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Sample records for xenograft model treatment

  1. Enhanced antitumor effect of YM872 and AG1296 combination treatment on human glioblastoma xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takashi; Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Aihara, Masanori; Ishiuchi, Shogo

    2013-04-01

    Blockade of Ca(++)-permeable α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR) inhibits the proliferation of human glioblastoma by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation, which is independent of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway. Inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR)-mediated phosphorylation causes growth inhibition in glioblastoma cells. The authors of this study investigated the effects of YM872 and AG1296, singly and in combination and targeting different pathways upstream of Akt, on Akt-mediated tumor growth in glioblastoma cells in vivo and in vitro. The expression of AMPAR, PDGFR, and c-kit in glioblastoma cells was analyzed via immunofluorescence. Glioblastoma cells, both in culture and in xenografts grown in mice, were treated with YM872 and AG1296, singly or in combination. Inhibition of tumor growth was observed after treatment in the xenograft model. Cell proliferation assays were performed using anti-Ki 67 antibody in vivo and in vitro. The CD34-positive tumor vessel counts within the vascular hot spots of tumor specimens were evaluated. Phosphorylation of Akt was studied using Western blot analysis. Combined administration of YM872 and AG1296 had a significant enhanced effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and reduction of tumor vascularity in the xenograft model. These agents singly and in combination demonstrated a significant reduction of Akt phosphorylation at Ser473 and inhibition of tumor proliferation in vitro, although combined administration had no enhanced antitumor effects. The strongly enhanced antitumor effect of this combination therapy in vivo rather than in vitro may be attributable to disruption of the aberrant vascular niche. This combination therapy might provide substantial benefits to patients with glioblastoma.

  2. Changes in tumor cell heterogeneity after chemotherapy treatment in a xenograft model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Welker, Alessandra M; Jaros, Brian D; An, Min; Beattie, Christine E

    2017-07-25

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain cancer with limited treatments and poor patient survival. GBM tumors are heterogeneous containing a complex mixture of dividing cells, differentiated cells, and cancer stem cells. It is unclear, however, how these different cell populations contribute to tumor growth or whether they exhibit differential responses to chemotherapy. Here we set out to address these questions using a zebrafish xenograft transplant model (Welker et al., 2016). We found that a small population of differentiated vimentin-positive tumor cells, but a majority of Sox2-positive putative cancer stem cells, were dividing during tumor growth. We also observed co-expression of Sox2 and GFAP, another suggested marker of glioma cancer stem cells, indicating that the putative cancer stem cells in GBM9 tumors expressed both of these markers. To determine how these different tumor cell populations responded to chemotherapy, we treated animals with temozolomide (TMZ) and assessed these cell populations immediately after treatment and 5 and 10days after treatment cessation. As expected we found a significant decrease in dividing cells after treatment. We also found a significant decrease in vimentin-positive cells, but not in Sox2 or GFAP-positive cells. However, the Sox2-positive cells significantly increased 5days after TMZ treatment. These data support that putative glioma cancer stem cells are more resistant to TMZ treatment and may contribute to tumor regrowth after chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of aurothiomalate treatment on canine osteosarcoma in a murine xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Valery F; Farese, James P; Siemann, Dietmar W; Abbott, Jeffrey R; Kiupel, Matti; Salute, Marc E; Milner, Rowan J

    2014-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is a highly fatal cancer, with most patients ultimately succumbing to metastatic disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the antirheumatoid drug aurothiomalate on canine and human osteosarcoma cells and on canine osteosarcoma growth and metastasis in a mouse xenograft model. We hypothesized that aurothiomalate would decrease osteosarcoma cell survival, tumor cellular proliferation, tumor growth, and metastasis. After performing clonogenic assays, aurothiomalate or a placebo was administered to 54 mice inoculated with canine osteosarcoma. Survival, tumor growth, embolization, metastasis, histopathology, cell proliferation marker Ki67, and apoptosis marker caspase-3 were compared between groups. Statistical analysis was carried out using the Kaplan-Meier method with the log-rank test and one-way analysis of variance with the Tukey's test or Dunn's method. Aurothiomalate caused dose-dependent inhibition of osteosarcoma cell survival (P<0.001) and decreased tumor growth (P<0.001). Pulmonary macrometastasis and Ki67 labeling were reduced with low-dose aurothiomalate (P=0.033 and 0.005, respectively), and tumor emboli and pulmonary micrometastases were decreased with high-dose aurothiomalate (P=0.010 and 0.011, respectively). There was no difference in survival, tumor development, ulceration, mitotic indices, tumor necrosis, nonpulmonary metastases, and caspase-3 labeling. Aurothiomalate treatment inhibited osteosarcoma cell survival and reduced tumor cell proliferation, growth, embolization, and pulmonary metastasis. Given aurothiomalate's established utility in canine and human medicine, our results suggest that this compound may hold promise as an adjunctive therapy for osteosarcoma. Further translational research is warranted to better characterize the dose response of canine and human osteosarcoma to aurothiomalate.

  4. Combining doxorubicin-nanobubbles and shockwaves for anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment: preclinical study in a xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Marano, Francesca; Frairia, Roberto; Rinella, Letizia; Argenziano, Monica; Bussolati, Benedetta; Grange, Cristina; Mastrocola, Raffaella; Castellano, Isabella; Berta, Laura; Cavalli, Roberta; Catalano, Maria Graziella

    2017-06-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer is one of the most lethal diseases, and a curative therapy does not exist. Doxorubicin, the only drug approved for anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment, has a very low response rate and causes numerous side effects among which cardiotoxicity is the most prominent. Thus, doxorubicin delivery to the tumor site could be an import goal aimed to improve the drug efficacy and to reduce its systemic side effects. We recently reported that, in human anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines, combining doxorubicin-loaded nanobubbles with extracorporeal shock waves, acoustic waves used in lithotripsy and orthopedics without side effects, increased the intracellular drug content and in vitro cytotoxicity. In the present study, we tested the efficacy of this treatment on a human anaplastic thyroid cancer xenograft mouse model. After 21 days, the combined treatment determined the greatest drug accumulation in tumors with consequent reduction of tumor volume and weight, and an extension of the tumor doubling time. Mechanistically, the treatment induced tumor apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. Finally, although doxorubicin caused the increase of fibrosis markers and oxidative stress in animal hearts, loading doxorubicin into nanobubbles avoided these effects preventing heart damage. The improvement of doxorubicin anti-tumor effects together with the prevention of heart damage suggests that the combination of doxorubicin-loaded nanobubbles with extracorporeal shock waves might be a promising drug delivery system for anaplastic thyroid cancer treatment. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Maintenance Treatment with Cetuximab and BAY86-9766 Increases Antitumor Efficacy of Irinotecan plus Cetuximab in Human Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Troiani, Teresa; Napolitano, Stefania; Martini, Giulia; Martinelli, Erika; Cardone, Claudia; Normanno, Nicola; Vitagliano, Donata; Morgillo, Floriana; Fenizia, Francesca; Lambiase, Matilde; Formisano, Luigi; Bianco, Roberto; Ciardiello, Davide; Ciardiello, Fortunato

    2015-09-15

    The use of cetuximab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer is limited by development of resistance. We have investigated in three models of highly epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-dependent colorectal cancer xenografts, the effect of maintenance therapy with different kinase inhibitors alone or in combination with cetuximab, after cytotoxic treatment induction with irinotecan plus cetuximab. SW48, LIM 1215, and GEO colorectal cancer cell lines were engrafted into nude mice and treated for 3 weeks with irinotecan and/or cetuximab. The combined treatment induced a significant reduction of tumor size. A subsequent experiment was performed in all three xenograft models in which after an induction treatment with irinotecan plus cetuximab, mice were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments: control, cetuximab, regorafenib, a selective PIK3CA inhibitor (PIK3CAi), a selective MEK inhibitor (MEKi), and/or the combination of each inhibitor with cetuximab. The cetuximab plus MEKi treatment determined the best antitumor activity with suppression of tumor growth. This effect was prolonged for 13 to 15 weeks after cessation of therapy and was accompanied by prolonged survival. Antitumor activity was accompanied by inhibition of the MAPK and MEK pathways. Moreover, in the cetuximab plus MEKi-treated SW48 xenograft group, KRAS mutations as a mechanism of acquired resistance were detected in 25% of cases compared with 75% KRAS mutations in the MEKi-treated group. A possible strategy to prevent and/or overcome resistance to anti-EGFR inhibitors in metastatic colorectal cancer is a maintenance therapy with cetuximab plus MEKi after an initial treatment with irinotecan plus cetuximab. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. In vivo bioluminescence imaging using orthotopic xenografts towards patient's derived-xenograft Medulloblastoma models.

    PubMed

    Asadzadeh, Fatemeh; Ferrucci, Veronica; DE Antonellis, Pasqualino; Zollo, Massimo

    2017-03-01

    Medulloblastoma is a cerebellar neoplasia of the central nervous system. Four molecular subgrups have been identified (MBWNT, MBSHH, MBgroup3 and MBgroup4) with distinct genetics and clinical outcome. Among these, MBgroup3-4 are highly metastatic with the worst prognosis. The current standard therapy includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Thus, specific treatments adapted to cure those different molecular subgroups are needed. The use of orthotopic xenograft models, together with the non-invasive in vivo biolumiscence imaging (BLI) technology, is emerging during preclinical studies to test novel therapeutics for medulloblastoma treatment. Orthotopic MB xenografts were performed by injection of Daoy-luc cells, that had been previously infected with lentiviral particles to stably express luciferase gene, into the fourth right ventricle of the cerebellum of ten nude mice. For the implantation, specific stereotactic coordinates were used. Seven days after the implantation the mice were imaged by acquisitions of bioluminescence imaging (BLI) using IVIS 3D Illumina Imaging System (Xenogen). Tumor growth was evaluated by quantifying the bioluminescence signals using the integrated fluxes of photons within each area of interest using the Living Images Software Package 3.2 (Xenogen-Perkin Elmer). Finally, histological analysis using hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to confirm the presence of tumorigenic cells into the cerebellum of the mice. We describe a method to use the in vivo bioluminescent imaging (BLI) showing the potential to be used to investigate the potential antitumorigenic effects of a drug for in vivo medulloblastoma treatment. We also discuss other studies in which this technology has been applied to obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of medulloblastoma using orthotopic xenograft mouse models. There is a need to develop patient's derived-xenograft (PDX) model systems to test novel drugs for medulloblastoma treatment within each molecular sub

  7. Xenograft model for therapeutic drug testing in recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Julie; Bishop, Justin A; Akpeng, Belinda; Pai, Sara I; Best, Simon R A

    2015-02-01

    Identifying effective treatment for papillomatosis is limited by a lack of animal models, and there is currently no preclinical model for testing potential therapeutic agents. We hypothesized that xenografting of papilloma may facilitate in vivo drug testing to identify novel treatment options. A biopsy of fresh tracheal papilloma was xenografted into a NOD-scid-IL2Rgamma(null) (NSG) mouse. The xenograft began growing after 5 weeks and was serially passaged over multiple generations. Each generation showed a consistent log-growth pattern, and in all xenografts, the presence of the human papillomavirus (HPV) genome was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Histopathologic analysis demonstrated that the squamous architecture of the original papilloma was maintained in each generation. In vivo drug testing with bevacizumab (5 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly for 3 weeks) showed a dramatic therapeutic response compared to saline control. We report here the first successful case of serial xenografting of a tracheal papilloma in vivo with a therapeutic response observed with drug testing. In severely immunocompromised mice, the HPV genome and squamous differentiation of the papilloma can be maintained for multiple generations. This is a feasible approach to identify therapeutic agents in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Treatment with docetaxel in combination with Aneustat leads to potent inhibition of metastasis in a patient-derived xenograft model of advanced prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Sifeng; Ci, Xinpei; Xue, Hui; Dong, Xin; Hao, Jun; Lin, Dong; Clermont, Pier-Luc; Wu, Rebecca; Collins, Colin C; Gout, Peter W; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2018-01-01

    Background: Docetaxel used for first-line treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is only marginally effective. We previously showed, using the LTL-313H subrenal capsule patient-derived metastatic PCa xenograft model, that docetaxel combined with Aneustat (OMN54), a multivalent plant-derived therapeutic, led to marked synergistic tumour growth inhibition. Here, we investigated the effect of docetaxel+Aneustat on metastasis. Methods: C4-2 cells were incubated with docetaxel, Aneustat and docetaxel+Aneustat to assess effects on cell migration. The LTL-313H model, similarly treated, was analysed for effects on lung micro-metastasis and kidney invasion. The LTL-313H gene expression profile was compared with profiles of PCa patients (obtained from Oncomine) and subjected to IPA to determine involvement of cancer driver genes. Results: Docetaxel+Aneustat markedly inhibited C4-2 cell migration and LTL-313H lung micro-metastasis/kidney invasion. Oncomine analysis indicated that treatment with docetaxel+Aneustat was associated with improved patient outcome. The drug combination markedly downregulated expression of cancer driver genes such as FOXM1 (and FOXM1-target genes). FOXM1 overexpression reduced the anti-metastatic activity of docetaxel+Aneustat. Conclusions: Docetaxel+Aneustat can inhibit PCa tissue invasion and metastasis. This activity appears to be based on reduced expression of cancer driver genes such as FOXM1. Use of docetaxel+Aneustat may provide a new, more effective regimen for therapy of metastatic PCa. PMID:29381682

  9. Modeling Leukemogenesis in the Zebrafish Using Genetic and Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Vinothkumar; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    The zebrafish is a widely accepted model to study leukemia. The major advantage of studying leukemogenesis in zebrafish is attributed to its short life cycle and superior imaging capacity. This chapter highlights using transgenic- and xenograft-based models in zebrafish to study a specific leukemogenic mutation and analyze therapeutic responses in vivo.

  10. Patient-derived xenografts as preclinical neuroblastoma models.

    PubMed

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Bexell, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The prognosis for children with high-risk neuroblastoma is often poor and survivors can suffer from severe side effects. Predictive preclinical models and novel therapeutic strategies for high-risk disease are therefore a clinical imperative. However, conventional cancer cell line-derived xenografts can deviate substantially from patient tumors in terms of their molecular and phenotypic features. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) recapitulate many biologically and clinically relevant features of human cancers. Importantly, PDXs can closely parallel clinical features and outcome and serve as excellent models for biomarker and preclinical drug development. Here, we review progress in and applications of neuroblastoma PDX models. Neuroblastoma orthotopic PDXs share the molecular characteristics, neuroblastoma markers, invasive properties and tumor stroma of aggressive patient tumors and retain spontaneous metastatic capacity to distant organs including bone marrow. The recent identification of genomic changes in relapsed neuroblastomas opens up opportunities to target treatment-resistant tumors in well-characterized neuroblastoma PDXs. We highlight and discuss the features and various sources of neuroblastoma PDXs, methodological considerations when establishing neuroblastoma PDXs, in vitro 3D models, current limitations of PDX models and their application to preclinical drug testing.

  11. Bacteria of Porcine Skin, Xenografts, and Treatment with Neomycin Sulfate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rodney F.; Evans, Barbara L.

    1972-01-01

    Homogenized 4-mm punch biopsies were taken from pigs and bacteriologically evaluated to determine the efficacy of surgical scrub procedures and the subsequent treatment of tissue with 0.5% neomycin sulfate-sodium bisulfite (neomycin-bisulfite) as a decontaminating agent. The majority of the lots of porcine skin taken directly from animals for xenografts in the treatment of burns contained viable bacteria at the time of grafting although scrubbing procedures substantially reduced the skin bacteria. The porcine bacteria consisted primarily of coagulase-negative staphylococci with most strains exhibiting caseinolytic and elastase activity. Staphylococci were the only abundant bacteria found in postscrub biopsies and in saline solutions used to wash the dermatome during its use. After an overnight exposure of grafting tissue soaked in neomycin-bisulfite, the spent neomycin-bisulfite solutions were tested for bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity by comparison to unused neomycin. All solutions tested were equal in bacteriostatic strength, but the bactericidal action of some spent solutions was decreased. Neomycin alone exerted a more lethal effect on sensitive bacteria than the neomycin-bisulfite solution. The desirability of having viable porcine skin for a xenograft necessitated using or discarding the tissue after storage in neomycin-bisulfite at 4 C for a maximum of 72 hr. Certain contaminating microorganisms were unaffected by antibiotic treatment, and the prolonged use of neomycin without bisulfite would have primarily eradicated only the porcine coagulase-negative staphylococci. Neither the presence of this group in grafting tissue nor their proteolytic activity had any observed adverse effect on xenografting success. Images PMID:4552886

  12. Anti-Tumor Effect of Adipose Tissue Derived-Mesenchymal Stem Cells Expressing Interferon-β and Treatment with Cisplatin in a Xenograft Mouse Model for Canine Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Jin ok; Lee, Hee woo; Seo, Kyoung won; Kang, Sung keun; Ra, Jeong chan; Youn, Hwa young

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) are attractive cell-therapy vehicles for the delivery of anti-tumor molecules into the tumor microenvironment. The innate tropism of AT-MSCs for tumors has important implications for effective cellular delivery of anti-tumor molecules, including cytokines, interferon, and pro-drugs. The present study was designed to determine the possibility that the combination of stem cell-based gene therapy with low-dose cisplatin would improve therapeutic efficacy against canine melanoma. The IFN-β transduced canine AT-MSCs (cAT-MSC-IFN-β) inhibited the growth of LMeC canine melanoma cells in direct and indirect in vitro co-culture systems. In animal experiments using BALB/c nude mouse xenografts, which developed by injecting LMeC cells, the combination treatment of cAT-MSC-IFN-β and low-dose cisplatin significantly reduced tumor volume compared with the other treatment groups. Fluorescent microscopic analysis with a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick-end labeling) assay of tumor section provided evidence for homing of cAT-MSC-IFN-β to the tumor site and revealed that the combination treatment of cAT-MSC-IFN-β with low-dose cisplatin induced high levels of cell apoptosis. These findings may prove useful in further explorations of the application of these combined approaches to the treatment of malignant melanoma and other tumors. PMID:24040358

  13. Next generation patient-derived prostate cancer xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Dong; Xue, Hui; Wang, Yuwei; Wu, Rebecca; Watahiki, Akira; Dong, Xin; Cheng, Hongwei; Wyatt, Alexander W; Collins, Colin C; Gout, Peter W; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2014-01-01

    There is a critical need for more effective therapeutic approaches for prostate cancer. Research in this area, however, has been seriously hampered by a lack of clinically relevant, experimental in vivo models of the disease. This review particularly focuses on the development of prostate cancer xenograft models based on subrenal capsule grafting of patients’ tumor tissue into nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. This technique allows successful development of transplantable, patient-derived cancer tissue xenograft lines not only from aggressive metastatic, but also from localized prostate cancer tissues. The xenografts have been found to retain key biological properties of the original malignancies, including histopathological and molecular characteristics, tumor heterogeneity, response to androgen ablation and metastatic ability. As such, they are highly clinically relevant and provide valuable tools for studies of prostate cancer progression at cellular and molecular levels, drug screening for personalized cancer therapy and preclinical drug efficacy testing; especially when a panel of models is used to cover a broader spectrum of the disease. These xenograft models could therefore be viewed as next-generation models of prostate cancer. PMID:24589467

  14. Prioritizing therapeutic targets using patient-derived xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Lodhia, K.A; Hadley, A; Haluska, P; Scott, C.L

    2015-01-01

    Effective systemic treatment of cancer relies on the delivery of agents with optimal therapeutic potential. The molecular age of medicine has provided genomic tools that can identify a large number of potential therapeutic targets in individual patients, heralding the promise of personalized treatment. However, determining which potential targets actually drive tumor growth and should be prioritized for therapy is challenging. Indeed, reliable molecular matches of target and therapeutic agent have been stringently validated in the clinic for only a small number of targets. Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) are tumor models developed in immunocompromised mice using tumor procured directly from the patient. As patient surrogates, PDX models represent a powerful tool for addressing individualized therapy. Challenges include humanizing the immune system of PDX models and ensuring high quality molecular annotation, in order to maximise insights for the clinic. Importantly, PDX can be sampled repeatedly and in parallel, to reveal clonal evolution, which may predict mechanisms of drug resistance and inform therapeutic strategy design. PMID:25783201

  15. Antitumor effect of bevacizumab in a xenograft model of canine hemangiopericytoma.

    PubMed

    Michishita, Masaki; Uto, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Ryota; Yoshimura, Hisashi; Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Azakami, Daigo; Kishikawa, Seigo; Arai, Toshiro; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2013-01-01

    Canine hemangiopericytoma (CHP) is characterized by frequent local recurrence and increased invasiveness. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of angiogenesis in tumors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a single dose of bevacizumab on a xenograft model of CHP. VEGF protein was secreted from cultured CHP cells and interacted with bevacizumab. Bevacizumab treatment suppressed tumor growth by inhibiting tumor angiogenesis, whereas no significant differences were observed in the proliferation index and apoptosis rates of treated and untreated mice. Thus, bevacizumab had antitumor effects in a xenograft model of CHP.

  16. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  17. 184AA3: a xenograft model of ER+ breast adenocarcinoma

    DOE PAGES

    Hines, William C.; Kuhn, Irene; Thi, Kate; ...

    2015-12-12

    Despite the prevalence and significant morbidity resulting from estrogen receptor positive (ER +) breast adenocarcinomas, there are only a few models of this cancer subtype available for drug development and arguably none for studying etiology. Those models that do exist have questionable clinical relevance. Given our goal of developing luminal models, we focused on six cell lines derived by minimal mutagenesis from normal human breast cells, and asked if any could generate clinically relevant xenografts, which we then extensively characterized. Xenografts of one cell line, 184AA3, consistently formed ER + adenocarcinomas that had a high proliferative rate and other features consistentmore » with “luminal B” intrinsic subtype. Squamous and spindle cell/mesenchymal differentiation was absent, in stark contrast to other cell lines that we examined or others have reported. We explored intratumoral heterogeneity produced by 184AA3 by immunophenotyping xenograft tumors and cultured cells, and characterized marker expression by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. A CD44 High  subpopulation was discovered, yet their tumor forming ability was far less than CD44 Low  cells. Single cell cloning revealed the phenotypic plasticity of 184AA3, consistent with the intratumoral heterogeneity observed in xenografts. Characterization of ER expression in cultures revealed ER protein and signaling is intact, yet when estrogen was depleted in culture, and in vivo, it did not impact cell or tumor growth, analogous to therapeutically resistant ER +  cancers. In conclusion, this model is appropriate for studies of the etiology of ovarian hormone independent adenocarcinomas, for identification of therapeutic targets, predictive testing, and drug development.« less

  18. Halofuginone suppresses growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Koohestani, Faezeh; Qiang, Wenan; MacNeill, Amy L; Druschitz, Stacy A; Serna, Vanida A; Adur, Malavika; Kurita, Takeshi; Nowak, Romana A

    2016-07-01

    Does halofuginone (HF) inhibit the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model? HF suppresses the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in a mouse xenograft model through inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign tumors of the female reproductive tract. HF can suppress the growth of human uterine leiomyoma cells in vitro. The mouse xenograft model reflects the characteristics of human leiomyomas. Primary leiomyoma smooth muscle cells from eight patients were xenografted under the renal capsule of adult, ovariectomized NOD-scid IL2Rγ(null) mice (NSG). Mice were treated with two different doses of HF or vehicle for 4 weeks with six to eight mice per group. Mouse body weight measurements and immunohistochemical analysis of body organs were carried out to assess the safety of HF treatment. Xenografted tumors were measured and analyzed for cellular and molecular changes induced by HF. Ovarian steroid hormone receptors were evaluated for possible modulation by HF. Treatment of mice carrying human UL xenografts with HF at 0.25 or 0.50 mg/kg body weight for 4 weeks resulted in a 35-40% (P < 0.05) reduction in tumor volume. The HF-induced volume reduction was accompanied by increased apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation. In contrast, there was no significant change in the collagen content either at the transcript or protein level between UL xenografts in control and HF groups. HF treatment did not change the expression level of ovarian steroid hormone receptors. No adverse pathological effects were observed in other tissues from mice undergoing treatment at these doses. While this study did test the effects of HF on human leiomyoma cells in an in vivo model, HF was administered to mice whose tolerance and metabolism of the drug may differ from that in humans. Also, the longer term effects of HF treatment are yet unclear. The results of this study showing the effectiveness of HF in

  19. Zebrafish xenograft models of cancer and metastasis for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Brown, Hannah K; Schiavone, Kristina; Tazzyman, Simon; Heymann, Dominique; Chico, Timothy Ja

    2017-04-01

    Patients with metastatic cancer suffer the highest rate of cancer-related death, but existing animal models of metastasis have disadvantages that limit our ability to understand this process. The zebrafish is increasingly used for cancer modelling, particularly xenografting of human cancer cell lines, and drug discovery, and may provide novel scientific and therapeutic insights. However, this model system remains underexploited. Areas covered: The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the zebrafish xenograft model for the study of cancer, metastasis and drug discovery. They summarise previous work investigating the metastatic cascade, such as tumour-induced angiogenesis, intravasation, extravasation, dissemination and homing, invasion at secondary sites, assessing metastatic potential and evaluation of cancer stem cells in zebrafish. Expert opinion: The practical advantages of zebrafish for basic biological study and drug discovery are indisputable. However, their ability to sufficiently reproduce and predict the behaviour of human cancer and metastasis remains unproven. For this to be resolved, novel mechanisms must to be discovered in zebrafish that are subsequently validated in humans, and for therapeutic interventions that modulate cancer favourably in zebrafish to successfully translate to human clinical studies. In the meantime, more work is required to establish the most informative methods in zebrafish.

  20. Inhibition of gamma-secretase activity impedes uterine serous carcinoma growth in a human xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Groeneweg, Jolijn W; Hall, Tracilyn R; Zhang, Ling; Kim, Minji; Byron, Virginia F; Tambouret, Rosemary; Sathayanrayanan, Sriram; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Growdon, Whitfield B

    2014-06-01

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) represents an aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer. We sought to understand Notch pathway activity in USC and determine if pathway inhibition has anti-tumor activity. Patient USC tissue blocks were obtained and used to correlate clinical outcomes with Notch1 expression. Three established USC cell lines were treated with gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) in vitro. Mice harboring cell line derived or patient derived USC xenografts (PDXs) were treated with vehicle, GSI, paclitaxel and carboplatin (P/C), or combination GSI and P/C. Levels of cleaved Notch1 protein and Hes1 mRNA were determined in GSI treated samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the Wilcoxon rank sum and Kaplan-Meier methods. High nuclear Notch1 protein expression was observed in 58% of USC samples with no correlation with overall survival. GSI induced dose-dependent reductions in cell number and decreased levels of cleaved Notch1 protein and Hes1 mRNA in vitro. Treatment of mice with GSI led to decreased Hes1 mRNA expression in USC xenografts. In addition, GSI impeded tumor growth of cell line xenografts as well as UT1 USC PDXs. When GSI and P/C were combined, synergistic anti-tumor activity was observed in UT1 xenografts. Notch1 is expressed in a large subset of USC. GSI-mediated Notch pathway inhibition led to both reduced cell numbers in vitro and decreased tumor growth of USC some xenograft models. When combined with conventional chemotherapy, GSI augmented anti-tumor activity in one USC PDX line suggesting that targeting of the Notch signaling pathway is a potential therapeutic strategy for future investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A human lung xenograft mouse model of Nipah virus infection.

    PubMed

    Valbuena, Gustavo; Halliday, Hailey; Borisevich, Viktoriya; Goez, Yenny; Rockx, Barry

    2014-04-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the genus Henipavirus (family Paramyxoviridae) that causes severe and often lethal respiratory illness and encephalitis in humans with high mortality rates (up to 92%). NiV can cause Acute Lung Injury (ALI) in humans, and human-to-human transmission has been observed in recent outbreaks of NiV. While the exact route of transmission to humans is not known, we have previously shown that NiV can efficiently infect human respiratory epithelial cells. The molecular mechanisms of NiV-associated ALI in the human respiratory tract are unknown. Thus, there is an urgent need for models of henipavirus infection of the human respiratory tract to study the pathogenesis and understand the host responses. Here, we describe a novel human lung xenograft model in mice to study the pathogenesis of NiV. Following transplantation, human fetal lung xenografts rapidly graft and develop mature structures of adult lungs including cartilage, vascular vessels, ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium, and primitive "air" spaces filled with mucus and lined by cuboidal to flat epithelium. Following infection, NiV grows to high titers (10(7) TCID50/gram lung tissue) as early as 3 days post infection (pi). NiV targets both the endothelium as well as respiratory epithelium in the human lung tissues, and results in syncytia formation. NiV infection in the human lung results in the production of several cytokines and chemokines including IL-6, IP-10, eotaxin, G-CSF and GM-CSF on days 5 and 7 pi. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that NiV can replicate to high titers in a novel in vivo model of the human respiratory tract, resulting in a robust inflammatory response, which is known to be associated with ALI. This model will facilitate progress in the fundamental understanding of henipavirus pathogenesis and virus-host interactions; it will also provide biologically relevant models for other respiratory viruses.

