nontraumatic renal rupture leading to necrotizing fasciitis with osteomyelitis of the lower limb. The early treatment of the patient with a Cytosorb hemoadsorber led to a rapid hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization and preservation of the renal function, suggesting that hemoadsorption might be a rescue therapy in patients with severe septic shock and traumatic rhabdomyolysis.

  17. Hemoadsorption in a Case of Severe Septic Shock and Necrotizing Fasciitis Caused by Nontraumatic Renal Rupture due to Pyelonephritis with Obstructive Uropathy

    PubMed Central

    Wittel, Uwe; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan; Utzolino, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Background Nontraumatic renal rupture due to pyelonephritis with obstructive uropathy is an uncommon but life-threatening situation. Case Presentation A 25-year-old female presented to the emergency department with acute worsening of abdominal pain that began four weeks earlier. She was found to have peritonitis, leukocytosis, severe lactic acidosis, and a pronounced anemia and imaging was consistent with nontraumatic renal rupture with retroperitoneal abscess, perforation of the colon, and severe necrotizing fasciitis of the right lower limb. She underwent a right nephrectomy, a right hemicolectomy, surgical debridement of the retroperitoneum, and an upper thigh amputation. Due to severe septic shock and rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure we performed a combined treatment of hemoadsorption using a Cytosorb hemoadsorber and continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD). Subsequently the patient recovered and was discharged home with no signs of infections and with normal renal function. Conclusion We present a case of pyelonephritis with nontraumatic renal rupture leading to necrotizing fasciitis with osteomyelitis of the lower limb. The early treatment of the patient with a Cytosorb hemoadsorber led to a rapid hemodynamic and metabolic stabilization and preservation of the renal function, suggesting that hemoadsorption might be a rescue therapy in patients with severe septic shock and traumatic rhabdomyolysis. PMID:29854478

  18. Is 5 days of oral fluoroquinolone enough for acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis? The DTP randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Dinh, A; Davido, B; Etienne, M; Bouchand, F; Raynaud-Lambinet, A; Aslangul-Castier, E; Szwebel, T A; Duran, C; Der Sahakian, G; Jordy, C; Ranchoux, X; Sembach, N; Mathieu, E; Davido, A; Salomon, J; Bernard, L

    2017-08-01

    The treatment duration of acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) is still under debate. As shortening treatment duration could be a means to reduce antimicrobial resistance, we aimed to establish whether 5 days of antibiotic treatment is non-inferior to 10 days in patients with AUP. We performed an open-label prospective randomized trial comparing 5 days to 10 days of fluoroquinolone treatment for AUP. The inclusion criteria were: female patients aged ≥18 years with clinical signs of urinary tract infection, fever >38 °C, and positive urinalysis. Patients were randomized to either 5 or 10 days of fluoroquinolone treatment. Outcome was cure at day 10 and day 30 after the end of treatment. One hundred patients were randomized and 12 were excluded after randomization. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 31.8 ± 11 years old and the mean ± SD temperature was 38.6 ± 0.7 °C. The main bacterium involved was Escherichia coli (n = 86; 97.7%) and 3 (3.4%) patients had a positive blood culture. In the post-hoc analysis, clinical cure 10 days after the end of the treatment was 28/30 (93.3%) in the 5-day arm and 36/38 (94.7%) in the 10-day arm (p = 1.00). At day 30, the clinical cure rate was 23/23 (100%) in the 5-day arm and 20/20 (100%) in the 10-day arm (p = 1.00). The microbiological cure rate was 20/23 (87.0%) in the 5-day arm and 16/20 (80.0%) in the 10-day arm (p = 1.00). The efficacy of 5 days of fluoroquinolone treatment does not seem different from 10 days of treatment for AUP.

  19. Acute pyelonephritis in transplanted kidneys: can diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging be useful for diagnosis and follow-up?

    PubMed

    Faletti, Riccardo; Cassinis, Maria Carla; Gatti, Marco; Giglio, Jacopo; Guarnaccia, Carla; Messina, Marina; Bergamasco, Laura; Fonio, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    To assess reliability of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) in the management of acute pyelonephritis (APN) foci in transplanted kidneys. In the 2012-2014 period, 24 kidney-transplanted patients underwent MR screening for clinical suspicion of APN. Two readers independently analyzed all images, establishing presence and location of APN foci. The 22 patients who were positive at the MR exam constituted the study population. For each patient the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) was measured in the APN foci and in three sites of the healthy parenchyma (case-control comparison). The data were matched to the laboratory measurements for white blood cell, C-reactive protein, and serum creatinine. Forty-six APN foci were found in 22/24 patients. At the acute stage, the difference in ADC between healthy parenchyma and APN foci was significant (2.06 ± 0.16 vs. 1.43 ± 0.32 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s; p < 0.0001). The performance of ADC as APN indicator was tested by the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve: the area under curve AUC = 0.99 witnessed an excellent discriminatory ability, with threshold APN/normal parenchyma 1.9 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s. At the 1-month follow-up 43/46 APN foci were no longer visible, with ADC values significantly higher than at the acute stage; all laboratory data were physiological, with WBC significantly reduced from the acute phase (5.2 ± 1.6 × 10(9)/L vs. 10.6 ± 4.8 × 10(9)/L; p < 0.0001). The other 3 patients underwent further therapy and exams, including a third MR. DW-MRI with ADC measurement seems to be a reliable tool in diagnosing and monitoring APN foci in transplanted kidneys, with clinical impact on patient management.

  20. Performance of Quick Sequential (Sepsis Related) and Sequential (Sepsis Related) Organ Failure Assessment to Predict Mortality in Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis Associated with Upper Urinary Tract Calculi.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Kawano, Keizo; Morimoto, Shinji

    2018-06-01

    The Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock Task Force proposed a new definition of sepsis based on the SOFA (Sequential [Sepsis-related] Organ Failure Assessment) score and introduced a novel scoring system, quickSOFA, to screen patients at high risk for sepsis. However, the clinical usefulness of these systems is unclear. Therefore, we investigated predictive performance for mortality in patients with acute pyelonephritis associated with upper urinary tract calculi. This retrospective study included 141 consecutive patients who were clinically diagnosed with acute pyelonephritis associated with upper urinary tract calculi outside the intensive care unit. We evaluated the performance of the quickSOFA, SOFA and SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome) scores to predict in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit admission using the AUC of the ROC curve, net reclassification, integrated discrimination improvements and decision curve analysis. A total of 11 patients (8%) died in the hospital and 26 (18%) were admitted to the intensive care unit. The AUC of quickSOFA to predict in-hospital mortality and intensive care unit admission was significantly greater than that of SIRS (each p <0.001) and comparable to that of SOFA (p = 0.47 and 0.57, respectively). When incorporated into the baseline model consisting of patient age, gender and the Charlson Comorbidity Index, quickSOFA and SOFA provided a greater change in AUC, and in net classification and integrated discrimination improvements than SIRS for each outcome. Decision curve analyses revealed that the quickSOFA and SOFA incorporated models showed a superior net benefit compared to the SIRS incorporated model for most examined probabilities of the 2 outcomes. The in-hospital mortality rate of patients with a quickSOFA score of 2 or greater and a SOFA score of 7 or greater, which were the optimal cutoffs determined by the Youden index, was 18% and 28%, respectively. SOFA and

  1. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    MedlinePlus

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  2. Prevention of renal scarring from pyelonephritis in nonhuman primates by vaccination with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, J A; Kaack, M B; Baskin, G; Svenson, S B

    1993-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys were vaccinated with a synthetic Escherichia coli serotype O8 oligosaccharide-protein conjugate. Using our experimental pyelonephritis monkey model, we tested whether such immunization was protective against the renal damage from inflammation following experimental infection with a P-fimbriated O-antigenically homologous E. coli strain. The vaccination did not significantly alter the duration of bacteriuria or interfere with the infection. However, the vaccine was efficient in renal protection, as vaccinated animals showed significantly less intratubular infiltration of neutrophils (P < 0.02) and the degree of renal scarring was also significantly less in these animals (P > 0.005) than in the control animals. Total kidney involvement in the vaccinated animals was 16.9%, compared with 32.5% in the control animals (P = 0.07). PMID:8225595

  3. The effect of vitamin A on renal damage following acute pyelonephritis in children: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Chen, Jin-Liang; Zhao, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Renal scarring after acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children is of concern and in the worst cases leads to long-term cardiovascular morbidity. There are reports that vitamin A may alleviate renal damage following APN. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the role of vitamin A in the alleviation of renal damage. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials (CENTRAL, the Cochrane Library) and the Wang Fang database (Chinese) from their inception to February 3, 2015 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating vitamin A and renal damage. Primary outcome was number of patients/kidneys with renal damage, defined as persistence of photopenic lesions based on technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy. We calculated pooled relative risks for renal damage in the vitamin A group. Four RCTs, involving a total of 248 patients aged 1-144 months (120 in experimental group, 128 in control group), were included in the meta-analysis. Vitamin A was inversely associated with renal damage (relative risk 0.53, 95 % confidence interval 0.43, 0.67) when compared with placebo group after an average follow-up of 5 months. Current evidence indicates that vitamin A may exert a preventive effect on renal damage in children with APN. However, this finding largely relies on a few studies of low methodological quality, i.e., high risk of selection bias, performance bias and attrition bias. Hence, high-quality and adequately powered RCTs are warranted.

  4. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  5. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count.

    PubMed

    Kul'chyns'kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey's immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG ("NeuroCom Standard", KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV ("Cardiolab+VSR", KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems.

  6. Causal Neuro-immune Relationships at Patients with Chronic Pyelonephritis and Cholecystitis. Correlations between Parameters EEG, HRV and White Blood Cell Count

    PubMed Central

    Kul’chyns’kyi, Andriy B; Kyjenko, Valeriy M; Zukow, Walery; Popovych, Igor L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We aim to analyze in bounds KJ Tracey’s immunological homunculus conception the relationships between parameters of electroencephalogram (EEG) and heart rate variability (HRV), on the one hand, and the parameters of bhite blood cell count, on the other hand. Methods In basal conditions in 23 men, patients with chronic pyelonephritis and cholecystitis in remission, recorded EEG (“NeuroCom Standard”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine) and HRV (“Cardiolab+VSR”, KhAI Medica, Ukraine). In portion of blood counted up white blood cell count. Results Revealed that canonical correlation between constellation EEG and HRV parameters form with blood level of leukocytes 0.92 (p<10-5), with relative content in white blood cell count stubnuclear neutrophiles 0.93 (p<10-5), segmentonucleary neutrophiles 0.89 (p<10-3), eosinophiles 0.87 (p=0.003), lymphocytes 0.77 (p<10-3) and with monocytes 0.75 (p=0.003). Conclusion Parameters of white blood cell count significantly modulated by electrical activity some structures of central and autonomic nervous systems. PMID:28730179

  7. The complement factor 5a receptor 1 has a pathogenic role in chronic inflammation and renal fibrosis in a murine model of chronic pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Choudhry, Naheed; Li, Ke; Zhang, Ting; Wu, Kun-Yi; Song, Yun; Farrar, Conrad A; Wang, Na; Liu, Cheng-Fei; Peng, Qi; Wu, Weiju; Sacks, Steven H; Zhou, Wuding

    2016-09-01

    Complement factor 5a (C5a) interaction with its receptor (C5aR1) contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, including acute kidney injury. However, its role in chronic inflammation, particularly in pathogen-associated disorders, is largely unknown. Here we tested whether the development of chronic inflammation and renal fibrosis is dependent on C5aR1 in a murine model of chronic pyelonephritis. C5aR1-deficient (C5aR1-/-) mice showed a significant reduction in bacterial load, tubule injury and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in the kidneys following infection, compared with C5aR1-sufficient mice. This was associated with reduced renal leukocyte infiltration specifically for the population of Ly6Chi proinflammatory monocytes/macrophages and reduced intrarenal gene expression of key proinflammatory and profibrogenic factors in C5aR1-/- mice following infection. Antagonizing C5aR1 decreased renal bacterial load, tissue inflammation and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Ex vivo and in vitro studies showed that under infection conditions, C5a/C5aR1 interaction upregulated the production of proinflammatory and profibrogenic factors by renal tubular epithelial cells and monocytes/macrophages, whereas the phagocytic function of monocytes/macrophages was down-regulated. Thus, C5aR1-dependent bacterial colonization of the tubular epithelium, C5a/C5aR1-mediated upregulation of local inflammatory responses to uropathogenic E. coli and impairment of phagocytic function of phagocytes contribute to persistent bacterial colonization of the kidney, chronic renal inflammation and subsequent tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Renal pelvic and ureteral ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with chronic kidney disease in comparison with normal cats, and cats with pyelonephritis or ureteral obstruction.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Jessica M; Dowers, Kristy; Herndon, Andrea K; Randall, Elissa K

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The objective was to describe ultrasonographic characteristics of cats with stable chronic kidney disease (CKD) and determine if these were significantly different from cats with pyelonephritis (Pyelo) and ureteral obstruction (UO), to aid in clinical assessment during uremic crisis. Methods Sixty-six cats with stable CKD were prospectively enrolled, as well as normal control cats (n = 10), cats with a clinical diagnosis of Pyelo (n = 13) and cats with UO confirmed by surgical resolution (n = 11). Renal ultrasound was performed and routine still images and cine loops were obtained. Analysis included degree of pelvic dilation, and presence and degree of ureteral dilation. Measurements were compared between groups using non-parametric one-way ANOVA with Dunn's post-hoc analysis. Results In total, 66.6% of CKD cats had measurable renal pelvic dilation compared with 30.0% of normal cats, 84.6% of Pyelo cats and 100% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and normal cats, or CKD cats and Pyelo cats. On almost all measurement categories, UO cats had significantly greater renal pelvic widths compared with CKD cats and normal cats ( P <0.05) but not Pyelo cats. Six percent of stable CKD cats had measurable proximal ureteral dilation on one or both sides vs 46.2% of Pyelo cats and 81.8% of UO cats. There was no statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between normal and CKD cats, or between Pyelo and UO cats. There was a statistically significant difference in proximal ureteral width between CKD and Pyelo cats, CKD and UO cats, normal and UO cats, and normal and Pyelo cats. Conclusions and relevance No significant difference in renal pelvic widths between CKD cats and Pyelo cats was seen. These data suggest CKD cats should have a baseline ultrasonography performed so that abnormalities documented during a uremic crisis can be better interpreted.

  9. Ceftolozane-tazobactam compared with levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections, including pyelonephritis: a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial (ASPECT-cUTI).

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M; Umeh, Obiamiwe; Steenbergen, Judith; Yuan, Guojun; Darouiche, Rabih O

    2015-05-16

    Treatment of complicated urinary-tract infections is challenging due to rising antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the efficacy and safety of ceftolozane-tazobactam, a novel antibacterial with Gram-negative activity, in the treatment of patients with complicated lower-urinary-tract infections or pyelonephritis. ASPECT-cUTI was a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, non-inferiority trial done in 209 centres in 25 countries. Between July, 2011, and September, 2013, hospital inpatients aged 18 years or older who had pyuria and a diagnosis of a complicated lower-urinary-tract infection or pyelonephritis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous 1·5 g ceftolozane-tazobactam every 8 h or intravenous high-dose (750 mg) levofloxacin once daily for 7 days. The randomisation schedule was computer generated in blocks of four and stratified by study site. The next allocation was obtained by the study site pharmacist via an interactive voice-response system. The primary endpoint was a composite of microbiological eradication and clinical cure 5-9 days after treatment in the microbiological modified intention-to-treat (MITT) population, with a non-inferiority margin of 10%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT01345929 and NCT01345955. Of 1083 patients enrolled, 800 (73·9%), of whom 656 (82·0%) had pyelonephritis, were included in the microbiological MITT population. Ceftolozane-tazobactam was non-inferior to levofloxacin for composite cure (306 [76·9%] of 398 vs 275 [68·4%] of 402, 95% CI 2·3-14·6) and, as the lower bound of the two-sided 95% CI around the treatment difference was positive and greater than zero, superiority was indicated. Adverse event profiles were similar in the two treatment groups and were mainly non-serious. Treatment with ceftolozane-tazobactam led to better responses than high-dose levofloxacin in patients with complicated lower-urinary-tract infections or pyelonephritis. Cubist Pharmaceuticals

  10. Stopping the effective non-fluoroquinolone antibiotics at day 7 vs continuing until day 14 in adults with acute pyelonephritis requiring hospitalization: A randomized non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Rudrabhatla, Pavankumar; Deepanjali, Surendran; Mandal, Jharna; Swaminathan, Rathinam Palamalai; Kadhiravan, Tamilarasu

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate whether stopping the effective antibiotic treatment following clinical improvement at Day 7 (Truncated treatment) would be non-inferior to continued treatment until Day 14 (Continued treatment) in patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN) requiring hospitalization treated with non-fluoroquinolone (non-FQ) antibiotics. Hospitalized adult men and non-pregnant women with culture-confirmed APN were eligible for participation after they had clinically improved following empirical or culture-guided treatment with intravenous non-FQ antibiotic(s). We excluded patients with severe sepsis, abscesses, prostatitis, recurrent or catheter-associated urinary tract infection, or urinary tract obstruction. We randomized eligible patients on Day 7 of effective treatment and assessed them at Weeks 1 and 6 after treatment completion. The primary outcome was retreatment for recurrent urinary tract infection. The prespecified non-inferiority margin was 15%. Between March 17, 2015 and August 22, 2016, we randomly allocated 54 patients-27 patients in each arm. Twenty-four (44%) patients were male, and 26 (48%) had diabetes mellitus. Escherichia coli was the most common urinary isolate (47 [87%] patients); 36 (78%) were resistant to ciprofloxacin. In all, 41 (76%) patients received amikacin-based treatment. At the end of 6 weeks, no patient in the truncated treatment arm required retreatment, whereas 1 patient in the continued treatment arm was retreated. Difference (90% CI) in retreatment was -3.7% (-15.01% to 6.15%). Upper bound of the difference (6.15%) was below the prespecified limit, establishing non-inferiority of truncated treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria at Week 6 was similar between the two arms (3/24 vs. 3/26; P = 1.0). Patients in the truncated treatment arm had significantly shorter hospital stay (8 [7-10] vs. 14 [14-15] days; P < 0.001) and less antibiotic consumption per patient (8.4 ± 2.8 vs. 17.4 ± 8.3 DDDs; P < 0.001). Stopping the effective non

  11. The combination of urinary IL - 6 and renal biometry as useful diagnostic tools to differentiate acute pyelonephritis from lower urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Azab, Sherif; Zakaria, Mostafa; Raafat, Mona; Seief, Hadeel

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the role of renal ultrasound (RUS) and urinary IL-6 in the differentiation between acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI). This prospective study was carried out at the Pediatric and urology outpatient and inpatient departments of Cairo University Children's Hospital as well as October 6 University Hospital and it included 155 children between one month and fourteen years old with positive culture UTI. Patients were categorized into APN and LUTI based on their clinical features and laboratory parameters. Thirty healthy children, age and sex matched constituted the control group. Children with positive urine cultures were treated with appropriate antibiotics. Before treatment, urinary IL-6 was measured by enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA), and renal ultrasound (RUS) was done. CRP (C-reactive protein), IL-6 and RUS were repeated on the 14th day of antibiotic treatment to evaluate the changes in their levels in response to treatment. UIL-6 levels were more significantly higher in patients with APN than in patients with LUTI (24.3±19.3pg/mL for APN vs. 7.3±2.7pg/mL in LUTI (95% CI: 2.6-27.4; p< 0.01). Similarly, serum CRP was more significantly higher in patients with APN than in children with LUTI (19.7±9.1μg/mL vs. 5.5±2.3μg/mL (p< 0.01). IL-6 levels >20pg/mL and serum CRP >20μg/mL were highly reliable markers of APN. Mean renal volume and mean volume difference between the two kidneys in the APN group were more than that of the LUTI and control groups (P< 0.001). Renal volume between 120-130% of normal was the best for differentiating APN from LUTI. RUS and urinary IL-6 levels have a highly dependable role in the differentiation between APN and LUTI especially in places where other investigations are not available and/ or affordable. Copyright© by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships, biofilm formation, motility, antibiotic resistance and extended virulence genotypes among Escherichia coli strains from women with community-onset primitive acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Pompilio, Arianna; Crocetta, Valentina; Savini, Vincenzo; Petrelli, Dezemona; Di Nicola, Marta; Bucco, Silvia; Amoroso, Luigi; Bonomini, Mario; Di Bonaventura, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The present work set out to search for a virulence repertoire distinctive for Escherichia coli causing primitive acute pyelonephritis (APN). To this end, the virulence potential of 18 E. coli APN strains was genotypically and phenotypically assessed, comparatively with 19 strains causing recurrent cystitis (RC), and 16 clinically not significant (control, CO) strains. Most of the strains belong to phylogenetic group B1 (69.8%; p<0.01), and APN strains showed unique features, which are the presence of phylogroup A, and the absence of phylogroup B2 and non-typeable strains. Overall, the most dominant virulence factor genes (VFGs) were ecpA and fyuA (92.4 and 86.7%, respectively; p<0.05), and the mean number of VFGs was significantly higher in uropathogenic strains. Particularly, papAH and malX were exclusive for uropathogenic strains. APN and RC strains showed a significantly higher prevalence of fyuA, usp, and malX than of CO strains. Compared to RC strains, APN ones showed a higher prevalence of iha, but a lower prevalence of iroN, cnf1, and kpsMT-II. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed a higher proportion of two gene clusters (malX and usp, and fyuA and ecpA) were detected in the APN and RC groups than in CO, whereas iutA and iha clusters were detected more frequently in APN strains. The motility level did not differ among the study-groups and phylogroups considered, although a higher proportion of swarming strains was observed in APN strains. Antibiotic-resistance rates were generally low except for ampicillin (37.7%), and were not associated with specific study- or phylogenetic groups. APN and RC strains produced more biofilm than CO strains. In APN strains, iha was associated with higher biofilm biomass formation, whereas iroN and KpSMT-K1 were associated with a lower amount of biofilm biomass. Further work is needed to grasp the virulence and fitness mechanisms adopted by E. coli causing APN, and hence develop new therapeutic and prophylactic approaches.

  13. Exploring the Anti-quorum Sensing and Antibiofilm Efficacy of Phytol against Serratia marcescens Associated Acute Pyelonephritis Infection in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Ramanathan; Mohankumar, Ramar; Kannappan, Arunachalam; Karthick Raja, Veeramani; Archunan, Govindaraju; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah; Ruckmani, Kandasamy; Veera Ravi, Arumugam

    2017-01-01

    Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanism, a bacterial density-dependent gene expression system, governs the Serratia marcescens pathogenesis through the production of virulence factors and biofilm formation. The present study demonstrates the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS), antibiofilm potential and in vivo protective effect of phytol, a diterpene alcohol broadly utilized as food additive and in therapeutics fields. In vitro treatment of phytol (5 and 10 μg/ml) showed decreasing level of biofilm formation, lipase and hemolysin production in S. marcescens compared to their respective controls. More, microscopic analyses confirmed the antibiofilm potential of phytol. The biofilm related phenomenons such as swarming motility and exopolysccharide productions were also inhibited by phytol. Furthermore, the real-time analysis elucidated the molecular mechanism of phytol which showed downregulation of fimA, fimC, flhC, flhD, bsmB, pigP, and shlA gene expressions. On the other hand, the in vivo rescue effect of phytol was assessed against S. marcescens associated acute pyelonephritis in Wistar rat. Compared to the infected and vehicle controls, the phytol treated groups (100 and 200 mg/kg) showed decreased level of bacterial counts in kidney, bladder tissues and urine samples on the 5th post infection day. As well, the phytol treatment showed reduced level of virulence enzymes such as lipase and protease productions compared to the infected and vehicle controls. Further, the infected and vehicle controls showed increasing level of inflammatory markers such as malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) productions. In contrast, the phytol treatment showed decreasing level of inflammatory markers. In histopathology, the uninfected animal showed normal kidney and bladder structure, wherein, the infected animals showed extensive infiltration of neutrophils in kidney and bladder tissues. In contrast, the phytol treatment showed normal kidney and bladder tissues

  14. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, in Healthy Subjects, Subjects with Various Degrees of Renal Function, and Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection or Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Nao; Echols, Roger; Wajima, Toshihiro

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to perform a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis based on plasma cefiderocol concentrations in healthy subjects, subjects with various degrees of renal function, and patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) caused by Gram-negative pathogens and to calculate the fraction of the time during the dosing interval where the free drug concentration in plasma exceeds the MIC (fTMIC). Population PK models were developed with three renal function markers, body surface area-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), absolute eGFR, and creatinine clearance, on the basis of 2,571 plasma concentrations from 91 subjects without infection and 238 patients with infection. The population PK models with each renal function marker adequately described the plasma cefiderocol concentrations. Clear relationships of total clearance (CL) to all renal function markers were observed. Body weight and disease status (with or without infection) were also significant covariates. The CL in patients with infection was 26% higher than that in subjects without infection. The fTMIC values were more than 75% in all patients (and were 100% in most patients), suggesting that a sufficient exposure to cefiderocol was provided by the tested dose regimens (2 g every 8 h as the standard dose regimen) for the treatment of cUTI or AUP caused by Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:29038272

  15. Population Pharmacokinetic Analysis of Cefiderocol, a Parenteral Siderophore Cephalosporin, in Healthy Subjects, Subjects with Various Degrees of Renal Function, and Patients with Complicated Urinary Tract Infection or Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Nao; Katsube, Takayuki; Echols, Roger; Wajima, Toshihiro

    2018-02-01

    Cefiderocol, a novel parenteral siderophore cephalosporin, exhibits potent efficacy against most Gram-negative bacteria, including carbapenem-resistant strains. The aim of this study was to perform a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis based on plasma cefiderocol concentrations in healthy subjects, subjects with various degrees of renal function, and patients with complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) or acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) caused by Gram-negative pathogens and to calculate the fraction of the time during the dosing interval where the free drug concentration in plasma exceeds the MIC ( fT MIC ). Population PK models were developed with three renal function markers, body surface area-adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), absolute eGFR, and creatinine clearance, on the basis of 2,571 plasma concentrations from 91 subjects without infection and 238 patients with infection. The population PK models with each renal function marker adequately described the plasma cefiderocol concentrations. Clear relationships of total clearance (CL) to all renal function markers were observed. Body weight and disease status (with or without infection) were also significant covariates. The CL in patients with infection was 26% higher than that in subjects without infection. The fT MIC values were more than 75% in all patients (and were 100% in most patients), suggesting that a sufficient exposure to cefiderocol was provided by the tested dose regimens (2 g every 8 h as the standard dose regimen) for the treatment of cUTI or AUP caused by Gram-negative pathogens. Copyright © 2018 Kawaguchi et al.

  16. A double-blind, randomized comparison of levofloxacin 750 mg once-daily for five days with ciprofloxacin 400/500 mg twice-daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Janet; Kaul, Simrati; Khashab, Mohammed; Fisher, Alan C; Kahn, James B

    2008-01-01

    A clinical study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days to ciprofloxacin twice daily for 10 days for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or acute pyelonephritis (AP). A multicenter, double-blind, randomized, noninferiority study enrolled subjects with AP or cUTI. Subjects received either levofloxacin 750 mg intravenously or orally once daily for 5 days or ciprofloxacin 400 mg intravenously and/or ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days and were evaluated at end of therapy, posttherapy, and poststudy for microbiologic eradication and clinical outcome. A total of 1109 subjects were enrolled; 619 with confirmed diagnosis of AP or cUTI and a study entry uropathogen with a colony count 10(5) CFU/mL or greater and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. Five hundred six subjects met all criteria for inclusion and were included in the microbiologically evaluable population. At end of therapy, eradication rates in the modified intent-to-treat population were 79.8% for levofloxacin and 77.5% for ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (95% CI, -8.8% to 4.1%). In the microbiologically evaluable population, eradication rates were 88.3% for levofloxacin and 86.7% for ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (95% CI, -7.4% to 4.2%). Outcomes were comparable for the 2 treatments at posttherapy and poststudy. This study demonstrates that both drug regimens are safe and effective and that a 5-day course of therapy with levofloxacin, administered at a dose of 750 mg once daily, is noninferior to a 10-day course of therapy with ciprofloxacin for the treatment of AP and cUTI.

  17. Efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam versus imipenem-cilastatin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis, in hospitalized adults: results of a prospective, investigator-blinded, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, José A; González Patzán, Luis Demetrio; Stricklin, David; Duttaroy, Dipesh D; Kreidly, Zouheir; Lipka, Joy; Sable, Carole

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective phase II, randomized, investigator-blinded study (NCT00690378) was to compare the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin in hospitalized adults with serious complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI) due to Gram-negative pathogens. Patients aged between 18 and 90 years with cUTI were enrolled and stratified by infection type (acute pyelonephritis or other cUTI) and randomized 1:1 to receive intravenous ceftazidime 500 mg plus avibactam 125 mg every 8 hours or imipenem-cilastatin 500 mg every 6 hours. Patients meeting pre-specified improvement criteria after 4 days could be switched to oral ciprofloxacin. Patients were treated for a total of 7-14 days. The primary efficacy objective was a favorable microbiological response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit 5-9 days post-therapy in microbiologically evaluable (ME) patients. Overall, 135 patients received study therapy (safety population); 62 were included in the ME population (ceftazidime-avibactam, n = 27; imipenem-cilastatin, n = 35). The predominant uropathogen was Escherichia coli. Favorable microbiological response was achieved in 70.4% of ME patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and 71.4% receiving imipenem-cilastatin at the TOC visit (observed difference -1.1% [95% CI: -27.2%, 25.0%]). Among ME patients with ceftazidime-resistant uropathogens, response was observed in 6/7 (85.7%) receiving ceftazidime-avibactam. Adverse events were observed in 67.6% and 76.1% of patients receiving ceftazidime-avibactam and imipenem-cilastatin, respectively. Limitations of the study include the small number of patients in the ME population. The results suggest that the efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam may be similar to that of imipenem-cilastatin.

  18. Complicated Genitourinary Tract Infections and Mimics.

    PubMed

    Yu, Michael; Robinson, Kathryn; Siegel, Cary; Menias, Christine

    This article provides pictorial review of complicated upper and lower genitourinary infections and their mimics. Imaging features of upper urinary tract infections including uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis, xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN), emphysematous pyelonephritis, perirenal abscess, and pyonephrosis are first reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including contrast-associated nephrotoxicity, renal infarcts, malakoplakia, renal cell cancer, leukemia or lymphoma and Castleman's disease. Next, imaging features of lower urinary tract infections including cystitis, emphysematous cystitis, enterovesical, colovesical and vesicovaginal fistulas, Fournier gangrene, prostatitis, epididymitis, and orchitis are reviewed and then followed by pictorial review of their mimics including gas in the bladder and perineum related to instrumentation, radiation cystitis, bladder cancer, testicular torsion, testicular trauma, and testicular cancer and lymphoma. Recognizing imaging characteristics of complicated genitourinary infections and their mimics would allow clinicians to provide appropriate timely management. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A trial of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily for 5 days versus ciprofloxacin 400 mg and/or 500 mg twice daily for 10 days in the treatment of acute pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Klausner, Howard A; Brown, Patricia; Peterson, Janet; Kaul, Simrati; Khashab, Mohammed; Fisher, Alan C; Kahn, James B

    2007-11-01

    A double-blind, noninferiority trial was conducted to establish the safety and efficacy of a once-daily, 5-day course of levofloxacin 750 mg compared to a twice-daily, 10-day course of ciprofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and acute pyelonephritis (AP). This report focuses on subjects with AP. Adult male and female subjects with clinical signs and symptoms of AP and laboratory confirmation of their diagnosis were randomized to receive one dose of levofloxacin 750 mg once daily intravenously (i.v.) or orally and one dose of placebo for 5 days, followed by placebo; or ciprofloxacin 400 mg i.v. and/or 500 mg orally twice daily for 10 days. The primary, prospectively defined end point was microbiologic eradication at post-therapy (study days 15-22). Secondary outcomes included clinical response and safety and tolerability. In the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population (levofloxacin 94, ciprofloxacin 98), 83% of levofloxacin-treated and 79.6% of ciprofloxacin-treated subjects achieved microbiological eradication (difference -3.4, 95% CI -14.4%, 7.6%). In the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population (levofloxacin 80, ciprofloxacin 76), 92.5% of levofloxacin-treated vs. 93.4% of ciprofloxacin-treated subjects (difference -0.9, 95% CI -7.1%, 8.9%) achieved microbiologic eradication. Clinical success was achieved in 86.2% vs. 80.6% (mITT) and in 92.5% vs. 89.5% (ME) of levofloxacin-treated and ciprofloxacin-treated subjects, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen. Few (2.1%) of the pathogens were fluoroquinolone-resistant. Adverse events (AEs) were similar to those seen previously with both agents. Potential limitations are that this analysis is based on a subset of subjects from a larger study and, because of different durations of therapy, the results may be biased against levofloxacin. High-dose, short-course therapy with levofloxacin in subjects with AP is at least as effective as standard 10-day therapy

  20. Treatment of complicated urinary tract infection and acute pyelonephritis by short-course intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg/day) or conventional intravenous/oral levofloxacin (500 mg/day): prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hong; Li, Xiao; Ni, Zhao-Hui; Niu, Jian-Ying; Cao, Bin; Xu, Jie; Cheng, Hong; Tu, Xiao-Wen; Ren, Ai-Min; Hu, Ying; Xing, Chang-Ying; Liu, Ying-Hong; Li, Yan-Feng; Cen, Jun; Zhou, Rong; Xu, Xu-Dong; Qiu, Xiao-Hui; Chen, Nan

    2017-03-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of short-course intravenous levofloxacin (LVFX) 750 mg with a conventional intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX 500 mg in patients from China with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTIs) and acute pyelonephritis (APN). This was a prospective, open-label, randomized, controlled, multicenter, non-inferiority clinical trial. Patients with cUTI and APN were randomly assigned to a short-course therapy group (intravenous LVFX at750 mg/day for 5 days) or a conventional therapy group (intravenous/oral regimen of LVFX at 500 mg/day for 7-14 days). The clinical, laboratory, and microbiological results were evaluated for efficacy and safety. The median dose of LVFX was 3555.4 mg in the short-course therapy group and 4874.2 mg in the conventional therapy group. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated the clinical effectiveness in the short-course therapy group (89.87%, 142/158) was non-inferior to that in the conventional therapy group (89.31%, 142/159). The microbiological effectiveness rates were also similar (short-course therapy: 89.55%, 60/67; conventional therapy: 86.30%, 63/73; p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in other parameters, including clinical and microbiological recurrence rates. The incidence of adverse effects and drug-related adverse effects were also similar for the short-course therapy group (21.95%, 36/164; 18.90%, 31/164) and the conventional therapy group (23.03%, 38/165; 15.76%, 26/165). Patients with cUTIs and APN who were given short-course LVFX therapy and conventional LVFX therapy had similar outcomes in clinical and microbiological efficacy, tolerance, and safety. The short-course therapy described here is a more convenient alternative to the conventional regimen with potential implication in anti-resistance and cost saving.

  1. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides – a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response. PMID:23732397

  2. The innate immune response during urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Becknell, Brian; Watson, Joshua; Hains, David S

    2014-07-01

    Despite its proximity to the fecal flora, the urinary tract is considered sterile. The precise mechanisms by which the urinary tract maintains sterility are not well understood. Host immune responses are critically important in the antimicrobial defense of the urinary tract. During recent years, considerable advances have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying immune homeostasis of the kidney and urinary tract. Dysfunctions in these immune mechanisms may result in acute disease, tissue destruction and overwhelming infection. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the innate immune response in the urinary tract in response to microbial assault. In doing so, we focus on the role of antimicrobial peptides-a ubiquitous component of the innate immune response.

  3. Sorting the Alphabet Soup of Renal Pathology: A Review.

    PubMed

    Curran-Melendez, Sheilah M; Hartman, Matthew S; Heller, Matthew T; Okechukwu, Nancy

    2016-01-28

    Diseases of the kidney often have their names shortened, creating an arcane set of acronyms which can be confusing to both radiologists and clinicians. This review of renal pathology aims to explain some of the most commonly used acronyms within the field. For each entity, a summary of the clinical features, pathophysiology, and radiological findings is included to aid in the understanding and differentiation of these entities. Discussed topics include acute cortical necrosis, autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, angiomyolipoma, autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, acute tubular necrosis, localized cystic renal disease, multicystic dysplastic kidney, multilocular cystic nephroma, multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma, medullary sponge kidney, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, renal papillary necrosis, transitional cell carcinoma, and xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. Copyright © 2016 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A study of the intrarenal recycling of urea in the rat with chronic experimental pyelonephritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, R M; Weber, H; Turchin, L; Fine, L G; Bourgoignie, J J; Bricker, N S

    1976-01-01

    The concentrating ability of the kidney was studied by clearance and micropuncture techniques and tissue slice analyses in normal rats with two intact kidneys (intact controls), normal rats with a solitary kidney (uninephrectomized controls), and uremic rats with a single pyelonephritic kidney. Urinary osmolality after water deprivation for 24 h and administration of antidiuretic hormone was 2,501+/-217 and 2,874+/-392 mosmol/kg H2O in intact and uninephrectomized control rats, respectively, and 929+/-130 mosmol/kg H2O in pyelonephritic rats (P less than 0.001 compared to each control group). Fractional water reabsorption and concentrating ability were significantly decreased in the pyelonephritic group, and, to achieve an equivalent fractional excretion of urea, a greater fractional excretion of water was required in the pyelonephritic rats than in the control rats. Whole animal glomerular filtration rate was 1.57+/-0.19 ml/min and 1.39+/-0.18 ml/min in intact and in uninephrectomized controls, respectively, and 0.30+/-0.07 ml/min in pyelonephritic rats (P less than 0.001 compared to each control group). Single nephron glomerular filtration rate was 35.6+/-3.8 nl/min in intact control rats and was significantly increased (P less than 0.05) in both uninephrectomized (88.0+/-10.8 nl/min) and pyelonephritic rats (71.5+/-14.4 nl/min). In all groups fractional water delivery and fractional sodium delivery were closely comparable at the end of the proximal convoluted tubule and at the beginning of the distal convoluted tubule. In contrast, fractional urea delivery out of the proximal tubule was greater in the intact control group (73+/-8%) than in either the uninephrectomized (52+/-2%) or the pyelonephritic group (53+/-3%) (P less than 0.005). Fractional urea delivery at the early part of the distal tubule increased significantly to 137+/-11% and 93+/-6% of the filtered load in intact control and uninephrectomized control rats, respectively (P less than 0.001 compared to the late proximal values of each group), but failed to increase significantly in pyelonephritic rats (65+/-13%), indicating interruption of the normal recycling of urea in the latter group. Analysis of tissue slices demonstrated a rising corticopapillary gradient for total tissue water solute concentration as well as for tissue water urea concentration in both groups of control rats. In contrast, the pyelonephritic animals exhibited no similar gradients from cortex to papilla. These data indicate that the pyelonephritic kidney fails to recycle urea and accumulate interstitial solute. The latter must inevitably lead to a concentrating defect. Images PMID:993348

  5. [Results of two treatment regimens for pyelonephritis during pregnancy and correlation with pregnancy outcome].

    PubMed

    Calegari, Saron Souza; Konopka, Cristine Kolling; Balestrin, Bruna; Hoffmann, Maurício Scopel; de Souza, Floriano Soeiro; Resener, Elaine Verena

    2012-08-01

    To determine the epidemiological profile of women admitted for urinary tract infection as well as to verify the most prevalent agents and response to antibiotic therapy. A retrospective study of 106 pregnant women admitted to a university hospital for urinary tract infection treatment during the period between January 2007 to December 2010. The evaluation was based on analysis of the medical records of these pregnant women, with the observation of hospitalization and pregnancy data, as well as its outcome. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Science, version 15.0. The bilateral Fisher exact test and Student's t test were used for data analysis, as well as descriptive statistical methods. Positive urine cultures were observed in 60.5% of pregnant women admitted due to urinary tract infection. The most frequent infectious agent was Escherichia coli and no difference in resistance, recurrence or complications was observed between the most frequent etiologic agents. Pregnant women with previous UTI had a higher recurrence risk (OR=10.8; p<0.05). The antibiotics most commonly used during hospitalization were ampicillin and cefazolin. Change of therapeutic agent due to bacterial resistance occurred in 11.9% of patients who took cefazolin and in 20% of patients who took ampicillin (OR=5.5; p<0.05). The rate of gestational complications was the same for both treatments. There was no difference in mean number of days of hospitalization between the treatments. In the studied population ampicillin showed a higher rate of bacterial resistance than cefazolin, requiring a larger number of treatment regimen exchanges, without resulting in differences in clinical outcome or time of hospitalization.

  6. The normal and pathologic renal medulla: a comprehensive overview.

    PubMed

    López, José I; Larrinaga, Gorka; Kuroda, Naoto; Angulo, Javier C

    2015-04-01

    The renal medulla comprises an intricate system of tubules, blood vessels and interstitium that is not well understood by most general pathologists. We conducted an extensive review of the literature on the renal medulla, in both normal and pathologic conditions. We set out in detail the points of key interest to pathologists: normal and pathological development, physiology, microscopic anatomy, histology and immunohistochemistry; and the specific and most common other types of disease associated with this part of the kidney: developmental abnormalities, (multicystic dysplastic kidney, autosomal dominant and recessive polycystic kidney diseases, medullary cystic kidney disease), inflammatory conditions (xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, malakoplakia), hyperplasia and dysplasia, and neoplastic processes (oncocytoma, atypical oncocytic tumors, chromophobe cell carcinoma, collecting duct carcinoma, urothelial carcinoma, other carcinomas, renal medullary fibroma and metastatic tumors). This condensed overview of the origin, function and pathology of the renal medulla, both in terms of development, inflammation and neoplastic processes, should help focus the interest of clinical pathologists on this widely overlooked part of the kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of a Stewardship Intervention on Adherence to Uncomplicated Cystitis and Pyelonephritis Guidelines in an Emergency Department Setting

    PubMed Central

    Hecker, Michelle T.; Fox, Clinton J.; Son, Andrea H.; Cydulka, Rita K.; Siff, Jonathan E.; Emerman, Charles L.; Sethi, Ajay K.; Muganda, Christine P.; Donskey, Curtis J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate adherence to uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) guidelines and UTI diagnostic accuracy in an emergency department (ED) setting before and after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Methods The intervention included implementation of an electronic UTI order set followed by a 2 month period of audit and feedback. For women age 18 – 65 with a UTI diagnosis seen in the ED with no structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary system, we evaluated adherence to guidelines, antimicrobial use, and diagnostic accuracy at baseline, after implementation of the order set (period 1), and after audit and feedback (period 2). Results Adherence to UTI guidelines increased from 44% (baseline) to 68% (period 1) to 82% (period 2) (P≤.015 for each successive period). Prescription of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated cystitis decreased from 44% (baseline) to 14% (period 1) to 13% (period 2) (P<.001 and P = .7 for each successive period). Unnecessary antibiotic days for the 200 patients evaluated in each period decreased from 250 days to 119 days to 52 days (P<.001 for each successive period). For 40% to 42% of cases diagnosed as UTI by clinicians, the diagnosis was deemed unlikely or rejected with no difference between the baseline and intervention periods. Conclusions A stewardship intervention including an electronic order set and audit and feedback was associated with increased adherence to uncomplicated UTI guidelines and reductions in unnecessary antibiotic therapy and fluoroquinolone therapy for cystitis. Many diagnoses were rejected or deemed unlikely, suggesting a need for studies to improve diagnostic accuracy for UTI. PMID:24498394

  8. Preoperative evaluation of renal anatomy and renal masses with helical CT, 3D-CT and 3D-CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Uğur; Erdoğan, Aysun; Gülbay, Mutlu; Karademir, Mehmet Alp; Paşaoğlu, Eşref; Akar, Okkeş Emrah

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to determine the efficacy of three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) and three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) that were reconstructed by using the axial images of the multiphasic helical CT in the preoperative evaluation of renal masses and demonstration of renal anatomy. Twenty patients that were suspected of having renal masses upon initial physical examination and ultrasonographic evaluation were examined through multiphasic helical CT. Two authors executed CT evaluations. Axial images were first examined and then used to reconstruct 3D-CT and 3D- CTA images. Number, location and size of the renal masses and other findings were noted. Renal vascularization and relationships of the renal masses with the neighboring renal structures were further investigated with 3D-CT and 3D-CTA images. Out of 20 patients, 13 had histopathologically proven renal cell carcinoma. The diagnoses of the remaining seven patients were xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis, abscess, simple cyst, infected cyst, angiomyolipoma, oncocytoma and arteriovenous fistula. In the renal cell carcinoma group, 3 patients had stage I, 7 patients had stage II, and 3 patients had stage III disease. Sizes of renal cell carcinoma masses were between 23 mm to 60 mm (mean, 36 mm). Vascular invasion was shown in 2 renal cell carcinoma patients. Collecting system invasion was identified in 11 of 13 renal cell patients. These radiologic findings were confirmed with surgical specimens. Three-dimensional CT and 3D-CTA are non-invasive, effective imaging techniques for the preoperative evaluation of renal masses.

  9. Characterization of Nitrated Sugar Alcohols by Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical-Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    disclosed here will benefit the area of explosives trace detection for counterterrorism and forensics . INTRODUCTION The military-grade...plasticizer formulation.[4] As a result, methods to detect MHN, SHN, and XPN should be pursued for the same security and forensics applications as...with ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) provide direct detection of molecular ions,[8] and thus are preferred for most security and forensic

  10. Treatment of the Infected Stone.

    PubMed

    Marien, Tracy; Miller, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Infected kidney stones refer to stones that form because of urinary tract infections with urease-producing bacteria, secondarily infected stones of any composition, or stones obstructing the urinary tract leading to pyelonephritis. The mainstay of treatment of infection stones is complete stone removal. Kidney stones that obstruct the urinary tract and cause obstructive pyelonephritis are also frequently referred to as infected stones. Obstructive pyelonephritis is a urologic emergency as it can result in sepsis and even death. Infection stones and obstructive stones causing pyelonephritis are different disease processes, and their workup and management are described separately. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urinary tract infection - children

    MedlinePlus

    UTI - children; Cystitis - children; Bladder infection - children; Kidney infection - children; Pyelonephritis - children ... Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can occur when bacteria get into the bladder or the kidneys. These bacteria are common ...

  12. Ambulatory Medical Visits among Anthrax-Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Personnel after Return from Southwest Asia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Diseases (001-139): candidiasis , dermatophytosis, herpes simplex, helminthosis, infectious mononucleosls. molluscom contaglosum, pityriasis. scabies...epididymitis. pelvic inflammatory disease, prostatitis, pyelonephritis, urinary tract calculi, urethritis, urinary tract infection, vaginitis

  13. The use of dialysis bath fluid as a vehicle for a drug with a narrow therapeutic index—Lithium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Oakley, W. F.; Clarke, W. F.; Parsons, V.

    1974-01-01

    A patient requiring regular haemodialysis treatment (RDT) for end stage chronic pyelonephritis, with a recurrent manic-depressive illness was successfully treated with lithium chloride by adding it to the dialysate, when other routes had failed. PMID:4464515

  14. Schistosomiasis Japonicum Involving the Liver and Colon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    contribute to ureteral obstruction, pyelonephritis, and hydronephrosis which can lead to renal failure. Bladder infection has been linked with the...or cystography in particular are very good studies for demonstrating ureteritis cystica, ureteral stricture (or dilation), hydronephrosis , mucosal

  15. A Study of Plazomicin Compared With Colistin in Patients With Infection Due to Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-03

    Bloodstream Infections (BSI) Due to CRE; Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia (HABP) Due to CRE; Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia (VABP) Due to CRE; Complicated Urinary Tract Infection (cUTI) Due to CRE; Acute Pyelonephritis (AP) Due to CRE

  16. Identification of the Regions of Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Type 1 Responsible for Receptor Binding and Enzymatic Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-05

    kidneys (Warren, 1996). There are generally three clinical manifestations of UTI. These are asymptomatic bacteriuria , cystitis, and acute...pyelonephritis (Warren, 1996; Zhang and Foxman, 2003). Asymptomatic bacteriuria is defined as such in an individual who has two consecutive urine cultures...tract (Marrs et al., 2005). UPEC strains that express this virulence factor are associated with pyelonephritis in pregnant women (30%) as well as

  17. A multi-emitter fitting algorithm for potential live cell super-resolution imaging over a wide range of molecular densities.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, T; Takahashi, T; Yamashita, J; Okada, Y; Watanabe, S

    2018-05-25

    Multi-emitter fitting algorithms have been developed to improve the temporal resolution of single-molecule switching nanoscopy, but the molecular density range they can analyse is narrow and the computation required is intensive, significantly limiting their practical application. Here, we propose a computationally fast method, wedged template matching (WTM), an algorithm that uses a template matching technique to localise molecules at any overlapping molecular density from sparse to ultrahigh density with subdiffraction resolution. WTM achieves the localization of overlapping molecules at densities up to 600 molecules μm -2 with a high detection sensitivity and fast computational speed. WTM also shows localization precision comparable with that of DAOSTORM (an algorithm for high-density super-resolution microscopy), at densities up to 20 molecules μm -2 , and better than DAOSTORM at higher molecular densities. The application of WTM to a high-density biological sample image demonstrated that it resolved protein dynamics from live cell images with subdiffraction resolution and a temporal resolution of several hundred milliseconds or less through a significant reduction in the number of camera images required for a high-density reconstruction. WTM algorithm is a computationally fast, multi-emitter fitting algorithm that can analyse over a wide range of molecular densities. The algorithm is available through the website. https://doi.org/10.17632/bf3z6xpn5j.1. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Microscopy published by JohnWiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Royal Microscopical Society.

  18. Interstitial nephritis.

    PubMed

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  19. Urinary tract infections in women.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M A

    1990-02-01

    The clinical conditions that cause dysuria in women can usually be differentiated by the history and selected physical and laboratory examinations. Cystitis can be treated with short-course therapy in uncomplicated cases; pretreatment cultures are usually not necessary, since most infections are caused by Escherichia coli. Outpatient treatment of pyelonephritis is appropriate in selected patients. Follow-up culture after treatment of either cystitis or pyelonephritis is indicated to identify those patients requiring longer treatment or urologic evaluation. Recurrent urinary tract infections can be managed with postcoital antibiotics, long-term prophylaxis or patient self-administration of short-course therapy. Bacteriuria and pyelonephritis in pregnancy must be aggressively diagnosed and treated.

  20. Urinary Tract Infection and Bacteriuria in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Glaser, Alexander P; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Bacteriuria during pregnancy may be classified as asymptomatic bacteriuria, infections of the lower urinary tract (cystitis), or infections of the upper urinary tract (pyelonephritis). Lower tract bacteriuria is associated with an increased risk of developing pyelonephritis in pregnancy, which is itself associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Pregnant women should be screened for the presence of bacteriuria early in pregnancy. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated, and antimicrobial choice in pregnancy should reflect safety for both the mother and the fetus. After treatment of bacteriuria, patients should be followed closely due to risk of recurrent bacteriuria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lassa Fever Immune Plasma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    three instances, and one each for sickle cell crisis , severe anemia, pyelonephritis, cerebral malaria and tonsillitis. Treatment of LF with LFIP under...diagnosis of 46 LF and Presumptive LF patients treated at CLH April 1983 - March 1984. Clinical diagnosis No. Lassa fever 38 Typhoid fever 3 Sickle cell crisis 1

  2. Bacteriuria in pregnant women with sickle cell trait.

    PubMed

    Thurman, Andrea Ries; Steed, Lisa L; Hulsey, Thomas; Soper, David E

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the following outcome variables in pregnant patients with sickle cell trait and matched pregnant control patients: asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis, urinary pathogens that were present, and pyelonephritis. This was a retrospective cohort study that was conducted at a university clinic. Pregnant patients with sickle cell trait (n = 455) were matched with control patients (n = 448) for race, age, gestational age at entry into prenatal care, and number of prenatal visits. Women with sickle cell trait received urine testing significantly more often. There was no difference in the incidence of positive urine cultures, urinary pathogens, or asymptomatic bacteriuria among the comparison groups. Sickle cell trait carriers had significantly higher rates of pyelonephritis, but many affected patients had risk factors, such as previous pyelonephritis or noncompliance with therapy. Sickle cell trait carriers were no more susceptible to acute cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria than were the control patients. On the basis of these data, we outline recommendations for urinary screening and pyelonephritis prevention in pregnant patients with sickle cell trait.

  3. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smaill, F

    2000-01-01

    Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth, or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status and thus, low birth weight. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery and the development of pyelonephritis after delivery. I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Trial quality was assessed. Thirteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.10). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (odds ratio 0.25, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.32). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight babies (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.80). Antibiotic treatment appears to be effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. An apparent reduction in preterm delivery is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in preterm birth, but this association should be interpreted with caution.

  4. [Application of Monural to treat pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria and acute cystitis].

    PubMed

    Michova, M; Ivanov, St; Batashki, I

    2009-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) and cystitis affect 4-9% of pregnancies and are associated with pyelonephritis and preterm labor. Screening for AB and adequate antimicrobal therapy prevent most of these serious complications. Twenty- nine pregnant patients, suffering from AB and 9 cases with cystitis were treated with single dose Monura (Fosfomycin trometamol) in a prospective study.

  5. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smaill, F

    2001-01-01

    Up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis if asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria may have a role in preterm birth or it may be a marker for low socioeconomic status which is associated with low birth weight. The objective of this review was to assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the risk of preterm delivery, and the development of pyelonephritis. I searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register. Date of last search: December 2000. Randomised trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Trial quality was assessed. Fourteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was not strong. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (odds ratio 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.10). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (odds ratio 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.32). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight babies (odds ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.80). Antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. An apparent reduction in preterm delivery is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in preterm birth, but this association should be interpreted with caution.

  6. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smaill, F; Vazquez, J C

    2007-04-18

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies and, if not treated, up to 30% of mothers will develop acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with low birthweight and preterm delivery. To assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on persistent bacteriuria during pregnancy, the development of pyelonephritis and the risk of low birthweight and preterm delivery. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (January 2007). Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. We assessed trial quality. Fourteen studies were included. Overall the study quality was poor. Antibiotic treatment compared to placebo or no treatment was effective in clearing asymptomatic bacteriuria (risk ratio (RR) 0.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.14 to 0.48). The incidence of pyelonephritis was reduced (RR 0.23, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.41). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of low birthweight babies (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49 to 0.89) but a difference in preterm delivery was not seen. Antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the risk of pyelonephritis in pregnancy. A reduction in low birthweight is consistent with current theories about the role of infection in adverse pregnancy outcomes, but this association should be interpreted with caution given the poor quality of the included studies.

  7. Prognostic Indicators as Provided by the EPIC ClearView

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2011-11-18

    Coronary Artery Disease; Congestive Heart Failure; Valvular Heart Disease; Atrial Fibrillation; Hypertension; Pyelonephritis; Acute Renal Failure; Renal Failure; Viral Hepatitis; Alcoholic Hepatitis; Steatohepatitis; Cirrhosis; Asthma; COPD; Bronchitis; Emphysema; Pneumonia; Inflammatory Bowel Disease; Crohn's Disease; Ulcerative Colitis; Diverticulitis; Peptic Ulcer Disease; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Cholecystitis; Pancreatitis; Malabsorption Disorders; Celiac Sprue; Diabetes

  8. Kidney Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Overview Kidney infection (pyelonephritis) is a type of urinary tract infection (UTI) that generally begins in your urethra or bladder ... symptoms. If you're being treated for a urinary tract infection but your signs and symptoms aren't improving, ...

  9. Iatrogenic diaphragmatic lesion: laparoscopic repair.

    PubMed

    Celia, A; Del Biondo, D; Zaccolini, G; Breda, G

    2010-09-01

    The increasing use of laparoscopy as first line surgical choice turned the iatrogenic diaphragmatic injury during transperitoneal nephrectomy from an unfrequent complication into a potential risk. We report the laparoscopic management of a iatrogenic diaphragmatic injury during a laparoscopic transperitoneal nephrectomy in a 66-year-old woman with a xantogranulomatous pyelonephritis due to an infected Staghorn stone.

  10. Journal of Special Operations Medicine. Volume 7, Edition 1, Winter 2007. Training Supplement: USSOCOM Medic Certification Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Complicated intra-abdominal infections Complicated skin infections Pneumonia Complicated UTI , including pyelonephritis Acute pelvic infections Drug of...nitroimidazole derivatives. Pregnancy (first trimester in patients with Trichomoniasis). Administer with caution to patients with CNS diseases. Use with caution...under 12 years Dehydration Use with caution in pregnancy . Dosage: Patient in shock, bleeding not controlled: hold fluid and control bleeding. Patient

  11. [Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: when to treat, how to treat, and what to treat with].

    PubMed

    Kladenský, J

    2012-04-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) in pregnant women are a relatively frequent occurrence and the spectrum of these infections ranges from lower urinary tract disease (asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis) to upper urinary tract disease (acute pyelonephritis). Anatomical and functional changes in the urinary tract in pregnancy result in significantly higher susceptibility to progression of the infection from asymptomatic bacteriuria to the stage of acute pyelonephritis. Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy leads, in as much as 40%, to the development of acute pyelonephritis with all the subsequent negative effects not only for the woman herself, but particularly for the fetus. Bacteriuria in pregnancy accounts for a significantly higher number of newborns with a low birth weight, low gestational age and higher neonatal mortality rate. Therefore, it is necessary to perform screening for bacteriuria in pregnant women and, when the finding is positive, to treat this bacteriuria. The selection of an appropriate antimicrobial agent to treat urinary tract infection in pregnancy is limited by the safety of a given drug not only for the woman, but particularly for the fetus. The article provides an overview of medications that can be safely used throughout the pregnancy or only in certain stages of pregnancy. The selection of an appropriate antibiotic should always be preceded by the result of urine culture. The article presents the principles and rules for treating asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis and acute pyelonephritis in pregnant women.

  12. Talking about the Impact of Screen-viewing on Health.

    PubMed

    Clavagnier, Isabelle

    2018-01-01

    Emilia is a young woman admitted to the hospital for pyelonephritis. Sophie finds out, from the morning reports about her, that she stays awake very late every night watching television or chatting on her mobile phone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Six Month Oral Toxicity Study of WR238605 Succinate in Rats. Volume 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-02

    chronic, per {vascular Accumulation, foamy macrophage KIDNEY Mineralization Inf laomat ion, chronic Nephropathy Hydronephrosis Pyelonephritis...KIDNEY # EX Mineralization Inflammation, chronic Nephropathy Hydronephrosis Py»lonaphrItIs Hyperplasia, pelvic epithelium Pigmentation, cortex...Mineralization Inf Lajaaat ion, chronic Nephropathy Hydronephrosis Pigmentation, cor ten (1) - - - ɚ> (1) - ə> - (1) - ə> - 2L

  14. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ovalle, A; Levancini, M

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are very common during pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen isolated from pregnant women. Ampicillin should not be used because of its high resistance to Escherichia coli. Pyelonephritis can cause morbidity and can be life-threatening to both mother and fetus. Second and third-generation cephalosporins are recommended for treatment, administered initially intravenously during hospitalization. Cultures and the study of virulence factors of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are recommended for the adequate management of pyelonephritis. The lower genital tract infection associated with pyelonephritis is responsible for the failure of antibiotic treatment. Asymptomatic bacteriuria can evolve into cystitis or pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be routinely screened for bacteriuria using urine culture, and should be treated with nitrofurantoin, sulfixosazole or first-generation cephalosporins. Recurrent urinary infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics. Pregnant women who develop urinary tract infections with group B streptococcal infection should be treated with prophylactic antibiotics during labour to prevent neonatal sepsis. Preterm delivery is frequent. Evidence suggests that infection plays a role in the pathogenesis of preterm labour. Experimental models in pregnant mice support the theory that Escherichia coli propagated by the transplacental route, involving bacterial adhesins, induces preterm delivery, but this has not been demonstrated in humans. Ascending lower genital tract infections are the most probable cause of preterm delivery, but this remains to be proved.

  15. [Determination of homeostatic kidney function in the diagnosis of chronic glomerulonephritis].

    PubMed

    Ratner, M J

    1977-12-01

    The latent and hypertonic forms of the course of compensated nephritides more frequently make difficulties concerning the differential diagnosis between a chronic glomerulonephritis and a chronic pyelonephritis. According to the results achieved the determination of the renal processes furthering homoeostasis gives the possibility to demarcate the two diseases. A certain reduction of the creatinine clearance (to less than 90 ml/min) and of the maximum water diuresis (to less than 10.0 per 100 ml glomerular filtrate) is suitable for the latent form of the chronic glomerulonephritis. On the other hand, a reduction of the ammonia secretion (to less than 35 per 100 ml glomerular (filtrate) and of the total H+-ion secretion (to less than 50 per 100 ml glomerular filtrate) in the determination after Alkinton is characteristic for the chronic pyelonephritis. In the hypertensive form of the course of the chronic glomerulonephritis in contrast to the same form in chronic pyelonephritis a reduction of the maximum water diuresis to less than 7.5, of the clearance of the "osmotically free" water to less than 6.0, of the titrable acidity to less than 25 is the result. Here the ammonia quotient transgresses 45%. In chronic pyelonephritis the titrable acidity in considerably increased and the ammonia genesis relatively decreased (to less than 45%).

  16. Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli in relation to host response in men with symptomatic urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ulleryd, P; Lincoln, K; Scheutz, F; Sandberg, T

    1994-04-01

    To assess virulence properties in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from men with symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), we analyzed 88 urinary isolates from men with acute pyelonephritis (n = 41), febrile UTI without clinical signs of renal infection (n = 33), or acute cystitis (n = 14) for O:K:H serotype, P fimbriae, and production of hemolysin and aerobactin. In the three diagnostic groups, 88%, 67%, and 79% of the strains, respectively, were represented by 10 O antigen groups commonly associated with acute pyelonephritis in women and children. Fifty-eight different O:K:H serotypes could be identified, of which O18ac:K5:H- predominated (n = 8). There was a higher frequency of hemolytic strains among patients with pyelonephritis (73%) and febrile UTI (76%) and a lower frequency of P-fimbriated strains (56% and 45%, respectively) and aerobactin-positive strains (51% and 39%, respectively) among these patients than was previously encountered in women and children with uncomplicated acute pyelonephritis. The distribution of bacterial properties was unrelated to patient age and underlying complicating factors. The findings suggest differences in host-parasite relationships between men and women with symptomatic UTI caused by E. coli.

  17. Delayed rupture of gallbladder following blunt abdominal trauma.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Debajyoti; Agarwal, Himanshu; Aggarwal, Krittika; Garg, Pankaj Kumar

    2014-09-01

    A 29-year-old gentleman presented to surgery emergency with severe upper abdominal pain and vomiting. He reported to had been hit in his abdomen by a ball during a cricket match. Computerized tomogram of the abdomen revealed hematoma within the gallbladder lumen, laceration of segment six of liver, and hemoperitoneum. The patient did not agree for laparotomy advised to him, and so, managed conservatively. The patient reported back to us with high grade fever, jaundice, and painful abdominal distension after seven days of discharge from the hospital. His abdominal examination showed features of generalized peritonitis. Surgical abdominal exploration revealed a single perforation in the fundus of gallbladder with frozen calot'striangle. Subtotal cholecystectomy was done. Histopathology of excised gallbladder revealed xanthogranulomatous inflammation. The present case report highlights that early exploration and cholecystectomy should be considered in patients with gallbladder injury to obviate the risk of delayed perforation.

  18. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Schnarr, J; Smaill, F

    2008-10-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria is common in pregnant women. A history of previous urinary tract infections and low socioeconomic status are risk factors for bacteriuria in pregnancy. Escherichia coli is the most common aetiologic agent in both symptomatic and asymptomatic infection and quantitative culture is the gold standard for diagnosis. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been shown to reduce the rate of pyelonephritis in pregnancy and therefore screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has become a standard of obstetrical care. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies limits the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Debate exists in the literature as to whether treated pyelonephritis is associated with adverse fetal outcomes. There is no clear consensus in the literature on antibiotic choice or duration of therapy for infection. With increasing antibiotic resistance, consideration of local resistance rates is necessary when choosing therapy.

  19. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  20. Diseases causing end-stage renal failure in New South Wales.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J H; McCarthy, S W; Storey, B G; Roberts, B A; Gallery, E; Mahony, J F

    1975-01-01

    The nature of the original renal disease was determined in 403 consecutive cases of end-stage renal failure, in 317 of which the clinical diagnosis was corroborated by histological examination of the kidney. Five diseases accounted for 20 or more cases--glomerulonephritis (31% of the total), analgesic nephropathy (29%), primary vesicoureteral reflux (8%), essential hypertension (6%), and polycystic kidneys (5%). In only four cases did renal failure result from chronic pyelonephritis without a demonstrable primary cause. Greater use of micturating cystography and cystoscopy and routine urine testing for salicylate are advocated for earlier diagnosis of the major causes of "pyelonephritis". The incidence of end-stage renal failure in people aged 15-55 in New South Wales was estimated to be at least 34 new cases per million of total population each year. PMID:1090338

  1. Is single-dose fosfomycin trometamol a good alternative for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimesterof pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Inegöl, Ilknur; Atmaca, Ali Fuat; Duvan, Candan Iltemir; Koç, Akif; Turhan, Nilgün Oztürk

    2007-05-01

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with acute pyelonephritis, which may have a role in many maternal and fetal complications. Acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy is related to anemia, septicemia, transient renal dysfunction, and pulmonary insufficiency. A randomized study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological efficacy of a single dose of fosfomycin trometamol for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in the second trimester of pregnancy compared with a 5-day regimen of cefuroxime axetyl. Forty-four women received fosfomycin trometamol and 40 women received cefuroxime axetyl. There were no statistically significant differences between both groups regarding the mean age and mean duration of pregnancy. Therapeutic success was achieved in 93.2% of the patients treated with fosfomycin trometamol vs 95% of those treated with cefuroxime axetyl. A single dose of fosfomycin trometamol is a safe and effective alternative in the treatment of asymptomatic urinary tract infections in the second trimester of pregnancy.

  2. Urinary tract infection during pregnancy: current concepts on a common multifaceted problem.

    PubMed

    Kalinderi, Kallirhoe; Delkos, Dimitrios; Kalinderis, Michail; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis

    2018-02-06

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common bacterial infection in pregnancy, increasing the risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Urinary tract infections may present as asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute cystitis or pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with both symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria. If asymptomatic bacteriuria is untreated, up to 30% of mothers develop acute pyelonephritis, with an increased risk of multiple maternal and neonatal complications, such as preeclampsia, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight. Urinary tract infection is a common, but preventable cause of pregnancy complications, thus urinary tests, such as urine culture or new technologies such as high-throughput DNA sequence-based analyses, should be used in order to improve antenatal screening of pregnant women.

  3. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Antibiotic Treatment of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Ha, U-Syn; Lee, Seung-Ju; Yeo, Jeong Kyun; Min, Seung Ki; Lee, Heeyoung

    2018-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are infectious diseases that commonly occur in communities. Although several international guidelines for the management of UTIs have been available, clinical characteristics, etiology and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns may differ from country to country. This work represents an update of the 2011 Korean guideline for UTIs. The current guideline was developed by the update and adaptation method. This clinical practice guideline provides recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs, including asymptomatic bacteriuria, acute uncomplicated cystitis, acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, complicated pyelonephritis related to urinary tract obstruction, and acute bacterial prostatitis. This guideline targets community-acquired UTIs occurring among adult patients. Healthcare-associated UTIs, catheter-associated UTIs, and infections in immunocompromised patients were not included in this guideline. PMID:29637759

  4. Serological investigation of enterococcal infections using western blot.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, A; Rakita, R M; Arduino, R C; Patterson, J E; Steckelberg, J M; Singh, K V; Murray, B E

    1996-10-01

    To assess the usefulness of Western blot in the diagnosis of enterococcal infections, a pilot study was conducted with a newly developed Western blot using sera from patients with confirmed enterococcal infections. Sera from 17 of 19 patients with enterococcal endocarditis reacted strongly to enterococcal antigens on the Western blot, and most produced specific bands at molecular weights 98 kDa and 54 kDa. Sera from patients with bacteremic cholangitis and pyelonephritis reacted frequently as well, but the pattern of bands was different from that observed with endocarditis. Eighty-five percent of 26 sera tested from patients with bacteremia and associated deep-seated infections (endocarditis, cholangitis, and pyelonephritis) were positive on Western blot, compared to 30% of sera from bacteremic patients with no clinically determined deep focus of infection (p < 0.001).

  5. [Impact of reflux on the kidney].

    PubMed

    Mollard, P; Louis, D; Basset, T

    1984-03-01

    Description of the reflux nephropathy. Pyelonephritis lesions are undoubtedly linked to the vesico-ureteric reflux. The role of the intra-renal reflux ( Hodson ) and the Big Bang Theory ( Ransley ) are discussed as the data from animal experiments. The role of the sterile reflux and of the segmental hypoplasia is relatively less important. The actual management of vesico-ureteric reflux treatment is questioned.

  6. Common Pediatric Urological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Wm. Lane M.; Leung, Alexander K.C.; Boag, Graham S.

    1991-01-01

    The clinical and radiological presentations of 12 pediatric urological disorders are described. The described disorders include pyelonephritis, vesicoureteral reflux, ureteropelvic obstruction, ureterovesical obstruction, ectopic ureterocele, posterior urethral valves, multicystic dysplastic kidney, polycystic kidney disease, ectopic kidney, staghorn calculi, urethral diverticulum, and urethral meatal stenosis. ImagesFigure 1-2Figure 3Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6-7Figure 8-9Figure 10Figure 11-12 PMID:21229068

  7. Recurrent urinary tract infections and complications after symptomatic versus antibiotic treatment: follow-up of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Jutta; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Schmiemann, Guido; Wiese, Birgitt; Gágyor, Ildikó

    2016-01-01

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) are common in general practice, and are usually treated with antibiotics. Recurrent UTI often pose a serious problem for affected women. Little is known about recurrent UTI and complications when uncomplicated UTI are treated without antibiotics. With ICUTI (Immediate vs. conditional antibiotic use in uncomplicated UTI, funded by BMBF No. 01KG1105) we assessed whether initial symptomatic treatment with ibuprofen could be a treatment alternative for uncomplicated UTI. The presented analysis aims to assess the influence of initial (non-)antibiotic treatment on recurrent UTI rates and pyelonephritis after day 28 up to 6 months after trial participation. This study is a retrospective long-term follow-up analysis of ICUTI patients, surveyed telephonically six months after inclusion in the trial. Recurrent UTI, pyelonephritis or hospitalizations were documented. Statistical evaluation was performed by descriptive and multivariate analyses with SPSS 21. For the six months follow-up survey, 386 trial participants could be contacted (494 had been included in ICUTI initially, 446 had completed the trial). From day 28 until 6 months after inclusion in ICUTI, 84 recurrent UTI were reported by 80 patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no effect of initial treatment group or antibiotic treatment on number of patients with recurrent UTI. Yet, both analyses showed that patients with a history of previous UTI had significantly more often recurrent UTI. Pyelonephritis occurred in two patients of the antibiotic group and in one patient in the non-antibiotic group. This follow-up analysis of a trial comparing antibiotic vs. symptomatic treatment for uncomplicated UTI showed that non-antibiotic treatment has no negative impact on recurrent UTI rates or pyelonephritis after day 28 and up to six months after initial treatment. Thus, a four week follow-up in UTI trials seems adequate.

  8. Ceftazidime-avibactam: novel antimicrobial combination for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Alidjanov, Jakhongir F; Fritzenwanker, Moritz; Hoffman, Ivan; Wagenlehner, Florian M

    2017-06-01

    Ceftazidime-avibactam is a combination of a third-generation cephalosporin and a novel non-beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitor. This combination was recently recommended for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections, including acute pyelonephritis, in adults with limited or no alternative treatment options. The current review is aimed to determine activity, efficacy and safety of ceftazidime-avibactam in the treatment of patients with complicated urinary tract infections.

  9. Experimental model for acute kidney injury caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Skowron, Beata; Baranowska, Agnieszka; Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Więcek, Grażyna; Malska-Woźniak, Anna; Heczko, Piotr; Strus, Magdalena

    2017-06-19

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the rapid deterioration of renal function, diagnosed on the basis of an increase in serum creatinine and abnormal urinary parameters. AKI is associated with increased risk of mortality or chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for AKI resulting from Escherichia coli-induced pyelonephritis. E. coli was isolated from a patient with clinical symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). The study included three groups of female Wistar rats (groups 1, 2 and 3), in which pyelonephritis was induced by transurethral inoculation with highly virulent E. coli (105, 107 and 109 cfu/ml, respectively). Urine and blood samples for analysis were obtained prior to the inoculation (day 0), as well as 7, 14 and 21 days thereafter. Aside from a microbiological examination of urine samples, daily urine output, serum creatinine (CreaS), creatinine clearance (CrCl), interleukin 6 (IL-6), fractional excretion of sodium (FENa) and fractional excretion of urea (FEUrea) were determined. A histopathological examination of kidney and urinary bladder specimens was conducted as well. While UTI-related pyelonephritis developed irrespective of E. coli inoculum size, AKI was observed only following transurethral administration of E. coli at the intermediate and high dose, i.e. 107 and 109 cfu/ml, respectively (group 2 and 3). An increase in CreaS and abnormal diuresis were accompanied by changes in parameters specific for various forms of AKI, i.e. FENa and FEUrea. Based on these changes, administration of E. coli at 107 cfu/ml was demonstrated to induce renal AKI, whereas inoculation with 109 cfu/ml seemed to cause not only ascending pyelonephritis, but perhaps also bacteremia and urosepsis (prerenal component of AKI).

  10. Antimicrobial misuse in pediatric urinary tract infections: recurrences and renal scarring.

    PubMed

    Jayaweera, Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath; Reyes, Mohommed

    2018-06-25

    In children, urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of a common bacterial infection. This study was conducted to detect the uropathogen, antimicrobial susceptibility, pathogen associated with recurrences and renal scarring in children initially taken care from general practitioners and later presented to tertiary care. Every inward UTI episode, culture and antimicrobial susceptibility was done while on past 6-month, history of infections and use of antimicrobials was collected using clinical records and demonstration of antimicrobials. Children with recurrent pyelonephritis was followed and in vitro bio film formation was assessed. Frequency of UTI was significantly high among infants (p = 0.03). Last 6-month, all (220) were exposed to antimicrobials. Cefixime was the commonly prescribed antimicrobial (p = 0.02). In current UTI episode, 64.5% (142/220) of children with UTI were consulted GPs' prior to seek treatment from tertiary care pediatric unit (p = 0.02). While on follow up child who developed UTI, found urine culture isolates were significantly shifted from E. coli and K. pneumoniae to extended spectrum of beta-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Out of 208 participants, 36 of them had re-current pyelonephritis (R-PN). Renal scarring (RS) was detected in 22 out of 70 patients with pyelonephritis following dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Following each episodes of recurrent pyelonephritis 11% of new scar formation was detected (p = 0.02). Bio film forming E. coli and K. pneumoniae was significantly associated in patients with R-PN (p = 0.04). Medical care providers often prescribe antimicrobials without having an etiological diagnosis. While continuing exposure of third generation cephalosporin and carbapenem leads to development of ESBL and CRE microbes in great. The empiric uses of antimicrobials need to be stream lined with local epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern. R-PN in childhood leads to RS. In great, bio film

  11. [Prognostic factors for severe infection after flexible ureteroscopy: Clinical interest of urine culture the day before surgery?].

    PubMed

    Alezra, E; Lasselin, J; Forzini, T; François, T; Viart, L; Saint, F

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study have been to determine prognostic factors for acute pyelonephritis (AP) after flexible ureteroscopy (FU), to assess the frequency of readmission for AP and to study the usefulness of urinalysis the day before surgery. Between 2010 and 2013, 266 patients have had at least one ureteroscopy (n=325). All infectious complications and unplanned readmissions within the month after FU were retrospectively evaluated. Several data have been collected: age, sex, BMI, surgical indication (calculis or tumor), number of previous ureteroscopies, number of previous surgeries for calculis, stones number, size and location, bilateral interventions, operating time, preoperative ureteral stenting, postoperative stenting, hospitalization stay, urine culture the day before surgery (j-1) and prescription of antibiotic therapy the week before FU. Correlation between these variables and acute pyelonephritis (AP) the month following the USSR was tested (StatView 4.5, SAS Institute) (P<0.05 significant). We observed 24 postoperative APs (7.4%), 17 prior to hospital discharge and 7 requiring rehospitalization. In univariate analysis, the significant prognostic factors of postoperative AP have been: stone size (>14 mm) (P=0.03); operating time (70 minutes) (P<0.005); positive day - 1 urine culture (P<0.001); antibiotics treatment the week before FU (P<0.001). In multivariate analysis, antibiotics prescription during the week before USSR remained significant (P<0.002; RR 5.8 [1.9-15]). Acute pyelonephritis requiring unplanned admission after ureteroscopy is a rare complication (2.4%). Urinalysis one day before ureteroscopy could allow early antibiotic therapy and may reduce 63% of unplanned hospital admissions for acute pyelonephritis. 5. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Oral Toxicity Potential of 4-Nitrophenyl Methkyl Phenyl Phosphinate.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    caused bilateral hydronephrosis , pyelonephritis and cystitis. All deaths occurred between 25 minutes and 77 minutes following administration of the test...Slightly depressed (possible congenitel deformity); 1/ (#797). 1 Kidney - Unilateral hydronephrosis ; 1/7 (777). _ _ I _ _ _ _______Croup e3 Dosage level...801). _ __ Post mortem autolysis - General, minimal; 3/6 (#’a 779, 7,1. . 901’. Xidneys - Bilateral hydronephrosis ; 1/6 (#788). Group #6 _ 11osage

  13. Urinary Concentrating Ability in Women with Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Williams, G. L.; Campbell, H.; Davies, K. J.

    1969-01-01

    The incidence of impaired renal concentrating ability in pregnant women with asymptomatic significant bacteriuria is significantly less than previously reported when osmolality readings are performed on every urine specimen obtained during the 24 hours' deprivation of fluids. The concentrating defect is more considerable as pregnancy progresses. The lower the maximum urinary osmolality the more difficult is the treatment of the patient, and the higher the incidence of acute pyelonephritis. PMID:5792611

  14. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, D E

    1994-06-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy. When the lower UTIs of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis are not eradicated, the subsequent risk of the development of pyelonephritis is increased. The associated decreased maternal morbidity and fetal prematurity are the goals of a screening and treatment program for pregnant women. This clinical article presents information on the etiology, incidence, diagnosis, and management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and cystitis. Nursing implications regarding teaching are included.

  15. Invasive Saccharomyces cerevisiae infection: a friend turning foe?

    PubMed

    Pillai, Unnikrishnan; Devasahayam, Joe; Kurup, Aparna Narayana; Lacasse, Alexandre

    2014-11-01

    We report a very rare case of acute pyelonephritis in a 51-year-old female with a history of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes caused by a normally benign and a well-known human commensal organism, Saccharomyces cerevisiae that is very often prescribed as a probiotic in modern medical practice. The causal role of S. cerevisiae was confirmed by its isolation in blood, urine, stool as well as vaginal swabs thus proving its virulent nature in suitable situations.

  16. Novel Biomarkers for the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract Infection—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Nanda, Neha; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are associated with significant morbidity. We rely on clinical presentation, urinalysis, and urine culture to diagnose UTI. To differentiate between lower UTI and pyelonephritis, we depend on the clinical presentation. In the extremes of age and in immunocompromised individuals, clinical presentation is often atypical posing a challenge to diagnosis. In the elderly, the high prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is another confounder. We conducted a search of publications to find novel biomarkers to diagnose UTI and to ascertain its severity. We searched PUBMED, MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases for studies pertaining to novel biomarkers and UTI. Two reviewers independently evaluated the methodology of the studies using the STARD (Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy) criteria. We have identified procalcitonin as a biomarker to differentiate lower UTI from pyelonephritis in the pediatric age group. Elevated serum procalcitonin levels can result in early and aggressive treatment at the time of presentation. Interleukin 6 has also shown some promise in differentiating between lower UTI and pyelonephritis but needs further validation. Lastly, given the paucity of data in certain subgroups like diabetics, kidney transplant recipients, and individuals with spinal cord injury, further studies should be conducted in these populations to improve diagnostic criteria that will inform clinical management decisions. PMID:19707519

  17. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Nicolle, Lindsay E.

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients. PMID:27104571

  18. The Paradigm Shift to Non-Treatment of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2016-04-19

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, also called asymptomatic urinary infection, is a common finding in healthy women, and in women and men with abnormalities of the genitourinary tract. The characterization and introduction of the quantitative urine culture in the 1950s first allowed the reliable recognition of asymptomatic bacteriuria. The observations that a substantial proportion of patients with chronic pyelonephritis at autopsy had no history of symptomatic urinary infection, and the high frequency of pyelonephritis observed in pregnant women with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria, supported a conclusion that asymptomatic bacteriuria was harmful. Subsequent screening and long term follow-up programs for asymptomatic bacteriuria in schoolgirls and women reported an increased frequency of symptomatic urinary tract infection for subjects with asymptomatic bacteriuria, but no increased morbidity from renal failure or hypertension, or increased mortality. Treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria did not decrease the frequency of symptomatic infection. Prospective, randomized, comparative trials enrolling premenopausal women, children, elderly populations, patients with long term catheters, and diabetic patients consistently report no benefits with antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and some evidence of harm. Several studies have also reported that antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria increases the short term risk of pyelonephritis. Current investigations are exploring the potential therapeutic intervention of establishing asymptomatic bacteriuria with an avirulent Escherichia coli strain to prevent symptomatic urinary tract infection for selected patients.

  19. An update on new antibiotic prophylaxis and treatment for urinary tract infections in children.

    PubMed

    Delbet, Jean Daniel; Lorrot, Mathie; Ulinski, Tim

    2017-10-01

    This review focuses on the treatment of urinary tract infections (UTI) in children and in particular its recent changes. Areas covered: Acute pyelonephritis, acute cystitis and asymptomatic bacteriuria or asymptomatic infections have to be clearly distinguished. Prompt treatment is required in pyelonephritis and cystitis, but not in asymptomatic bacteriuria or infection, in order to avoid selection of more virulent strains. This concept should be considered even in immunocompromised or bedridden children. In case of pyelonephritis, there should be no delay in beginning the antibiotic treatment in order to decrease the risk of long term complication, such as renal scars. Predisposing conditions for UTI, such as voiding anomalies and urinary tract malformation should be carefully evaluated. Expert opinion: One major concern is the increasing resistance to 3 rd generation cephalosporins. Therefore overconsumption in low-risk settings should be absolutely avoided. The prevalence of infections with E. coli producing extended spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) is increasing and pediatricians should be aware about the specific treatment options. Any recommendation about (initial) antibiotic treatment should be regularly updated and adapted to local resistance profiles and to economic factors in different health systems.

  20. Procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in urinary tract infection diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rui-Ying; Liu, Hua-Wei; Liu, Ji-Ling; Dong, Jun-Hua

    2014-05-30

    Urinary infections are a common type of pediatric disease, and their treatment and prognosis are closely correlated with infection location. Common clinical manifestations and laboratory tests are insufficient to differentiate between acute pyelonephritis and lower urinary tract infection. This study was conducted to explore a diagnostic method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. The diagnostic values of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were analyzed using the receiver operating characteristic curve method for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation. PCT was determined using chemiluminescent immunoassay. The PCT and CRP values in children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher than those in children with lower urinary tract infection (3.90 ± 3.51 ng/ml and 68.17 ± 39.42 mg/l vs. 0.48 ± 0.39 ng/ml and 21.39 ± 14.92 mg/l). The PCT values were correlated with the degree of renal involvement, whereas the CRP values failed to show such a significant correlation. PCT had a sensitivity of 90.47% and a specificity of 88% in predicting nephropathia, whereas CRP had sensitivity of 85.71% and a specificity of 48%. Both PCT and CRP can be used for upper and lower urinary tract infection differentiation, but PCT has higher sensitivity and specificity in predicting pyelonephritis than CRP. PCT showed better results than CRP. PCT values were also correlated with the degree of renal involvement.

  1. Peritransplant Soluble CD30 as a Risk Factor for Slow Kidney Allograft Function, Early Acute Rejection, Worse Long-Term Allograft Function, and Patients' Survival.

    PubMed

    Trailin, Andriy V; Ostapenko, Tetyana I; Nykonenko, Tamara N; Nesterenko, Svitlana N; Nykonenko, Olexandr S

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) could identify recipients at high risk for unfavorable early and late kidney transplant outcomes. Serum sCD30 was measured on the day of kidney transplantation and on the 4th day posttransplant. We assessed the value of these measurements in predicting delayed graft function, slow graft function (SGF), acute rejection (AR), pyelonephritis, decline of allograft function after 6 months, and graft and patient survival during 5 years of follow-up in 45 recipients. We found the association between low pretransplant serum levels of sCD30 and SGF. The absence of significant decrease of sCD30 on the 4th day posttransplant was characteristic for SGF, early AR (the 8th day-6 months), late AR (>6 months), and early pyelonephritis (the 8th day-2 months). Lower pretransplant and posttransplant sCD30 predicted worse allograft function at 6 months and 2 years, respectively. Higher pretransplant sCD30 was associated with higher frequency of early AR, and worse patients' survival, but only in the recipients of deceased-donor graft. Pretransplant sCD30 also allowed to differentiate patients with early pyelonephritis and early AR. Peritransplant sCD30 is useful in identifying patients at risk for unfavorable early and late transplant outcomes.

  2. Peritransplant Soluble CD30 as a Risk Factor for Slow Kidney Allograft Function, Early Acute Rejection, Worse Long-Term Allograft Function, and Patients' Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ostapenko, Tetyana I.; Nykonenko, Tamara N.; Nesterenko, Svitlana N.; Nykonenko, Olexandr S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) could identify recipients at high risk for unfavorable early and late kidney transplant outcomes. Methods Serum sCD30 was measured on the day of kidney transplantation and on the 4th day posttransplant. We assessed the value of these measurements in predicting delayed graft function, slow graft function (SGF), acute rejection (AR), pyelonephritis, decline of allograft function after 6 months, and graft and patient survival during 5 years of follow-up in 45 recipients. Results We found the association between low pretransplant serum levels of sCD30 and SGF. The absence of significant decrease of sCD30 on the 4th day posttransplant was characteristic for SGF, early AR (the 8th day–6 months), late AR (>6 months), and early pyelonephritis (the 8th day–2 months). Lower pretransplant and posttransplant sCD30 predicted worse allograft function at 6 months and 2 years, respectively. Higher pretransplant sCD30 was associated with higher frequency of early AR, and worse patients' survival, but only in the recipients of deceased-donor graft. Pretransplant sCD30 also allowed to differentiate patients with early pyelonephritis and early AR. Conclusions Peritransplant sCD30 is useful in identifying patients at risk for unfavorable early and late transplant outcomes. PMID:28694560

  3. Urinary tract infections of Escherichia coli strains of chaperone-usher system.

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Piatek, Beata M

    2011-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are a very serious health and economic problem affecting millions of people each year worldwide. The most common etiologic agent of this type of bacterial infections, involving the upper and lower urinary tract, are E. coli strains representing approximately 80% of cases. Uropathogenic E. coli strains produce several urovirulence factors which can be divided into two main types, surface virulence factors and exported virulence factors. Surface-exposed structures include mainly extracellular adhesive organelles such as fimbriae/pili necessary in adhesion, invasion, biofilm formation and cytokine induction. Among the surface-exposed polymeric adhesive structures there are three most invasive groups, type 1 pili, type P pili and Dr family of adhesins which are bioassembled via the conserved, among Gram-negative bacteria, chaperone-usher secretion system. Type 1 and P-piliated E. coli cause cystitis and pyelonephritis. The Dr family of adhesins recognizing DAF receptor is responsible for cystitis, pyelonephritis (especially in pregnant women) and diarrhoea (in infants). In addition, Dr-positive E. coli strains carry the risk of recurrent urinary tract infections. Pyelonephritis in pregnant women leads to a series of complications such as bacteremia, urosepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome and even death. In the era of increasing drug resistance of bacteria, the development of vaccines, drugs termed pilicides and inhibitors of adhesion may be a promising tool in the fight against urogenital infections.

  4. Antibiotics for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smaill, Fiona M; Vazquez, Juan C

    2015-08-07

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurs in 2% to 10% of pregnancies and, if not treated, up to 30% of mothers will develop acute pyelonephritis. Asymptomatic bacteriuria has been associated with low birthweight and preterm birth. To assess the effect of antibiotic treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria on the development of pyelonephritis and the risk of low birthweight and preterm birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (19 March 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. Randomized trials comparing antibiotic treatment with placebo or no treatment in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria found on antenatal screening. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. Fourteen studies, involving almost 2000 women, were included. Antibiotic treatment compared with placebo or no treatment reduced the incidence of pyelonephritis (average risk ratio (RR) 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13 to 0.41; 11 studies, 1932 women; very low quality evidence). Antibiotic treatment was also associated with a reduction in the incidence of low birthweight babies (average RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93; six studies, 1437 babies; low quality evidence) and preterm birth (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.62; two studies, 242 women; low quality evidence). A reduction in persistent bacteriuria at the time of delivery was seen (average RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.53; four studies; 596 women). There were very limited data on which to estimate the effect of antibiotics on other infant outcomes and maternal adverse effects were rarely described.Overall, all 14 studies were assessed as being at high or unclear risk of bias. While many studies lacked an adequate description of methods and the risk of bias could only be assessed as unclear, in almost all studies there was at least one domain where the risk of bias was judged as high. The three primary outcomes were assessed with

  5. Fecal colonization with P-fimbriated Escherichia coli in newborn children and relation to development of extraintestinal E. coli infections.

    PubMed

    Tullus, K

    1987-01-01

    The incidence of E. coli pyelonephritis before the age of one year among the children born at Danderyd Hospital during a ten year period was studied. During the study period, 4 or 5 outbreaks of E. coli pyelonephritis occurred among the children who had previously been staying in the hospital's neonatal ward. These outbreaks seemed to have been caused by nosocomial spread of and fecal colonization with certain virulent E. coli strains among the children staying in the ward during certain periods of time. The strains that were spread in the ward seemed to belong to certain pyelonephritogenic E. coli clones of the serotypes O6:K5, O4:K3 and possibly O6:K2. Although the children became fecally colonized with the strains in the neonatal ward, most fell ill some time after they had left the ward. The mean age at the development of their first pyelonephritis was 3.4 months for the boys and 6.2 months for the girls, who had been cared for in this ward. A correlation between the number of infections and the bed occupancy of the ward could be found (p less than 0.01). The risk for a child staying in the ward during an outbreak to develop pyelonephritis was about 5-10%. There was a baseline incidence rate of 0.6-0.7% during non-epidemic periods. During one of the outbreaks there was also an increased incidence rate of E. coli septicemia among the children staying in the neonatal ward. The predictive value of fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli for the later development of extraintestinal E. coli infections was studied in a 2.5 year prospective study. During this study period there was a baseline incidence rate of 10-20% fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli among the children staying in both the neonatal and maternity wards, interrupted only by minor peaks of colonization with such strains. Length of stay in the neonatal ward and a high bed occupancy of the neonatal ward were statistically correlated to fecal colonization with P-fimbriated E. coli strains (p

  6. Erdheim-Chester Disease Involving the Central Nervous System with the Unique Appearance of a Coated Vertebral Artery.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hime; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kaya, Mitsunori; Takada, Kohichi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by multiple xanthogranulomatous masses throughout the body, predominantly in the tibia. One of the characteristic radiological findings of the lesions associated with ECD is a "coated artery," which is often observed in the aorta. Although approximately one-fourth of ECD cases involve the central nervous system (CNS), an intracranial-coated artery has only been reported in four cases. We report a case of ECD that involves the CNS and has the unique appearance of a coated vertebral artery (VA). These tumors entirely encase the bilateral VAs without stenosis and are attached to the dura. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging also showed multiple extra-axial tumors in the cavernous sinus, the frontal convexity, and the orbital cavity. Further investigation revealed additional extracranial lesions around the cervical carotid artery, at the bilateral tibia, and at the elbow joint. A biopsy of the cervical and tibial lesions confirmed ECD. Steroid therapy resulted in a month-long improvement of preoperative symptoms. However, the patient's condition gradually progressed and he died of pneumonia 1 year after ECD diagnosis. The encasement of the intracranial artery by the tumor without stenosis and the dural attachment suggest ECD, which requires whole body investigation.

  7. Erdheim-Chester Disease Involving the Central Nervous System with the Unique Appearance of a Coated Vertebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hime; Wanibuchi, Masahiko; Komatsu, Katsuya; Akiyama, Yukinori; Mikami, Takeshi; Sugita, Shintaro; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Kaya, Mitsunori; Takada, Kohichi; Mikuni, Nobuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is characterized by multiple xanthogranulomatous masses throughout the body, predominantly in the tibia. One of the characteristic radiological findings of the lesions associated with ECD is a “coated artery,” which is often observed in the aorta. Although approximately one-fourth of ECD cases involve the central nervous system (CNS), an intracranial-coated artery has only been reported in four cases. We report a case of ECD that involves the CNS and has the unique appearance of a coated vertebral artery (VA). These tumors entirely encase the bilateral VAs without stenosis and are attached to the dura. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging also showed multiple extra-axial tumors in the cavernous sinus, the frontal convexity, and the orbital cavity. Further investigation revealed additional extracranial lesions around the cervical carotid artery, at the bilateral tibia, and at the elbow joint. A biopsy of the cervical and tibial lesions confirmed ECD. Steroid therapy resulted in a month-long improvement of preoperative symptoms. However, the patient’s condition gradually progressed and he died of pneumonia 1 year after ECD diagnosis. The encasement of the intracranial artery by the tumor without stenosis and the dural attachment suggest ECD, which requires whole body investigation. PMID:28664013

  8. Clinicopathological Overview of Granulomatous Prostatitis: An Appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Dravid, Nandkumar; Nikumbh, Dhiraj; Patil, Ashish; Nagappa, Karibasappa Gundabaktha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Granulomatous prostatitis is a rare inflammatory condition of the prostate. Granulomatous prostatitis is important because, it mimics prostatic carcinoma clinically and hence the diagnosis can be made only by histopathological examination. Aim To study the histomorphological features and to know the prevalence of granulomatous prostatitis. Materials and Methods Histopathological records of 1,203 prostatic specimens received in the Department of the Pathology over a period of five years (June 2009 – June 2014). Seventeen cases of histopathologically, diagnosed granulomatous prostatitis were retrieved and reterospective data was collected from the patient’s records. Results Out of 17 cases of granulomatous prostatitis, we encountered 9 cases of non-specific granulomatous prostatitis, 5 cases of xanthogranulomatous prostatitis and 3 cases of specific tubercular prostatitis. The common age ranged from 51-75 years (mean 63 years) with mean PSA level of 15.8ng/ml. Six patients showed focal hypoechoic areas on TRUS and 11 cases revealed hard and fixed nodule on DRE. Conclusion Non-specific granulomatous prostatitis is the most common type of granulomatous prostatitis. There is no specific pattern of clinical, biochemical and ultrasound findings that allows the diagnosis of granulomatous prostatitis or differentiates it from prostatic carcinoma. Hence, histomorphological diagnosis is the gold standard in differentiating various prostatic lesions. PMID:27014642

  9. Are histological alterations observed in the gallbladder precancerous lesions?

    PubMed Central

    Meirelles-Costa, Adriana Lúcia Agnelli; Bresciani, Claudio José Caldas; Perez, Rodrigo Oliva; Bresciani, Barbara Helou; Siqueira, Sheila Aparecida C.; Cecconello, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Gallbladder cancer, which is characterized by rapid progression and a poor prognosis, is a complex disease to treat. Unfortunately, little is known currently about its etiology or pathogenesis. A better understanding of its carcinogenesis and determining risk factors that lead to its development could help improve the available treatment options. METHOD Based on this better understanding, the histological alterations (such as acute cholecystitis, adenomyomatosis, xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis, polyps, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, cancer and others) in gallbladders from 1,689 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for cholecystolithiasis were analyzed. The association of these gallbladder histological alterations with clinical data was studied. RESULTS Gender analysis revealed a greater incidence of inflammatory changes in males, while dysplasia and cancer were only found in women. The incidence of cholesterolosis was greater in the patients 60 years of age and under, and the incidence of adenomyomatosis and gangrene was greater in the elderly patients. A progressive increase in the average age was observed as alterations progressed through pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and then cancer, suggesting that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence may occur in gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder histological alterations were also observed in asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that there could be an association between some histological alterations of gallbladder and cancer, and they also suggest that the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence could in fact be true in the case of gallbladder cancer. Nevertheless, further studies directed towards a perfect understanding of gallbladder carcinogenesis are required. PMID:20186297

  10. An Unusual Presentation of Plasma Cells - Castleman Disease: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Mihăilă, Mariana; Herlea, V; Dobrea, Camelia; Lupescu, Ioana; Munteanu, Gina Rusu; Chiriac, Grethi; Micu, L; Serescu, R; Copaci, I

    2016-01-01

    We present the case of a 76 year old female patient admitted in the Department of Cardiology for physical asthenia, profuse sweating and dyspnea with orthopnea for about one month. Clinical and paraclinical assessments performed at admission confirmed the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade. Surgical intervention was performed and 400 mL of clear effusion were drained. Post-operative evolution was marked by recurrence of symptoms, requiring after 3 weeks a new drainage of 600 mL of clear effusion, and biopsy of the pericardium was performed. Pathological exam described serous pericarditis with chronic inflammatory infiltrate, xanthogranulomatous reaction intricated in the pericardium and mesothelial hyperplasia. The patient was subsequently transferred to the Department of Internal Medicine for further investigations. Physical examination showed a patient with altered general status, pallor, vesicular murmur absent in both bases, presenting cutaneous hyperpigmentation at the level of the right hemi-abdomen and hip with posterior extension, and a peripheral indurated erythematous plaque. The patient presented nodular masses of 3 cm in the right latero-cervical and bilateral axillary regions, non-adherent to the superficial structures, as well as adenopathic blocks in both inguinal regions. CT scan of the thorax and abdomen showed moderate bilateral pleuresia, minimal pericardial effusion (15 mm) and multiple adenopathies on both sides of the diaphragm. Skin biopsy was performed, as well as bone marrow aspirate and excision of a right axillary lymph node. Pathological exams and immunohistochemistry tests confirmed the diagnosis of Plasma Cells Castleman disease.

  11. Arthropod borne disease: the leading cause of fever in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border.

    PubMed

    McGready, Rose; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Tan, Saw Oo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Viladpai-Nguen, Samuel Jacher; Jesadapanpong, Wilarat; Blacksell, Stuart D; Peacock, Sharon J; Paris, Daniel H; Day, Nicholas P; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J; Nosten, François

    2010-11-16

    Fever in pregnancy is dangerous for both mother and foetus. In the 1980's malaria was the leading cause of death in pregnant women in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. Artemisinin combination therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. The remaining causes of fever in pregnancy are not well documented. Pregnant women attending antenatal care, where weekly screening for malaria is routine, were invited to have a comprehensive clinical and laboratory screen if they had fever. Women were admitted to hospital, treated and followed up weekly until delivery. A convalescent serum was collected on day 21. Delivery outcomes were recorded. Febrile episodes (n = 438) occurred in 5.0% (409/8,117) of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from 7-Jan-2004 to 17-May-2006. The main cause was malaria in 55.5% (227/409). A cohort of 203 (49.6% of 409) women had detailed fever investigations and follow up. Arthropod-borne (malaria, rickettsial infections, and dengue) and zoonotic disease (leptospirosis) accounted for nearly half of all febrile illnesses, 47.3% (96/203). Coinfection was observed in 3.9% (8/203) of women, mostly malaria and rickettsia. Pyelonephritis, 19.7% (40/203), was also a common cause of fever. Once malaria, pyelonephritis and acute respiratory illness are excluded by microscopy and/or clinical findings, one-third of the remaining febrile infections will be caused by rickettsia or leptospirosis. Scrub and murine typhus were associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth and low birth weight. One woman died (no positive laboratory tests). Malaria remains the leading cause of fever in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border. Scrub and murine typhus were also important causes of fever associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Febrile pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border who do not have malaria, pyelonephritis or respiratory tract infection should be treated with azithromycin, effective for typhus and

  12. Role of procalcitonin in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux in young children hospitalized with a first febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hai-Lun; Wu, Kang-Hsi; Chen, Shan-Ming; Chao, Yu-Hua; Ku, Min-Sho; Hung, Tong-Wei; Liao, Pen-Fen; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this article was to assess the usefulness of procalcitonin (PCT) as a marker for predicting dilating (grades III-V) vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. Children ≤2 years of age with a first febrile urinary tract infection were prospectively evaluated. Serum samples were tested for PCT at the time of admission to a tertiary hospital. All children underwent renal ultrasonography (US), Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan, and voiding cystourethrography. The diagnostic characteristics of PCT test for acute pyelonephritis and dilating VUR were calculated. Of 272 children analyzed (168 boys and 104 girls; median age, 5 months), 169 (62.1%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR demonstrated in 97 (35.7%), including 70 (25.7%) with dilating VUR. The median PCT value was significantly higher in children with VUR than in those without (P < 0.001). Using a PCT cutoff value of ≥1.0 ng/mL, the sensitivity and negative predictive value for predicting dilating VUR were 94.3% and 95.4%, respectively, for PCT, and 97.1% and 97.8%, respectively, for the combined PCT and US studies, whereas the positive and negative likelihood ratios were 2.03 and 0.107, respectively, for PCT, and 1.72 and 0.067, respectively, for the combined studies. By multivariate analysis, high PCT values and abnormalities on US were independent predictors of dilating VUR. PCT is useful for diagnosing acute pyelonephritis and predicting dilating VUR in young children with a first febrile urinary tract infection. A voiding cystourethrography is indicated only in children with high PCT values (≥1.0 ng/mL) and/or abnormalities found on a US.

  13. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-10-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI)more » involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references.« less

  14. Improving the processes of care and outcomes in obstetrics/gynecology.

    PubMed

    Simon, N V; Heaps, K P; Chodroff, C H

    1997-09-01

    The obstetrics/gynecology department of York Hospital (York Health System, York, Pennsylvania) initiated a program to improve the processes of care and control costs for common women's and newborns' health care services. Twelve clinical policies were established between June 1993 and February 1995. CONDUCTING THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT (QI) PROJECTS: Using the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) improvement cycle method, the QI group established clinical pathways for high-volume conditions or procedures known to have low rates of complications and clinical guidelines for those conditions or procedures not requiring coordinated efforts of a group of health care professionals. EXAMPLE--PYELONEPHRITIS IN PREGNANCY: The literature had indicated that the prevalence of pyelonephritis can be decreased by identifying and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria early in prenatal care. After the validity of the clinical policy was demonstrated in the resident service, the policy was extended to all private obstetric practices. Dissemination of the finding that most of the admissions for pyelonephritis were for referred patients (for whom we had no control over prenatal care) or for patients referred by private physicians who were not yet following the guidelines quickly led to complete compliance by our obstetricians and other health care providers referring patients to the York Health System. The 12 clinical policies resulted in the elimination of 113 admissions and 5,595 inpatient days and in the reduction of the cost of patient care by $1,306,214 for the years 1994-1995 and 1995-1996 combined, without apparent adverse effects on patient health. A voluntary clinical policies program can change the culture of a department and lead to cost-effectiveness and better quality of patient care.

  15. [Recurrent urinary tract infections should not be treated cavalierly. First verify the diagnosis!].

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Naber, K G

    2003-10-23

    Acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC) and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) are two common urinary tract infections (UTI) in otherwise healthy young women. Both weaknesses of the mucosal barrier and specific factors of uropathogenic bacteria must be present before the bacteria can adhere to the urothelium and give rise to an infection. These circumstances are also of relevance in recurrent UTI. Antibiotic treatment of AUC and AUP is based on the guidelines of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). For the prevention of recurrent UTI, antibiotics, functional foods, injections, probiotic agents and other measures are recommended with varying potential for success.

  16. Corynebacterium urealyticum: a comprehensive review of an understated organism

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Nagla; Salem, Lamyaa; Saber, Sally; Ismail, Ghada; Bluth, Martin H

    2015-01-01

    Corynebacterium urealyticum is a Gram positive, slow-growing, lipophilic, multi-drug resistant, urease positive micro-organism with diphtheroid morphology. It has been reported as an opportunistic nosocomial pathogen and as the cause of a variety of diseases including but not limited to cystitis, pyelonephritis, and bacteremia among others. This review serves to describe C. urealyticum with respect to its history, identification, laboratory investigation, relationship to disease and treatment in order to allow increased familiarity with this organism in clinical disease. PMID:26056481

  17. Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Macejko, Amanda M; Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2007-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are common complications of pregnancy; upper tract infections in particular may lead to significant morbidity for both the mother and fetus. Bacteriuria is a significant risk factor for developing pyelonephritis in pregnant women. Therefore, proper screening and treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy is necessary to prevent complications. All women should be screened for bacteriuria in the first trimester, and women with a history of recurrent urinary tract infections or anomalies should have repeat bacteriuria screening throughout pregnancy. Treatment of bacteriuria should include 3-day therapy with appropriate antimicrobials, and women should be followed closely after treatment because recurrence may occur in up to one third of patients.

  18. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities.

    PubMed

    Nogayeva, Maral G; Tuleutayeva, Svetlana A

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up.

  19. Chronic Colovesical Fistula Leading to Chronic Urinary Tract Infection Resulting in End-Stage Renal Disease in a Chronic Granulomatous Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, M R; Sanford, T; Nair, A; Zerbe, C S; Hughes, M S; Folio, L; Agarwal, Piyush K; Brancato, S J

    2017-02-01

    A 46-year old man with X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) being followed at the National Institute of Health with uncontrolled CGD colitis who developed chronic colovesical fistula, and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Despite aggressive medical management of symptoms with immunomodulators and antibiotic prophylaxis, the chronic colovesical fistula led to chronic pyelonephritis, recurrent urinary tract infections, persistent air in the collecting system and bladder, and post-renal obstruction resulting in renal failure. Patient is now hemodialysis dependent and required diverting loop ileostomy placement. This report highlights multiple potential etiologies of rising serum creatinine in patients with CGD.

  20. Anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab) treatment of multicentric Castleman's disease.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Masashi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Tsuboi, Hiroto; Ito, Satoshi; Mamura, Mizuko; Goto, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Isao; Tsutsumi, Akito; Sumida, Takayuki

    2007-01-01

    We report three cases of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) successfully treated with anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody (tocilizumab). Tocilizumab was administered intravenously at a dose of 8 mg/kg every 2 weeks. In each case, tocilizumab alleviated symptoms, including generalized fatigue, pyrexia, and alleviated biochemical abnormalities, including anemia, hypoalbuminemia, hypergammaglobulinemia, and increased C-reactive protein (CRP). Side effects included hypercholesterolemia, acute pyelonephritis, mild inflammation of the parotid glands, and upper respiratory system inflammation. Other severe side effects were not observed. These results indicate that tocilizumab is effective for the treatment of MCD. This is the first report on tocilizumab efficacy for Castleman's disease after approval for use for Castleman's disease.

  1. Management of urinary tract infections in pregnancy: a review with comments on single dose therapy.

    PubMed

    Zinner, S H

    1992-01-01

    Most investigators agree that the adverse effects of urinary tract infections in pregnancy can be abrogated by effective early detection and treatment. However, the optimal methods for screening and treatment remain controversial. Although single-dose therapy has not been applied to pregnant women with acute pyelonephritis, most but not all studies which have compared single-dose with longer courses of beta-lactam or other antibiotics in pregnant asymptomatic bacteriuric women have shown no differences in outcome. This paper reviews recent trials of single-dose treatment of bacteriuria in pregnant women.

  2. Urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Rubinoff, H

    1977-12-01

    Urinary tract infections can be found in either sex at any age. While the majority occur in adult females as acute cystitis, recurrent symptomatic bacteriuria, or asymptomatic bacteriuria, adult males with prostatitis or acute pyelonephritis and children with symptomatic urinary tract infections comprise a considerable portion of patients seen. Management in pregnant females or in males with indwelling catheters or before prostatic surgery presents special problems. The choice of drug and dosage schedule should vary according to the infecting agent and the clinical state of the patient.

  3. Diagnosis and follow-up of chronic bacterial prostatitis with recurrent urinary tract infection detected by 67Ga scintigraphy and SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Ho; Baek, Ji-Hyeon; Lee, Jin Soo; Hyun, In Young

    2013-11-01

    Half of male populations will have symptoms and signs of prostatitis in their lifetime. There is controversy concerning diagnosis of prostatitis with (67)Ga scintigraphy because the focal midline pelvic uptake is usually considered to be physiologic uptake in colon. The authors describe (67)Ga scintigraphy and SPECT/CT findings of a 58-year-old man with right flank pain and fever. The examination demonstrated abnormal uptake of Ga within the prostate and right kidney upper pole, suggesting prostatitis and acute pyelonephritis (APN) contemporary. After completion of antibiotic treatment, follow-up scintigraphy and SPECT/CT showed complete resolution of APN, but uptake remained within the prostate.

  4. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Pregnant Women in Outpatient Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Nogayeva, Maral G.; Tuleutayeva, Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract morbidity has increased by 7% in Kazakhstan between 2007 to 2011. Pregnant women with extragenital pathologies or kidney diseases had the greatest prevalence of morbidity. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) is one of the most important risk factors of pyelonephritis development in pregnant women, and it can affect the course and outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and postnatal period. AB prevention requires prevention of pregnancy complications including early diagnostic of urinary tract infections, timely optimization of therapy at outpatient facilities, and dynamic follow-up. PMID:29138709

  5. [The immunocorrective properties of bacterial preparations (lactobacterin, bifidumbacterin) and bemitil in pregnant women with a urogenital infection].

    PubMed

    Dolgushina, V F

    1991-04-01

    The results of the analysis of the cell-mediated and humoral factors of the peripheral blood and cervical mucus in pregnant women with urogenital infections (pyelonephritis, colpitis, cervicitis, endocervicitis) and in healthy pregnant women are presented. These results indicate that considerable changes in the systemic immunity of the body and in the local antiinfectious protection of the reproductive tract develop in pregnant women with urogenital infections. The prescription of bifidumbacterin and lactobacterin to the patients during pregnancy (intravaginally) and bemitil after parturition (orally) completely restores the functional validity of their immune system and decreases the number of postnatal complications.

  6. Vesicoureteral reflux in the primate IV: does reflux harm the kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.A.; Fischman, N.H.; Thomas, R.

    1982-09-01

    It has been said that vesicoureteral reflux causes renal scarring because of intrarenal reflux. We studied reflux in the monkey because of its similarity to man, especially in regard to the incidence of vesicoureteral reflux and chronic pyelonephritis. High pressure moderate grade reflux was produced and renal function followed by means of quantitative renal camera studies using /sup 131/I hippuran. There was no change in renal function from sterile reflux even when intrarenal reflux occurred. When, however, infection was introduced, renal function decreased. We concluded that sterile moderate vesicoureteral or intrarenal reflux does not harm the kidney.

  7. Evidence-based rules from family practice to inform family practice; the learning healthcare system case study on urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Soler, Jean K; Corrigan, Derek; Kazienko, Przemyslaw; Kajdanowicz, Tomasz; Danger, Roxana; Kulisiewicz, Marcin; Delaney, Brendan

    2015-05-16

    Analysis of encounter data relevant to the diagnostic process sourced from routine electronic medical record (EMR) databases represents a classic example of the concept of a learning healthcare system (LHS). By collecting International Classification of Primary Care (ICPC) coded EMR data as part of the Transition Project from Dutch and Maltese databases (using the EMR TransHIS), data mining algorithms can empirically quantify the relationships of all presenting reasons for encounter (RfEs) and recorded diagnostic outcomes. We have specifically looked at new episodes of care (EoC) for two urinary system infections: simple urinary tract infection (UTI, ICPC code: U71) and pyelonephritis (ICPC code: U70). Participating family doctors (FDs) recorded details of all their patient contacts in an EoC structure using the ICPC, including RfEs presented by the patient, and the FDs' diagnostic labels. The relationships between RfEs and episode titles were studied using probabilistic and data mining methods as part of the TRANSFoRm project. The Dutch data indicated that the presence of RfE's "Cystitis/Urinary Tract Infection", "Dysuria", "Fear of UTI", "Urinary frequency/urgency", "Haematuria", "Urine symptom/complaint, other" are all strong, reliable, predictors for the diagnosis "Cystitis/Urinary Tract Infection" . The Maltese data indicated that the presence of RfE's "Dysuria", "Urinary frequency/urgency", "Haematuria" are all strong, reliable, predictors for the diagnosis "Cystitis/Urinary Tract Infection". The Dutch data indicated that the presence of RfE's "Flank/axilla symptom/complaint", "Dysuria", "Fever", "Cystitis/Urinary Tract Infection", "Abdominal pain/cramps general" are all strong, reliable, predictors for the diagnosis "Pyelonephritis" . The Maltese data set did not present any clinically and statistically significant predictors for pyelonephritis. We describe clinically and statistically significant diagnostic associations observed between UTIs and

  8. Laparoscopic nephrectomy in a patient with severe scoliosis: A case report.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Daichi; Ito, Ayato; Kikuchi, Daichi; Tsuyukubo, Takashi; Kato, Renpei; Kato, Yoichiro; Konari, Susumu; Omori, So; Obara, Wataru

    2018-05-10

    Although the role of laparoscopic nephrectomy (LN) has been established, few studies have reported cases of LN in individuals with scoliosis. Here we report a case of right LN in a patient with severe right convex scoliosis. A 26-year-old man presented with a fever. His medical history comprised severe right convex lumbar scoliosis. CT revealed right hydronephrosis and right kidney stones. Pyelonephritis requiring nephrectomy was diagnosed. Right LN was feasible with elaborate perioperative care. The postoperative course was uneventful with no relapse of urinary tract infection. © 2018 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Fatal suppurative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas in a chimpanzee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Migaki, G.; Asher, D.M.; Casey, H.W.; Locke, Louis N.; Gibbs, C.J.; Gajdusek, C.