  2. Hypoxia-Targeting Drug Evofosfamide (TH-302) Enhances Sunitinib Activity in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Sun, Jessica D; Zhang, Libo; Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Wu, Bing; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Qian; Bhupathi, Deepthi; Wang, Yan; Yeger, Herman; Hart, Charles; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2018-05-23

    Antiangiogenic therapy has shown promising results in preclinical and clinical trials. However, tumor cells acquire resistance to this therapy by gaining ability to survive and proliferate under hypoxia induced by antiangiogenic therapy. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with hypoxia-activated prodrugs can overcome this limitation. Here, we have tested the combination of antiangiogenic drug sunitinib in combination with hypoxia-activated prodrug evofosfamide in neuroblastoma. In vitro, neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-BE(2) was 40-folds sensitive to evofosfamide under hypoxia compared to normoxia. In IV metastatic model, evofosfamide significantly increased mice survival compared to the vehicle (P=.02). In SK-N-BE(2) subcutaneous xenograft model, we tested two different treatment regimens using 30 mg/kg sunitinib and 50 mg/kg evofosfamide. Here, sunitinib therapy when started along with evofosfamide treatment showed higher efficacy compared to single agents in subcutaneous SK-N-BE(2) xenograft model, whereas sunitinib when started 7 days after evofosfamide treatment did not have any advantage compared to treatment with either single agent. Immunofluorescence of tumor sections revealed higher number of apoptotic cells and hypoxic areas compared to either single agent when both treatments were started together. Treatment with 80 mg/kg sunitinib with 50 mg/kg evofosfamide was significantly superior to single agents in both xenograft and metastatic models. This study confirms the preclinical efficacy of sunitinib and evofosfamide in murine models of aggressive neuroblastoma. Sunitinib enhances the efficacy of evofosfamide by increasing hypoxic areas, and evofosfamide targets hypoxic tumor cells. Consequently, each drug enhances the activity of the other. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Antibody treatment of human tumor xenografts elicits active anti-tumor immunity in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Meredith A.; Roche, Marly I.; Williams, Brent R.; Kim, Jae; Pageau, Steven C.; Sharon, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts of the human anti-colorectal cancer cell line SW480 were used as a preclinical model to explore anti-tumor immunotherapies. Intratumor or systemic treatment of the mice with murine anti-SW480 serum, recombinant anti-SW480 polyclonal antibodies, or the anti-colorectal cancer monoclonal antibody CO17-1A, caused retardation or regression of SW480 tumor xenografts. Interestingly, when mice that had regressed their tumors were re-challenged with SW480 cells, these mice regressed the new tumors without further antibody treatment. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice that had regressed their tumors conferred anti-tumor immunity to naïve nude mice. Pilot experiments suggest that the transferred anti-tumor immunity is mediated by T cells of both γδ and αβ lineages. These results demonstrate that passive anti-tumor immunotherapy can elicit active immunity and support a role for extra-thymic γδ and αβ T cells in tumor rejection. Implications for potential immunotherapies include injection of tumor nodules in cancer patients with anti-tumor antibodies to induce anti-tumor T cell immunity. PMID:17920694

  4. Patient-specific orthotopic glioblastoma xenograft models recapitulate the histopathology and biology of human glioblastomas in situ.

    PubMed

    Joo, Kyeung Min; Kim, Jinkuk; Jin, Juyoun; Kim, Misuk; Seol, Ho Jun; Muradov, Johongir; Yang, Heekyoung; Choi, Yoon-La; Park, Woong-Yang; Kong, Doo-Sik; Lee, Jung-Il; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Woo, Hyun Goo; Lee, Jeongwu; Kim, Sunghoon; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2013-01-31

    Frequent discrepancies between preclinical and clinical results of anticancer agents demand a reliable translational platform that can precisely recapitulate the biology of human cancers. Another critical unmet need is the ability to predict therapeutic responses for individual patients. Toward this goal, we have established a library of orthotopic glioblastoma (GBM) xenograft models using surgical samples of GBM patients. These patient-specific GBM xenograft tumors recapitulate histopathological properties and maintain genomic characteristics of parental GBMs in situ. Furthermore, in vivo irradiation, chemotherapy, and targeted therapy of these xenograft tumors mimic the treatment response of parental GBMs. We also found that establishment of orthotopic xenograft models portends poor prognosis of GBM patients and identified the gene signatures and pathways signatures associated with the clinical aggressiveness of GBMs. Together, the patient-specific orthotopic GBM xenograft library represent the preclinically and clinically valuable "patient tumor's phenocopy" that represents molecular and functional heterogeneity of GBMs. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Transforming growth factor-β signalling controls human breast cancer metastasis in a zebrafish xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Drabsch, Yvette; He, Shuning; Zhang, Long; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa; ten Dijke, Peter

    2013-11-07

    The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signalling pathway is known to control human breast cancer invasion and metastasis. We demonstrate that the zebrafish xenograft assay is a robust and dependable animal model for examining the role of pharmacological modulators and genetic perturbation of TGF-β signalling in human breast tumour cells. We injected cancer cells into the embryonic circulation (duct of cuvier) and examined their invasion and metastasis into the avascular collagenous tail. Various aspects of the TGF-β signalling pathway were blocked by chemical inhibition, small interfering RNA (siRNA), or small hairpin RNA (shRNA). Analysis was conducted using fluorescent microscopy. Breast cancer cells with different levels of malignancy, according to in vitro and in vivo mouse studies, demonstrated invasive and metastatic properties within the embryonic zebrafish model that nicely correlated with their differential tumourigenicity in mouse models. Interestingly, MCF10A M2 and M4 cells invaded into the caudal hematopoietic tissue and were visible as a cluster of cells, whereas MDA MB 231 cells invaded into the tail fin and were visible as individual cells. Pharmacological inhibition with TGF-β receptor kinase inhibitors or tumour specific Smad4 knockdown disturbed invasion and metastasis in the zebrafish xenograft model and closely mimicked the results we obtained with these cells in a mouse metastasis model. Inhibition of matrix metallo proteinases, which are induced by TGF-β in breast cancer cells, blocked invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. The zebrafish-embryonic breast cancer xenograft model is applicable for the mechanistic understanding, screening and development of anti-TGF-β drugs for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer in a timely and cost-effective manner.

  6. Optimization of Glioblastoma Mouse Orthotopic Xenograft Models for Translational Research.

    PubMed

    Irtenkauf, Susan M; Sobiechowski, Susan; Hasselbach, Laura A; Nelson, Kevin K; Transou, Andrea D; Carlton, Enoch T; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2017-08-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex. Glioblastoma CSC from 4 patients and a glioblastoma nonstem-cell line were then implanted by using the same coordinates for evaluation of tumor location, growth rate, and morphologic and histologic features. Dye injections into one of the defined locations resulted in dye dissemination throughout the ventricles, whereas tumor cell implantation at the same location resulted in a much higher percentage of small multifocal ventricular tumors than did the other 3 locations tested. Ventricular tumors were associated with a lower tumor growth rate, as measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and decreased survival in 4 of 5 cell lines. In addition, tissue oxygenation, vasculature, and the expression of astrocytic markers were altered in ventricular tumors compared with nonventricular tumors. Based on this information, we identified an optimal implantation location that avoided the ventricles and favored cortical tumor growth. To assess the effects of stress from oral drug administration, mice that underwent daily gavage were compared with stress-positive and -negative control groups. Oral gavage procedures did not significantly affect the survival of the implanted mice or physiologic measurements of stress. Our findings document the importance of optimization of the implantation site for

  7. Optimization of Glioblastoma Mouse Orthotopic Xenograft Models for Translational Research

    PubMed Central

    Irtenkauf, Susan M; Sobiechowski, Susan; Hasselbach, Laura A; Nelson, Kevin K; Transou, Andrea D; Carlton, Enoch T; Mikkelsen, Tom; deCarvalho, Ana C

    2017-01-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive primary brain tumor predominantly localized to the cerebral cortex. We developed a panel of patient-derived mouse orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) for preclinical drug studies by implanting cancer stem cells (CSC) cultured from fresh surgical specimens intracranially into 8-wk-old female athymic nude mice. Here we optimize the glioblastoma PDOX model by assessing the effect of implantation location on tumor growth, survival, and histologic characteristics. To trace the distribution of intracranial injections, toluidine blue dye was injected at 4 locations with defined mediolateral, anterioposterior, and dorsoventral coordinates within the cerebral cortex. Glioblastoma CSC from 4 patients and a glioblastoma nonstem-cell line were then implanted by using the same coordinates for evaluation of tumor location, growth rate, and morphologic and histologic features. Dye injections into one of the defined locations resulted in dye dissemination throughout the ventricles, whereas tumor cell implantation at the same location resulted in a much higher percentage of small multifocal ventricular tumors than did the other 3 locations tested. Ventricular tumors were associated with a lower tumor growth rate, as measured by in vivo bioluminescence imaging, and decreased survival in 4 of 5 cell lines. In addition, tissue oxygenation, vasculature, and the expression of astrocytic markers were altered in ventricular tumors compared with nonventricular tumors. Based on this information, we identified an optimal implantation location that avoided the ventricles and favored cortical tumor growth. To assess the effects of stress from oral drug administration, mice that underwent daily gavage were compared with stress-positive and ‑negative control groups. Oral gavage procedures did not significantly affect the survival of the implanted mice or physiologic measurements of stress. Our findings document the importance of optimization of the implantation site for

  8. Successful Treatment of Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts With a Monoamine Oxidase B-Activated Pro-Drug.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Martyn A; Livingston, Andrew D; Gist, Taylor L; Ghosh, Pardip; Han, Junyan; Baskin, David S

    2015-09-01

    The last major advance in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was the introduction of temozolomide in 1999. Treatment with temozolomide following surgical debulking extends survival rate compared to radiotherapy and debulking alone. However, virtually all glioblastoma patients experience disease progression within 7 to 10 months. Although many salvage treatments, including bevacizumab, rechallenge with temozolomide, and other alkylating agents, have been evaluated, none of these clearly improves survival. Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell mitochondria, and mitochondrial function is intimately tied to treatment-resistant glioblastoma progression. These glioblastoma properties provide a strong rationale for pursuing a MAOB-selective pro-drug treatment approach that, upon drug activation, targets glioblastoma mitochondria, especially mitochondrial DNA. MP-MUS is the lead compound in a family of pro-drugs designed to treat GBM that is converted into the mature, mitochondria-targeting drug, P(+)-MUS, by MAOB. We show that MP-MUS can successfully kill primary gliomas in vitro and in vivo mouse xenograft models.

  9. Successful Treatment of Intracranial Glioblastoma Xenografts With a Monoamine Oxidase B-Activated Pro-Drug

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Martyn A.; Livingston, Andrew D.; Gist, Taylor L.; Ghosh, Pardip; Han, Junyan; Baskin, David S.

    2015-01-01

    The last major advance in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was the introduction of temozolomide in 1999. Treatment with temozolomide following surgical debulking extends survival rate compared to radiotherapy and debulking alone. However, virtually all glioblastoma patients experience disease progression within 7 to 10 months. Although many salvage treatments, including bevacizumab, rechallenge with temozolomide, and other alkylating agents, have been evaluated, none of these clearly improves survival. Monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) is highly expressed in glioblastoma cell mitochondria, and mitochondrial function is intimately tied to treatment-resistant glioblastoma progression. These glioblastoma properties provide a strong rationale for pursuing a MAOB-selective pro-drug treatment approach that, upon drug activation, targets glioblastoma mitochondria, especially mitochondrial DNA. MP-MUS is the lead compound in a family of pro-drugs designed to treat GBM that is converted into the mature, mitochondria-targeting drug, P+-MUS, by MAOB. We show that MP-MUS can successfully kill primary gliomas in vitro and in vivo mouse xenograft models. PMID:26501110

  10. Developmental Exposure to Estrogen Alters Differentiation and Epigenetic Programming in a Human Fetal Prostate Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Saffarini, Camelia M.; McDonnell-Clark, Elizabeth V.; Amin, Ali; Huse, Susan M.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most frequent non-cutaneous malignancy in men. There is strong evidence in rodents that neonatal estrogen exposure plays a role in the development of this disease. However, there is little information regarding the effects of estrogen in human fetal prostate tissue. This study explored early life estrogen exposure, with and without a secondary estrogen and testosterone treatment in a human fetal prostate xenograft model. Histopathological lesions, proliferation, and serum hormone levels were evaluated at 7, 30, 90, and 200-day time-points after xenografting. The expression of 40 key genes involved in prostatic glandular and stromal growth, cell-cycle progression, apoptosis, hormone receptors and tumor suppressors was evaluated using a custom PCR array. Epigenome-wide analysis of DNA methylation was performed on whole tissue, and laser capture-microdissection (LCM) isolated epithelial and stromal compartments of 200-day prostate xenografts. Combined initial plus secondary estrogenic exposures had the most severe tissue changes as revealed by the presence of hyperplastic glands at day 200. Gene expression changes corresponded with the cellular events in the KEGG prostate cancer pathway, indicating that initial plus secondary exposure to estrogen altered the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, ultimately resulting in apoptosis inhibition and an increase in cell cycle progression. DNA methylation revealed that differentially methylated CpG sites significantly predominate in the stromal compartment as a result of estrogen-treatment, thereby providing new targets for future investigation. By using human fetal prostate tissue and eliminating the need for species extrapolation, this study provides novel insights into the gene expression and epigenetic effects related to prostate carcinogenesis following early life estrogen exposure. PMID:25799167

  11. Human Xenografts Are Not Rejected in a Naturally Occurring Immunodeficient Porcine Line: A Human Tumor Model in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Basel, Matthew T.; Balivada, Sivasai; Beck, Amanda P.; Kerrigan, Maureen A.; Pyle, Marla M.; Dekkers, Jack C.M.; Wyatt, Carol R.; Rowland, Robert R.R.; Anderson, David E.; Bossmann, Stefan H.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Animal models for cancer therapy are invaluable for preclinical testing of potential cancer treatments; however, therapies tested in such models often fail to translate into clinical settings. Therefore, a better preclinical model for cancer treatment testing is needed. Here we demonstrate that an immunodeficient line of pigs can host and support the growth of xenografted human tumors and has the potential to be an effective animal model for cancer therapy. Wild-type and immunodeficient pigs were injected subcutaneously in the left ear with human melanoma cells (A375SM cells) and in the right ear with human pancreatic carcinoma cells (PANC-1). All immunodeficient pigs developed tumors that were verified by histology and immunohistochemistry. Nonaffected littermates did not develop tumors. Immunodeficient pigs, which do not reject xenografted human tumors, have the potential to become an extremely useful animal model for cancer therapy because of their similarity in size, anatomy, and physiology to humans. PMID:23514746

  12. The use of TMZ embedded hydrogels for the treatment of orthotopic human glioma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bandita; Li, Jie; Brandel, Michael G; Futalan, Diahnn; Akers, Johnny; Deming, Timothy; Chen, Clark C; Carter, Bob S

    2017-11-01

    The current treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is limited by the restricted arsenal of agents which effectively cross the blood brain barrier (BBB). For example, only a fraction of temozolomide (TMZ) administered systemically is available for therapeutic effect because of the BBB and the instability of TMZ under physiologic conditions. A novel approach to overcome this obstacle is to bypass the BBB and locally deliver chemotherapeutic agents directly to the tumor mass. We have explored the loading of TMZ into a novel hydrogel matrix, which can be delivered in liquid form and then solidifies in situ and releases chemotherapy as the matrix dissolves. Here, we tested the effect of amphiphilic diblock copolypeptide hydrogels (DCHs) of 180-poly-lysine and 20-poly-leucine (K 180 L 20 ) on TMZ using Glioblastoma models. In both the in vitro model, which involved treatment of a human glioblastoma GSC line suspended as neurospheres, and in vivo using an orthotopic glioma xenograft mouse model, we found that K 180 L 20 could safely enhance the efficacy of TMZ. This technique may offer the opportunity to 'coat' the inner lining of the cavity following glioma resection with a slow-release TMZ and potentially decrease recurrence. Future studies in larger animals are needed to delineate this effect. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dissection of stromal and cancer cell-derived signals in melanoma xenografts before and after treatment with DMXAA

    PubMed Central

    Henare, K; Wang, L; Wang, L-Cs; Thomsen, L; Tijono, S; Chen, C-Jj; Winkler, S; Dunbar, P R; Print, C; Ching, L-M

    2012-01-01

    Background: The non-malignant cells of the tumour stroma have a critical role in tumour biology. Studies dissecting the interplay between cancer cells and stromal cells are required to further our understanding of tumour progression and methods of intervention. For proof-of-principle of a multi-modal approach to dissect the differential effects of treatment on cancer cells and stromal cells, we analysed the effects of the stromal-targeting agent 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid on melanoma xenografts. Methods: Flow cytometry and multi-colour immunofluorescence staining was used to analyse leukocyte numbers in xenografts. Murine-specific and human-specific multiplex cytokine panels were used to quantitate cytokines produced by stromal and melanoma cells, respectively. Human and mouse Affymetrix microarrays were used to separately identify melanoma cell-specific and stromal cell-specific gene expression. Results: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid activated pro-inflammatory signalling pathways and cytokine expression from both stromal and cancer cells, leading to neutrophil accumulation and haemorrhagic necrosis and a delay in tumour re-growth of 26 days in A375 melanoma xenografts. Conclusion: 5,6-Dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid and related analogues may potentially have utility in the treatment of melanoma. The experimental platform used allowed distinction between cancer cells and stromal cells and can be applied to investigate other tumour models and anti-cancer agents. PMID:22415295

  14. Modeling of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Overview of In Vivo Murine and Human Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Vellenga, Edo

    2016-01-01

    Over the past years, a wide variety of in vivo mouse models have been generated in order to unravel the molecular pathology of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) and to develop and improve therapeutic approaches. These models range from (conditional) transgenic models, knock-in models, and murine bone marrow retroviral transduction models followed by transplantation. With the advancement of immunodeficient xenograft models, it has become possible to use human stem/progenitor cells for in vivo studies as well as cells directly derived from CML patients. These models not only mimic CML but also have been instrumental in uncovering various fundamental mechanisms of CML disease progression and tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. With the availability of iPSC technology, it has become feasible to derive, maintain, and expand CML subclones that are at least genetically identical to those in patients. The following review provides an overview of all murine as well as human xenograft models for CML established till date. PMID:27642303

  15. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Richard A.; Johnston, Zoe C.; Chetty, Tarini; Smith, Lee B.; Mckinnell, Chris; Dean, Afshan; Homer, Natalie Z.; Jorgensen, Anne; Camacho-Moll, Maria-Elena; Sharpe, Richard M.; Mitchell, Rod T.

    2016-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons, but effects on fetal testosterone production have not been demonstrated. We used a validated xenograft model to expose human fetal testes to clinically relevant doses and regimens of acetaminophen. Exposure to a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen for 7 days significantly reduced plasma testosterone (45% reduction; p=0.025) and seminal vesicle weight (a biomarker of androgen exposure; 18% reduction; p=0.005) in castrate host mice bearing human fetal testis xenografts, whereas acetaminophen exposure for just 1 day did not alter either parameter. Plasma acetaminophen concentrations (at 1 hour after the final dose) in exposed host mice were substantially below those reported in humans after a therapeutic oral dose. Subsequent in utero exposure studies in rats indicated that the acetaminophen-induced reduction in testosterone likely results from reduced expression of key steroidogenic enzymes (Cyp11a1, Cyp17a1). Our results suggest that protracted use of acetaminophen (1 week) may suppress fetal testosterone production, which could have adverse consequences. Further studies are required to establish the dose-response and treatment-duration relationships to delineate the maximum dose and treatment period without this adverse effect. PMID:25995226

  16. Antitumor effect of novel anti-podoplanin antibody NZ-12 against malignant pleural mesothelioma in an orthotopic xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Abe, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika Kato; Tsuchihashi, Yuki; Izumi, Toshihiro; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Okada, Naoto; Sato, Chiemi; Tobiume, Makoto; Otsuka, Kenji; Miyamoto, Licht; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; Kawazoe, Kazuyoshi; Kato, Yukinari; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2016-09-01

    Podoplanin (aggrus) is highly expressed in several types of cancers, including malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Previously, we developed a rat anti-human podoplanin mAb, NZ-1, and a rat-human chimeric anti-human podoplanin antibody, NZ-8, derived from NZ-1, which induced antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-dependent cytotoxicity against podoplanin-positive MPM cell lines. In this study, we showed the antitumor effect of NZ-1, NZ-8, and NZ-12, a novel rat-human chimeric anti-human podoplanin antibody derived from NZ-1, in an MPM orthotopic xenograft SCID mouse model. Treatment with NZ-1 and rat NK (CD161a(+) ) cells inhibited the growth of tumors and the production of pleural effusion in NCI-H290/PDPN or NCI-H226 orthotopic xenograft mouse models. NZ-8 and human natural killer (NK) (CD56(+) ) cells also inhibited tumor growth and pleural effusion in MPM orthotopic xenograft mice. Furthermore, NZ-12 induced potent ADCC mediated by human MNC, compared with either NZ-1 or NZ-8. Antitumor effects were observed following treatment with NZ-12 and human NK (CD56(+) ) cells in MPM orthotopic xenograft mice. In addition, combined immunotherapy using the ADCC activity of NZ-12 mediated by human NK (CD56(+) ) cells with pemetrexed, led to enhanced antitumor effects in MPM orthotopic xenograft mice. These results strongly suggest that combination therapy with podoplanin-targeting immunotherapy using both NZ-12 and pemetrexed might provide an efficacious therapeutic strategy for the treatment of MPM. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  17. Cetuximab intensifies the ADCC activity of adoptive NK cells in a nude mouse colorectal cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Li, Xuechun; Chen, Rongming; Yin, Mingang; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2016-09-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells, discovered ~40 years ago, are believed to be the most effective cytotoxic lymphocytes to counteract cancer; however, adoptive NK cell therapy in vivo has encountered certain limitations, including a lack of specificity. The drug cetuximab can mediate antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity through NK cells in vivo , and has been approved for the first-line treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-positive metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the ADCC activity of adoptive NK cells, induced by cetuximab in a nude mouse CRC xenograft model, has not been previously reported. The aim of the present study was to explore the ADCC activity of cetuximab combined with adoptive NK cells in CRC xenograft models with various EGFR expressions. The nude mouse xenograft models were established by subcutaneously injecting LOVO or SW620 cells. The mice were then randomly divided into 6 groups: Phosphate-buffered saline, cetuximab, human immunoglobulin G (hIgG), NK cells, hIgG plus NK cells and cetuximab plus NK cells. The ADCC antitumor activity was evaluated in these CRC models. The results indicated that the cetuximab plus NK cells group showed the greatest tumor inhibition effect compared with the NK cells group in LOVO xenograft tumor models with positive EGFR expression. However, the combination of cetuximab and NK cells did not show a stronger tumor inhibitory effect against the SW620 xenograft tumor models compared with the efficiency of NK cells. In conclusion, cetuximab could intensify the ADCC antitumor activity of adoptive NK cells towards CRC with an increased EGFR expression. The combination of cetuximab and NK cells may be a potential immunotherapy for metastatic CRC patients with positive EGFR expression.

  18. Xenograft tumors derived from malignant pleural effusion of the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer as models to explore drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunhua; Zhang, Feifei; Pan, Xiaoqing; Wang, Guan; Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Wen, Danyi; Lu, Shun

    2018-05-09

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusions show dramatic responses to specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); however, after 10-12 months, secondary mutations arise that confer resistance. We generated a murine xenograft model using patient-derived NSCLC cells isolated from the pleural fluid of two patients with NSCLC to investigate the mechanisms of resistance against the ALK- and EGFR-targeted TKIs crizotinib and osimertinib, respectively. Genotypes of patient biopsies and xenograft tumors were determined by whole exome sequencing (WES), and patients and xenograft-bearing mice received targeted treatment (crizotinib or osimertinib) accordingly. Xenograft mice were also treated for prolonged periods to identify whether the development of drug resistance and/or treatment responses were associated with tumor size. Finally, the pathology of patients biopsies and xenograft tumors were compared histologically. The histological characteristics and chemotherapy responses of xenograft tumors were similar to the actual patients. WES showed that the genotypes of the xenograft and patient tumors were similar (an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-ALK (EML4-ALK) gene fusion (patient/xenograft: CTC15035 EML4-ALK ) and EGFR L858R and T790M mutations (patient/xenograft: CTC15063 EGFR L858R, T790M )). After continuous crizotinib or osimertinib treatment, WES data suggested that acquired ALK E1210K mutation conferred crizotinib resistance in the CTC15035 EML4-ALK xenograft, while decreased frequencies of EGFR L858R and T790M mutations plus the appearance of v-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) G7V mutations and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 alpha (PIK3C2A) A86fs frame shift mutations led to osimertinib resistance in the CTC15063 EGFR L858R, T790M xenografts. We successfully developed a new method of generating

  19. The Anti-Proliferative Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Takahara, Kiyoshi; Inamoto, Teruo; Minami, Koichiro; Yoshikawa, Yuki; Takai, Tomoaki; Ibuki, Naokazu; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kawabata, Shinji; Kiyama, Satoshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiation treatment for tumors that preferentially accumulate drugs carrying the stable boron isotope, 10B. BNCT has been evaluated clinically as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors, and more recently, recurrent advanced head and neck cancer. Here we investigated the effect of BNCT on prostate cancer (PCa) using an in vivo mouse xenograft model that we have developed. Mice bearing the xenotransplanted androgen-independent human PCa cell line, PC3, were divided into four groups: Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: Boronophenylalanine (BPA); Group 3: neutron; Group 4: BPA-mediated BNCT. We compared xenograft growth among these groups, and the body weight and any motility disturbance were recorded. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of the proliferation marker, Ki-67, and TUNEL staining were performed 9 weeks after treatment. The in vivo studies demonstrated that BPA-mediated BNCT significantly delayed tumor growth in comparison with the other groups, without any severe adverse events. There was a significant difference in the rate of freedom from gait abnormalities between the BPA-mediated BNCT group and the other groups. The IHC studies revealed that BNCT treatment significantly reduced the number of Ki-67-positive cells in comparison with the controls (mean ± SD 6.9 ± 1.5 vs 12.7 ± 4.0, p<0.05), while there was no difference in the number of apoptotic cells, suggesting that BPA-mediated BNCT reduced PCa progression without affecting apoptosis at 9 weeks post-treatment. This study has provided the first preclinical proof-of-principle data to indicate that BPA-mediated BNCT reduces the in vivo growth of PCa. Although further studies will be necessary, BNCT might be a novel potential treatment for PCa.