    1979-01-01

    Reports of nephritis in chimpanzees are relatively rare, compared with those in other nonhuman primates. McClure and Guilloud reported chronic pyelonephritis in a 35-year-old female chimpanzee; Schmidt and Butler reported glomerulonephritis in an 11-year-old female chimpanzee, and Kim reported on a 12-year-old male with subacute interstitial nephritis in a chimpanzee after the animal had recurrent hemolysis due to phenolic intoxication. The present report deals with supprative nephritis caused by Pseudomonas resulting in renal failure in a chimpanzee.

  10. Solitary kidney with renal artery aneurysm repaired by ex vivo reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Palcau, Laura; Gouicem, Djelloul; Joguet, Etienne; Cameliere, Lucie; Berger, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    A 22-year-old pregnant female with pyelonephritis was found to have a 26-mm left renal artery aneurysm with unknown right kidney agenesis diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging. Computed tomographic angiography with 3-dimensional reconstructions confirmed a saccular aneurysm localized at the bifurcation of the left posterior segmental artery. The patient ultimately underwent successful ex vivo left renal artery aneurysm repair with autotransplantation. Pathologic evaluation of the resected aneurysm confirmed the diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia. Fibromuscular dysplasia is the most common cause of renal artery stenosis and renovascular hypertension and can, in rare cases, be associated with the development of renal artery aneurysms. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Elemental mercury in the appendix: an unusual complication of a Mexican-American folk remedy.

    PubMed

    McKinney, P E

    1999-01-01

    Ingestion of small amounts of elemental mercury is generally thought to be harmless. However, in 4 previously reported cases, ingested mercury became sequestered in the appendix, causing appendicitis in one. We present a case in which elemental mercury was administered as a Mexican-American folk remedy for abdominal pain and became sequestered in the appendix. A 10-year-old Hispanic male presented with 3 days of right-sided abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and malaise. On admission, his temperature was 41.5 degrees C and he had right abdominal tenderness. Urinalysis showed 3 WBCs, 9 RBCs, occasional bacteria, and 1+ protein. An abdominal CT scan suggested right focal pyelonephritis, but also showed multiple intraabdominal metallic densities. On further questioning, the family admitted giving him elemental mercury as a remedy for "empacho." He was treated with intravenous ampicillin/sulbactam and gentamicin for a focal pyelonephritis. Because of mercury remaining in the gastrointestinal tract, activated charcoal and sorbitol were given. By hospital day 3, mercury filled the appendix as shown by abdominal radiograph. He was placed in the left lateral decubitus position overnight, and by the next morning, the mercury partially emptied from the appendix. By hospital day 8, his symptoms had resolved and mercury was no longer seen in the appendix. There were only minimal increases in urine mercury levels (18 mg/L). At 5-month follow-up, he has remained asymptomatic.

  12. Costs and effects of screening and treating low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, the ASB study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is 2-10% and is associated with both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes as pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Antibiotic treatment is reported to decrease these adverse outcomes although the existing evidence is of poor quality. Methods/Design We plan a combined screen and treat study in women with a singleton pregnancy. We will screen women between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation for ASB using the urine dipslide technique. The dipslide is considered positive when colony concentration ≥105 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of a single microorganism or two different colonies but one ≥105 CFU/mL is found, or when Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria is found in any colony concentration. Women with a positive dipslide will be randomly allocated to receive nitrofurantoin or placebo 100 mg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (double blind). Primary outcomes of this trial are maternal pyelonephritis and/or preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes are neonatal and maternal morbidity, neonatal weight, time to delivery, preterm delivery rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal admission days and costs. Discussion This trial will provide evidence for the benefit and cost-effectiveness of dipslide screening for ASB among low risk women at 16–22 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent nitrofurantoin treatment. Trial registration Dutch trial registry: NTR-3068 PMID:22892110

  13. [Quantitative changes of serum immunglobulins during infectous diseases in childhood (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mietens, C; Bernhard, A

    1975-07-01

    Immunelektrophoreses and quantitative determinations of serum immunglobulins were performed for 298 children with infections of the upper and lower respiratory tract, chronic and recurrent infections, pyelonephritis and Salmonella infections. Minor changes were seen for IgG, 80% of the patients had levels within the normal range. Many patients, however had increased levels of IgA and IgM, while a decrease of these immunglobulins below the normal range were rarely detected. Children with upper respiratory tract infections had increased IgA in 28 per cent and increased IgM in 44 per cent, those with bronchitis in 21 per cent an IgA and in 45 an IgM increase. Most frequently immunglobulin elevations were seen in patients with pneumonia: IgA was in 50% and IgM in 67% increased above the normal range. Patients with recurrent infections had an IgA elevation in 34% and an IgM increase in 33%. 35% of children with pyelonephritis had an IgA and IgM increase. Children suffering from Salmonella infections had an increased IgA in 29 and IgM in 67%. The result of other authors and of factors leading to an elevation of serum immunglobulins are discussed.

  14. Safety and efficacy of transarterial nephrectomy as an alternative to surgical nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jooae; Shin, Ji Hoon; Yoon, Hyun-Ki; Ko, Gi-Young; Gwon, Dong Il; Ko, Heung Kyu; Kim, Jin Hyoung; Sung, Kyu-Bo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transarterial nephrectomy, i.e., complete renal artery embolization, as an alternative to surgical nephrectomy. This retrospective study included 11 patients who underwent transarterial nephrectomy due to a high risk of surgical nephrectomy or their refusal to undergo surgery during the period from April 2002 to February 2013. Medical records and radiographic images were reviewed retrospectively to collect information regarding underlying etiologies, clinical presentations and embolization outcomes. The underlying etiologies for transarterial nephrectomy included recurrent hematuria (chronic transplant rejection [n = 3], arteriovenous malformation or fistula [n = 3], angiomyolipoma [n = 1], or end-stage renal disease [n = 1]), inoperable renal or ureteral injury (n = 2), and ectopic kidney with urinary incontinence (n = 1). The technical success rate was 100%, while clinical success was achieved in eight patients (72.7%). Subsequent surgical nephrectomy was required for three patients due to an incomplete nephrectomy effect (n = 2) or necrotic pyelonephritis (n = 1). Procedure-related complications were post-infarction syndrome in one patient and necrotic pyelonephritis in another patient. Of four patients with follow-up CT, four showed renal atrophy and two showed partial renal enhancement. No patient developed a procedure-related hypertension. Transarterial nephrectomy may be a safe and effective alternative to surgical nephrectomy in patients with high operative risks.

  15. Urinary tract infection associated with conditions causing urinary tract obstruction and stasis, excluding urolithiasis and neuropathic bladder.

    PubMed

    Heyns, C F

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine urinary tract infection (UTI) associated with conditions causing urinary tract obstruction and stasis, excluding urolithiasis and neuropathic bladder dysfunction. An electronic literature search was performed using the key words urinary tract infection (UTI), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), hydronephrosis, obstruction, reflux, diverticulum, urethra, and stricture. In total, 520 abstracts were reviewed, 210 articles were studied in detail, and 36 were included as references. It is one of the axioms of Urological practice that urinary tract obstruction and stasis predispose to UTI. Experimental studies indicate that, whereas transurethral inoculates of bacteria are rapidly eliminated from the normal bladder, urethral obstruction leads to cystitis, pyelonephritis, and bacteremia. BPH is, next to urolithiasis, the most common cause of urinary tract obstruction predisposing to UTI. Urethral stricture remains a common cause of UTI in many parts of the world. Urinary stasis in diverticula of the urethra or bladder predisposes to UTI. Experimental studies have shown that, whereas the normal kidney is relatively resistant to infection by organisms injected intravenously, ureteric obstruction predisposes to pyelonephritis. It also causes renal dysfunction which impairs the excretion of antibiotics in the urine, making eradication of bacteria difficult. In patients with UTI and urinary tract obstruction, targeted antibiotic treatment according to urine culture should be complemented with urgent drainage (bladder catheterization, percutaneous nephrostomy or ureteric stenting) followed by definitive surgery to remove the cause of obstruction or stasis once infection is under control.

  16. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin: Utility In Urologic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Catherine S.; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is best known as a non-invasive early marker of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, recent reports in the literature have described additional utility of both plasma NGAL (pNGAL) and urine NGAL (uNGAL) in various pathologic conditions within the pediatric urinary tract, including urinary tract infection (UTI), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), renal scarring, and obstructive uropathy. These two forms of NGAL have different applications related to their mechanisms of upregulation: pNGAL can serve as a marker of systemic inflammatory conditions, whereas uNGAL is specific for insults to the renal epithelium. Therefore, pNGAL has good predictive accuracy in systemic inflammation associated with pyelonephritis and renal damage, while uNGAL is effective in identifying infection with the genitourinary environment as well as subclinical renal damage as a result of scarring or obstruction. Continued work should focus on the effect of trending NGAL values in patients with pyelonephritis, VUR, and hydronephrosis, to determine if longitudinal NGAL patterns have value in predicting adverse outcomes. PMID:27785626

  17. Comparison of renal ultrasonography and dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy in febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Noroozian, Elham; Esmailzadehha, Neda; Barikani, Ameneh

    2015-12-01

    Accurate and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of patient with urinary tract infection (UTI) are essential for the prevention or restriction of permanent damage to the kidneys in children. The aim of this study was to compare renal ultrasonography (US) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan in the diagnosis of patients with febrile urinary tract infection. This study involved the medical records of children with febrile urinary tract infection who were admitted to the children's hospital in Qazvin, Iran. Pyelonephritis was diagnosed on the basis of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests and abnormal DMSA renal scans. The criteria for abnormality of renal US were an increase or a decrease in diffuse or focal parenchymal echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, kidney position irregularities, parenchymal reduction and increased kidney size. Of the 100 study patients, 23% had an abnormal US and 46% had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Of the latter patients, 15 had concurrent abnormal US (P value ≤ 0.03, concordance rate: 18%). Renal US had a sensitivity of 32%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 65% and negative predictive value of 60%. Of the 77 patients with normal US, 31 (40.2%) had an abnormal DMSA renal scan. Despite the benefits and accessibility of renal US, its value in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis is limited.

  18. Clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion associated with febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Takayuki; Sato, Yasuyuki; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Hayashi, Asako

    2014-04-01

    Common pathogens of clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS) are viruses, such as influenza virus. However, bacteria are rare pathogens for MERS. We report the first patient with MERS associated with febrile urinary tract infection. A 16-year-old lupus patient was admitted to our hospital. She had fever, headache, vomiting, and right back pain. Urinary analysis showed leukocyturia, and urinary culture identified Klebsiella pneumoniae. Cerebrospinal fluid examination and brain single-photon emission computed tomography showed no abnormalities. Therefore, she was diagnosed with febrile urinary tract infection. For further examinations, 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scintigraphy showed right cortical defects, and a voiding cystourethrogram demonstrated right vesicoureteral reflux (grade II). Therefore, she was diagnosed with right pyelonephritis. Although treatment with antibiotics administered intravenously improved the fever, laboratory findings, and right back pain, she had prolonged headaches, nausea, and vomiting. T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted, and fluid attenuated inversion recovery images in brain magnetic resonance imaging showed high intensity lesions in the splenium of the corpus callosum, which completely disappeared 1 week later. These results were compatible with MERS. To the best of our knowledge, our patient is the first patient who showed clinical features of MERS associated with febrile urinary tract infection. In patients with pyelonephritis and an atypical clinical course, such as prolonged headache, nausea, vomiting, and neurological disorders, the possibility of MERS should be considered.

  19. The Escherichia coli phylogenetic group B2 with integrons prevails in childhood recurrent urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Kõljalg, Siiri; Truusalu, Kai; Stsepetova, Jelena; Pai, Kristiine; Vainumäe, Inga; Sepp, Epp; Mikelsaar, Marika

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to characterize the phylogenetic groups of Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, and containment of class 1 integrons in the first attack of pyelonephritis and in subsequent recurrences in young children. Altogether, 89 urine E. coli isolates from 41 children with urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied for prevalence and persistence of phylogenetic groups by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), antibacterial resistance by minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and class 1 integrons by PCR. Phylogenetic group B2 was most common (57%), followed by D (20%), A (18%) and B1 (5%). Overall resistance to betalactams was 61%, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 28%, and was not associated with phylogenetic groups. According to PFGE, the same clonal strain persisted in 77% of patients. The persistence was detected most often in phylogenetic group B2 (70%). Phylogenetic group B2 more often contained class 1 integrons than group A. Integron positive strains had higher MIC values of cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and gentamicin. In conclusion, phylogenetic group B2 was the most common cause of the first episode of pyelonephritis, as well as in case of the persistence of the same strain and contained frequently class 1 integrons in childhood recurrent UTI. An overall frequent betalactam resistance was equally distributed among phylogenetic groups. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Costs and effects of screening and treating low risk women with a singleton pregnancy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, the ASB study.

    PubMed

    Kazemier, Brenda M; Schneeberger, Caroline; De Miranda, Esteriek; Van Wassenaer, Aleid; Bossuyt, Patrick M; Vogelvang, Tatjana E; Reijnders, Frans J L; Delemarre, Friso M C; Verhoeven, Corine J M; Oudijk, Martijn A; Van Der Ven, Jeanine A; Kuiper, Petra N; Feiertag, Nicolette; Ott, Alewijn; De Groot, Christianne J M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2012-06-21

    The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy is 2-10% and is associated with both maternal and neonatal adverse outcomes as pyelonephritis and preterm delivery. Antibiotic treatment is reported to decrease these adverse outcomes although the existing evidence is of poor quality. We plan a combined screen and treat study in women with a singleton pregnancy. We will screen women between 16 and 22 weeks of gestation for ASB using the urine dipslide technique. The dipslide is considered positive when colony concentration ≥105 colony forming units (CFU)/mL of a single microorganism or two different colonies but one ≥105 CFU/mL is found, or when Group B Streptococcus bacteriuria is found in any colony concentration. Women with a positive dipslide will be randomly allocated to receive nitrofurantoin or placebo 100 mg twice a day for 5 consecutive days (double blind). Primary outcomes of this trial are maternal pyelonephritis and/or preterm delivery before 34 weeks. Secondary outcomes are neonatal and maternal morbidity, neonatal weight, time to delivery, preterm delivery rate before 32 and 37 weeks, days of admission in neonatal intensive care unit, maternal admission days and costs. This trial will provide evidence for the benefit and cost-effectiveness of dipslide screening for ASB among low risk women at 16-22 weeks of pregnancy and subsequent nitrofurantoin treatment. Dutch trial registry: NTR-3068.

  1. The uriscreen test to detect significant asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Teppa, Roberto J; Roberts, James M

    2005-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) occurs in 2-11% of pregnancies and it is a clear predisposition to the development of acute pyelonephritis, which, in turn, poses risk to mother and fetus. Treatment of bacteriuria during pregnancy reduces the incidence of pyelonephritis. Therefore, it is recommended to screen for ASB at the first prenatal visit. The gold standard for detection of bacteriuria during pregnancy is urine culture, but this test is expensive, time-consuming, and labor-intensive. To determine the reliability of an enzymatic urine screening test (Uriscreen; Savyon Diagnostics, Ashdod, Israel) for detecting ASB in pregnancy. Catheterized urine samples were collected from 150 women who had routine prenatal screening for ASB. Patients with urinary symptoms, active vaginal bleeding, or who were previously on antibiotics therapy were excluded from the study. Sensitivity, specificity, and the positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen were estimated using urine culture as the criterion standard. Urine cultures were considered positive if they grew >10(5) colony-forming units of a single uropathogen. Twenty-eight women (18.7%) had urine culture results indicating significant bacteriuria, and 17 of these 28 specimens had positive enzyme activity. Of 122 samples with no growth, 109 had negative enzyme activity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the Uriscreen test were 60.7% (+/-18.1), 89.3% (+/-5.6), 56.6%, and 90.8%, respectively. The Uriscreen test had inadequate sensitivity for rapid screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy.

  2. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo

    2004-10-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.

  3. Prospective Comparison of Cefoxitin and Cefazolin in Infections Caused by Aerobic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Gurwith, Marc; Albritton, William; Lank, Beverley; Harding, Godfrey; Ronald, Allan

    1978-01-01

    Intravenous cefazolin and cefoxitin were compared in a prospective randomized trial in infections where the suspected pathogen was expected to be susceptible to both antibiotics. In the cefazolin group (12 patients) the diagnosis was pneumonia in 4, including 2 with pneumococcal bacteremia, soft tissue infection in 5, Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in 1, acute pyelonephritis in 1, and disseminated gonococcal infection in 1. In the cefoxitin group (10 patients) the diagnosis was pneumonia in 4, including 2 with pneumococcal bacteremia, soft tissue infection in 4, acute pyelonephritis in 1, and disseminated gonococcal infection in 1. In the cefazolin group receiving an evaluable course of therapy, a good clinical response was seen in 10 of 11 patients, and a bacteriological response was seen in 5 of 7. Cefazolin failed to eradicate S. aureus bacteremia in 1 patient and S. aureus in a skin ulcer of another patient. All 10 cefoxitin patients had good clinical and bacteriological responses, but in 1 patient S. aureus colonization of a postoperative wound recurred after discontinuation of the drug. Side effects in both groups included skin rash, phlebitis, and elevation of the serum alkaline phosphatase. Both cefoxitin and cefazolin appeared effective in infections caused by susceptible aerobic pathogens with the possible exception of S. aureus, although all 11 strains of S. aureus isolated in this study were susceptible in vitro to both antibiotics. Cefoxitin appeared to be equivalent to cefazolin in efficacy and occurrence of side effects. PMID:348096

  4. [Virulence factors and pathophysiology of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli].

    PubMed

    Bidet, P; Bonarcorsi, S; Bingen, E

    2012-11-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) causing urinary tract infections, bacteraemia or meningitis are characterized by a particular genetic background (phylogenetic group B2 and D) and the presence, within genetic pathogenicity islands (PAI) or plasmids, of genes encoding virulence factors involved in adhesion to epithelia, crossing of the body barriers (digestive, kidney, bloodbrain), iron uptake and resistance to the immune system. Among the many virulence factors described, two are particularly linked with a pathophysiological process: type P pili PapGII adhesin is linked with acute pyelonephritis, in the absence of abnormal flow of urine, and the K1 capsule is linked with neonatal meningitis. However, if the adhesin PapGII appears as the key factor of pyelonephritis, such that its absence in strain causing the infection is predictive of malformation or a vesico-ureteral reflux, the meningeal virulence of E. coli can not be reduced to a single virulence factor, but results from a combination of factors unique to each clone, and an imbalance between the immune defenses of the host and bacterial virulence. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [COMPLICATED URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS IN THE ELDERLY].

    PubMed

    Ćosić, I; Ćosić, V

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections involving lower (cystitis, prostatitis) or upper (pyelonephritis, renal abscess, perinephric abscess) urinary tract. Differentiation of complicated and uncomplicated UTI is usually based on the presence of structural or functional urinary tract abnormalities, which can increase the risk of treatment failure and development of serious complications. Factors that increase the risk are foreign bodies, stones, obstruction, neurogenic bladder, kidney transplantation, immunosuppression, and pregnancy. Complicated UTI includes a spectrum of conditions that increase the risk of treatment failure, as well as of serious complications such as bacteremia and sepsis, perinephric abscess, renal impairment and emphysematous pyelonephritis. To avoid the potentially devastating outcomes, appropriate diagnostic procedures, antibiotic and surgical treatment, and appropriate follow-up are required. The incidence of complicated UTI will grow in the future due to general aging of the population, increasing incidence of diabetes, and ever growing number of immunocompromised and immunosuppressed patients. It is of key importance to recognize complicated UTI on time, and treat it wisely and aggressively to reduce duration of the disease and the risk of antibiotic resistance.

  6. ON THE PROPHYLAXIS OF RADIATION-CONDITIONED HYDRONEPHROSIS (CLINICAL AND ANIMAL EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES)

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, H.; Legerlotz, C.

    1962-10-01

    Means of preventirg hydronephrosis, developing from injury to the ureter during radiotherapy of gynecologic carcinoma, were investigated. These studies were based on previous observations that cortisone tended to reduce the incidence of ureteral strictures following irradiation of cervical carcinoma. Female rats were irradiated with 300 r, delivered to a 2 x 4.5 cm abdominal area, in repeated doses to give a total of 4500 r. The animals were injected intramuscularly with 0.5 mg of a crystalline suspension of prednisolone every week during and after irradiation, and control animals were treated with folliclestimulating hormone (FSH). Pyelonephritis developed in 44% of FSH-treatedmore » animals compared with only 18% in prednisolone-treated rats; severe ureteral sclerosis was found in 36 and 20%; and histological detectable hydronephrosis was seen in 80 and 0%, respectively. It was concluded that this anti-inflammatory steroid inhibits development of the 2 factors which appear most responsible for radiation-induced hydronephrosis, namely, ascending pyelonephritis and ureteral sclerosis. This was confirmed in human subjects. In 50 women undergoing radiation treatment of uterine carcinoma, administration of a total dose of 500 mg prednisolone over a 3- month period completely prevented hydronephrosis, whereas this complication arose in 10% of women who did not receive this steroid. (H.H.D.)« less

  7. The profiles of soluble adhesion molecules in the "great obstetrical syndromes".

    PubMed

    Docheva, Nikolina; Romero, Roberto; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Tarca, Adi L; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Maymon, Eli; Hassan, Sonia S; Erez, Offer

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the profiles of maternal plasma soluble adhesion molecules in patients with preeclampsia, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetuses, acute pyelonephritis, preterm labor with intact membranes (PTL), preterm prelabor rupture of the membranes (preterm PROM), and fetal death. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine maternal plasma concentrations of sE-selectin, sL-selectin, and sP-selectin as well as sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sPECAM-1 in patients with (1) an uncomplicated pregnancy (control, n = 100); (2) preeclampsia (n = 94); (3) SGA fetuses (in women without preeclampsia/hypertension, n = 45); (4) acute pyelonephritis (n = 25); (5) PTL (n = 53); (6) preterm PROM (n = 24); and (7) fetal death (n = 34). Concentrations of soluble adhesion molecules and inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8) were determined with sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoassays. In comparison to women with a normal pregnancy, (1) women with preeclampsia had higher median concentrations of sE-selectin, sP-selectin, and sVCAM-1, and a lower concentration of sL-selectin (all p values < .001); (2) patients with SGA fetuses had higher median concentrations of sE-selectin, sP-selectin, and sVCAM-1 (all p values < .05); (3) patients with a fetal death had higher median concentrations of sE-selectin and sP-selectin (all p values < .05); (4) patients with acute pyelonephritis had higher median plasma concentrations of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and sVCAM-1 (all p values < .001); (5) patients with preeclampsia and acute pyelonephritis, plasma concentrations of sVCAM-1, sE-selectin, and sP-selectin correlated with those of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and interleukin (IL)-8 (all p values < .05); (6) patients with PTL had a higher median concentration of sP-selectin and a lower median concentration of VCAM-1 (all p values < .05); and (7) women with preterm

  8. Maternal and neonatal consequences of treated and untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study with an embedded randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kazemier, Brenda M; Koningstein, Fiona N; Schneeberger, Caroline; Ott, Alewijn; Bossuyt, Patrick M; de Miranda, Esteriek; Vogelvang, Tatjana E; Verhoeven, Corine J M; Langenveld, Josje; Woiski, Mallory; Oudijk, Martijn A; van der Ven, Jeanine E M; Vlegels, Manita T W; Kuiper, Petra N; Feiertag, Nicolette; Pajkrt, Eva; de Groot, Christianne J M; Mol, Ben W J; Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2015-11-01

    composite of pyelonephritis with or without preterm birth at less than 34 weeks, analysed by intention to treat at 6 weeks post-partum. This trial is registered with the Dutch Trial Registry, number NTR3068. Between Oct 11, 2011, and June 10, 2013, we enrolled 5621 women into our screening cohort, of whom 5132 were eligible for screening. After exclusions for contaminated dipslides and patients lost to follow-up, in our final cohort of 4283 women, 248 were asymptomatic bacteriuria positive, of whom 40 were randomly assigned to nitrofurantoin and 45 to placebo for the randomised controlled trial, whereas the other 163 asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women were followed without treatment. The proportion of women with pyelonephritis, preterm birth, or both did not differ between untreated or placebo-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women and asymptomatic bacteriuria-negative women (6 [2·9%] of 208 vs 77 [1·9%] of 4035; adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1·5, 95% CI 0·6-3·5) nor between asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women treated with nitrofurantoin versus those who were untreated or received placebo (1 [2·5%] of 40 vs 6 [2·9%] of 208; risk difference -0·4, 95% CI -3·6 to 9·4). Untreated or placebo-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria-positive women developed pyelonephritis in five [2·4%] of 208 cases, compared with 24 [0·6%] of 4035 asymptomatic bacteriuria-negative women (adjusted OR 3·9, 95% CI 1·4-11·4). In women with an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy, asymptomatic bacteriuria is not associated with preterm birth. Asymptomatic bacteriuria showed a significant association with pyelonephritis, but the absolute risk of pyelonephritis in untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria is low. These findings question a routine screen-treat-policy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. ZonMw (the Netherlands Organisation for Health Research and Development). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial recurrent mature teratoma and featuring mutated KRAS and wild-type BRAF genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Soo; Kwon, Mi Jung; Song, Joon Ho; Kim, Dong Hoon; Park, Hye-Rim

    2015-02-01

    Malignant transformation or recurrence of intracranial mature teratoma is an extremely rare occurrence, compared to the usual ovarian counterpart. Previously, yolk sac tumor elements have been considered to be selective progenitors of enteric-type adenocarcinoma arising from intracranial germ cell tumors. However, the present case demonstrates the occurrence of enteric-type adenocarcinoma in recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma 12 years after gross total removal, a case of which has not previously been documented in the literature. The 11.5-cm long, dura mater-based tumor on the right fronto-temporal lobe displaced the brain; however, the patient had no neurologic symptoms or discomfort other than pus-like discharge on the scalp. Microscopic examinations revealed a small focus of adenocarcinoma and dysplastic colonic mucosa in the mature cystic teratoma. No immature elements were seen. The cystic wall was almost denuded and showed an exuberant xanthogranulomatous reaction with foreign-body type giant cells engulfing keratin materials and cholesterol clefts, suggesting that chronic inflammation due to repeated cyst wall rupture and the previous resection may contribute to malignant transformation. The adenocarcinoma showed strong immunohistochemical expression of CK20 and p53, but CK7 in patches. The molecular profile of the adenocarcinoma showed a mutation in KRAS and wild-type BRAF, which might be associated with malignant transformation of intracranial mature teratomas. In conclusion, the intracranial mature teratomas should require long-term follow-up, and clinicians, radiologists and pathologists should be aware of the potential for malignant progression of recurrent intracranial mature cystic teratoma despite gross total resection and no neurologic symptoms. © 2014 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  10. EUS-FNA for suspected malignant biliary strictures after negative endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Yasuda, Ichiro; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Mukai, Tsuyoshi; Iwashita, Takuji; Doi, Shinpei; Nakashima, Masanori; Hirose, Yoshinobu; Asaka, Masahiro; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2011-07-01

    Endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology and forceps biopsy are widely used for the pathological diagnosis of suspected malignant biliary strictures (MBS). However, the sensitivity of these methods remains insufficient, and it can be difficult to confirm the diagnosis. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic ability of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) and the impact of this technique on clinical management in patients with suspected MBS where endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy yielded negative results. This study included 225 consecutive patients with suspected MBS, who underwent endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy at our institutions. Negative results were obtained for these pathological tests in 75 patients, and EUS-FNA was performed in 22 of these patients. We retrospectively compared the EUS-FNA results with the final diagnosis and examined the influence of the EUS-FNA diagnosis on treatment selection. FNA specimens were successfully obtained in all patients, and the pathological results confirmed malignancy in 16 cases and predicted that the other 6 cases were benign. Of the 6 cases that were suspected to be benign, 3 patients were diagnosed with xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis by surgical pathology, and the remaining 3 patients were diagnosed with benign diseases at a follow-up after 12-18 months. Thus, the EUS-FNA-based diagnosis was proven correct for all the patients. In addition, the treatment strategy was altered as a result of the EUS-FNA results in the above 6 patients (27%). EUS-FNA is a sensitive and safe diagnostic modality for patients with suspected MBS and can be an additional option in cases where endoscopic brush cytology and biopsy have produced negative results.

  11. Arthropod Borne Disease: The Leading Cause of Fever in Pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese Border

    PubMed Central

    McGready, Rose; Ashley, Elizabeth A.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Tan, Saw Oo; Pimanpanarak, Mupawjay; Viladpai-nguen, Samuel Jacher; Jesadapanpong, Wilarat; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Peacock, Sharon J.; Paris, Daniel H.; Day, Nicholas P.; Singhasivanon, Pratap; White, Nicholas J.; Nosten, François

    2010-01-01

    Background Fever in pregnancy is dangerous for both mother and foetus. In the 1980's malaria was the leading cause of death in pregnant women in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. Artemisinin combination therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. The remaining causes of fever in pregnancy are not well documented. Methodology Pregnant women attending antenatal care, where weekly screening for malaria is routine, were invited to have a comprehensive clinical and laboratory screen if they had fever. Women were admitted to hospital, treated and followed up weekly until delivery. A convalescent serum was collected on day 21. Delivery outcomes were recorded. Principal Findings Febrile episodes (n = 438) occurred in 5.0% (409/8,117) of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from 7-Jan-2004 to 17-May-2006. The main cause was malaria in 55.5% (227/409). A cohort of 203 (49.6% of 409) women had detailed fever investigations and follow up. Arthropod-borne (malaria, rickettsial infections, and dengue) and zoonotic disease (leptospirosis) accounted for nearly half of all febrile illnesses, 47.3% (96/203). Coinfection was observed in 3.9% (8/203) of women, mostly malaria and rickettsia. Pyelonephritis, 19.7% (40/203), was also a common cause of fever. Once malaria, pyelonephritis and acute respiratory illness are excluded by microscopy and/or clinical findings, one-third of the remaining febrile infections will be caused by rickettsia or leptospirosis. Scrub and murine typhus were associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth and low birth weight. One woman died (no positive laboratory tests). Conclusion/Significance Malaria remains the leading cause of fever in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border. Scrub and murine typhus were also important causes of fever associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Febrile pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border who do not have malaria, pyelonephritis or respiratory tract

  12. Vigilance on use of drugs, herbal products, and food supplements during pregnancy: focus on fosfomycin.

    PubMed

    Mannucci, C; Dante, G; Miroddi, M; Facchinetti, F; D'Anna, R; Santamaria, A; Lenti, M C; Vannacci, A; Calapai, F; Perone, M; Migliardi, G; Alibrandi, A; Navarra, M; Calapai, G

    2017-09-17

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is defined as a common bacterial infection that can lead to significant morbidity such as stricture, fistula, abscess formation, bacteremia, sepsis, pyelonephritis, and kidney dysfunction with a mortality rates reported of 1% in men and 3% in women because of development of pyelonephritis. UTIs are more common in women and the 33% of them require antimicrobials treatment for at least one episode by the age of 24 years. UTIs are the most common infections observed during pregnancy and up to 30% of mothers with not treated asymptomatic bacteriuria may develop acute pyelonephritis which consequently can be associated to adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. All bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated with antimicrobial treatments being safe for both the mother and the fetus. Approximately one every four women receives prescription of antibiotic treatment during pregnancy, nearly 80% of all the prescription medications during gestation. The use of fosfomycin to treat cystitis in pregnancy generally considered safe and effective. Even though use on antibiotics for urinary tract infections is considered generally safe for the fetus and mothers, this opinion is not based on specific studies monitoring the relationship of among urinary infections, consumption of antibiotics, and pregnancy outcomes. On this basis we decided to analyze data from the database of our multicenter study PHYTOVIGGEST, reporting data from 5362 pregnancies, focusing on use of fosfomycin. Principal outcomes of pregnancy in women treated with fosfomycin were taken into consideration. Women who have been treated with urinary antibiotics during the pregnancy were 183. With respect to the total number of pregnancies of our sample, these women represented the percentage of 3.49% (187/5362). Analysis of different outcomes of pregnancy such as gestational age, neonatal weight, and neonatal Apgar index did not show any significant difference. At the same time, analysis of

  13. Struvite urolithiasis in a litter of miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    PubMed

    Klausner, J S; Osborne, C A; O'Leary, T P; Gebhart, R N; Griffith, D P

    1980-05-01

    Magnesium ammonium phosphate calculi developed in the urinary bladders and urethras of four of five offspring of Miniature Schnauzer parents with recurrent struvite urolithiasis. Calculi were detected by radiograhy when the dogs were 12 to 15 months old. Males and females were affected. A significant number of urease-producing staphylococci were identified in the urine of three of four dogs before urolith formation, and in one dog after urolith formation. The dogs were evaluated until they were 26 months old. Serum concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium were inside usual limits throughout the study. Abnormalities that might predispose to urinary tract infection were not identified by radiography or necropsy studies. In one dog, bladder calculi recurred after surgical removal of multiple cystoliths. In another, urethral obstruction and acute generalized pyelonephritis induced a lethal uremic crisis. Gross and microscopic lesions, detected after necropsy of all dogs with uroliths, were typical of bacterial infection.

  14. [Adrenal incidentaloma: a clinical problem related to imaging].

    PubMed

    de Bruijne, E L E; Burgmans, J P J; Krestin, G P; Pols, H A P; van den Meiracker, A H; de Herder, W W

    2005-08-13

    Two female patients, 68 and 67 years of age, were referred for right abdominal pain and pyelonephritis, respectively. During the diagnostic work-up, an unsuspected adrenal mass was found in both patients. Hormonal evaluation and imaging showed a benign non-hyperactive functioning adenoma in one patient and a pheochromocytoma in the other. Both patients were successfully treated with endoscopic adrenalectomy. Wider application and improvement of abdominal imaging procedures have caused an increase of incidentally detected adrenal masses, posing a common clinical problem. Typically, a diagnosis can be made on the basis of the characteristic radiological image. The exact nature of the defect is often unclear and further evaluation is required to determine functionality and possible malignancy. An algorithm is presented for the management of adrenal incidentalomas.

  15. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Herráiz, Miguel Angel; Hernández, Antonio; Asenjo, Eloy; Herráiz, Ignacio

    2005-12-01

    Urinary tract infections, asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), acute cystitis (AC) and acute pyelonephritis (AP), are favored by the morphological and functional changes involved in pregnancy. AB increases the risk of preterm labor, low birth weight and AP. AB should be detected by uroculture (other methods are not sufficiently effective) and treated early. Approximately 80% of cases are caused by Escherichia coli. The risks and effectiveness of the distinct antibiotic regimens should be evaluated: fosfomycin trometamol in monotherapy or as short course therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of AB and AC. AP is the most frequent cause of hospital admission for medical reasons in pregnant women and can lead to complications in 10% of cases, putting the lives of the mother and fetus at risk. Currently outpatient treatment of AP is recommended in selected cases. Adequate follow-up of pregnant women with urinary tract infections is required due to frequent recurrence.

  16. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smaill, Fiona

    2007-06-01

    Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria is a standard of obstetrical care and is included in most antenatal guidelines. There is good evidence that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria will decrease the incidence of pyelonephritis. All pregnant women should be screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria, and there are no new data that would indicate otherwise. Antibiotic treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria is associated with a decrease in the incidence of preterm delivery or low birth weight, but the methodological quality of the studies means any conclusion about the strength of this association needs to be drawn cautiously. A better understanding of the mechanism by which treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria could prevent preterm delivery is needed. While several rapid screening tests have been evaluated, none perform adequately to replace urine culture for detecting asymptomatic bacteriuria. Until there are data from well-designed trials that establish the optimal duration of therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria, standard treatment courses are recommended.

  17. Office diagnosis of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Van Dorsten, J P; Bannister, E R

    1986-10-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant patients can virtually eliminate pyelonephritis, the most common medical cause for antepartum hospitalization. However, the ever-increasing cost of the urine culture has led most clinicians away from routine urine screening. Uricult dip-slide paddles provide an inexpensive, efficient way to screen urine. Clean-catch urine specimens were obtained from 544 consecutive asymptomatic pregnant patients seen in the outpatient obstetric clinic at the Medical University of South Carolina. Specimens were analyzed by both traditional culture techniques and the Uricult dip-slide paddles. By comparison, the Uricult test detected 55 of the 56 significant gram-negative urinary pathogens found by culture. Detection of potential gram-positive pathogens is more difficult. A scheme is proposed that allows reliable, inexpensive surveillance in all pregnant patients. Hopefully, this algorithm will rekindle the obstetrician's interest in urine screening.

  18. [Asymptomatic bacteriuria; management choices in different patient groups].

    PubMed

    Meiland, R; Geerlings, S E; Hoes, A W; Hoepelman, I M

    2002-04-06

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common medical condition, especially in women and elderly people. It is generally considered to be a benign condition, which does not require screening or antibiotic treatment. However, there are a few exceptions for which screening is possibly worthwhile. For children it is unclear whether the early detection of ASB can result in better clinical outcomes. Screening is therefore not advised, except for young children during the first few months after a symptomatic urinary tract infection. For pregnant women the use of screening for ASB is also unclear and in general not indicated. Research is necessary into the possible transition from ASB to pyelonephritis and the possible connection with low birth weight and premature births. There are indications that ASB in women with type I diabetes mellitus can lead to a deterioration in the renal function, yet these are insufficient to recommend screening as a routine procedure.

  19. Novel management of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Storm, Douglas W; Patel, Ashay S; Koff, Stephen A; Justice, Sheryl S

    2011-07-01

    To highlight observations that have suggested the need for changing the conventional approach to the evaluation and management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) and vesicoureteral reflux in children and examine new alternative approaches to prevention of UTI and renal scarring based on research into host-pathogen interaction. Recent studies have questioned the traditional approach of using prophylactic antibiotics to prevent recurrence of UTI and development of renal scarring in children with vesicoureteral reflux. Ongoing research on host-pathogen interactions reveals a promising capability to analyze virulence factors in bacteria causing UTIs in children, identify highly virulent bacteria capable of causing pyelonephritis and renal injury, and to selectively target the gastrointestinal reservoirs of these bacteria for elimination using probiotics. Promising experimental studies correlating bacterial virulence with pattern of UTI and identification and characterization of a newly available probiotic capable of eradicating uropathogenic bacteria make targeted probiotic prevention of renal injury-inducing UTIs a potential therapeutic reality.

  20. Lassa fever - full recovery without ribavarin treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, Nnennaya A; Ukwaja, Kingsley N; Ifebunandu, Ngozi A; Nnabu, Richard; Onwe, Francis I; Asogun, Danny A

    2014-12-01

    Lassa fever is a rodent-borne zoonosis that clinically manifests as an acute hemorrhagic fever. It is treated using ribavarin. Surviving Lassa fever without receiving the antiviral drug ribavarin is rare. Only few cases have been documented to date. We report a case of a 59-year old female with fever who was initially thought to have acute pyelonephritis and sepsis syndrome with background malaria. Further changes in her clinical state and laboratory tests led to a suspicion of Lassa fever. However at the time her laboratory confirmatory test for Lassa fever returned, her clinical state had improved and she made full recovery without receiving ribavarin. Her close contacts showed no evidence of Lassa virus infection. This report adds to the literature on the natural history of Lassa fever; and that individuals may survive Lassa fever with conservative management of symptoms of the disease and its complications.

  1. Urine heat shock protein 70 levels as a marker of urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Alev; Yildirim, Zeynep Yuruk; Emre, Sevinc; Gedikbasi, Asuman; Yildirim, Tarik; Dirican, Ahmet; Ucar, Evren Onay

    2016-09-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are a multi-family group of proteins which are upregulated by the cell in response to exposure to hazardous (stress) factors, including infectious agents, to prevent changes in protein structure. The aim of our study was to assess whether urine levels of the 70-kDa family of HSPs (HSP70s) increase in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and to determine the optimal urine (u) HSP70 cut-off level to predict UTI in children. Forty patients with symptomatic UTI (UTI group), 30 healthy children (control group), 21 asymptomatic patients with proven bacterial contamination in their urine culture (contamination group) and 30 patients with fever caused by other infections (non-UTI infection group) were enrolled in the study. Random urine samples were obtained for measurement of HSP70 and creatinine (Cr) from all groups. Urine was collected prior to the treatment of UTI at the time of presentation and after treatment. Urine HSP70 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis. A dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan was performed at 5-7 days after presentation in UTI group to distinguish patients with acute pyelonephritis from those with cystitis; based on this scan, no patients had acute pyelonephritis. Patients were classified with pyelonephritis in the presence of all of the following signs: axillary fever of ≥39 °C, leukocytosis and positivity for C-reactive protein. The mean urine HSP70:Cr ratio (uHSP70/Cr) prior to treatment was significantly higher in the UTI group (449.86 ± 194.33 pg/mg) than in the control, contamination and non-UTI infection groups (39.93 ± 47.61, 32.43 ± 9.09 and 45.14 ± 19.76, respectively; p = 0.0001). Using a cut-off of 158 pg/mg uHSP70/Cr for the prediction of UTI, the sensitivity and specificity of the assay were 100 and 100 %, respectively (area under the time-concentration curve = 1). The uHSP70/Cr was highest in the patients with clinical pyelonephritis (p

  2. The contribution of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence factors and host factors in the establishment of urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Newman, John W; Floyd, Rachel V; Fothergill, Joanne L

    2017-08-15

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa can cause complicated urinary tract infections, particularly in people with catheters, which can lead to pyelonephritis. Whilst some subgroups appear more susceptible to infection, such as the elderly and women, the contribution of other host factors and bacterial virulence factors to successful infection remains relatively understudied. In this review, we explore the potential role of P. aeruginosa virulence factors including phenazines, quorum sensing, biofilm formation and siderophores along with host factors such as Tamm-Horsfall protein, osmotic stress and iron specifically on establishment of successful infection in the urinary niche. P. aeruginosa urinary tract infections are highly antibiotic resistant and require costly and intensive treatment. By understanding the infection dynamics of this organism within this specific niche, we may be able to identify novel therapeutic strategies to enhance the use of existing antibiotics. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Urinary tract infections in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Becher, Klaus Friedrich; Klempien, Ingo; Wiedemann, Andreas

    2015-10-01

    Acute infection of the urinary tract is one of the most commonly encountered bacterial infections in the frail elderly population and is responsible for substantial morbidity and recurrent infections with antibiotic resistance. Although generally considered to be self-limiting without treatment or easily treated with a short antibiotic regime, urinary tract infections (UTIs) often have a dramatic history, associated with incomplete resolution and frequent recurrence. The biological complexity of the infections combined with a dramatic rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens highlight the need for an anticipating strategy for therapy necessary for a rapid recovery. The first crucial step is the classification in asymptomatic bacteriuria or complicated pyelonephritis, on which the decision for the intensity of treatment and diagnostic effort is based. For the selection of empiric antibiotic therapy, knowledge about the predominant uropathogens as well as local resistance patterns is important. In this manner, most urinary tract infections in the elderly can be treated without greater expense.

  4. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy - an updated overview.

    PubMed

    Szweda, Hanna; Jóźwik, Marcin

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common type of infection during pregnancy, affecting up to 10% of pregnant women. They are also recognized as the second most common ailment of pregnancy, after anemia. Three clinical types of pregnancy-related UTI are distinguished: asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), cystitis, and pyelonephritis. A particular form of ASB is the presence of Group B streptococci in the urinary tract of the pregnant woman. All clinical types of UTI may lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Therefore, unlike in the nonpregnant female patient, all UTIs during pregnancy, including the asymptomatic infection, require treatment. In some patients, antibiotic prophylaxis should also be introduced. In the present work, we collectively summarize current practical recommendations from a number of international bodies and organizations.

  5. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems

    PubMed Central

    Małyszko, Jolanta; Wieliczko, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every case that is diagnosed, as it is an important risk factor for pyelonephritis in this population. The antibiotic chosen should have a good maternal and fetal safety profile. In this paper, current principles of diagnosis and management of UTI in pregnancy are reviewed, and the main problems and controversies are identified and discussed. PMID:25861291

  6. [Vesicorenal reflux. Morphological diagnosis and indications for anti-reflux plasty].

    PubMed

    Stark, R; Brühl, P

    1975-09-25

    The importance of reflux-pyelonephritis in children and adults is discussed. Important leading-symptoms are the incontinence after the age of four besides the cystoureteritis, which is resistant to all kinds of therapy. Following the discussion of the etiopathogenesis of the reflux and its consequences, the symptomatic of the reflux is described in detail and a diagnostic program is given. Extended urological diagnosis includes intravenous urography with preceeding x-ray-examination, reflux cystogram and cystourethrogram during urination. An essential emprovement of these diagnostic measures for the recording of the vesicoureteral reflux is the recording by the 100-mm-cutfilm-camera. Indications for surgical measures and the operative proceeding are discussed.

  7. [Inflammations of the lower urinary tract in women and possible treatment].

    PubMed

    Zikmund, J

    1997-09-17

    The rate of inflammations of the lower urinary pathways increases with advancing age. The development of inflammations depends not only on the presence of bacteria in the urinary pathways but also on various promoting factors. The most important and most frequent ones are obstructions of the urinary pathways with subsequent slowing down of the urinary flow or stasis. The microbe must adhere to the surface of the urothelium. The authors describes the specific adhesion of the most frequent agent Escherichia coli. On the surface of the bacteria are genetically defined fimbrias which react with receptors of the host cell. E. coli which have an affinity for the renal urothelium and cause pyelonephritis (fimbrias type P) differ from E. coli causing cystitis. The author indicates therapeutic approaches in complicated and non-complicated inflammations. "Single dose" treatment. Uroinfection during pregnancy. Uroinfection during postmenopause.

  8. Urinary Tract Infections and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Renal Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Yacoub, Rabi; Akl, Nader Kassis

    2011-01-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infection are common complications after kidney transplantation. In this population, if urinary tract infection occurred in the first six months post procedure, it carries a grave impact on both graft and patient survival. Renal transplant recipients with urinary tract infection are often clinically asymptomatic as a consequence of immunosuppression. Urinary tract infection, however, may progress to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and the full blown picture of urosepsis. PubMed and Cochrane databases were searched. The purpose of this review is to discuss the screening and treatment of urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria in renal transplant recipients and to evaluate the guidelines on the basis of a review of published evidence. PMID:22224004

  9. Postpartum surveillance of bacteriuria in term vaginal deliveries.

    PubMed Central

    Orrett, F. A.; Premanand, N.

    1998-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of bacteriuria in early postpartum period after term vaginal delivery in Trinidad, West Indies. Asymptomatic bacteriuria occurred in 58 (34.5%) of 168 patients tested. The prevalence of bacteriuria was significantly higher in non-catheterized patients than in catheterized patients and occurred more commonly in patients who were 20 to 29 years old and who were primigravida rather than multigravida. Forty-four patients had a history of urinary tract infection; 18 (40.9%) of these patients had positive urine cultures. Although 10 patients had a vaginal discharge in the late third trimester, none presented with postpartum bacteriuria. Because of the high prevalence of postpartum bacteriuria and the potential to progress to pyelonephritis and chronic renal disease, quantitative urine cultures for all postnatal patients and curative treatment for all positive cultures are recommend. PMID:9549982

  10. [Diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection].

    PubMed

    Heilberg, Ita Pfeferman; Schor, Nestor

    2003-01-01

    A review about recent aspects on diagnosis and clinical management of urinary tract infection (UTI) is presented. There is a wide variation in clinical presentation of UTI which include different forms as cystitis, pyelonephritis, urethral syndrome and the clinical relevance of asymptomatic bacteriuria and low-count bacteriuria that must be distinguished from contamination. Pathogenetic aspects concerning bacterial virulence as well as host factors in susceptibility to UTI as urinary tract obstruction, vesicoureteral reflux, indwelling bladder catheters, pregnancy, diabetes mellitus, sexual activity, contraceptive methods, prostatism, menopause, advanced age and renal transplantation are discussed. Diagnostic criteria and the most common tests utilized for differentiation between lower and upper UTI have been reviewed. The authors conclude that a careful evaluation of the underlying factors is required for the correct diagnosis of UTI and to prevent recurrence and that appropriate strategies and specific therapeutic regimens may maximize the benefit while reducing costs and adverse reactions.

  11. Urinary tract infections in pregnancy: old and new unresolved diagnostic and therapeutic problems.

    PubMed

    Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna; Małyszko, Jolanta; Wieliczko, Monika

    2015-03-16

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common in pregnant women and pose a great therapeutic challenge, since the risk of serious complications in both the mother and her child is high. Pregnancy is a state associated with physiological, structural and functional urinary tract changes which promote ascending infections from the urethra. Unlike the general population, all pregnant women should be screened for bacteriuria with urine culture, and asymptomatic bacteriuria must be treated in every case that is diagnosed, as it is an important risk factor for pyelonephritis in this population. The antibiotic chosen should have a good maternal and fetal safety profile. In this paper, current principles of diagnosis and management of UTI in pregnancy are reviewed, and the main problems and controversies are identified and discussed.

  12. Urinary Catheterization in Infants: When It's Knot so Simple.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, David C; Burns, Beech; Mickley, Megan

    2018-02-01

    Pediatric fever is one of the most common presenting complaints to emergency departments (ED). While often due to a viral illness, in young children without a source the most common bacterial infection is pyelonephritis. For this reason, when no focal source can be identified a urinary specimen is recommended. In young children who are unable to urinate on demand, a straight catheter is required to obtain a sterile specimen. This is generally a benign procedure and is performed frequently in EDs. We report a case of a young girl who underwent straight bladder catheterization and was subsequently found to have a retained catheter that had become knotted in the bladder. This case report highlights a rare complication of this common procedure and describes the technique required to remove the catheter. An understanding of these issues may avoid the need for transfer to a pediatric facility or for subspecialty consultation.

  13. LEPROSY NEPHROPATHY: A REVIEW OF CLINICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL FEATURES

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Pires, Roberto da Justa; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Meneses, Gdayllon Cavalcante; Araújo, Sônia Maria Holanda Almeida; Barros, Elvino José Guardão

    2015-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, highly incapacitating, and with systemic involvement in some cases. Renal involvement has been reported in all forms of the disease, and it is more frequent in multibacillary forms. The clinical presentation is variable and is determined by the host immunologic system reaction to the bacilli. During the course of the disease there are the so called reactional states, in which the immune system reacts against the bacilli, exacerbating the clinical manifestations. Different renal lesions have been described in leprosy, including acute and chronic glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis, secondary amyloidosis and pyelonephritis. The exact mechanism that leads to glomerulonephritis in leprosy is not completely understood. Leprosy treatment includes rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine. Prednisone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may be used to control acute immunological episodes. PMID:25651321

  14. Transient Fanconi syndrome with severe polyuria and polydipsia in a 4-year old Shih Tzu fed chicken jerky treats.

    PubMed

    Major, A; Schweighauser, A; Hinden, S E; Francey, T

    2014-12-01

    Acquired Fanconi syndrome is characterized by inappropriate urinary loss of amino acids, bicarbonate, electrolytes, and water. It has recently been described in dogs fed chicken jerky treats from China, a new differential diagnosis to the classical inciting infectious diseases (e.g. leptospirosis, pyelonephritis) and toxins. A dog fed exclusively chicken jerky treats purchased in Switzerland was presented to our clinic with severe polyuria, polydipsia and profound electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Other inciting causes of Fanconi syndrome were ruled out. The requirement of a very intensive supportive treatment in this dog stands in contrast to treatment of chronic forms of Fanconi syndrome as described in the Basenji. This intensive therapy and the associated monitoring can be a real challenge and a limiting factor for the prognosis of acquired Fanconi syndrome. Veterinarians should be aware of the risk of excessive feeding of chicken jerky treats.

  15. [CORRECTION OF METABOLIC DISTURBANCES IN PATIENTS WITH PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AND CONCOMITANT DISEASES].

    PubMed

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances were corrected using the oral specialized formula Nutrien-phthisio (ZAO "Company Nutritec", Russia) in 53 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and concomitant diseases. In the whole group, tuberculosis was first detected in 21 patients; 32 had a chronic process. Chemotherapy was discontinued in all the patients due to the intolerance phenomena caused by comorbidity (erosive gastritis, gastroduodenal peptic ulcer, hepatitis B and C, chronic pyelonephritis) in 24 patients, by adverse reactions in 19, and by a combination of both factors in 10. The criteria for objectively monitoring the efficiency of nutritional support (in combination with specific treatment) were body mass index, general blood analysis, by taking into account the percentage and absolute count of lymphocytes and the protein metabolism from the serum levels of total protein, albumin, and transferrin. The study determined clinical and laboratory indications for the use of Nutrien-phthisio and the favorable impact of nutritional support on the course of a tuberculous process and concomitant diseases.

  16. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis)

    PubMed Central

    YOSHINO, Mizuki; SASAKI, Jun; KURAMOCHI, Konomi; IKEZAWA, Mitsutaka; MUKAIZAWA, Natsuko; GORYO, Masanobu

    2017-01-01

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1−4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection. PMID:28190821

  17. [Urinary tract infections : What has been confirmed in therapy?

    PubMed

    Marcon, J; Stief, C G; Magistro, G

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect approximately 150 million people worldwide per year, causing annual health costs of over three billion dollars just in the USA. Every second woman experiences at least one UTI in her lifetime, with every one in four experiencing recurrence. Uncomplicated infections like single or recurrent cystitis and pyelonephritis can be distinguished from complicated disease. UTIs in men can spread to the male glands, causing prostatitis and epididymitis. Antibiotic therapy is the standard procedure for UTIs. However, the extensive and sometimes irrational use of antibiotics for the treatment of infections has led to an increase in the incidence of multiresistant pathogens in recent years. Therefore, preventive nonantibiotic approaches are of great interest. This article provides an overview of the current management of urological infections as well as an outline of nonantibiotic preventive treatment modalities.

  18. Outbreak of pasteurellosis in captive Bolivian squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis).

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Mizuki; Sasaki, Jun; Kuramochi, Konomi; Ikezawa, Mitsutaka; Mukaizawa, Natsuko; Goryo, Masanobu

    2017-03-23

    In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1-4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed. Immunohistochemically, the bacterial colonies from two monkeys were positive for P. multocida capsular serotype D. Based on these findings, these monkeys were diagnosed as septicemia caused by acute P. multocida infection.

  19. [Morphology and pathogenesis of visceral manifestations of chronic alcoholism].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, S P

    1982-01-01

    Chronic alcoholism is accompanied by systemic involvement of the internal organs. Clinico-morphological forms of chronic alcoholism are distinguished on the basis of the prevailing organ pathology, Morphological data are presented, and pathogenesis of the lesions of the liver, heart, pancreas, and kidneys in patients with chronic alcoholism is analysed. The hepatic form may present alcoholic dystrophy, hepatitis or cirrhosis which are stages of progressing hepatopathy. The toxic and metabolic effect of ethanol is important in the pathogenesis of liver lesion. The cardiac form is characterized by the development of alcoholic myocardiodystrophy. In addition to the toxic influence of ethanol, hormonal and electrolyte changes and microcirculatory disorders play a role in its pathogenesis. Chronic calcifying pancreatitis in chronic alcoholism is associated with the effect of ethanol on the mediatory system. The renal form any present necronephrosis, hepatorenal syndrome, glomerulonephritis or pyelonephritis. Their pathogenesis is determined by toxicity of ethanol, circulation of immune complexes in the blood, or immunosuppression.

  20. Comparative analysis of antibiotic resistance and phylogenetic group patterns in human and porcine urinary tract infectious Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Viktoria; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Krag, Louise; Engberg, Jørgen; Klemm, Per

    2009-11-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are one of the most common infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals such as pigs. The most frequent infectious agent in such infections is Escherichia coli. Virulence characteristics of E. coli UTI strains range from highly virulent pyelonephritis strains to relatively benign asymptomatic bacteriuria strains. Here we analyse a spectrum of porcine and human UTI E. coli strains with respect to their antibiotic resistance patterns and their phylogenetic groups, determined by multiplex PCR. The clonal profiles of the strains differed profoundly; whereas human strains predominantly belonged to clonal types B2 and D, these were not seen among the porcine strains, which all belonged to the E. coli clonal groups A and B1. Contrary to the human strains, the majority of the porcine strains were multidrug resistant. The distinct profiles of the porcine strains suggest selective pressure due to extensive antibiotic use.

  1. Virulence properties of asymptomatic bacteriuria Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mabbett, Amanda N; Ulett, Glen C; Watts, Rebecca E; Tree, Jai J; Totsika, Makrina; Ong, Cheryl-lynn Y; Wood, Jacqueline M; Monaghan, Wayne; Looke, David F; Nimmo, Graeme R; Svanborg, Catharina; Schembri, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    In asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), bacteria colonize the urinary tract without provoking symptoms. Here, we compared the virulence properties of a collection of ABU Escherichia coli strains to cystitis and pyelonephritis strains. Specific urinary tract infection (UTI)-associated virulence genes, hemagglutination characteristics, siderophore production, hemolysis, biofilm formation, and the ability of strains to adhere to and induce cytokine responses in epithelial cells were analyzed. ABU strains were phylogenetically related to strains that cause symptomatic UTI. However, the virulence properties of the ABU strains were variable and dependent on a combination of genotypic and phenotypic factors. Most ABU strains adhered poorly to epithelial cells; however, we also identified a subgroup of strongly adherent strains that were unable to stimulate an epithelial cell IL-6 cytokine response. Poor immune activation may represent one mechanism whereby ABU E. coli evade immune detection after the establishment of bacteriuria.

  2. Nephroureterectomy and ureteroneocystostomy in an alpaca with bilateral ectopic ureters diagnosed by computed tomographic excretory urography.

    PubMed

    Polf, Holly D; Smith, Shasta; Simpson, Katharine M; Rochat, Mark C

    2015-01-01

    To report diagnosis and treatment of urinary incontinence in a female Huacaya alpaca. Clinical case report. Female intact Huacaya alpaca (n = 1) METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) excretory urography and vaginourethrography were performed to diagnose the cause of urinary incontinence. Bilateral ectopic ureters and left hydronephrosis and hydroureter were diagnosed. Left nephroureterectomy and right ureteroneocystostomy were performed with subsequent resolution of clinical signs. Pyelonephritis was identified by culture of the resected left kidney. CT excretory urography was helpful in the diagnosis of bilateral ectopic ureters in an alpaca and provided information for surgical planning. Surgical repair by ureteroneocystostomy and unilateral nephroureterectomy was successful in resolving clinical signs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  3. [Alliance against MDRO: safeguarding antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Carlet, J; Rambaud, C; Pulcini, C

    2012-09-01

    Resistance to antibiotics has increased recently to a dramatic extend, and the pipeline of new antibiotics is almost dry for the 5 next years. Failures happen already for trivial community acquired infections, like pyelonephritis, or peritonitis, and this is likely to increase. Difficult surgical procedures, transplants, and other immunosuppressive therapies will become far more risky. Resistance is mainly due to an excessive usage of antibiotics, in all sectors, including the animal one. Action is urgently needed. Therefore, an alliance against MDRO has been recently created, which includes health care professionals, consumers, health managers, and politicians. The document highlights the different proposed measures, and represents a strong consensus between the different professionals, including general practitioners, and veterinarians. Copyright © 2012 Société française d'anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. WAAR (World Alliance against Antibiotic Resistance): Safeguarding antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Carlet, Jean; Rambaud, Claude; Pulcini, Céline

    2012-07-09

    Resistance to antibiotics has increased recently to a dramatic extend, and the pipeline of new antibiotics is almost dry for the five next years. Failures happen already for trivial community acquired infections, like pyelonephritis, or peritonitis, and this is likely to increase. Difficult surgical procedures, transplants, and other immunosuppressive therapies will become far more risky. Resistance is mainly due to an excessive usage of antibiotics, in all sectors, including the animal one. Action is urgently needed. Therefore, an alliance against MDRO has been recently created, which includes health care professionals, consumers, health managers, and politicians. The document highlights the different proposed measures, and represents a strong consensus between the different professionals, including general practicionners, and veterinarians.

  5. Virulence Genes and Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Uropathogenic E. coli Strains.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Cengiz; Oncül, Oral; Gümüş, Defne; Alan, Servet; Dayioğlu, Nurten; Küçüker, Mine Anğ

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the presence of and possible relation between virulence genes and antibiotic resistance in E. coli strains isolated from patients with acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI). 62 E. coli strains isolated from patients with acute, uncomplicated urinary tract infections (50 strains isolated from acute uncomplicated cystitis cases (AUC); 12 strains from acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis cases (AUP)) were screened for virulence genes [pap (pyelonephritis-associated pili), sfa/foc (S and F1C fimbriae), afa (afimbrial adhesins), hly (hemolysin), cnf1 (cytotoxic necrotizing factor), aer (aerobactin), PAI (pathogenicity island marker), iroN (catecholate siderophore receptor), ompT (outer membrane protein T), usp (uropathogenic specific protein)] by PCR and for antimicrobial resistance by disk diffusion method according to CLSI criteria. It was found that 56 strains (90.3%) carried at least one virulence gene. The most common virulence genes were ompT (79%), aer (51.6%), PAI (51.6%) and usp (56.5%). 60% of the strains were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The highest resistance rates were against ampicillin (79%) and co-trimoxazole (41.9%). Fifty percent of the E. coli strains (31 strains) were found to be multiple resistant. Eight (12.9%) out of 62 strains were found to be ESBL positive. Statistically significant relationships were found between the absence of usp and AMP - SXT resistance, iroN and OFX - CIP resistance, PAI and SXT resistance, cnf1 and AMP resistance, and a significant relationship was also found between the presence of the afa and OFX resistance. No difference between E. coli strains isolated from two different clinical presentations was found in terms of virulence genes and antibiotic susceptibility.

  6. Importance and Repercussions of Renal and Cardiovascular Pathology on Stroke in Young Adults: An Anatomopathologic Study of 52 Clinical Necropsies

    PubMed Central

    Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Fernández-Abreu, Mary; Cardozo-Duran, José; Vilchez-Barrios, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Stroke in young adults has seldom been studied in a necropsy series. The objective of the present clinical necropsy-based investigation was to analyze stroke and its relationship with cardiovascular and renal pathology in young adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS The protocols of 52 clinical necropsies with diagnoses of stroke in patients aged 18 – 49 years, performed between the years 1990–2006, were reviewed. RESULTS Hemorrhagic stroke was diagnosed in 36 patients (69.3%), whereas the remaining 16 (30.7%) had ischemic stroke. Hypertensive cardiopathy was evident in 88.4% of the cases. Chronic renal pathology, directly or indirectly related to hypertension, was observed in 55.7% of the patients. Ischemic stroke as a result of occlusive atherosclerotic disease was seen in 50% of cases. Cardiogenic emboli were found in 25% of the cadavers. Hemorrhagic stroke was associated with hypertension in 43% of the cases, with ruptured vascular malformations in 29%, and coagulopathies in 17% of the cases. Hypertensive cardiopathy was present in patients with either ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (81.2% and 91.6%, respectively). The most frequently observed renal ailments were chronic pyelonephritis (23%) and nephrosclerosis (21.1%). These were associated with ischemic stroke in 43.7%, and 12.5% of the cases, respectively, and with 13.8% and 25% of the hemorrhagic stroke cases. DISCUSSION Hypertensive cardiopathy, occlusive atherosclerotic disease, chronic pyelonephritis and nephrosclerosis are among the pathophysiologycal mechanisms that apparently and eventually interact to induce a significant number of cases of stroke in young adults. A chronic systemic inflammatory state appears to be an important related condition because it possibly constitutes an accelerant of the pathophysiologycal process. PMID:18297202

  7. [Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates derived from phylogenetic groups A and B1 causing extraintestinal infection].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eva; Prats, Guillem; Planells, Irene; Planes, Ana M; Pérez, Teresa; Andreu, Antonia

    2006-10-01

    Escherichia coli isolates from the non-pathogenic phylogenetic groups A and B1 rarely cause extraintestinal infections. The aim of this study was to analyze 37 E. coli isolates pertaining to phylogenetic groups A and B1 and compare them with 37 E. coli isolates from group B2 and 31 from group D, which caused the same infections. Among 105 E. coli isolated from the urine of patients with cystitis and pyelonephritis and from the blood of patients with urinary-source and other-source bacteriemia, the E. coli phylogenetic groups, 15 virulence-associated genes, 7 O-antigens and fluoroquinolone resistance were analyzed. E. coli from groups A and B1 showed fewer virulence determinants (median 3.5) than E. coli from group B2 (8.6, P < 0.01) or D (5.3, P < .001); however, a subgroup containing 3 isolates from group A and 5 from B1 harbored 5 or more factors. E. coli from groups A/B1 were associated with resistance to fluoroquinolones (74%, P < .001), whereas E. coli from group B2 were associated with susceptibility to this antibiotic (76%, P = .003). E. coli from groups A/B1 were isolated significantly more frequently in patients with pyelonephritis or sepsis and local or general factors favoring infection, association not observed in patients with cystitis. Even though most of the E. coli isolates from phylogenetic groups A and B1 presented a low virulence potential, they were able to cause extraintestinal infections, particularly in compromised patients.

  8. Should asymptomatic bacteriuria be screened in pregnancy?

    PubMed

    Uncu, Y; Uncu, G; Esmer, A; Bilgel, N

    2002-01-01

    The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria is reported as 2-14% during pregnancy. Fetal and maternal complications like acute pyelonephritis, hypertension, anemia, preterm labor, low-birth-weight infants and intrauterine growth retardation can be expected. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy and its relation to pregnancy complications. The study involved 270 pregnant women up to 32 gestational weeks during a 9-month period. At the initial visit, they were screened with urine culture in order to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria. A control group was formed in a retrospective manner from the first day of the study with 186 pregnant women who delivered in our clinic and who were not screened for asymptomatic bacteriuria. The incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 9.31%. Escherichia coli accounted for 79%, which was the most frequent of the isolates. We observed recurrence and had to apply treatment again to 21.7% of the women. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values of leucocyturia as a screening test for asymptomatic bacteriuria were 91.3%, 83.6%, 45.6% and 98.5%, respectively. We diagnosed preterm labor in six of 23 (26%) with asymptomatic bacteriuria and 16 in 163 (9.3%) women in the urine culture negative group. The ratio acute pyelonephritis in the group which was routinely screened and treated for asymtomatic bacteriuria was 0.5% while the prevalence was 2.1% in the nonscreened group. Considering the relatively high incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy and the relevant complications, we propose to screen and treat asymptomatic bacteriuria routinely in all pregnant women.

  9. Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Mariana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano; Roganti, Ariel

    2011-12-07

    A Cochrane systematic review has shown that drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2011) and reference lists of identified articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. We assessed trial quality and extracted data independently. We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with four- to seven-day treatments. The trials were generally of limited quality. The 'no cure rate' for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly higher for the single-dose than for the short-course treatment; however, these results were not statistically significant and showed heterogeneity. When comparing the trials that used the same antibiotic in both treatment and control groups with the trials that used different antibiotics in both groups, the 'no cure rate' risk ratio was similar. There was no statistically significant difference in the recurrence of asymptomatic bacteriuria rate between treatment and control groups. Slight differences were detected for preterm births and pyelonephritis although, apart from one trial, the sample size of the trials was inadequate. Single-dose treatment was associated with a decrease in reports of 'any side-effects' . Single-dose regimen of antibiotics may be less effective than the seven-day regimen. Women with asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy should be treated by the standard regimen of

  10. Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Villar, J; Lydon-Rochelle, M T; Gülmezoglu, A M; Roganti, A

    2000-01-01

    A Cochrane systematic review has shown that drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and the reference lists of articles. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Trial quality was assessed and data were extracted independently by the reviewers. Eight studies involving over 400 women were included. All were comparisons of single dose treatment with four to seven day treatments. The trials were generally of poor quality. No difference in 'no-cure' rate was detected between single dose and short course (4-7 day) treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women (relative risk 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.82 to 1.54) as well as in the recurrent asymptomtic bacteriuria (relative risk 1.08, 95% confidence interval 0.70 to 1.66). However these results showed significant heterogeneity. No differences were detected for preterm births and pyelonephritis although sample size of trials was small. Longer duration treatment was associated with an increase in reports of adverse effects (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 0.91). There is not enough evidence to evaluate whether single dose or longer duration doses are more effective in treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Because single dose has lower cost and increases compliance, this comparison should be explored in a properly

  11. Preventive effects of Lactobacillus mixture on experimental E. coli urinary tract infection in infant rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Jee Hyun; Sung, Sun Hee; Lee, Seung Joo

    2013-03-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an ascending infection of fecal uropathogens, urogenital lactobacilli are suggested to play a role in the prevention of UTI. This study was to investigate whether lactobacillus mixture (LM) could prevent the experimental infantile UTI. The LM were composed of three lactobacillus strains (L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and L. reuteri). Mother rats were grouped as lactobacillus (LB) group I (LB I, n=22), II (LB II, n=24) and control (n=20). LB I and LB II were fed with LM (1 mL/day) and control with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) from late pregnancy through lactation. All newborn rats were breast-fed and their urine and stool were collected at the end of the 3rd week to compare lactobacillus colony. Then, infant rats from LB II were treated with intravesical instillation of LM. Infant rats from LB I and control were instilled with PBS. Twenty-four hours later, experimental UTI was introduced by intravesical instillation of standard E. coli strain. After 72 hours later, the infant rats were sacrificed for histologic examination. Lactobacilli colonies in urine and stool were not statistically different among the three groups. The incidence of pyelonephritis in the LB II was 16.7% (4/24), LB I 72.7% (16.22) and control 75.0% (15/20) (p=0.015). The incidence of cystitis was not significantly different among the three groups. The intravesically instilled LM significantly prevented experimental pyelonephritis in infant rats, however, LM administered orally to the pregnant and lactating mother rats did not.

  12. Value of imaging studies after a first febrile urinary tract infection in young children: data from Italian renal infection study 1.

    PubMed

    Montini, Giovanni; Zucchetta, Pietro; Tomasi, Lisanna; Talenti, Enrico; Rigamonti, Waifro; Picco, Giorgio; Ballan, Alberto; Zucchini, Andrea; Serra, Laura; Canella, Vanna; Gheno, Marta; Venturoli, Andrea; Ranieri, Marco; Caddia, Valeria; Carasi, Carla; Dall'amico, Roberto; Hewitt, Ian

    2009-02-01

    We examined the diagnostic accuracy of routine imaging studies (ultrasonography and micturating cystography) for predicting long-term parenchymal renal damage after a first febrile urinary tract infection. This study addressed the secondary objective of a prospective trial evaluating different antibiotic regimens for the treatment of acute pyelonephritis. Data for 300 children < or =2 years of age, with normal prenatal ultrasound results, who completed the diagnostic follow-up evaluation (ultrasonography and technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning within 10 days, cystography within 2 months, and repeat technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scanning at 12 months to detect scarring) were analyzed. Outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values for ultrasonography and cystography in predicting parenchymal renal damage on the 12-month technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans. The kidneys and urinary tracts were mostly normal. The acute technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scans showed pyelonephritis in 54% of cases. Renal scarring developed in 15% of cases. The ultrasonographic and cystographic findings were poor predictors of long-term damage, showing minor sonographic abnormalities for 12 and reflux for 23 of the 45 children who subsequently developed scarring. The benefit of performing ultrasonography and scintigraphy in the acute phase or cystourethrography is minimal. Our findings support (1) technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy 6 months after infection to detect scarring that may be related to long-term hypertension, proteinuria, and renal function impairment (although the degree of scarring was generally minor and did not impair renal function) and (2) continued surveillance to identify recurrent urinary tract infections that may warrant further investigation.

  13. Human Alpha Defensin 5 Expression in the Human Kidney and Urinary Tract

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Edith; Bevins, Charles L.; DiRosario, Julianne; Becknell, Brian; Wang, Huanyu

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood. Recent studies have implicated the importance of antimicrobial peptides (AMP) in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Here, we characterize the expression and relevance of the AMP human alpha-defensin 5 (HD5) in the human kidney and urinary tract in normal and infected subjects. Methodology/Principal Findings Using RNA isolated from human kidney, ureter, and bladder tissue, we performed quantitative real-time PCR to show that DEFA5, the gene encoding HD5, is constitutively expressed throughout the urinary tract. With pyelonephritis, DEFA5 expression significantly increased in the kidney. Using immunoblot analysis, HD5 production also increased with pyelonephritis. Immunostaining localized HD5 to the urothelium of the bladder and ureter. In the kidney, HD5 was primarily produced in the distal nephron and collecting tubules. Using immunoblot and ELISA assays, HD5 was not routinely detected in non-infected human urine samples while mean urinary HD5 production increased with E.coli urinary tract infection. Conclusions/Significance DEFA5 is expressed throughout the urinary tract in non-infected subjects. Specifically, HD5 is expressed throughout the urothelium of the lower urinary tract and in the collecting tubules of the kidney. With infection, HD5 expression increases in the kidney and levels become detectable in the urine. To our knowledge, our findings represent the first to quantitate HD5 expression and production in the human kidney. Moreover, this is the first report to detect the presence of HD5 in infected urine samples. Our results suggest that HD5 may have an important role in maintaining urinary tract sterility. PMID:22359618

  14. Dynamic properties of bacterial pili measured by optical tweezers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallman, Erik G.; Andersson, Magnus J.; Schedin, Staffan S.; Jass, Jana; Uhlin, Bernt Eric; Axner, Ove

    2004-10-01

    The ability of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to cause urinary tract infections is dependent on their ability to colonize the uroepithelium. Infecting bacteria ascend the urethra to the bladder and then kidneys by attaching to the uroepithelial cells via the differential expression of adhesins. P pili are associated with pyelonephritis, the more severe infection of the kidneys. In order to find means to treat pyelonephritis, it is therefore of interest to investigate the properties P pili. The mechanical behavior of individual P pili of uropathogenic Escherichia coli has recently been investigated using optical tweezers. P pili, whose main part constitutes the PapA rod, composed of ~1000 PapA subunits in a helical arrangement, are distributed over the bacterial surface and mediate adhesion to host cells. We have earlier studied P pili regarding its stretching/elongation properties where we have found and characterized three different elongation regions, of which one constitute an unfolding of the quaternary (helical) structure of the PapA rod. It was shown that this unfolding takes place at an elongation independent force of 27 +/- 2 pN. We have also recently performed studies on its folding properties and shown that the unfolding/folding of the PapA rod is completely reversible. Here we present a study of the dynamical properties of the PapA rod. We show, among other things, that the unfolding force increases and that the folding force decreases with the speed of unfolding and folding respectively. Moreover, the PapA rod can be folded-unfolded a significant number of times without loosing its characteristics, a phenomenon that is believed to be important for the bacterium to keep close contact to the host tissue and consequently helps the bacterium to colonize the host tissue.

  15. The 2017 Update of the German Clinical Guideline on Epidemiology, Diagnostics, Therapy, Prevention, and Management of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Adult Patients. Part II: Therapy and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Jennifer; Schmidt, Stefanie; Lebert, Cordula; Schneidewind, Laila; Mandraka, Falitsa; Kunze, Mirjam; Helbig, Sina; Vahlensieck, Winfried; Naber, Kurt; Schmiemann, Guido; Wagenlehner, Florian M

    2018-01-01

    We aimed to update the 2010 evidence- and consensus-based national clinical guideline on the diagnosis and management of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in adult patients. Results are published in 2 parts. Part 1 covers methods, the definition of patient groups, and diagnostics. This second publication focuses on treatment of acute episodes of cystitis and pyelonephritis as well as on prophylaxis of recurrent UTIs. An interdisciplinary group consisting of 17 representatives of 12 medical societies and a patient representative was formed. Systematic literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library to identify literature published in 2010-2015. For the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis (AUC), fosfomycin-trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxoline, pivmecillinam, and trimethoprim (depending on the local rate of resistance) are all equally recommended. Cotrimoxazole, fluoroquinolones, and cephalosporins are not recommended as antibiotics of first choice, for concern of an unfavorable impact on the microbiome. Mild to moderate uncomplicated pyelonephritis should be treated with oral cefpodoxime, ceftibuten, ciprofloxacin, or levofloxacin. For AUC with mild to moderate symptoms, instead of antibiotics symptomatic treatment alone may be considered depending on patient preference after discussing adverse events and outcomes. Primarily non-antibiotic options are recommended for prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection. In accordance with the global antibiotic stewardship initiative and considering new insights in scientific research, we updated our German clinical UTI guideline to promote a responsible antibiotic use and to give clear hands-on recommendations for the diagnosis and management of UTIs in adults in Germany for healthcare providers and patients. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Overview of systematic reviews assessing the evidence for shorter versus longer duration antibiotic treatment for bacterial infections in secondary care.

    PubMed

    Onakpoya, Igho J; Walker, A Sarah; Tan, Pui S; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Gbinigie, Oghenekome A; Cook, Johanna; Llewelyn, Martin J; Butler, Christopher C

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the clinical effectiveness of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children in secondary care settings, using the evidence from published systematic reviews. We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl. Our primary outcome was clinical resolution. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. We included 6 systematic reviews (n = 3,162). Four reviews were rated high quality, and two of moderate quality. In adults, there was no difference between shorter versus longer duration in clinical resolution rates for peritonitis (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.09, I2 = 0%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.08, I2 = 24%), or acute pyelonephritis and septic UTI (clinical failure: RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.18). The quality of the evidence was very low to moderate. In children, there was no difference in clinical resolution rates for pneumonia (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04, I2 = 48%), pyelonephritis (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.04) and confirmed bacterial meningitis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11, I2 = 0%). The quality of the evidence was low to moderate. In conclusion, there is currently a limited body of evidence to clearly assess the clinical benefits of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics in secondary care. High quality trials assessing strategies to shorten antibiotic treatment duration for bacterial infections in secondary care settings should now be a priority.

  17. Preventive Effects of Lactobacillus Mixture on Experimental E. coli Urinary Tract Infection in Infant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Won; Lee, Jee Hyun; Sung, Sun Hee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an ascending infection of fecal uropathogens, urogenital lactobacilli are suggested to play a role in the prevention of UTI. This study was to investigate whether lactobacillus mixture (LM) could prevent the experimental infantile UTI. Materials and Methods The LM were composed of three lactobacillus strains (L. gasseri, L. rhamnosus, and L. reuteri). Mother rats were grouped as lactobacillus (LB) group I (LB I, n=22), II (LB II, n=24) and control (n=20). LB I and LB II were fed with LM (1 mL/day) and control with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) from late pregnancy through lactation. All newborn rats were breast-fed and their urine and stool were collected at the end of the 3rd week to compare lactobacillus colony. Then, infant rats from LB II were treated with intravesical instillation of LM. Infant rats from LB I and control were instilled with PBS. Twenty-four hours later, experimental UTI was introduced by intravesical instillation of standard E. coli strain. After 72 hours later, the infant rats were sacrificed for histologic examination. Results Lactobacilli colonies in urine and stool were not statistically different among the three groups. The incidence of pyelonephritis in the LB II was 16.7% (4/24), LB I 72.7% (16.22) and control 75.0% (15/20) (p=0.015). The incidence of cystitis was not significantly different among the three groups. Conclusion The intravesically instilled LM significantly prevented experimental pyelonephritis in infant rats, however, LM administered orally to the pregnant and lactating mother rats did not. PMID:23364986

  18. Prospective analysis of a complete retrograde ureteroscopic technique with holmium laser stent cutting for management of encrusted ureteral stents.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Alexandre; Cloutier, Jonathan; Villa, Luca; Letendre, Julien; Ploumidis, Achilles; Traxer, Olivier

    2017-03-14

    To propose and evaluate a new endoscopic technique using only a retrograde ureteroscopic approach for the removal of heavily encrusted ureteral stents. Data from 51 consecutive patients with encrusted and retained ureteral stents were prospectively collected. Description of the successive steps of surgery is detailed. The Holmium-YAG laser properties offer the opportunity for fragmentation of stent-attached encrustation and the ability to cut the stent itself. Reducing the length of the stent is critical to creating space in the ureter and to allow free access for ureteroscopes or ureteral access sheath placement. The primary outcome of this study was the feasibility and the safety of this retrograde intra-renal approach. Some factors of encrustation and outcomes are also discussed in comparison with lithotripsy, percutaneous, laparoscopic, open surgery or a combination of these techniques. The removal of the encrusted stent was possible with only this retrograde technique in 98% of patients. The transection of the encrusted stent with the Holmium-YAG laser was useful in 71% of the patients. Mean operative time was 110 minutes and mean hospital stay was 2.33 days. Postoperative complications were mainly non-obstructive pyelonephritis (10%). The most significant predictor of this life threatened complication was the presence of struvite stones with the encrusted stent (p=0,018). Contrariwise, operative time, BMI, gender and encrustation rate were not associated with postoperative pyelonephritis. Cystine stone disease or pregnancy both led to faster stent encrustation. Retrograde ureteroscopic surgery is efficient and safe for removing retained stents and associated stone burdens. The Holmium-YAG laser is essential to perform the encrustation removal and sectioning of the stent.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Fosfomycin for Treatment of Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Dahan, Sybil; Iliza, Ange Christelle; LeLorier, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objective. Bacterial resistance to antibiotics traditionally used to treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs) is rising in Canada. We compared the cost-per-patient in Ontario of including fosfomycin (an antibiotic with a low resistance profile) as an option for first-line empirical treatment of uUTIs with current cost of treatment with sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, and nitrofurantoin. Methods. A decision-tree model was used to perform a cost-minimization analysis. All possible outcomes of a uUTI caused by bacterial species treated with either sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, nitrofurantoin, or fosfomycin were included. Results. In the base case analysis, the cost-per-patient for treating uUTI with fosfomycin was $105.12. This is similar to the cost-per-patient for each of the other currently reimbursed antibiotics (e.g., $96.19 for sulfonamides, $98.85 for fluoroquinolones, and $99.09 for nitrofurantoins). The weighted average cost-per-patient for treating uUTI was not substantially elevated with the inclusion of fosfomycin in the treatment landscape ($98.41 versus $98.29 with and without fosfomycin, resp.). The sensitivity analyses revealed that most (88.34%) of the potential variation in cost was associated with the probability of progressing to pyelonephritis and hospitalization for pyelonephritis. Conclusion. Fosfomycin in addition to being a safe and effective agent to treat uUTI has a low resistance profile, offers a single-dose treatment administration, and is similar in cost to other reimbursed antibiotics. PMID:28316632

  20. Strategy to reduce E. coli bacteraemia based on cohort data from a London teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Desmond; Melzer, Mark

    2018-04-01

    In 2017, National Health Service Improvement set a 10% reduction target for Escherichia coli bacteraemia by 2018, followed by a 50% reduction in healthcare-associated Gram-negative bacteraemias by 2022. We analysed consecutive cases of E. coli bacteraemia and devised a strategy to achieve these targets. From December 2012 to November 2013, demographic, clinical and microbiological data were prospectively collected on all patients with bacteraemia at the Royal London Hospital in East London, UK. There were 594 significant bacteraemic episodes and 207 (34.8%) were E. coli . Twenty-four (11.6%) of the E. coli isolates were extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers, 22 (10.6%) gentamicin resistant and 2 (1.0%) amikacin resistant. The three most common sites of infection were pyelonephritis 105 (56.7%), catheter-associated urinary tract infection 22 (10.6%), and other medical devices and procedures that cause bacteraemia 32 (15.5%). In the pyelonephritis group, trimethoprim resistance in urinary isolates was 16/47 (34.0%) compared with 3/47 (6.4%) for nitrofurantoin. Twelve months postbacteraemia, recurrent bacteraemia rates were 10/105 (9.5%). There were 44 medical device-associated E. coli bacteraemias, and 22 (50%) were urinary catheter associated. There were 10 patients with E. coli bacteraemia caused by procedures, seven genitourinary or biliary tract instrumentation and three postgastrointestinal surgery. E. coli bacteraemias related to urosepsis could have been prevented by better empirical treatment and targeted prophylaxis. Urinary catheter quality improvement programmes should contribute to a further reduction. For patients undergoing high-risk urinary or biliary tract procedures or device manipulation, we advocate single-dose amikacin prophylaxis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. [First urinary tract infection in healthy infants: epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Capdevila Cogul, E; Martín Ibáñez, I; Mainou Cid, C; Toral Rodríguez, E; Cols Roig Mf; Agut Quijano, T; Caritg Bosch, J; Camarasa Piqué, F

    2001-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in infants. It presents certain peculiarities compared with other pediatric age groups in terms of symptomatology, diagnosis and the therapeutic approach employed to prevent sequels. To analyze the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory findings, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of first-time UTI in healthy infants. Between January and December 1999, we performed a retrospective study of 131 previously healthy infants admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of first-time UTI. Demographic data, clinical characteristics, urine dipstick, urinalysis and urine culture (vesical catheterization), blood cell count and PCR, kidney ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrogram and DMSA scintigraphy were reviewed. We studied 131 patients (median age: 90 days). In infants younger than 30 days, UTI was more prevalent in males. The most frequent symptom was fever (73.3 %). Seventy-one patients fulfilled the criteria for acute pyelonephritis. The presence of nitrituria was low. Escherichia coli was isolated in 90.1 % of the patients. Voiding cystourethrogram detected vesicoureteric reflux in 18.4 % of the patients. Scintigraphy revealed renal scarring in 15.1 %. No significant correlations were found between renal scarring in late scintigraphy and a diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis and/or alterations in the cystourethrogram. Fever was the main symptom. E. coli was the most commonly isolated microorganism. Nitrituria had low sensitivity in infants. Ultrasonography had low specificity. Scintigraphy showed the highest sensitivity and specificity in the detection of renal scarring. Predictability improved when scintigraphy was performed a few months after acute infection.

  2. Overview of systematic reviews assessing the evidence for shorter versus longer duration antibiotic treatment for bacterial infections in secondary care

    PubMed Central

    Walker, A. Sarah; Tan, Pui S.; Spencer, Elizabeth A.; Gbinigie, Oghenekome A.; Cook, Johanna; Llewelyn, Martin J.; Butler, Christopher C.

    2018-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the clinical effectiveness of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in adults and children in secondary care settings, using the evidence from published systematic reviews. We conducted electronic searches in MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl. Our primary outcome was clinical resolution. The quality of included reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR criteria, and the quality of the evidence was rated using the GRADE criteria. We included 6 systematic reviews (n = 3,162). Four reviews were rated high quality, and two of moderate quality. In adults, there was no difference between shorter versus longer duration in clinical resolution rates for peritonitis (RR 1.03, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.09, I2 = 0%), ventilator-associated pneumonia (RR 0.93; 95% CI 0.81 to 1.08, I2 = 24%), or acute pyelonephritis and septic UTI (clinical failure: RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.46 to 2.18). The quality of the evidence was very low to moderate. In children, there was no difference in clinical resolution rates for pneumonia (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.04, I2 = 48%), pyelonephritis (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.04) and confirmed bacterial meningitis (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.11, I2 = 0%). The quality of the evidence was low to moderate. In conclusion, there is currently a limited body of evidence to clearly assess the clinical benefits of shorter versus longer duration antibiotics in secondary care. High quality trials assessing strategies to shorten antibiotic treatment duration for bacterial infections in secondary care settings should now be a priority. PMID:29590188

  3. MRI and histopathologic study of a novel cholesterol-fed rabbit model of xanthogranuloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuanxin; Hamilton, Amanda M; Parkins, Katie M; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Rogers, Kem A; Zeineh, Michael M; Rutt, Brian K; Ronald, John A

    2016-09-01

    To develop a rabbit model of xanthogranuloma based on supplementation of dietary cholesterol. The aim of this study was to analyze the xanthogranulomatous lesions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological examination. Rabbits were fed a low-level cholesterol (CH) diet (n = 10) or normal chow (n = 5) for 24 months. In vivo brain imaging was performed on a 3T MR system using fast imaging employing steady state acquisition, susceptibility-weighted imaging, spoiled gradient recalled, T1 -weighted inversion recovery imaging and T1 relaxometry, PD-weighted and T2 -weighted spin-echo imaging and T2 relaxometry, iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation, ultrashort TE MRI (UTE-MRI), and T2* relaxometry. MR images were evaluated using a Likert scale for lesion presence and quantitative analysis of lesion size, ventricular volume, and T1 , T2 , and T2* values of lesions was performed. After imaging, brain specimens were examined using histological methods. In vivo MRI revealed that 6 of 10 CH-fed rabbits developed lesions in the choroid plexus. Region-of-interest analysis showed that for CH-fed rabbits the mean lesion volume was 8.5 ± 2.6 mm(3) and the volume of the lateral ventricle was significantly increased compared to controls (P < 0.01). The lesions showed significantly shorter mean T2 values (35 ± 12 msec, P < 0.001), longer mean T1 values (1581 ± 146 msec, P < 0.05), and shorter T2* values (22 ± 13 msec, P < 0.001) compared to adjacent brain structures. The ultrashort T2* components were visible using UTE-MRI. Histopathologic evaluation of lesions demonstrated features of human xanthogranuloma. Rabbits fed a low-level CH diet develop sizable intraventricular masses that have similar histopathological features as human xanthogranuloma. Multiparametric MRI techniques were able to provide information about the complex composition of these lesions. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2016

  4. Impact of cytokine genetic polymorphisms on the risk of renal parenchymal infection in children.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Almontaser; Askar, Eman; Badawy, Ahlam; Saad, Khaled; Zahran, Asmaa; Elderwy, Ahmad A

    2017-12-01

    Acute pyelonephritis is associated with renal scarring in up to 30% of patients. Renal scarring may cause significant long-term morbidity. The pathogenesis of acute pyelonephritis remains unclear, although it involves interaction among uroepithelium, the immune system cells, and the locally produced cytokines. That some UTI-prone children develop acute pyelonephritis, and eventually renal parenchymal scarring, suggests a genetic role. Interleukin-6, interleukin-8, chemokine receptor-1 (CXCR1), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), the key regulators of the host immune responses, are proteins whose secretion is controlled by genes. We postulated that functional polymorphic variants of their genes might have a role in APN susceptibility. We sought to investigate a possible association of the common functional polymorphisms in genes encoding IL-6, IL-8, CXCR1, and TNFα with the risk of APN in children. Urine culture was used to diagnose 300 children with UTI, of mean age of 51.31 ± 37.4 months (2-180 months). 99Tc-DMSA scans diagnosed 86 children with APN. Follow-up scans identified new renal scars in 18 children. Six functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding IL-6, IL-8, CXCR1, and TNFα were genotyped in all subjects (IL-6 rs1800795 (-174G/C), IL-6 rs1800796 (-572G/C), IL-8 rs2227306 (781C/T), IL8 rs4073 (-251A/T), CXCR1 rs2234671 (2607G/C), and TNFα rs1800629 (-308G/A)). TT genotype of IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism was significantly higher in APN patients (26.7%) than those with lower UTI (11.7%, p = 0.01) and control individuals (12.2%, p = 0.002). T allele was significantly more common in APN than in lower UTI (p = 0.025) and was significantly more common in APN (46%) than in the controls (p = 0.001). Similarly, TT genotype of IL-8 781C/T polymorphism was significantly more common in APN patients (31.4%) than those with lower UTI (17.3%, p = 0.003) and the controls (14.3%, p = 0.001). T allele was significantly more common

  5. Benefits and harms of screening for and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Angelescu, Konstanze; Nussbaumer-Streit, Barbara; Sieben, Wiebke; Scheibler, Fülöp; Gartlehner, Gerald

    2016-11-02

    Most European and North American clinical practice guidelines recommend screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) as a routine pregnancy test. Antibiotic treatment of ASB in pregnant women is supposed to reduce maternal upper urinary tract infections (upper UTIs) and preterm labour. However, most studies supporting the treatment of ASB were conducted in the 1950s to 1980s. Because of subsequent changes in treatment options for ASB and UTI, the applicability of findings from these studies has come into question. Our systematic review had three objectives: firstly, to assess the patient-relevant benefits and harms of screening for ASB versus no screening; secondly, to compare the benefits and harms of different screening strategies; and thirdly, in case no reliable evidence on the overarching screening question was identified, to determine the benefits and harms of treatment of ASB. We systematically searched several bibliographic databases, trial registries, and other sources (up to 02/2016) for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective non-randomised trials. Two authors independently reviewed abstracts and full-text articles and assessed the risk of bias of the studies included. As meta-analyses were not possible, we summarised the results qualitatively. We did not identify any eligible studies that investigated the benefits and harms of screening for ASB versus no screening or that compared different screening strategies. We identified four RCTs comparing antibiotics with no treatment or placebo in 454 pregnant women with ASB. The results of 2 studies published in the 1960s showed a statistically significant reduction in rates of pyelonephritis (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.59) and lower UTI (OR = 0.10, 95 % CI 0.03-0.35) in women treated with antibiotics. By contrast, event rates reported by a recent study were not statistically significantly different, neither regarding pyelonephritis (0 % vs. 2.2 %; OR

  6. Management of group B streptococcal bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Allen, Victoria M; Yudin, Mark H

    2012-05-01

    To provide information regarding the management of group B streptococcal (GBS) bacteriuria to midwives, nurses, and physicians who are providing obstetrical care. The outcomes considered were neonatal GBS disease, preterm birth, pyelonephritis, chorioamnionitis, and recurrence of GBS colonization. Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane database were searched for articles published in English to December 2010 on the topic of GBS bacteriuria in pregnancy. Bacteriuria is defined in this clinical practice guideline as the presence of bacteria in urine, regardless of the number of colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL). Low colony counts refer to < 100 000 CFU/mL, and high (significant) colony counts refer to ≥ 100 000 CFU/mL. Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, and relevant observational studies. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to February 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology assessment-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. Recommendations were quantified using the evaluation of evidence guidelines developed by the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table). The recommendations in this guideline are designed to help clinicians identify pregnancies in which it is appropriate to treat GBS bacteriuria to optimize maternal and perinatal outcomes, to reduce the occurrences of antibiotic anaphylaxis, and to prevent increases in antibiotic resistance to GBS and non-GBS pathogens. No cost-benefit analysis is provided. 1. Treatment of any bacteriuria with colony counts ≥ 100 000 CFU/mL in pregnancy is an accepted and recommended strategy and includes treatment with appropriate antibiotics. (II-2A) 2. Women with documented group B streptococcal bacteriuria (regardless of level of

  7. Nephrectomy for benign disease in the UK: results from the British Association of Urological Surgeons nephrectomy database.

    PubMed

    Zelhof, Bachar; McIntyre, Iain G; Fowler, Sarah M; Napier-Hemy, Richard D; Burke, Daniel M; Grey, Ben R

    2016-01-01

    To summarize the practice of UK urologists with regard to nephrectomy for benign disease, documenting the indications, procedural techniques and outcomes. All patients undergoing nephrectomy for a benign condition in 2012 were identified from the British Association of Urological Surgeons (BAUS) nephrectomy database. Recorded variables included the technique of surgery, the type of minimally invasive procedure, operating time, blood loss, transfusion rate, conversion rate, intra- and postoperative complications and mortality rate. Cases were also sub-analysed according to their pathologies to determine the differences in complication rate between stone disease, pyelonephritis, non-functioning kidney and other benign lesions. To contextualize procedural complexity, the simple nephrectomy data were compared with those obtained from the BAUS stage T1 radical nephrectomy audit. A total of 1 093 nephrectomies were performed (537 non-functioning kidneys, 142 stone disease, 129 nephrectomies secondary to pyelonephritis and 285 cases with other benign conditions). Of these, 76% were performed laparoscopically. Blood loss >500 mL was noted in 74 cases with a 4.8% blood transfusion rate. The intra- and postoperative complication rates were 5.2 and 11.9%, respectively. Of the 847 minimally invasive procedures, the conversion rate was 5.9%. Patients with stone disease have the highest intra- and postoperative complications (9.9 and 23.9%, respectively) compared with other benign pathologies. The total number of T1 radical nephrectomies performed was 1 095. In comparison with T1 radical nephrectomy, simple nephrectomy carries an increased risk of conversion to an open procedure (1.8 times), a higher rate of blood transfusion (4.8 vs 2.8%), and a higher risk of intra- and postoperative complications (5.2 vs 3.7% and 11.9 vs 10%, respectively). The present study reports the largest series of nephrectomies performed for benign disease and the resultant data now support the bespoke

  8. [Is bacteriological testing of bladder urine informative in acute obstructive pyelo- nephritis?

    PubMed

    Kogan, M I; Naboka, Yu L; Bedzhanyan, S K; Mitusova, E V; Gudima, I A; Morgun, P P; Vasileva, L I

    2017-07-01

    The problem of the etiology and pathogenesis of acute obstructive pyelonephritis (OOP) remains one of the challenging issues of modern urology. Etiological agents of pyelonephritis can be both gram-negative and gram-positive opportunistic bacteria mostly belonging to the normal flora in humans. The generally accepted diagnostic work-up involves a bacteriological testing of not pelvic urine, but of bladder urine collected by a transurethral catheter or midstream specimens of urine collected from the patients. The aim of our study was to compare the microbiota of bladder and pelvic urine in patients with OOP. The study comprised 72 sequentially selected patients (12 men and 60 women) with OOP associated with ureteral stones. Mean age of patients was 53.7+/-0.5 years. All patients underwent bacteriological examination of the bladder urine collected by a transurethral catheter and pelvic urine obtained after relieving stone-related ureteral obstruction. Urinary diversion was performed using j-j stent and PCN in 64 and 8 patients, respectively. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotics were administered routinely. Bacteriological testing of urine was carried out using an extended set (9-10) of culture media. Empirical antibiotic therapy was initiated only after the restoration of urine outflow from the kidney and continued for 5-6 days until the availability of bacteriological testing results. Levels of bacteriuria with Enterobacteria, gram-positive pathogens and NAB in two urine samples did not differ significantly (p>0.05). There was a wide range of bacteriuria from 101 to 106 CFU/ml of most microorganisms except @Proteus spp., S. aureus. In bladder urine, the rates of bacteriuria of more or equal 104 CFU/ml for E. coli, Klebsiella spp. and Proteus spp. were 90.9%, 72.7% and 100.0%, respectively. For the remaining microorganisms, predominant bacteriuria was less or equal 103 CFU/ml. In pelvic urine, the rates of bacteriuria of more or equal 104 CFU/ml for E. coli

  9. Historical Incidence of Spontaneous Lesions in Kidneys from Naïve Swine Utilized In Interventional Renal Denervation Studies.

    PubMed

    Rouselle, Serge D; Dillon, Krista N; Rousselle-Sabiac, Theo H; Brady, Dane A; Tunev, Stefan; Tellez, Armando

    2016-08-01

    The use of preclinical animal models is integral to the safety assessment, pathogenesis research, and testing of diagnostic technologies and therapeutic interventions. With inherent similarity to human anatomy and physiology, various porcine models have been the preferred preclinical model in some research areas such as medical devices, wound healing, and skin therapies. The porcine model has been the cornerstone for interventional cardiology for the evaluation and development of this catheter-based renal denervation (RDN) therapy. The porcine model provides similar vascular access and renal neurovascular anatomy to humans. In these preclinical studies, the downstream kidneys from treated arteries are assessed for possible histopathological changes in the vessel dependent territories. In assessing renal safety following RDN, it becomes critical to distinguish treatment-related changes from pre-existing background pathologies. The incidence of background pathological changes in porcine kidneys has not been previously established in normal clinically healthy. Samples from the cranial, middle, and caudal portion of 331 naïve kidneys from 181 swine were processed histologically to slides and evaluated microscopically. The most commonly encountered spontaneous changes were chronic pyelonephritis found in nearly half of the evaluated naïve kidneys (∼40 %; score 1 = 91 %, score 2 = 8.4 %, score 3 = 0.76 %) followed by chronic interstitial inflammation in 9.7 % of the kidneys (score 1 = 90.6 %, score 2 = 9.4 %). Interestingly, there were a few rare spontaneous vascular changes that could potentially affect data interpretation in interventional and toxicology studies: arteritis and arteriolar dissection. The presence of pelvic cysts was a common occurrence (6.3 %) in the kidney. The domestic swine is a widely used preclinical species in interventional research, namely in the emerging field of transcatheter renal denervation. This

  10. [Clinical evaluation of cefoperazone in children (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Y; Morikawa, Y; Haruta, T; Fujiwara, T

    1980-09-01

    Clinical evaluation was made on cefoperazone (CPZ) and the following conclusions were obtained. (1) Serum concentrations of the drug after a one-shot intravenous injection of 22.2 mg/kg were 77 mcg/ml (30 minutes), 50 mcg/ml (1 hour) and 8.9 mcg/ml (4 hours) and T 1/2 of serum concentration was 68.5 minutes. A 35-day-old female with obstructive jaundice associated with choledochal cyst was given by a 30-minute drip infusion of 26.8 mg/kg of the drug. Serum concentration was 90 mcg/ml at the end of infusion, slowly declined thereafter, and was 47.5 mcg/ml at 6 hours. Its T 1/2 was 395 minutes. A patient with pyelonephritis complicated with right hydronephrosis was similarly treated with 24.4 mg/kg. T 1/2 of serum concentration was not prolonged, i.e., 82.1 minutes, but urinary recovery rate up to 6 hours was decreased to 15.9%. (2) Five patients, including three with pyelonephritis (causative organism: K. pneumoniae 2 and P. aeruginosa 1) and each one patient with pneumonia (unknown) and with postoperative infection (S. faecalis), respectively, were treated with 66.7 approximately 96.8 mg/kg/day of CPZ in 3 divided doses for 5 approximately 12 days either by one-shot intravenous or by 30 approximately 60-minute drip infusion. An overall efficacy rate was excellent in 3 and good in 2, and there was no failure. Causative organisms disappeared in all cases. (3) Although one patient was excluded from the study because the diagnosis was supposed to be viral pneumonia, all six patients who were given CPZ did not exhibit any adverse reactions except for mild eosinophilia in two instances. (4) The foregoing results as well as the review of the literature clearly indicate the effectiveness of CPZ in the treatment of bacterial infections in children.

  11. [Parallels in development of hemodialysis service and kidney transplantations in Lithuania during 1996-2005].

    PubMed

    Ziginskiene, Edita; Kuzminskis, Vytautas; Bumblyte, Inga Arūne; Santockiene, Lina; Dalinkeviciene, Egle; Kardauskaite, Zydrūne; Uogintaite, Jurgita; Motiejūnaite, Agne; Butautas, Ernestas; Vainauskas, Vaclovas; Macius, Kazimieras; Sakalauskiene, Marija; Steckis, Ricardas; Gaupsiene, Egle; Urbanaviciene, Jūrate; Labutiene, Vilma

    2007-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the changes in hemodialysis service, main demographic characteristics of hemodialysis patients in Lithuania during 1996-2005, and their correlation with the number of recipients on the kidney waiting list. During the study period, we annually visited all hemodialysis centers in Lithuania and collected data about all hemodialysis patients. There was a sharp increase in the number of hemodialysis centers (from 17 to 43), hemodialysis stations (from 25 to 100 per million population, P<0.001), hemodialysis patients (from 60 to 312 per million population, P<0.001), and new hemodialysis patients (from 54.3 to 95 per million population, P<0.01). The mean age of hemodialysis patients increased from 47.2+/-16.1 years in 1996 to 58.8+/-15.6 years in 2005 (P<0.001). Hemodialysis population became older. The percentage of patients aged more than 60 years increased from 22.8% to 53.2% (P<0.001) and aged more than 70 years from 5.4% to 24.4% (P<0.001). The frequency of chronic glomerulonephritis as underlying disease of end-stage renal disease decreased from 54.5% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005 (P<0.001). There was an increase in the percentage of patients in whom end-stage renal disease was caused by diabetic (from 7.1% to 19.2%, P<0.01) and hypertensive nephropathies (from 3.1% to 13.9%, P<0.05) and chronic pyelonephritis (from 11.2% to 17.9%, P<0.01). The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased from 71.4% in 1996 to 21.1% in 2005. In summary, during the last 9 years, hemodialysis service in Lithuania significantly expanded. The number of hemodialysis patients was continuously rising with predominance of diabetic, hypertensive, and elderly patients. Diabetic nephropathy, chronic glomerulonephritis, and pyelonephritis were the main underlying diseases of end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis patients in 2005. The percentage of recipients on the kidney waiting list decreased probably because of the rise in the number of

  12. Bladder volume at onset of vesicoureteral reflux is an independent risk factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Siobhan E; Arlen, Angela M; Storm, Douglas W; Kieran, Kathleen; Cooper, Christopher S

    2015-04-01

    Improved identification of children with vesicoureteral reflux at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infection may impact management decisions. We hypothesized that reflux occurring earlier during bladder filling increases the duration of exposure of the kidneys to bacteria, and, therefore, increases the risk of pyelonephritis. Children with vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram data were identified. Bladder volume at onset of reflux was normalized for age. Demographics, reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction and breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections were assessed. Median followup was 24 months (IQR 12 to 52). A total of 208 girls and 47 boys were analyzed with a mean ± SD age at diagnosis of 3.1 ± 2.6 years. On univariate analysis history of febrile urinary tract infection (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.33-2.85, p = 0.01), dilating vesicoureteral reflux (HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.05-2.42, p = 0.03) and bladder-bowel dysfunction (HR 1.66, 95% CI 0.99-2.75, p = 0.05) were associated with an increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection. Median bladder volume at onset of reflux in children with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection was significantly less (33.1%) than in those without infection (49.5%, p = 0.003). Reflux onset at 35% predicted bladder capacity or less was associated with a significantly increased risk of breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection on multivariate analysis (HR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05-2.38, p = 0.03). Children with early filling vesicoureteral reflux are at increased risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infection independent of reflux grade. Bladder volume at onset of reflux should be recorded during cystograms since it provides additional prognostic information about the risk of pyelonephritis and resolution, and may assist with counseling and clinical decision making. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  13. Non-contrast MDCT for Ureteral Calculi and Alternative Diagnoses: Yield in Adult Women vs in Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Fani, Parisa; Patlas, Michael N; Monteiro, Sandra; Katz, Douglas S

    2018-02-02

    To determine the yield of non-contrast multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) of the abdomen and pelvis in diagnosing ureteral calculi as well as other alternative acute conditions in male vs in female adult patients presenting to the emergency department with new onset of symptoms. Our institutional review board approved a retrospective review of the official reports of the non-contrast MDCT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis performed on adults (18 years and older) presenting to our emergency department with a suspected ureteral calculus from October 1, 2011 to October 30, 2013. Patients with recently documented ureteral calculi, known urinary tract infection, malignancy, and trauma were excluded from the study. From a total of 1097 non-contrast MDCT examinations of the abdomen and pelvis over the 2-year period, 400 randomly selected examinations were reviewed (approximately one-third of all the examinations). We compared the prevalence of ureteral calculi between the male and female population. P values and confidence intervals were determined using software Stata 14. Other acute intra-abdominal and intra-pelvic findings amenable to prompt medical care were also documented and analyzed separately. The mean patient age was 55.2 years, with a range of 19-90 years. This included 170 female (mean age 56.8 years) and 230 male patients (mean age 54.2 years). Ureteral calculi were detected in 170 (42.5%) of the patients [111 males (48%) and 59 females (34.7%)] with a prevalence which was statistically significantly higher in the male patients compared to in the female patients (P < 0.01, confidence level of 95% and CI of 13.2-13.4). An alternative diagnosis was made based on the MDCT findings in 49 patient cases (12.25 %), including 26 females (15.29%) and 23 males (10.00%). There was no statistically significant difference in alternative acute findings in male compared to in female patients (P > 0.05). This was with the exception of acute pyelonephritis, which

  14. [Urinary tract infection in pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Duarte, Geraldo; Marcolin, Alessandra Cristina; Quintana, Silvana Maria; Cavalli, Ricardo Carvalho

    2008-02-01

    Several factors cause urinary tract infection (UTI) to be a relevant complication of the gestational period, aggravating both the maternal and perinatal prognosis. For many years, pregnancy has been considered to be a factor predisposing to all forms of UTI. Today, it is known that pregnancy, as an isolated event, is not responsible for a higher incidence of UTI, but that the anatomical and physiological changes imposed on the urinary tract by pregnancy predispose women with asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) to become pregnant women with symptomatic UTI. AB affects 2 to 10% of all pregnant women and approximately 30% of these will develop pyelonephritis if not properly treated. However, a difficult-to-understand resistance against the identification of AB during this period is observed among prenatalists. The diagnosis of UTI is microbiological and it is based on two urine cultures presenting more than 10(5) colonies/mL urine of the same germ. Treatment is facilitated by the fact that it is based on an antibiogram, with no scientific foundation for the notion that a pre-established therapeutic scheme is an adequate measure. For the treatment of pyelonephritis, it is not possible to wait for the result of culture and previous knowledge of the resistance profile of the antibacterial agents available for the treatment of pregnant women would be the best measure. Another important variable is the use of an intravenous bactericidal antibiotic during the acute phase, with the possibility of oral administration at home after clinical improvement of the patient. At our hospital, the drug that best satisfies all of these requirements is cefuroxime, administered for 10-14 days. Third-generation cephalosporins do not exist in the oral form, all of them involving the inconvenience of parenteral administration. In view of their side effects, aminoglycosides are considered to be inadequate for administration to pregnant women. The inconsistent insinuation of contraindication of

  15. Urologic complications of major genitourinary reconstruction in the exstrophy-epispadias complex.

    PubMed

    Inouye, Brian M; Shah, Bhavik B; Massanyi, Eric Z; Di Carlo, Heather N; Kern, Adam J; Tourchi, Ali; Baradaran, Nima; Stewart, Dylan; Gearhart, John P

    2014-08-01

    To present the authors' experiences with urologic complications associated with various techniques used to create a continent stoma (CS), augmentation cystoplasty (AC), and neobladder in the exstrophy-epispadias complex (EEC) population. Retrospective review of medical records of patients who underwent CS with or without bladder augmentation were identified from an institutional review board-approved database of 1208 EEC patients. Surgical indications, tissue type, length of hospital stay, age, preoperative bladder capacity, prior genitourinary surgeries, postoperative urological complications, and continence status were reviewed. Among the EEC patients reviewed, 133 underwent CS (80 male, 53 female). Mean follow-up time after initial continent stoma was 5.31 years (range: 6 months to 20 years). Appendix and tapered ileum were the primary bowel segments used for the continent channel and stoma in the EEC population. The most common stomal complications in this population were stenosis, incontinence, and prolapse. Seventy-nine percent of EEC CS patients underwent AC primarily done with sigmoid colon or ileum. Eleven patients (8%) underwent neobladder creation with either colon or a combination of colon and ileum. Bladder calculi, vesicocutaneous fistula, and pyelonephritis were the most common non-stomal complications. Stomal ischemia was significantly increased in Monti ileovesicostomy compared to Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy in classic bladder exstrophy patients (p = 0.036). Furthermore, pyelonephritis was more than twice as likely in colonic neobladder than all other reservoir tissue types in the same cohort (OR = 2.53, 95% CI: 1.762-3.301, p < 0.001). To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the largest study examining catheterizable stomas in the exstrophy population. While Mitrofanoff appendicovesicostomy is preferred to Monti ileovesicostomy because it is technically less challenging, it may also confer a lower rate of stomal ischemia. Furthermore

  16. History of Childhood Kidney Disease and Risk of Adult End-Stage Renal Disease.

    PubMed

    Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Golan, Eliezer; Twig, Gilad; Leiba, Adi; Tzur, Dorit; Afek, Arnon; Skorecki, Karl; Vivante, Asaf

    2018-02-01

    The long-term risk associated with childhood kidney disease that had not progressed to chronic kidney disease in childhood is unclear. We aimed to estimate the risk of future end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among adolescents who had normal renal function and a history of childhood kidney disease. We conducted a nationwide, population-based, historical cohort study of 1,521,501 Israeli adolescents who were examined before compulsory military service in 1967 through 1997; data were linked to the Israeli ESRD registry. Kidney diseases in childhood included congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease; all participants included in the primary analysis had normal renal function and no hypertension in adolescence. Cox proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio for ESRD associated with a history of childhood kidney disease. During 30 years of follow-up, ESRD developed in 2490 persons. A history of any childhood kidney disease was associated with a hazard ratio for ESRD of 4.19 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.52 to 4.99). The associations between each diagnosis of kidney disease in childhood (congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, pyelonephritis, and glomerular disease) and the risk of ESRD in adulthood were similar in magnitude (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 5.19 [95% CI, 3.41 to 7.90], 4.03 [95% CI, 3.16 to 5.14], and 3.85 [95% CI, 2.77 to 5.36], respectively). A history of kidney disease in childhood was associated with younger age at the onset of ESRD (hazard ratio for ESRD among adults <40 years of age, 10.40 [95% CI, 7.96 to 13.59]). A history of clinically evident kidney disease in childhood, even if renal function was apparently normal in adolescence, was associated with a significantly increased risk of ESRD, which suggests that kidney injury or structural abnormality in childhood has long-term consequences.