  20. The Anti-Proliferative Effect of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy in a Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Yuki; Takai, Tomoaki; Ibuki, Naokazu; Hirano, Hajime; Nomi, Hayahito; Kawabata, Shinji; Kiyama, Satoshi; Miyatake, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Minoru; Kirihata, Mitsunori; Azuma, Haruhito

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a selective radiation treatment for tumors that preferentially accumulate drugs carrying the stable boron isotope, 10B. BNCT has been evaluated clinically as an alternative to conventional radiation therapy for the treatment of brain tumors, and more recently, recurrent advanced head and neck cancer. Here we investigated the effect of BNCT on prostate cancer (PCa) using an in vivo mouse xenograft model that we have developed. Materials and Methods Mice bearing the xenotransplanted androgen-independent human PCa cell line, PC3, were divided into four groups: Group 1: untreated controls; Group 2: Boronophenylalanine (BPA); Group 3: neutron; Group 4: BPA-mediated BNCT. We compared xenograft growth among these groups, and the body weight and any motility disturbance were recorded. Immunohistochemical (IHC) studies of the proliferation marker, Ki-67, and TUNEL staining were performed 9 weeks after treatment. Results The in vivo studies demonstrated that BPA-mediated BNCT significantly delayed tumor growth in comparison with the other groups, without any severe adverse events. There was a significant difference in the rate of freedom from gait abnormalities between the BPA-mediated BNCT group and the other groups. The IHC studies revealed that BNCT treatment significantly reduced the number of Ki-67-positive cells in comparison with the controls (mean±SD 6.9±1.5 vs 12.7±4.0, p<0.05), while there was no difference in the number of apoptotic cells, suggesting that BPA-mediated BNCT reduced PCa progression without affecting apoptosis at 9 weeks post-treatment. Conclusions This study has provided the first preclinical proof-of-principle data to indicate that BPA-mediated BNCT reduces the in vivo growth of PCa. Although further studies will be necessary, BNCT might be a novel potential treatment for PCa. PMID:26325195

  1. Dynamic PET evaluation of elevated FLT level after sorafenib treatment in mice bearing human renal cell carcinoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Ukon, Naoyuki; Zhao, Songji; Yu, Wenwen; Shimizu, Yoichi; Nishijima, Ken-Ichi; Kubo, Naoki; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Tamaki, Nagara; Higashikawa, Kei; Yasui, Hironobu; Kuge, Yuji

    2016-12-01

    Sorafenib, an oral multikinase inhibitor, has anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities and is therapeutically effective against renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Recently, we have evaluated the tumor responses to sorafenib treatment in a RCC xenograft using [Methyl- 3 H(N)]-3'-fluoro-3'-deoxythythymidine ([ 3 H]FLT). Contrary to our expectation, the FLT level in the tumor significantly increased after the treatment. In this study, to clarify the reason for the elevated FLT level, dynamic 3'-[ 18 F]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ([ 18 F]FLT) positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic studies were performed in mice bearing a RCC xenograft (A498). The A498 xenograft was established in nude mice, and the mice were assigned to the control (n = 5) and treatment (n = 5) groups. The mice in the treatment group were orally given sorafenib (20 mg/kg/day p.o.) once daily for 3 days. Twenty-four hours after the treatment, dynamic [ 18 F]FLT PET was performed by small-animal PET. Three-dimensional regions of interest (ROIs) were manually defined for the tumors. A three-compartment model fitting was carried out to estimate four rate constants using the time activity curve (TAC) in the tumor and the blood clearance rate of [ 18 F]FLT. The dynamic pattern of [ 18 F]FLT levels in the tumor significantly changed after the treatment. The rate constant of [ 18 F]FLT phosphorylation (k 3 ) was significantly higher in the treatment group (0.111 ± 0.027 [1/min]) than in the control group (0.082 ± 0.009 [1/min]). No significant changes were observed in the distribution volume, the ratio of [ 18 F]FLT forward transport (K 1 ) to reverse transport (k 2 ), between the two groups (0.556 ± 0.073 and 0.641 ± 0.052 [mL/g] in the control group). Our dynamic PET studies indicated that the increase in FLT level may be caused by the phosphorylation of FLT in the tumor after the sorafenib treatment in the mice bearing a RCC xenograft. Dynamic PET studies with kinetic

  2. Genetically Engineered Cancer Models, But Not Xenografts, Faithfully Predict Anticancer Drug Exposure in Melanoma Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Combest, Austin J.; Roberts, Patrick J.; Dillon, Patrick M.; Sandison, Katie; Hanna, Suzan K.; Ross, Charlene; Habibi, Sohrab; Zamboni, Beth; Müller, Markus; Brunner, Martin; Sharpless, Norman E.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Rodent studies are a vital step in the development of novel anticancer therapeutics and are used in pharmacokinetic (PK), toxicology, and efficacy studies. Traditionally, anticancer drug development has relied on xenograft implantation of human cancer cell lines in immunocompromised mice for efficacy screening of a candidate compound. The usefulness of xenograft models for efficacy testing, however, has been questioned, whereas genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) and orthotopic syngeneic transplants (OSTs) may offer some advantages for efficacy assessment. A critical factor influencing the predictability of rodent tumor models is drug PKs, but a comprehensive comparison of plasma and tumor PK parameters among xenograft models, OSTs, GEMMs, and human patients has not been performed. Methods. In this work, we evaluated the plasma and tumor dispositions of an antimelanoma agent, carboplatin, in patients with cutaneous melanoma compared with four different murine melanoma models (one GEMM, one human cell line xenograft, and two OSTs). Results. Using microdialysis to sample carboplatin tumor disposition, we found that OSTs and xenografts were poor predictors of drug exposure in human tumors, whereas the GEMM model exhibited PK parameters similar to those seen in human tumors. Conclusions. The tumor PKs of carboplatin in a GEMM of melanoma more closely resembles the tumor disposition in patients with melanoma than transplanted tumor models. GEMMs show promise in becoming an improved prediction model for intratumoral PKs and response in patients with solid tumors. PMID:22993143

  3. Novel dedifferentiated liposarcoma xenograft models reveal PTEN down-regulation as a malignant signature and response to PI3K pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kathleen B; Tran, Linh M; Tam, Brenna M; Shurell, Elizabeth M; Li, Yunfeng; Braas, Daniel; Tap, William D; Christofk, Heather R; Dry, Sarah M; Eilber, Fritz C; Wu, Hong

    2013-04-01

    Liposarcoma is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that exhibits poor survival and a high recurrence rate. Treatment is generally limited to surgery and radiation, which emphasizes the need for better understanding of this disease. Because very few in vivo and in vitro models can reproducibly recapitulate the human disease, we generated several xenograft models from surgically resected human dedifferentiated liposarcoma. All xenografts recapitulated morphological and gene expression characteristics of the patient tumors after continuous in vivo passages. Importantly, xenograftability was directly correlated with disease-specific survival of liposarcoma patients. Thus, the ability for the tumor of a patient to engraft may help identify those patients who will benefit from more aggressive treatment regimens. Gene expression analyses highlighted the association between xenograftability and a unique gene expression signature, including down-regulated PTEN tumor-suppressor gene expression and a progenitor-like phenotype. When treated with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor rapamycin alone or in combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, all xenografts responded with increased lipid content and a more differentiated gene expression profile. These human xenograft models may facilitate liposarcoma research and accelerate the generation of readily translatable preclinical data that could ultimately influence patient care. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma Xenograft Models Reveal PTEN Down-Regulation as a Malignant Signature and Response to PI3K Pathway Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathleen B.; Tran, Linh M.; Tam, Brenna M.; Shurell, Elizabeth M.; Li, Yunfeng; Braas, Daniel; Tap, William D.; Christofk, Heather R.; Dry, Sarah M.; Eilber, Fritz C.; Wu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Liposarcoma is a type of soft tissue sarcoma that exhibits poor survival and a high recurrence rate. Treatment is generally limited to surgery and radiation, which emphasizes the need for better understanding of this disease. Because very few in vivo and in vitro models can reproducibly recapitulate the human disease, we generated several xenograft models from surgically resected human dedifferentiated liposarcoma. All xenografts recapitulated morphological and gene expression characteristics of the patient tumors after continuous in vivo passages. Importantly, xenograftability was directly correlated with disease-specific survival of liposarcoma patients. Thus, the ability for the tumor of a patient to engraft may help identify those patients who will benefit from more aggressive treatment regimens. Gene expression analyses highlighted the association between xenograftability and a unique gene expression signature, including down-regulated PTEN tumor-suppressor gene expression and a progenitor-like phenotype. When treated with the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibitor rapamycin alone or in combination with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib, all xenografts responded with increased lipid content and a more differentiated gene expression profile. These human xenograft models may facilitate liposarcoma research and accelerate the generation of readily translatable preclinical data that could ultimately influence patient care. PMID:23416162

  5. Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Vines, Douglass C.; Scollard, Deborah A.; Komal, Teesha; Ganguly, Milan; Do, Trevor; Wu, Bing; Alexander, Natasha; Besanger, Travis

    2017-01-01

    Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) expression with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imaging and autoradiography, a higher uptake of 68Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed in SSTR2 high-expressing NB xenografts (CHLA-15) compared to SSTR2 low-expressing NB xenografts (SK-N-BE(2)). Combined autoradiography-immunohistochemistry revealed histological colocalization of SSTR2 and 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake in CHLA-15 tumors. With a low dose of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE (20 MBq/animal), tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the CHLA-15 high SSTR2 expressing xenograft model. Although, in vitro, NB cells showed variable expression levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET), a molecular target for 131I-MIBG therapy, low 123I-MIBG uptake was observed in all selected NB xenografts. In conclusion, SSTR2 expression levels are associated with 68Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and antitumor efficacy of 177Lu-DOTA-TATE. 68Ga-DOTA-TATE PET is superior to 123I-MIBG SPECT imaging in detecting NB tumors in our model. Radiolabeled DOTA-TATE can be used as an agent for NB tumor imaging to potentially discriminate tumors eligible for 177Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy. PMID:29097943

  6. Correlation of Somatostatin Receptor-2 Expression with Gallium-68-DOTA-TATE Uptake in Neuroblastoma Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libo; Vines, Douglass C; Scollard, Deborah A; McKee, Trevor; Komal, Teesha; Ganguly, Milan; Do, Trevor; Wu, Bing; Alexander, Natasha; Vali, Reza; Shammas, Amer; Besanger, Travis; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Peptide-receptor imaging and therapy with radiolabeled somatostatin analogs such as 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE have become an effective treatment option for SSTR-positive neuroendocrine tumors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation of somatostatin receptor-2 (SSTR2) expression with 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy in neuroblastoma (NB) xenograft models. We demonstrated variable SSTR2 expression profiles in eight NB cell lines. From micro-PET imaging and autoradiography, a higher uptake of 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE was observed in SSTR2 high-expressing NB xenografts (CHLA-15) compared to SSTR2 low-expressing NB xenografts (SK-N-BE(2)). Combined autoradiography-immunohistochemistry revealed histological colocalization of SSTR2 and 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake in CHLA-15 tumors. With a low dose of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE (20 MBq/animal), tumor growth inhibition was achieved in the CHLA-15 high SSTR2 expressing xenograft model. Although, in vitro , NB cells showed variable expression levels of norepinephrine transporter (NET), a molecular target for 131 I-MIBG therapy, low 123 I-MIBG uptake was observed in all selected NB xenografts. In conclusion, SSTR2 expression levels are associated with 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE uptake and antitumor efficacy of 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE. 68 Ga-DOTA-TATE PET is superior to 123 I-MIBG SPECT imaging in detecting NB tumors in our model. Radiolabeled DOTA-TATE can be used as an agent for NB tumor imaging to potentially discriminate tumors eligible for 177 Lu-DOTA-TATE therapy.

  7. Intratumoral delivery of docetaxel enhances antitumor activity of Ad-p53 in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Yoo, George H; Subramanian, Geetha; Ezzat, Waleed H; Tulunay, Ozlem E; Tran, Vivian R; Lonardo, Fulvio; Ensley, John F; Kim, Harold; Won, Joshua; Stevens, Timothy; Zumstein, Louis A; Lin, Ho-Sheng

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the ability of intratumorally delivered docetaxel to enhance the antitumor activity of adenovirus-mediated delivery of p53 (Ad-p53) in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. A xenograft head and neck squamous cell carcinoma mouse model was used. Mice were randomized into 4 groups of 6 mice receiving 6 weeks of biweekly intratumoral injection of (a) diluent, (b) Ad-p53 (1 x 10(10) viral particles per injection), (c) docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection), and (d) combination of Ad-p53 (1 x 10(10) viral particles per injection) and docetaxel (1 mg/kg per injection). Tumor size, weight, toxicity, and overall and disease-free survival rates were determined. Intratumoral treatments with either docetaxel alone or Ad-p53 alone resulted in statistically significant antitumor activity and improved survival compared with control group. Furthermore, combined delivery of Ad-p53 and docetaxel resulted in a statistically significant reduction in tumor weight when compared to treatment with either Ad-p53 or docetaxel alone. Intratumoral delivery of docetaxel enhanced the antitumor effect of Ad-p53 in murine head and neck cancer xenograft model. The result of this preclinical in vivo study is promising and supports further clinical testing to evaluate efficacy of combined intratumoral docetaxel and Ad-p53 in treatment of head and neck cancer. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining fisetin and ionizing radiation suppresses the growth of mammalian colorectal cancers in xenograft tumor models.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jyh-Der; Wang, Bo-Shen; Chiu, Shu-Jun; Chang, Chun-Yuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Fu-Du; Avirmed, Shiirevnyamba; Lee, Yi-Jang

    2016-12-01

    Fisetin (3,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone), which belongs to the flavonoid group of polyphenols and is found in a wide range of plants, has been reported to exhibit a number of biological activities in human cancer cells, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, anti-invasive and antiproliferative effects. Although previous in vitro studies have shown that fisetin treatment increases the apoptotic rate and enhances the radiosensitivity of human colorectal cancer cells, the in vivo effects of fisetin on tumor growth remain unclear. In the present study a murine xenograft tumor model was employed to investigate the therapeutic effects of fisetin in combination with radiation on CT-26 colon cancer cells and human HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. This revealed that intratumoral injection of fisetin significantly suppressed the growth of CT-26 tumors compared with the untreated control group, but had little effect on the growth of HCT116 tumors. However, fisetin in combination with 2-Gy radiation enhanced tumor suppressor activity in murine colon and human colorectal xenograft tumors, as compared with 2-Gy fractionated radiation administered alone for 5 days and fisetin alone. Interestingly, fisetin downregulated the expression of the oncoprotein securin in a p53-independent manner. However, securin-null HCT116 tumors showed only moderate sensitivity to fisetin treatment, and the combination of fisetin and radiation did not significantly suppress securin-null HCT116 tumor growth compared with normal HCT116 tumors. Therefore, the role of securin in mediating the effect of fisetin on colorectal cancer growth warrants further investigation. In conclusion, the results of the current study provide important preclinical data for evaluating the efficacy of fisetin and radiation combination treatment as an adjuvant chemoradiotherapy for human colorectal cancers.

  9. Pentastatin-1, a collagen IV derived 20-mer peptide, suppresses tumor growth in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Koskimaki, Jacob E; Karagiannis, Emmanouil D; Tang, Benjamin C; Hammers, Hans; Watkins, D Neil; Pili, Roberto; Popel, Aleksander S

    2010-02-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of neovasculature from a pre-existing vascular network. Progression of solid tumors including lung cancer is angiogenesis-dependent. We previously introduced a bioinformatics-based methodology to identify endogenous anti-angiogenic peptide sequences, and validated these predictions in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation and migration assays. One family of peptides with high activity is derived from the alpha-fibrils of type IV collagen. Based on the results from the in vitro screening, we have evaluated the ability of a 20 amino acid peptide derived from the alpha5 fibril of type IV collagen, pentastatin-1, to suppress vessel growth in an angioreactor-based directed in vivo angiogenesis assay (DIVAA). In addition, pentastatin-1 suppressed tumor growth with intraperitoneal peptide administration in a small cell lung cancer (SCLC) xenograft model in nude mice using the NCI-H82 human cancer cell line. Pentastatin-1 decreased the invasion of vessels into angioreactors in vivo in a dose dependent manner. The peptide also decreased the rate of tumor growth and microvascular density in vivo in a small cell lung cancer xenograft model. The peptide treatment significantly decreased the invasion of microvessels in angioreactors and the rate of tumor growth in the xenograft model, indicating potential treatment for angiogenesis-dependent disease, and for translational development as a therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

  10. Efficacy of protracted temozolomide dosing is limited in MGMT unmethylated GBM xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Cen, Ling; Carlson, Brett L; Pokorny, Jenny L; Mladek, Ann C; Grogan, Patrick T; Schroeder, Mark A; Decker, Paul A; Anderson, S Keith; Giannini, Caterina; Wu, Wenting; Ballman, Karla V; Kitange, Gaspar J; Sarkaria, Jann N

    2013-06-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is important chemotherapy for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), but the optimal dosing schedule is unclear. The efficacies of different clinically relevant dosing regimens were compared in a panel of 7 primary GBM xenografts in an intracranial therapy evaluation model. Protracted TMZ therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 3 wk every 4) provided superior survival to a placebo-treated group in 1 of 4 O(6)-DNA methylguanine-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter hypermethylated lines (GBM12) and none of the 3 MGMT unmethylated lines, while standard therapy (TMZ daily M-F, 1 wk every 4) provided superior survival to the placebo-treated group in 2 of 3 MGMT unmethylated lines (GBM14 and GBM43) and none of the methylated lines. In comparing GBM12, GBM14, and GBM43 intracranial specimens, both GBM14 and GBM43 mice treated with protracted TMZ had a significant elevation in MGMT levels compared with placebo. Similarly, high MGMT was found in a second model of acquired TMZ resistance in GBM14 flank xenografts, and resistance was reversed in vitro by treatment with the MGMT inhibitor O(6)-benzylguanine, demonstrating a mechanistic link between MGMT overexpression and TMZ resistance in this line. Additionally, in an analysis of gene expression data, comparison of parental and TMZ-resistant GBM14 demonstrated enrichment of functional ontologies for cell cycle control within the S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle and DNA damage checkpoints. Across the 7 tumor models studied, there was no consistent difference between protracted and standard TMZ regimens. The efficacy of protracted TMZ regimens may be limited in a subset of MGMT unmethylated tumors by induction of MGMT expression.

  11. Selective accumulation of PpIX and photodynamic effect after aminolevulinic acid treatment of human adenomyosis xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki-Kakisaka, Haruka; Murakami, Takashi; Hirano, Toru; Terada, Yukihiro; Yaegashi, Nobuo; Okamura, Kunihiro

    2008-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid (ALA) on human adenomyosis xenografts in a mouse model. Human adenomyosis tissues were implanted SC into nude mice. We measured 5-aminolevulinic acid pharmacokinetics in these mice by analyzing tissue sections 1 to 6 hours after intraperitoneal administration. Twenty-four hours after photodynamic therapy, we evaluated tissue morphologic features. Department of obstetrics and gynecology at a university hospital in Japan. Immunodeficient mice. Tissue grafts were taken from women with adenomyosis attending a university hospital. Photodynamic treatment. Peak fluorescence after intraperitoneal ALA administration and tissue histological changes 24 hours after photodynamic therapy. Peak fluorescence was observed 3 hours after intraperitoneal administration. Histological studies revealed decreased numbers of epithelial and stromal cells in adenomyosis models after therapy. Photodynamic therapy with ALA caused extensive cell death in human adenomyosis tissues implanted into nude mice. Photodynamic treatment using ALA is a potential treatment for patients with adenomyosis uteri.

  12. Bovine xenograft application for treatment of a metatarsal nonunion fracture in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

    PubMed

    Longo, F; Finotti, L; Bellini, L; Zavan, B; Busetto, R; Isola, M

    2016-05-01

    A 15-year-old female huacaya alpaca (Vicugna pacos) was referred because of a non-weight-bearing lameness (4/4) in the left pelvic limb caused by a grade three open metatarsal fracture. The referring veterinarian treated the fracture with conservative management using bandages, but it progressively evolved to a non-union. Clinical examination revealed external wounds on the medial and lateral surfaces of the metatarsus. Radiographs confirmed an open, nonarticular, displaced, diaphyseal fracture of the left metatarsus. Cancellous bone was sourced from bovine proximal and distal femur epiphyses, followed by a thermal shock procedure to achieve decellularisation, to produce a xenograft. Open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture using locking plates was performed. Alignment of the fracture fragments was corrected and the xenograft was placed at the debrided fracture site to stimulate and harness osteogenesis in situ. Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed up to 40 weeks postoperatively. Clinical evaluations revealed that the alpaca gradually increased weight bearing following bandage removal 10 days after surgery. Serial radiographs showed correct alignment of the left metatarsus, progressive bone modelling and, complete bone union at 12 weeks. Ten months postoperatively the alpaca showed no signs of lameness and resumed normal activity. For management of a metatarsal non-union, a combination of bovine xenograft application and angular stable internal fixation progressed toward an excellent long-term recovery.

  13. A Murine Xenograft Model for Human CD30+ Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Walther; Levi, Edi; Petrogiannis-Haliotis, Tina; Lehmann, Leslie; Wang, Zhenxi; Kadin, Marshall E.

    1999-01-01

    To develop a model for the biology and treatment of CD30+ anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL), we transplanted leukemic tumor cells from a 22-month-old girl with multiple relapsed ALCL. Tumor cells were inoculated intraperitoneally into a 4-week-old SCID/bg mouse and produced a disseminated tumor within 8 weeks; this tumor was serially transplanted by subcutaneous injections to other mice. Morphology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular genetics which demonstrated the NPM-ALK fusion protein, resulting from the t(2;5)(p23;q35), confirmed the identity of the xenograft with the original tumor. The tumor produced transcripts for interleukin-1α, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ which could explain the patient’s B-symptoms. Treatment of mice with monoclonal antibody (HeFi-1) which activates CD30 antigen administered on day 1 after tumor transplantation prevented tumor growth. Treatment with HeFi-1 after tumors had reached a 0.2 cm3 volume caused tumor growth arrest and prevention of tumor dissemination. We conclude that transplantation of CD30+ ALCL to SCID/bg mice may provide a valuable model for the study of the biology and design of treatment modalities for CD30+ ALCL. PMID:10514417

  14. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy change vessel tree geometry and metastatic spread in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model

    PubMed Central

    Bethge, Anja; Schumacher, Udo

    2017-01-01

    Background Tumor vasculature is critical for tumor growth, formation of distant metastases and efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy treatments. However, how the vasculature itself is affected during cancer treatment regarding to the metastatic behavior has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the influence of hypofractionated radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy on vessel tree geometry and metastasis formation in a small cell lung cancer xenograft mouse tumor model to investigate the spread of malignant cells during different treatments modalities. Methods The biological data gained during these experiments were fed into our previously developed computer model “Cancer and Treatment Simulation Tool” (CaTSiT) to model the growth of the primary tumor, its metastatic deposit and also the influence on different therapies. Furthermore, we performed quantitative histology analyses to verify our predictions in xenograft mouse tumor model. Results According to the computer simulation the number of cells engrafting must vary considerably to explain the different weights of the primary tumor at the end of the experiment. Once a primary tumor is established, the fractal dimension of its vasculature correlates with the tumor size. Furthermore, the fractal dimension of the tumor vasculature changes during treatment, indicating that the therapy affects the blood vessels’ geometry. We corroborated these findings with a quantitative histological analysis showing that the blood vessel density is depleted during radiotherapy and cisplatin chemotherapy. The CaTSiT computer model reveals that chemotherapy influences the tumor’s therapeutic susceptibility and its metastatic spreading behavior. Conclusion Using a system biological approach in combination with xenograft models and computer simulations revealed that the usage of chemotherapy and radiation therapy determines the spreading behavior by changing the blood vessel geometry

  15. Maturation of the developing human fetal prostate in a rodent xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Saffarini, Camelia M.; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Amin, Ali; Spade, Daniel J.; Huse, Susan M.; Kostadinov, Stefan; Hall, Susan J.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2015-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed non-skin cancer in men. The etiology of prostate cancer is unknown, although both animal and epidemiologic data suggest that early life exposures to various toxicants, may impact DNA methylation status during development, playing an important role. Methods We have developed a xenograft model to characterize the growth and differentiation of human fetal prostate implants (gestational age 12-24 weeks) that can provide new data on the potential role of early life stressors on prostate cancer. The expression of key immunohistochemical markers responsible for prostate maturation was evaluated, including p63, cytokeratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin, vimentin, caldesmon, Ki-67, prostate specific antigen, estrogen receptor-α, and androgen receptor. Xenografts were separated into epithelial and stromal compartments using laser capture microdissection (LCM), and the DNA methylation status was assessed in >480,000 CpG sites throughout the genome. Results Xenografts demonstrated growth and maturation throughout the 200 days of post-implantation evaluation. DNA methylation profiles of laser capture micro-dissected tissue demonstrated tissue-specific markers clustered by their location in either the epithelium or stroma of human prostate tissue. Differential methylated promoter region CpG-associated gene analysis revealed significantly more stromal than epithelial DNA methylation in the 30 and 90-day xenografts. Functional classification analysis identified CpG-related gene clusters in methylated epithelial and stromal human xenografts. Conclusion This study of human fetal prostate tissue establishes a xenograft model that demonstrates dynamic growth and maturation, allowing for future mechanistic studies of the developmental origins of later life proliferative prostate disease. PMID:24038131

  16. Combination therapy in a xenograft model of glioblastoma: enhancement of the antitumor activity of temozolomide by an MDM2 antagonist.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyan; Cai, Shanbao; Bailey, Barbara J; Reza Saadatzadeh, M; Ding, Jixin; Tonsing-Carter, Eva; Georgiadis, Taxiarchis M; Zachary Gunter, T; Long, Eric C; Minto, Robert E; Gordon, Kevin R; Sen, Stephanie E; Cai, Wenjing; Eitel, Jacob A; Waning, David L; Bringman, Lauren R; Wells, Clark D; Murray, Mary E; Sarkaria, Jann N; Gelbert, Lawrence M; Jones, David R; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Mayo, Lindsey D; Shannon, Harlan E; Pollok, Karen E

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Improvement in treatment outcome for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) requires a multifaceted approach due to dysregulation of numerous signaling pathways. The murine double minute 2 (MDM2) protein may fulfill this requirement because it is involved in the regulation of growth, survival, and invasion. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of modulating MDM2 function in combination with front-line temozolomide (TMZ) therapy in GBM. METHODS The combination of TMZ with the MDM2 protein-protein interaction inhibitor nutlin3a was evaluated for effects on cell growth, p53 pathway activation, expression of DNA repair proteins, and invasive properties. In vivo efficacy was assessed in xenograft models of human GBM. RESULTS In combination, TMZ/nutlin3a was additive to synergistic in decreasing growth of wild-type p53 GBM cells. Pharmacodynamic studies demonstrated that inhibition of cell growth following exposure to TMZ/nutlin3a correlated with: 1) activation of the p53 pathway, 2) downregulation of DNA repair proteins, 3) persistence of DNA damage, and 4) decreased invasion. Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that nutlin3a was detected in human intracranial tumor xenografts. To assess therapeutic potential, efficacy studies were conducted in a xenograft model of intracranial GBM by using GBM cells derived from a recurrent wild-type p53 GBM that is highly TMZ resistant (GBM10). Three 5-day cycles of TMZ/nutlin3a resulted in a significant increase in the survival of mice with GBM10 intracranial tumors compared with single-agent therapy. CONCLUSIONS Modulation of MDM2/p53-associated signaling pathways is a novel approach for decreasing TMZ resistance in GBM. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study in a humanized intracranial patient-derived xenograft model to demonstrate the efficacy of combining front-line TMZ therapy and an inhibitor of MDM2 protein-protein interactions.

  17. Therapeutic effects of autologous lymphocytes activated with trastuzumab for xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shinichiro; Matsuoka, Yusuke; Ichihara, Hideaki; Yoshida, Hitoji; Yoshida, Kenshi; Ueoka, Ryuichi

    2013-01-01

    Trastuzumab (TTZ) is molecular targeted drug used for metastatic breast cancer patients overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Therapeutic effects of lymphocytes activated with TTZ (TTZ-LAK) using xenograft mouse models of human breast cancer (MDA-MB-453) cells were examined in vivo. Remarkable reduction of tumor volume in a xenograft mouse models intravenously treated with TTZ-LAK cells after the subcutaneously inoculated of MDA-MB-453 cells was verified in vivo. The migration of TTZ-LAK cells in tumor of mouse models subcutaneously inoculated MDA-MB-453 cells was observed on the basis of histological analysis using immunostaining with CD-3. Induction of apoptosis in tumor of xenograft mice treated with TTZ-LAK cells was observed in micrographs using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) method. It was noteworthy that the therapeutic effects of TTZ-LAK cells along with apoptosis were obtained for xenograft mouse models of human breast tumor in vivo.

  18. Using patient-derived xenograft models of colorectal liver metastases to predict chemosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kai M; Xue, Aiqun; Julovi, Sohel M; Gill, Anthony J; Pavlakis, Nick; Samra, Jaswinder S; Smith, Ross C; Hugh, Thomas J

    2018-07-01

    Few in vivo models for colorectal cancer have been demonstrated to show external validity by accurately predicting clinical patient outcomes. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of cancer have characteristics that might provide a form of translational research leading to personalized cancer care. The aim of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of using PDXs as a platform for predicting patient colorectal liver metastases responses, in this case by correlating PDX and patient tumor responses to either folinic acid, fluorouracil plus oxaliplatin or folinic acid, fluorouracil plus irinotecan-based regimens. Sixteen patients underwent potentially curative resection of colorectal liver metastases, and tumors were grafted into NOD.CB17-Prkdc scid /Arc mice. Mice were divided into groups to determine relative tumor growth in response to treatment. Tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and Excision repair cross-complementation group 1. An engraftment rate of 81% was achieved. Overall, there was a 67% positive match rate between eligible patient and PDX chemosensitivity profiles. There was a significant difference in relative decrease in Ki67 expression between sensitive/stable versus resistant PDXs for both treatment regimens. There was no statistically significant correlation between baseline ERCC1 expression and response to Oxaliplatin + 5-Fluorouracil in the PDXs. This pilot study supports the feasibility of using PDX models of advanced colorectal cancer in larger studies to potentially predict patient chemosensitivity profiles. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient-derived Xenograft (PDX) Models In Basic and Translational Breast Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Dobrolecki, Lacey E.; Airhart, Susie D.; Alferez, Denis G.; Aparicio, Samuel; Behbod, Fariba; Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Brisken, Cathrin; Bult, Carol J.; Cai, Shirong; Clarke, Robert B.; Dowst, Heidi; Ellis, Matthew J.; Gonzalez-Suarez, Eva; Iggo, Richard D.; Kabos, Peter; Li, Shunqiang; Lindeman, Geoffrey J.; Marangoni, Elisabetta; McCoy, Aaron; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Piwnica-Worms, Helen; Poupon, Marie-France; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Sartorius, Carol A.; Scabia, Valentina; Sflomos, George; Tu, Yizheng; Vaillant, François; Visvader, Jane E.; Welm, Alana; Wicha, Max S.

    2017-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models of a growing spectrum of cancers are rapidly supplanting long-established traditional cell lines as preferred models for conducting basic and translational pre-clinical research. In breast cancer, to complement the now curated collection of approximately 45 long-established human breast cancer cell lines, a newly formed consortium of academic laboratories, currently from Europe, Australia, and North America, herein summarizes data on over 500 stably transplantable PDX models representing all three clinical subtypes of breast cancer (ER+, HER2+, and “Triple-negative” (TNBC)). Many of these models are well-characterized with respect to genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic features, metastatic behavior, and treatment response to a variety of standard-of-care and experimental therapeutics. These stably transplantable PDX lines are generally available for dissemination to laboratories conducting translational research, and contact information for each collection is provided. This review summarizes current experiences related to PDX generation across participating groups, efforts to develop data standards for annotation and dissemination of patient clinical information that does not compromise patient privacy, efforts to develop complementary data standards for annotation of PDX characteristics and biology, and progress toward “credentialing” of PDX models as surrogates to represent individual patients for use in pre-clinical and co-clinical translational research. In addition, this review highlights important unresolved questions, as well as current limitations, that have hampered more efficient generation of PDX lines and more rapid adoption of PDX use in translational breast cancer research. PMID:28025748

  20. Initial experience with xenograft bioconduit for the treatment of complex prosthetic valve endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Roubelakis, Apostolos; Karangelis, Dimos; Sadeque, Syed; Yanagawa, Bobby; Modi, Amit; Barlow, Clifford W; Livesey, Steven A; Ohri, Sunil K

    2017-07-01

    The treatment of complex prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) with aortic root abscess remains a surgical challenge. Several studies support the use of biological tissues to minimize the risk of recurrent infection. We present our initial surgical experience with the use of an aortic xenograft conduit for aortic valve and root replacement. Between October 2013 and August 2015, 15 xenograft bioconduits were implanted for complex PVE with abscess (13.3% female). In 6 patients, concomitant procedures were performed: coronary bypass (n=1), mitral valve replacement (n=5) and tricuspid annuloplasty (n=1). The mean age at operation was 60.3±15.5 years. The mean Logistic European system for cardiac operating risk evaluation (EuroSCORE) was 46.6±23.6. The median follow-up time was 607±328 days (range: 172-1074 days). There were two in-hospital deaths (14.3% mortality), two strokes (14.3%) and seven patients required permanent pacemaker insertion for conduction abnormalities (46.7%). The mean length of hospital stay was 26 days. At pre-discharge echocardiography, the conduit mean gradient was 9.3±3.3mmHg and there was either none (n=6), trace (n=6) or mild aortic insufficiency (n=1). There was no incidence of mid-term death, prosthesis-related complications or recurrent endocarditis. Xenograft bioconduits may be safe and effective for aortic valve and root replacement for complex PVE with aortic root abscess. Although excess early mortality reflects the complexity of the patient population, there was good valve hemodynamics, with no incidence of recurrent endocarditis or prosthesis failure in the mid-term. Our data support the continued use and evaluation of this biological prosthesis in this high-risk patient cohort.

  1. Murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shih-Shih; Chiorazzi, Nicholas

    2014-07-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a genetically complex disease, with multiple factors having an impact on onset, progression, and response to therapy. Genetic differences/abnormalities have been found in hematopoietic stem cells from patients, as well as in B lymphocytes of individuals with monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis who may develop the disease. Furthermore, after the onset of CLL, additional genetic alterations occur over time, often causing disease worsening and altering patient outcomes. Therefore, being able to genetically engineer mouse models that mimic CLL or at least certain aspects of the disease will help us understand disease mechanisms and improve treatments. This notwithstanding, because neither the genetic aberrations responsible for leukemogenesis and progression nor the promoting factors that support these are likely identical in character or influences for all patients, genetically engineered mouse models will only completely mimic CLL when all of these factors are precisely defined. In addition, multiple genetically engineered models may be required because of the heterogeneity in susceptibility genes among patients that can have an effect on genetic and environmental characteristics influencing disease development and outcome. For these reasons, we review the major murine genetically engineered and human xenograft models in use at the present time, aiming to report the advantages and disadvantages of each. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Real-Time Non-invasive Auto-bioluminescent Urinary Bladder Cancer Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    John, Bincy Anu; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven; Wang, Hwa-Chain Robert

    2017-02-01

    The study was to develop an auto-bioluminescent urinary bladder cancer (UBC) xenograft animal model for pre-clinical research. The study used a humanized, bacteria-originated lux reporter system consisting of six (luxCDABEfrp) genes to express components required for producing bioluminescent signals in human UBC J82, J82-Ras, and SW780 cells without exogenous substrates. Immune-deficient nude mice were inoculated with Lux-expressing UBC cells to develop auto-bioluminescent xenograft tumors that were monitored by imaging and physical examination. Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Lux, J82-Ras-Lux, and SW780-Lux cell lines were established. Xenograft tumors derived from tumorigenic Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent J82-Ras-Lux cells allowed a serial, non-invasive, real-time monitoring by imaging of tumor development prior to the presence of palpable tumors in animals. Using Lux-expressing auto-bioluminescent tumorigenic cells enabled us to monitor the entire course of xenograft tumor development through tumor cell implantation, adaptation, and growth to visible/palpable tumors in animals.

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Dinaciclib (SCH727965) inhibits pancreatic cancer growth and progression in murine xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Bisht, Savita; Karikari, Collins; Garrido-Laguna, Ignacio; Rasheed, Zeshaan; Ottenhof, Niki A; Dadon, Tikva; Alvarez, Hector; Fendrich, Volker; Rajeshkumar, NV; Matsui, William; Brossart, Peter; Hidalgo, Manuel; Bannerji, Rajat

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal of human malignancies, and potent therapeutic options are lacking. Inhibition of cell cycle progression through pharmacological blockade of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK) has been suggested as a potential treatment option for human cancers with deregulated cell cycle control. Dinaciclib (SCH727965) is a novel small molecule multi-CDK inhibitor with low nanomolar potency against CDK1, CDK2, CDK5 and CDK9 that has shown favorable toxicity and efficacy in preliminary mouse experiments, and has been well tolerated in Phase I clinical trials. In the current study, the therapeutic efficacy of SCH727965 on human pancreatic cancer cells was tested using in vitro and in vivo model systems. Treatment with SCH727965 significantly reduced in vitro cell growth, motility and colony formation in soft agar of MIAPaCa-2 and Pa20C cells. These phenotypic changes were accompanied by marked reduction of phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) and reduced activation of RalA. Single agent therapy with SCH727965 (40 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly) for 4 weeks significantly reduced subcutaneous tumor growth in 10/10 (100%) of tested low-passage human pancreatic cancer xenografts. Treatment of low passage pancreatic cancer xenografts with a combination of SCH727965 and gemcitabine was significantly more effective than either agent alone. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified overrepresentation of the Notch and Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGFβ) signaling pathways in the xenografts least responsive to SCH727965 treatment. Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor SCH727965 alone or in combination is a highly promising novel experimental therapeutic strategy against pancreatic cancer. PMID:21768779

  4. Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer Patient-Derived Xenograft Panel with Metabolic Inhibitors Reveals Efficacy of Phenformin.

    PubMed

    Rajeshkumar, N V; Yabuuchi, Shinichi; Pai, Shweta G; De Oliveira, Elizabeth; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Tejero, Héctor; Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Hidalgo, Manuel; Maitra, Anirban; Dang, Chi V

    2017-09-15

    Purpose: To identify effective metabolic inhibitors to suppress the aggressive growth of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), we explored the in vivo antitumor efficacy of metabolic inhibitors, as single agents, in a panel of patient-derived PDAC xenograft models (PDX) and investigated whether genomic alterations of tumors correlate with the sensitivity to metabolic inhibitors. Experimental Design: Mice with established PDAC tumors from 6 to 13 individual PDXs were randomized and treated, once daily for 4 weeks, with either sterile PBS (vehicle) or the glutaminase inhibitor bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide (BPTES), transaminase inhibitor aminooxyacetate (AOA), pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA), autophagy inhibitor chloroquine (CQ), and mitochondrial complex I inhibitor phenformin/metformin. Results: Among the agents tested, phenformin showed significant tumor growth inhibition (>30% compared with vehicle) in 5 of 12 individual PDXs. Metformin, at a fivefold higher dose, displayed significant tumor growth inhibition in 3 of 12 PDXs similar to BPTES (2/8 PDXs) and DCA (2/6 PDXs). AOA and CQ had the lowest response rates. Gene set enrichment analysis conducted using the baseline gene expression profile of pancreatic tumors identified a gene expression signature that inversely correlated with phenformin sensitivity, which is in agreement with the phenformin gene expression signature of NIH Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS). The PDXs that were more sensitive to phenformin showed a baseline reduction in amino acids and elevation in oxidized glutathione. There was no correlation between phenformin response and genetic alterations in KRAS, TP53, SMAD4 , or PTEN Conclusions: Phenformin treatment showed relatively higher antitumor efficacy against established PDAC tumors, compared with the efficacy of other metabolic inhibitors and metformin. Phenformin treatment significantly

  5. Characterizing the efficacy of cancer therapeutics in patient-derived xenograft models of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner, Tia H; Alzubi, Mohammad A; Sohal, Sahib S; Olex, Amy L; Dozmorov, Mikhail G; Harrell, J Chuck

    2018-03-12

    Basal-like breast cancers are aggressive and often metastasize to vital organs. Treatment is largely limited to chemotherapy. This study aims to characterize the efficacy of cancer therapeutics in vitro and in vivo within the primary tumor and metastatic setting, using patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. We employed two basal-like, triple-negative PDX models, WHIM2 and WHIM30. PDX cells, obtained from mammary tumors grown in mice, were treated with twelve cancer therapeutics to evaluate their cytotoxicity in vitro. Four of the effective drugs-carboplatin, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, and dacarbazine-were tested in vivo for their efficacy in treating mammary tumors, and metastases generated by intracardiac injection of tumor cells. RNA sequencing showed that global gene expression of PDX cells grown in the mammary gland was similar to those tested in culture. In vitro, carboplatin was cytotoxic to WHIM30 but not WHIM2, whereas bortezomib, dacarbazine, and cyclophosphamide were cytotoxic to both lines. Yet, these drugs were ineffective in treating both primary and metastatic WHIM2 tumors in vivo. Carboplatin and cyclophosphamide were effective in treating WHIM30 mammary tumors and reducing metastatic burden in the brain, liver, and lungs. WHIM2 and WHIM30 metastases showed distinct patterns of cytokeratin and vimentin expression, regardless of treatment, suggesting that different tumor cell subpopulations may preferentially seed in different organs. This study highlights the utility of PDX models for studying the efficacy of therapeutics in reducing metastatic burden in specific organs. The differential treatment responses between two PDX models of the same intrinsic subtype, in both the primary and metastatic setting, recapitulates the challenges faced in treating cancer patients and highlights the need for combination therapies and predictive biomarkers.

  6. Mouse xenograft modeling of human adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia provides mechanistic insights into adult LIC biology

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Aditi; Castleton, Anna Z.; Schwab, Claire; Samuel, Edward; Sivakumaran, Janani; Beaton, Brendan; Zareian, Nahid; Zhang, Christie Yu; Rai, Lena; Enver, Tariq; Moorman, Anthony V.; Fielding, Adele K.

    2014-01-01

    The distinct nature of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in adults, evidenced by inferior treatment outcome and different genetic landscape, mandates specific studies of disease-initiating mechanisms. In this study, we used NOD/LtSz-scid IL2Rγ nullc (NSG) mouse xenotransplantation approaches to elucidate leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) biology in primary adult precursor B (pre-B) ALL to optimize disease modeling. In contrast with xenografting studies of pediatric ALL, we found that modification of the NSG host environment using preconditioning total body irradiation (TBI) was indispensable for efficient engraftment of adult non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL, whereas t(4;11) pre-B ALL was successfully reconstituted without this adaptation. Furthermore, TBI-based xenotransplantation of non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL enabled detection of a high frequency of LICs (<1:6900) and permitted frank leukemic engraftment from a remission sample containing drug-resistant minimal residual disease. Investigation of TBI-sensitive stromal-derived factor-1/chemokine receptor type 4 signaling revealed greater functional dependence of non-t(4;11) pre-B ALL on this niche-based interaction, providing a possible basis for the differential engraftment behavior. Thus, our studies establish the optimal conditions for experimental modeling of human adult pre-B ALL and demonstrate the critical protumorogenic role of microenvironment-derived SDF-1 in regulating adult pre-B LIC activity that may present a therapeutic opportunity. PMID:24825861

  7. EGFR gene overexpression retained in an invasive xenograft model by solid orthotopic transplantation of human glioblastoma multiforme into nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yi, Diao; Hua, Tian Xin; Lin, Huang Yan

    2011-03-01

    Orthotopic xenograft animal model from human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines often do not recapitulate an extremely important aspect of invasive growth and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene overexpression of human GBM. We developed an orthotopic xenograft model by solid transplantation of human GBM into the brain of nude mouse. The orthotopic xenografts sharing the same histopathological features with their original human GBMs were highly invasive and retained the overexpression of EGFR gene. The murine orthotopic GBM models constitute a valuable in vivo system for preclinical studies to test novel therapies for human GBM.

  8. The influence of the combined treatment with Vadimezan (ASA404) and taxol on the growth of U251 glioblastoma xenografts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the most important biological characteristics of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is high vascular density. Vadimezan (ASA404, DMXAA) belongs to the class of small molecule vascular disrupting agents (VDA) that cause disruption of established tumor vessels and subsequent tumor hemorrhagic necrosis. Its selective antivascular effect is mediated by intratumoral induction of several cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α). Preclinical studies have demonstrated that ASA404 acts synergistically with taxanes. In this study, we investigated if treatment of mice bearing U251 human glioblastoma xenografts with ASA404 and taxol may be synergistic. Therapy response was evaluated by measuring changes in tumor size and metabolic activity using 18F-FDG PET (Fluorodeoxyglucose - positron emision tomography) imaging. Methods U251 cells were inoculated s.c. in the right hind limb of NMRI-Foxn1nu athymic female nude mice. Animals were randomly assigned into 4 groups (7–9 animals/group) for treatment: control, taxol, ASA404, and ASA404 plus taxol. The animals received either a single dose of taxol (10 mg/kg), ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg), or taxol (10 mg/kg) plus ASA404 (27.5 mg/kg) administered i.p.; ASA404 was administred 24 h after the treatment with taxol. 4 and 24 h after treatment with ASA404 (28 and 48 h hours after treatment with taxol) 18 F-FDG PET scans were performed. Results The treatment with taxol did not affect the tumor growth in comparison to untreated controls. The treatment of animals with single dose ASA404 alone or in combination with taxol caused a significant delay in tumor growth. The combined treatment did not decrease the growth of the xenografts significantly more than ASA404 alone, but early changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake preceded subsequent growth inhibition. The tumor weights, which were

  9. A novel patient-derived xenograft model for claudin-low triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Matossian, Margarite D; Burks, Hope E; Bowles, Annie C; Elliott, Steven; Hoang, Van T; Sabol, Rachel A; Pashos, Nicholas C; O'Donnell, Benjamen; Miller, Kristin S; Wahba, Bahia M; Bunnell, Bruce A; Moroz, Krzysztof; Zea, Arnold H; Jones, Steven D; Ochoa, Augusto C; Al-Khami, Amir A; Hossain, Fokhrul; Riker, Adam I; Rhodes, Lyndsay V; Martin, Elizabeth C; Miele, Lucio; Burow, Matthew E; Collins-Burow, Bridgette M

    2018-06-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes are clinically aggressive and cannot be treated with targeted therapeutics commonly used in other breast cancer subtypes. The claudin-low (CL) molecular subtype of TNBC has high rates of metastases, chemoresistance and recurrence. There exists an urgent need to identify novel therapeutic targets in TNBC; however, existing models utilized in target discovery research are limited. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have emerged as superior models for target discovery experiments because they recapitulate features of patient tumors that are limited by cell-line derived xenograft methods. We utilize immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western Blot to visualize tumor architecture, cellular composition, genomic and protein expressions of a new CL-TNBC PDX model (TU-BcX-2O0). We utilize tissue decellularization techniques to examine extracellular matrix composition of TU-BcX-2O0. Our laboratory successfully established a TNBC PDX tumor, TU-BCX-2O0, which represents a CL-TNBC subtype and maintains this phenotype throughout subsequent passaging. We dissected TU-BCx-2O0 to examine aspects of this complex tumor that can be targeted by developing therapeutics, including the whole and intact breast tumor, specific cell populations within the tumor, and the extracellular matrix. Here, we characterize a claudin-low TNBC patient-derived xenograft model that can be utilized for therapeutic research studies.

  10. Establishment and characterization of intraperitoneal xenograft models by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel

    PubMed Central

    YAO, YUQIN; ZHOU, YONGJUN; SU, XIAOLAN; DAI, LEI; YU, LIN; DENG, HONGXIN; GOU, LANTU; YANG, JINLIANG

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a feasible intraperitoneal (i.p.) xenograft model in nude mice is a good strategy to evaluate the antitumor effect of drugs in vivo. However, the manipulation of human cancer cells in establishing a stable peritoneal carcinomatosis model in nude mice is problematic. In the present study, the ovarian and colorectal peritoneal tumor models were successfully established in nude mice by co-injection of human tumor cells and extracellular matrix gel. In ovarian tumor models, the mean number tumor nodes was significantly higher in the experimental group (intraperitoneal tumor cell co-injection with ECM gel) compared with the PBS control group on the 30th day (21.0±3.0 vs. 3.6±2.5; P<0.05). The same results were observed in the colorectal peritoneal tumor models on the 28th day. The colorectal peritoneal tumor model was further used to evaluate the chemotherapy effect of irinotecan (CPT-11). The mean weight of peritoneal tumor nodes in CPT-11 treatment group was significantly less than that of the control group (0.81±0.16 vs. 2.18±0.21 g; P<0.05). The results confirmed the value of these i.p. xenograft models in nude mice as efficient and feasible tools for preclinical evaluation. PMID:26788149

  11. Mouse Xenograft Model for Mesothelioma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute is seeking parties interested in collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize a new mouse model for monoclonal antibodies and immunoconjugates that target malignant mesotheliomas. Applications of the technology include models for screening compounds as potential therapeutics for mesothelioma and for studying the pathology of mesothelioma.

  12. TOPK inhibitor induces complete tumor regression in xenograft models of human cancer through inhibition of cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yo; Park, Jae-Hyun; Miyamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hisada, Shoji; Alachkar, Houda; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2014-10-22

    TOPK (T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase) is highly and frequently transactivated in various cancer tissues, including lung and triple-negative breast cancers, and plays an indispensable role in the mitosis of cancer cells. We report the development of a potent TOPK inhibitor, OTS964 {(R)-9-(4-(1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-yl)phenyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methylthieno[2,3-c]quinolin-4(5H)-one}, which inhibits TOPK kinase activity with high affinity and selectivity. Similar to the knockdown effect of TOPK small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this inhibitor causes a cytokinesis defect and the subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro as well as in xenograft models of human lung cancer. Although administration of the free compound induced hematopoietic adverse reactions (leukocytopenia associated with thrombocytosis), the drug delivered in a liposomal formulation effectively caused complete regression of transplanted tumors without showing any adverse reactions in mice. Our results suggest that the inhibition of TOPK activity may be a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of various human cancers. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Stereotactic intracranial implantation and in vivo bioluminescent imaging of tumor xenografts in a mouse model system of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Brian C; Dorsey, Jay F; Benci, Joseph L; Joh, Daniel Y; Kao, Gary D

    2012-09-25

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a high-grade primary brain cancer with a median survival of only 14.6 months in humans despite standard tri-modality treatment consisting of surgical resection, post-operative radiation therapy and temozolomide chemotherapy. New therapeutic approaches are clearly needed to improve patient survival and quality of life. The development of more effective treatment strategies would be aided by animal models of GBM that recapitulate human disease yet allow serial imaging to monitor tumor growth and treatment response. In this paper, we describe our technique for the precise stereotactic implantation of bio-imageable GBM cancer cells into the brains of nude mice resulting in tumor xenografts that recapitulate key clinical features of GBM. This method yields tumors that are reproducible and are located in precise anatomic locations while allowing in vivo bioluminescent imaging to serially monitor intracranial xenograft growth and response to treatments. This method is also well-tolerated by the animals with low perioperative morbidity and mortality.

  14. Transplantation of Tissue-Engineered Cartilage in an Animal Model (Xenograft and Autograft): Construct Validation.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Hitoshi; Watson, Deborah; Masuda, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Tissue engineering holds great promise for cartilage repair with minimal donor-site morbidity. The in vivo maturation of a tissue-engineered construct can be tested in the subcutaneous tissues of the same species for autografts or of immunocompromised animals for allografts or xenografts. This section describes detailed protocols for the surgical transplantation of a tissue-engineered construct into an animal model to assess construct validity.

  15. THE HUMAN FETAL LUNG XENOGRAFT: VALIDATION AS MODEL OF MICROVASCULAR REMODELING IN THE POSTGLANDULAR LUNG

    PubMed Central

    De Paepe, Monique E.; Chu, Sharon; Hall, Susan; Heger, Nicholas; Thanos, Chris; Mao, Quanfu

    2012-01-01

    Background Coordinated remodeling of epithelium and vasculature is essential for normal postglandular lung development. The value of the human-to-rodent lung xenograft as model of fetal microvascular development remains poorly defined. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the fate of the endogenous (human-derived) microvasculature in fetal lung xenografts. Methods Lung tissues were obtained from spontaneous pregnancy losses (14–22 weeks’ gestation) and implanted in the renal subcapsular or dorsal subcutaneous space of SCID-beige mice (T, B and NK-cell-deficient) and/or nude rats (T-cell-deficient). Informed parental consent was obtained. Lung morphogenesis, microvascular angiogenesis and epithelial differentiation were assessed at two and four weeks post-transplantation by light microscopy, immunohistochemical and gene expression studies. Archival age-matched postmortem lungs served as control. Results The vascular morphology, density and proliferation of renal subcapsular grafts in SCID-beige mice were similar to age-matched control lungs, with preservation of the physiologic association between epithelium and vasculature. The microvasculature of subcutaneous grafts in SCID-beige mice was underdeveloped and dysmorphic, associated with significantly lower VEGF, endoglin, and angiopoietin-2 mRNA expression than renal grafts. Grafts at both sites displayed mild airspace dysplasia. Renal subcapsular grafts in nude rats showed frequent infiltration by host lymphocytes and obliterating bronchiolitis-like changes, associated with markedly decreased endogenous angiogenesis. Conclusion This study demonstrates the critical importance of host and site selection to ensure optimal xenograft development. When transplanted to severely immune suppressed, NK-cell-deficient hosts and engrafted in the renal subcapsular site, the human-to-rodent fetal lung xenograft provides a valid model of postglandular microvascular lung remodeling. PMID:22811288

  16. Patient Derived Xenograft Models: An Emerging Platform for Translational Cancer Research

    PubMed Central

    Hidalgo, Manuel; Amant, Frederic; Biankin, Andrew V.; Budinská, Eva; Byrne, Annette T.; Caldas, Carlos; Clarke, Robert B.; de Jong, Steven; Jonkers, Jos; Mælandsmo, Gunhild Mari; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Trusolino, Livio; Villanueva, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the development and characterization of patient derived tumor xenograft (PDX) models for cancer research. PDX models mostly retain the principal histological and genetic characteristics of their donor tumor and remain stable across passages. These models have been shown to be predictive of clinical outcomes and are being used for preclinical drug evaluation, biomarker identification, biological studies, and personalized medicine strategies. This paper summarizes the current state of the art in this field including methodological issues, available collections, practical applications, challenges and shortcoming, and future directions, and introduces a European consortium of PDX models. PMID:25185190

  17. Highly Effective Auger-Electron Therapy in an Orthotopic Glioblastoma Xenograft Model using Convection-Enhanced Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Thisgaard, Helge; Halle, Bo; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Therkelsen, Anne Sofie Nautrup; Dam, Johan Hygum; Langkjær, Niels; Munthe, Sune; Någren, Kjell; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common and malignant primary brain tumor, always recurs after standard treatment. Therefore, promising new therapeutic approaches are needed. Short-range Auger-electron-emitters carry the ability of causing highly damaging radiation effects in cells. The aim of this study was to test the effect of [125I]5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine (125I-UdR, a radioactive Auger-electron-emitting thymidine analogue) Auger-therapy on immature glioblastoma spheroid cultures and orthotopic xenografted glioblastoma-bearing rats, the latter by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Moreover, we aimed to determine if the therapeutic effect could be enhanced when combining 125I-UdR therapy with the currently used first-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. 125I-UdR significantly decreased glioblastoma cell viability and migration in vitro and the cell viability was further decreased by co-treatment with methotrexate and/or temozolomide. Intratumoral CED of methotrexate and 125I-UdR with and without concomitant systemic temozolomide chemotherapy significantly reduced the tumor burden in orthotopically xenografted glioblastoma-bearing nude rats. Thus, 100% (8/8) of the animals survived the entire observation period of 180 days when subjected to the combined Auger-chemotherapy while 57% (4/7) survived after the Auger-therapy alone. No animals (0/8) treated with temozolomide alone survived longer than 50 days. Blood samples and post-mortem histology showed no signs of dose-limiting adverse effects. In conclusion, the multidrug approach consisting of CED of methotrexate and 125I-UdR with concomitant systemic temozolomide was safe and very effective leading to 100% survival in an orthotopic xenograft glioblastoma model. Therefore, this therapeutic strategy may be a promising option for future glioblastoma therapy. PMID:27924163

  18. Highly Effective Auger-Electron Therapy in an Orthotopic Glioblastoma Xenograft Model using Convection-Enhanced Delivery.

    PubMed

    Thisgaard, Helge; Halle, Bo; Aaberg-Jessen, Charlotte; Olsen, Birgitte Brinkmann; Therkelsen, Anne Sofie Nautrup; Dam, Johan Hygum; Langkjær, Niels; Munthe, Sune; Någren, Kjell; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most common and malignant primary brain tumor, always recurs after standard treatment. Therefore, promising new therapeutic approaches are needed. Short-range Auger-electron-emitters carry the ability of causing highly damaging radiation effects in cells. The aim of this study was to test the effect of [ 125 I]5-Iodo-2'-deoxyuridine ( 125 I-UdR, a radioactive Auger-electron-emitting thymidine analogue) Auger-therapy on immature glioblastoma spheroid cultures and orthotopic xenografted glioblastoma-bearing rats, the latter by means of convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Moreover, we aimed to determine if the therapeutic effect could be enhanced when combining 125 I-UdR therapy with the currently used first-line chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide. 125 I-UdR significantly decreased glioblastoma cell viability and migration in vitro and the cell viability was further decreased by co-treatment with methotrexate and/or temozolomide. Intratumoral CED of methotrexate and 125 I-UdR with and without concomitant systemic temozolomide chemotherapy significantly reduced the tumor burden in orthotopically xenografted glioblastoma-bearing nude rats. Thus, 100% (8/8) of the animals survived the entire observation period of 180 days when subjected to the combined Auger-chemotherapy while 57% (4/7) survived after the Auger-therapy alone. No animals (0/8) treated with temozolomide alone survived longer than 50 days. Blood samples and post-mortem histology showed no signs of dose-limiting adverse effects. In conclusion, the multidrug approach consisting of CED of methotrexate and 125 I-UdR with concomitant systemic temozolomide was safe and very effective leading to 100% survival in an orthotopic xenograft glioblastoma model. Therefore, this therapeutic strategy may be a promising option for future glioblastoma therapy.