  17. Inactivation of Transcriptional Regulators during Within-Household Evolution of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kisiela, Dagmara I; Radey, Matthew; Paul, Sandip; Porter, Stephen; Polukhina, Kseniya; Tchesnokova, Veronika; Shevchenko, Sofiya; Chan, Diana; Aziz, Maliha; Johnson, Timothy J; Price, Lance B; Johnson, James R; Sokurenko, Evgeni V

    2017-07-01

    We analyzed the within-household evolution of two household-associated Escherichia coli strains from pandemic clonal group ST131- H 30, using isolates recovered from five individuals within two families, each of which had a distinct strain. Family 1's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (older sister) with recurrent cystitis and a blood isolate from her younger sister with fatal urosepsis. Family 2's strain was represented by a urine isolate from the index patient (father) with pyelonephritis and renal abscesses, blood and kidney drainage isolates from the daughter with emphysematous pyelonephritis, and urine and fecal isolates from the mother with cystitis. Collectively, the several variants of each family's strain had accumulated a total of 8 (family 1) and 39 (family 2) point mutations; no two isolates were identical. Of the 47 total mutations, 36 resulted in amino acid changes or truncation of coded proteins. Fourteen such mutations (39%) targeted genes encoding transcriptional regulators, and 9 (25%) involved DNA-binding transcription factors (TFs), which significantly exceeded the relative contribution of TF genes to the isolates' genomes (∼6%). At least one-half of the transcriptional regulator mutations were inactivating, based on phenotypic and/or transcriptional analysis. In particular, inactivating mutations in the global regulator LrhA (repressor of type 1 fimbriae and flagella) occurred in the blood isolates from both households and increased the virulence of E. coli strains in a murine sepsis model. The results indicate that E. coli undergoes adaptive evolution between and/or within hosts, generating subpopulations with distinctive phenotypes and virulence potential. IMPORTANCE The clonal evolution of bacterial strains associated with interhost transmission is poorly understood. We characterized the genome sequences of clonal descendants of two Escherichia coli strains, recovered at different time points from multiple

  18. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, Phase 2 dose-ranging study comparing efficacy and safety of imipenem/cilastatin plus relebactam with imipenem/cilastatin alone in patients with complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Sims, Matthew; Mariyanovski, Valeri; McLeroth, Patrick; Akers, Wayne; Lee, Yu-Chieh; Brown, Michelle L; Du, Jiejun; Pedley, Alison; Kartsonis, Nicholas A; Paschke, Amanda

    2017-09-01

    The β-lactamase inhibitor relebactam can restore imipenem activity against imipenem non-susceptible pathogens. To explore relebactam's safety, tolerability and efficacy, we conducted a randomized (1:1:1), controlled, Phase 2 trial comparing imipenem/cilastatin+relebactam 250 mg, imipenem/cilastatin+relebactam 125 mg and imipenem/cilastatin alone in adults with complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) or acute pyelonephritis, regardless of baseline pathogen susceptibility. Treatment was administered intravenously every 6 h for 4-14 days, with optional step-down to oral ciprofloxacin. The primary endpoint was favourable microbiological response rate (pathogen eradication) at discontinuation of intravenous therapy (DCIV) in the microbiologically evaluable (ME) population. Non-inferiority of imipenem/cilastatin+relebactam over imipenem/cilastatin alone was defined as lower bounds of the 95% CI for treatment differences being above -15%. At DCIV, 71 patients in the imipenem/cilastatin + 250 mg relebactam, 79 in the imipenem/cilastatin + 125 mg relebactam and 80 in the imipenem/cilastatin-only group were ME; 51.7% had cUTI and 48.3% acute pyelonephritis. Microbiological response rates were 95.5%, 98.6% and 98.7%, respectively, confirming non-inferiority of both imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam doses to imipenem/cilastatin alone. Clinical response rates were 97.1%, 98.7% and 98.8%, respectively. All 23 ME patients with imipenem non-susceptible pathogens had favourable DCIV microbiological responses (100% in each group). Among all 298 patients treated, 28.3%, 29.3% and 30.0% of patients, respectively, had treatment-emergent adverse events. The most common treatment-related adverse events across groups (1.0%-4.0%) were diarrhoea, nausea and headache. Imipenem/cilastatin + relebactam (250 or 125 mg) was as effective as imipenem/cilastatin alone for treatment of cUTI. Both relebactam-containing regimens were well tolerated. (NCT01505634).

  19. The impact of daily temperature on renal disease incidence: an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Borg, Matthew; Bi, Peng; Nitschke, Monika; Williams, Susan; McDonald, Stephen

    2017-10-27

    Extremely high temperatures over many consecutive days have been linked to an increase in renal disease in several cities. This is becoming increasingly relevant with heatwaves becoming longer, more intense, and more frequent with climate change. This study aimed to extend the known relationship between daily temperature and kidney disease to include the incidence of eight temperature-prone specific renal disease categories - total renal disease, urolithiasis, renal failure, acute kidney injury (AKI), chronic kidney disease (CKD), urinary tract infections (UTIs), lower urinary tract infections (LUTIs) and pyelonephritis. Daily data was acquired for maximum, minimum and average temperature over the period of 1 July 2003 to 31 March 2014 during the warm season (October to March) in Adelaide, South Australia. Data for daily admissions to all metropolitan hospitals for renal disease, including 83,519 emergency department admissions and 42,957 inpatient admissions, was also obtained. Renal outcomes were analyzed using time-stratified negative binomial regression models, with the results aggregated by day. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for associations between the number of admissions and daily temperature. Increases in daily temperature per 1 °C were associated with an increased incidence for all renal disease categories except for pyelonephritis. Minimum temperature was associated with the greatest increase in renal disease followed by average temperature and then maximum temperature. A 1°C increase in daily minimum temperature was associated with an increase in daily emergency department admissions for AKI (IRR 1.037, 95% CI: 1.026-1.048), renal failure (IRR 1.030, 95% CI: 1.022-1.039), CKD (IRR 1.017, 95% CI: 1.001-1.033) urolithiasis (IRR 1.015, 95% CI: 1.010-1.020), total renal disease (IRR 1.009, 95% CI: 1.006-1.011), UTIs (IRR 1.004, 95% CI: 1.000-1.007) and LUTIs (IRR 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000-1.006). An increased

  20. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in children and adolescents: six-case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lerena, Javier; Krauel, Lucas; García-Aparicio, Luis; Vallasciani, Santiago; Suñol, Mariona; Rodó, Joan

    2010-10-01

    Lower urinary tract tumours are uncommon in paediatrics. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (TCCB) is rarely found in the first two decades of life and is exceptional under 10 years of age. The present series aimed to expand the number of reported cases in the literature. In 1984-2007, six patients (four male, two female), aged 6, 9, 12, 13, 14 and 17 years, were treated at our centre. Clinical presentation was macroscopic haematuria in five and pyelonephritis in one. Physical examination, laboratory analysis, ultrasound and cystoscopy were performed before surgical treatment in all patients. Follow up was by clinical and ultrasound assessment. Neither physical examination nor laboratory analysis revealed any significant abnormalities, but ultrasound showed exophytic intravesical lesions. Surgical resection was performed endoscopically. Histological studies showed grade I TCCB in all cases. The immediate postoperative period was uneventful and long-term follow up did not reveal recurrence. Despite its low incidence in children, TCCB must be suspected in the event of macroscopic haematuria. Ultrasound followed by cystoscopy are the ideal diagnostic tools for visualization of these tumours. Endoscopic resection proved effective in all the present cases. Follow up must be clinical with periodic ultrasound evaluation. Urine cytologic examination is ineffective. Periodic cystoscopy is indicated only in cases of clinical or ultrasonographic suspicion of recurrence. Copyright © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Laparoscopic cystectomy and transileal ureterostomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Evaluation of morbidity].

    PubMed

    Guillotreau, Julien; Gamé, Xavier; Castel-Lacanal, Evelyne; Mallet, Richard; De Boissezon, Xavier; Malavaud, Bernard; Marque, Philippe; Rischmann, Pascal

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate the morbidity and mortality of laparoscopic cystectomy combined with transileal ureterostomy to treat neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. Prospective study performed between february 2004 and april 2006 on 26 consecutive patients with a mean age of 55.0 +/- 12.7 years treated by laparoscopic cystectomy for neurogenic vesicosphincteric disorders. The underlying neurological disease was multiple sclerosis (MS) in 20 cases, spinal cord injury in 4 cases and transverse myelitis in 2 cases. The median preoperative ASA score was 3 (range: 2-3). No open conversion was necessary. One intraoperative complication was observed (vascular injury). No perioperative death was observed. The nasogastric tube was maintained postoperatively for an average of 8.69 +/- 5.9 hours. The mean time to resumption of oral fluids was 1.4 +/- 0.7 days and mean time to resumption of solids was 2.6 +/- 1.0 days. The mean time to resumption of bowel movements was 3.8 +/- 3.2 days. The mean intensive care stay was 3.9 +/- 1.1 days. Two postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (ileus and bronchial congestion). Postoperative narcotic analgesics were necessary in 60% of cases. The mean hospital stay was 10.3 +/- 4.1 days. Two late postoperative complications were observed in the same patient (two episodes of pyelonephritis). Laparoscopic cystectomy has a low morbidity in neurological patients, allowing early return of feeding and a moderate length of hospital stay.

  2. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify amore » DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.« less

  3. [Surgical treatment of recurrent urethral strictures in males after unsuccessful operations].

    PubMed

    Simon, V; Vacík, J; Michálek, J; Novák, V; Lopour, P; Spunda, M

    2000-12-06

    Subvesical obstructions of any origin represent a frequent and serious disorder occurring predominantly in males. Often it brings incontinence and/or erectility dysfunction, infection of urinary tract. Relapses of the acute pyelonephritis can turn into chronic tubulointersticial one and terminate in the renal insufficiency. To treat strictures, dilation, intermittent catheterization and recently stent introduction were used. Most suitable appears a stent from composite polymers. The aim of our work was to test properties of stents developed in the Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry ASCR. Stents from composite polymers, which are non-toxic, not-irritable can swell in body fluids and have mechanical properties similar to that of silicone rubber. Properties of the material are functionally graded and the casting or repoussé from the material can subsequently change its shape. Ten patients (males, aged 25 to 78 years) with long urethral strictures in its bulbocavernous part (50%) were treated with this method. Strictures were caused by pelvical fractures (4 times), prostate hypertrophy surgery (4 times), prolonged catheterizations (2 times). All patients were followed for 16 to 26 month and had no severities. Our results indicate that stent from composite polymers and silicone may have long-acting effects without irritation or crust formation and beneficially effected healing of the spongio-fibrous process.

  4. [Appendicouretheroplasty].

    PubMed

    Komiakov, B K; Guliev, B G; Dorofeev, S Ia; Burlaka, O O

    2006-01-01

    Repair of long uretheral defects with the appendix (appendi-couretheroplasty--AUP) was made in 5 patients. Stenosis of the lumbar urether was caused by a gunshot wound in one patient. Uretheral strictures developed after iatrogenic injury during extended gynecological operations in 3 women. The strictures arose after radiotherapy in one female. The man has undergone plastic reconstruction of the upper third of the right ureter, while women - replacement of the pelvic urether, including one case on the left. In two cases a modified surgical technique was used for better appendicocystanastomosis--a flap was dissected from the cupola of the cecum. In one case surgery was combined with simultaneous contralateral Boari's operation, in the other case--with transvaginal suturing of the vesicovaginal fistula. Exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis occurred in one patient. In the other case antegrade pyeloureterography has detected stricture of ureteroappendicoanastomosis. Resection of the stricted place and reanastomosing were performed in this patient. Passability of the urinary tract recovered in all the patients. Thus, replacement of any part of the right and pelvic part of the left ureter with the appendix is feasible with good results.

  5. Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) induces significant structural and functional changes in the kidney

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evan, Andrew P.; Willis, Lynn R.; Lingeman, James E.

    2003-10-01

    The foundation for understanding SWL-injury has been well-controlled renal structural and functional studies in pigs, a model that closely mimics the human kidney. A clinical dose (2000 shocks at 24 kV) of SWL administered by the Dornier HM3 induces a predictable, unique vascular injury at F2 that is associated with transient renal vasoconstriction, seen as a reduction in renal plasma flow, in both treated and untreated kidneys. Unilateral renal denervation studies links the fall in blood flow in untreated kidneys to autonomic nerve activity in the treated kidney. SWL-induced trauma is associated with an acute inflammatory process, termed Lithotripsy Nephritis and tubular damage at the site of damage that leads to a focal region of scar. Lesion size increases with shock number and kV level. In addition, risk factors like kidney size and pre-existing renal disease (e.g., pyelonephritis), can exaggerate the predicted level of renal impairment. Our new protection data show that lesion size can be greatly reduced by a pretreatment session with low kV and shock number. The mechanisms of soft tissue injury probably involves shear stress followed by acoustic cavitation. Because of the perceived enhanced level of bioeffects from 3rd generation lithotripters, these observations are more relevant than ever.

  6. Identification of urinary tract pathogens after 3-hours urine culture by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haiko, Johanna; Savolainen, Laura E; Hilla, Risto; Pätäri-Sampo, Anu

    2016-10-01

    Complicated urinary tract infections, such as pyelonephritis, may lead to sepsis. Rapid diagnosis is needed to identify the causative urinary pathogen and to verify the appropriate empirical antimicrobial therapy. We describe here a rapid identification method for urinary pathogens: urine is incubated on chocolate agar for 3h at 35°C with 5% CO2 and subjected to MALDI-TOF MS analysis by VITEK MS. Overall 207 screened clinical urine samples were tested in parallel with conventional urine culture. The method, called U-si-MALDI-TOF (urine short incubation MALDI-TOF), showed correct identification for 86% of Gram-negative urinary tract pathogens (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and other Enterobacteriaceae), when present at >10(5)cfu/ml in culture (n=107), compared with conventional culture method. However, Gram-positive bacteria (n=28) were not successfully identified by U-si-MALDI-TOF. This method is especially suitable for rapid identification of E. coli, the most common cause of urinary tract infections and urosepsis. Turnaround time for identification using U-si-MALDI-TOF compared with conventional urine culture was improved from 24h to 4-6h. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Yersiniosis as a cause of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and acute renal failure--case report].

    PubMed

    Runowski, Dariusz; Szymoniak, Norbert; Zaniew, Marcin; Piatkowska-Kopczyk, Małgorzata; Wozniak, Aldona; Kroll, Paweł; Zachwieja, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis (TN) is a heterogenous disease, where disturbances of the interstitial tissue and renal tubules are found. Different immunological and nonimmunological mechanisms initiated by infectious and non-infectious factors may lead to TN. A case of 13-years-old girl with primary diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is presented. The abdominal pain, headache, pain in lumbar region and intermittent fever with loss of appetite were observed in this girl a few weeks before admission. Microcytic anemia, proteinuria and glucosuria, azotemia and elevated markers of inflammatory response were found. In ultrasound examination heterogenous cortex echogenicity of both kidneys and disturbances in parenchymal blood flow were observed. In renal scintigraphy the discriminated catch index was found. Kidney biopsy revealed the edema of the interstitial space with mononuclear and lymphocyte infiltration. The diagnosis of TN was established upon the history, clinical examination, results of laboratory tests, kidney imaging and biopsy. After steroid and doxycycline treatment an improvement and normalization of the results of laboratory tests were observed. It seems to be justified to consider Yersinia infection as a cause of acute tubulointerstitial nephritis.

  8. Literature Review: Double-Barrelled Wet Colostomy (One Stoma) versus Ileal Conduit with Colostomy (Two Stomas).

    PubMed

    Gan, Jason; Hamid, Rizwan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this literature review was to analyse the advantages and disadvantages of a traditional ileal conduit (IC) with separate colostomy technique compared to the outcomes of a double-barrelled wet colostomy (DBWC) technique. The former technique results in the formation of two stomas, and the latter results in the formation of one stoma. PubMed was searched electronically for articles on DBWC. Fifteen articles were retrieved and of them 13 were included in the literature review (350 patients). Of the articles, 3 directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy. Review of 13 DBWC articles demonstrated perioperative mortality ranging between 0 and 11.1% and postoperative complications ranging from 0 to 100%. Three of the studies directly compared DBWC to IC with colostomy; median operating times and length of stay were shorter in DBWC patients (p < 0.001); 30-day morbidity was reported to either be lower in the DBWC group (p < 0.043) or to have no statistically significant difference. Rates of mortality, pyelonephritis, electrolyte disturbances and urinary anastomotic problems did not differ between the 2 groups. The DBWC technique inherently has a benefit over the IC with colostomy technique, as it requires only one stoma. This literature review supports the use of the technically less challenging DBWC technique as a viable alternative to the traditional IC with colostomy technique. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Beethoven's autopsy revisited: A pathologist sounds a final note.

    PubMed

    Oiseth, Stanley J

    2017-08-01

    This review of the original autopsy report of Beethoven's remains indicates Paget's disease within the skull, which was dense and twice normal thickness, with dilated vessels at the petrous bone. The facial nerves were enlarged and the eighth nerves atrophied despite their sharing a common meatus at the internal auditory canal. Nephrolithiasis and pyelonephritis with cortical and perinephric abscesses were also reported. The hypercalcaemia was probably caused by hyperparathyroidism, which may be associated with Paget's disease, and both may have played a role in his psychiatric symptoms as well as in his abdominal pain and gastrointestinal complaints. Since Paget's disease may also be associated with gout, some of the joint pains could be attributable to this as well. Hypovitaminosis A from chronic pancreatitis is suggested as a cause of painful eyes and either quinine abuse or severe hypercalcaemia as a cause of arrhythmias. Beethoven died of terminal cirrhosis with chronic pancreatitis, most likely related to chronic excessive intake of alcohol. Thus, Paget's disease, complicated by hyperparathyroidism, gout, and attempts to find relief of symptoms through the use of alcohol, quinine, and possibly salicylates can explain virtually all of Beethoven's medical problems, some of which appear to have influenced his musical compositions.

  10. Menarche? A Case of Abdominal Pain and Vaginal Bleeding in a Preadolescent Girl.

    PubMed

    Riney, Lauren C; Reed, Jennifer L; Kruger, Laura L; Brody, Alan J; Pomerantz, Wendy J

    2015-11-01

    Abdominal pain is one of the most common complaints in the pediatric ED. Because of the broad range of potential diagnoses, it can pose challenges in diagnosis and therapy in the preadolescent girl. An 11-year-old previously healthy girl presented to our pediatric ED with fever, decreased appetite, vaginal bleeding, and abdominal pain. Initial evaluation yielded elevated creatinine levels, leukocytosis with bandemia, elevated inflammatory markers, and urine concerning for a urinary tract infection. She began receiving antibiotics for presumed pyelonephritis and was admitted to the hospital. After worsening respiratory status and continued abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan was obtained and a pelvic foreign body and abscess were identified. Adolescent gynecology was consulted for examination under anesthesia for abscess drainage and foreign body removal. A foreign body in the vagina or uterus can present as vaginal discharge, vaginal bleeding, abdominal pain, dysuria, or hematuria. Because symptoms can be diverse, an intravaginal or uterine foreign body should be considered in the preteen female patient presenting to the ED with abdominal pain. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Levofloxacin in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Noreddin, Ayman M; Elkhatib, Walid F

    2010-05-01

    Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone that has a broad spectrum of activity against several causative bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP are well established. Furthermore, a high-dose (750 mg), short-course (5 days) of once-daily levofloxacin has been approved for use in the USA in the treatment of CAP, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute pyelonephritis and complicated urinary tract infections. Levofloxacin can be used as a monotherapy in patients with CAP, however, levofloxacin combination therapy with anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam (or aminoglycoside) should be considered if Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the causative pathogen of the respiratory infection. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, decreases the potential for drug resistance and has better patient compliance. Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation and the patients can switch between these formulations, which results in more options with respect to the therapeutic regimens. Furthermore, levofloxacin is generally well tolerated, has good tissue penetration and adequate concentrations can be maintained at the site of infections.

  12. Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy.

    PubMed

    Noreddin, Ayman M; Elkhatib, Walid F; Cunnion, Kenji M; Zhanel, George G

    2011-01-01

    Levofloxacin is the synthetic L-isomer of the racemic fluoroquinolone, ofloxacin. It interferes with critical processes in the bacterial cell such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases. Levofloxacin has broad spectrum activity against several causative bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation such that patients can be conveniently transitioned between these formulations when moving from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Furthermore, levofloxacin demonstrates excellent safety, and has good tissue penetration maintaining adequate concentrations at the site of infection. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP are well established. Furthermore, a high-dose (750 mg) and short-course (5 days) of once-daily levofloxacin has been approved for use in the US in the treatment of CAP, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute pyelonephritis, and complicated urinary tract infections. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, decreases the potential for drug resistance, and has better patient compliance.

  13. Distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in infected animals and efficacy against experimental infections.

    PubMed Central

    Boon, R J; Beale, A S; Comber, K R; Pierce, C V; Sutherland, R

    1982-01-01

    The therapeutic effects produced by formulations of amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid (BRL 25 000A and BRL 25 000G) were compared with those of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid separately against a variety of infections produced by amoxicillin-susceptible and beta-lactamase-producing (amoxicillin-resistant) bacteria. The infection models studied included intraperitoneal infections, a mouse pneumonia, experimental pyelonephritis, and local lesions caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Bacteroides fragilis. The distribution of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid in infected animals after the administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was evaluated by measurement of the concentrations of the substances present in specimens collected at the sites of infection. The results showed that both amoxicillin and clavulanic acid were well distributed in the animal body after the administration of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations, being present in significant concentrations at various sites of infection, e.g., peritoneal washings, pleural fluid, pus, and infected tissue homogenates. In a number of cases, the amoxicillin concentrations measured after the administration of BRL 25000 were higher than those found after treatment with amoxicillin alone, presumably as a result of inhibition of bacterial beta-lactamases by clavulanic acid at the site of infection. The ability of clavulanic acid to protect amoxicillin in vivo was confirmed by the efficacy of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid formulations in the treatment of the infections studied, most of which were refractory to therapy with amoxicillin. PMID:7137980

  14. The prevalence and bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among antenatal patients in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi; South Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Oli, A N; Okafor, C I; Ibezim, E C; Akujiobi, C N; Onwunzo, M C

    2010-12-01

    Urinary tract infection in pregnancy leads to poor pregnancy outcome. Diagnosis and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria markedly improves pregnancy outcome as well as reduce the incidence of acute pyelonephritis. To determine the prevalence and bacteriology of asymptomatic bacteriuria among Antenatal patients in our centre, and to know if routine screening will be justifiable. This was a prospective study carried out between April and August 2008. Sample size was statistically determined. Women who consented were interviewed and mid stream urine samples were collected and processed in the microbiology laboratory, using standard microbiological methods. Out of 357 women studied, 65(18.21%) had significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli was the commonest isolate (25.6%), while proteus mirabilis was the least frequent isolate (3.66%). Women in third trimester had the highest prevalence (25.68%) while those in the first trimester had the least (15.79%). Women that had only primary education had the highest prevalence (27.50%) while those that had tertiary education had the least prevalence (21.10%). The prevalence of significant asymptomatic bacteriuria among the women studied was high. Screening of all the pregnant women and treatment will reduce the incidence and complications of overt urinary tract infection in pregnancy among these women.

  15. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: maternal and fetal complications.

    PubMed

    Grio, R; Porpiglia, M; Vetro, E; Uligini, R; Piacentino, R; Minì, D; Marchino, G L

    1994-12-01

    From an analysis of the data reported in the literature it is clear that pregnancy is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection and that pregnant women with this pathology are exposed to dangerous risks which may influence maternal wellbeing and fetal prognosis. Authors do not concur on the specific risks to the mother and fetus, one reason being that the statistics reported to date reveal discrepancies relating to the presence of disorders prior to pregnancy and the environmental, working and socio-hygienic conditions of the populations studied. The apparently paradoxical finding of a higher incidence of perinatal problems in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria compared to manifest forms can be attributed to the fact that the latter are treated with adequate therapies whereas asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is difficult to diagnose, may persist throughout pregnancy. This underlines the importance of early diagnosis using a protocol which entails the execution of serial urine tests and urine cultures and adequate treatment of all cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria in order to reduce the incidence of urinary tract infections and materno-fetal complications. Non-treated asymptomatic bacteriuria in fact represents a considerable risk factor since it may lead to the onset of acute pyelonephritis in approximately 5% of pregnant women and may increase the risk of fetal mortality.

  16. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Result Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). Conclusion The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications. PMID:24636218

  17. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Ante-Natal Clients in a Large Teaching Hospital in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Labi, A-K; Yawson, A E; Ganyaglo, G Y; Newman, M J

    2015-09-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria, the presence of bacteria in urine without symptoms of acute urinary tract infection, predisposes pregnant women to the development of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis, with an attendant pregnancy related complications. To measure the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ante-natal clients at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Ghana and its' associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study involving 274 antenatal clients was conducted over a period of 4 weeks. A face to face questionnaire was completed and midstream urine collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria was 5.5%. It was associated with sexual activity during pregnancy (Fisher's Exact 5.871, p-value 0.0135), but not with sexual frequency. There were no significant associations with educational status, parity, gestational age, marital status and the number of foetuses carried. The commonest organism isolated was Enterococcus spp (26.7%) although the enterobacteriaceae formed the majority of isolated organisms (46.7%). Nitrofurantoin was the antibiotic with the highest sensitivity to all the isolated organisms. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among ante-natal clients at this large teaching hospital in Ghana is 5.5%, which is lower than what has been found in other African settings. Enterococcus spp was the commonest causative organism. However, due to the complications associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, a policy to screen and treat- all pregnant women attending the hospital, is worth considering.

  18. Prevalence, detection and treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in a Turkish obstetric population.

    PubMed

    Kutlay, Sim; Kutlay, Baran; Karaahmetoglu, Ozgur; Ak, Cetin; Erkaya, Salim

    2003-08-01

    To prospectively determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and urinary tract infection (UTI) and presenting symptoms of UTI as well as the most appropriate diagnostic test and success of single/combination drug treatment in a Turkish obstetric population. Between September and December 2000, 406 of 412 pregnant women admitted for an initial obstetric examination during the first trimester were evaluated. Results of clean-catch urine culture, microscopic urinalysis and dipstick urine tests were analyzed. The prevalence of ASB (n = 43) and symptomatic UTI (n = 19) were 10.6% and 4.7%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of microscopic urinalysis were 71.0% and 73.6%, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of dipstick testing were 38.7% and 35.8%, respectively. Eighty-three percent of ASB/UTI cases were effectively treated with a course of a single antimicrobial (amoxicillin or a first-generation cephalosporin). If untreated, ASB can lead to acute, symptomatic UTI, including acute pyelonephritis, which in turn is associated with preterm labor and low birth weight. Therefore, screening for ASB early in pregnancy by methods with high sensitivity and treatment with appropriate antimicrobial regimens can decrease the risk of symptomatic UTI. In a Turkish clinical unit where culture is not available, the use of microscopic urinalysis was a clinically effective alternative method of detecting ASB. In this study, the sensitivity and specificity of dipstick testing were not high enough to recommend them as means of detecting ASB/UTI.

  19. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women in Benin City, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akerele, J; Abhulimen, P; Okonofua, F

    2001-03-01

    A semi-quantitative screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria was carried out in the first trimester of 500 consecutive pregnant women in Benin City. The purpose was to provide baseline data and rational therapy for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Of the 500 women screened, 433 clinical specimens showed significant bacteriuria, representing an incidence of 86.6%. Of this number, 38 (7.4%) were of mixed bacterial colonies while 395 (91%) were of single bacterial colonies. Staphylococcus aureus (29.8%), Escherichia coli (29.1%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (21.5%) were the most frequently isolated pathogens. The high incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with the observed high proportion of pyuria. On average, sensitivity of the pathogens was ciprofloxacin 99.7%; ceftazidime 81.6%; co-trimoxazole 79.4%; augmentin 71.4%; nalidixic acid 61.7%; nitrofurantoin 61.%; gentamycin 56.9% and ampicillin 25.4%. S. aureus was most sensitive, while Proteus mirabilis was least sensitive among the pathogens. Rational therapy of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women may prevent associated risks such as pyelonephritis and pre-eclampsia.

  20. Asymptomatic group B streptococcal bacteriuria among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, S

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to determine the asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy due to GBS and its antimicrobial sensitivity pattern for planning strategy for the management of these cases and also to determine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and pyuria. A total of 3863 consecutive urine specimens were collected from 3863 pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria attending the obstetrics and gynaecology department of our hospital over a period of two years. Specimens were processed using standard microbiological procedures. All the subjects were evaluated for bacteriuria. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria due to group B streptococci (GBS) was 82/3863 (2.1%) among pregnant women in Saudi Arabia. Among these, 69/82 patients (84.2%) had clinical and microbiological features consistent with cystitis, versus 13/82 (15.8%) for pyelonephritis. About 51.2% (42/82) of the patients who had urine analysis performed had positive results based on positive urinary leucocyte esterase and pyuria. Disc-diffusion analysis of all 82 GBS isolates showed that they were highly susceptible to Augmentin and linezolid. Screening for bacteriuria in pregnancy and proper treatment must be considered as an essential part of antenatal care in this community. To prevent asymptomatic bacteriuria complications, all pregnant women should be screened at the first antenatal visit. A negative test for pyuria is not a reliable indicator of the absence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women. Further, ongoing surveillance and evaluation of outcomes in pregnancies complicated by GBS bacteriuria is required to optimise maternal and newborn care.

  1. Asymptomatic urinary tract infection among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of Hawassa Referral Hospital, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tadesse, Endale; Teshome, Million; Merid, Yared; Kibret, Belayhun; Shimelis, Techalew

    2014-03-17

    Untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) during pregnancy may cause serious complications including pyelonephritis and delivery of premature or low-birth-weight infants. However, little is known about asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy in Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, bacterial agents, and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern in pregnant women attending antenatal clinic of the Hawassa Teaching and Referral Hospital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a total of 244 pregnant women with no sign and symptom of urinary tract infection from March 2012 to September 2012. Clean catch mid-stream urine samples were collected from all study participants using sterile containers. Urine samples were cultured using standard bacteriological methods. Identification of suspected colonies and antibiotic sensitivity testing were done. Out of 244 pregnant women, 46(18.8%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria (Colony Forming Unit ≥ 105/mL). There was no difference in prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria with respect to age (p = 0.07) and trimester (p = 0.27).The most frequently isolated bacteria were coagulase negative Staphylococcus (32.6%), followed by Escherichia coli (26.1%), and Staphylococcus auerus (13%). The susceptibility rate of bacterial isolate was highest for norfloxacin (64.7%) and lowest for ampicillin (17.6%). The high prevalence of ASB in pregnant women warrant the need to screen all pregnant women and treat those infected with appropriate antimicrobial regimens in order to reduce its complications.

  2. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: epidemiological, clinical and microbiological approach.

    PubMed

    Gebre-Selassie, S

    1998-07-01

    Asymptomatic urinary tract infection is a risk factor for fetal and maternal morbidity including development of pyelonephritis, premature labor and impaired intra-uterine development. In this study, 326 pregnant and 100 non-pregnant control women were screened for significant asymptomatic bacteriuria from April 8 to July 25, 1997 to gain insight into the prevalence rate, clinical characteristics of the disease and microbiological assessments of the causative agents. All the subjects were clinically identified to have no signs and symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). The age ranges of the study and control groups were between 15-40 years for both groups with mean of 25.1 and 25.3 years, respectively. Bacteriological screening of mid-stream urine (MSU) revealed that 24/326 (7%) and 3/100 (3%) were positive for asymptomatic bacteriuria in the study group and controls, respectively (P < 0.05). Further biochemical species identification showed that Escherichia coli was found in 11/24 (46%) followed by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) in 8/24 (33%) and Citrobacter freundii in 2/24 (8%). Others found in smaller number included Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus rettgeri in 1/24 (4%) each. Antimicrobial susceptibility test revealed that 10/11 (91%) of the E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin and 10/11 (91%) of them sensitive to nitrofurantoin.

  3. Screening and treating asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Thinkhamrop, Jadsada

    2010-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in pregnancy, if left undiagnosed and appropriately treated can lead to acute pyelonephritis in mothers and low birth weight in infants. Urine culture is the gold standard for diagnosing ASB. Unfortunately, urine culture is limitedly available. The present review aims at evaluating performance of various screening tests and effectiveness of antibiotic regimens for ASB. Positive dipslide test is very likely to have a definitive diagnosis of ASB, whereas a negative result effectively rules out ASB. Available evidences regarding the performance of urine dipstick are still conflicting, it is currently not appropriate to recommend urine dipstick for screening ASB in pregnancy. Choice of antibiotics should be guided by antimicrobial susceptibility testing whenever possible. Nitrofurantoin seems to be antibiotic of choice for ASB in pregnancy. Seven-day regimen of antibiotics gives a better microbiological cure rate but no difference in important clinical outcomes compared with 1-day regimen. Dipslide culture is a promising screening test for ASB. Pregnant women with ASB should be treated with 7-day regimen of antibiotics, although 1-day regimen might be appropriate in some settings. More research is needed for identifying appropriate screening tests for ASB.

  4. Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and Bacterial Interference.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2015-10-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria is very common. In healthy women, asymptomatic bacteriuria increases with age, from <1% in newborns to 10% to 20% of women age 80 years, but is uncommon in men until after age 50 years. Individuals with underlying genitourinary abnormalities, including indwelling devices, may also have a high frequency of asymptomatic bacteriuria, irrespective of age or gender. The prevalence is very high in residents of long-term-care facilities, from 25% to 50% of women and 15% to 40% of men. Escherichia coli is the most frequent organism isolated, but a wide variety of other organisms may occur. Bacteriuria may be transient or persist for a prolonged period. Pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria identified in early pregnancy and who are untreated have a risk of pyelonephritis later in pregnancy of 20% to 30%. Bacteremia is frequent in bacteriuric subjects following mucosal trauma with bleeding, with 5% to 10% of patients developing severe sepsis or septic shock. These two groups with clear evidence of negative outcomes should be screened for bacteriuria and appropriately treated. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in other populations is benign and screening and treatment are not indicated. Antimicrobial treatment has no benefits but is associated with negative outcomes including reinfection with antimicrobial resistant organisms and a short-term increased frequency of symptomatic infection post-treatment. The observation of increased symptomatic infection post-treatment, however, has led to active investigation of bacterial interference as a strategy to prevent symptomatic episodes in selected high risk patients.

  5. Cumulative clinical experience from over a decade of use of levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia: critical appraisal and role in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noreddin, Ayman M; Elkhatib, Walid F; Cunnion, Kenji M; Zhanel, George G

    2011-01-01

    Levofloxacin is the synthetic L-isomer of the racemic fluoroquinolone, ofloxacin. It interferes with critical processes in the bacterial cell such as DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination by inhibiting bacterial topoisomerases. Levofloxacin has broad spectrum activity against several causative bacterial pathogens of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Oral levofloxacin is rapidly absorbed and is bioequivalent to the intravenous formulation such that patients can be conveniently transitioned between these formulations when moving from the inpatient to the outpatient setting. Furthermore, levofloxacin demonstrates excellent safety, and has good tissue penetration maintaining adequate concentrations at the site of infection. The efficacy and tolerability of levofloxacin 500 mg once daily for 10 days in patients with CAP are well established. Furthermore, a high-dose (750 mg) and short-course (5 days) of once-daily levofloxacin has been approved for use in the US in the treatment of CAP, acute bacterial sinusitis, acute pyelonephritis, and complicated urinary tract infections. The high-dose, short-course levofloxacin regimen maximizes its concentration-dependent antibacterial activity, decreases the potential for drug resistance, and has better patient compliance. PMID:22046107

  6. [A case of eosinophilic cystitis mimicking an invasive bladder cancer].

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Satoshi; Hori, Jun-Ichi; Kita, Masafumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Kawakami, Norihiro; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2014-12-01

    A 60-year-old woman was referred to our hospital because of gross hematuria, right lumbar pain and lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) scan revealed hydronephrosis of the right kidney, irregular bladder wall thickening at the right lateral and posterior portion and external iliac lymph node swelling of the right side. Laboratory data revealed disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome (DIC) and eosinophilia. Because she developed a high fever that was caused by acute obstructive pyelonephritis of the right kidney, percutaneous nephrostomy was placed and the therapy for DIC was initiated. Pathological examination of transurethral resection of bladder tumor performed twice showed no malignancy but inflammatory infiltration of many eosinocytes, leading to the diagnosis of eosinophilic cystitis (EC). We considered the possibility of allergic reaction to the drugs she was taking as the etiology of EC and discontinued all drugs. Although eosinophilia was resolved afterward, she then developed brain infarction, followed by cerebral hemorrhage. She was transferred to a rehabilitation hospital for long-term care. CT scan that was performed 4 months after the initial presentation showed the resolution of hydronephrosis of the right kidney and external iliac lymph node swelling and the improvement of bladder wall thickness. Hydronephrosis of the right kidney has not recurred after removing the nephrostomy catheter. EC is a rare condition that could mimic an invasive bladder cancer. EC should be considered if bladder tumor is associated with eosinophilia. Therapeutic consideration for thromboembolic events should be made in patients with EC.

  7. The time course of body temperature, serum amyloid A protein, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in patients with bacterial infection during the initial 3 days of antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Lannergård, Anders; Viberg, Anders; Cars, Otto; Karlsson, Mats O; Sandström, Marie; Larsson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of using body temperature, serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the work-up for early or late step-down therapy after an initial course of intravenous cefuroxime was investigated. Eighty-one hospitalized patients with an initial course of cefuroxime were retrospectively classified with one of the following diagnoses: bacterial infection without known focus, pneumonia, bronchitis, pyelonephritis, skin and soft-tissue infections or fever of other origin. The majority of the patients had sepsis (91% or 74/81) of whom 6 patients had severe sepsis. The inter-individual variability of body temperature, SAA, CRP and IL-6 was considerable. The time course of SAA and CRP during the first 24 h in patients with sepsis with a short duration of illness but without septic shock showed increasing levels during the initial course of intravenous therapy. In contrast, body temperature and IL-6 decreased, regardless of illness duration. Beyond 24 h, all 4 biomarkers declined, again regardless of the duration of illness. After the initial course of cefuroxime, biomarkers were non-distinguishing in terms of guidance in the judgement of early or late step-down therapy. Further studies are proposed for biomarker guidance antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients without septic shock.

  8. [Nephrology-part 3: Urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Fünfstück, Reinhard; Stein, Günter; Naber, Kurt G; Hacker, Jörg; Marget, Walter

    2003-07-15

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases in humans. Depending on the localization and the effectiveness of pathogenetic factors, various clinical pictures (lower urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, asymptomatic bacteriuria) have to be differentiated. There are virulence factors of microorganisms on the one hand and defense mechanisms on the other, which influence the manifestation and the course of disease. The process of bacterial attachment to the epithelial cells of the boundary layer, the internalization and invasion of bacteria could be important for acute and chronic disease. Disturbances of local defense mechanisms, such as increased urinary glucose concentration in diabetes or variations of Tamm-Horsfall protein and defensin levels, may influence the course of infection. On the basis of microbiological and laboratory findings as well as the results of clinical and ultrasound procedures, the decision on the therapeutic strategy should be made. There are different treatment recommendations for acute uncomplicated and complicated cases as well as for chronic diseases. Future investigations should focus on effective therapeutic options for special immunocompromised patients in relation to the microbiological aspects and defense mechanisms of the host.

  9. [Study on flomoxef in the perinatal period].

    PubMed

    Tamate, K; Sengoku, K; Ishikawa, M; Shimizu, T; Haga, H; Hasegawa, T; Takada, H; Mure, K; Kawamura, M; Torii, Y

    1991-06-01

    The placental passage and the the therapeutic efficacy of flomoxef (FMOX, 6315-S) were studied in patients in the perinatal period. A summary of the obtained results is as follows: 1. Concentrations of FMOX in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid obtained upon one-shot intravenous injections to 12 patients were compared with those obtained upon 1 hour drip infusions to 9 patients. It was found that the former means of administration gave higher concentrations that the latter. 2. Concentrations of FMOX in maternal serum, umbilical cord serum and amniotic fluid at 1 to 6 hours after administration through either method were all higher than MIC80's of recognized bacteria. 3. Clinical efficacies were evaluated in 10 patients with puerperal intrauterine infection, 7 patients with endometritis, 2 patients with pyelonephritis and 1 patient each with endo-cervicitis, amniotic fluid infection, mastitis and perineal wound infection. Clinical efficacies were excellent in 5 patients (21.7%), good in 17 patients (73.9%) and poor in 1 patient (4.4%), thus the overall efficacy rate was 95.7%. 4. Eradication of causative bacteria were obtained in all 8 cases tested, hence the eradication rate was 100%. 5. Mild diarrhea in 1 patient was the only side effect observed. No abnormal clinical laboratory test results were found in any patients.

  10. [Choice of urinary tract drainage in different age groups of patients with urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Trapeznikova, M F; Dutov, V V; Rumiantsev, A A; Rusanova, E V; Zlobin, A N; Beliaev, V V

    2011-01-01

    Retro- and prospective analyses of 802 case histories of patients with nephrostomic drainage (n=272), ureteral catheter (n=27) and ureteral stent (n=503) treated for urolithiasis in the urological department of M.F. Vladimirsky Moscow Region Research Clinical Institute and Zhukovsky city hospital hospitalized in 1995 to 2009 made it possible to develop algorithms of choice of upper urinary tract drainage depending on clinical and laboratory indices. Nephrostomic drainage is preferable in a single functioning kidney, acute obstructive pyelonephritis, anuria, hyperthermia above 38 degrees C, marked supravesical urodynamic disorder, in renal failure, serum creatinine over 200 mcmol/l, urea over 10 mmol/l, blood potassium over 5 mmol/l, uric acid over 380 mcmol/l and leukocytosis over 8 x 10(9) l. Draining with ureteral stent was used primarily in elective surgery--extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy and transurethral operations. Stenting was better tolerated and entailed less frequent complications. In the rest cases choice of drain method should be made by the urologist. In active inflammation, before getting antibioticogram, the drain should be followed by antibiotic treatment with fluoroquinolones, cephalosporines of the third or forth generation, aminoglycosides, carbapenems in standard doses.

  11. [Choice of an upper urinary tract drainage method in urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Doronchuk, D N; Trapeznikova, M F; Dutov, V V

    2010-01-01

    We made a retrospective (290) and a prospective (131) analysis of the evidence obtained on 421 patients with nephrostomic drainage (251) and an ureteral stent (170) treated for urolithiasis in the urological department of the Moscow Regional Research Clinical Institute from 1995 to 2008. Assessment of clinical and laboratory characteristics of the patients with nephrostomic drainage and an ureteral stent allowed the following conclusions: puncture nephrostomy (p < 0.05) for upper urinary tract drainage is preferable in a solitary functioning kidney, acute obstructive pyelonephritis, anuria, hyperthermia 380 and higher, marked supravesical urodynamic disorder, renal failure, plasmic creatinine level over 200 mcmol/l, azotemia over 10 mmol/l, blood potassium over 5.0 mmol/l, uric acid over 380 mcmol/l and leukocytosis over 8.0 x 10(9)/l. In the other cases a drainage method can be chosen by a physician. Cephalosporines, aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones and carbapenems in standard doses are recommended in active inflammation when antibioticograms are not obtained yet. Significant differences are seen in drainage with nephrostoma and ureteral stent. Recommendations on nephrostomic drain and ureteral stent installation depending on clinical and laboratory findings are presented.

  12. Comparing between results and complications of doing voiding cystourethrogram in the first week following urinary tract infection and in 2-6 weeks after urinary tract infection in children referring to a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Yousefichaijan, Parsa; Dorreh, Fatemeh; Shahsavari, Someyeh; Pakniyat, Abdolghader

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is the most common genitourinary disease in children so about 40% of the children with urinary tract infection suffering from reflux that caused some consequences such as pyelonephritis and kidney parenchymal injury. This research was conducted to compare the timing of voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) in children with urinary tract infection in first week and after the first week of urinary tract infection. This research is a case-control study that both case and control groups include 208 children from 1 month to 12 years old with the complain of urinary tract infection. In case group, the VCUG was performed at the first week of infection and in control group, the VCUG was performed after the first week of infection. complication such as dysuria was observed in two-thirds of children who VCUG was performed during first week after urinary tract infection. Parents stress in case group was more than the other (P=0.015). For overall, the incidence of reflux in case and control groups was 49.5% and 50%, respectively. The mean of reflux grading in right kidney in case group was lower than control group resulting in significant differences between two groups. According to higher grade of stress in parents and complications due to VCUG at the first week of urinary tract infection, it is suggested that VCUG be conducted on selective patients in the hospital at the first week of urinary tract infection and during hospitalization.

  13. Metabolism and Fitness of Urinary Tract Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Alteri, Christopher J; Mobley, Harry L T

    2015-06-01

    Among common infections, urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most frequently diagnosed urologic disease. The majority of UTIs are caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The primary niche occupied by E. coli is the lower intestinal tract of mammals, where it resides as a beneficial component of the commensal microbiota. Although it is well-known that E. coli resides in the human intestine as a harmless commensal, specific strains or pathotypes have the potential to cause a wide spectrum of intestinal and diarrheal diseases. In contrast, extraintestinal E. coli pathotypes reside harmlessly in the human intestinal microenvironment but, upon access to sites outside of the intestine, become a major cause of human morbidity and mortality as a consequence of invasive UTI (pyelonephritis, bacteremia, or septicemia). Thus, extraintestinal pathotypes like uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) possess an enhanced ability to cause infection outside of the intestinal tract and colonize the urinary tract, the bloodstream, or cerebrospinal fluid of human hosts. Due to the requirement for these E. coli to replicate in and colonize both the intestine and extraintestinal environments, we posit that physiology and metabolism of UPEC strains is paramount. Here we discuss that the ability to survive in the urinary tract depends as much on bacterial physiology and metabolism as it does on the well-considered virulence determinants.

  14. Interleukin-6/Stat3 signaling has an essential role in the host antimicrobial response to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Ching, Christina B; Gupta, Sudipti; Li, Birong; Cortado, Hanna; Mayne, Nicholas; Jackson, Ashley R; McHugh, Kirk M; Becknell, Brian

    2018-06-01

    The signaling networks regulating antimicrobial activity during urinary tract infection (UTI) are incompletely understood. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels increase with UTI severity, but the specific contributions of IL-6 to host immunity against bacterial uropathogens are unknown. To clarify this we tested whether IL-6 activates the Stat3 transcription factor, to drive a program of antimicrobial peptide gene expression in infected urothelium during UTI. Transurethral inoculation of uropathogenic Escherichia coli led to IL-6 secretion, urothelial Stat3 phosphorylation, and activation of antimicrobial peptide transcription, in a Toll-like receptor 4-dependent manner in a murine model of cystitis. Recombinant IL-6 elicited Stat3 phosphorylation in primary urothelial cells in vitro, and systemic IL-6 administration promoted urothelial Stat3 phosphorylation and antimicrobial peptide expression in vivo. IL-6 deficiency led to decreased urothelial Stat3 phosphorylation and antimicrobial peptide mRNA expression following UTI, a finding mirrored by conditional Stat3 deletion. Deficiency in IL-6 or Stat3 was associated with increased formation of intracellular bacterial communities, and exogenous IL-6 reversed this phenotype in IL-6 knockout mice. Moreover, chronic IL-6 depletion led to increased renal bacterial burden and severe pyelonephritis in C3H/HeOuJ mice. Thus, IL-6/Stat3 signaling drives a transcriptional program of antimicrobial gene expression in infected urothelium, with key roles in limiting epithelial invasion and ascending infection. Copyright © 2018 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Determinants of Quinolone versus Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Use for Outpatient Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stuck, Anna K.; Täuber, Martin G.; Schabel, Maria; Lehmann, Thomas; Suter, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Quinolones are increasingly favored over trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for empirical treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI). This is associated with increasing resistance toward this broad-spectrum group of antibiotics. Our objective is to describe the prescribing patterns and identify determinants of the choice between TMP-SMX and quinolones for outpatient UTI treatment in Switzerland. An ongoing national Sentinel surveillance system was used to study 11,799 antibiotic prescriptions for UTI in adult outpatients and associated physician and patient factors between 2006 and 2008, to compare the prescription of quinolones versus that of TMP-SMX for treatment of UTI. Most UTI episodes were diagnosed as cystitis (90%). TMP-SMX was prescribed for one-fifth (22%) of UTIs. Independent predictors for prescribing quinolones were pyelonephritis and physicians with low thresholds for prescribing antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections (“high prescribers”), whereas female patients were more likely to receive TMP-SMX. High-prescribing physicians also more often cared for patients who themselves favor antibiotic treatment (P < 0.001). Quinolones are commonly prescribed to outpatients with UTI. Nonclinical factors influence the choice of quinolones versus TMP-SMX, which may provide opportunities for interventions to improve prescribing patterns and control quinolone resistance. PMID:22232276

  16. A Murine Model for Escherichia coli Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas J; Hunstad, David A

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections of humans. The mouse provides an excellent and tractable model system for cystitis and pyelonephritis caused by Escherichia coli and other uropathogens. Using a well-established model of experimental cystitis in which the bladders of female mice are infected via transurethral catheterization, the molecular details of the pathogenesis of bacterial cystitis have been substantially illuminated in the last decade. Uropathogenic E. coli attach to bladder epithelium (both in human and mouse) via adhesive type 1 pili, establish a replicative niche within epithelial cell cytoplasm, and form intracellular bacterial communities that are protected from antibiotic effects and immune clearance. The use of different inbred and mutant mouse strains offers the opportunity to study outcomes of infection, including resolution, formation of quiescent intracellular bacterial reservoirs, chronic bacterial cystitis, and recurrent infections. Urine, bladder, and kidney tissues can be analyzed by bacterial culture, histology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent and confocal microscopy, electron microscopy, and flow cytometry, while a broad array of soluble markers (e.g., cytokines) can also be profiled in serum, urine, and tissue homogenates by ELISA, Western blotting, multiplex bead array, and other approaches. This model promises to afford continued opportunity for discovery of pathogenic mechanisms and evaluation of therapeutic and preventive strategies for acute, chronic, and recurrent UTI.

  17. Ribonuclease 7, an antimicrobial peptide upregulated during infection, contributes to microbial defense of the human urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L; Wang, Huanyu; Bartz, Julianne; Kline, Jennifer; Eichler, Tad; DeSouza, Kristin R; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Baker, Peter; Hains, David S

    2013-04-01

    The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood; however, recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7), a potent antimicrobial peptide contributing to urinary tract sterility, is expressed by intercalated cells in the renal collecting tubules and is present in the urine at levels sufficient to kill bacteria at baseline. Here, we characterize the expression and function of RNase 7 in the human urinary tract during infection. Both quantitative real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assays demonstrated increases in RNASE7 expression in the kidney along with kidney and urinary RNase 7 peptide concentrations with infection. While immunostaining localized RNase 7 production to the intercalated cells of the collecting tubule during sterility, its expression during pyelonephritis was found to increase throughout the nephron but not in glomeruli or the interstitium. Recombinant RNase 7 exhibited antimicrobial activity against uropathogens at low micromolar concentrations by disrupting the microbial membrane as determined by atomic force microscopy. Thus, RNase 7 expression is increased in the urinary tract with infection and has antibacterial activity against uropathogens at micromolar concentrations.

  18. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E; Ingraham, Susan E

    2015-01-01

    Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice.

  19. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S; Schwaderer, Andrew L; McHugh, Kirk M; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain.

  20. Ribonuclease 7, an antimicrobial peptide up-regulated during infection, contributes to microbial defense of the human urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Wang, Huanyu; Bartz, Julianne; Kline, Jennifer; Eichler, Tad; DeSouza, Kristin R.; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Baker, Peter; Hains, David S.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms that maintain sterility in the urinary tract are incompletely understood; however, recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7), a potent antimicrobial peptide contributing to urinary tract sterility, is expressed by intercalated cells in the renal collecting tubules and is present in the urine at levels sufficient to kill bacteria at baseline. Here, we characterize the expression and function of RNase 7 in the human urinary tract during infection. Both quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA assays demonstrated increases in RNASE7 expression in the kidney along with kidney and urinary RNase 7 peptide concentrations with infection. While immunostaining localized RNase 7 production to the intercalated cells of the collecting tubule during sterility, its expression during pyelonephritis was found to increase throughout the nephron but not in glomeruli or the interstitium. Recombinant RNase 7 exhibited antimicrobial activity against uropathogens at low micromolar concentrations by disrupting the microbial membrane as determined by atomic force microscopy. Thus, RNase 7 expression is increased in the urinary tract with infection, and has antibacterial activity against uropathogens at micromolar concentrations. PMID:23302724

  1. An endogenous ribonuclease inhibitor regulates the antimicrobial activity of ribonuclease 7 in the human urinary tract

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Eichler, Tad; Wang, Huanyu; Kline, Jennifer; Justice, Sheryl S.; Cohen, Daniel M.; Hains, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies stress the importance of antimicrobial peptides in protecting the urinary tract from infection. Previously, we have shown that ribonuclease 7 (RNase 7) is a potent antimicrobial peptide that has broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against uropathogenic bacteria. The urothelium of the lower urinary tract and intercalated cells of the kidney produce RNase 7 but regulation of its antimicrobial activity has not been well defined. Here we characterize the expression of an endogenous inhibitor, ribonuclease inhibitor (RI), in the urinary tract and evaluate its effect on RNase 7’s antimicrobial activity. Using RNA isolated from non-infected human bladder and kidney tissue, quantitative real-time PCR showed that RNH1, the gene encoding RI, is constitutively expressed throughout the urinary tract. With pyelonephritis, RNH1 expression and RI peptide production significantly decrease. Immunostaining localized RI production to the umbrella cells of the bladder and intercalated cells of the renal collecting tubule. In vitro assays showed that RI bound to RNase 7 and suppressed its antimicrobial activity by blocking its ability to bind the cell wall of uropathogenic bacteria. Thus, these results demonstrate a new immunomodulatory role for RI and identified a unique regulatory pathway that may affect how RNase 7 maintains urinary tract sterility. PMID:24107847

  2. Expression and Significance of the HIP/PAP and RegIIIγ Antimicrobial Peptides during Mammalian Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, John David; Jackson, Ashley R.; Li, Birong; Ching, Christina B.; Vonau, Martin; Easterling, Robert S.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; McHugh, Kirk M.; Becknell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) serve key roles in defending the urinary tract against invading uropathogens. To date, the individual contribution of AMPs to urinary tract host defense is not well defined. In this study, we identified Regenerating islet-derived 3 gamma (RegIIIγ) as the most transcriptionally up-regulated AMP in murine bladder transcriptomes following uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) infection. We confirmed induction of RegIIIγ mRNA during cystitis and pyelonephritis by quantitative RT-PCR. Immunoblotting demonstrates increased bladder and urinary RegIIIγ protein levels following UPEC infection. Immunostaining localizes RegIIIγ protein to urothelial cells of infected bladders and kidneys. Human patients with UTI have increased urine concentrations of the orthologous Hepatocarcinoma-Intestine-Pancreas / Pancreatitis Associated Protein (HIP/PAP) compared to healthy controls. Recombinant RegIIIγ protein does not demonstrate bactericidal activity toward UPEC in vitro, but does kill Staphylococcus saprophyticus in a dose-dependent manner. Kidney and bladder tissue from RegIIIγ knockout mice and wild-type mice contain comparable bacterial burden following UPEC and Gram-positive UTI. Our results demonstrate that RegIIIγ and HIP/PAP expression is induced during human and murine UTI. However, their specific function in the urinary tract remains uncertain. PMID:26658437

  3. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism in infancy secondary to urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Mary B; Larkins, Nicholas; Choong, Catherine S; Shetty, Vinutha B

    2017-05-01

    Hyponatraemia with hyperkalaemia in infancy is a typical presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In the presence of pyelonephritis, the same biochemical picture can occur with transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA-1) also termed type 4 renal tubular acidosis. Recognition of PHA-1 enables appropriate management thus avoiding unnecessary investigations and treatment. To improve awareness of this condition, we present a case series to highlight the clinical and biochemical features of PHA-1. A retrospective chart review of patients diagnosed with transient PHA-1 at a tertiary children's hospital in Western Australia was conducted. Five male infants (32 days to 6 months) with transient PHA-1 were identified. Failure to thrive was the most common symptom with hyponatraemia on presentation. Two infants had antenatally diagnosed bilateral hydronephrosis and urinary tract infection (UTI) on admission. Two infants were treated for congenital adrenal hyperplasia and received hydrocortisone. All infants had UTI and required parenteral antibiotics. The condition was transient and hyponatraemia corrected by day 4 in all infants. There was no correlation between plasma sodium and aldosterone levels. The severity of PHA-1 was independent of the underlying renal anomaly. Four infants had hydronephrosis and vesicoureteric reflux. Surgical intervention was required in two infants. PHA-1 may be precipitated by UTI or urinary tract anomalies in early infancy. Urine analysis should be performed in infants with hyponatraemia. Diagnosis of PHA-1 facilitates appropriate renal investigations to reduce long-term morbidity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Non-proteinuric rather than proteinuric renal diseases are the leading cause of end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Bolignano, Davide; Zoccali, Carmine

    2017-04-01

    Proteinuria is a distinguishing feature in primary and secondary forms of chronic glomerulonephritis, which contribute to no more than the 20% of the end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) population. The contribution of non-proteinuric nephropathies to the global ESKD burden is still poorly focused and scarce research efforts are dedicated to the elucidation of risk factors and mechanistic pathways triggering ESKD in these diseases. We abstracted information on proteinuria in the main renal diseases other than glomerulonephritides that may evolve into ESKD. In type 2 diabetes, non-proteinuric diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is more frequent than proteinuric DKD, and risk factors for non-proteinuric forms of DKD now receive increasing attention. Similarly, proteinuria is most often inconspicuous or absent in the most frequent cause of ESKD, i.e. hypertension-related chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as in progressive cystic diseases like autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and in pyelonephritis/tubulo-interstitial diseases. Maintaining a high degree of attention in the care of CKD patients with proteinuria is fundamental to effectively retard progression toward kidney failure. However, substantial research efforts are still needed to develop treatment strategies that may help the vast majority of CKD patients who eventually develop ESKD via mechanistic pathways other than proteinuria. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  5. The humoral pattern recognition molecule PTX3 is a key component of innate immunity against urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Jaillon, Sébastien; Moalli, Federica; Ragnarsdottir, Bryndis; Bonavita, Eduardo; Puthia, Manoj; Riva, Federica; Barbati, Elisa; Nebuloni, Manuela; Cvetko Krajinovic, Lidija; Markotic, Alemka; Valentino, Sonia; Doni, Andrea; Tartari, Silvia; Graziani, Giorgio; Montanelli, Alessandro; Delneste, Yves; Svanborg, Catharina; Garlanda, Cecilia; Mantovani, Alberto

    2014-04-17

    Immunity in the urinary tract has distinct and poorly understood pathophysiological characteristics and urinary tract infections (UTIs) are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We investigated the role of the soluble pattern recognition molecule pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity, in UTIs. PTX3-deficient mice showed defective control of UTIs and exacerbated inflammation. Expression of PTX3 was induced in uroepithelial cells by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- and MyD88-dependent manner. PTX3 enhanced UPEC phagocytosis and phagosome maturation by neutrophils. PTX3 was detected in urine of UTI patients and amounts correlated with disease severity. In cohorts of UTI-prone patients, PTX3 gene polymorphisms correlated with susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis and cystitis. These results suggest that PTX3 is an essential component of innate resistance against UTIs. Thus, the cellular and humoral arms of innate immunity exert complementary functions in mediating resistance against UTIs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. α-Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D'Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    α-Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC-dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system.