  19. A tissue-engineered humanized xenograft model of human breast cancer metastasis to bone

    PubMed Central

    Thibaudeau, Laure; Taubenberger, Anna V.; Holzapfel, Boris M.; Quent, Verena M.; Fuehrmann, Tobias; Hesami, Parisa; Brown, Toby D.; Dalton, Paul D.; Power, Carl A.; Hollier, Brett G.; Hutmacher, Dietmar W.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The skeleton is a preferred homing site for breast cancer metastasis. To date, treatment options for patients with bone metastases are mostly palliative and the disease is still incurable. Indeed, key mechanisms involved in breast cancer osteotropism are still only partially understood due to the lack of suitable animal models to mimic metastasis of human tumor cells to a human bone microenvironment. In the presented study, we investigate the use of a human tissue-engineered bone construct to develop a humanized xenograft model of breast cancer-induced bone metastasis in a murine host. Primary human osteoblastic cell-seeded melt electrospun scaffolds in combination with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 7 were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. The tissue-engineered constructs led to the formation of a morphologically intact ‘organ’ bone incorporating a high amount of mineralized tissue, live osteocytes and bone marrow spaces. The newly formed bone was largely humanized, as indicated by the incorporation of human bone cells and human-derived matrix proteins. After intracardiac injection, the dissemination of luciferase-expressing human breast cancer cell lines to the humanized bone ossicles was detected by bioluminescent imaging. Histological analysis revealed the presence of metastases with clear osteolysis in the newly formed bone. Thus, human tissue-engineered bone constructs can be applied efficiently as a target tissue for human breast cancer cells injected into the blood circulation and replicate the osteolytic phenotype associated with breast cancer-induced bone lesions. In conclusion, we have developed an appropriate model for investigation of species-specific mechanisms of human breast cancer-related bone metastasis in vivo. PMID:24713276

  20. The Novel IκB Kinase β Inhibitor, IMD-0560, Has Potent Therapeutic Efficacy in Ovarian Cancer Xenograft Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ikuko; Hashimoto, Kae; Sawada, Kenjiro; Kinose, Yasuto; Nakamura, Koji; Toda, Aska; Nakatsuka, Erika; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Mabuchi, Seiji; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Itai, Akiko; Kimura, Tadashi

    2016-05-01

    Aberrant activation of nuclear factor-kappa β (NF-κB) signaling has been correlated with poor outcome among patients with ovarian cancer. Although the therapeutic potential of NF-κB pathway disruption in cancers has been extensively studied, most classical NF-κB inhibitors are poorly selective, exhibit off-target effects, and have failed to be applied in clinical use. IMD-0560, N-[2,5-bis (trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-5-bromo-2-hydroxybenzamide, is a novel low-molecular-weight compound that selectively inhibits the IκB kinase complex and works as an inhibitor of NF-κB signaling. The aim of this study was to assess the therapeutic potential of IMD-0560 against ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. NF-κB activity (phosphorylation) was determined in 9 ovarian cancer cell lines and the inhibitory effect of IMD-0560 on NF-κB activation was analyzed by Western blotting. Cell viability, cell cycle, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and angiogenesis were assessed in vitro to evaluate the effect of IMD-0560 on ovarian cancer cells. In vivo efficacy of IMD-0560 was also investigated using an ovarian cancer xenograft mouse model. The NF-κB signaling pathway was constitutively activated in 8 of 9 ovarian cancer cell lines. IMD-0560 inhibited NF-κB activation and suppressed ovarian cancer cell proliferation by inducing G1 phase arrest. IMD-0560 decreased VEGF secretion from cancer cells and inhibited the tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. IMD-0560 significantly inhibited peritoneal metastasis and prolonged the survival in an ovarian cancer xenograft mice model. Immunohistochemical staining of excised tumors revealed that IMD-0560 suppressed VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis, and cancer cell proliferation. IMD-0560 showed promising therapeutic efficacy against ovarian cancer xenograft mice by inducing cell cycle arrest and suppressing VEGF production from cancer cells. IMD-0560 may be a potential future option in regimens for the

  1. Preclinical evaluation of transcriptional targeting strategy for human hepatocellular carcinoma in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sia, Kian Chuan; Huynh, Hung; Chung, Alexander Yaw Fui; Ooi, London Lucien Peng Jin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Hui, Kam Man; Lam, Paula Yeng Po

    2013-08-01

    Gene regulation of many key cell-cycle players in S-, G(2) phase, and mitosis results from transcriptional repression in their respective promoter regions during the G(0) and G(1) phases of cell cycle. Within these promoter regions are phylogenetically conserved sequences known as the cell-cycle-dependent element (CDE) and cell-cycle genes homology regions (CHR) sites. Thus, we hypothesize that transcriptional regulation of cell-cycle regulation via the CDE/CHR region together with liver-specific apolipoprotein E (apoE)-hAAT promoter could bring about a selective transgene expression in proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma. We show that the newly generated vector AH-6CC-L2C could mediate hepatocyte-targeted luciferase gene expression in tumor cells and freshly isolated short-term hepatocellular carcinoma cultures from patient biopsy. In contrast, normal murine and human hepatocytes infected with AH-6CC-L2C expressed minimal or low luciferase activities. In the presence of prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), AH-6CC-L2C effectively suppressed the growth of orthotopic hepatocellular carcinoma patient-derived xenograft mouse model via the expression of yeast cytosine deaminase (yCD) that converts 5-FC to anticancer metabolite 5-fluoruracil. More importantly, we show that combination treatment of AH-6CC-L2C with an EZH2 inhibitor, DZNep, that targets EpCAM-positive hepatocellular carcinoma, can bring about a greater therapeutic efficacy compared with a single treatment of virus or inhibitor. Our study showed that targeting proliferating human hepatocellular carcinoma cells through the transcriptional control of therapeutic gene could represent a feasible approach against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Nab-Paclitaxel Plus S-1 Shows Increased Antitumor Activity in Patient-Derived Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Ang; Xu, Xue-Feng; Han, Xu; Fang, Yuan; Shi, Chen-Ye; Jin, Da-Yong; Lou, Wen-Hui

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the antitumor activity of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel) plus S-1 in patient-derived pancreatic cancer xenograft mouse models and to explore biomarkers that could predict drug efficacy. Ten patient-derived xenograft models were established. The third-generation tumor-bearing mice were randomized into 4 treatment groups: (1) control; (2) S-1; (3) nab-paclitaxel; (4) S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel. Resected tumors were tested by immunohistochemistry for the expression of thymidylate synthase, orotate phosphoribosyltransferase (OPRT), dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), secreted protein that is acidic and rich in cysteine, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), collagen-1, and CD31. Tumor growth inhibition of the S-1 group, nab-paclitaxel group, and combination group was 69.52%, 86.63%, 103.56%, respectively (P < 0.05). The efficacy of S-1 is better in thymidylate synthase-negative, OPRT-positive, and DPD-negative tumors. The efficacy of nab-paclitaxel is better in HER2-positive tumors. Collagen-1 was decreased and CD31 was increased in tumors treated with nab-paclitaxel and S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel compared with control or S-1. This preclinical study showed that S-1 plus nab-paclitaxel exerted significantly better antitumor activity than S-1 or nab-paclitaxel alone. Thymidylate synthase, OPRT, and DPD were possibly biomarkers of S-1 and HER2 of nab-paclitaxel.

  3. Orthotopic glioblastoma stem-like cell xenograft model in mice to evaluate intra-arterial delivery of bevacizumab: from bedside to bench.

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, Jan-Karl; Hofstetter, Christoph P; Santillan, Alejandro; Shin, Benjamin J; Foley, Conor P; Ballon, Douglas J; Pierre Gobin, Y; Boockvar, John A

    2012-11-01

    Bevacizumab (BV), a humanized monocolonal antibody directed against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is a standard intravenous (IV) treatment for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), that has been introduced recently as an intra-arterial (IA) treatment modality in humans. Since preclinical models have not been reported, we sought to develop a tumor stem cell (TSC) xenograft model to investigate IA BV delivery in vivo. Firefly luciferase transduced patient TSC were injected into the cortex of 35 nude mice. Tumor growth was monitored weekly using bioluminescence imaging. Mice were treated with either intraperitoneal (IP) or IA BV, with or without blood-brain barrier disruption (BBBD), or with IP saline injection (controls). Tumor tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry and western blot techniques. Tumor formation occurred in 31 of 35 (89%) mice with a significant signal increase over time (p=0.018). Post mortem histology revealed an infiltrative growth of TSC xenografts in a similar pattern compared to the primary human GBM. Tumor tissue analyzed at 24 hours after treatment revealed that IA BV treatment with BBBD led to a significantly higher intratumoral BV concentration compared to IA BV alone, IP BV or controls (p<0.05). Thus, we have developed a TSC-based xenograft mouse model that allows us to study IA chemotherapy. However, further studies are needed to analyze the treatment effects after IA BV to assess tumor progression and overall animal survival. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A novel far-red fluorescent xenograft model of ovarian carcinoma for preclinical evaluation of HER2-targeted immunotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Zdobnova, Tatiana; Sokolova, Evgeniya; Stremovskiy, Oleg; Karpenko, Dmitry; Telford, William; Turchin, Ilya; Balalaeva, Irina; Deyev, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    We have created a novel fluorescent model of a human ovarian carcinoma xenograft overexpressing receptor HER2, a promising molecular target of solid tumors. The model is based on a newly generated SKOV-kat cell line stably expressing far-red fluorescent protein Katushka. Katushka is most suitable for the in vivo imaging due to an optimal combination of high brightness and emission in the “window of tissue transparency”. The relevance of the fluorescent model for the in vivo monitoring of tumor growth and response to treatment was demonstrated using a newly created HER2-targeted recombinant immunotoxin based on the 4D5scFv antibody and a fragment of the Pseudomonas exotoxin A. PMID:26436696

  5. Sustained delivery of cytarabine-loaded vesicular phospholipid gels for treatment of xenografted glioma.

    PubMed

    Qi, Na; Cai, Cuifang; Zhang, Wei; Niu, Yantao; Yang, Jingyu; Wang, Lihui; Tian, Bin; Liu, Xiaona; Lin, Xia; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yan; He, Haibing; Chen, Kang; Tang, Xing

    2014-09-10

    This study described the development of vesicular phospholipid gels (VPGs) for sustained delivery of cytarabine (Ara-C) for the treatment of xenografted glioma. Ara-C-loaded VPGs in the state of a semisolid phospholipid dispersion looked like numerous vesicles tightly packing together under the freeze-fracture electron microscopy (FF-TEM), their release profiles displayed sustained drug release up to 384 h in vitro. The biodistribution of Ara-C in the rat brain showed that Ara-C-loaded VPGs could maintain therapeutic concentrations up to 5mm distance from the implantation site in brain tissue within 28 days. At the same time, fluorescence micrograph confirmed drug distribution in brain tissue visually. Furthermore, after single administration, Ara-C-loaded VPGs group significantly inhibited the U87-MG glioma growth in right flank in comparison with Ara-C solution (p<0.01). It was explained that the entrapped drug in VPGs could avoid degradation from cytidine deaminase and sustained release of drug from Ara-C-loaded VPGs could maintain the effective therapeutic levels for a long time around the tumor. In conclusion, Ara-C-loaded VPGs, with the properties of sustained release, high penetration capacity, nontoxicity and no shape restriction of the surgical cavity, are promising local delivery systems for post-surgical sustained chemotherapy against glioma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Natural killer cell lines preferentially kill clonogenic multiple myeloma cells and decrease myeloma engraftment in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Brenna E.; Williams, Brent A.; Kosaka, Yoko; Wang, Xing-Hua; Medin, Jeffrey A.; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Keating, Armand

    2012-01-01

    Background Novel therapies capable of targeting drug resistant clonogenic MM cells are required for more effective treatment of multiple myeloma. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines against bulk and clonogenic multiple myeloma and evaluates the tumor burden after NK cell therapy in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model. Design and Methods The cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines was evaluated against bulk multiple myeloma cell lines using chromium release and flow cytometry cytotoxicity assays. Selected activating receptors on natural killer cells were blocked to determine their role in multiple myeloma recognition. Growth inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma cells was assessed in a methylcellulose clonogenic assay in combination with secondary replating to evaluate the self-renewal of residual progenitors after natural killer cell treatment. A bioluminescent mouse model was developed using the human U266 cell line transduced to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (U266eGFPluc) to monitor disease progression in vivo and assess bone marrow engraftment after intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Results Three multiple myeloma cell lines were sensitive to NK-92 and KHYG-1 cytotoxicity mediated by NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D and DNAM-1 activating receptors. NK-92 and KHYG-1 demonstrated 2- to 3-fold greater inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma growth, compared with killing of the bulk tumor population. In addition, the residual colonies after treatment formed significantly fewer colonies compared to the control in a secondary replating for a cumulative clonogenic inhibition of 89–99% at the 20:1 effector to target ratio. Multiple myeloma tumor burden was reduced by NK-92 in a xenograft mouse model as measured by bioluminescence imaging and reduction in bone marrow engraftment of U266eGFPluc cells by flow cytometry. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NK-92 and KHYG-1 are capable of killing clonogenic and bulk

  7. Natural killer cell lines preferentially kill clonogenic multiple myeloma cells and decrease myeloma engraftment in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Swift, Brenna E; Williams, Brent A; Kosaka, Yoko; Wang, Xing-Hua; Medin, Jeffrey A; Viswanathan, Sowmya; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Keating, Armand

    2012-07-01

    Novel therapies capable of targeting drug resistant clonogenic MM cells are required for more effective treatment of multiple myeloma. This study investigates the cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines against bulk and clonogenic multiple myeloma and evaluates the tumor burden after NK cell therapy in a bioluminescent xenograft mouse model. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cell lines was evaluated against bulk multiple myeloma cell lines using chromium release and flow cytometry cytotoxicity assays. Selected activating receptors on natural killer cells were blocked to determine their role in multiple myeloma recognition. Growth inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma cells was assessed in a methylcellulose clonogenic assay in combination with secondary replating to evaluate the self-renewal of residual progenitors after natural killer cell treatment. A bioluminescent mouse model was developed using the human U266 cell line transduced to express green fluorescent protein and luciferase (U266eGFPluc) to monitor disease progression in vivo and assess bone marrow engraftment after intravenous NK-92 cell therapy. Three multiple myeloma cell lines were sensitive to NK-92 and KHYG-1 cytotoxicity mediated by NKp30, NKp46, NKG2D and DNAM-1 activating receptors. NK-92 and KHYG-1 demonstrated 2- to 3-fold greater inhibition of clonogenic multiple myeloma growth, compared with killing of the bulk tumor population. In addition, the residual colonies after treatment formed significantly fewer colonies compared to the control in a secondary replating for a cumulative clonogenic inhibition of 89-99% at the 20:1 effector to target ratio. Multiple myeloma tumor burden was reduced by NK-92 in a xenograft mouse model as measured by bioluminescence imaging and reduction in bone marrow engraftment of U266eGFPluc cells by flow cytometry. This study demonstrates that NK-92 and KHYG-1 are capable of killing clonogenic and bulk multiple myeloma cells. In addition, multiple myeloma

  8. A potent combination of the novel PI3K inhibitor, GDC-0941, with imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumor xenografts: long-lasting responses after treatment withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Floris, Giuseppe; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sciot, Raf; Li, Haifu; Friedman, Lori; Van Looy, Thomas; Wellens, Jasmien; Vermaelen, Peter; Deroose, Christophe M.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Schöffski, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Oncogenic signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is sustained via PI3K/AKT pathway. We used a panel of six GIST xenograft models to assess efficacy of GDC-0941 as single agent or in combination with imatinib (IMA). Experimental design Nude mice (n=136) were grafted bilaterally with human GIST carrying divers KIT mutations. Mice were orally dosed over four weeks, grouped as follows: A) control; B) GDC-0941; C) IMA and D) GDC+IMA treatments. Xenografts re-growth after treatment discontinuation was assessed in group C and D for additional four weeks. Tumor response was assessed by volume measurements, micro-PET imaging, histopathology and immunoblotting. Moreover genomic alterations in PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway were evaluated. Results In all models, GDC-0941 caused tumor growth stabilization, inhibiting tumor cells proliferation but did not induce apoptosis. Under GDC+IMA, profound tumor regression, superior to either treatment alone, was observed. This effect was associated with the best histologic response, a nearly complete proliferation arrest and increased apoptosis. Tumor re-growth assays confirmed superior activity of GDC+IMA over IMA; in three out of six models tumor volume remained reduced and stable even after treatment discontinuation. A positive correlation between response to GDC+IMA and PTEN loss, both on gene and protein levels, was found. Conclusion GDC+IMA has significant antitumor efficacy in GIST xenografts, inducing more substantial tumor regression, apoptosis and durable effects than IMA. Notably, after treatment withdrawal, tumor regression was sustained in tumors exposed to GDC+IMA, which was not observed under IMA. Assessment of PTEN status may represent a useful predictive biomarker for patient selection. PMID:23231951

  9. A potent combination of the novel PI3K Inhibitor, GDC-0941, with imatinib in gastrointestinal stromal tumor xenografts: long-lasting responses after treatment withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Floris, Giuseppe; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Sciot, Raf; Li, Haifu; Friedman, Lori; Van Looy, Thomas; Wellens, Jasmien; Vermaelen, Peter; Deroose, Christophe M; Fletcher, Jonathan A; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Schöffski, Patrick

    2013-02-01

    Oncogenic signaling in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) is sustained via PI3K/AKT pathway. We used a panel of six GIST xenograft models to assess efficacy of GDC-0941 as single agent or in combination with imatinib (IMA). Nude mice (n = 136) were grafted bilaterally with human GIST carrying diverse KIT mutations. Mice were orally dosed over four weeks, grouped as follows: (A) control; (B) GDC-0941; (C) imatinib, and (D) GDC+IMA treatments. Xenografts regrowth after treatment discontinuation was assessed in groups C and D for an additional four weeks. Tumor response was assessed by volume measurements, micro-PET imaging, histopathology, and immunoblotting. Moreover, genomic alterations in PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway were evaluated. In all models, GDC-0941 caused tumor growth stabilization, inhibiting tumor cell proliferation, but did not induce apoptosis. Under GDC+IMA, profound tumor regression, superior to either treatment alone, was observed. This effect was associated with the best histologic response, a nearly complete proliferation arrest and increased apoptosis. Tumor regrowth assays confirmed superior activity of GDC+IMA over imatinib; in three of six models, tumor volume remained reduced and stable even after treatment discontinuation. A positive correlation between response to GDC+IMA and PTEN loss, both on gene and protein levels, was found. GDC+IMA has significant antitumor efficacy in GIST xenografts, inducing more substantial tumor regression, apoptosis, and durable effects than imatinib. Notably, after treatment withdrawal, tumor regression was sustained in tumors exposed to GDC+IMA, which was not observed under imatinib. Assessment of PTEN status may represent a useful predictive biomarker for patient selection.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitors with a primary amide zinc binding group display antitumor activity in xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Attenni, Barbara; Ontoria, Jesus M; Cruz, Jonathan C; Rowley, Michael; Schultz-Fademrecht, Carsten; Steinkühler, Christian; Jones, Philip

    2009-06-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition causes hyperacetylation of histones leading to differentiation, growth arrest and apoptosis of malignant cells, representing a new strategy in cancer therapy. Many of the known HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) that are in clinical trials possess a hydroxamic acid, that is a strong Zn(2+) binding group, thereby inhibiting some of the class I and class II isoforms. Herein we describe the identification of a selective class I HDAC inhibitor bearing a primary carboxamide moiety as zinc binding group. This HDACi displays good antiproliferative activity against multiple cancer cell lines, and demonstrates efficacy in a xenograft model comparable to vorinostat.

  11. Establishing and Maintaining an Extensive Library of Patient-Derived Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Mattar, Marissa; McCarthy, Craig R; Kulick, Amanda R; Qeriqi, Besnik; Guzman, Sean; de Stanchina, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have recently emerged as a highly desirable platform in oncology and are expected to substantially broaden the way in vivo studies are designed and executed and to reshape drug discovery programs. However, acquisition of patient-derived samples, and propagation, annotation and distribution of PDXs are complex processes that require a high degree of coordination among clinic, surgery and laboratory personnel, and are fraught with challenges that are administrative, procedural and technical. Here, we examine in detail the major aspects of this complex process and relate our experience in establishing a PDX Core Laboratory within a large academic institution.

  12. The effects of a picosecond pulsed electric field on angiogenesis in the cervical cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Limei; Yao, Chenguo; Xiong, Zhengai; Zhang, Ruizhe; Wang, Zhiliang; Wu, Yutong; Qin, Qin; Hua, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    The application of picosecond pulsed electric field (psPEF) is a new biomedical engineering technique used in cancer therapy. However, its effects on cervical cancer angiogenesis are not clear. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of psPEF on angiogenesis in cervical cancer xenograft models. Xenograft tumors were created by subcutaneously inoculating nude mice (athymic BALB/c nu/nu mice) with HeLa cells, then were placed closely between tweezer-type plate electrodes and subjected to psPEF with a gradually increased electric field intensity (0kV/cm, 50kV/cm, 60kV/cm, 70kV/cm). The direct effect on tumor tissue was observed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The changes of blood vessels and oxygen saturation (sO2) of tumors were monitored in vivo by photoacoustic tomography (PAT). The microvessel density (MVD), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIF-1α and HIF-2α) were detected by immunohistochemical technique (IHC). Their protein expressions and gene transcription levels were evaluated using western blot (WB) and quantitative reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). PsPEF induced obvious necrosis of cervical cancer tissue; with the increasing of electric field intensity, the MVD, vascular PA signal and sO2 values declined significantly. The protein expression and gene transcription levels of VEGF, HIF1α and HIF2α were significantly decreased at the same time. PsPEF exhibited dramatic anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects in cervical cancer xenograft models by exerting direct effect on cancer cells and vascular endothelial cells and indirect effect on tumor angiogenesis-related factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Primary Xenografts of Human Prostate Tissue as a Model to Study Angiogenesis Induced by Reactive Stroma

    PubMed Central

    Montecinos, Viviana P.; Godoy, Alejandro; Hinklin, Jennifer; Vethanayagam, R. Robert; Smith, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of the mechanism(s) of androgen-driven human angiogenesis could have significant implications for modeling new forms of anti-angiogenic therapies for CaP and for developing targeted adjuvant therapies to improve efficacy of androgen-deprivation therapy. However, models of angiogenesis by human endothelial cells localized within an intact human prostate tissue architecture are until now extremely limited. This report characterizes the burst of angiogenesis by endogenous human blood vessels in primary xenografts of fresh surgical specimens of benign prostate or prostate cancer (CaP) tissue that occurs between Days 6–14 after transplantation into SCID mice pre-implanted with testosterone pellets. The wave of human angiogenesis was preceded by androgen-mediated up-regulation of VEGF-A expression in the stromal compartment. The neo-vessel network anastomosed to the host mouse vascular system between Days 6–10 post-transplantation, the angiogenic response ceased by Day 15, and by Day 30 the vasculature had matured and stabilized, as indicated by a lack of leakage of serum components into the interstitial tissue space and by association of nascent endothelial cells with mural cells/pericytes. The angiogenic wave was concurrent with the appearance of a reactive stroma phenotype, as determined by staining for α-SMA, Vimentin, Tenascin, Calponin, Desmin and Masson's trichrome, but the reactive stroma phenotype appeared to be largely independent of androgen availability. Transplantation-induced angiogenesis by endogenous human endothelial cells present in primary xenografts of benign and malignant human prostate tissue was preceded by induction of androgen-driven expression of VEGF by the prostate stroma, and was concurrent with and the appearance of a reactive stroma phenotype. Androgen-modulated expression of VEGF-A appeared to be a causal regulator of angiogenesis, and possibly of stromal activation, in human prostate xenografts. PMID:22303438

  14. Combined treatment with apatinib and docetaxel in A549 xenograft mice and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Si-Qi; Wang, Guang-Ji; Zhang, Jing-Wei; Xie, Yuan; Sun, Run-Bin; Fei, Fei; Huang, Jing-Qiu; Wang, Ying; Aa, Ji-Ye; Zhou, Fang

    2018-05-17

    Apatinib, a small-molecule inhibitor of VEGFR-2, has attracted much attention due to its encouraging anticancer activity in third-line clinical treatment for many malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its usage in second-line therapy with chemotherapeutic drugs is still under exploration. In this study we investigated the antitumor effect of apatinib combined with docetaxel against NSCLC and its cellular pharmacokinetic basis. A549 xenograft nude mice were treated with apatinib (100 mg/kg every day for 20 days) combined with docetaxel (8 mg/kg, ip, every four days for 5 times). Apatinib significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of docetaxel and alleviated docetaxel-induced liver damage as well as decreased serum transaminases (ALT and AST). LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that apatinib treatment significantly increased the docetaxel concentration in tumors (up to 1.77 times) without enhancing the docetaxel concentration in the serum, heart, liver, lung and kidney. Furthermore, apatinib decreased docetaxel-induced upregulation of P-glycoprotein in tumors. The effects of apatinib on the uptake, efflux and subcellular distribution of docetaxel were investigated in A549 and A549/DTX (docetaxel-resistant) cells in vitro. A cellular pharmacokinetic study revealed that apatinib significantly increased cellular/subcellular accumulation (especially in the cytosol) and decreased the efflux of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells through P-gp, while apatinib exerted no significant effect on the cellular pharmacokinetics of docetaxel in A549 cells. Consequently, the IC 50 value of docetaxel in A549/DTX cells was more significantly decreased by apatinib than that in A549 cells. These results demonstrate that apatinib has potential for application in second-line therapy combined with docetaxel for NSCLC patients, especially for docetaxel-resistant or multidrug-resistant patients.

  15. The Zebrafish Xenograft Platform: Evolution of a Novel Cancer Model and Preclinical Screening Tool.

    PubMed

    Wertman, Jaime; Veinotte, Chansey J; Dellaire, Graham; Berman, Jason N

    2016-01-01

    Animal xenografts of human cancers represent a key preclinical tool in the field of cancer research. While mouse xenografts have long been the gold standard, investigators have begun to use zebrafish (Danio rerio) xenotransplantation as a relatively rapid, robust and cost-effective in vivo model of human cancers. There are several important methodological considerations in the design of an informative and efficient zebrafish xenotransplantation experiment. Various transgenic fish strains have been created that facilitate microscopic observation, ranging from the completely transparent casper fish to the Tg(fli1:eGFP) fish that expresses fluorescent GFP protein in its vascular tissue. While human cancer cell lines have been used extensively in zebrafish xenotransplantation studies, several reports have also used primary patient samples as the donor material. The zebrafish is ideally suited for transplanting primary patient material by virtue of the relatively low number of cells required for each embryo (between 50 and 300 cells), the absence of an adaptive immune system in the early zebrafish embryo, and the short experimental timeframe (5-7 days). Following xenotransplantation into the fish, cells can be tracked using in vivo or ex vivo measures of cell proliferation and migration, facilitated by fluorescence or human-specific protein expression. Importantly, assays have been developed that allow for the reliable detection of in vivo human cancer cell growth or inhibition following administration of drugs of interest. The zebrafish xenotransplantation model is a unique and effective tool for the study of cancer cell biology.

  16. Pre-Clinical Study of Panobinostat in Xenograft and Genetically Engineered Murine Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma Models.

    PubMed

    Hennika, Tammy; Hu, Guo; Olaciregui, Nagore G; Barton, Kelly L; Ehteda, Anahid; Chitranjan, Arjanna; Chang, Cecilia; Gifford, Andrew J; Tsoli, Maria; Ziegler, David S; Carcaboso, Angel M; Becher, Oren J

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG), or high-grade brainstem glioma (BSG), is one of the major causes of brain tumor-related deaths in children. Its prognosis has remained poor despite numerous efforts to improve survival. Panobinostat, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, is a targeted agent that has recently shown pre-clinical efficacy and entered a phase I clinical trial for the treatment of children with recurrent or progressive DIPG. A collaborative pre-clinical study was conducted using both a genetic BSG mouse model driven by PDGF-B signaling, p53 loss, and ectopic H3.3-K27M or H3.3-WT expression and an H3.3-K27M orthotopic DIPG xenograft model to confirm and extend previously published findings regarding the efficacy of panobinostat in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, panobinostat potently inhibited cell proliferation, viability, and clonogenicity and induced apoptosis of human and murine DIPG cells. In vivo analyses of tissue after short-term systemic administration of panobinostat to genetically engineered tumor-bearing mice indicated that the drug reached brainstem tumor tissue to a greater extent than normal brain tissue, reduced proliferation of tumor cells and increased levels of H3 acetylation, demonstrating target inhibition. Extended consecutive daily treatment of both genetic and orthotopic xenograft models with 10 or 20 mg/kg panobinostat consistently led to significant toxicity. Reduced, well-tolerated doses of panobinostat, however, did not prolong overall survival compared to vehicle-treated mice. Our collaborative pre-clinical study confirms that panobinostat is an effective targeted agent against DIPG human and murine tumor cells in vitro and in short-term in vivo efficacy studies in mice but does not significantly impact survival of mice bearing H3.3-K27M-mutant tumors. We suggest this may be due to toxicity associated with systemic administration of panobinostat that necessitated dose de-escalation.

  17. Combined ALK and MDM2 inhibition increases antitumor activity and overcomes resistance in human ALK mutant neuroblastoma cell lines and xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui Qin; Halilovic, Ensar; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Jinsheng; Cao, Yichen; Rakiec, Daniel P; Ruddy, David A; Jeay, Sebastien; Wuerthner, Jens U; Timple, Noelito; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Li, Nanxin; Williams, Juliet A; Sellers, William R; Huang, Alan; Li, Fang

    2017-04-20

    The efficacy of ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK -mutant neuroblastoma is limited, highlighting the need to improve their effectiveness in these patients. To this end, we sought to develop a combination strategy to enhance the antitumor activity of ALK inhibitor monotherapy in human neuroblastoma cell lines and xenograft models expressing activated ALK. Herein, we report that combined inhibition of ALK and MDM2 induced a complementary set of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic proteins. Consequently, this combination treatment synergistically inhibited proliferation of TP53 wild-type neuroblastoma cells harboring ALK amplification or mutations in vitro, and resulted in complete and durable responses in neuroblastoma xenografts derived from these cells. We further demonstrate that concurrent inhibition of MDM2 and ALK was able to overcome ceritinib resistance conferred by MYCN upregulation in vitro and in vivo. Together, combined inhibition of ALK and MDM2 may provide an effective treatment for TP53 wild-type neuroblastoma with ALK aberrations.

  18. Dual mTORC1/2 inhibition in a preclinical xenograft tumor model of endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Korets, Sharmilee Bansal; Musa, Fernanda; Curtin, John; Blank, Stephanie V.; Schneider, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Up to 70% of endometrioid endometrial cancers carry PTEN gene deletions that can upregulate mTOR activity. Investigational mTOR kinase inhibitors may provide a novel therapeutic approach for these tumors. Using a xenograft tumor model of endometrial cancer, we assessed the activity of mTOR and downstream effector proteins in the mTOR translational control pathway after treatment with a dual mTOR Complex 1 and 2 (mTORC1/2) catalytic inhibitor (PP242) compared to that of an allosteric mTOR Complex 1 (mTORC1) inhibitor (everolimus, RAD001). Methods Grade 3 endometrioid endometrial cancer cells (AN3CA) were xenografted into nude mice. Animals were treated with PP242; PP242 and carboplatin; carboplatin; RAD001; RAD001 and carboplatin. Mean tumor volume was compared across groups by ANOVA. Immunoblot analysis was performed to assess mTORC1/2 activity using P-Akt, P-S6 and P-4E-BP1. Results The mean tumor volume of PP242 + carboplatin was significantly lower than in all other treatment groups, P<0.001 (89% smaller). The RAD001 + carboplatin group was also smaller, but this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.097). Immunoblot analysis of tumor lysates treated with PP242 demonstrated inhibition of activated P-Akt. Conclusions Catalytic mTORC1/2 inhibition demonstrates clear efficacy in tumor growth control that is enhanced by the addition of a DNA damage agent, carboplatin. Targeting mTORC1/2 leads to inhibition of Akt activation and strong downregulation of effectors of mTORC1, resulting in downregulation of protein synthesis. Based on this study, mTORC1/2 kinase inhibitors warrant further investigation as a potential treatment for endometrial cancer. PMID:24316308

  19. Evaluation of patritumab with or without erlotinib in combination with standard cytotoxic agents against pediatric sarcoma xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Favours, Edward; Phelps, Doris A; Pozo, Vanessa Del; Ghilu, Samson; Kurmashev, Dias; Michalek, Joel; Trevino, Aron; Guttridge, Denis; London, Cheryl; Hirotani, Kenji; Zhang, Ling; Kurmasheva, Raushan T; Houghton, Peter J

    2018-02-01

    Integrating molecularly targeted agents with cytotoxic drugs used in curative treatment of pediatric cancers is complex. An evaluation was undertaken with the ERBB3/Her3-specific antibody patritumab (P) either alone or with the ERBB1/epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib (E) in combination with standard cytotoxic agents, cisplatin, vincristine, and cyclophosphamide, in pediatric sarcoma xenograft models that express receptors and ligands targeted by these agents. Tumor models were selected based upon ERBB3 expression and phosphorylation, and ligand (heregulin) expression. Patritumab, E, or these agents combined was evaluated without or with concomitant cytotoxic agents using procedures developed by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program. Full doses of cytotoxic agents were tolerated when combined with P, whereas dose reductions of 25% (vincristine, cisplatin) or 50% (cyclophosphamide) were required when combined with P + E. Patritumab, E alone, or in combination did not significantly inhibit growth of any tumor model, except for Rh18 xenografts (E alone). Patritumab had no single-agent activity and marginally enhanced the activity of vincristine and cisplatin only in Ewing sarcoma ES-4. P + E did not increase the antitumor activity of vincristine or cisplatin, whereas dose-reduced cyclophosphamide was significantly less active than cyclophosphamide administered at its maximum tolerated dose when combined with P + E. P had no single-agent activity, although it marginally potentiated the activity of vincristine and cisplatin in one of three models studied. However, the addition of E necessitated dose reduction of each cytotoxic agent, abrogating the enhancement observed with P alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A multi-parametric imaging investigation of the response of C6 glioma xenografts to MLN0518 (tandutinib) treatment.

    PubMed

    Boult, Jessica K R; Terkelsen, Jennifer; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Bradley, Daniel P; Robinson, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels, is essential for tumour growth; this process is stimulated by the secretion of numerous growth factors including platelet derived growth factor (PDGF). PDGF signalling, through its receptor platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), is involved in vessel maturation, stimulation of angiogenesis and upregulation of other angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). PDGFR is a promising target for anti-cancer therapy because it is expressed on both tumour cells and stromal cells associated with the vasculature. MLN0518 (tandutinib) is a potent inhibitor of type III receptor tyrosine kinases that demonstrates activity against PDGFRα/β, FLT3 and c-KIT. In this study a multi-parametric MRI and histopathological approach was used to interrogate changes in vascular haemodynamics, structural response and hypoxia in C6 glioma xenografts in response to treatment with MLN0518. The doubling time of tumours in mice treated with MLN0518 was significantly longer than tumours in vehicle treated mice. The perfused vessel area, number of alpha smooth muscle actin positive vessels and hypoxic area in MLN0518 treated tumours were also significantly lower after 10 days treatment. These changes were not accompanied by alterations in vessel calibre or fractional blood volume as assessed using susceptibility contrast MRI. Histological assessment of vessel size and total perfused area did not demonstrate any change with treatment. Intrinsic susceptibility MRI did not reveal any difference in baseline R2* or carbogen-induced change in R2*. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI revealed anti-vascular effects of MLN0518 following 3 days treatment. Hypoxia confers chemo- and radio-resistance, and alongside PDGF, is implicated in evasive resistance to agents targeted against VEGF signalling. PDGFR antagonists may improve potency and efficacy of other therapeutics in combination. This study highlights the challenges

  1. Angiogenesis in a human neuroblastoma xenograft model: mechanisms and inhibition by tumour-derived interferon-γ

    PubMed Central

    Ribatti, D; Nico, B; Pezzolo, A; Vacca, A; Meazza, R; Cinti, R; Carlini, B; Parodi, F; Pistoia, V; Corrias, M V

    2006-01-01

    Tumour progression in neuroblastoma (NB) patients correlates with high vascular index. We have previously shown that the ACN NB cell line is tumorigenic and angiogenic in immunodeficient mice, and that interferon-γ (IFN-γ) gene transfer dampens ACN tumorigenicity. As IFN-γ represses lymphocyte-induced tumour angiogenesis in various murine models and inhibits proliferation and migration of human endothelial cells, we have investigated the antiangiogenic activity of tumour-derived IFN-γ and the underlying mechanism(s). In addition, we characterised the tumour vasculature of the ACN xenografts, using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay. We show that the ACN/IFN-γ xenografts had a lower microvessel density and less in vivo angiogenic potential than the vector-transfected ACN/neo. The vascular channels of both xenografts were formed by a mixed endothelial cell population of murine and human origin, as assessed by the FICTION (fluorescence immunophenotyping and interphase cytogenetics) technique. With respect to ACN/neo, the ACN/IFN-γ xenografts showed more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling-positive human and murine endothelial cells, suggesting that inhibition of angiogenesis by IFN-γ was dependent on the induction of apoptosis, likely mediated by nitric oxide. Once the dual origin of tumour vasculature is confirmed in NB patients, the xenograft model described here will prove useful in testing the efficacy of different antiangiogenic compounds. PMID:16721359

  2. Local Delivery of Cannabinoid-Loaded Microparticles Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Murine Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Torres, Sofía; García-Taboada, Elena; Aberturas, María del Rosario; Molpeceres, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) – the two major ingredients of marijuana – have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1∶1 w:w) of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies. PMID:23349970

  3. Local delivery of cannabinoid-loaded microparticles inhibits tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Hernán Pérez de la Ossa, Dolores; Lorente, Mar; Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Torres, Sofía; García-Taboada, Elena; Aberturas, María Del Rosario; Molpeceres, Jesús; Velasco, Guillermo; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2013-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana and their derivatives, are currently investigated due to their potential therapeutic application for the management of many different diseases, including cancer. Specifically, Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) - the two major ingredients of marijuana - have been shown to inhibit tumor growth in a number of animal models of cancer, including glioma. Although there are several pharmaceutical preparations that permit the oral administration of THC or its analogue nabilone or the oromucosal delivery of a THC- and CBD-enriched cannabis extract, the systemic administration of cannabinoids has several limitations in part derived from the high lipophilicity exhibited by these compounds. In this work we analyzed CBD- and THC-loaded poly-ε-caprolactone microparticles as an alternative delivery system for long-term cannabinoid administration in a murine xenograft model of glioma. In vitro characterization of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles showed that this method of microencapsulation facilitates a sustained release of the two cannabinoids for several days. Local administration of THC-, CBD- or a mixture (1:1 w:w) of THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles every 5 days to mice bearing glioma xenografts reduced tumour growth with the same efficacy than a daily local administration of the equivalent amount of those cannabinoids in solution. Moreover, treatment with cannabinoid-loaded microparticles enhanced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis in these tumours. Our findings support that THC- and CBD-loaded microparticles could be used as an alternative method of cannabinoid delivery in anticancer therapies.

  4. Human tumor xenografts in mouse as a model for evaluating therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies or antibody-drug conjugate targeting receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang; Wang, Wei; Yao, Hang-Ping; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen; Wang, Ming-Hai

    2015-01-01

    Targeting receptor tyrosine kinases by therapeutic monoclonal antibodies and antibody-drug conjugates has met with tremendous success in clinical oncology. Currently, numerous therapeutic monoclonal antibodies are under preclinical development. The potential for moving candidate antibodies into clinical trials relies heavily on therapeutic efficacy validated by human tumor xenografts in mice. Here we describe methods used to determine therapeutic efficacy of monoclonal antibodies or antibody-drug conjugates specific to human receptor tyrosine kinase using human tumor xenografts in mice as the model. The end point of the study is to determine whether treatment of tumor-bearing mice with a monoclonal antibody or antibody-drug conjugates results in significant delay of tumor growth.

  5. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. PMID:26840261

  6. Aminomethylphosphonic acid inhibits growth and metastasis of human prostate cancer in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Keshab Raj; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; You, Zongbing

    2016-03-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) has been shown to inhibit prostate cancer cell growth in vitro. The purpose of the present study was to determine if AMPA could inhibit growth and metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo. Human prostate cancer PC-3-LacZ-luciferase cells were implanted into the ventral lateral lobes of the prostate in 39 athymic Nu/Nu nude male mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into the control group (n = 14, treated intraperitoneally with phosphate buffered saline), low dose group (n = 10, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 400 mg/kg body weight/day), and high dose group (n = 15, treated intraperitoneally with AMPA at 800 mg/kg body weight/day). Tumor growth and metastasis were examined every 4-7 days by bioluminescence imaging of live mice. We found that AMPA treatment significantly inhibited growth and metastasis of orthotopic xenograft prostate tumors and prolonged the survival time of the mice. AMPA treatment decreased expression of BIRC2 and activated caspase 3, leading to increased apoptosis in the prostate tumors. AMPA treatment decreased expression of cyclin D1. AMPA treatment also reduced angiogenesis in the prostate tumors. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AMPA can inhibit prostate cancer growth and metastasis, suggesting that AMPA may be developed into a therapeutic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. Inhibition of Tumorigenesis by the Thyroid Hormone Receptor β in Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won Gu; Zhao, Li; Kim, Dong Wook; Willingham, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies showed a close association between several types of human cancers and somatic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) and reduced expression of TRβ due to epigenetic inactivation and/or deletion of the THRB gene. These observations suggest that TRβ could act as a tumor suppressor in carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms by which TRβ could function to inhibit tumorigenesis are less well understood. Methods: We used the human follicular thyroid cancer cell lines (FTC-133 and FTC-236 cells) to elucidate how functional expression of the THRB gene could affect tumorigenesis. We stably expressed the THRB gene in FTC cells and evaluated the effects of the expressed TRβ on cancer cell proliferation, migration, and tumor growth in cell-based studies and xenograft models. Results: Expression of TRβ in FTC-133 cells, as compared with control FTC cells without TRβ, reduced cancer cell proliferation and impeded migration of tumor cells through inhibition of the AKT-mTOR-p70 S6K pathway. TRβ expression in FTC-133 and FTC-236 led to less tumor growth in xenograft models. Importantly, new vessel formation was significantly suppressed in tumors induced by FTC cells expressing TRβ compared with control FTC cells without TRβ. The decrease in vessel formation was mediated by the downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor in FTC cells expressing TRβ. Conclusions: These findings indicate that TRβ acts as a tumor suppressor through downregulation of the AKT-mTOR-p70 S6K pathway and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor expression in FTC cells. The present results raise the possibility that TRβ could be considered as a potential therapeutic target for thyroid cancer. PMID:23731250

  8. Utility of a human-mouse xenograft model and in vivo near-infrared fluorescent imaging for studying wound healing.

    PubMed

    Shanmugam, Victoria K; Tassi, Elena; Schmidt, Marcel O; McNish, Sean; Baker, Stephen; Attinger, Christopher; Wang, Hong; Shara, Nawar; Wellstein, Anton

    2015-12-01

    To study the complex cellular interactions involved in wound healing, it is essential to have an animal model that adequately mimics the human wound microenvironment. Currently available murine models are limited because wound contraction introduces bias into wound surface area measurements. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate utility of a human-mouse xenograft model for studying human wound healing. Normal human skin was harvested from elective abdominoplasty surgery, xenografted onto athymic nude (nu/nu) mice, and allowed to engraft for 3 months. The graft was then wounded using a 2-mm punch biopsy. Wounds were harvested on sequential days to allow tissue-based markers of wound healing to be followed sequentially. On the day of wound harvest, mice were injected with XenoLight RediJect cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) probe and imaged according to package instructions. Immunohistochemistry confirms that this human-mouse xenograft model is effective for studying human wound healing in vivo. Additionally, in vivo fluorescent imaging for inducible COX-2 demonstrated upregulation from baseline to day 4 (P = 0·03) with return to baseline levels by day 10, paralleling the reepithelialisation of the wound. This human-mouse xenograft model, combined with in vivo fluorescent imaging provides a useful mechanism for studying molecular pathways of human wound healing. © 2013 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2013 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Enhanced Intratumoral Delivery of SN38 as a Tocopherol Oxyacetate Prodrug Using Nanoparticles in a Neuroblastoma Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ferro; Alferiev, Ivan; Guan, Peng; Guerrero, David T; Kolla, Venkatadri; Moorthy, Ganesh S; Chorny, Michael; Brodeur, Garrett M

    2018-06-01

    Purpose: Currently, <50% of high-risk pediatric solid tumors like neuroblastoma can be cured, and many survivors experience serious or life-threatening toxicities, so more effective, less toxic therapy is needed. One approach is to target drugs to tumors using nanoparticles, which take advantage of the enhanced permeability of tumor vasculature. Experimental Design: SN38, the active metabolite of irinotecan (CPT-11), is a potent therapeutic agent that is readily encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles. Tocopherol oxyacetate (TOA) is a hydrophobic mitocan that was linked to SN38 to significantly increase hydrophobicity and enhance nanoparticle retention. We treated neuroblastomas with SN38-TOA nanoparticles and compared the efficacy with the parent prodrug CPT-11 using a mouse xenograft model. Results: Nanoparticle treatment induced prolonged event-free survival (EFS) in most mice, compared with CPT-11. This was shown for both SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 neuroblastoma xenografts. Enhanced efficacy was likely due to increased and sustained drug levels of SN38 in the tumor compared with conventional CPT-11 delivery. Interestingly, when recurrent CPT-11-treated tumors were re-treated with SN38-TOA nanoparticles, the tumors transformed from undifferentiated neuroblastomas to maturing ganglioneuroblastomas. Furthermore, these tumors were infiltrated with Schwann cells of mouse origin, which may have contributed to the differentiated histology. Conclusions: Nanoparticle delivery of SN38-TOA produced increased drug delivery and prolonged EFS compared to conventional delivery of CPT-11. Also, lower total dose and drug entrapment in nanoparticles during circulation should decrease toxicity. We propose that nanoparticle-based delivery of a rationally designed prodrug is an attractive approach to enhance chemotherapeutic efficacy in pediatric and adult tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 24(11); 2585-93. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Human fibulin-3 protein variant expresses anti-cancer effects in the malignant glioma extracellular compartment in intracranial xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanyan; Hu, Yuan; Liu, Chuanjin; Wang, Qingyue; Han, Xiaoxiao; Han, Yong; Xie, Xue-Shun; Chen, Xiong-Hui; Li, Xiang; Siegel, Eric R.; Afrasiabi, Kambiz; Linskey, Mark E.; Zhou, You-Xin; Zhou, Yi-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Background Decades of cytotoxic and more recently immunotherapy treatments for malignant glioma have had limited success due to dynamic intra-tumoral heterogeneity. The dynamic interplay of cancer cell subpopulations has been found to be under the control of proteins in the cancer microenvironment. EGF-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein (EFEMP1) (also fibulin-3) has the multiple functions of suppressing cancer growth and angiogenesis, while promoting cancer cell invasion. EFEMP1-derived tumor suppressor protein (ETSP) retains EFEMP1’s anti-growth and anti-angiogenic functions while actually inhibiting cancer cell invasion. Methods In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect on glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) of an in vitro synthesized protein, ZR30, which is based on the sequence of ETSP, excluding the signaling peptide. Results ZR30 showed the same effects as ETSP in blocking EGFR/NOTCH/AKT signaling pathways, when applied to cultures of multiple GBM cell lines and primary cultures. ZR30’s inhibition of MMP2 activation was shown not only for GBM cells, but also for other types of cancer cells having overexpression of MMP2. A significant improvement in survival of mice with orthotopic human GBM xenografts was observed after a single, intra-tumoral injection of ZR30. Using a model mimicking the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of GBM with cell subpopulations carrying different invasive and proliferative phenotypes, we demonstrated an equal and simultaneous tumor suppressive effect of ZR30 on both tumor cell subpopulations, with suppression of FOXM1 and activation of SEMA3B expressions in the xenografts. Conclusion Overall, the data support a complementary pleiotrophic therapeutic effect of ZR30 acting in the extracellular compartment of GBM. PMID:29290950

  11. Comparison of the Gene Expression Profiles of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells between Humans and a Humanized Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Hideyuki; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yahata, Takashi; Tanaka, Masayuki; Ando, Kiyoshi

    2017-04-20

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of NOD/Shi-scid-IL2Rγ null (NOG) mice transplanted with human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low hematopoietic cells from cord blood (CB) as an experimental model of the gene expression in human hematopoiesis. We compared the gene expressions of human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells from human bone marrow (BM) and in xenograft models. The microarray data revealed that 25 KEGG pathways were extracted from the comparison of human CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low HSCs between CB and BM, and that 17 of them--which were mostly related to cellular survival, RNA metabolism and lymphoid development--were shared with the xenograft model. When the probes that were commonly altered in CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells from both human and xenograft BM were analyzed, most of them, including the genes related hypoxia, hematopoietic differentiation, epigenetic modification, translation initiation, and RNA degradation, were downregulated. These alterations of gene expression suggest a reduced differentiation capacity and likely include key alterations of gene expression for settlement of CB CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells in BM. Our findings demonstrate that the xenograft model of human CB CD34 + /CD38 - /Lin -/low cells using NOG mice was useful, at least in part, for the evaluation of the gene expression profile of human hematopoietic stem cells.

  12. Effect of dasatinib in a xenograft mouse model of canine histiocytic sarcoma and in vitro expression status of its potential target EPHA2.

    PubMed

    Ito, K; Miyamoto, R; Tani, H; Kurita, S; Kobayashi, M; Tamura, K; Bonkobara, M

    2018-02-01

    Canine histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive and highly metastatic tumor. Previously, the kinase inhibitor dasatinib was shown to have potent growth inhibitory activity against HS cells in vitro, possibly via targeting the EPHA2 receptor. Here, the in vivo effect of dasatinib in HS cells was investigated using a xenograft mouse model. Moreover, the expression status of EPHA2 was examined in six HS cell lines, ranging from insensitive to highly sensitive to dasatinib. In the HS xenograft mouse model, dasatinib significantly suppressed tumor growth, as illustrated by a decrease in mitotic and Ki67 indices and an increase in apoptotic index in tumor tissues. On Western blot analysis, EPHA2 was only weakly detected in all HS cell lines, regardless of sensitivity to dasatinib. Dasatinib likely results in the inhibition of xenograft tumor growth via a mechanism other than targeting EPHA2. The findings of this study suggest that dasatinib is a targeted therapy drug worthy of further exploration for the treatment of canine HS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Recombinant methioninase effectively targets a Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Li, Shukuan; Han, Qinghong; Tan, Yuying; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Miyake, Kentaro; Singh, Arun S; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Lwin, Thinzar M; DeLong, Jonathan C; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-05-30

    Methionine dependence is due to the overuse of methionine for aberrant transmethylation reactions in cancer. Methionine dependence may be the only general metabolic defect in cancer. In order to exploit methionine dependence for therapy, our laboratory previously cloned L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase [EC 4.4.1.11]). The cloned methioninase, termed recombinant methioninase, or rMETase, has been tested in mouse models of human cancer cell lines. Ewing's sarcoma is recalcitrant disease even though development of multimodal therapy has improved patients'outcome. Here we report efficacy of rMETase against Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Eight Ewing's sarcoma PDOX mice were randomized into untreated control group (n = 4) and rMETase treatment group (n = 4). rMETase (100 units) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every 24 hours for 14 consecutive days. All mice were sacrificed on day-15, 24 hours after the last rMETase administration. rMETase effectively reduced tumor growth compared to untreated control. The methionine level both of plasma and supernatants derived from sonicated tumors was lower in the rMETase group. Body weight did not significantly differ at any time points between the 2 groups. The present study is the first demonstrating rMETase efficacy in a PDOX model, suggesting potential clinical development, especially in recalcitrant cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma.

  14. Intermittent androgen suppression in the LuCaP 23.12 prostate cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Buhler, K R; Santucci, R A; Royai, R A; Whitney, S C; Vessella, R L; Lange, P H; Ellis, W J

    2000-04-01

    Intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) has been proposed as a method of delaying the onset of androgen-independent growth in prostate cancer. While several pilot studies have demonstrated the feasibility of such a treatment, no study to date has defined the effect of IAS on survival. We developed an IAS protocol for mice bearing the LuCaP 23.12 human prostate cancer xenograft, with each cycle consisting of 1 week of androgen replacement with a testosterone pellet followed by 3 weeks of androgen withdrawal. Mice that responded to castration with a 40% or greater decrease in serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were randomized to treatment with either continuous androgen suppression (CAS) or IAS. Serum PSA, tumor volume, and overall survival were monitored. A total of 75 mice met the randomization criteria. There was no significant difference of survival between animals treated with CAS or IAS (185 vs. 239 days, P = 0.1835). Serum PSA showed evidence of cycling with hormonal manipulation. No cycling was noted in tumor volume. IAS is not associated with a decrease in survival compared to CAS, yet in patients may offer quality-of-life improvements. Further studies of IAS in the setting of Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved clinical trials should be encouraged. Prostate 43:63-70, 2000. Published 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Intracranial AAV-IFN-β gene therapy eliminates invasive xenograft glioblastoma and improves survival in orthotopic syngeneic murine model.

    PubMed

    GuhaSarkar, Dwijit; Neiswender, James; Su, Qin; Gao, Guangping; Sena-Esteves, Miguel

    2017-02-01

    The highly invasive property of glioblastoma (GBM) cells and genetic heterogeneity are largely responsible for tumor recurrence after the current standard-of-care treatment and thus a direct cause of death. Previously, we have shown that intracranial interferon-beta (IFN-β) gene therapy by locally administered adeno-associated viral vectors (AAV) successfully treats noninvasive orthotopic glioblastoma models. Here, we extend these findings by testing this approach in invasive human GBM xenograft and syngeneic mouse models. First, we show that a single intracranial injection of AAV encoding human IFN-β eliminates invasive human GBM8 tumors and promotes long-term survival. Next, we screened five AAV-IFN-β vectors with different promoters to drive safe expression of mouse IFN-β in the brain in the context of syngeneic GL261 tumors. Two AAV-IFN-β vectors were excluded due to safety concerns, but therapeutic studies with the other three vectors showed extensive tumor cell death, activation of microglia surrounding the tumors, and a 56% increase in median survival of the animals treated with AAV/P2-Int-mIFN-β vector. We also assessed the therapeutic effect of combining AAV-IFN-β therapy with temozolomide (TMZ). As TMZ affects DNA replication, an event that is crucial for second-strand DNA synthesis of single-stranded AAV vectors before active transcription, we tested two TMZ treatment regimens. Treatment with TMZ prior to AAV-IFN-β abrogated any benefit from the latter, while the reverse order of treatment doubled the median survival compared to controls. These studies demonstrate the therapeutic potential of intracranial AAV-IFN-β therapy in a highly migratory GBM model as well as in a syngeneic mouse model and that combination with TMZ is likely to enhance its antitumor potency. © 2016 The Authors. Published by FEBS Press and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Radiation Dose Uncertainty and Correction for a Mouse Orthotopic and Xenograft Irradiation Model

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Gregory N.; Altunbas, Cem; Morton, John J.; Eagles, Justin; Backus, Jennifer; Dzingle, Wayne; Raben, David; Jimeno, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In animal irradiation models, reported dose can vary significantly from the actual doses delivered. We describe an effective method for in vivo dose verification. Materials and Methods Mice bearing commercially-available cell line or patient-derived tumor cell orthotopic or flank xenografts were irradiated using a 160 kVp, 25 mA X-ray source. Entrance dose was evaluated using optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) and exit dose was assessed using radiochromic film dosimetry. Results Tumor position within the irradiation field was validated using external fiducial markers. The average entrance dose in orthotopic tumors from 10 OSLDs placed on 2 different animal irradiation days was 514±37 cGy (range: 437–545). Exit dose measurements taken from 7 radiochromic films on two separate days were 341±21 cGy (a 34% attenuation). Flank tumor irradiation doses measured by OSLD were 368±9 cGy compared to exit doses of 330 cGy measured by radiochromic film. Conclusion Variations related to the irradiation model can lead to significant under or over- dosing in vivo which can affect tumor control and/or biologic endpoints that are dose dependent. We recommend that dose measurements be determined empirically based on the mouse model and irradiator used and dose compensation adjustments performed to ensure correct and appropriate doses. PMID:26689828

  17. Radiation dose uncertainty and correction for a mouse orthotopic and xenograft irradiation model.

    PubMed

    Gan, Gregory N; Altunbas, Cem; Morton, John J; Eagles, Justin; Backus, Jennifer; Dzingle, Wayne; Raben, David; Jimeno, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In animal irradiation models, reported dose can vary significantly from the actual doses delivered. We describe an effective method for in vivo dose verification. Mice bearing commercially-available cell line or patient-derived tumor cell orthotopic or flank xenografts were irradiated using a 160 kVp, 25 mA X-ray source. Entrance dose was evaluated using optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD) and exit dose was assessed using radiochromic film dosimetry. Tumor position within the irradiation field was validated using external fiducial markers. The average entrance dose in orthotopic tumors from 10 OSLDs placed on two different animal irradiation days was 514 ± 37 cGy (range: 437-545). Exit dose measurements taken from seven radiochromic films on two separate days were 341 ± 21 cGy (a 34% attenuation). Flank tumor irradiation doses measured by OSLD were 368 ± 9 cGy compared to exit doses of 330 cGy measured by radiochromic film. Variations related to the irradiation model can lead to significant under or overdosing in vivo which can affect tumor control and/or biologic endpoints that are dose-dependent. We recommend that dose measurements be determined empirically based on the mouse model and irradiator used and dose compensation adjustments performed to ensure correct and appropriate doses.

  18. Establishment, maintenance and in vitro and in vivo applications of primary human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) xenograft models for translational biology studies and drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Brett L; Pokorny, Jenny L; Schroeder, Mark A; Sarkaria, Jann N

    2011-03-01

    Development of clinically relevant tumor model systems for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is important for advancement of basic and translational biology. One model that has gained wide acceptance in the neuro-oncology community is the primary xenograft model. This model entails the engraftment of patient tumor specimens into the flank of nude mice and subsequent serial passage of these tumors in the flank of mice. These tumors are then used to establish short-term explant cultures or intracranial xenografts. This unit describes detailed procedures for establishment, maintenance, and utilization of a primary GBM xenograft panel for the purpose of using them as tumor models for basic or translational studies.

  19. Inhibiting platelet-derived growth factor beta reduces Ewing's sarcoma growth and metastasis in a novel orthotopic human xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong Xin; Mandal, Deendayal; Wang, Suizhau; Hughes, Dennis; Pollock, Raphael E; Lev, Dina; Kleinerman, Eugenie; Hayes-Jordan, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Despite aggressive therapy, Ewing's sarcoma (ES) patients have a poor five-year overall survival of only 20-40%. Pulmonary metastasis is the most common form of demise in these patients. The pathogenesis of pulmonary metastasis is poorly understood and few orthotopic models exist that allow study of spontaneous pulmonary metastasis in ES. We have developed a novel orthotopic xenograft model in which spontaneous pulmonary metastases develop. While the underlying biology of ES is incompletely understood, in addition to the EWS-FLI-1 mutation, it is known that platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR-beta) is highly expressed in ES. Hypothesizing that PDGFR-beta expression is indicative of a specific role for this receptor protein in ES progression, the effect of PDGFR-beta inhibition on ES growth and metastasis was assessed in this novel orthotopic ES model. Silencing PDGFR-beta reduced spontaneous growth and metastasis in ES. Preclinical therapeutically relevant findings such as these may ultimately lead to new treatment initiatives in ES.

  20. Evaluation of anti-tumorigenic activity of BP3B against colon cancer with patient-derived tumor xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Youn; Kim, Jinhee; Ha Thi, Huyen Trang; Bang, Ok-Sun; Lee, Won-Suk; Hong, Suntaek

    2016-11-18

    KIOM-CRC#BP3B (BP3B) is a novel herbal prescription that is composed of three plant extracts. Our preliminary study identified that BP3B exhibited potent anti-proliferative activity against various types of cancer cell lines in vitro. Because the in vivo anti-tumor effect of BP3B is not evaluated before clinical trial, we want to test it using patient's samples. To confirm the in vivo anti-cancer effect of BP3B, we used genetically characterized patient-derived colon tumor xenograft (PDTX) mouse model. Anti-cancer activity was evaluated with apoptosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and histological analysis. Oral administration of BP3B significantly inhibited the tumor growth in two PDTX models. Furthermore, TUNEL assay showed that BP3B induced apoptosis of tumor tissues, which was associated with degradation of PARP and Caspase 8 and activation of Caspase 3. We also observed that BP3B inhibited cancer cell proliferation by down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and induction of p27 proteins. Inhibition of angiogenesis in BP3B-treated group was observed with immunofluorescence staining using CD31 and Tie-2 antibodies. These findings indicated that BP3B has a strong growth-inhibitory activity against colon cancer in in vivo model and will be a good therapeutic candidate for treatment of refractory colon cancer.