  7. α–Intercalated cells defend the urinary system from bacterial infection

    PubMed Central

    Paragas, Neal; Kulkarni, Ritwij; Werth, Max; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M.; Forster, Catherine; Deng, Rong; Zhang, Qingyin; Singer, Eugenia; Klose, Alexander D.; Shen, Tian Huai; Francis, Kevin P.; Ray, Sunetra; Vijayakumar, Soundarapandian; Seward, Samuel; Bovino, Mary E.; Xu, Katherine; Takabe, Yared; Amaral, Fábio E.; Mohan, Sumit; Wax, Rebecca; Corbin, Kaitlyn; Sanna-Cherchi, Simone; Mori, Kiyoshi; Johnson, Lynne; Nickolas, Thomas; D’Agati, Vivette; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Qiu, Andong; Al-Awqati, Qais; Ratner, Adam J.; Barasch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    α–Intercalated cells (A-ICs) within the collecting duct of the kidney are critical for acid-base homeostasis. Here, we have shown that A-ICs also serve as both sentinels and effectors in the defense against urinary infections. In a murine urinary tract infection model, A-ICs bound uropathogenic E. coli and responded by acidifying the urine and secreting the bacteriostatic protein lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL). A-IC–dependent LCN2 secretion required TLR4, as mice expressing an LPS-insensitive form of TLR4 expressed reduced levels of LCN2. The presence of LCN2 in urine was both necessary and sufficient to control the urinary tract infection through iron sequestration, even in the harsh condition of urine acidification. In mice lacking A-ICs, both urinary LCN2 and urinary acidification were reduced, and consequently bacterial clearance was limited. Together these results indicate that A-ICs, which are known to regulate acid-base metabolism, are also critical for urinary defense against pathogenic bacteria. They respond to both cystitis and pyelonephritis by delivering bacteriostatic chemical agents to the lower urinary system. PMID:24937428

  8. [The role of percutaneous renal biopsy in kidney transplant].

    PubMed

    Manfro, R C; Lee, J Y; Lewgoy, J; Edelweiss, M I; Gonçalves, L F; Prompt, C A

    1994-01-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy (PRB) is an useful tool for diagnostic and therapeutic orientation in renal transplantation. PURPOSE--To evaluate the current role of PRB in post-transplant acute renal dysfunction (ARD) of renal allografts. METHODS--Sixty-five renal transplant patients were submitted to 95 valid renal biopsies with no major complications. RESULTS--There was disagreement between the clinical and the pathological diagnosis in 28 occasions (29.5%). In 36 cases (37.9%) the results of the pathological examination led to a modification in patient's management. These modifications were most commonly the avoidance or witholding of a steroid pulse (8 cases); nephrectomy of the renal allograft (8 cases); witholding or decrease of cyclosporine dosage (6 cases); giving a steroid pulse (5 cases) and giving antibiotics to treat acute pyelonephritis in 4 cases. The use of kidneys from cadaveric donors was significantly associated with an increased number of biopsies (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION--These results demonstrate that even though several less invasive procedures are currently employed, renal biopsy is still an indispensable method to the management of ARD in renal transplant patients.

  9. Paediatric dialysis and renal transplantation in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Garcia, C; Goldani, J; Garcia, V

    1992-01-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) for Brazilian children with uraemia has been utilized since 1970 in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. One hundred and eighty patients receiving this therapy between 1970 and 1988 have been reviewed. The annual acceptance rate of new paediatric patients in this period increased from 0.6 to 6.5 patients per million child population. Glomerulonephritis (36.1%) and pyelonephritis including urological anomalies (31.7%) were the most frequent causes of end-stage renal disease. Outpatient hospital haemodialysis was the primary form of dialytic treatment in patients 5-15 years of age. Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis was more often used in patients less than 5 years of age. The survival after 1 year on dialysis was 79.9% for children aged 5-15 years starting dialysis during the period 1985-1988. Fluid overload with congestive heart failure and infection were the main causes of death in children on dialysis. Eighty-four children received 93 grafts; only 14 (15%) were from cadaveric donors. One-year patient and graft survival of first living-related donor transplants were 92.2% and 78.5% respectively during the period 1985-1988. Infection accounted for 43.5% of deaths after transplantation. We conclude that RRT is becoming increasingly successful for children in our region but that greater emphasis upon patient compliance with all forms of RRT and upon cadaver kidney donation is needed.

  10. Role of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Virulence Factors in Development of Urinary Tract Infection and Kidney Damage

    PubMed Central

    Bien, Justyna; Sokolova, Olga; Bozko, Przemyslaw

    2012-01-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a causative agent in the vast majority of urinary tract infections (UTIs), including cystitis and pyelonephritis, and infectious complications, which may result in acute renal failure in healthy individuals as well as in renal transplant patients. UPEC expresses a multitude of virulence factors to break the inertia of the mucosal barrier. In response to the breach by UPEC into the normally sterile urinary tract, host inflammatory responses are triggered leading to cytokine production, neutrophil influx, and the exfoliation of infected bladder epithelial cells. Several signaling pathways activated during UPEC infection, including the pathways known to activate the innate immune response, interact with calcium-dependent signaling pathways. Some UPEC isolates, however, might possess strategies to delay or suppress the activation of components of the innate host response in the urinary tract. Studies published in the recent past provide new information regarding how virulence factors of uropathogenic E. coli are involved in activation of the innate host response. Despite numerous host defense mechanisms, UPEC can persist within the urinary tract and may serve as a reservoir for recurrent infections and serious complications. Presentation of the molecular details of these events is essential for development of successful strategies for prevention of human UTIs and urological complications associated with UTIs. PMID:22506110

  11. [Infected subdural hematoma having a surgery of chronic subdural hematoma 1 year ago:a case report].

    PubMed

    Nagao, Takaaki; Miyazaki, Chikao; Ando, Shunpei; Haga, Daisuke; Kuroki, Takao; Sugo, Nobuo; Nagao, Takeki

    2015-02-01

    We report a case of an infected subdural hematoma that occurred 1 year after burr-hole irrigation for chronic subdural hematoma. A 78-year-old woman who had developed left hemiparesis was admitted to our hospital. A computed tomography(CT)scan revealed the presence of a chronic subdural hematoma in the right hemisphere. Her clinical symptoms improved immediately after emergency burr-hole irrigation, which allowed her discharge from the hospital. One year after the initial surgery, she developed an infection of the urinary tract infection, which led to severe pyelonephritis and septic shock. Treatment of the urological symptoms eliminated the systemic inflammation. One month after the urinary infection, the patient was readmitted to the hospital in a comatose state. A CT scan showed regrowth of a residual subdural hematoma surrounded by a thick capsule, causing a midline shift in the brain. An emergency operation for removal of the subdural hematoma by burr-hole irrigation was performed, and pus was drained from the subdural mass. Microbiological cultures of the abscess revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. After surgery, the patient was administered an antibiotic treatment for three weeks and she was discharged with no neurological deficits. Cultures of blood from the septic shock as well as from the abscess both revealed the presence of Proteus mirabilis. Therefore, a diagnosis of infected subdural hematoma, which was caused by hematogenous infection, was made. We conclude that attention should be paid to the risk of infection of the hematoma capsule in subdural hematomas.

  12. Necroinflammation in Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Mulay, Shrikant R; Linkermann, Andreas; Anders, Hans-Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The bidirectional causality between kidney injury and inflammation remains an area of unexpected discoveries. The last decade unraveled the molecular mechanisms of sterile inflammation, which established danger signaling via pattern recognition receptors as a new concept of kidney injury-related inflammation. In contrast, renal cell necrosis remained considered a passive process executed either by the complement-related membrane attack complex, exotoxins, or cytotoxic T cells. Accumulating data now suggest that renal cell necrosis is a genetically determined and regulated process involving specific outside-in signaling pathways. These findings support a unifying theory in which kidney injury and inflammation are reciprocally enhanced in an autoamplification loop, referred to here as necroinflammation. This integrated concept is of potential clinical importance because it offers numerous innovative molecular targets for limiting kidney injury by blocking cell death, inflammation, or both. Here, the contribution of necroinflammation to AKI is discussed in thrombotic microangiopathies, necrotizing and crescentic GN, acute tubular necrosis, and infective pyelonephritis or sepsis. Potential new avenues are further discussed for abrogating necroinflammation-related kidney injury, and questions and strategies are listed for further exploration in this evolving field. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  13. Diabetic Kidney Disease: A Syndrome Rather Than a Single Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piccoli, Giorgina B.; Grassi, Giorgio; Cabiddu, Gianfranca; Nazha, Marta; Roggero, Simona; Capizzi, Irene; De Pascale, Agostino; Priola, Adriano M.; Di Vico, Cristina; Maxia, Stefania; Loi, Valentina; Asunis, Anna M.; Pani, Antonello; Veltri, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The term "diabetic kidney" has recently been proposed to encompass the various lesions, involving all kidney structures that characterize protean kidney damage in patients with diabetes. While glomerular diseases may follow the stepwise progression that was described several decades ago, the tenet that proteinuria identifies diabetic nephropathy is disputed today and should be limited to glomerular lesions. Improvements in glycemic control may have contributed to a decrease in the prevalence of glomerular lesions, initially described as hallmarks of diabetic nephropathy, and revealed other types of renal damage, mainly related to vasculature and interstitium, and these types usually present with little or no proteinuria. Whilst glomerular damage is the hallmark of microvascular lesions, ischemic nephropathies, renal infarction, and cholesterol emboli syndrome are the result of macrovascular involvement, and the presence of underlying renal damage sets the stage for acute infections and drug-induced kidney injuries. Impairment of the phagocytic response can cause severe and unusual forms of acute and chronic pyelonephritis. It is thus concluded that screening for albuminuria, which is useful for detecting "glomerular diabetic nephropathy", does not identify all potential nephropathies in diabetes patients. As diabetes is a risk factor for all forms of kidney disease, diagnosis in diabetic patients should include the same combination of biochemical, clinical, and imaging tests as employed in non-diabetic subjects, but with the specific consideration that chronic kidney disease (CKD) may develop more rapidly and severely in diabetic patients. PMID:26676663

  14. The expanding role of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Anthony J

    2003-02-01

    There has been a growing rate of resistance among common urinary tract pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, to traditional antimicrobial therapies including the "gold standard" trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX). Consequently, fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents have taken on an expanding management role for UTIs. In fact, the recent Infectious Diseases Society of America clinical management guidelines for UTI recommend fluoroquinolones as first-line therapy for uncomplicated UTI in areas where resistance is likely to be of concern. Fluoroquinolones have demonstrated high bacteriologic and clinical cure rates, as well as low rates of resistance, among most common uropathogens. There are currently 7 fluoroquinolones with indications for UTI in the United States. However, only 3 are commonly used: levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and, to a lesser extent, gatifloxacin. Many of the fluoroquinolone agents have once-daily dosing regimens, enhancing patient adherence. In addition, levofloxacin and gatifloxacin have same-dose bioequivalency between their intravenous and oral formulations, allowing for "switch" or step-down therapy from parenteral to oral formulations of the same agent at the same dose. Fluoroquinolones are indicated for the management of acute uncomplicated UTIs, as well as complicated and severe UTI and pyelonephritis, in adults. They are the first-line treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who cannot tolerate sulfonamides or TMP, who live in geographic areas with known resistance >10% to 20% to TMP-SMX, or who have risk factors for such resistance. Fluoroquinolone properties include a broad spectrum of coverage, low rates of resistance, and good safety profiles.

  15. Efficacy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of ceftolozane + tazobactam in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, Florian M; Alidjanov, Jakhongir F

    2016-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the second most common nosocomially acquired infections, responsible for approximately 21% of healthcare-associated pyelonephritis and 10.5% of urosepsis. Worldwide trends of increasing resistance resulted in the urgent need for novel antimicrobials that would be active against bacterial resistance mechanisms as an alternative to carbapenems, which are considered last resort antibiotics. The current review is based on a Medline search of published English language literature and contains summary information regarding the evaluation of pharmacologic properties, efficacy, safety and activity of ceftolozane+tazobactam against common bacterial resistance mechanisms. In vivo and vitro studies demonstrated high activity of ceftolozane+tazobactam in the combination of 2:1 against a variety of uropathogens, including ESBL-producers. Phase II and Phase III studies performed in patients with complicated UTIs showed good tolerability and safety of ceftolozane+tazobactam when prescribed intravenously 1.5 g every 8 h for 7 days and at least non-inferiority to a high dose (750 mg) of levofloxacin. The pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane+tazobactam makes it a worthy alternative to carbapenems in cases of complicated UTIs, also caused by multidrug resistant uropathogens.

  16. [Urinary tract infections--pediatric urologist point of view].

    PubMed

    Baka-Ostrowska, Małgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) could present with different clinical forms dependent on intensity and localization of infection and child's age. The symptoms could be non specific in children. Condition that provoke to urinary stasis, especially voiding dysfunction is the favourable factor for UTI appearance. Gram-negative enteric bacteria is the most common pathogen. Urine culture is the basic investigation that allow to identify pathogen and its drug sensitiveness but simultaneous urinalysis is necessary to recognize the inflammation of urinary organs. In addition, the number of leukocytes gives an idea about inflammation intensity. Ultrasonographic (USG) scan is necessary to examine urostasis. DMSA study performed during febrile UTI allow to identify children with acute pyelonephritis and when repeated 6 months later - those with renal scars. A normal USG and DMSA scan during infection makes voiding cystourethrography (VCU) unnecessary in the primary examination. The presence of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) not always predispose children to renal lesions. Early and appropriate treatment of UTI, especially during the first 24 hours, diminishes the likelihood of renal involvement during the acute phase of infection but does not prevent scar formation. The proper hygiene of the urethral meatus, voiding and drinking habits and preventing of constipation are crucial in UTI prophylaxis.

  17. Renal inflammatory response to urinary tract infection in rat neonates.

    PubMed

    Zarepour, M; Moradpoor, H; Emamghorashi, F; Owji, S M; Roodaki, M; Khamoushi, M

    2015-09-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections. Maternal UTI is a risk factor for neonatal UTI. The aim of the present study was to determine the severity of renal inflammation in neonate rats born from mothers with induced UTI. Twelve pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were included in study. The rats were divided into two groups (six rats in each group). In the first group, pyelonephritis was induced in the third trimester of pregnancy and the second group was used as a control group. After delivery, the neonates were divided into three groups based on days after birth (the 1 st, 3 rd and 7 th days after birth). In each group, two neonates of each mother were killed and a midline abdominal incision was made and both kidneys were aseptically removed. On the 7 th day, rat mothers were killed and their kidneys were removed. The preparations were evaluated with a bright field microscope for inflammatory response. Renal pathology showed inflammation in all UTI-induced mothers, but only two cases of neonates (2.1%) showed inflammation in the renal parenchyma. There was no relation between the positive renal culture and the pathological changes. We conclude that neonates with UTI born to UTI-induced mothers showed a lesser inflammatory response.

  18. Clinical Presentations and Epidemiology of Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    Geerlings, Suzanne E

    2016-10-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections, and the incidence in women is much higher than in men. The diagnosis of a UTI can be made based on a combination of symptoms and a positive urine analysis or culture. Most UTIs are uncomplicated UTIs, defined as cystitis in a woman who is not pregnant, is not immunocompromised, has no anatomical and functional abnormalities of the urogenital tract, and does not exhibit signs of tissue invasion and systemic infection. All UTIs that are not uncomplicated are considered to be complicated UTIs. Differentiation between uncomplicated and complicated UTIs has implications for therapy because the risks of complications or treatment failure are increased for patients with a complicated UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is defined as the presence of a positive urine culture collected from a patient without symptoms of a UTI. Concerning the complicated UTI, it is possible to make a differentiation between UTI with systemic symptoms (febrile UTI) and UTI in a host, which carries an increased risk to develop complications of this UTI. Febrile UTIs are urosepsis, pyelonephritis, and prostatitis. A complicated host is defined as one that has an increased risk for complications, to which the following groups belong: men, pregnant women, immunocompromised patients, or those who have an anatomical or functional abnormality of the urogenital tract (e.g., spinal cord-injury patients, renal stones, urinary catheter).

  19. Antibiotics Dispensed to Privately Insured Pregnant Women with Urinary Tract Infections - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Ailes, Elizabeth C; Summers, April D; Tran, Emmy L; Gilboa, Suzanne M; Arnold, Kathryn E; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2018-01-12

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur in about 8% of pregnant women, and untreated UTIs can have serious consequences, including pyelonephritis, preterm labor, low birth weight, and sepsis (1). Pregnant women are typically screened for UTIs during early pregnancy, and those with bacteriuria are treated with antibiotics (1,2). Antibiotic stewardship is critical to improving patient safety and to combating antibiotic resistance. Because of the potential risk for birth defects, including anencephaly, heart defects, and orofacial clefts, associated with use of sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin during pregnancy (3), a 2011 committee opinion from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommended that sulfonamides and nitrofurantoin may be prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy only when other antimicrobial therapies are deemed clinically inappropriate (4). To assess the effects of these recommendations, CDC analyzed the Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Database* to examine antibiotic prescriptions filled by pregnant women with UTIs. Among 482,917 pregnancies in 2014, 7.2% of women had an outpatient UTI diagnosis during the 90 days before the date of last menstrual period (LMP) or during pregnancy. Among pregnant women with UTIs, the most frequently prescribed antibiotics during the first trimester were nitrofurantoin, ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Given the potential risks associated with use of some of these antibiotics in early pregnancy and the potential for unrecognized pregnancy, women's health care providers should be familiar with the ACOG recommendations and consider the possibility of early pregnancy when treating women of reproductive age.

  20. Anterior urethral valve associated with posterior urethral valves.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, A M; Jangouk, P; Ahmadi Yazdi, C

    2005-12-01

    The association of anterior urethral valve (AUV) with posterior urethral valve (PUV) is rare. A 7-month-old infant was presented at a district hospital with episodes of acute pyelonephritis. He was treated medically and a voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) confirmed bilateral vesico-urethral reflux. The presence of concomitant AUV and PUV was not recognized. He underwent several surgical procedures, which failed. He had reflux recurrence following two antireflux procedures. He had urinary retention after each operation, which was managed by vesicostomy and perineal urethrostomy. At the age of 3.5 years, he was referred to our paediatric urology clinic. Noticing the AUV and PUV in the past VCUG, the valves were fulgurated. Urodynamic study before and 3 months after valve ablation showed a high voiding pressure. VCUG 6 months following ablation showed no reflux, but several uroflowmetric studies showed a staccato and interrupted pattern. Empirical treatment with an alpha-blocker was started. One year after treatment, a repeat VCUG showed no reflux. Uroflowmetry and urodynamic studies returned to normal. The perineal urethrostomy was closed. The child was asymptomatic after 9 months of follow up.

  1. Microbial diversity in biofilm infections of the urinary tract with the use of sonication techniques.

    PubMed

    Holá, Veronika; Ruzicka, Filip; Horka, Marie

    2010-08-01

    Infections of the urinary tract account for >40% of nosocomial infections; most of these are infections in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only the particular infection but also a number of complications, for example blockage of catheters with crystallic deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. Infections of urinary catheters are only rarely single-species infections. The longer a patient is catheterized, the higher the diversity of biofilm microbial communities. The aims of this study were to investigate the microbial diversity on the catheters and to compare the ability to form biofilm among isolated microbial species. The next aim was to discriminate particular causative agents of infections of the urinary tract and their importance as biofilm formers in the microbial community on the urinary catheter. We examined catheters from 535 patients and isolated 1555 strains of microorganisms. Most of the catheters were infected by three or more microorganisms; only 12.5% showed monomicrobial infection. Among the microorganisms isolated from the urinary catheters, there were significant differences in biofilm-forming ability, and we therefore conclude that some microbial species have greater potential to cause a biofilm-based infection, whereas others can be only passive members of the biofilm community.

  2. [Urinary catheter biofilm infections].

    PubMed

    Holá, V; Růzicka, F

    2008-04-01

    Urinary tract infections, most of which are biofilm infections in catheterized patients, account for more than 40% of hospital infections. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters causes not only infection but also other complications such as catheter blockage by bacterial encrustation, urolithiasis and pyelonephritis. About 50% of long-term catheterized patients face urinary flow obstruction due to catheter encrustation, but no measure is currently available to prevent it. Encrustation has been known either to result from metabolic dysfunction or to be of microbial origin, with urease positive bacterial species implicated most often. Infectious calculi account for about 15-20% of all cases of urolithiasis and are often associated with biofilm colonization of a long-term indwelling urinary catheter or urethral stent. The use of closed catheter systems is helpful in reducing such problems; nevertheless, such a system only delays the inevitable, with infections emerging a little later. Various coatings intended to prevent the bacterial adhesion to the surface of catheters and implants and thus also the emergence of biofilm infections, unfortunately, do not inhibit the microbial adhesion completely and permanently and the only reliable method for biofilm eradication remains the removal of the foreign body from the patient.

  3. Virulence factors in Proteus bacteria from biofilm communities of catheter-associated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Hola, Veronika; Peroutkova, Tereza; Ruzicka, Filip

    2012-07-01

    More than 40% of nosocomial infections are those of the urinary tract, most of these occurring in catheterized patients. Bacterial colonization of the urinary tract and catheters results not only in infection, but also various complications, such as blockage of catheters with crystalline deposits of bacterial origin, generation of gravels and pyelonephritis. The diversity of the biofilm microbial community increases with duration of catheter emplacement. One of the most important pathogens in this regard is Proteus mirabilis. The aims of this study were to identify and assess particular virulence factors present in catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) isolates, their correlation and linkages: three types of motility (swarming, swimming and twitching), the ability to swarm over urinary catheters, biofilm production in two types of media, urease production and adherence of bacterial cells to various types of urinary tract catheters. We examined 102 CAUTI isolates and 50 isolates taken from stool samples of healthy people. Among the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters, significant differences were found in biofilm-forming ability and the swarming motility. In comparison with the control group, the microorganisms isolated from urinary catheters showed a wider spectrum of virulence factors. The virulence factors (twitching motility, swimming motility, swarming over various types of catheters and biofilm formation) were also more intensively expressed. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Innate immunity and genetic determinants of urinary tract infection susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Godaly, Gabriela; Ambite, Ines; Svanborg, Catharina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common, dangerous and interesting. Susceptible individuals experience multiple, often clustered episodes, and in a subset of patients, infections progress to acute pyelonephritis (APN), sometimes accompanied by uro-sepsis. Others develop asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU). Here, we review the molecular basis for these differences, with the intention to distinguish exaggerated host responses that drive disease from attenuated responses that favour protection and to highlight the genetic basis for these extremes, based on knock-out mice and clinical studies. Recent findings The susceptibility to UTI is controlled by specific innate immune signalling and by promoter polymorphisms and transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes controlling these pathways. Gene deletions that disturb innate immune activation either favour asymptomatic bacteriuria or create acute morbidity and disease. Promoter polymorphisms and transcription factor variants affecting those genes are associated with susceptibility in UTI-prone patients. Summary It is time to start using genetics in UTI-prone patients, to improve diagnosis and to assess the risk for chronic sequels such as renal malfunction, hypertension, spontaneous abortions, dialysis and transplantation. Furthermore, the majority of UTI patients do not need follow-up, but for lack of molecular markers, they are unnecessarily investigated. PMID:25539411

  5. Impact of Host Age and Parity on Susceptibility to Severe Urinary Tract Infection in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Kimberly A.; Schwartz, Drew J.; Gilbert, Nicole M.; Lewis, Amanda L.

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology and bacteriology of urinary tract infection (UTI) varies across the human lifespan, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. Using established monomicrobial and polymicrobial murine UTI models caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and/or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), we demonstrate age and parity as inter-related factors contributing to UTI susceptibility. Young nulliparous animals exhibited 10–100-fold higher bacterial titers compared to older animals. In contrast, multiparity was associated with more severe acute cystitis in older animals compared to age-matched nulliparous controls, particularly in the context of polymicrobial infection where UPEC titers were ∼1000-fold higher in the multiparous compared to the nulliparous host. Multiparity was also associated with significantly increased risk of chronic high titer UPEC cystitis and ascending pyelonephritis. Further evidence is provided that the increased UPEC load in multiparous animals required TLR4-signaling. Together, these data strongly suggest that the experience of childbearing fundamentally and permanently changes the urinary tract and its response to pathogens in a manner that increases susceptibility to severe UTI. Moreover, this murine model provides a system for dissecting these and other lifespan-associated risk factors contributing to severe UTI in at-risk groups. PMID:24835885

  6. Investigation and identification of etiologies involved in the development of acquired hydronephrosis in aged laboratory mice with the use of high-frequency ultrasound imaging

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Danielle A.; Allen, Michele; Hoffman, Victoria; Brinster, Lauren; Starost, Matthew F.; Bryant, Mark; Eckhaus, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory mice develop naturally occurring lesions that affect biomedical research. Hydronephrosis is a recognized pathologic abnormality of the mouse kidney. Acquired hydronephrosis can affect any mouse, as it is caused by any naturally occurring disease that impairs free urine flow. Many etiologies leading to this condition are of particular significance to aging mice. Non-invasive ultrasound imaging detects renal pelvic dilation, renal enlargement, and parenchymal loss for pre-mortem identification of this condition. High-frequency ultrasound transducers produce high-resolution images of small structures, ideal for detecting organ pathology in mice. Using a 40 MHz linear array transducer, we obtained high-resolution images of a diversity of pathologic lesions occurring within the abdomen of seven geriatric mice with acquired hydronephrosis that enabled a determination of the underlying etiology. Etiologies diagnosed from the imaging results include pyelonephritis, neoplasia, urolithiasis, mouse urologic syndrome, and spontaneous hydronephrosis, and were confirmed at necropsy. A retrospective review of abdominal scans from an additional 149 aging mice shows that the most common etiologies associated with acquired hydronephrosis are mouse urologic syndrome and abdominal neoplasia. This report highlights the utility of high-frequency ultrasound for surveying research mice for age-related pathology, and is the first comprehensive report of multiple cases of acquired hydronephrosis in mice. PMID:25143818

  7. The Comparison of Double J Stent Insertion and Conservative Treatment Alone in Severe Pure Gestational Hydronephrosis: A Case Controlled Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Çeçen, Kürşat; Ülker, Kahraman

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Management options of gestational hydronephrosis are based on the coexisting stone disease, pyelonephritis, and renal disease. However, the management option and its consequences in the absence of a coexisting disease state are not clear. In this study we aimed to compare the effectiveness of conservative treatment and double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis. Material and Methods. The data of the women with severe pure gestational hydronephrosis over a nine-year period was collected retrospectively. The included women were grouped into two according to receiving double J stent insertion or conservative treatments. Results. Double J insertion and conservative treatment groups included 24 and 29 women, respectively. Hydronephrosis was demonstrated on the right, left, or both kidneys in 37 (70%), 13 (24%), and 3 (6%) women, respectively. None of the participants gave birth prior to the 37th week. The demographics, initial pain scores, the severity of the hydronephrosis during first admission, and pain scores one week after the interventions did not differ significantly between groups (P > 0.05). Similarly, the rates of complications, postpartum pain scores, and permanent hydronephrosis did not differ between groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion. Double J insertion in symptomatic pure gestational hydronephrosis adds no benefit to conservative treatment. PMID:24574939

  8. [Laparoscopic pyeloplasty for hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney].

    PubMed

    Guliev, B G

    2016-11-01

    Horseshoe kidney is often associated with other congenital abnormalities and obstruction of pyeloureteral segment (PUS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the results of laparoscopic pyeloplasty (LP) in patients with hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney. From February 2010 to March 2016, 130 patients underwent LP. Ten (7.7%) of them (6 men and 4 women) had a hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney. Left and right PUS obstruction were diagnosed in 6 and 4 patients, respectively. All the patients underwent PL transperitoneally using the Anderson-Hynes method. In patients with left hydronephrosis, surgery was performed by transmesenteric access. There were no cases of conversion to open surgery and drainage urine leakage. Exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis was observed in 2 cases. Operating time ranged from 125 to 160 minutes (median 130 minutes), time of performing pyeloureteral anastomosis - from 50 to 105 minutes. Patients were ambulated within the first day after surgery, the length of hospital stay was 3 - 4 days. One patient with recurrent strictures of PUS 8 months after the LP underwent retrograde endopyelotomy with the placement of endopyelotomy stent. The effectiveness of operations over a 6-38 month follow-up was 90%. LP is an effective and minimally invasive treatment for patients with hydronephrosis of horseshoe kidney. In a left PUS obstruction, pyeloplasty can be performed using transmesenteric access.

  9. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: a diagnostic and therapeutic approach.

    PubMed

    Grio, R; Porpiglia, M; Vetro, E; Uligini, R; Piacentino, R; Minì, D; Marchino, G L

    1994-12-01

    Pregnancy is a predisposing factor for urinary tract infection and pregnant women suffering from this pathology are exposed to dangerous risks which may condition maternal wellbeing and fetal prognosis. The apparently paradoxal finding of a higher incidence of perinatal problems in pregnant women with asymptomatic bacteriuria compared to those with manifest infections may be explained by the fact that the latter are adequately treated, whereas asymptomatic bacteriuria, which is difficult to diagnose, may continue in a subtle form for the entire duration of pregnancy. This emphasises the importance of the early diagnosis of infection using a protocol based on urine tests and urine culture and the adequate treatment of all cases of asymptomatic bacteriuria in order to reduce the incidence of maternal and fetal complications (acute pyelonephritis, increased fetal morbidity and mortality). The choice of the antibiotic to be used must be made on the basis of the urine culture test, the stage of gestation, maternal clinical data and the characteristics of the antibiotic itself (pharmacokinetics, maternal and fetal toxicity). With regard to the treatment protocol, the "single-dose" protocol is currently preferred. After negative urine culture tests, all patients must carry out a complete urine test each month with hormonal and echographic monitoring of the fetoplacental unit.

  10. Urologic evaluation of urinary tract infection in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Diokno, A C; Compton, A; Seski, J; Vinson, R

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-three antepartum patients with urinary tract infections underwent urologic evaluation as soon as the infection had been successfully treated. The evaluation included history of voiding habits, cystometry, urethral calibration and cystourethroscopy. A second phase of the urologic evaluation included an excretory urogram and repeat cystometry 10-12 weeks postpartum. Sixty percent had a history of infrequent voiding, and 90% of them had a bladder capacity greater than 450 mL. Forty-one percent of the patients had a normal bladder capacity (less than 450 mL), and 85% of this group did not have any history of infrequent voiding. The radiographic evaluation postpartum in 18 of 33 patients revealed major abnormalities in 50%. These abnormalities were seen as often and were as significant in women with asymptomatic bacteriuria as in those who presented with acute pyelonephritis. The results suggest that the large bladder seen in pregnant women may be secondary to the chronic, unphysiologic habit of infrequent voiding. Furthermore, this study reinforced the fact that most pregnant women with urinary tract infection have preexisting chronic bladder or renal abnormalities that predispose them to infection. Those at risk should be identified early through a careful history and urinalysis to determine which ones need urinary prophylaxis during pregnancy. Postpartum urologic investigation should be carried out to identify any structural or functional problems; understanding them is helpful in present and future management.

  11. Clinical use of MRI for the evaluation of acute appendicitis during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan; Fingard, Jordan; Winters, Sean; Low, Gavin

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of MRI for detecting acute appendicitis in pregnancy in a multi-institution study involving general body MR readers with no specific expertise in MR imaging of the pregnant patient. Retrospective review of MRI examinations on PACS in 42 pregnant patients was evaluated for acute right lower quadrant pain. Three fellowship-trained general body radiologists analyzed the MRI examinations in consensus and attempted to localize the appendix, assess for features of appendicitis, and exclude alternative etiologies for the right lower quadrant pain. Of the 42 MRI examinations, the readers noted 6 cases of acute appendicitis, 16 cases of a normal appendix, and 20 cases involving non-visualization of the appendix but where there were no secondary features of acute appendicitis. Based on the surgical data and clinical follow-up, there were 3 true-positive cases, 3 false-positive cases, 34 true-negative cases, and 2 false-negative cases of acute appendicitis on MRI. This yielded an accuracy of 88.1%, sensitivity of 60%, specificity of 91.9%, positive predictive value of 50%, and negative predictive value of 94.4% for the detection of acute appendicitis in the pregnant patient on MRI. Alternative etiologies for the right lower quadrant pain on MRI included torsion of an ovarian dermoid in 1 case and pyelonephritis in 1 case. MRI is an excellent modality for excluding acute appendicitis in pregnant patients presenting with right lower quadrant pain.

  12. Children's UTIs in the new millennium. Diagnosis, investigation, and treatment of childhood urinary tract infections in the year 2001.

    PubMed Central

    White, C. T.; Matsell, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide an effective approach for family physicians treating children presenting with urinary tract infections (UTIs). QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information presented, and articles quoted, are drawn from both review of the literature and recent consensus guidelines. Data and recommendations come from prospective multicentre trials; retrospective reviews; expert consensus statements; and some smaller trials, commentaries, and editorials. MAIN MESSAGE: Urinary tract infections are often seen in family practice. Diagnosis requires suspicion and a realization that children, especially those younger than 2 years, often have very few, nonspecific signs of infection. Obtaining a proper urine sample is vital, because true infections require radiographic studies. Antibiotic prophylaxis is promoted because of the link between vesicoureteral reflux, recurrent UTIs, and renal scarring and hypertension. We generally provide prophylaxis until children are 3 or 4 years, when risk of damage from reflux is lessened and timely urine samples are easier to obtain for prompt therapy. Surgical opinion is sought only when medical management has failed. Failure is defined as either recurrent infections and pyelonephritis or poor renal growth. CONCLUSION: To diagnose UTIs in children, physicians must suspect them, obtain proper urine samples, order appropriate investigations to rule out underlying anatomic abnormalities, and treat with appropriate antibiotics considering both organism sensitivities and length of therapy. PMID:11561337

  13. Structures of Escherichia coli DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) in complex with a non-GATC sequence: Potential implications for methylation-independent transcriptional repression

    DOE PAGES

    Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Blumenthal, Robert M.; ...

    2015-04-06

    DNA adenine methyltransferase (Dam) is widespread and conserved among the γ-proteobacteria. Methylation of the Ade in GATC sequences regulates diverse bacterial cell functions, including gene expression, mismatch repair and chromosome replication. Dam also controls virulence in many pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria. An unexplained and perplexing observation about Escherichia coli Dam (EcoDam) is that there is no obvious relationship between the genes that are transcriptionally responsive to Dam and the promoter-proximal presence of GATC sequences. Here, we demonstrate that EcoDam interacts with a 5-base pair non-cognate sequence distinct from GATC. The crystal structure of a non-cognate complex allowed us to identify amore » DNA binding element, GTYTA/TARAC (where Y = C/T and R = A/G). This element immediately flanks GATC sites in some Dam-regulated promoters, including the Pap operon which specifies pyelonephritis-associated pili. In addition, Dam interacts with near-cognate GATC sequences (i.e. 3/4-site ATC and GAT). All together, these results imply that Dam, in addition to being responsible for GATC methylation, could also function as a methylation-independent transcriptional repressor.« less

  14. [Ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy].

    PubMed

    Guliev, B G

    2014-01-01

    The study was aimed to the evaluation of the effectiveness and results of ultrasound guided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL) for the treatment of patients with large stones in renal pelvis. The results of PNL in 138 patients who underwent surgery for kidney stones from 2011 to 2013 were analyzed. Seventy patients (Group 1) underwent surgery with combined ultrasound and radiological guidance, and 68 patients (Group 2)--only with ultrasound guidance. The study included patients with large renal pelvic stones larger than 2.2 cm, requiring the formation of a single laparoscopic approach. Using the comparative analysis, the timing of surgery, the number of intra- and postoperative complications, blood loss and length of stay were evaluated. Percutaneous access was successfully performed in all patients. Postoperative complications (exacerbation of chronic pyelonephritis, gross hematuria) were observed in 14.3% of patients in Group 1 and in 14.7% of patients in Group 2. Bleeding requiring blood transfusion, and injuries of adjacent organs were not registered. Efficacy of PNL in the Group 1 was 95.7%; 3 (4.3%) patients required additional interventions. In Group 2, the effectiveness of PNL was 94.1%, 4 (5.9%) patients additionally underwent extracorporeal lithotripsy. There were no significant differences in the effectiveness of PNL, the volume of blood loss and duration of hospitalization. Ultrasound guided PNL can be performed in large pelvic stones and sufficient expansion of renal cavities, thus reducing radiation exposure of patients and medical staff.

  15. The toxicity of vanadium on gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive system, and its influence on fertility and fetuses malformations.

    PubMed

    Wilk, Aleksandra; Szypulska-Koziarska, Dagmara; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2017-09-25

    Vanadium is a transition metal that has a unique and beneficial effect on both humans and animals. For many years, studies have suggested that vanadium is an essential trace element. Its biological properties are of interest due to its therapeutic potential, including in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Vanadium deficiencies can lead to a range of pathologies. However, excessive concentration of this metal can cause irreversible damage to various tissues and organs. Vanadium toxicity mainly manifests in gastrointestinal symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and weight reduction. Vanadium also exhibits hepatotoxic and nephrotoxic properties, including glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis. Vanadium compounds may also lead to partial degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium of the seminiferous tubules in the testes and can affect male fertility. This paper describes the harmful effects of vanadium on the morphology and physiology of both animal and human tissues, including the digestive system, the urinary tract, and the reproductive system. What is more, the following study includes data concerning the correlation between the above-mentioned metal and its influence on fertility and fetus malformations. Additionally, this research identifies the doses of vanadium which lead to pathological alterations becoming visible within tissues. Moreover, this study includes information about the protective efficacy of some substances in view of the toxicity of vanadium.

  16. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder: technique and clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Shao, Pengfei; Li, Pu; Ju, Xiaobing; Qin, Chao; Li, Jie; Lv, Qiang; Meng, Xiaoxin; Yin, Changjun

    2015-02-01

    To study the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal orthotopic ileal neobladder and to evaluate the role of endoscopic stapling in neobladder construction. Fifty-five patients with bladder cancer who underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy were retrospectively examined. Extended pelvic lymph node dissection was performed before cystectomy. An ileal segment of 50 cm was harvested to construct a U-shaped reservoir. The bottom of the reservoir was anastomosed with the posterior urethra. Twenty-five patients underwent neobladder construction by manual suturing and 30 patients by endoscopic stapler suturing. The mean operative time was 346 minutes, and mean neobladder construction time was 230 minutes. The median estimated blood loss was 500 mL, and 17 patients received intraoperative transfusion. Postoperative complications included 2 cases of urine leakage, 7 cases of pyelonephritis, 4 cases of incomplete bowel obstruction, 1 case of anastomotic stricture, and 1 case of death. Endoscopic stapler suturing for neobladder construction took significantly less time than manual suturing. However, neobladder stones were found in 2 patients who underwent operation using endoscopic suturing, and the stones were removed cystoscopically. The functional outcomes of the 2 constructive methods were comparable. Laparoscopic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal orthotopic neobladder is safe and feasible for experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Application of endoscopic stapler simplifies the surgical procedure while increasing the risk of neobladder stone formation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Ion channels in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael; Wallace, Helen

    2011-04-01

    Most physical illness in vertebrates involves inflammation. Inflammation causes disease by fluid shifts across cell membranes and cell layers, changes in muscle function and generation of pain. These disease processes can be explained by changes in numbers or function of ion channels. Changes in ion channels have been detected in diarrhoeal illnesses, pyelonephritis, allergy, acute lung injury and systemic inflammatory response syndromes involving septic shock. The key role played by changes in ion transport is directly evident in inflammation-induced pain. Expression or function of all major categories of ion channels like sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, transient receptor potential, purinergic receptor and acid-sensing ion channels can be influenced by cyto- and chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, histamine, ATP, reactive oxygen species and protons released in inflammation. Key pathways in this interaction are cyclic nucleotide, phosphoinositide and mitogen-activated protein kinase-mediated signalling, direct modification by reactive oxygen species like nitric oxide, ATP or protons and disruption of the cytoskeleton. Therapeutic interventions to modulate the adverse and overlapping effects of the numerous different inflammatory mediators on each ion transport system need to target adversely affected ion transport systems directly and locally.

  18. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2006-03-29

    Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalities in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  19. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed. PMID:16571116

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae septicemia in a patient with diabetes and hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Cristiane Rúbia

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a well-known pathogen during pregnancy and in neonates. Among non-pregnant adults, invasive infection, although rare, is showing increasing frequency, especially in chronically ill, immunosuppressed, or older patients. Although rare, the clinical features of meningeal infection caused by S. agalactiae are similar to other bacterial meningitis. The authors report the case of a middle-aged man previously diagnosed with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and alcoholic liver cirrhosis, who was admitted at the emergency department with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 11/12, generalized spasticity, bilateral Babinski sign, and hypertension. The clinical outcome was bad, with refractory shock and death within 24 hours of hospitalization. The bacteriological work-up isolated S. agalactiae in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), blood, and urine. An autopsy revealed meningoencephalitis, acute myocardial infarction, and pyelonephritis due to septic emboli. The authors point out the atypical CSF findings, the rapid fatal outcome, and the importance of including this pathogen among the etiologic possibilities of invasive infections in this group of patients. PMID:26894044

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease in Kidney Stone Formers

    PubMed Central

    Krambeck, Amy E.; Lieske, John C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Recent population studies have found symptomatic kidney stone formers to be at increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although kidney stones are not commonly identified as the primary cause of ESRD, they still may be important contributing factors. Paradoxically, CKD can be protective against forming kidney stones because of the substantial reduction in urine calcium excretion. Among stone formers, those with rare hereditary diseases (cystinuria, primary hyperoxaluria, Dent disease, and 2,8 dihydroxyadenine stones), recurrent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, hypertension, and diabetes seem to be at highest risk for CKD. The primary mechanism for CKD from kidney stones is usually attributed to an obstructive uropathy or pyelonephritis, but crystal plugs at the ducts of Bellini and parenchymal injury from shockwave lithotripsy may also contribute. The historical shift to less invasive surgical management of kidney stones has likely had a beneficial impact on the risk for CKD. Among potential kidney donors, past symptomatic kidney stones but not radiographic stones found on computed tomography scans were associated with albuminuria. Kidney stones detected by ultrasound screening have also been associated with CKD in the general population. Further studies that better classify CKD, better characterize stone formers, more thoroughly address potential confounding by comorbidities, and have active instead of passive follow-up to avoid detection bias are needed. PMID:21784825

  2. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describemore » a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.« less

  3. Cost-effective flow-through nanohole array-based biosensing platform for the label-free detection of uropathogenic E. coli in real time.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Cruz, Juan; Nair, Srijit; Manjarrez-Hernandez, Angel; Gavilanes-Parra, Sandra; Ascanio, Gabriel; Escobedo, Carlos

    2018-05-30

    Rapid, inexpensive and sensitive detection of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), a common cause of ascending urinary tract infections (UTIs) including cystitis and pyelonephritis, is critical given the increasing number of cases and its recurrence worldwide. In this paper, we present a label-free nanoplasmonic sensing platform, built with off-the-shelf optical and electronic components, which can detect intact UPEC at concentrations lower than the physiological limit for UTI diagnosis, in real time. The sensing platform consists of a red LED light source, lens assembly, CMOS detector, Raspberry Pi interface in conjugation with a metallic flow-through nanohole array-based sensor. Detection is achieved exploiting nanoplasmonic phenomena from the nanohole arrays through surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) technique. The platform has a bulk sensitivity of 212 pixel intensity unit (PIU)/refractive index unit (RIU), and a resolution in the order of 10 -6 RIU. We demonstrate capture and detection of UPEC with a detection limit of ~100 CFU/ml - a concentration well below the threshold limit for UTI diagnosis in clinical samples. We also demonstrate detection of UPEC in spiked human urine samples for two different concentrations of bacteria. This work is particularly relevant for point-of-care applications, especially for regions around the world where accessibility to medical facilities is heavily dependent upon economy, and availability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Controversies Regarding Management of Vesico-ureteric Reflux.

    PubMed

    Babu, Ramesh; Chowdhary, Sujit

    2017-07-01

    The primary goal in the management of a child with urinary tract infection (UTI) is to prevent recurrence of UTI and acquired renal damage. Approximately 15% of children develop renal scarring after a first episode of febrile UTI. Vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) is diagnosed in 30-40% of children imaged after first febrile UTI. The 'top-down' approach involving ultrasound and dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA) first after an appropriate interval following UTI, can help in avoiding voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), an invasive test with higher radiation exposure. The majority view remains that VCUG should be done after the second attack of UTI in girls and first attack of UTI in boys. Although the evidence in favour of antibiotic prophylaxis remains doubtful in preventing renal scars associated with VUR, it remains the first line treatment for high-grade reflux (grade 3-5) with an aim to prevent UTI and allow spontaneous resolution of VUR. Early identification and appropriate treatment of associated bowel bladder dysfunction is an essential part of successful medical management of VUR. Endoscopic treatment of VUR, using a bulking agent, is useful in grade 3 VUR. The main controversy regarding intervention (endoscopic/open surgical intervention) involves absence of strong evidence for these interventions in reducing renal scarring on randomized controlled trials. However, several recent trials have found the surgical interventions to be effective in reducing recurrent pyelonephritis and repeated hospital admissions.

  5. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    PubMed

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  6. Impact of host age and parity on susceptibility to severe urinary tract infection in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Kline, Kimberly A; Schwartz, Drew J; Gilbert, Nicole M; Lewis, Amanda L

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology and bacteriology of urinary tract infection (UTI) varies across the human lifespan, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. Using established monomicrobial and polymicrobial murine UTI models caused by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and/or Group B Streptococcus (GBS), we demonstrate age and parity as inter-related factors contributing to UTI susceptibility. Young nulliparous animals exhibited 10-100-fold higher bacterial titers compared to older animals. In contrast, multiparity was associated with more severe acute cystitis in older animals compared to age-matched nulliparous controls, particularly in the context of polymicrobial infection where UPEC titers were ∼1000-fold higher in the multiparous compared to the nulliparous host. Multiparity was also associated with significantly increased risk of chronic high titer UPEC cystitis and ascending pyelonephritis. Further evidence is provided that the increased UPEC load in multiparous animals required TLR4-signaling. Together, these data strongly suggest that the experience of childbearing fundamentally and permanently changes the urinary tract and its response to pathogens in a manner that increases susceptibility to severe UTI. Moreover, this murine model provides a system for dissecting these and other lifespan-associated risk factors contributing to severe UTI in at-risk groups.

  7. [Urinary tract infections in adults].

    PubMed

    Michno, Mikolaj; Sydor, Antoni

    Review of urinary tract infections in adults including etiology, pathogenesis, classification and the most important therapeutic recommendations. Urinary tract infections are still a common clinical problem occurring more often in sexually active women, pregnancy, elderly , after catherization of a urinary bladder and urological surgery as well as in the co-existence of diabetes or nephrolithiasis. Due to the anatomical differences, women suffer more often than men. The main etiological factor is Escherichia coli, even though it plays a lesser role in the complicated infections, than in non-complicated ones. Apart from that, the infections may also be caused by atypical microbes, viruses and fungi. Relapses as well as reinfections are typical features of urinary tract infections and in some cases prolonged infections can spread from lower to upper urinary tract contributing to pyelonephritis, urosepsis or even death. These long-term infections can progress in a hidden, insidious, oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic manner leading to irreversible, progressive deterioration of renal function. They can also mask other diseases such as tuberculosis or neoplasms of the urinary tract, which leads to the delayed diagnosis and treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections is a complex problem, often requiring specialized procedures as well as hospitalization. The choice of a therapy is determined by the type of infection, general condition, age and coexisting diseases. Rapid diagnosis and implementation of proper pharmacotherapy may shorten the time of treatment and hospitalization, preventing serious complications and reinfections.

  8. Management of vesicoureteral reflux in neurogenic bladder.

    PubMed

    Wu, Charlotte Q; Franco, Israel

    2017-06-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a significant risk factor for pyelonephritis and renal scarring. VUR can occur through a defective ureterovesical junction (UVJ) or an overwhelmed normal UVJ mechanism such as in bladder dysfunction of congenital, acquired, or behavioral etiology. There are numerous causes for the development of a neurogenic bladder from spinal dysraphisms to spinal cord trauma and even centrally based abnormalities in children with apparently normal motor function (inappropriately termed nonneurogenic neurogenic bladder). The foundation of managing reflux in these neurogenic bladders is to maintain low bladder pressures which will commonly mean that compliance will be normal as well. There have been several publications that have shown that if bladder pressures are lowered simply with clean intermittent catheterization and medications that the reflux can resolve spontaneously. Alternatively, the patients that are in need of bladder augmentation can have spontaneous resolution of their reflux with the resulting increase in capacity. Surgical intervention is called for when bladder capacity is adequate and the reflux persists or if it is part of a larger operation to increase capacity and to manage outlet resistance. In some instances, reimplantation is necessary because the ureters interfere with the bladder neck procedure. Aside from open and robotic surgical intervention the use of endoscopic injectable agents is beginning to become more popular especially when combined with intravesical botulinum toxin A injections. Great strides are being made in the management of patients with neurogenic bladders and we are seeing more choices for the urologist to be able to manage these patients.

  9. Hematoma and abscess formation caused by Mycoplasma hominis following cesarean section

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Hisato; Koshiba, Akemi; Daimon, Yasushi; Noguchi, Toshifumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Mycoplasma species cannot be identified by routine bacteriological culture methods and are resistant to common antimicrobial agents. Mycoplasma hominis usually colonizes the lower urogenital tract and causes pyelonephritis, pelvic inflammatory disease, chorioamnionitis, rupture of fetal membranes, preterm labor, postpartum fever, postabortal fever, and neonatal infection. This organism is highly prevalent in cervicovaginal cultures of sexually active women. M. hominis, M. genitalis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, and U. parvum may invade and infect placental and fetal tissues, leading to adverse pregnancy outcomes. M. hominis occasionally causes nongenitourinary infection of the blood, wounds, central nervous system, joints, or respiratory tract. We present a case of a 27-year-old woman who developed abdominal wound hematoma and abscess after cesarean section. The wound was drained, but her high fever persisted, in spite of antibiotic treatment using flomoxef sodium and imipenem·cilastatin sodium. Because the exudate exhibited M. hominis growth in an anaerobic environment, we administered the quinolone ciprofloxacin. This therapy resolved her fever, and her white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level diminished to the normal ranges. To our knowledge, there are four published articles regarding the isolation of M. hominis from postcesarean incisions. Based on the current study and the literature, infection by this pathogen may cause hematoma formation with or without abscess after cesarean section or in immunosuppressed postoperative patients. In such cases, physicians may need to suspect Mycoplasma infection and initiate appropriate antibacterial treatment as soon as possible in order to avoid persistent fever. PMID:21339933

  10. Influence of vestibulovaginal stenosis, pelvic bladder, and recessed vulva on response to treatment for clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease in dogs: 38 cases (1990-1999).

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jason T; Adams, William M

    2002-10-01

    To determine influence of vestibulovaginal stenosis, pelvic bladder, and recessed vulva on response to treatment for clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease in dogs. Retrospective study. 38 spayed female dogs. Medical records and client follow-up were reviewed for dogs evaluated via excretory urography because of clinical signs of lower urinary tract disease. Clinical signs, results of radiography, and response to surgical or medical treatment were analyzed. Clinical signs included urinary tract infection (n = 24), urinary incontinence (20), vaginitis (11), pollakiuria or stranguria (10), and perivulvar dermatitis (4). Vaginocystourethrographic findings included vestibulovaginal stenosis (n = 28), pelvic bladder (17), and ureteritis or pyelonephritis (4). Ten dogs had a vestibulovaginal ratio of < 0.20 (severe stenosis), 9 dogs had a ratio of 0.20 to 0.25 (moderate stenosis), 9 dogs had a ratio of 0.26 to 0.35 (mild stenosis), and 10 dogs had a ratio of > 0.35 (anatomically normal). Lower urinary tract infection, incontinence, and pelvic bladder were not associated with response to treatment for recessed vulva. Vestibulovaginal stenosis with a ratio < 0.20 was significantly associated negatively with response to treatment. Dogs without severe vestibulovaginal stenosis that received vulvoplasty for a recessed vulva responded well to treatment. Vestibulovaginal stenosis is likely an important factor in dogs with vestibulovaginal ratio < 0.20. Vaginectomy or resection and anastomosis should be considered in dogs with severe vestibulovaginal stenosis and signs of lower urinary tract disease.

  11. Nephron-sparing surgery for treatment of reninoma: a rare renin secreting tumor causing secondary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Torricelli, Fabio Cesar Miranda; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Colombo, Jose Roberto; Coelho, Rafael Ferreira; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Srougi, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    A 25-year-old hypertensive female patient was referred to our institution. Initial workup exams demonstrated a 2.8 cm cortical lower pole tumor in the right kidney. She underwent laparoscopic partial nephrectomy without complications. Histopathologic examination revealed a rare juxtaglomerular cell tumor known as reninoma. After surgery, she recovered uneventfully and all medications were withdrawn. Case hypothesis: Secondary arterial hypertension is a matter of great interest to urologists and nephrologists. Renovascular hypertension, primary hyperadosteronism and pheocromocytoma are potential diagnosis that must not be forgotten and should be excluded. Although rare, chronic pyelonephritis and renal tumors as rennin-producing tumors, nephroblastoma, hypernephroma, and renal cell carcinoma might also induce hypertension and should be in the diagnostic list of clinicians. Promising future implications: Approximately 5% of patients with high blood pressure have specific causes and medical investigation may usually identify such patients. Furthermore, these patients can be successfully treated and cured, most times by minimally invasive techniques. This interesting case might expand knowledge of physicians and aid better diagnostic care in future medical practice.

  12. Prevalence of virulence genes in Escherichia coli strains isolated from Romanian adult urinary tract infection cases.

    PubMed

    Usein, C R; Damian, M; Tatu-Chitoiu, D; Capusa, C; Fagaras, R; Tudorache, D; Nica, M; Le Bouguénec, C

    2001-01-01

    A total of 78 E. coli strains isolated from adults with different types of urinary tract infections were screened by polymerase chain reaction for prevalence of genetic regions coding for virulence factors. The targeted genetic determinants were those coding for type 1 fimbriae (fimH), pili associated with pyelonephritis (pap), S and F1C fimbriae (sfa and foc), afimbrial adhesins (afa), hemolysin (hly), cytotoxic necrotizing factor (cnf), aerobactin (aer). Among the studied strains, the prevalence of genes coding for fimbrial adhesive systems was 86%, 36%, and 23% for fimH, pap, and sfa/foc,respectively. The operons coding for Afa afimbrial adhesins were identified in 14% of strains. The hly and cnf genes coding for toxins were amplified in 23% and 13% of strains, respectively. A prevalence of 54% was found for the aer gene. The various combinations of detected genes were designated as virulence patterns. The strains isolated from the hospitalized patients displayed a greater number of virulence genes and a diversity of gene associations compared to the strains isolated from the ambulatory subjects. A rapid assessment of the bacterial pathogenicity characteristics may contribute to a better medical approach of the patients with urinary tract infections.