  1. A Primary Xenograft Model of Small Cell Lung Cancer Reveals Irreversible Changes in Gene Expression Imposed by Culture In-Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Vincent C.; Marchionni, Luigi; Hierman, Jared S.; Rhodes, Jonathan T.; Devereux, Wendy L.; Rudin, Charles M.; Yung, Rex; Parmigani, Giovanni; Dorsch, Marion; Peacock, Craig D.; Watkins, D. Neil

    2009-01-01

    Traditional approaches to the preclinical investigation of cancer therapies rely on the use of established cell lines maintained in serum-based growth media. This is particularly true of small cell lung cancer (SCLC), where surgically resected tissue is rarely available. Recent attention has focused on the need for better models that preserve the integrity of cancer stem cell populations, as well as three-dimensional tumor-stromal interactions. Here we describe a primary xenograft model of SCLC in which endobronchial tumor specimens obtained from chemo-naive patients are serially propagated in vivo in immunodeficient mice. In parallel, cell lines grown in conventional tissue culture conditions were derived from each xenograft line, passaged for 6 months, and then re-implanted to generate secondary xenografts. Using the Affymetrix platform, we analyzed gene expression in primary xenograft, xenograft-derived cell line, and secondary xenograft, and compared these data to similar analyses of unrelated primary SCLC samples and laboratory models. When compared to normal lung, primary tumors, xenografts and cell lines displayed a gene expression signature specific for SCLC. Comparison of gene expression within the xenograft model identified a group of tumor-specific genes expressed in primary SCLC and xenografts that was lost during the transition to tissue culture, and that was not regained when the tumors were re-established as secondary xenografts. Such changes in gene expression may be a common feature of many cancer cell culture systems, with functional implications for the use of such models for preclinical drug development. PMID:19351829

  2. PDXliver: a database of liver cancer patient derived xenograft mouse models.

    PubMed

    He, Sheng; Hu, Bo; Li, Chao; Lin, Ping; Tang, Wei-Guo; Sun, Yun-Fan; Feng, Fang-You-Min; Guo, Wei; Li, Jia; Xu, Yang; Yao, Qian-Lan; Zhang, Xin; Qiu, Shuang-Jian; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Li, Yi-Xue; Li, Hong; Yang, Xin-Rong

    2018-05-09

    Liver cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths and characterized by heterogeneity and drug resistance. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have been widely used in cancer research because they reproduce the characteristics of original tumors. However, the current studies of liver cancer PDX mice are scattered and the number of available PDX models are too small to represent the heterogeneity of liver cancer patients. To improve this situation and to complement available PDX models related resources, here we constructed a comprehensive database, PDXliver, to integrate and analyze liver cancer PDX models. Currently, PDXliver contains 116 PDX models from Chinese liver cancer patients, 51 of them were established by the in-house PDX platform and others were curated from the public literatures. These models are annotated with complete information, including clinical characteristics of patients, genome-wide expression profiles, germline variations, somatic mutations and copy number alterations. Analysis of expression subtypes and mutated genes show that PDXliver represents the diversity of human patients. Another feature of PDXliver is storing drug response data of PDX mice, which makes it possible to explore the association between molecular profiles and drug sensitivity. All data can be accessed via the Browse and Search pages. Additionally, two tools are provided to interactively visualize the omics data of selected PDXs or to compare two groups of PDXs. As far as we known, PDXliver is the first public database of liver cancer PDX models. We hope that this comprehensive resource will accelerate the utility of PDX models and facilitate liver cancer research. The PDXliver database is freely available online at: http://www.picb.ac.cn/PDXliver/.

  3. Porphysome nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal therapy in a patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft cancer model: a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.; Ding, Lili; Jin, Cheng; Cao, Pingjiang; Siddiqui, Iram; Hwang, David M.; Chen, Juan; Wilson, Brian C.; Zheng, Gang; Hedley, David W.

    2016-08-01

    Local disease control is a major challenge in pancreatic cancer treatment, because surgical resection of the primary tumor is only possible in a minority of patients and radiotherapy cannot be delivered in curative doses. Despite the promise of photothermal therapy (PTT) for focal ablation of pancreatic tumors, this approach remains underinvestigated. Using photothermal sensitizers in combination with laser light irradiation for PTT can result in more efficient conversion of light energy to heat and improved spatial confinement of thermal destruction to the tumor. Porphysomes are self-assembled nanoparticles composed mainly of pyropheophorbide-conjugated phospholipids, enabling the packing of ˜80,000 porphyrin photosensitizers per particle. The high-density porphyrin loading imparts enhanced photonic properties and enables high-payload tumor delivery. A patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft model was used to evaluate the feasibility of porphysome-enhanced PTT for pancreatic cancer. Biodistribution and tumor accumulation were evaluated using fluorescence intensity measurements from homogenized tissues and imaging of excised organs. Tumor surface temperature was recorded using IR optical imaging during light irradiation to monitor treatment progress. Histological analyses were conducted to determine the extent of PTT thermal damage. These studies may provide insight into the influence of heat-sink effect on thermal therapy dosimetry for well-perfused pancreatic tumors.

  4. Antitumor Effects of Flavopiridol on Human Uterine Leiomyoma In Vitro and in a Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun-Gyo; Baek, Jong-Woo; Shin, So-Jin; Kwon, Sang-Hoon; Cha, Soon-Do; Park, Won-Jin; Chung, Rosa; Choi, Eun-Som; Lee, Gun-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are considered a potential target for cancer therapy. Flavopiridol is a potent CDK inhibitor. In this study, the antiproliferative effect of the flavonoid compound flavopiridol and its mechanism in human uterine leiomyoma cells were investigated. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in primary cultured human uterine leiomyoma cells. Cell viability and cell proliferation assays were conducted. Flow cytometry was performed to determine the effect of flavopiridol on cell cycle. The expression of cell cycle regulatory-related proteins was evaluated by Western blotting. Cell viability and proliferation of uterine leiomyoma cells were significantly reduced by flavopiridol treatment in a dose-dependent manner. Flow cytometry results showed that flavopiridol induced G1 phase arrest. Flavopiridol-induced growth inhibition in uterine leiomyoma cells was associated with increased expression of p21cip/wafl and p27kip1 in a dose-dependent manner. Downregulation of CDK2/4 and Cyclin A with a concomitant increase in dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma was observed. This study demonstrates that flavopiridol inhibits cell proliferation by initiating G1 cell cycle arrest in human uterine leiomyoma. We also found that flavopiridol is effective in inhibiting xenografted human uterine leiomyoma growth. These results indicate that flavopiridol could prove to be a promising chemopreventive and therapeutic agent for human uterine leiomyoma. PMID:24572052

  5. Tryptophan PET Imaging of the Kynurenine Pathway in Patient-Derived Xenograft Models of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Guastella, Anthony R; Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Klinger, Neil V; Kupsky, William J; Polin, Lisa A; Muzik, Otto; Juhász, Csaba; Mittal, Sandeep

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates the immunosuppressive kynurenine pathway's (KP) role in the pathophysiology of human gliomas. To study the KP in vivo, we used the noninvasive molecular imaging tracer α-[(11)C]-methyl-l-tryptophan (AMT). The AMT-positron emission tomography (PET) has shown high uptake in high-grade gliomas and predicted survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma (GBM). We generated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models from dissociated cells, or tumor fragments, from 5 patients with GBM. Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors were imaged with AMT-PET, and tumors were analyzed to detect the KP enzymes indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) 1, IDO2, tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, kynureninase, and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase. Overall, PET imaging showed robust tumoral AMT uptake in PDX mice with prolonged tracer accumulation over 60 minutes, consistent with AMT trapping seen in humans. Immunostained tumor tissues demonstrated positive detection of multiple KP enzymes. Furthermore, intracranial implantation of GBM cells was performed with imaging at both 9 and 14 days postimplant, with a marked increase in AMT uptake at 14 days and a corresponding high level of tissue immunostaining for KP enzymes. These results indicate that our PDX mouse models recapitulate human GBM, including aberrant tryptophan metabolism, and offer an in vivo system for development of targeted therapeutics for patients with GBM. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Interleukin-12 Inhibits Tumor Growth in a Novel Angiogenesis Canine Hemangiosarcoma Xenograft Model1

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Erin B; Steinberg, Howard; Breen, Matthew; Auerbach, Robert; Helfand, Stuart C

    2004-01-01

    Abstract We established a canine hemangiosarcoma cell line derived from malignant endothelial cells comprising a spontaneous tumor in a dog to provide a renewable source of endothelial cells for studies of angiogenesis in malignancy. Pieces of the hemangiosarcoma biopsy were engrafted subcutaneously in a bg/nu/XID mouse allowing the tumor cells to expand in vivo. A cell line, SB-HSA, was derived from the xenograft. SB-HSA cells expressed vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1 and 2, CD31, CD146, and αvβ3 integrin, and produced several growth factors and cytokines, including VEGF, basic fibroblast growth factor, and interleukin (IL)-8 that are stimulatory to endothelial cell growth. These results indicated that the cells recapitulated features of mitotically activated endothelia. In vivo, SB-HSA cells stimulated robust angiogenic responses in mice and formed tumor masses composed of aberrant vascular channels in immunocompromised mice providing novel opportunities for investigating the effectiveness of antiangiogenic agents. Using this model, we determined that IL-12, a cytokine with both immunostimulatory and antiangiogenic effects, suppressed angiogenesis induced by, and tumor growth of, SB-HSA cells. The endothelial cell model we have described offers unique opportunities to pursue further investigations with IL-12, as well as other antiangiogenic approaches in cancer therapy. PMID:15140399

  7. Effects of low-dose cyclophosphamide with piroxicam on tumour neovascularization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mouse model.

    PubMed

    Choisunirachon, N; Jaroensong, T; Yoshida, K; Saeki, K; Mochizuki, M; Nishimura, R; Sasaki, N; Nakagawa, T

    2015-12-01

    Low-dose cyclophosphamide (CyLD) has shown promise in the treatment of several cancers; however, the effect of CyLD on canine oral malignant melanoma has never been explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of CyLD with or without piroxicam (Px) on tumour neovascularization and vascular normalization in a canine oral malignant melanoma-xenografted mice model. After treatment with CyLD, Px or a combination of both (CyPx), the growth of the tumour in the treatment groups was significantly suppressed compared to the control group at 30 days of treatment. Proliferation index was also significantly reduced by all treatments, only CyPx significantly lowered microvessel density and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Additionally, CyLD significantly reduced the proportion of normal vessels and caused an imbalance between VEGF and thrombospondin-1. These results suggested that CyPx has potent anti-angiogenic effects in terms of both the number and quality of blood vessels in xenografted canine oral malignant melanoma. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Novel LIMK2 Inhibitor Blocks Panc-1 Tumor Growth in a mouse xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Roni; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Tzfadia, Galit; Wolfson, Haim J.; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel

    2014-01-01

    LIM kinases (LIMKs) are important cell cytoskeleton regulators that play a prominent role in cancer manifestation and neuronal diseases. The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function. The main substrate of LIMK is cofilin, a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) protein family. When phosphorylated by LIMK, cofilin is inactive. LIMKs play a contributory role in several neurodevelopmental disorders and in cancer growth and metastasis. We recently reported the development and validation of a novel LIMK inhibitor, referred to here as T56-LIMKi, using a combination of computational methods and classical biochemistry techniques. Here we report that T56-LIMKi inhibits LIMK2 with high specificity, and shows little or no cross-reactivity with LIMK1. We found that T56-LIMKi decreases phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin) levels and thus inhibits growth of several cancerous cell lines, including those of pancreatic cancer, glioma and schwannoma. Because the most promising in-vitro effect of T56-LIMKi was observed in the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1, we tested the inhibitor on a nude mouse Panc-1 xenograft model. T56-LIMKi reduced tumor size and p-cofilin levels in the Panc-1 tumors, leading us to propose T56-LIMKi as a candidate drug for cancer therapy. PMID:25593987

  9. Novel LIMK2 Inhibitor Blocks Panc-1 Tumor Growth in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Rak, Roni; Haklai, Roni; Elad-Tzfadia, Galit; Wolfson, Haim J; Carmeli, Shmuel; Kloog, Yoel

    2014-01-01

    LIM kinases (LIMKs) are important cell cytoskeleton regulators that play a prominent role in cancer manifestation and neuronal diseases. The LIMK family consists of two homologues, LIMK1 and LIMK2, which differ from one another in expression profile, intercellular localization, and function. The main substrate of LIMK is cofilin, a member of the actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF) protein family. When phosphorylated by LIMK, cofilin is inactive. LIMKs play a contributory role in several neurodevelopmental disorders and in cancer growth and metastasis. We recently reported the development and validation of a novel LIMK inhibitor, referred to here as T56-LIMKi, using a combination of computational methods and classical biochemistry techniques. Here we report that T56-LIMKi inhibits LIMK2 with high specificity, and shows little or no cross-reactivity with LIMK1. We found that T56-LIMKi decreases phosphorylated cofilin (p-cofilin) levels and thus inhibits growth of several cancerous cell lines, including those of pancreatic cancer, glioma and schwannoma. Because the most promising in-vitro effect of T56-LIMKi was observed in the pancreatic cancer cell line Panc-1, we tested the inhibitor on a nude mouse Panc-1 xenograft model. T56-LIMKi reduced tumor size and p-cofilin levels in the Panc-1 tumors, leading us to propose T56-LIMKi as a candidate drug for cancer therapy.

  10. Captopril inhibits tumour growth in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Hii, S. I.; Nicol, D. L.; Gotley, D. C.; Thompson, L. C.; Green, M. K.; Jonsson, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of captopril on tumour growth was examined in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Inoculation of the human RCC cell line SN12K-1 (10(6) cells) under the left kidney capsule of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice resulted in the growth of large tumours, with an increase in weight of the inoculated kidney of 3.69+/-1.63-fold (mean+/-s.d.) when compared with the contralateral normal kidney. In mice treated with captopril (19 mg kg(-1) day(-1) or 94 mg kg(-1) day(-1) administered in the drinking water), there was a significant dose-related reduction in tumour development; the tumour bearing kidneys weighed 1.9+/-0.42 and 1.55+/-0.42 times the normal kidneys, respectively (P< 0.05 compared with untreated animals). In vitro, captopril at clinically achievable doses (0.1-10 microM) had no significant effect on the incorporation of [3H]thymidine into SN12K-1 cells. Thus, this highly significant attenuation by captopril of in vivo tumour growth does not appear to be due to a direct effect on the proliferation of the tumour cells. Further studies are required to determine the mechanism of inhibition of tumour growth by captopril, in particular to evaluate the role of angiotensin II in this process. Images Figure 1 PMID:9528828

  11. Neutrophil-mediated experimental metastasis is enhanced by VEGFR inhibition in a zebrafish xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    He, Shuning; Lamers, Gerda EM; Beenakker, Jan-Willem M; Cui, Chao; Ghotra, Veerander PS; Danen, Erik HJ; Meijer, Annemarie H; Spaink, Herman P; Snaar-Jagalska, B Ewa

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of VEGF signalling effectively suppresses localized tumour growth but accelerates tumour invasiveness and micrometastasis by unknown mechanisms. To study the dynamic and reciprocal interactions between tumour cells and their microenvironment during these processes, we established a xenograft model by injecting tumour cells into the blood circulation of transparent zebrafish embryos. This reproducibly results in rapid simultaneous formation of a localized tumour and experimental micrometastasis, allowing time-resolved imaging of both processes at single-cell resolution within 1 week. The tumour vasculature was initiated de novo by remodelling of primitive endothelial cells into a functional network. Roles of myeloid cells in critical tumourigenesis steps such as vascularization and invasion were revealed by genetic and pharmaceutical approaches. We discovered that the physiological migration of neutrophils controlled tumour invasion by conditioning the collagen matrix and forming the metastatic niche, as detected by two-photon confocal microscopy and second harmonic generation. Administration of VEGFR inhibitors blocked tumour vascularization and a localized tumour growth but enhanced migration of neutrophils, which in turn promoted tumour invasion and formation of micrometastasis. This demonstrates the in vivo cooperation between VEGF signalling and myeloid cells in metastasis and provides a new mechanism underlying the recent findings that VEGFR targeting can promote tumour invasiveness. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:22374800

  12. Systematic modelling and design evaluation of unperturbed tumour dynamics in xenografts.

    PubMed

    Parra Guillen, Zinnia P Patricia; Mangas Sanjuan, Victor; Garcia-Cremades, Maria; Troconiz, Inaki F; Mo, Gary; Pitou, Celine; Iversen, Philip W; Wallin, Johan E

    2018-04-24

    Xenograft mice are largely used to evaluate the efficacy of oncological drugs during preclinical phases of drug discovery and development. Mathematical models provide a useful tool to quantitatively characterise tumour growth dynamics and also optimise upcoming experiments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report where unperturbed growth of a large set of tumour cell lines (n=28) has been systematically analysed using the model proposed by Simeoni in the context of non-linear mixed effect (NLME). Exponential growth was identified as the governing mechanism in the majority of the cell lines, with constant rate values ranging from 0.0204 to 0.203 day -1 No common patterns could be observed across tumour types, highlighting the importance of combining information from different cell lines when evaluating drug activity. Overall, typical model parameters were precisely estimated using designs where tumour size measurements were taken every two days. Moreover, reducing the number of measurement to twice per week, or even once per week for cell lines with low growth rates, showed little impact on parameter precision. However, in order to accurately characterise parameter variability (i.e. relative standard errors below 50%), a sample size of at least 50 mice is needed. This work illustrates the feasibility to systematically apply NLME models to characterise tumour growth in drug discovery and development, and constitutes a valuable source of data to optimise experimental designs by providing an a priori sampling window and minimising the number of samples required. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  13. Monitoring the development of xenograft triple-negative breast cancer models using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Renu M; Pagel, Mark D; Brown, Kathy; Baker, Amanda F; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J; Gillies, Robert J

    2012-11-01

    Evaluations of tumor growth rates and molecular biomarkers are traditionally used to assess new mouse models of human breast cancers. This study investigated the utility of diffusion weighted (DW)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluating cellular proliferation of new tumor models of triple-negative breast cancer, which may augment traditional analysis methods. Eleven human breast cancer cell lines were used to develop xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient mice, with two of these cell lines exhibiting sufficient growth to be serially passaged. DW-MRI was performed to measure the distributions of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in these two tumor xenograft models, which showed a correlation with tumor growth rates and doubling times during each passage. The distributions of the ADC values were also correlated with expression of Ki67, a biomarker of cell proliferation, and hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), which are essential proteins involved in regulating aerobic glycolysis and angiogenesis that support tumor cell proliferation. Although phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) levels were different between the two xenograft models, AKT levels did not differ nor did they correlate with tumor growth. This last result demonstrates the complexity of signaling protein pathways and the difficulty in interpreting the effects of protein expression on tumor cell proliferation. In contrast, DW-MRI may be a more direct assessment of tumor growth and cancer cell proliferation.

  14. Predictive Modeling of Neuroblastoma Growth Dynamics in Xenograft Model After Bevacizumab Anti-VEGF Therapy.

    PubMed

    He, Yixuan; Kodali, Anita; Wallace, Dorothy I

    2018-06-14

    Neuroblastoma is the leading cause of cancer death in young children. Although treatment for neuroblastoma has improved, the 5-year survival rate of patients still remains less than half. Recent studies have indicated that bevacizumab, an anti-VEGF drug used in treatment of several other cancer types, may be effective for treating neuroblastoma as well. However, its effect on neuroblastoma has not been well characterized. While traditional experiments are costly and time-consuming, mathematical models are capable of simulating complex systems quickly and inexpensively. In this study, we present a model of vascular tumor growth of neuroblastoma IMR-32 that is complex enough to replicate experimental data across a range of tumor cell properties measured in a suite of in vitro and in vivo experiments. The model provides quantitative insight into tumor vasculature, predicting a linear relationship between vasculature and tumor volume. The tumor growth model was coupled with known pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the VEGF blocker bevacizumab to study its effect on neuroblastoma growth dynamics. The results of our model suggest that total administered bevacizumab concentration per week, as opposed to dosage regimen, is the major determining factor in tumor suppression. Our model also establishes an exponentially decreasing relationship between administered bevacizumab concentration and tumor growth rate.

  15. Effect of Compound 21, a Selective Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Agonist, in a Murine Xenograft Model of Dupuytren Disease.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Jessica; Gareau, Alison J; Byun, Stephanie; Paletz, Justin L; Tang, David; Williams, Jason; LeVatte, Terry; Bezuhly, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Although surgical excision and intralesional collagenase injection are mainstays in Dupuytren disease treatment, no effective medical therapy exists for recurrent disease. Compound 21, a selective agonist of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor, has been shown to protect against fibrosis in models of myocardial infarction and stroke. The authors investigated the potential use of compound 21 in the treatment of Dupuytren disease. Human dermal fibroblasts were treated in vitro with compound 21 and assessed for viability using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, migration by means of scratch assay, and profibrotic gene transcription by means of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Compound 21 effects in vivo were assessed using a xenograft model. Dupuytren disease cord specimens from patients undergoing open partial fasciectomy were divided into two segments. Segments were implanted under the dorsal skin of nude mouse pairs. Beginning on day 5, one mouse from each pair received daily intraperitoneal injections of compound 21 (10 μg/kg/day), and the other received vehicle. On day 10, segments were explanted and submitted for immunohistochemistry. Human dermal fibroblasts treated with compound 21 displayed decreased migration and decreased gene expression of connective tissue growth factor, fibroblast specific protein-1, transforming growth factor-β1, Smad3, and Smad4. Dupuytren disease segments from compound 21-treated mice demonstrated significantly reduced alpha-smooth muscle actin and Ki67 staining, with increased density of CD31 staining vessels. Compound 21 significantly decreases expression of profibrotic genes and decreases myofibroblast proliferation as indicated by reduced Ki67 and alpha-smooth muscle actin expression. These findings support compound 21 as a potential novel treatment modality for Dupuytren disease.

  16. Intracranial AAV-sTRAIL combined with lanatoside C prolongs survival in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model of invasive glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Crommentuijn, Matheus H W; Maguire, Casey A; Niers, Johanna M; Vandertop, W Peter; Badr, Christian E; Würdinger, Thomas; Tannous, Bakhos A

    2016-04-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common malignant brain tumor in adults. We designed an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector for intracranial delivery of secreted, soluble tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (sTRAIL) to GBM tumors in mice and combined it with the TRAIL-sensitizing cardiac glycoside, lanatoside C (lan C). We applied this combined therapy to two different GBM models using human U87 glioma cells and primary patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in orthotopic GBM xenograft models in mice. In U87 cells, conditioned medium from AAV2-sTRAIL expressing cells combined with lan C induced 80% cell death. Similarly, lan C sensitized primary GBM spheres to sTRAIL causing over 90% cell death. In mice bearing intracranial U87 tumors treated with AAVrh.8-sTRAIL, administration of lan C caused a decrease in tumor-associated Fluc signal, while tumor size increased within days of stopping the treatment. Another round of lan C treatment re-sensitized GBM tumor to sTRAIL-induced cell death. AAVrh.8-sTRAIL treatment alone and combined with lanatoside C resulted in a significant decrease in tumor growth and longer survival of mice bearing orthotopic invasive GBM brain tumors. In summary, AAV-sTRAIL combined with lanatoside C induced cell death in U87 glioma cells and patient-derived GBM neural spheres in culture and in vivo leading to an increased in overall mice survival. Copyright © 2015 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Irradiation Rapidly Reduces Tumor Vasculature and Perfusion in a Xenograft Model of Neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Jani, Ashish; Shaikh, Fauzia; Barton, Sunjay

    Purpose: To characterize the effects of high-dose radiation therapy (HDRT) on neuroblastoma tumor vasculature, including the endothelial cell (EC)–pericyte interaction as a potential target for combined treatment with antiangiogenic agents. Methods and Materials: The vascular effects of radiation therapy were examined in a xenograft model of high-risk neuroblastoma. In vivo 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (3D-CEUS) imaging and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were performed. Results: HDRT significantly reduced tumor blood volume 6 hours after irradiation compared with the lower doses used in conventionally fractionated radiation. There was a 63% decrease in tumor blood volume after 12-Gy radiation compared with a 24% decrease after 2 Gy. Analysis ofmore » tumor vasculature by lectin angiography showed a significant loss of small vessel ends at 6 hours. IHC revealed a significant loss of ECs at 6 and 72 hours after HDRT, with an accompanying loss of immature and mature pericytes at 72 hours. Conclusions: HDRT affects tumor vasculature in a manner not observed at lower doses. The main observation was an early reduction in tumor perfusion resulting from a reduction of small vessel ends with a corresponding loss of endothelial cells and pericytes.« less

  18. Aspirin induces apoptosis in vitro and inhibits tumor growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in a nude mouse xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    HOSSAIN, MOHAMMAD AKBAR; KIM, DONG HWAN; JANG, JUNG YOON; KANG, YONG JUNG; YOON, JEONG-HYUN; MOON, JEON-OK; CHUNG, HAE YOUNG; KIM, GI-YOUNG; CHOI, YUNG HYUN; COPPLE, BRYAN L.; KIM, NAM DEUK

    2012-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are known to induce apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells, including colon, prostate, breast and leukemia. Among them, aspirin, a classical NSAID, shows promise in cancer therapy in certain types of cancers. We hypothesized that aspirin might affect the growth of liver cancer cells since liver is the principal site for aspirin metabolism. Therefore, we investigated the effects of aspirin on the HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line in vitro and the HepG2 cell xenograft model in BALB/c nude mice. We found that treatment with aspirin inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis involving both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways as measured by DNA ladder formation, alteration in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, activation of the caspase activities and related protein expressions. In vivo antitumor activity assay also showed that aspirin resulted in significant tumor growth inhibition compared to the control. Oral administration of aspirin (100 mg/kg/day) caused a significant reduction in the growth of HepG2 tumors in nude mice. These findings suggest that aspirin may be used as a promising anticancer agent against liver cancer. PMID:22179060

  19. Imatinib mesylate (Glivec) inhibits Schwann cell viability and reduces the size of human plexiform neurofibroma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Demestre, Maria; Herzberg, Jan; Holtkamp, Nikola; Hagel, Christian; Reuss, David; Friedrich, Reinhard E; Kluwe, Lan; Von Deimling, Andreas; Mautner, Victor-F; Kurtz, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    Plexiform neurofibromas (PNF), one of the major features of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), are characterized by complex cellular composition and mostly slow but variable growth patterns. In this study, we examined the effect of imatinib mesylate, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on PNF-derived Schwann cells and PNF tumour growth in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, PNF-derived primary Schwann cells express platelet-derived growth factors receptors (PDGFR) alpha and beta, both targets of imatinib, and cell viability was reduced by imatinib mesylate, with 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 10 microM. For in vivo studies, PNF tumour fragments xenografted onto the sciatic nerve of athymic nude mice were first characterized. The tumours persisted for at least 63 days and maintained typical characteristics of PNFs such as complex cellular composition, low proliferation rate and angiogenesis. A transient enlargement of the graft size was due to inflammation by host cells. Treatment with imatinib mesylate at a daily dose of 75 mg/kg for 4 weeks reduced the graft size by an average of 80% (n = 8), significantly different from the original sizes within the group and from sizes of the grafts in 11 untreated mice in the control group (P < 0.001). We demonstrated that grafting human PNF tumour fragments into nude mice provides an adequate in vivo model for drug testing. Our results provide in vivo and in vitro evidence for efficacy of imatinib mesylate for PNF.