  13. Bacterial adherence in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection: a review.

    PubMed

    Reid, G; Sobel, J D

    1987-01-01

    Bacterial adherence to the uroepithelium is recognized as an important mechanism in the initiation and pathogenesis of urinary tract infections (UTI). The uropathogens originate predominantly in the intestinal tract and initially colonize the periurethral region and ascend into the bladder, resulting in symptomatic or asymptomatic bacteriuria. Thereafter, depending on host factors and bacterial virulence factors, the organisms may further ascend and give rise to pyelonephritis. Uropathogens are selected by the presence of virulence characteristics that enable them to resist the normally efficient host defense mechanisms. Considerable progress has been made in identifying bacterial adhesins and in demonstrating bacterial receptor sites on uroepithelial surfaces. Recent studies have identified natural anti-adherence mechanisms in humans as well as possible increased susceptibility to UTI when these mechanisms are defective and when receptor density on uroepithelial cells is altered. Knowledge of bacterial adherence mechanisms may permit alternative methods of prevention and management of urinary infection, including the use of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics, vaccine development, nonimmune inhibition of bacterial adhesins and receptor sites, and the use of autochthonous flora, such as lactobacilli, to exclude uropathogens from colonizing the urinary tract.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jim, Belinda; Garovic, Vesna D

    2017-07-01

    Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury (AKI) has declined in incidence in the last three decades, although it remains an important cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Pregnancy-related causes of AKI such as preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, HELLP (Hemolysis, Elevated Liver function tests, Low Platelets) syndrome, and the thrombotic microangiopathies (thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, atypical hemolytic-uremic syndrome [HUS]) exhibit overlapping features and often present as diagnostic dilemmas. Differentiating among these conditions may be difficult or impossible based on clinical criteria only. In difficult and rare cases, a renal biopsy may need to be considered for the exact diagnosis and to facilitate appropriate treatment, but the risks and benefits need to be carefully weighed. The use of eculizumab for the treatment of atypical HUS has demonstrated efficacy in early case reports. Non-pregnancy related causes such as volume depletion and pyelonephritis require early and aggressive resuscitative as well as antibiotic measures respectively. We will discuss in this review the various etiologies of AKI in pregnancy, current diagnostic approaches, and the latest treatment strategies. Given the recent trends of increasing maternal age at the time of pregnancy, and the availability of modern reproductive methods increase the risks of AKI in pregnancy in the coming years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Launois-Bensaude syndrome).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vozmediano, José; Armario-Hita, José

    2005-03-01

    A 37-year-old woman with a personal history of appendicectomy, cholecystectomy, left oophorectomy secondary to an ovarian cyst complication, nephritic colic with repeated episodes of pyelonephritis, alcoholic hepatopathy, Raynaud's phenomenon and bilateral exophthalmos showed an increase in volume in the root of the upper limbs and in the base of the neck over a period of 4 years, painful to the touch and of a soft consistency. She presented with a pseudo-athletic appearance (Fig. 1) produced by an increase in the volume at the root of the upper limbs, upper back and the back of the neck (Fig. 2). The lesions produced a pulling sensation and were associated with paresthesia, hyperesthesia, and a moderate loss of strength in both arms. A biopsy taken from the upper third of the right arm showed a diffuse proliferation of the subcutaneous adipose tissue, which appeared normal, and extended between the collagen fibers, reaching in some cases into the most superficial zones of the reticular dermis (Fig. 3). Laboratory evaluation revealed a chronic anemia, leukopenia with moderate lymphopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, elevation of enzymes of hepatic function, decrease in total proteins, and increase in ferritin, all in the context of hepatopathy. Antinuclear antibodies and the hormonal profile were normal. Abdominal and gynecologic echography revealed a right ovarian cyst of no clinical relevance. Cranial nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed an increase in the periorbital fat responsible for bilateral exophthalmos.

  16. Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Mariana; Lopez, Ivana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano; Roganti, Ariel

    2015-11-11

    A previous Cochrane systematic review has shown that antibiotic drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015) and reference lists of identified articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with short-course (four- to seven-day) treatments. The risk of bias of trials included in this review was largely unclear, and most trials were at high risk of performance bias. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. When the any antibiotic agent was used, the 'no cure' rate for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly lower for the short-course treatment over the single-dose treatment, although there was evidence of statistical heterogeneity (average risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.88; women = 1502, studies = 13; I² = 56%; very low quality evidence). Data from only good quality trials also showed better cure rates with short (four- to seven-day) regimens of the same microbial agent (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.33; women = 803, studies = two; I² = 0%; high quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the

  17. [National S3 guideline on uncomplicated urinary tract infection: recommendations for treatment and management of uncomplicated community-acquired bacterial urinary tract infections in adult patients].

    PubMed

    Wagenlehner, F M E; Schmiemann, G; Hoyme, U; Fünfstück, R; Hummers-Pradier, E; Kaase, M; Kniehl, E; Selbach, I; Sester, U; Vahlensieck, W; Watermann, D; Naber, K G

    2011-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) belong to the most frequent bacterial infections in outpatients. Increasing antibiotic resistance rates and a new appreciation of the epidemiological side effects of antibiotics ("collateral damage") have warranted an update of the guidelines on uncomplicated UTI as an S3 clinical guideline. The guideline was developed by the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie (DGU) in collaboration with the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Allgemein- und Familienmedizin (DEGAM), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe (DGGG), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Hygiene und Mikrobiologie (DGHM), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Infektiologie (DGI), Deutsche Gesellschaft für Nephrologie (DGfN), Paul-Ehrlich-Gesellschaft für Chemotherapie (PEG) and a patient representative. The systematic review of the literature on the topics of the guideline was performed for the time period of 1 January 1998 to 30 April 2008 in the databases of the Cochrane Library and MEDLINE. International guidelines of the years 1999-2007 were included. Uncomplicated UTI comprise uncomplicated cystitis and uncomplicated pyelonephritis. The leading uropathogen is Escherichia coli. The choice of the antibiotic substance follows the five primary aspects: (1) individual patient risk and antibiotic pretreatment; (2) bacterial spectrum and antibiotic susceptibility; (3) effectivity of the antimicrobial substance demonstrated in clinical studies; (4) epidemiological effects ("collateral damage"); and (5) adverse effects. If antibiotics such as trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole or fluoroquinolones have previously been given, the risk for pathogens to become resistant against these substances is increased. Because of increasing resistance rates of E. coli against trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole also in uncomplicated UTI, trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole is no longer regarded as the first-line agent in the empiric treatment of uncomplicated cystitis, unless the regional

  18. Nonresponders: prolonged fever among infants with urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Bachur, R

    2000-05-01

    The majority of young children with fever and urinary tract infections (UTIs) have evidence of pyelonephritis based on renal scans. Resolution of fever during treatment is 1 clinical marker of adequate treatment. Theoretically, prolonged fever may be a clue to complications, such as urinary obstruction or renal abscess. Describe the pattern of fever in febrile children undergoing treatment of a UTI. Compare the clinical characteristics of those patients with prolonged fever to those who respond faster to therapy. An urban pediatric hospital. Medical record review. All children pyelonephritis or UTI were reviewed for 65 consecutive months. Patients with previous UTI, known urologic problems, or immunodeficiency were excluded. Only patients with an admitting temperature >/=38 degrees C and those who met standard culture criteria were studied. Temperatures are not recorded hourly on the inpatient unit; therefore, they were assigned to blocks of time. Nonresponders were defined as those above the 90th percentile for the time to defervesce. Nonresponders were then compared with the balance of the study patients, termed responders. Of 288 patients studied, the median age was 5.6 months (interquartile range: 1.3-7.9 months old). Median admission temperature was 39.3 degrees C (interquartile range: 38.5 degrees C-40.1 degrees C). Median time to defervesce ranged in the time block 13 to 16 hours. Sixty-eight percent were afebrile by 24 hours and 89% by 48 hours. Thirty-one patients had fever >48 hours (nonresponders). Nonresponders were older than responders (9.4 vs 4.1 months old) but had similar initial temperatures (39.8 vs 39.2 degrees C), white blood cell counts (18.4 vs 17.1 x 1000/mm(3)), and band counts (1.4 vs 1.2 x 1000/mm(3)). Nonresponders had similar urinalyses with regard to leukocyte esterase positive (23/29 vs 211/246), nitrite-positive (8/28 vs 88/221], and the number of

  19. Soluble ST2, a Modulator of the Inflammatory Response, in Preterm and Term Labor

    PubMed Central

    Stampalija, Tamara; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Romero, Roberto; Tarca, Adi L.; Bhatti, Gaurav; Chiang, Po Jen; Than, Nandor Gabor; Ferrazzi, Enrico; Hassan, Sonia S.; Yeo, Lami

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intra-amniotic infection/inflammation (IAI) is causally linked with spontaneous preterm labor and delivery. The ST2L receptor and its soluble form (sST2) are capable of binding to interleukin (IL)-33, a member of the IL-1 superfamily. Members of this cytokine family have been implicated in the onset of spontaneous preterm labor in the context of infection. Soluble ST2 has anti-inflammatory properties, and plasma concentrations are elevated in systemic inflammation, such as sepsis, acute pyelonephritis in pregnancy and the fetal inflammatory response syndrome. The aims of this study were to examine: 1) whether amniotic fluid concentrations of sST2 change with IAI, preterm, and term parturition; and 2) if mRNA expression of ST2 in the chorioamniotic membranes changes with acute histologic chorioamnionitis in women who deliver preterm. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine amniotic fluid concentrations of sST2 in: 1) women with preterm labor (PTL) who delivered at term (n=49); 2) women with PTL who delivered preterm without IAI (n=21); 3) women with PTL who delivered preterm with IAI (n=31); 4) term pregnancies not in labor (n=13); and 5) term pregnancies in labor (n=43). The amniotic fluid concentration of sST2 was determined by ELISA. The mRNA expression of ST2 in the chorioamniotic membranes of women who delivered preterm with (n=24), and without acute histologic chorioamnionitis (n=19) was determined by qRT-PCR. Results 1) Patients with PTL who delivered preterm with IAI had a lower median amniotic fluid concentration of sST2 compared to those with PTL who delivered preterm without IAI [median 410 ng/mL, inter-quartile range (IQR) 152-699 ng/mL vs. median 825 ng/mL, IQR 493-1216 ng/mL; p=0.0003] and those with PTL who delivered at term [median 410 ng/mL, IQR 152-699 ng/mL vs. median 673 ng/mL, IQR 468-1045ng/mL; p=0.0003]; 2) no significant differences in the median amniotic fluid concentration of sST2 were observed between patients

  20. Warfarin monitoring in nursing homes assessed by case histories. Do recommendations and electronic alerts affect judgements?

    PubMed

    Teruel, Reyes Serrano; Thue, Geir; Fylkesnes, Svein Ivar; Sandberg, Sverre; Kristoffersen, Ann Helen

    2017-09-01

    Older adults treated with warfarin are prone to complications, and high-quality monitoring is essential. The aim of this case history based study was to assess the quality of warfarin monitoring in a routine situation, and in a situation with an antibiotic-warfarin interaction, before and after receiving an electronic alert. In April 2014, a national web-based survey with two case histories was distributed among Norwegian nursing home physicians and general practitioners working part-time in nursing homes. Case A represented a patient on stable warfarin treatment, but with a substantial INR increase within the therapeutic interval. Case B represented a more challenging patient with trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole (TMS) treatment due to pyelonephritis. In both cases, the physicians were asked to state the next warfarin dose and the INR recall interval. In case B, the physicians could change their suggestions after receiving an electronic alert on the TMS-warfarin interaction. Three hundred and ninety eight physicians in 292 nursing homes responded. Suggested INR recall intervals and warfarin doses varied substantially in both cases. In case A, 61% gave acceptable answers according to published recommendations, while only 9% did so for case B. Regarding the TMS-warfarin interaction in case history B, the electronic alert increased the percentage of respondents correctly suggesting a dose reduction from 29% to 53%. Having an INR instrument in the nursing home was associated with shortened INR recall times. Practical advice on handling of warfarin treatment and drug interactions is needed. Electronic alerts as presented in electronic medical records seem insufficient to change practice. Availability of INR instruments may be important regarding recall time.

  1. Long-Term Percutaneous Nephrostomy Management of Malignant Urinary Obstruction: Estimation of Optimal Exchange Frequency and Estimation of the Financial Impact of Patient Compliance.

    PubMed

    McDevitt, Joseph L; Acosta-Torres, Stefany; Zhang, Ning; Hu, Tianshen; Odu, Ayobami; Wang, Jijia; Xi, Yin; Lamus, Daniel; Miller, David S; Pillai, Anil K

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the least costly routine exchange frequency for percutaneous nephrostomies (PCNs) placed for malignant urinary obstruction, as measured by annual hospital charges, and to estimate the financial impact of patient compliance. Patients with PCNs placed for malignant urinary obstruction were studied from 2011 to 2013. Exchanges were classified as routine or due to 1 of 3 complication types: mechanical (tube dislodgment), obstruction, or infection. Representative cases were identified, and median representative charges were used as inputs for the model. Accelerated failure time and Markov chain Monte Carlo models were used to estimate distribution of exchange types and annual hospital charges under different routine exchange frequency and compliance scenarios. Long-term PCN management was required in 57 patients, with 87 total exchange encounters. Median representative hospital charges for pyelonephritis and obstruction were 11.8 and 9.3 times greater, respectively, than a routine exchange. The projected proportion of routine exchanges increased and the projected proportion of infection-related exchanges decreased when moving from a 90-day exchange with 50% compliance to a 60-day exchange with 75% compliance, and this was associated with a projected reduction in annual charges. Projected cost reductions resulting from increased compliance were generally greater than reductions resulting from changes in exchange frequency. This simulation model suggests that the optimal routine exchange interval for PCN exchange in patients with malignant urinary obstruction is approximately 60 days and that the degree of reduction in charges likely depends more on patient compliance than exact exchange interval. Copyright © 2017 SIR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intraoperative anti-thymocyte globulin-Fresenius (ATG-F) administration as induction immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Abou-Jaoude, Maroun M; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2003-07-01

    We reviewed 43 adult kidney transplant patients (32 males and 11 females, 14-68 years of age) performed at our center between July 1999 and February 2002. Donors (39 males and 4 females) comprised two cadaverics, five living-related and 36 living-unrelated; age 18-44 years. Indications for kidney transplantation (KT) were: chronic glomerulonephritis (8), re-transplantation (4) and chronic pyelonephritis (3); kidney disease was unknown in 15 cases. ATG-F was given as a single intra-operative bolus induction therapy in 26 patients; extended ATG-F dose was given in 17 patients because of a high sensitization status, slow graft function (SGF) or development of calcineurin inhibitors toxicity. ATG-F was stopped in seven out of 17 patients because of thrombocytopenia or severe anemia. ATG-F-related fever occurred in six patients. Acute rejection (AR) occurred in eight patients (18%) 5-11 days post-KT. ATG-F was given in three steroid-resistant AR. Infection occurred in 19 patients (44%) for a total of 32 infectious episodes comprising 24 bacterial infections (nine urinary, seven catheter-related and three respiratory), six viral infections (five CMV and one herpes) and two fungal infections (one pulmonary aspergillosis and one catheter-related candidiasis). The hospital stay was 8-75 days for a median of 13 days. The mean serum creatinine upon discharge, at 1 and 6 months after KT were: 2.04+/-0.37, 1.43+/-0.16 and 1.29+/-0.08, respectively. One patient lost his graft on day 9 because of graft microthrombi related to Factor V-Leiden mutation. The 6 months actuarial patient and graft survival were 100 and 97.6%, respectively. ATG-F as a bolus therapy is an effective and safe induction treatment in KT.

  3. Functional variants in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and toll-like receptor-4 genes are more frequent in children with febrile urinary tract infection with renal parenchymal involvement.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Almontaser; Saad, Khaled; Askar, Eman; Zahran, Asmaa M; Farghaly, Hekma; Metwalley, Kotb; Elderwy, Ahmad A

    2018-02-01

    We studied the functional polymorphisms of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) genes and risk of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children attending Assiut University Children's Hospitals, Egypt, from 2011 to 2015. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) were diagnosed in 380 children: 98 had APN and 282 had lower UTIs. Four single-nucleotide polymorphisms in ICAM-1 and TLR-4 genes were genotyped in all subjects: ICAM-1 rs1799969 Gly241Arg, ICAM-1 rs5498 Glu469Lys, TLR-4 rs4896791 Thr399Ile and TLR-4 rs4896790 Asp299Gly. Patients with APN were significantly more likely to have AA genotype of the ICAM-1 rs5498 (1462 A/G) polymorphism (p = 0.04) than children with lower UTIs and the TLR-4 Asp299Gly GG genotype (p = 0.002) and G allele (p = 0.006) than healthy controls. The association with the ICAM-1 Glu469Lys (1462A/G) was less evident. The GG genotype was associated with a modest relative risk of 1.4 (p = 0.1) of developing APN, but was not an independent odds ratio, at 1.2 (p = 0.48). Functional variants in ICAM-1 and TLR-4 genes were increasingly common in children with febrile UTIs with renal parenchymal involvement, but the ICAM-1 Glu469Lys (1462A/G) association was less evident. TLR4 Asp299Gly might independently increase renal parenchymal infection rather than renal scarring. ©2017 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Quality evaluation and in vitro interaction studies between levofloxacin 250mg and diclofenac sodium 50mg tablets.

    PubMed

    Fayyaz, Muhammad; Yousuf, Rabia Ismail; Shoaib, Muhammad Harris; Ali, Tariq; Nasiri, Iqbal; Ashraf, Nida

    2015-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad-spectrum antibiotics, work against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are a clinically proven option for many resistant infections. Among fluoroquinolones Levofloxacin works best against acute sinusitis, inflammation of the lower airways, acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, community acquired pneumonia, complicated urinary tract infection including Pyelonephritis, chronic bacterial prostatitis and skin and soft tissue infection. Levofloxacin is a frequently prescribed antibacterial agent with Diclofenac Sodium for pain management in infectious conditions. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the level of interaction between Levofloxacin and Diclofenac Sodium. In this work market available brands of both drugs were also evaluated for quality.The physiochemical parameters like weight variation, thickness variation, and mechanical strength were determined. Similarly the percentage drug release and content uniformity test were also analyzed; the tested quality attributes were found within the recommended pharmacopeia ranges except brand L(6) that had high drug content 124.629±3.614 while brand L(4) and L(5) were not found similar in pH 1.2. When subjected to model dependent analysis Levofloxacin showed compliance with (first order, Higuchi, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8). However Diclofenac Sodium showed adherence with (first order, Hixson Crowell and Weibull) at pH (1.2, 4.5 and 6.8) but following Higuchi at pH 1.2 and 4.5 only. The interaction studies were also performed spectrophotometrically and simultaneous equation was used to estimate the percentage availability of both the drugs at pH 4.5, 6.8, FaSSGF and FaSSIF. The studies showed that the percent availability of Levofloxacin was increased significantly in FaSSIF i.e. 129.173±0.323 at 45 minutes in the presence of Diclofenac Sodium.

  5. Complete supine percutaneous nephrolithotomy with GoPro®. Ten steps for success.

    PubMed

    Vicentini, Fabio Carvalho; Dos Santos, Hugo Daniel Barone; Batagello, Carlos Alfredo; Amundson, Julia Rothe; Oliveira, Evaristo Peixoto; Marchini, Giovanni Scala; Srougi, Miguel; Nahas, Willian Carlos; Mazzucchi, Eduardo

    2018-03-15

    To show a video of a complete supine Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (csPCNL) performed for the treatment of a staghorn calculus, from the surgeon's point of view. The procedure was recorded with a GoPro® camera, demonstrating the ten essential steps for a successful procedure. The patient was a 38 years-old woman with 2.4cm of left kidney lower pole stone burden who presented with 3 months of lumbar pain and recurrent urinary tract infections. She had a previous diagnosis of polycystic kidney disease and chronic renal failure stage 2. CT scan showed two 1.2cm stones in the lower pole (Guy's Stone Score 2). She had a previous ipsilateral double J insertion due to an obstructive pyelonephritis. The csPCNL was uneventful with a single access in the lower pole. The surgeon had a Full HD GoPro Hero 4 Session® camera mounted on his head, controlled by the surgical team with a remote control. All of the mains steps were recorded. Informed consent was obtained prior to the procedure. The surgical time was 90 minutes. Hemoglobin drop was 0.5g/dL. A post-operative CT scan was stone-free. The patient was discharged 36 hours after surgery. The camera worked properly and didn't cause pain or muscle discomfort to the surgeon. The quality of the recorded movie was excellent. GoPro® camera proved to be a very interesting tool to document surgeries without interfering with the procedure and with great educational potential. More studies should be conducted to evaluate the role of this equipment. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  6. Outcomes of high-dose levofloxacin therapy remain bound to the levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration in complicated urinary tract infections.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Eliana S; Mikulca, Janelle A; Cloutier, Daniel J; Bliss, Caleb A; Steenbergen, Judith N

    2016-11-25

    Fluoroquinolones are a guideline-recommended therapy for complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Elevated drug concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the urine and therapy with high-dose levofloxacin are believed to overcome resistance and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. The ASPECT-cUTI phase 3 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345929 and NCT01345955 , both registered April 28, 2011) provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining the clinical and microbiological outcomes of high-dose levofloxacin treatment by levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration. Patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to ceftolozane/tazobactam (1.5 g intravenous every 8 h) or levofloxacin (750 mg intravenous once daily) for 7 days of therapy. The ASPECT-cUTI study provided data on 370 patients with at least one isolate of Enterobacteriaceae at baseline who were treated with levofloxacin. Outcomes were assessed at the test-of-cure (5-9 days after treatment) and late follow-up (21-42 days after treatment) visits in the microbiologically evaluable population (N = 327). Test-of-cure clinical cure rates above 90% were observed at minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤4 μg/mL. Microbiological eradication rates were consistently >90% at levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations ≤0.06 μg/mL. Lack of eradication of causative pathogens at the test-of-cure visit increased the likelihood of relapse by the late follow-up visit. Results from this study do not support levofloxacin therapy for complicated urinary tract infections caused by organisms with levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations ≥4 μg/mL. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345929 and NCT01345955.

  7. Long-term outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease stage 5 over the last 40 years.

    PubMed

    Adamczuk, Dominika; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated outcomes in children with chronic kidney disease stage 5 (CKD 5) treated in the first pediatric dialysis unit in Poland during 1973-2012. The retrospective analysis included 208 children with CKD 5 undergoing renal replacement therapy (RRT), stratified into four decades of treatment: 1973-1982, 1983-1992, 1993-2002, and 2003-2012. The most common causes of CKD 5 included glomerulonephritis in 27.4% and pyelonephritis secondary to urinary tract anomalies in 25.5% of children. Among 208 children, 172 (82.7%) survived and 17.3% died. Kidney transplantation (KTx) was performed in 47.6% of children, including pre-emptive KTx in 1.92% of children. Chronic dialysis was continued in 34.1% of children, and RRT was withdrawn in 1%. The overall mortality rate was 6.2 per 100 patient-years, and 3-year survival was 83.9%. The highest mortality rate of 23.4 per 100 patient-years was observed among children in whom RRT was initiated in 1973-1982, with subsequent reduction of the mortality rate to 4.5 and 2.1 per 100 patient-years in 1993-2002 and 1983-1992 respectively. No deaths were noted after 2002. Cardiovascular problems were the most common cause of death, found in 36.1% of patients ( p < 0.01). Identified risk factors for mortality included young age, low residual diuresis, anemia at the time of RRT initiation, and hypertriglyceridemia and hypoalbuminemia during RRT. In years 1973-2012 significant improvement in prognosis among children with CKD 5 was achieved. Identified predictors of mortality included young age at initiation of RRT, low residual diuresis, anemia and hypertriglyceridemia.

  8. Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria

    PubMed Central

    Rumney, Pamela J.; Hindra, Sasha; Guzman, Lizette; Le, Jennifer; Nageotte, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy. Design: A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated. Results: Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%–100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (≥75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34–38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed. Conclusion: One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings. PMID:26535612

  9. Pilot Study to Evaluate Compliance and Tolerability of Cranberry Capsules in Pregnancy for the Prevention of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria.

    PubMed

    Wing, Deborah A; Rumney, Pamela J; Hindra, Sasha; Guzman, Lizette; Le, Jennifer; Nageotte, Michael

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the compliance with and tolerability of daily cranberry capsule ingestion for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) prevention in pregnancy. A total of 49 pregnant women from two sites were randomly assigned to cranberry or matching placebo, two doses daily, at gestational ages less than 16 weeks. Patients were followed monthly for urinary tract infection until delivery. Up to seven monthly visits were scheduled for each patient. Delivery data were evaluated. Of 38 evaluable patients, the mean compliance rate over the study period was 82% (range, 20%-100%). This compliance rate and the 74% of patients achieving good (≥75%) compliance were similar between those who received cranberry capsules and placebo. Compliance evaluation revealed that most patients stopped capsule consumption after 34-38 weeks of participation. Multivariate logistic regression and longitudinal analysis showed a significant interaction time effect with cranberry treatment. However, cranberry consumption was not a significant predictor of gastrointestinal intolerance or study withdrawal. Although 30% of patients withdrew for various reasons, only 1 withdrew because of intolerance to the cranberry capsules. Loss to follow-up was mostly due to provider change (9 of 49 [18%]) and therapy disinterest (4 of 49 [8%]). Seven cases of ASB occurred in 5 patients: 2 of 24 (8%) in the cranberry group and 3 of 25 (12%) in the placebo group. No cases of cystitis or pyelonephritis were observed. One third of pregnant women could not complete the study protocol for various reasons. Compliance with and tolerability of cranberry capsule ingestion appear good; these capsules provide a potentially effective means to prevent ASB in pregnancy. Further studies with large samples are necessary to confirm the findings.

  10. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women.

    PubMed

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-04-01

    Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 10 [5] colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn.

  11. Asymptomatic bacteriuria & obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy in north Indian women

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vaishali; Das, Vinita; Agarwal, Anjoo; Pandey, Amita

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy if left untreated, may lead to acute pyelonephritis, preterm labour, low birth weight foetus, etc. Adequate and early treatment reduces the incidence of these obstetric complications. The present study was done to determine presence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and obstetric outcome following treatment in early versus late pregnancy. Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary care teaching hospital of north India. Pregnant women till 20 wk (n=371) and between 32 to 34 wk gestation (n=274) having no urinary complaints were included. Their mid stream urine sample was sent for culture and sensitivity. Women having > 105 colony forming units/ml of single organism were diagnosed positive for ASB and treated. They were followed till delivery for obstetric outcome. Relative risk with 95% confidence interval was used to describe association between ASB and outcome of interest. Results: ASB was found in 17 per cent pregnant women till 20 wk and in 16 per cent between 32 to 34 wk gestation. Increased incidence of preeclamptic toxaemia (PET) [RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-7.97], preterm premature rupture of membrane (PPROM)[RR 3.63, 45% CI 1.63-8.07], preterm labour (PTL) [RR 3.27, 95% CI 1.38-7.72], intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR)[RR 3.79, 95% CI 1.80-79], low birth weight (LBW) [RR1.37, 95% CI 0.71-2.61] was seen in late detected women (32-34 wk) as compared to ASB negative women, whereas no significant difference was seen in early detected women (till 20 wk) as compared to ASB negative women. Interpretation & conclusions: Early detection and treatment of ASB during pregnancy prevents complications like PET, IUGR, PTL, PPROM and LBW. Therefore, screening and treatment of ASB may be incorporated as routine antenatal care for safe motherhood and healthy newborn. PMID:23703344

  12. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria and its Antibacterial Susceptibility Pattern Among Pregnant Women Attending the Antenatal Clinic at Kanpur, India

    PubMed Central

    Nawani, Manju

    2014-01-01

    Background: Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates. Aim: To identify the prevalence of ASB, the most common causative microorganisms and the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms at a tertiary care centre at Kanpur, India. Materials and Methods: A total number of 300 asymptomatic pregnant women were screened for ASB by urine culture by using a semi quantitative culture method. Results: In this study, significant bacteriuria was found in only 22 cases (7.3%). Growth of contaminants was seen in 40 cases (13.3%). Among cases which showed positive cultures, 48.9% were primigravidae and 51.1% were multigravidae. Highest incidence was reported in age group of 21-30 years. The predominant organisms which were isolated were Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Escherichia coli, the most common isolate, was found to be only 61% and 70% sensitive to ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate, respectively. Sensitivity to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was 95%, and sensitivity to amikacin was 99%. Hundred percent sensitivity was found for the broad spectrum pencillins, imipenem, and meropenem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, the second most frequent organism which was grown on culture, was only 11% sensitive to ampicillin, while sensitivity to amoxicillin + clavulanate and cefuroxime was 86%. 100% sensitivity was found for cefepime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. Conclusion: Routine urine culture test should be carried out for all antenatal women, to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, to

  13. Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and its antibacterial susceptibility pattern among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic at kanpur, India.

    PubMed

    Sujatha, R; Nawani, Manju

    2014-04-01

    Symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) is common in pregnant women. Pregnancy enhances the progression from ASB to symptomatic bacteriuria, which if left untreated, could lead to acute pyelonephritis and other adverse outcomes such as prematurity, postpartum, hypertensive disease, anaemia, UTIs and higher foetal mortality rates. To identify the prevalence of ASB, the most common causative microorganisms and the antibacterial susceptibilities of the isolated microorganisms at a tertiary care centre at Kanpur, India. A total number of 300 asymptomatic pregnant women were screened for ASB by urine culture by using a semi quantitative culture method. In this study, significant bacteriuria was found in only 22 cases (7.3%). Growth of contaminants was seen in 40 cases (13.3%). Among cases which showed positive cultures, 48.9% were primigravidae and 51.1% were multigravidae. Highest incidence was reported in age group of 21-30 years. The predominant organisms which were isolated were Escherichia coli, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Proteus mirabilis. Escherichia coli, the most common isolate, was found to be only 61% and 70% sensitive to ampicillin and amoxicillin + clavulanate, respectively. Sensitivity to ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin was 95%, and sensitivity to amikacin was 99%. Hundred percent sensitivity was found for the broad spectrum pencillins, imipenem, and meropenem. Klebsiella pneumoniae, the second most frequent organism which was grown on culture, was only 11% sensitive to ampicillin, while sensitivity to amoxicillin + clavulanate and cefuroxime was 86%. 100% sensitivity was found for cefepime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and meropenem. Routine urine culture test should be carried out for all antenatal women, to detect asymptomatic bacteriuria, and every positive case should be treated with appropriate antibiotic therapy, to prevent any obstetric complication which is associated with

  14. Iliac Artery-Uretero-Colonic Fistula Presenting as Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage and Hematuria: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Saya; Tobu, Shohei; Udo, Kazuma; Noguchi, Mitsuru

    2018-01-01

    Background: The experience with uretero-arterial fistulas has been limited. However, the aggressive treatment of pelvic tumors with surgical resection and radiotherapy, along with liberal use of ureteral catheters, has been attributed to an increase in their incidence. Unless they are promptly diagnosed and treated, uretero-arterial fistulas are associated with considerably high rates of morbidity and mortality. Urologists need maintain a high degree of suspicion for uretero-arterial fistula in high-risk patients. We herein present the clinical course of an iliac artery-uretero-colonic fistula. Case Presentation: A 67-year-old woman with a history of colon cancer who underwent laparoscopic high anterior resection in July 2010. A ureteral stent inserted to right ureteral stricture, which developed as a result of local recurrence of the tumor in September 2010. She had undergone chemoradiotherapy, but the lesion had slowly increased in size. During the replacement of the ureteral stent in April 2016, she immediately experienced bladder tamponade, bloody bowel discharge, and hypotension. Contrast CT revealed a complex fistula between the right distal ureter and the right internal iliac artery. Furthermore, contrast medium flowed into the intestinal tract through the tumor. The patient was therefore diagnosed with internal iliac artery-uretero-colonic fistula. Arteriography revealed a right uretero-internal iliac artery fistula, and the embolization of the right internal iliac artery was performed. The right ureteral stent was removed. Her hematuria and bloody bowel discharge disappeared, but right nephrostomy was performed because she presented with acute pyelonephritis to ureteral obstruction. Conclusion: In the present case, the uretero-arterial fistula was caused by the long use of an indwelling stent, chemoradiotherapy, infection, and an increase in the size of the lesion. When a suspected uretero-arterial fistula is accompanied by bloody bowel discharge, we

  15. Functional and histological bladder damage in mice after photodynamic therapy: the influence of sensitiser dose and time of administration.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, F. A.; Oussoren, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The bladders of anaesthetised mice were illuminated with red laser light (630 nm) at intervals of 1 day to 4 weeks after i.p. administration of Photofrin. Light was delivered intravesically by inserting a fibre optic, with a diffusing bulb tip, into the centre of fluid filled bladders. A single light dose of 11.3 J cm-2 applies 1 day after 10 mg kg-1 Photofrin caused a severe acute response, with increased urination frequency (five to seven times control) and hematuria. Recovery was good, however, and by 10 weeks only a mild (approximately two-fold) increase in frequency remained. There was no reduction in the amount of acute bladder damage or in the rate of healing when the interval between Photofrin and light was increased from 1 to 7 days but a 2 to 3 week interval lead to a significant reduction in damage. For an interval of 4 weeks there was only a mild (less than two-fold) increase in urination frequency during the first week. A drug dose of 2.5 mg kg-1 given 1 day before illumination caused transient haematuria but no increase in urination frequency. Doses of 5, 7.5 or 10 mg kg-1 all caused photosensitisation and the amount of bladder damage was drug dose dependent. The bladder seems to be well able to recover from severe acute damage induced by PDT. Occasional incidences of pyelonephritis were seen, however, suggesting that urinary tract infection during the acute period may lead to permanent renal damage. Images Figure 5 PMID:8398691

  16. Studer orthotopic ileal bladder substitute construction - surgical technique and complication management: one-center and 12-year experience.

    PubMed

    Wyczółkowski, M; Juszczak, K; Rzepecki, M; Drewniak, T; Klima, W

    2010-01-01

    We have performed Studer neobladder creation in 61 patients (53 male and 8 female). The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical outcomes, to review the surgical technique modification, postoperative complications management and metabolic disturbances. All patients were retrospectively studied and followed-up. The follow-up: 12 years to 2 months. 44 patients (41 male and 3 female) returned for a control visit. All completed IIQ-7 questionnaire. Continence was analysed. Kidney ultrasound, post void residual and uroflowmetry, blood tests (electrolytes, kidney markers, acid-base balance) were performed. All patients were divided into two groups: I (with Zuber mineral water intake) and group II (without Zuber mineral water intake) for acid-base balance analysis. Early complications occurred in 13.1% (enterocolitis, neobladder-urethral anastomosis leakage, pyelonephritis, and lymphorrhoea). Late complications occurred in 14.0% (stricture of the neobladder-urethra anastomosis, urosepsis secondarily to bilateral hydronephrosis, stone formation, and pyonephrosis). In the follow-up 88.6% of patients revealed normal continence. The nocturnal incontinence, nocturia, and external or indwelling catheter were reported in 9, 6 and 5 patients, respectively). In IIQ-7 the mean negative impact of continence level on patients quality of life was 10.08% ± 14.47%. The mean Qmax., Qave., post void residual were 15.8 ± 4.9 ml/s, 7.9 ± 3.0 ml/s, and 151.2 ± 139.2 ml, respectively. Patients who regularly intake the Zuber present significant decrease of BE deficiency as compared to patient without Zuber usage. The Studer neobladder is the alternative urinary diversion. This is the difficult, skill demanding procedure, nevertheless gaining experience with self modifications resulted in decrease of complications. The Zuber mineral water intake ameliorates the base excess deficiency after Studer creation.

  17. [Stents in urology].

    PubMed

    Mattei, A; Danuser, H

    2003-04-01

    Ureteral stents are employed in the upper and urethral stents in the lower urinary tract for restitution or maintenance of urinary drainage. Placement of ureteral stents is indicated as an adjuvant measure prior to extracorporal disintegration (ESWL) of large kidney stones to insure urinary drainage and enhance expulsion of fragments and disintegrate. Also, obstruction by very small urinary tract stones that are not treatable by ESWL because they cannot be localized can be relieved by placement of a double-J-stent with immediate elimination of colic. If the cause of urinary tract obstruction is external ureteral compression (retroperitoneal mass), placement of a special tumor stent is one possibility. This, however, has the danger of becoming reobstructed with detritus and blockage of the drainage holes in the stent. In these cases the essential drainage along the stent is blocked by the mass. Therefore, a percutaneous nephrostomy providing direct drainage is easier to control and preferable. Obstructive pyelonephritis is an absolute indication for drainage of the upper urinary tract with a double-J-stent, or even better by percutaneous nephrostomy. If pyeloureteral or ureteral stenoses of the upper urinary tract are opened endoscopically, then the double-J-stent serves to maintain and insure drainage until the new lumen is reepithelialized. In patients with prostatic hyperplasia who no longer respond to medical treatment and who are not candidates for more invasive surgical treatment, a stent can be placed in the prostatic urethra under local anesthesia as a last resort. This procedure is seldom used but, in view of the satisfactory long-term results, it provides a true alternative to bladder drainage by transurethral catheter or percutaneous cystostomy. The same stents may be used in the bulbar urethra to reduce restricture rates following endoscopic treatment of strictures.

  18. Ofloxacin: new applications for the prevention of urinary tract infections in renal graft recipients.

    PubMed

    Rafat, C; Vimont, S; Ancel, P Y; Xu-Dubois, Y C; Mesnard, L; Ouali, N; Denis, M; Vandewalle, A; Rondeau, E; Hertig, A

    2011-08-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs), the most common form of bacterial infection in kidney transplant recipients, recently have been demonstrated to be detrimental for long-term graft outcome. Therefore, reinforcing antibiotic prophylaxis might be vital, in addition to basic hygiene recommendations, surgical care, and prophylaxis by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. In 2006, a Legionella pneumophila contamination of our department's water pipes meant that all the patients undergoing renal transplantation underwent a 1-month regimen of ofloxacin (OFLO) (200 mg every other day). We took this opportunity to measure the incidence of UTI, including acute pyelonephritis (APN), in 100 consecutive patients transplanted before (n = 50) and after (n = 50) this treatment decision was reached. We also studied the antimicrobial resistance profiles in our department and in the rest of the hospital. No patient developed Legionnaire's disease. A dramatic decrease in the incidence of UTI (-63%) was also seen in patients undergoing OFLO treatment. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the use of OFLO was independently associated with a reduction in UTI (odd ratio [OR] = 0.31%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.84, P = 0.02) and APN (OR = 0.21%, 95% CI 0.07-0.98, P = 0.045). This protection was sustained during the whole first year post transplantation. As for resistance rates, we observed a decrease in the susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to ciprofloxacin in our nephrology department, compared with that observed in the rest of the hospital. The incidence of multi-resistant bacteria was stable. Our unintentional extension of prophylactic antibiotherapy with OFLO gave rise to a dramatic decrease in the 1-year incidence of UTI and APN in kidney recipients. Emergence of resistant strains is, however, a major concern. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. GPs should evaluate all children following UTI.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Frances; Jadresić, Lyda

    2010-01-01

    Ten per cent of girls and 3% of boys will have had a UTI by 16 years of age. The majority are acute, isolated illnesses that resolve quickly, with no long-term implications for the patient. However, UTIs may be associated with underlying congenital abnormalities, and recurrent infections can lead to renal scarring. UTI is defined as bacteriuria in the presence of symptoms. Asymptomatic bacteriuria does not require treatment or investigation. The presentation of UTI is extremely variable. The only way to differentiate a UTI from a viral infection is by testing the urine and this should be carried out within 24 hours in children with non-specific fever. UTIs can also present with vomiting, failure to thrive or persistent irritability. A urine infection in the presence of any of the above symptoms is a pyelonephritis (upper UTI). Children may also present with classical symptoms of cystitis (lower UTI) such as urinary frequency, dysuria and abdominal pain. Most children with UTI, even if febrile, can be managed in the community. If the initial assessment shows a high risk of serious illness, there should be an urgent referral to a paediatrician. The same applies to infants under three months with suspected UTI. It is better to obtain a urine sample by the clean catch method, rather than using urine pads or bags. Leucocyte esterase and nitrite dipsticks are not reliable in children under three, so a negative dipstick does not rule out UTI. Not every child needs to be referred after a first UTI. However, they should all be evaluated to help determine which require renal imaging as well as identifying triggers for recurrence. GPs are central to the identification of children at risk of renal pathology. All children who are diagnosed and treated for a UTI must be assessed for risk of renal abnormalities and/or recurrence.

  20. Retrospective study for risk factors for febrile UTI in spinal cord injury patients with routine concomitant intermittent catheterization in outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Mukai, S; Shigemura, K; Nomi, M; Sengoku, A; Yamamichi, F; Fujisawa, M; Arakawa, S

    2016-01-01

    Retrospective study. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical risk factors for febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in spinal cord injury-associated neurogenic bladder (NB) patients who perform routine clean intermittent catheterization (CIC). Rehabilitation Hospital, Kobe, Japan. Over a 3-year period, we retrospectively assessed the clinical risk factors for febrile UTI in 259 spinal cord injury patients diagnosed as NB and performing routine CIC with regard to the factors such as gender, the presence of pyuria and bacteriuria, and the categories of the American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) impairment scale. A total of 67 patients had febrile UTI in the follow-up period, with 57 cases of pyelonephritis, 11 cases of epididymitis and 2 cases of prostatitis, including the patients with plural infectious diseases. The causative bacteria were ranked as follows: Escherichia coli (74 cases), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (17 cases), Enterococcus faecalis (14 cases) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12 cases). Antibiotic-resistant E. coli were seen, with 10.5% instances of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production and 23.8% of fluoroquinolone resistance. Multivariate analyses of clinical risk factors for febrile UTI showed that gender (male, P=0.0431), and ASIA impairment scale C or more severe (P=0.0266) were significantly associated with febrile UTI occurrence in NB patients with routine CIC. Our data demonstrated gender (male) and ASIA impairment scale C or more severe were significantly associated with febrile UTI occurrence in NB patients using routine CIC. Further prospective studies are necessary to define the full spectrum of possible risk factors for febrile UTI in these patients.

  1. A Single Dose of Intraoperative Antibiotics Is Sufficient to Prevent Urinary Tract Infection During Ureteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ben H; Flannigan, Ryan; Kurtz, Michael; Gershman, Boris; Arsovska, Olga; Paterson, Ryan F; Eisner, Brian H; Lange, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    American Urology Association (AUA) Best Practice Guidelines for ureteroscopic stone treatment recommend antibiotic coverage for <24 hours following the procedure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the addition of postoperative antibiotics reduces urinary tract infections (UTIs) following ureteroscopic stone treatment beyond the recommended preoperative dose. A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients at two institutions, University of British Columbia and Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard. All patients received a single dose of antibiotics before ureteroscopic stone treatment. A subset of patients was also given postoperative antibiotics. The rate of UTI was compared in patients receiving only preoperative antibiotics (group 1) vs those who received pre- and postoperative antibiotics (group 2). Eighty-one patients underwent ureteroscopy for renal calculi. Mean time to follow up was 42 ± 88 days. Eight (9.9%) patients in total (two from group 1 and six from group 2, p = 0.1457) developed UTIs postoperatively. In group 1, both patients presented with pyelonephritis (n = 2); those patients with infections in group 2 presented with urosepsis (n = 2) and cystitis (n = 2) and two patients had asymptomatic bacteriuria. Risk factors such as preoperative stenting, nephrostomy tubes, and foley catheters neither differed between groups nor did they predispose patients to postoperative infections. The postoperative UTI rate in this study (9.9%) is consistent with previous reports. Our data suggest that a single preoperative dose of antibiotics is sufficient, and additional postoperative antibiotics do not decrease infection rates after ureteroscopic stone treatment. Risk for selection bias is a potential limitation.

  2. Management of complicated urinary tract infections in a referral center in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cornejo-Dávila, Victor; Palmeros-Rodríguez, Mario A; Uberetagoyena-Tello de Meneses, Israel; Mayorga-Gómez, Edgar; Garza-Sáinz, Gerardo; Osornio-Sánchez, Victor; Trujillo-Ortiz, Luis; Sedano-Basilio, Jorge E; Cantellano-Orozco, Mauricio; Martínez-Arroyo, Carlos; Morales-Montor, Jorge G; Pacheco-Gahbler, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Urinary tract infections are a common problem encountered by primary care, emergency physicians and urologists. A complicated urinary tract infection (CUTI) responds less effectively to the standard treatment. E. coli is the most common pathogen (40-70 %). In Mexico, there are ciprofloxacin resistance rates of 8-73 %, to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 53-71 % and cephalosporins 5-18 %, with an ESBL E. coli prevalence of 10 %. For infections producing gas or purulent material, the percutaneous or endoscopic drainage is the standard. To describe the management of patients with CUTIs, their specifically clinical course and eventual culture results determining the most common isolated microorganisms and their resistance. The clinical records of patients hospitalized with CUTIs from January 2012 to July 2013 were reviewed. One hundred and seventy-three patients were included. Acute pyelonephritis was the most common presentation (53.2 %). The most common microorganism was E. coli (83 %), with ESBL prevalence of 71.4 % and a resistance to quinolone, cephalosporin and trimethoprim of 89.7, 64.7 and 60.3 %, respectively. The most common factors associated with development of CUTIs were recent use of antibiotics (95.3 %) and obstructive uropathy (73.4 %). A total of 41 % received carbapenems and 40.5 % received minimally invasive treatments. Overall mortality was 2.9 %. There were a greater ESBL-producing pathogen prevalence and an over 50 % resistance to classically first-choice antibiotics. The minimally invasive treatments for complicated infections are fundamental; however, nephrectomy still has a role. Wide-spectrum antimicrobial therapy and minimally invasive approaches are the most common treatments for CUTIs in our center, and a reevaluation regarding antibiotic use in Mexico needs to be done.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a diagnostic algorithm for symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service

    PubMed Central

    Grude, Nils; Lindbaek, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the clinical outcome of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis who were seen by a doctor, with patients who were given treatment following a diagnostic algorithm. Design. Randomized controlled trial. Setting. Out-of-hours service, Oslo, Norway. Intervention. Women with typical symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis were included in the trial in the time period September 2010–November 2011. They were randomized into two groups. One group received standard treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm, the other group received treatment after a regular consultation by a doctor. Subjects. Women (n = 441) aged 16–55 years. Mean age in both groups 27 years. Main outcome measures. Number of days until symptomatic resolution. Results. No significant differences were found between the groups in the basic patient demographics, severity of symptoms, or percentage of urine samples with single culture growth. A median of three days until symptomatic resolution was found in both groups. By day four 79% in the algorithm group and 72% in the regular consultation group were free of symptoms (p = 0.09). The number of patients who contacted a doctor again in the follow-up period and received alternative antibiotic treatment was insignificantly higher (p = 0.08) after regular consultation than after treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm. There were no cases of severe pyelonephritis or hospital admissions during the follow-up period. Conclusion. Using a diagnostic algorithm is a safe and efficient method for treating women with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service. This simplification of treatment strategy can lead to a more rational use of consultation time and a stricter adherence to National Antibiotic Guidelines for a common disorder. PMID:25961367

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a diagnostic algorithm for symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service.

    PubMed

    Bollestad, Marianne; Grude, Nils; Lindbaek, Morten

    2015-06-01

    To compare the clinical outcome of patients presenting with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis who were seen by a doctor, with patients who were given treatment following a diagnostic algorithm. Randomized controlled trial. Out-of-hours service, Oslo, Norway. Women with typical symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis were included in the trial in the time period September 2010-November 2011. They were randomized into two groups. One group received standard treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm, the other group received treatment after a regular consultation by a doctor. Women (n = 441) aged 16-55 years. Mean age in both groups 27 years. Number of days until symptomatic resolution. No significant differences were found between the groups in the basic patient demographics, severity of symptoms, or percentage of urine samples with single culture growth. A median of three days until symptomatic resolution was found in both groups. By day four 79% in the algorithm group and 72% in the regular consultation group were free of symptoms (p = 0.09). The number of patients who contacted a doctor again in the follow-up period and received alternative antibiotic treatment was insignificantly higher (p = 0.08) after regular consultation than after treatment according to the diagnostic algorithm. There were no cases of severe pyelonephritis or hospital admissions during the follow-up period. Using a diagnostic algorithm is a safe and efficient method for treating women with symptoms of uncomplicated cystitis at an out-of-hours service. This simplification of treatment strategy can lead to a more rational use of consultation time and a stricter adherence to National Antibiotic Guidelines for a common disorder.

  5. "Urinary Tract Infection"-Requiem for a Heavyweight.

    PubMed

    Finucane, Thomas E

    2017-08-01

    "Urinary tract infection" ("UTI") is an ambiguous, expansive, overused diagnosis that can lead to marked, harmful antibiotic overtreatment. "Significant bacteriuria," central to most definitions of "UTI," has little significance in identifying individuals who will benefit from treatment. "Urinary symptoms" are similarly uninformative. Neither criterion is well defined. Bacteriuria and symptoms remit and recur spontaneously. Treatment is standard for acute uncomplicated cystitis and common for asymptomatic bacteriuria, but definite benefits are few. Treatment for "UTI" in older adults with delirium and bacteriuria is widespread but no evidence supports the practice, and expert opinion opposes it. Sensitive diagnostic tests now demonstrate that healthy urinary tracts host a ubiquitous, complex microbial community. Recognition of this microbiome, largely undetectable using standard agar-based cultures, offers a new perspective on "UTI." Everyone is bacteriuric. From this perspective, most people who are treated for a "UTI" would probably be better off without treatment. Elderly adults, little studied in this regard, face particular risk. Invasive bacterial diseases such as pyelonephritis and bacteremic bacteriuria are also "UTIs." Mindful decisions about antibiotic use will require a far better understanding of how pathogenicity arises within microbial communities. It is likely that public education and meaningful informed-consent discussions about antibiotic treatment of bacteriuria, emphasizing potential harms and uncertain benefits, would reduce overtreatment. Emphasizing the microbiome's significance and using the term "urinary tract dysbiosis" instead of "UTI" might also help and might encourage mindful study of the relationships among host, aging, microbiome, disease, and antibiotic treatment. © 2017, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Drug and Vaccine Development for the Treatment and Prevention of Urinary Tract Infections.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Valerie P; Hannan, Thomas J; Nielsen, Hailyn V; Hultgren, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the most common bacterial infections in humans, affecting millions of people every year. UTI cause significant morbidity in women throughout their lifespan, in infant boys, in older men, in individuals with underlying urinary tract abnormalities, and in those that require long-term urethral catheterization, such as patients with spinal cord injuries or incapacitated individuals living in nursing homes. Serious sequelae include frequent recurrences, pyelonephritis with sepsis, renal damage in young children, pre-term birth, and complications of frequent antimicrobial use including high-level antibiotic resistance and Clostridium difficile colitis. Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) cause the vast majority of UTI, but less common pathogens such as Enterococcus faecalis and other enterococci frequently take advantage of an abnormal or catheterized urinary tract to cause opportunistic infections. While antibiotic therapy has historically been very successful in controlling UTI, the high rate of recurrence remains a major problem, and many individuals suffer from chronically recurring UTI, requiring long-term prophylactic antibiotic regimens to prevent recurrent UTI. Furthermore, the global emergence of multi-drug resistant UPEC in the past ten years spotlights the need for alternative therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat UTI, including anti-infective drug therapies and vaccines. In this chapter, we review recent advances in the field of UTI pathogenesis, with an emphasis on the identification of promising drug and vaccine targets. We then discuss the development of new UTI drugs and vaccines, highlighting the challenges these approaches face and the need for a greater understanding of urinary tract mucosal immunity.

  7. Urinary matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 biomarkers for predicting renal scar in children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohammadjafari, Hamid; Rafiei, Alireza; Bazi, Sara; Yazdani, Pooneh

    2017-01-01

    Objective Urinary tract infection occurs in 1.8–6.6% of children under 6 years old. The aim of this study was to assess the urinary concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and the potential to develop renal scarring. Material and methods Children who had experienced an episode of APN were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included children with APN who exhibited scarring and group 2 included children with APN who had a normal 99mTechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Urinary levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were measured in the acute phase of infection. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to allow calculation of cut-off values. Results Sixty-one children were enrolled across the 2 groups: group 1 contained 16 patients (all female); group 2, 38 children (36 female and 2 male). Urinary levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.037 and 0.022 respectively). For comparison of groups 1 and 2, the cut-off values were measured as 75.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 62.5%, specificity 71.1%, positive predictive value, PPV, 48%, negative predictive value, NPV, 82%), 16.1 ng/mL (sensitivity 75%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 41%, NPV 84%), and 1310.7 ng/mL (sensitivity 75% specificity 60.5%, PPV 44%, NPV 85%) for MMP9, TIMP1, and MMP9×TIMP1 levels, respectively. Conclusion Evaluation of urinary MMP9 and TIMP1 levels may help to identify children with APN who are at risk of developing renal scarring. PMID:29201521

  8. Comparison of procalcitonin and different guidelines for first febrile urinary tract infection in children by imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Pei-Fen; Ku, Min-Sho; Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Choa, Yu-Hua; Hung, Tung-Wei; Lue, Ko-Huang; Sheu, Ji-Nan

    2014-09-01

    We examined the ability of a procalcitonin (PCT) protocol to detect vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and renal scarring (RS), evaluated procedural costs and radiation burden, and compared four representative guidelines for children with their first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Children aged ≤2 years with their first febrile UTI who underwent renal ultrasonography (US), acute and late technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan, and voiding cystourethrography were prospectively studied. The representative guidelines applied in a retrospective simulation included the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), National Institute of Clinical Excellence, top-down approach (TDA), and Italian Society of Pediatric Nephrology (ISPN). These were compared in terms of ability to detect abnormalities, procedural costs and radiation. Of 278 children analyzed, 172 (61.9%) had acute pyelonephritis. There was VUR in 101 (36.3%) children, including 73 (26.3%) with grades III-V VUR. RS was identified in 75 (27.0%) children. To detect VUR, TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity for grades I-V VUR (80.2%) and III-V VUR (94.5%), respectively, whereas AAP had the highest specificity for I-V VUR (77.4%) and III-V VUR (78.0%), respectively. TDA and PCT had the highest sensitivity (100%) for detecting RS. The highest cost and radiation dose was associated with TDA, whereas AAP had the least expenditure and radiation exposure. By multivariate analysis, PCT and VUR, especially grades III-V, were independent predictors of RS. There is no perfect guideline for first febrile UTI children. The PCT protocol has good ability for detecting high-grade VUR and RS. If based on available imaging modalities and reducing cost and radiation burden, clinical suggestions in the AAP guidelines represent a considerable protocol.

  9. Prediction of Cortical Defect Using C-Reactive Protein and Urine Sodium to Potassium Ratio in Infants with Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Su Jin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated whether C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, urine protein-creatinine ratio (uProt/Cr), and urine electrolytes can be useful for discriminating acute pyelonephritis (APN) from other febrile illnesses or the presence of a cortical defect on 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning (true APN) from its absence in infants with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Materials and Methods We examined 150 infants experiencing their first febrile UTI and 100 controls with other febrile illnesses consecutively admitted to our hospital from January 2010 to December 2012. Blood (CRP, electrolytes, Cr) and urine tests [uProt/Cr, electrolytes, and sodium-potassium ratio (uNa/K)] were performed upon admission. All infants with UTI underwent DMSA scans during admission. All data were compared between infants with UTI and controls and between infants with or without a cortical defect on DMSA scans. Using multiple logistic regression analysis, the ability of the parameters to predict true APN was analyzed. Results CRP levels and uProt/Cr were significantly higher in infants with true APN than in controls. uNa levels and uNa/K were significantly lower in infants with true APN than in controls. CRP levels and uNa/K were relevant factors for predicting true APN. The method using CRP levels, u-Prot/Cr, u-Na levels, and uNa/K had a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 65%, positive predictive value of 60%, and negative predictive value of 95% for predicting true APN. Conclusion We conclude that these parameters are useful for discriminating APN from other febrile illnesses or discriminating true APN in infants with febrile UTI. PMID:26632389

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Urinary Tract Infection-Child.

    PubMed

    Karmazyn, Boaz K; Alazraki, Adina L; Anupindi, Sudha A; Dempsey, Molly E; Dillman, Jonathan R; Dorfman, Scott R; Garber, Matthew D; Moore, Sheila G; Peters, Craig A; Rice, Henry E; Rigsby, Cynthia K; Safdar, Nabile M; Simoneaux, Stephen F; Trout, Andrew T; Westra, Sjirk J; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Coley, Brian D

    2017-05-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is common in young children and may cause pyelonephritis and renal scarring. Long-term complications from renal scarring are low. The role of imaging is to evaluate for underlying urologic abnormalities and guide treatment. In neonates there is increased risk for underlying urologic abnormalities. Evaluation for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) may be appropriate especially in boys because of higher prevalence of VUR and to exclude posterior urethral valve. In children older than 2 months with first episode of uncomplicated UTI, there is no clear benefit of prophylactic antibiotic. Ultrasound is the only study that is usually appropriate. After the age of 6 years, UTIs are infrequent. There is no need for routine imaging as VUR is less common. In children with recurrent or complicated UTI, in addition to ultrasound, imaging of VUR is usually appropriate. Renal cortical scintigraphy may be appropriate in children with VUR, as renal scarring may support surgical intervention. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical profile and antibiotics sensitivity in childhood urinary tract infection at Dhulikhel Hospital.

    PubMed

    Singh, S D; Madhup, S K

    2013-01-01

    Urinary Tract Infection implies presence of actively multiplying organisms in the urinary tract. Although it is infrequently associated with mortality, it is still a significant cause of morbidity. Early diagnosis is critical to preserve renal function of growing kidney. Our purpose was to determine the clinical, microbiologic profile and antibiotic sensitivity of such infections in pediatric Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) patients at Dhulikhel Hospital. A hospital based prospective descriptive study of 135 children from 2 months to 16 years, with clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection who visited the pediatric department of Dhulikhel Hospital over the period of 15 months were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent routine urine analysis and culture. Children with recurrent UTI underwent micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG). Children with recurrent UTI of more than two years and with feature of pyelonephritis underwent USG abdomen as well. Complications and response of the treatment was observed in all cases of UTI. All data were entered in Epidata and data analysis was done using spss 16 version. Among 135 children, 32.5% were male and 67.4% were female. Fever was the most common presenting symptom in 74.80% of patients followed by dysuria in 54.1%. Among these children 95.6% had significant pyuria and 45% had culture positive infection. Children who showed positive for bacteriuria, Escherichia coli (78.7%) was the most common organism and are more than 80% sensitive to Amikacin, Gentamicin, Ceftriaxone, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Imipenem and Vancomycin. Co-trimoxazole was the most common drug used for treatment with a mean drug respond time of (mean+/-S.D) of 2.21+/-.78 days. 2+/-. Children who had recurrent UTI were more prone to develop culture positive UTI (p=0.0001). Urinary Tract Infection in female was almost twice more common than in male. Cotrimoxazole was the most common drug used for treatment, sensitivity of this drug was less than 50% for

  12. Distal Ureteral Diameter Ratio is Predictive of Breakthrough Febrile Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Arlen, Angela M; Leong, Traci; Guidos, P Joseph; Alexander, Siobhan E; Cooper, Christopher S

    2017-12-01

    Distal ureteral diameter ratio is an objective measure that is prognostic of spontaneous resolution of vesicoureteral reflux. Along with likelihood of resolution, improved identification of children at risk for recurrent febrile urinary tract infections may impact management decisions. We evaluated the usefulness of ureteral diameter ratio as a predictive factor for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and detailed voiding cystourethrogram were identified. Ureteral diameter ratio was computed by measuring largest ureteral diameter within the pelvis and dividing by the distance between L1 and L3 vertebral bodies. Demographics, vesicoureteral reflux grade, laterality, presence/absence of bladder-bowel dysfunction, and ureteral diameter ratio were tested in univariate and multivariable analyses. Primary outcome was breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. We analyzed 112 girls and 28 boys with a mean ± SD age of 2.5 ± 2.3 years at diagnosis. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade 1 to 2 in 64 patients (45.7%), grade 3 in 50 (35.7%), grade 4 in 16 (11.4%) and grade 5 in 10 (7.2%). Mean ± SD followup was 3.2 ± 2.7 years. A total of 40 children (28.6%) experienced breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections. Ureteral diameter ratio was significantly greater in children with (0.36) vs without (0.25) breakthrough febrile infections (p = 0.004). Controlling for vesicoureteral reflux grade, every 0.1 U increase in ureteral diameter ratio resulted in 1.7 times increased odds of breakthrough infection (95% CI 1.24 to 2.26, p <0.0001). Children with increased distal ureteral diameter ratio are at greater risk for breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections independent of reflux grade. Ureteral diameter ratio provides valuable prognostic information about risk of recurrent pyelonephritis and may assist with clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc

  13. The results of different diagnostic imaging studies used in children with urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Alghamdi, Ahmed Hassan; Ghamdi, Jameel Al; Al-Dammas, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) can cause significant renal scarring, which can be complicated by hypertension and renal impairment. This study describes the outcome of different imaging modalities in children with UTI and its relation to age, sex and type of UTI. Our objective was to describe the frequencies of different imaging studies, which were used to investigate children with UTI at King Fahad Hospital (KFH) between the years 2003 and 2008. This is a descriptive study of all children presenting with UTI at KFH from 2003 to 2008. The study population, 100 children, were divided into 3 age groups; first group (> 1 month to 2 years); second group (> 2 to 5 years), third group (> 5 to 12 years). All enrolled children were confirmed to have had UTI via urinary cultures. Ninety seven (97%) patients underwent renal ultrasonography (US), 77 (77%) had a 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan within 2 months of presentation, and 60 (60%) patients underwent micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG), mainly those with an abnormal DMSA scan. A total of 100 patients screened, 10 (10%) were males and 90 (90%) were females, first age group constituted 10%, second age group was 25%, third age groups was 65%. E-coli was isolated in 84% of patients, 60% had recurrent UTI, 45% had pyelonephritis, 48.4% had abnormal renal US, 61% had an abnormal DMSA scan, and 26.6% had abnormal MCUG. UTI can cause significant morbidity in children if not managed properly. Imaging studies are useful in identifying children who require advanced medical intervention; however, such studies should be performed only when indicated. PMID:27493418

  14. Evaluation of new American Academy of Pediatrics guideline for febrile urinary tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Da Min; Heo, Tae Hoon; Yoo, Kee Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the practical applications of the diagnosis algorithms recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics urinary tract infection (UTI) guideline. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of febrile UTI patients aged between 2 and 24 months. The patients were divided into 3 groups: group I (patients with positive urine culture and urinalysis findings), group II (those with positive urine culture but negative urinalysis findings), and group III (those with negative urine culture but positive urinalysis findings). Clinical, laboratory, and imaging results were analyzed and compared between the groups. Results A total of 300 children were enrolled. The serum C-reactive protein level was lower in children in group II than in those in groups I and III (P<0.05). Children in group I showed a higher frequency of hydronephrosis than those in groups II and III (P<0.05). However, the frequencies of acute pyelonephritis (APN), vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), renal scar, and UTI recurrence were not different between the groups. In group I, recurrence of UTI and presence of APN were associated with the incidence of VUR (recurrence vs. no recurrence: 40% vs.11.4%; APN vs. no APN: 23.3% vs. 9.2%; P<0.05). The incidence of VUR and APN was not related to the presence of hydronephrosis. Conclusion UTI in febrile children cannot be ruled out solely on the basis of positive urinalysis or urine culture findings. Recurrence of UTI and presence of APN may be reasonable indicators of the presence of VUR. PMID:26512260

  15. Urinary matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 biomarkers for predicting renal scar in children with urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Abedi, Seyed Mohammad; Mohammadjafari, Hamid; Rafiei, Alireza; Bazi, Sara; Yazdani, Pooneh

    2017-12-01

    Urinary tract infection occurs in 1.8-6.6% of children under 6 years old. The aim of this study was to assess the urinary concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1), in children with acute pyelonephritis (APN) and the potential to develop renal scarring. Children who had experienced an episode of APN were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 included children with APN who exhibited scarring and group 2 included children with APN who had a normal 99m Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid scan. Urinary levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were measured in the acute phase of infection. A receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to allow calculation of cut-off values. Sixty-one children were enrolled across the 2 groups: group 1 contained 16 patients (all female); group 2, 38 children (36 female and 2 male). Urinary levels of MMP9 and TIMP1 were significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 (p=0.037 and 0.022 respectively). For comparison of groups 1 and 2, the cut-off values were measured as 75.5 ng/mL (sensitivity 62.5%, specificity 71.1%, positive predictive value, PPV, 48%, negative predictive value, NPV, 82%), 16.1 ng/mL (sensitivity 75%, specificity 55.3%, PPV 41%, NPV 84%), and 1310.7 ng/mL (sensitivity 75% specificity 60.5%, PPV 44%, NPV 85%) for MMP9, TIMP1, and MMP9×TIMP1 levels, respectively. Evaluation of urinary MMP9 and TIMP1 levels may help to identify children with APN who are at risk of developing renal scarring.

  16. Androgens Enhance Male Urinary Tract Infection Severity in a New Model

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Patrick D.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) occur predominantly in females but also affect substantial male patient populations; indeed, morbidity in complicated UTI is higher in males. Because of technical obstacles, preclinical modeling of UTI in male mice has been limited. We devised a minimally invasive surgical bladder inoculation technique that yields reproducible upper and lower UTI in both male and female mice, enabling studies of sex differences in these infections. Acute uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cystitis in C57BL/6 and C3H/HeN males recapitulated the intracellular bacterial community pathway previously shown in females. However, surgically infected females of these strains exhibited more robust bladder cytokine responses and more efficient UPEC control than males. Compared with females, C3H/HeN males displayed a striking predilection for chronic cystitis, manifesting as persistent bacteriuria, high-titer bladder bacterial burdens, and chronic inflammation. Furthermore, males developed more severe pyelonephritis and 100% penetrant renal abscess (a complication that is rare in female mice). These phenotypes were sharply abrogated after castration but restored with exogenous testosterone, suggesting that male susceptibility to UTI is strongly influenced by androgen exposure. These data substantiate the long-standing presumption that anatomic differences in urogenital anatomy confer protection from UTI in males; however, as clinically observed, male sex associated with more severe UTI once these traditional anatomic barriers were bypassed. This study introduces a highly tractable preclinical model for interrogating sex differences in UTI susceptibility and pathogenesis, and illuminates an interplay between host sex and UTI that is more complex than previously appreciated. PMID:26449605

  17. Urine Stasis Predisposes to Urinary Tract Infection by an Opportunistic Uropathogen in the Megabladder (Mgb) Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Becknell, Brian; Mohamed, Ahmad Z.; Li, Birong; Wilhide, Michael E.; Ingraham, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Urinary stasis is a risk factor for recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI). Homozygous mutant Megabladder (Mgb-/-) mice exhibit incomplete bladder emptying as a consequence of congenital detrusor aplasia. We hypothesize that this predisposes Mgb-/- mice to spontaneous and experimental UTI. Methods Mgb-/-, Mgb+/-, and wild-type female mice underwent serial ultrasound and urine cultures at 4, 6, and 8 weeks to detect spontaneous UTI. Urine bacterial isolates were analyzed by Gram stain and speciated. Bladder stones were analyzed by x-ray diffractometry. Bladders and kidneys were subject to histologic analysis. The pathogenicity of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS) isolated from Mgb-/- urine was tested by transurethral administration to culture-negative Mgb-/- or wild-type animals. The contribution of urinary stasis to CONS susceptibility was evaluated by cutaneous vesicostomy in Mgb-/- mice. Results Mgb-/- mice develop spontaneous bacteriuria (42%) and struvite bladder stones (31%) by 8 weeks, findings absent in Mgb+/- and wild-type controls. CONS was cultured as a solitary isolate from Mgb-/- bladder stones. Bladders and kidneys from mice with struvite stones exhibit mucosal injury, inflammation, and fibrosis. These pathologic features of cystitis and pyelonephritis are replicated by transurethral inoculation of CONS in culture-negative Mgb-/- females, whereas wild-type animals are less susceptible to CONS colonization and organ injury. Cutaneous vesicostomy prior to CONS inoculation significantly reduces the quantity of CONS recovered from Mgb-/- urine, bladders, and kidneys. Conclusions CONS is an opportunistic uropathogen in the setting of urinary stasis, leading to enhanced UTI incidence and severity in Mgb-/- mice. PMID:26401845

  18. Comparative genomics of transport proteins in probiotic and pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica strains.

    PubMed

    Do, Jimmy; Zafar, Hassan; Saier, Milton H

    2017-06-01

    Escherichia coli is a genetically diverse species that can be pathogenic, probiotic, commensal, or a harmless laboratory strain. Pathogenic strains of E. coli cause urinary tract infections, diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, and pyelonephritis, while the two known probiotic E. coli strains combat inflammatory bowel disease and play a role in immunomodulation. Salmonella enterica, a close relative of E. coli, includes two important pathogenic serovars, Typhi and Typhimurium, causing typhoid fever and enterocolitis in humans, respectively, with the latter strain also causing a lethal typhoid fever-like disease in mice. In this study, we identify the transport systems and their substrates within seven E. coli strains: two probiotic strains, two extracellular pathogens, two intracellular pathogens, and K-12, as well as the two intracellular pathogenic S. enterica strains noted above. Transport systems characteristic of each probiotic or pathogenic species were thus identified, and the tabulated results obtained with all of these strains were compared. We found that the probiotic and pathogenic strains generally contain more iron-siderophore and sugar transporters than E. coli K-12. Pathogens have increased numbers of pore-forming toxins, protein secretion systems, decarboxylation-driven Na + exporters, electron flow-driven monovalent cation exporters, and putative transporters of unknown function compared to the probiotic strains. Both pathogens and probiotic strains encode metabolite transporters that reflect their intracellular versus extracellular environments. The results indicate that the probiotic strains live extracellularly. It seems that relatively few virulence factors can convert a beneficial or commensal microorganism into a pathogen. Taken together, the results reveal the distinguishing features of these strains and provide a starting point for future engineering of beneficial enteric bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Role of Chaperone-subunit Usher Domain Interactions in the Mechanism of Bacterial Pilus Biogenesis Revealed by ESI-MS*

    PubMed Central

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C.; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J.; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E.; Radford, Sheena E.

    2012-01-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species. PMID:22371487

  20. The role of chaperone-subunit usher domain interactions in the mechanism of bacterial pilus biogenesis revealed by ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, Bethny; Leney, Aneika C; Toste Rêgo, Ana; Phan, Gilles; Allen, William J; Verger, Denis; Waksman, Gabriel; Ashcroft, Alison E; Radford, Sheena E

    2012-07-01

    The PapC usher is a β-barrel outer membrane protein essential for assembly and secretion of P pili that are required for adhesion of pathogenic E. coli, which cause the development of pyelonephritis. Multiple protein subunits form the P pilus, the highly specific assembly of which is coordinated by the usher. Despite a wealth of structural knowledge, how the usher catalyzes subunit polymerization and orchestrates a correct and functional order of subunit assembly remain unclear. Here, the ability of the soluble N-terminal (UsherN), C-terminal (UsherC2), and Plug (UsherP) domains of the usher to bind different chaperone-subunit (PapDPapX) complexes is investigated using noncovalent electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The results reveal that each usher domain is able to bind all six PapDPapX complexes, consistent with an active role of all three usher domains in pilus biogenesis. Using collision induced dissociation, combined with competition binding experiments and dissection of the adhesin subunit, PapG, into separate pilin and adhesin domains, the results reveal why PapG has a uniquely high affinity for the usher, which is consistent with this subunit always being displayed at the pilus tip. In addition, we show how the different soluble usher domains cooperate to coordinate and control efficient pilus assembly at the usher platform. As well as providing new information about the protein-protein interactions that determine pilus biogenesis, the results highlight the power of noncovalent MS to interrogate biological mechanisms, especially in complex mixtures of species.

  1. Morphological and clinical findings in Sri Lankan patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu): Similarities and differences with Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Wijkström, Julia; Jayasumana, Channa; Dassanayake, Rajeewa; Priyawardane, Nalin; Godakanda, Nimali; Siribaddana, Sisira; Ring, Anneli; Hultenby, Kjell; Söderberg, Magnus; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Wernerson, Annika

    2018-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, an endemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is affecting rural communities. The endemic has similarities with Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) in Central America, however it has not yet been clarified if the endemics are related diagnostic entities. We designed this study of kidney biopsies from patients with CKDu in Sri Lanka to compare with MeN morphology. Eleven patients with CKDu were recruited at the General Hospital, Polonnaruwa, using similar inclusion and exclusion criteria as our previous MeN studies. Inclusion criteria were 20-65 years of age and plasma creatinine 100-220 μmol/L. Exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension and albuminuria >1g/24h. Kidney biopsies, blood and urine samples were collected, and participants answered a questionnaire. Included participants were between 27-61 years of age and had a mean eGFR of 38±14 ml/min/1.73m2. Main findings in the biopsies were chronic glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage with glomerulosclerosis (8-75%), glomerular hypertrophy and mild to moderate tubulointerstitial changes. The morphology was more heterogeneous and interstitial inflammation and vascular changes were more common compared to our previous studies of MeN. In two patients the biopsies showed morphological signs of acute pyelonephritis but urine cultures were negative. Electrolyte disturbances with low levels of serum sodium, potassium, and/or magnesium were common. In the urine, only four patients displayed albuminuria, but many patients exhibited elevated α-1-microglobulin and magnesium levels. This is the first study reporting detailed biochemical and clinical data together with renal morphology, including electron microscopy, from Sri Lankan patients with CKDu. Our data show that there are many similarities in the biochemical and morphological profile of the CKDu endemics in Central America and Sri Lanka, supporting a common etiology. However, there are differences, such as a more

  2. Morphological and clinical findings in Sri Lankan patients with chronic kidney disease of unknown cause (CKDu): Similarities and differences with Mesoamerican Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jayasumana, Channa; Dassanayake, Rajeewa; Priyawardane, Nalin; Godakanda, Nimali; Siribaddana, Sisira; Ring, Anneli; Hultenby, Kjell; Söderberg, Magnus; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf; Wernerson, Annika

    2018-01-01

    In Sri Lanka, an endemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) is affecting rural communities. The endemic has similarities with Mesoamerican Nephropathy (MeN) in Central America, however it has not yet been clarified if the endemics are related diagnostic entities. We designed this study of kidney biopsies from patients with CKDu in Sri Lanka to compare with MeN morphology. Eleven patients with CKDu were recruited at the General Hospital, Polonnaruwa, using similar inclusion and exclusion criteria as our previous MeN studies. Inclusion criteria were 20–65 years of age and plasma creatinine 100–220 μmol/L. Exclusion criteria were diabetes mellitus, uncontrolled hypertension and albuminuria >1g/24h. Kidney biopsies, blood and urine samples were collected, and participants answered a questionnaire. Included participants were between 27–61 years of age and had a mean eGFR of 38±14 ml/min/1.73m2. Main findings in the biopsies were chronic glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage with glomerulosclerosis (8–75%), glomerular hypertrophy and mild to moderate tubulointerstitial changes. The morphology was more heterogeneous and interstitial inflammation and vascular changes were more common compared to our previous studies of MeN. In two patients the biopsies showed morphological signs of acute pyelonephritis but urine cultures were negative. Electrolyte disturbances with low levels of serum sodium, potassium, and/or magnesium were common. In the urine, only four patients displayed albuminuria, but many patients exhibited elevated α-1-microglobulin and magnesium levels. This is the first study reporting detailed biochemical and clinical data together with renal morphology, including electron microscopy, from Sri Lankan patients with CKDu. Our data show that there are many similarities in the biochemical and morphological profile of the CKDu endemics in Central America and Sri Lanka, supporting a common etiology. However, there are differences, such

  3. Removal of ureteral calculi in two geldings via a standing flank approach.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Jeremy; Freeman, David E; MacKay, Robert J; Matyjaszek, Sarah; Lewis, Jordan; Sanchez, L Chris; Meyer, Stephanie

    2012-11-01

    Two geldings, aged 11 and 17 years, were examined for treatment of ureteroliths located approximately 10 cm proximal to the bladder. Ureteral obstruction was an incidental finding in 1 horse that was referred because of urinary tract obstruction and a cystic calculus. This horse did not have clinical or laboratory evidence of renal failure, although severe hydronephrosis was evident on transabdominal ultrasonography. The second patient had a serum creatinine concentration of 6.3 mg/dL (reference range, 0.8 to 2.2 mg/dL) and mild hydronephrosis of the affected left kidney. In both patients, the obstructed ureter was exteriorized through a flank incision as a standing procedure, and the calculus was crushed and removed with a uterine biopsy forceps introduced through a ureterotomy approximately 25 cm proximal to the calculus. The cystic calculus was removed through a perineal urethrostomy by lithotripsy, piecemeal extraction, and lavage. The horse without azotemia developed pyelonephritis in the affected kidney and was euthanatized because of complications of a nephrectomy 13 months later. In the horse with azotemia, the serum creatinine concentration decreased after surgery, and the horse returned to its intended use. However, it was euthanatized approximately 2 years after surgery because of progressive renal failure, and a large nephrolith was found in the previously unobstructed right kidney. The technique used for ureterolith removal was successful in both horses in this report, did not require sophisticated equipment, and could be effective in the early stages of ureteral obstruction as a means of restoring urine flow and renal function. The outcome in the horse with advanced unilateral renal disease without azotemia would suggest that nephrectomy should be considered as a treatment in such patients.

  4. Conservative Management of Staghorn Calculi: When Is It Safe?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Tara Nikonow; Shahait, Mohammad; Maganty, Avinash; Ost, Michael; Jackman, Stephen; Averch, Timothy; Semins, Michelle Jo

    2018-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics, infectious and kidney function patterns, and overall outcomes in a cohort of patients with staghorn calculi treated conservatively. Staghorn calculi treated nonoperatively between January 2009 and January 2017 were identified. A retrospective analysis was completed. Twenty-nine patients were identified with a median age of 74 years (interquartile range [IQR] 61-81). Mean follow-up was 24 months. Fifty-nine percent (17/29) had complete staghorn calculi with 6/29 (21%) bilateral. Mean body mass index was 29.4 (IQR 24.8-31.7). Of the 29 patients, 14 were treated conservatively due to comorbidities, 12 refused treatments, and 3 were due to aberrant anatomy. The age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score demonstrated 8 patients in our cohort with a CCI of <3, 11 patients with a CCI of 4 or 5, 7 patients with a CCI of 6 or 7, and 3 patients with a CCI of >8. Overall, kidney function remained stable for 19/29 patients (66%) and the glomerular filtration rate decreased by <10% for 4/29 (14%), by 10%-29% for 2/29 (7%), and >30% for 4/29 patients (14%) over the study period. None of the study patients required hemodialysis. No patients in the cohort developed an abscess, nor were any patients on daily prophylactic antibiotics. There was only one related admission for a complication during the study; this was for pyelonephritis. There were two deaths during the study period. One death was an unrelated cardiac death and the other was from urosepsis; this patient had been noncompliant with follow-up. Outcomes for patients treated conservatively were reasonable in this select group. There is a need for future prospective studies to show whether conservative treatment of these patients is safe.

  5. Impact of selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test results on the appropriateness of antibiotics chosen by French general practitioners in urinary tract infections: a randomised controlled case-vignette study.

    PubMed

    Bourdellon, Loic; Thilly, Nathalie; Fougnot, Sébastien; Pulcini, Céline; Henard, Sandrine

    2017-08-01

    Selective reporting of antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) results is a potential intervention for laboratory-based antibiotic stewardship. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of AST reporting on the appropriateness of antibiotics selected by French general practitioners for urinary tract infections (UTIs). A randomised controlled case-vignette study in a region of northeast France surveyed general practitioners between July and October 2015 on treatment of four clinical cases of community-acquired Escherichia coli UTIs (two cases of complicated cystitis, one of acute pyelonephritis and one male UTI). In Group A, selective reporting of AST results was used for the first two cases and complete reporting for the other two cases; these were reversed in Group B. The overall participation rate was 131/198 (66.2%). Provision of selective AST results significantly increased the rate of adherence to national guidelines for first-line antibiotic treatment in Cases 1, 3 and 4 by 22.4% (55.2% vs. 32.8%, P = 0.01), 67.5% (75.0% vs. 7.5%, P <0.001) and 36.3% (45.3% vs. 9.0%, P <0.001), respectively. The improvement in compliance was not significant for Case 2. Prescriptions of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, fluoroquinolones and cephalosporins decreased by 25.0% to 45.0%, depending on the clinical vignette. Most (106/131, 81.0%) participants favoured the routine use of selective reporting of AST results. In conclusion, selective reporting of AST results seems to improve antibiotic prescribing practices in primary care, and may be considered a key element of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with urinary tract infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Handoka, Nesrein Mosad; Amin, Rasha Emad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In humans, vitamin D has been shown to play a role in infectious diseases, but its association with acquisition and a complicated course of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels and the risk of first time febrile UTI in children. Material and methods This prospective case-control study included 50 children with first febrile UTI, with no risk factors for UTI, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy siblings as controls. White blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathormone were measured in all studied children. Vitamin D status was determined by measuring plasma 25(OH)D3 level. Deficiency was defined as a plasma 25(OH)D3 level ≤ 25 nmol/l. Results Children with UTI had significantly lower mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 (10.5 ±2.7 nmol/l) than those of controls (25.9 ±5.6 nmol/l) (p < 0.05). Patients with lower UTI had significantly higher serum levels of 25(OH)D3 compared to those with acute pyelonephritis (12.4 ±2.59 vs. 8.2 ±3.2 nmol/l; p < 0.001). Mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly lower (p = 0.001) in the female patients compared with males, and this difference was not found within the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that a serum 25(OH)D3 level of ≤ 25 nmol/l is associated with UTI (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.61–2.82; p = 0.04). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency (≤ 25 nmol/l) was an independent risk factor for UTI in children. PMID:29379541

  7. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with urinary tract infection in children.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Sherein Abdelhamid; Handoka, Nesrein Mosad; Amin, Rasha Emad

    2018-01-01

    In humans, vitamin D has been shown to play a role in infectious diseases, but its association with acquisition and a complicated course of febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs) has not been investigated. We aimed to investigate the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D 3 ) levels and the risk of first time febrile UTI in children. This prospective case-control study included 50 children with first febrile UTI, with no risk factors for UTI, and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy siblings as controls. White blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathormone were measured in all studied children. Vitamin D status was determined by measuring plasma 25(OH)D 3 level. Deficiency was defined as a plasma 25(OH)D 3 level ≤ 25 nmol/l. Children with UTI had significantly lower mean serum levels of 25(OH)D 3 (10.5 ±2.7 nmol/l) than those of controls (25.9 ±5.6 nmol/l) ( p < 0.05). Patients with lower UTI had significantly higher serum levels of 25(OH)D 3 compared to those with acute pyelonephritis (12.4 ±2.59 vs. 8.2 ±3.2 nmol/l; p < 0.001). Mean serum levels of 25(OH)D 3 were significantly lower ( p = 0.001) in the female patients compared with males, and this difference was not found within the control group. Multivariate analysis showed that a serum 25(OH)D 3 level of ≤ 25 nmol/l is associated with UTI (OR = 1.94, 95% CI: 1.61-2.82; p = 0.04). Vitamin D deficiency (≤ 25 nmol/l) was an independent risk factor for UTI in children.

  8. The Association between Vitamin D Levels and Urinary Tract Infection in Children.

    PubMed

    Tekin, Mehmet; Konca, Capan; Celik, Velat; Almis, Habip; Kahramaner, Zelal; Erdemir, Aydin; Gulyuz, Abdulgani; Uckardes, Fatih; Turgut, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to examine whether there is any association between serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D3] and urinary tract infection (UTI) among children. White blood cell count, serum C-reactive protein, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, parathormone, and serum 25(OH)D3 levels were measured in 82 children experiencing a first episode of UTI, with no risk factors for UTI, and 64 healthy control children. The mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 among children with UTI were significantly lower than those of controls (11.7 ± 3.3 vs. 27.6 ± 4.7 ng/ml; p < 0.001). The serum levels of 25(OH)D3 were significantly lower in patients with acute pyelonephritis compared to patients with lower UTI (8.6 ± 2.8 vs. 14.2 ± 3.0 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Within the study group, mean serum levels of 25(OH)D3 among girls were lower than those of boys (10.9 ± 3.4 ng/ml vs. 13.2 ± 4.4 ng/ml; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that a serum 25(OH)D3 level of <20 ng/ml (odds ratio 3.503, 95% confidence interval 1.621-7.571; p = 0.001) was associated with UTI in children. Our results suggest that vitamin D deficiency may be a risk factor for UTI in children. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Azithromycin-Ciprofloxacin-Impregnated Urinary Catheters Avert Bacterial Colonization, Biofilm Formation, and Inflammation in a Murine Model of Foreign-Body-Associated Urinary Tract Infections Caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Saini, Hina; Vadekeetil, Anitha; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2017-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a multifaceted pathogen causing a variety of biofilm-mediated infections, including catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). The high prevalence of CAUTIs in hospitals, their clinical manifestations, such as urethritis, cystitis, pyelonephritis, meningitis, urosepsis, and death, and the associated economic challenges underscore the need for management of these infections. Biomaterial modification of urinary catheters with two drugs seems an interesting approach to combat CAUTIs by inhibiting biofilm. Previously, we demonstrated the in vitro efficacy of urinary catheters impregnated with azithromycin (AZM) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) against P. aeruginosa Here, we report how these coated catheters impact the course of CAUTI induced by P. aeruginosa in a murine model. CAUTI was established in female LACA mice with uncoated or AZM-CIP-coated silicone implants in the bladder, followed by transurethral inoculation of 10 8 CFU/ml of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa PAO1. AZM-CIP-coated implants (i) prevented biofilm formation on the implant's surface ( P ≤ 0.01), (ii) restricted bacterial colonization in the bladder and kidney ( P < 0.0001), (iii) averted bacteriuria ( P < 0.0001), and (iv) exhibited no major histopathological changes for 28 days in comparison to uncoated implants, which showed persistent CAUTI. Antibiotic implants also overcame implant-mediated inflammation, as characterized by trivial levels of inflammatory markers such as malondialdehyde ( P < 0.001), myeloperoxidase ( P < 0.05), reactive oxygen species ( P ≤ 0.001), and reactive nitrogen intermediates ( P < 0.01) in comparison to those in uncoated implants. Further, AZM-CIP-coated implants showed immunomodulation by manipulating the release of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10 to the benefit of the host. Overall, the study demonstrates long-term in vivo effectiveness of AZM-CIP-impregnated catheters

  10. The PapG-adhesin at the tip of P-fimbriae provides Escherichia coli with a competitive edge in experimental bladder infections of cynomolgus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Human urinary tract infection is an infectious disease that depends on a series of host-microbial interactions. The bacteria first colonize the colon and then the periurethral/vaginal areas; they ascend to and infect first the bladder and then the kidneys. Expression of Escherichia coli P-fimbriae constitutes the strongest correlation to renal pathogenicity, but is also related to first-time cystitis in children. The role of P-fimbriae in the preceding steps in the infectious process is unknown. To examine this, we constructed, from a P-fimbriated E. coli strain with a class II G-adhesin preferentially binding to globoside, one isogenic mutant lacking the G-adhesin and another isogenic mutant in which we replaced the papG class II allele with a class III adhesin preferentially binding to the Forssman antigen. We report here the comparison of the adhesin knockout mutant (DS17-8) and the class-switch mutant (DS17-1) with the wild-type (DS17) for in vivo colonization of the gut, vagina, and bladder of cynomolgus monkeys. It was recently shown that the class II tip G-adhesin is a prerequisite for acute pyelonephritis to occur in the monkey model in the absence of other kidney-specific adhesins or obstruction of the urinary flow. Here we show that it is not required for bladder infection but gives a competitive advantage in mixed infections. In the vagina and colon, the G-adhesin gives no competitive advantage. PMID:7500014

  11. A comparative study: do "clickers" increase student engagement in multidisciplinary clinical microbiology teaching?

    PubMed

    Stevens, Niall T; McDermott, Hélène; Boland, Fiona; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Humphreys, Hilary

    2017-04-08

    Audience response devices, or "clickers", have been used in the education of future healthcare professionals for several years with varying success. They have been reported to improve the learning experience by promoting engagement and knowledge retention. In 2014, our department evaluated the use of "clickers" in a newly introduced multidisciplinary approach to teaching large groups of third year medical students clinical cases developed around a microbiology theme. Six multidisciplinary teaching sessions covering community-acquired pneumonia, tuberculosis, infective endocarditis, peritonitis, bloodstream infection with pyelonephritis and bacterial meningitis were included in the study. Three involved the use of the "clickers" and three did not. Consenting undergraduate students attended the designated classes and afterwards answered a short online quiz relating to the session. Students also answered a short questionnaire about the "clickers" to gauge their attitudes on the use of these devices. Of 310 students, 294 (94.8%) agreed to participate in the study. Interestingly, the grades of online quizzes after a session where a "clicker" was used were slightly lower. Looking only at the grades of students who engaged completely with the process (n = 19), there was no statistical difference to suggest that the devices had a positive or negative impact on knowledge retention. However, student attitudes to using the devices were positive overall. Fifty-five percent strongly agreed and 27% agreed that teaching sessions where the "clickers" were used were more engaging. Thirty-four percent strongly agreed and 36% agreed that the "clickers" made important concepts more memorable and 54% felt the device enhanced their understanding of the topic being covered. Overall, it appears that "clickers" help in improving student engagement in large classroom environments, enhance the learning experience, and are received positively by medical students but their impact on

  12. THE KNOCKED-OUT UNILATERAL KIDNEY! CAUSES AND PRESENTATION.

    PubMed

    Bangash, Kashif; Alam, Asaf; Amin, Mohammed; Anwar, Khursheed

    2015-01-01

    Due to lack of awareness and non-availability of proper medical facilities in Pakistan, patients with kidney problems tend to seek urological consultation very late when their kidney has already knocked-out. The aim of the study was to find the various presenting complaints of patients having unilateral loss of kidney function and their aetiologies. The study also targeted the patient's awareness regarding their disease. This descriptive case-series of 103 consecutive patients who were diagnosed as having less than 20% of function on DTPA Renal Scan were evaluated. The aetiology of the non-functioning kidney (NFK) was made on either imaging findings or during the exploration, and/or on histopathology if necessary. The results were analysed using SPSS 16.0. Results: The aetiology of the unilateral renal failure included those that were secondary to nephro-pelvic stones in 39.8% and ureteric stones in 14.6%. Of the other aetiologies culminating in a unilateral NFK, 7.8% of the patients had chronic pyelonephritis, 20.4% had PUJO and 5.8% were Genito-urinary Tuberculosis; 3.9% had VUR and were found incidentally, 3.9% developed non-functioning kidney iatrogenically. About 39.8% of the patients knew about their primary disease causing destruction of renal function since long. The remaining 60.2% were unaware that they had developed NFK already when they presented. Proper education through awareness program both for the public and general practitioners can detect early threats to the kidney and hence decrease the loss of a kidney. This will also decrease the number of nephrectomies carried out for the benign condition.

  13. The applicability of using straight ureteral stents for the treatment of ureteral stones in presumably non-compliant patients.

    PubMed

    Mydlo, J H; Streater, S

    2001-01-01

    There have been many reports describing the complications of retained ureteral stents following stone treatment. We wanted to evaluate the practicality of definitive treatment of poorly compliant patients who present with ureteral stones using a straight stent connected to a urethral catheter alone and compared these to patients treated with double-J stents alone. We treated 23 patients (12 in group I and 11 patients in group II) who had a ureteral stone of 6 mm or less, with an indwelling straight stent and a double-J stent, respectively, while on oral antibiotics. We followed these patients 1 week later with an abdominal X-ray prior to removing the stent. Eleven patients in group I and 9 patients in group II passed their stones spontaneously. Three patients required surgical intervention with a ureterscope and laser lithotripsy. There were no cases of infection or pyelonephritis. Although each of the straight-stent-treated patients returned to our clinic for follow-up, only 5 of the 11 double-J stent patients returned for follow-up. The remaining 6 patients had to be contacted to remind them that they still had an internal stent. Although technologic advances now allow many urologists to definitively treat ureteral stones, some urologists may lack the proper equipment and/or assistance to treat the stone at the time of presentation, or may deal with non-compliant patients. Therefore, in these certain circumstances, treatment of small ureteral stones in non-compliant patients using a straight stent connected to a leg bag, as either definitive or initial treatment, may be of practical use and avoid the risk of retained double-J ureteral stents. Copyright 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

  14. Aspects of urinary tract infections and antimicrobial resistance in hospitalized urology patients in Asia: 10-Year results of the Global Prevalence Study of Infections in Urology (GPIU).

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyun-Sop; Lee, Seung-Ju; Cho, Yong-Hyun; Çek, Mete; Tandoğdu, Zafer; Wagenlehner, Florian; Bjerklund-Johansen, Truls Erik; Naber, Kurt

    2018-04-01

    To assess Asian data from Global Prevalence Study on Infections in Urology (GPIU study) which has been performed more than 10 years. Seventeen Asian countries participated in the GPIU study between 2004 and 2013. Data for these countries were collected from the web-based GPIU database. The point prevalence of urinary tract infections (UTI) and antimicrobial susceptibility of representative pathogens were analysed for Asian geographic regions. A total of 6706 patients (5271 male, 1435 female) were assessed during the study period, and 659 patients were diagnosed with a UTI (9.8%). Of these UTI patients, 436 were male and 223 were female. Mean patient age was 54.9 ± 19.3 years. Pyelonephritis and cystitis were the most common clinical diagnoses, representing 30.7% and 29.9% of patients, respectively. Escherichia coli was the most frequently identified uropathogen (38.7%). For the patients with urinary tract infection, cephalosporins were the most frequently used antibiotics (34.4%), followed by fluoroquinolones (24.1%), aminoglycosides (16.8%). Fluoroquinolone resistance was relatively high (ciprofloxacin 54.9%, levofloxacin 39.0%), and cephalosporin resistance 42% (42.5-49.4%). Of the antibiotics evaluated, uropathogens had maintained the highest level of susceptibility to amikacin and imipenem (24.9% and 11.3% resistance rates, respectively). Uropathogens in many Asian countries had high resistance to broad-spectrum antibiotics. Knowledge of regional and local resistance data and prudent use of antibiotics are important for proper management of UTI in Asian countries. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Urinary tract infections in hospital pediatrics: many previous antibiotherapy and antibiotics resistance, including fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Garraffo, A; Marguet, C; Checoury, A; Boyer, S; Gardrat, A; Houivet, E; Caron, F

    2014-02-01

    We studied antibiotic resistance in pediatric UTIs and we evaluated the impact of antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months, very little French data being available for this population. We conducted a multicenter prospective study including children consulting for, or admitted in 2 hospitals. Prior antibiotic exposure was documented from their health record. One hundred and ten patients (73 girls), 11 days to 12 years of age, were included in 10 months. Ninety-six percent presented with pyelonephritis, associated to uropathy for 25%. Escherichia coli was predominant (78%), followed by Proteus spp. and Enterococcus spp. The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli was high and close to that reported for adults with complicated UTIs: amoxicillin 60%, amoxicillin-clavulanate 35%, cefotaxim 5%, trimethoprim-sulfametoxazole 26%, nalidixic acid 9%, ciprofloxacin 7%, gentamycin 1%, nitrofurantoin and fosfomycin 0%. The antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months involved 62 children (56%) most frequently with β-lactams (89%) for a respiratory tract infection (56%). A clear relationship between exposure and resistance was observed for amoxicillin (71% vs. 46%), first generation (65% vs. 46%) and third generation (9% vs. 3%) cephalosporins, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36% vs. 15%). However, antibiotic exposure could not account alone for the results, as suggested by the 7% of ciprofloxacin resistance, observed without any identified previous treatment. Bacterial species and antibiotic resistance level in children are similar to those reported for adults. Antibiotic exposure in the previous 12 months increases the risk of resistance but other factors are involved (previous antibiotic therapies and fecal-oral or mother-to-child transmission). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiology and characteristics of urinary tract infections in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hanna-Wakim, Rima H; Ghanem, Soha T; El Helou, Mona W; Khafaja, Sarah A; Shaker, Rouba A; Hassan, Sara A; Saad, Randa K; Hedari, Carine P; Khinkarly, Rima W; Hajar, Farah M; Bakhash, Marwan; El Karah, Dima; Akel, Imad S; Rajab, Mariam A; Khoury, Mireille; Dbaibo, Ghassan S

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common infections in the pediatric population. Over the last two decades, antibiotic resistance is increasing significantly as extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL) producing organisms are emerging. The aim of this study is to provide a comprehensive view of the epidemiologic characteristics of UTIs in hospitalized children, examine the risk factors of UTIs caused by ESBL-producing organisms, and determine the resistance patterns in the isolated organisms over the last 10 years. Retrospective chart review was conducted at two Lebanese medical centers. Subjects were identified by looking at the following ICD-9 discharge codes: "Urinary tract infection," "UTI," "Cystitis," and/or "Pyelonephritis." Children less than 18 years of age admitted for UTI between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2011 were included. Cases whose urine culture result did not meet our definition for UTI were excluded. Chi-square, Fisher's exact test, and multivariate logistic regression were used to determine risk factors for ESBL. Linear regression analysis was used to determine resistance patterns. The study included 675 cases with a median age of 16 months and female predominance of 77.7% (525 cases). Of the 584 cases caused by Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp, 91 cases (15.5%) were found to be ESBL-producing organisms. Vesico-ureteral reflux and previous antibiotics use were found to be independent risk factors for ESBL-producing E. coli and Klebsiella spp. (p < 0.05). A significant linear increase in resistance to all generations of Cephalosporins (r (2) = 0.442) and Fluoroquinolones (r (2) = 0.698) was found. The recognition of risk factors for infection with ESBL-producing organisms and the observation of increasing overall resistance to antibiotics warrant further studies that might probably lead to new recommendations to guide management of UTIs and antibiotic use in children and adolescents.

  17. Aminoglycoside therapy for childhood urinary tract infection due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Han, Seung Beom; Lee, Sung Chul; Lee, Soo Young; Jeong, Dae Chul; Kang, Jin Han

    2015-10-13

    The rate of urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacterial strains requiring carbapenem therapy has been increasing in children. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of non-carbapenem antibiotic therapy on childhood UTIs caused by ESBL-producing Escherichia coli or Klebsiella pneumoniae. Medical records of children diagnosed with febrile UTIs due to E. coli or K. pneumoniae between 2010 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups: the ESBL group and the non-ESBL group. Clinical characteristics and therapeutic responses were compared between the two groups. A total of 211 episodes of UTI (204 caused by E. coli; seven caused by K. pneumoniae) were identified in 205 children. Twenty-two (10.4 %) episodes were categorized into the ESBL group. There was no significant difference in the type of antibiotic administered between the two groups. No carbapenems were administered; however, aminoglycosides were administered for 79.1 % of the total episodes. Although empirical antibiotics were appropriate for more episodes in the non-ESBL group compared with the ESBL group (100.0 % vs. 90.9 %, p = 0.011), there were no significant differences in the frequency of defervescence, bacterial eradication from the urine, acute pyelonephritis and vesicoureteral reflux or fever duration between the two groups. Non-carbapenem antibiotics showed favourable therapeutic effects on childhood UTIs caused by ESBL-producing strains. Aminoglycosides can be an alternative to carbapenems in such cases.

  18. Uncomplicated Bacterial Communityacquired Urinary Tract Infection in Adults.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Jennifer; Schmidt, Stefanie; Lebert, Cordula; Schneidewind, Laila; Schmiemann, Guido; Wagenlehner, Florian

    2017-12-15

    Uncomplicated bacterial community-acquired urinary tract infection is among the more common infections in outpatient practice. The resistance level of pathogens has risen markedly. This S3 guideline contains recommendations based on current evidence for the rational use of anti - microbial agents and for the prevention of inappropriate use of certain classes of antibiotics and thus of the resulting drug resistance. The prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection is considered in this guideline for the first time. The guideline was updated under the aegis of the German Urological Society (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Urologie). A systematic literature search (period: 2008-2015) concerning the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of uncomplicated urinary tract infections was carried out in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and Embase databases. Randomized, controlled trials and systemic reviews were included. Relevant guidelines were identified in a guideline synopsis. Symptom-oriented diagnostic evaluation is highly valued. For the treatment of cystitis, fosfomycin-trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxolin, pivmecillinam and trimethoprim are all equally recommended. Fluorquinolones and cephalosporins are not recommended. Uncomplicated pyelonephritis with a mild to moderate clinical course ought to be treated with oral cefpodoxime, ceftibuten, ciprofloxacin, or levofloxacin. For acute, uncomplicated cystitis, with mild to moderate symptoms, symptomatic treatment alone may be considered instead of antibiotics after discussion of the options with the patient. Mainly non-antibiotic measures are recommended for prophylaxis against recurrent urinary tract infection. Physicians who treat uncomplicated urinary tract infections should familiarize themselves with the newly revised guideline's recommendations on the selection and dosage of antibiotic treatment so that they can responsibly evaluate and plan antibiotic treatment for their affected patients.

  19. Pregnancy in spinal cord-injured women, a cohort study of 37 pregnancies in 25 women.

    PubMed

    Le Liepvre, H; Dinh, A; Idiard-Chamois, B; Chartier-Kastler, E; Phé, V; Even, A; Robain, G; Denys, P

    2017-02-01

    A retrospective observational study. To describe specificities of pregnancy in a traumatic spinal cord-injured (SCI) population managed by a coordinated medical care team involving physical medicine and rehabilitation (PMR) physicians, urologists, infectious diseases' physicians, obstetricians and anaesthesiologists. NeuroUrology Department in a University Hospital, France. All consecutive SCI pregnant women managed between 2001 and 2014 were included. A preconceptional consultation was proposed whenever possible. Obstetrical and urological outcomes, delivery mode and complications were reported. Overall, thirty-seven pregnancies in 25 women, of a mean age of 32±4 years, were included. Thirty-five children were born alive (three miscarriages, a twin pregnancy) without complications except for a case of neonatal respiratory distress in premature twins born at 33 weeks. The mean birth weight was 2979±599 g. Twenty-one (57%) pregnancies benefited from preconceptional care. A weekly oral cyclic antibiotic programme was prescribed in 28 (75%) pregnancies. The main complications during pregnancy included pyelonephritis (30%), lower urinary tract infections (UTI) (32%), pressure sores (8.8%) and prematurity (12% deliveries before 37 weeks, with only one delivery before 36 weeks). Two patients suffered from autonomic dysreflexia, one with serious complication (brain haematoma). Caesarean sections were performed for 68% of deliveries (23/34) to prevent syringomyelia deterioration (n=10), stress urinary incontinence aggravation (n=3) or for obstetrical reasons (n=7). Mothers' and infants' outcomes were satisfying after pregnancy in SCI women, but required many adjustments. Pregnancy must be prepared by a preconceptional consultation, and managed by a multidisciplinary team involving specialists of neurological disability and pregnancy.

  20. The kidney in pregnancy: A journey of three decades.

    PubMed

    Prakash, J

    2012-05-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3-5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy.

  1. Incidence and Management of Uncomplicated Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections in a National Sample of Women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Suskind, Anne M; Saigal, Christopher S; Hanley, Janet M; Lai, Julie; Setodji, Claude M; Clemens, J Quentin

    2016-04-01

    To determine the incidence and characteristics of women with uncomplicated recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) and to explore whether the use of culture-driven treatment affects rates of UTI-related complications and resource utilization. Using MarketScan claims from 2003 to 2011, we identified UTI-naive women ages 18-64 with incident-uncomplicated recurrent UTIs. Recurrent UTIs were defined as 3 UTI visits associated with antibiotics during a 12-month period. Cases were excluded if they had a UTI in the preceding year, or if they had any complicating factors (eg, abnormality of the urinary tract, neurologic condition, pregnancy, diabetes, or currently taking immunosuppression). We next assessed use of urine cultures, imaging, and cystoscopy, and performed propensity score matching with logistic regression to determine whether having a urine culture associated with >50% of UTIs affected rates of complications and downstream resource utilization. We identified 48,283 women with incident-uncomplicated recurrent UTIs, accounting for an overall incidence of 102 per 100,000 women, highest among women ages 18-34 and 55-64. Sixty-one percent of these women had at least 1 urine culture, 6.9% had imaging, and 2.8% had cystoscopy. Having a urine culture >50% of the time was associated with fewer UTI-related hospitalizations and lower rates of intravenous antibiotic use, whereas demonstrating higher rates of UTI-related office visits and pyelonephritis. The incidence of uncomplicated recurrent UTIs increases with age. Urine culture-directed care is beneficial in reducing high-cost services including UTI-related hospitalizations and intravenous antibiotic use, making urine cultures a valuable component to management of these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The kidney in pregnancy: A journey of three decades

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, J.

    2012-01-01

    The spectrum of kidney disease occurring during pregnancy includes preeclampsia, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, urinary tract infection, acute kidney injury, and renal cortical necrosis (RCN). Preeclampsia affects approximately 3–5% of pregnancies. We observed preeclampsia in 5.8% of pregnancies, and 2.38% of our preeclamptic women developed eclampsia. Severe preeclampsia and the eclampsia or hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes levels, and low platelets count (HELLP) syndrome accounted for about 40% of cases of acute kidney injury (AKI) in pregnancy. Preeclampsia/eclampsia was the cause of acute renal failure (ARF) in 38.3% of the cases. Preeclampsia was the most common (91.7%) cause of hypertension during pregnancy, and chronic hypertension was present in 8.3% of patients. We observed urinary tract infection (UTI) in 9% of pregnancies. Sepsis resulting from pyelonephritis can progress to endotoxic shock, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and AKI. The incidence of premature delivery and low birth weight is higher in women with UTI. The incidence of AKI in pregnancy with respect to total ARF cases has decreased over the last 30 years from 25% in 1980s to 5% in 2000s. Septic abortion-related ARF decreased from 9% to 3%. Prevention of unwanted pregnancy and avoidance of septic abortion are key to eliminate abortion-associated ARF in early pregnancy. The two most common causes of ARF in third trimester and postpartum periods were puerperal sepsis and preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome. Pregnancy-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute fatty liver of pregnancy were rare causes of ARF. Despite decreasing incidence, AKI remains a serious complication during pregnancy. PMID:23087548

  3. Morphological, Histochemical, Immunohistochemical, and Ultrastructural Characterization of Tumors and Dysplastic and Non-Neoplastic Lesions Arising in BK Virus/tat Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Altavilla, Giuseppe; Trabanelli, Cecilia; Merlin, Michela; Caputo, Antonella; Lanfredi, Massimo; Barbanti-Brodano, Giuseppe; Corallini, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    To study the role in AIDS pathogenesis of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein, a transactivator of viral and cellular genes, we generated transgenic mice with a recombinant DNA containing BK virus (BKV) early region and the HIV-1 tat gene, directed by its own promoter-enhancer. DNA hybridization revealed that the transgene is stably maintained in all organs of transgenic mice as a tandem insertion in a number of copies ranging from 5 to 20 per cell. In addition, tat and BKV RNA were expressed in all tissues. Transgenic mice developed three types of lesions: 1) tumors, 2) hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions, and 3) non-neoplastic lesions. Tumors of different histotypes, such as lymphomas, adenocarcinomas of skin glands, leiomyosarcomas, skin squamous cell carcinomas, hepatomas, hepatocarcinomas, and cavernous liver hemangiomas, developed in 29% of transgenic animals. The majority of tumors were malignant, invasive, and producing metastases. Conversely, tumors of only two histotypes (lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of skin glands) appeared in control mice. Hyperplastic and dysplastic lesions were more frequent in transgenic than in control mice and involved the skin or its adnexes, the liver and the rectum, indicating multiple targets for the activity of the transgene. Pyelonephritis, frequently complicated with hydronephrosis, inflammatory eye lesions, and amyloid depositions represented the most frequent non-neoplastic lesions detected in transgenic mice. Many of the pathological findings observed in this animal model are comparable to similar lesions appearing in AIDS patients, suggesting a relevant role for Tat in the pathogenesis of such lesions during the course of AIDS. PMID:10233861

  4. [Maternal morbidity in adolescent pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luis Simon; Lira Plascencia, Josefina; Ahued Ahued, Roberto; Quesnel García Benítez, Carlos; Iturralde Rosas Priego, Paola; Arteaga Gómez, Cristina

    2002-06-01

    To evaluate the maternal morbidity in < or = 16 year old pregnant teenagers. A prospective study of the reviewed cases was carried out from June 1998 to May 1999. All pregnant teenagers which attended the Coordination for the Attention of the Teenage Patient and whose pregnancy came to term during the study period were included. The following variables were analyzed: maternal age, preexisting related diseases, number of pregnancies, number of prenatal control medical visits and the time at which these were started, and maternal morbidity secondary to pregnancy. Two hundred and ninety six of 330 case were included. The average maternal age was 15.1 years old (10-16 range); 68.9% had finished middle school; 82.2% were housekeepers, and 61.4% were single. Prenatal control was initiated in the 2nd trimester by 50.7% of them, while 39.5% started it in the 3rd trimester and the remaining 9.8% in the 1st trimester. The most frequent previous pathologies were: bronchial asthma (2.5%), drug addiction (2%), hypothyroidism (2%), cardiopathy (1.5%). The most common complications during pregnancy: urinary system infections (20.4%), anemia (9.8%), threats of premature labour (9.8%), premature membrane rupture (9%), hypertensive disease induced by pregnancy (3.2%), delayed intrauterine growth (2.4%) and fetal malformation (2.4%). About 44.1% of the pregnancies were interrupted by cesarean section, 35.6% by eutochia and 20.3% by instrumented labour. The most frequent complications during the puerperium were: tearing of the canal of the cervix (7%), decidual endometritis (3.3%), dehiscence of surgical wounds (2.7%), and pyelonephritis (1.6%). The pregnant teenager is a "special" patient form the biopsychosocial point of view, thus, she must be managed by a multidisciplinary team, with special emphasis in the problems analyzed in this study.

  5. Detection of Bacteriuria by Canine Olfaction

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Maureen; McCulloch, Michael; Willey, Angel M.; Hirsch, Wendi; Dewey, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a significant medical problem , particularly for patients with neurological conditions and the elderly. Detection is often difficult in these patients, resulting in delayed diagnoses and more serious infections such as pyelonephritis and life-threatening sepsis. Many patients have a higher risk of UTIs because of impaired bladder function, catheterization, and lack of symptoms. Urinary tract infections are the most common nosocomial infection; however, better strategies are needed to improve early detection of the disease. Methods. In this double-blinded, case-control, validation study, we obtained fresh urine samples daily in a consecutive case series over a period of 16 weeks. Dogs were trained to distinguish urine samples that were culture-positive for bacteriuria from those of culture-negative controls, using reward-based clicker and treat methods. Results. Samples were obtained from 687 individuals (from 3 months to 92 years of age; 86% female and 14% male; 34% culture-positive and 66% culture-negative controls). Dogs detected urine samples positive for 100 000 colony-forming units/mL Escherichia coli (N = 250 trials; sensitivity 99.6%, specificity 91.5%). Dilution of E coli urine with distilled water did not affect accuracy at 1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 91.1%) or 0.1% (sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.6%) concentration. Diagnostic accuracy was similar to Enterococcus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 93.9%), Klebsiella (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 95.1%), and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 50; sensitivity 100%, specificity 96.3%). All dogs performed with similarly high accuracy: overall sensitivity was at or near 100%, and specificity was above 90%. Conclusions. Canine scent detection is an accurate and feasible method for detection of bacteriuria. PMID:27186578

  6. Recipient body surface area as a predictor of posttransplant renal allograft evolution.

    PubMed

    Moreso, F; Serón, D; Anunciada, A I; Hueso, M; Ramón, J M; Fulladosa, X; Gil-Vernet, S; Alsina, J; Grinyó, J M

    1998-03-15

    The aim of the present study was to analyze whether minor differences in recipient body surface area have any predictive value on renal allograft evolution. For this study, we considered 236 pairs of recipients who received a kidney from the same donor at our center between March 1985 and December 1995. Pairs in whom at least one patient presented any of the following events were excluded: graft loss during the first year of follow-up, diabetes mellitus, noncompliance with treatment, chronic pyelonephritis, and recurrent or de novo glomerulonephritis. Recipients of each pair were classified as large or small according to their body surface area (BSA). The percentage difference of BSA in each pair was calculated, and two cohorts of pairs were defined: BSA difference < or = 10% (n=76 pairs) and BSA difference >10% (n=70 pairs). The large recipients of the cohort with a BSA difference >10% showed a higher incidence of posttransplant delayed graft function (22/70 vs. 12/70, P=0.075), hypertension at 1 year of follow-up (51/70 vs. 35/70, P=0.006), and a higher serum creatinine level at 1-year follow-up (173 vs. 142 micromol/L, P=0.003), whereas in the cohort with a BSA difference < or = 10%, posttransplant evolution in large and small recipients was not different. Multivariate analysis showed that recipient BSA was an independent predictor of delayed graft function, posttransplant hypertension, and serum creatinine at 1-year follow-up. Relatively small differences in recipient BSA influence renal allograft evolution. Consequently, our data support that recipient size should be taken into consideration for renal allograft allocation.

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