  20. Interposition Dermal Matrix Xenografts: A Successful Alternative to Traditional Treatment of Massive Rotator Cuff Tears.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Julie A; Zgonis, Miltiadis H; Rickert, Kathleen D; Bradley, Kendall E; Kremen, Thomas J; Boggess, Blake R; Toth, Alison P

    2017-05-01

    Management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis remains problematic for surgeons. Repairs of massive rotator cuff tears have failure rates of 20% to 94% at 1 to 2 years postoperatively as demonstrated with arthrography, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, inconsistent outcomes have been reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears, and limitations have been seen with other current methods of operative intervention, including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The use of interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft in patients with massive rotator cuff tears will result in improved subjective outcomes, postoperative pain, function, range of motion, and strength. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Sixty patients (61 shoulders) were prospectively observed for a mean of 50.3 months (range, 24-63 months) after repair of massive rotator cuff tears with porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Subjective outcome data were obtained with visual analog scale for pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain) and Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (MASES) score. Active range of motion in flexion, external rotation, and internal rotation were recorded. Strength in the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles was assessed manually on a 10-point scale and by handheld dynamometer. Ultrasound was used to assess the integrity of the repair during latest follow-up. Mean visual analog scale pain score decreased from 4.0 preoperatively to 1.0 postoperatively ( P < .001). Mean active forward flexion improved from 140.7° to 160.4° ( P < .001), external rotation at 0° of abduction from 55.6° to 70.1° ( P = .001), and internal rotation at 90° of abduction from 52.0° to 76.2° ( P < .001). Supraspinatus manual strength increased from 7.7 to 8.8 ( P < .001) and infraspinatus manual strength from 7.7 to 9.3 ( P < .001). Mean dynamometric strength in forward flexion was 77.7 N

  1. Optimized depletion of chimeric antigen receptor T cells in murine xenograft models of human acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kenderian, Saad S.; Shen, Feng; Ruella, Marco; Shestova, Olga; Kozlowski, Miroslaw; Li, Yong; Schrank-Hacker, April; Morrissette, Jennifer J. D.; Carroll, Martin; June, Carl H.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Gill, Saar

    2017-01-01

    We and others previously reported potent antileukemia efficacy of CD123-redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells in preclinical human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) models at the cost of severe hematologic toxicity. This observation raises concern for potential myeloablation in patients with AML treated with CD123-redirected CAR T cells and mandates novel approaches for toxicity mitigation. We hypothesized that CAR T-cell depletion with optimal timing after AML eradication would preserve leukemia remission and allow subsequent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. To test this hypothesis, we compared 3 CAR T-cell termination strategies: (1) transiently active anti-CD123 messenger RNA–electroporated CART (RNA-CART123); (2) T-cell ablation with alemtuzumab after treatment with lentivirally transduced anti–CD123-4-1BB-CD3ζ T cells (CART123); and (3) T-cell ablation with rituximab after treatment with CD20-coexpressing CART123 (CART123-CD20). All approaches led to rapid leukemia elimination in murine xenograft models of human AML. Subsequent antibody-mediated depletion of CART123 or CART123-CD20 did not impair leukemia remission. Time-course studies demonstrated that durable leukemia remission required CAR T-cell persistence for 4 weeks prior to ablation. Upon CAR T-cell termination, we further demonstrated successful hematopoietic engraftment with a normal human donor to model allogeneic stem cell rescue. Results from these studies will facilitate development of T-cell depletion strategies to augment the feasibility of CAR T-cell therapy for patients with AML. PMID:28246194

  2. Establishment of a neuroblastoma mouse model by subcutaneous xenograft transplantation and its use to study metastatic neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Q; Chen, C F; Dong, Q; Hou, L; Chen, X; Zhi, Y L; Li, X; Lu, H T; Zhang, H Y

    2015-12-08

    The aim of this study was to establish a metastatic human neuroblastoma (NB) mouse model by xenograft in order to study the metastatic mechanisms of NB. A human NB cell line was obtained from a 5-year-old patient and cultured in vitro. A suspension of these cells was subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice at the right flank next to the forelimb. The biological characteristics of the developed subcutaneous and metastatic tumors were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The expression of the tumor marker neuron-specific enolase was determined by immunohistochemistry, and the invasive ability of metastatic tumors was examined by a Matrigel invasion assay. DNA microarray analyses were performed to examine the metastasis-related gene expression. Our results showed that tumors grew in 75% of the mice injected with NB cells and the rate of metastasis was 21%. The xenograft tumors retained the morphological and biological characteristics of the NB specimen from the pediatric patient. Neuron-specific enolase was highly expressed in both subcutaneous and metastatic tumors. The metastatic tumor cells possessed a higher invasive capability than the primary NB cells. The expression of 25 metastasis-related genes was found to be significantly altered in metastatic tumors compared to primary tumors, including RECK, MMP2, VEGF, MMP3, and CXCL12. In conclusion, we successfully established a human NB xenograft model with high tumor-bearing and metastatic rates in nude mice, providing an ideal animal model for the in vivo study of NB.

  3. Peginterferon Beta-1a Shows Antitumor Activity as a Single Agent and Enhances Efficacy of Standard of Care Cancer Therapeutics in Human Melanoma, Breast, Renal, and Colon Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Antonio; Virata, Cyrus; Lindner, Daniel; English, Nicki; Pathan, Nuzhat; Brickelmaier, Margot; Hu, Xiao; Gardner, Jennifer L; Peng, Liaomin; Wang, Xinzhong; Zhang, Xiamei; Yang, Lu; Perron, Keli; Yco, Grace; Kelly, Rebecca; Gamez, James; Scripps, Thomas; Bennett, Donald; Joseph, Ingrid B; Baker, Darren P

    2017-01-01

    Because of its tumor-suppressive effect, interferon-based therapy has been used for the treatment of melanoma. However, limited data are available regarding the antitumor effects of pegylated interferons, either alone or in combination with approved anticancer drugs. We report that treatment of human WM-266-4 melanoma cells with peginterferon beta-1a induced apoptotic markers. Additionally, peginterferon beta-1a significantly inhibited the growth of human SK-MEL-1, A-375, and WM-266-4 melanoma xenografts established in immunocompromised mice. Peginterferon beta-1a regressed large, established WM-266-4 xenografts in nude mice. Treatment of SK-MEL-1 tumor-bearing mice with a combination of peginterferon beta-1a and the MEK inhibitor PD325901 ((R)-N-(2,3-dihydroxypropoxy)-3,4-difluoro-2-(2-fluoro-4-iodophenylamino)benzamide) significantly improved tumor growth inhibition compared with either agent alone. Examination of the antitumor activity of peginterferon beta-1a in combination with approved anticancer drugs in breast and renal carcinomas revealed improved antitumor activity in these preclinical xenograft models, as did the combination of peginterferon beta-1a and bevacizumab in a colon carcinoma xenograft model.

  4. Antitumor effect of Deoxypodophyllotoxin on human breast cancer xenograft transplanted in BALB/c nude mice model.

    PubMed

    Khaled, Meyada; Belaaloui, Ghania; Jiang, Zhen-Zhou; Zhu, Xiong; Zhang, Lu-Yong

    2016-10-01

    Recently, biologically active compounds isolated from plants used in herbal medicine have been the center of interest. Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT), structurally closely related to the lignan podophyllotoxin, was found to be a potent antitumor and antiproliferative agent, in several tumor cells, in vitro. However, DPT has not been used clinically yet because of the lack of in vivo studies. This study is the first report demonstrating the antitumor effect of DPT on MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer xenografts in nude mice. DPT, significantly, inhibited the growth of MDA-MB-231 xenograft in BALB/c nude mice. The T/C value (the value of the relative tumor volume of treatment group compared to the control group) of groups treated with 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg of intravenous DPT-HP-β-CD was 42.87%, 34.04% and 9.63%, respectively, suggesting the positive antitumor activity of DPT. In addition, the antitumor effect of DPT-HP-β-CD (20 mg/kg) in human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 xenograft was more effective than etoposide (VP-16) (20 mg/kg) and docetaxel (20 mg/kg). These findings suggest that this drug is a promising chemotherapy candidate against human breast carcinoma. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HeLa cell line xenograft tumor as a suitable cervical cancer model: growth kinetic characterization and immunohistochemistry array.

    PubMed

    Arjomandnejad, Motahareh; Muhammadnejad, Ahad; Haddadi, Mahnaz; Sherkat-Khameneh, Narjes; Rismanchi, Sanaz; Amanpour, Saeid; Muhammadnejad, Samad

    2014-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the seventh most common malignancy in both genders combined and the third most common cancer in women. Despite significant progress in treatments, cervical cancer is not completely curable. Therefore, further research is necessary in this area. Animal models are one of the most practical tools in the field of cancer research. The present study aimed to characterize the growth behavior and surface markers of HeLa cells after heterotopic and systemic inoculation to athymic nude mice. Ten 6-week old female athymic C57BL/6 nude mice were used in this study. HeLa cells were inoculated into the flank or tail vein. The tumor volume was calculated and growth curves were drawn. Tumor-bearing mice were sacrificed and the lesions obtained after harvesting were analyzed in a pathology lab. Subsequently, one slide per tumor was stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and other slides were stained immunohistochemically by cytokeratins (CK), vimentin, P53, CD34, and Ki-67. Tumor take rate, mean doubling time and latency period were 94.4%, 5.29 ± 3.57 days and 15.27 days, respectively. H&E results revealed highly malignant hyperchromatin epithelial cells. Immunohistochemical examination of the heterotopic tumors indicated greater expression of CK and less expression of vimentin compared to the metastatic ones. Sixty percent of cells were P53-positive and more than 80% were Ki-67-positive. CD34 expression indicated the intensity of angiogenesis in tumor. This study represents a comprehensive description of a HeLa xenograft model for in vivo investigations, enabling researchers to assess new treatments for cervical cancer.

  6. Recombinant methioninase effectively targets a Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takashi; Li, Shukuan; Han, Qinghong; Tan, Yuying; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Miyake, Kentaro; Singh, Arun S.; Nelson, Scott D.; Dry, Sarah M.; Li, Yunfeng; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Lwin, Thinzar M.; DeLong, Jonathan C.; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Methionine dependence is due to the overuse of methionine for aberrant transmethylation reactions in cancer. Methionine dependence may be the only general metabolic defect in cancer. In order to exploit methionine dependence for therapy, our laboratory previously cloned L-methionine α-deamino-γ-mercaptomethane lyase [EC 4.4.1.11]). The cloned methioninase, termed recombinant methioninase, or rMETase, has been tested in mouse models of human cancer cell lines. Ewing's sarcoma is recalcitrant disease even though development of multimodal therapy has improved patients'outcome. Here we report efficacy of rMETase against Ewing's sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a PDOX model. Eight Ewing's sarcoma PDOX mice were randomized into untreated control group (n = 4) and rMETase treatment group (n = 4). rMETase (100 units) was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every 24 hours for 14 consecutive days. All mice were sacrificed on day-15, 24 hours after the last rMETase administration. rMETase effectively reduced tumor growth compared to untreated control. The methionine level both of plasma and supernatants derived from sonicated tumors was lower in the rMETase group. Body weight did not significantly differ at any time points between the 2 groups. The present study is the first demonstrating rMETase efficacy in a PDOX model, suggesting potential clinical development, especially in recalcitrant cancers such as Ewing's sarcoma. PMID:28404944

  7. The MET Inhibitor AZD6094 (Savolitinib, HMPL-504) Induces Regression in Papillary Renal Cell Carcinoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Models.

    PubMed

    Schuller, Alwin G; Barry, Evan R; Jones, Rhys D O; Henry, Ryan E; Frigault, Melanie M; Beran, Garry; Linsenmayer, David; Hattersley, Maureen; Smith, Aaron; Wilson, Joanne; Cairo, Stefano; Déas, Olivier; Nicolle, Delphine; Adam, Ammar; Zinda, Michael; Reimer, Corinne; Fawell, Stephen E; Clark, Edwin A; D'Cruz, Celina M

    2015-06-15

    Papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) is the second most common cancer of the kidney and carries a poor prognosis for patients with nonlocalized disease. The HGF receptor MET plays a central role in PRCC and aberrations, either through mutation, copy number gain, or trisomy of chromosome 7 occurring in the majority of cases. The development of effective therapies in PRCC has been hampered in part by a lack of available preclinical models. We determined the pharmacodynamic and antitumor response of the selective MET inhibitor AZD6094 in two PRCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Two PRCC PDX models were identified and MET mutation status and copy number determined. Pharmacodynamic and antitumor activity of AZD6094 was tested using a dose response up to 25 mg/kg daily, representing clinically achievable exposures, and compared with the activity of the RCC standard-of-care sunitinib (in RCC43b) or the multikinase inhibitor crizotinib (in RCC47). AZD6094 treatment resulted in tumor regressions, whereas sunitinib or crizotinib resulted in unsustained growth inhibition. Pharmacodynamic analysis of tumors revealed that AZD6094 could robustly suppress pMET and the duration of target inhibition was dose related. AZD6094 inhibited multiple signaling nodes, including MAPK, PI3K, and EGFR. Finally, at doses that induced tumor regression, AZD6094 resulted in a dose- and time-dependent induction of cleaved PARP, a marker of cell death. Data presented provide the first report testing therapeutics in preclinical in vivo models of PRCC and support the clinical development of AZD6094 in this indication. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Biodistribution of charged F(ab')2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Duska, L R; Hamblin, M R; Bamberg, M P; Hasan, T

    1997-01-01

    The effect of charge modification of photoimmunoconjugates (PICs) on their biodistribution in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer was investigated. Chlorin(e6)c(e6) was attached site specifically to the F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal antibody OC125, directed against human ovarian cancer cells, via poly-1-lysine linkers carrying cationic or anionic charges. Preservation of immunoreactivity was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PICs were radiolabelled with 125I and compared with non-specific rabbit IgG PICs after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into nude mice. Samples were taken from normal organs and tumour at 3 h and 24 h. Tumour to normal 125I ratios showed that the cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC had the highest tumour selectivity. Ratios for c(e6) were uniformly higher than for 125I, indicating that c(e6) became separated from 125I. OC125F(ab')2 gave highest tissue values of 125I, followed by cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC; other species were much lower. The amounts of c(e6) delivered per gram of tumour were much higher for cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC than for other species. The results indicate that cationic charge stimulates the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the OC125F(ab')2-pl-c(e6) that has bound to the i.p. tumour. Positively charged PICs may have applications in the i.p. photoimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer.

  9. Biodistribution of charged F(ab')2 photoimmunoconjugates in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Duska, L. R.; Hamblin, M. R.; Bamberg, M. P.; Hasan, T.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of charge modification of photoimmunoconjugates (PICs) on their biodistribution in a xenograft model of ovarian cancer was investigated. Chlorin(e6)c(e6) was attached site specifically to the F(ab')2 fragment of the murine monoclonal antibody OC125, directed against human ovarian cancer cells, via poly-1-lysine linkers carrying cationic or anionic charges. Preservation of immunoreactivity was checked by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). PICs were radiolabelled with 125I and compared with non-specific rabbit IgG PICs after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection into nude mice. Samples were taken from normal organs and tumour at 3 h and 24 h. Tumour to normal 125I ratios showed that the cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC had the highest tumour selectivity. Ratios for c(e6) were uniformly higher than for 125I, indicating that c(e6) became separated from 125I. OC125F(ab')2 gave highest tissue values of 125I, followed by cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC; other species were much lower. The amounts of c(e6) delivered per gram of tumour were much higher for cationic OC125F(ab')2 PIC than for other species. The results indicate that cationic charge stimulates the endocytosis and lysosomal degradation of the OC125F(ab')2-pl-c(e6) that has bound to the i.p. tumour. Positively charged PICs may have applications in the i.p. photoimmunotherapy of minimal residual ovarian cancer. PMID:9062404

  10. Chemotherapy and Radiofrequency-Induced Mild Hyperthermia Combined Treatment of Orthotopic Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Krzykawska-Serda, Martyna; Agha, Mahdi S; Ho, Jason Chak-Shing; Ware, Matthew J; Law, Justin J; Newton, Jared M; Nguyen, Lam; Curley, Steven A; Corr, Stuart J

    2018-04-02

    Patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) have one of the poorest survival rates of all cancers. The main reason for this is related to the unique tumor stroma and poor vascularization of PDAC. As a consequence, chemotherapeutic drugs, such as nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine, cannot efficiently penetrate into the tumor tissue. Non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) mild hyperthermia treatment was proposed as a synergistic therapy to enhance drug uptake into the tumor by increasing tumor vascular inflow and perfusion, thus, increasing the effect of chemotherapy. RF-induced hyperthermia is a safer and non-invasive technique of tumor heating compared to conventional contact heating procedures. In this study, we investigated the short- and long-term effects (~20 days and 65 days, respectively) of combination chemotherapy and RF hyperthermia in an orthotopic PDAC model in mice. The benefit of nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine treatment was confirmed in mice; however, the effect of treatment was statistically insignificant in comparison to saline treated mice during long-term observation. The benefit of RF was minimal in the short-term and completely insignificant during long-term observation. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Porphyrin lipid nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal therapy in a patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft cancer model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaughlin, Christina M.; Ding, Lili; Jin, Cheng; Cao, Pingjiang; Siddiqui, Iram; Hwang, David M.; Chen, Juan; Wilson, Brian C.; Zheng, Gang; Hedley, David W.

    2016-03-01

    Local disease control is a major problem in the treatment of pancreatic cancer, because curative-intent surgery is only possible in a minority of patients, and radiotherapy cannot be delivered in curative doses. Despite the promise of photothermal therapy (PTT) for ablation of pancreatic tumors, this approach remains under investigated. Using photothermal sensitizers in combination with laser light for PTT can result in more efficient conversion of light energy to heat, and confinement of thermal destruction to the tumor, thus sparing adjacent organs and vasculature. Porphyrins have been previously employed as photosensitizers for PDT and PTT, however their incorporation in to "porphysomes", lipid-based nanoparticles each containing ~80,000 porphyrins through conjugation of pyropheophorbide to phospholipids, carries two distinct advantages: 1) high-density porphyrin packing imparts the nanoparticles with enhanced photonic properties for imaging and phototherapy; 2) the enhanced permeability and retention effect may be exploited for optimal delivery of porphysomes to the tumor region thus high payload porphyrin delivery. The feasibility of porphysome-enhanced PTT for pancreatic cancer treatment was investigated using a patient-derived orthotopic pancreas xenograft tumor model. Uptake of porphysomes at the orthotopic tumor site was validated using ex vivo fluorescence imaging of intact organs of interest. The accumulation of porphysomes in orthotopic tumor microstructure was also confirmed by fluorescence imaging of excised tissue slices. PTT progress was monitored as changes in tumor surface temperature using IR optical imaging. Histological analyses were conducted to examine microstructure changes in tissue morphology, and the viability of remaining tumor tissues following exposure to heat. These studies may also provide insight as to the contribution of heat sink in application of thermal therapies to highly vascularized pancreatic tumors.

  12. Combined ALK and MDM2 inhibition increases antitumor activity and overcomes resistance in human ALK mutant neuroblastoma cell lines and xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui Qin; Halilovic, Ensar; Li, Xiaoyan; Liang, Jinsheng; Cao, Yichen; Rakiec, Daniel P; Ruddy, David A; Jeay, Sebastien; Wuerthner, Jens U; Timple, Noelito; Kasibhatla, Shailaja; Li, Nanxin; Williams, Juliet A; Sellers, William R; Huang, Alan; Li, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The efficacy of ALK inhibitors in patients with ALK-mutant neuroblastoma is limited, highlighting the need to improve their effectiveness in these patients. To this end, we sought to develop a combination strategy to enhance the antitumor activity of ALK inhibitor monotherapy in human neuroblastoma cell lines and xenograft models expressing activated ALK. Herein, we report that combined inhibition of ALK and MDM2 induced a complementary set of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic proteins. Consequently, this combination treatment synergistically inhibited proliferation of TP53 wild-type neuroblastoma cells harboring ALK amplification or mutations in vitro, and resulted in complete and durable responses in neuroblastoma xenografts derived from these cells. We further demonstrate that concurrent inhibition of MDM2 and ALK was able to overcome ceritinib resistance conferred by MYCN upregulation in vitro and in vivo. Together, combined inhibition of ALK and MDM2 may provide an effective treatment for TP53 wild-type neuroblastoma with ALK aberrations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17137.001 PMID:28425916

  13. Patient-derived ovarian cancer xenografts re-growing after a cisplatinum treatment are less responsive to a second drug re-challenge: a new experimental setting to study response to therapy.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Francesca; Fratelli, Maddalena; Guffanti, Federica; Porcu, Luca; Spriano, Filippo; Dell'Anna, Tiziana; Fruscio, Robert; Damia, Giovanna

    2017-01-31

    Even if ovarian cancer patients are very responsive to a cisplatinum-based therapy, most will relapse with a resistant disease. New experimental animal models are needed to explore the mechanisms of resistance, to better tailor treatment and improve patient prognosis. To address these aims, seven patient-derived high-grade serous/endometrioid ovarian cancer xenografts were characterized for the antitumor response after one and two cycles of cisplatinum and classified as Very Responsive, Responsive, and Low Responsive to drug treatment. Xenografts re-growing after the first drug cycle were much less responsive to the second one. The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cells (CSCs) genes was investigated in cisplatinum-treated and not-treated tumors. We found that different EMT (TCF3, CAMK2N1, EGFR, and IGFBP4) and CSCs (SMO, DLL1, STAT3, and ITGA6) genes were expressed at higher levels in Low Responsive than in Responsive and Very Responsive xenografts. The expression of STAT3 was found to be associated with lower survival (HR = 13.7; p = 0.013) in the TCGA patient data set. MMP9, CD44, DLL4, FOXP1, MERTK, and PTPRC genes were found more expressed in tumors re-growing after cisplatinum treatment than in untreated tumors. We here describe a new in vivo ovarian carcinoma experimental setting that will be instrumental for specific trials of combination therapy to counteract cisplatinum resistance in order to improve the prognosis of ovarian patients.

  14. Vorinostat, an HDAC inhibitor attenuates epidermoid squamous cell carcinoma growth by dampening mTOR signaling pathway in a human xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kurundkar, Deepali; Srivastava, Ritesh K.; Chaudhary, Sandeep C.

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are potent anticancer agents and show efficacy against various human neoplasms. Vorinostat is a potent HDAC inhibitor and has shown potential to inhibit growth of human xenograft tumors. However, its effect on the growth of skin neoplasm remains undefined. In this study, we show that vorinostat (2 μM) reduced expression of HDAC1, 2, 3, and 7 in epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells. Consistently, it increased acetylation of histone H3 and p53. Vorinostat (100 mg/kg body weight, IP) treatment reduced human xenograft tumor growth in highly immunosuppressed nu/nu mice. Histologically, the vorinostat-treated tumor showed features of well-differentiation withmore » large necrotic areas. Based on proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining and expression of cyclins D1, D2, E, and A, vorinostat seems to impair proliferation by down-regulating the expression of these proteins. However, it also induced apoptosis. The mechanism by which vorinostat blocks proliferation and makes tumor cells prone to apoptosis, involved inhibition of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by reduction in cell survival AKT and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Our data provide a novel mechanism-based therapeutic intervention for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Vorinostat may be utilized to cure skin neoplasms in organ transplant recipient (OTR). These patients have high morbidity and surgical removal of these lesions which frequently develop in these patients, is difficult. -- Highlights: ► Vorinostat reduces SCC growth in a xenograft murine model. ► Vorinostat dampens proliferation and induces apoptosis in tumor cells. ► Diminution in mTOR, Akt and ERK signaling underlies inhibition in proliferation. ► Vorinostat by inhibiting HDACs inhibits epithelial–mesenchymal transition.« less

  15. Effect pf Estrogen on Progression of Human Proliferation Breast Cancer Disease in a Xenograft Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-08-01

    DMBA)-induced rat mammary tumor. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Anal., 418: 111-117,1991. 61. Fukeda, M ., Maekawa, J., Hosokawa, Y., Urata , Y., Sugihara, H...s) adhered to policies of applicable Federal Law 45 CFR 46. ^y m conducting research utilizing recombinant DNA. technology, the investigator(s...receptor (ER) gene in MCFlOAneoT cells, a potential factor in neoplastic progression of MCFlOAneoT xenografts. P. V.M. Shekhar, M .- L. Chen, J. Werdell

  16. Increased COX-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells of high mammographic density tissues and in a xenograft model of mammographic density.

    PubMed

    Chew, G L; Huo, C W; Huang, D; Hill, P; Cawson, J; Frazer, H; Hopper, J L; Haviv, I; Henderson, M A; Britt, K; Thompson, E W

    2015-08-01

    Mammographic density (MD) adjusted for age and body mass index is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. Given the high attributable risk of MD for breast cancer, chemoprevention with a safe and available agent that reduces MD and breast cancer risk would be beneficial. Cox-2 has been implicated in MD-related breast cancer risk, and was increased in stromal cells in high MD tissues in one study. Our study assessed differential Cox-2 expression in epithelial and stromal cells in paired samples of high and low MD human breast tissue, and in a validated xenograft biochamber model of MD. We also examined the effects of endocrine treatment upon Cox-2 expression in high and low MD tissues in the MD xenograft model. Paired high and low MD human breast tissue samples were immunostained for Cox-2, then assessed for differential expression and staining intensity in epithelial and stromal cells. High and low MD human breast tissues were separately maintained in biochambers in mice treated with Tamoxifen, oestrogen or placebo implants, then assessed for percentage Cox-2 staining in epithelial and stromal cells. Percentage Cox-2 staining was greater for both epithelial (p = 0.01) and stromal cells (p < 0.0001) of high compared with low MD breast tissues. In high MD biochamber tissues, percentage Cox-2 staining was greater in stromal cells of oestrogen-treated versus placebo-treated tissues (p = 0.05).

  17. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    DOE PAGES

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.; ...

    2015-03-18

    approaches in these human lymphoma xenograft models.« less

  18. Comparative efficacy of 177Lu and 90Y for Anti-CD20 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy in Murine Lymphoma Xenograft Models

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Sofia H. L.; Frayo, Shani L.; Miller, Brian W.

    approaches in these human lymphoma xenograft models.« less

  19. 5-fluorouracil enhances the antitumor effect of sorafenib and sunitinib in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Makito; Anai, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide; Ohnishi, Sayuri; Kuwada, Masaomi; Nakai, Yasushi; Inoue, Takeshi; Tomioka, Atsushi; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Hirao, Yoshihiko

    2012-06-01

    Sorafenib and sunitinib are multi-kinase inhibitors with antitumor activity in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Several studies have evaluated the effect of sorafenib/sunitinib in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in different types of tumor. However, few studies have addressed the activity of fluorinated pyrimidine in combination with sorafenib/sunitinib. In this study, we examined the potential of combination therapy with 5FU and sorafenib/sunitinib in human RCC cell lines. Three human RCC cell lines, ACHN, Caki-1 and Caki-2, were used to assess sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil (5FU), sorafenib and sunitinib alone or in combination using an in vitro cell survival assay. Caki-2 cells demonstrated significantly higher resistance to 5FU and sorafenib as compared to ACHN and Caki-1. Additive antitumor effects of the combination therapy were observed in the in vitro study. There was a tendency for a positive correlation between the sensitivity to sunitinib and platelet-derived growth factor β (PDGFR-β) expression levels, which were examined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Caki-1 xenograft models were prepared by inoculating cells subcutaneously into nude mice, which were divided randomly into six groups: control, 5FU (8 mg/kg/day, intraperitoneally), sorafenib (15 mg/kg/day, orally), sunitinib (20 mg/kg/day, orally), and 5FU with sorafenib or sunitinib. The treatments were administered on 5 days each week, and tumor growth was monitored for 42 days following inoculation of cells. Synergistic antitumor effects of the combination therapy were observed in an in vivo study. The resected tumors were evaluated using the Ki-67 labeling index and microvessel density. Both the Ki-67 labeling index and microvessel density were decreased in tumors treated with the combination therapy compared to those treated with sorafenib/sunitinib alone. These findings suggest that the combination therapy of 5FU with sorafenib/sunitinib may be an

  20. Melatonin exerts anti-oral cancer effect via suppressing LSD1 in patient-derived tumor xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng-Yu; Lin, Chih-Kung; Tsao, Chang-Huei; Hsieh, Cheng-Chih; Lin, Gu-Jiun; Ma, Kuo-Hsing; Shieh, Yi-Shing; Sytwu, Huey-Kang; Chen, Yuan-Wu

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of histone lysine-specific demethylase (LSD1) increases tumorigenicity; hence, LSD1 is considered a therapeutic target for various human cancers. Although melatonin, an endogenously produced molecule, may defend against various cancers, the precise mechanism involved in its anti-oral cancer effect remains unclear. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDTX) models are preclinical models that can more accurately reflect human tumor biology compared with cell line xenograft models. Here, we evaluated the anticancer activity of melatonin by using LSD1-overexpressing oral cancer PDTX models. By assessing oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue arrays through immunohistochemistry, we examined whether aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC is associated with poor prognosis. We also evaluated the action mechanism of melatonin against OSCC with lymphatic metastases by using the PDTX models. Our results indicated that melatonin, at pharmacological concentrations, significantly suppresses cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The observed suppression of proliferation was accompanied by the melatonin-mediated inhibition of LSD1 in oral cancer PDTXs and oral cancer cell lines. In conclusion, we determined that the beneficial effects of melatonin in reducing oral cancer cell proliferation are associated with reduced LSD1 expression in vivo and in vitro. PMID:28422711

  1. Delayed xenograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Hancock, W W

    1997-01-01

    The triumph of genetic engineering in overcoming hyperacute rejection (HAR) of a discordant organ xenograft is clear, but the promise of clinical application of xenotransplantation remains unfulfilled as further immunologic barriers are defined that lead to rejection of a vascularized xenograft within days of transplantation. This report describes the features of this second set of immunologic responses, collectively termed delayed xenograft rejection (DXR). DXR is a syndrome seen in xenograft recipients in which HAR has been avoided or suppressed by antibody depletion or blockade of complement activation. DXR may result, at least in part, from the persisting activation of those pathways first encountered during the HAR phase. Serial studies over several days after transplant show that, histologically, xenografts undergoing DXR demonstrate varying combinations of (1) progressive infiltration by activated macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells, (2) platelet aggregation and fibrin deposition throughout the microvasculature, and (3) endothelial activation. In various experimental models, DXR is T cell-independent and can occur in the absence of demonstrable xenoreactive antibodies. Hence DXR is probably best regarded as arising from the activation of innate host defense mechanisms coupled with failure of normal regulatory mechanisms due to manifold molecular incompatibilities. Although DXR-like features can be seen in concordant models, T cell involvement in the latter is probably requisite. Similarly, in a much muted form, aspects of a DXR-like process may contribute to numerous inflammatory processes, including allograft rejection. The importance of DXR in xenotransplantation is that its development appears resistant to all but the most dense and toxic forms of immunosuppression, which prolong xenograft survival at the expense of inducing host leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and coagulopathies. It is likely that until the basis of DXR is more clearly understood

  2. Intraperitoneal immunotherapy with T cells stably and transiently expressing anti-EpCAM CAR in xenograft models of peritoneal carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Zhixia; Du, Shou-Hui; Chen, Can; Tay, Johan C.K.; Toh, Han Chong; Connolly, John E.; Xu, Xue Hu; Wang, Shu

    2017-01-01

    The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is overexpressed in a wide variety of tumor types, including peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) from gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies. To develop a chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cell therapy approach to treat patients with end-stage PC, we constructed third generation CARs specific to EpCAM using the 4D5MOC-B single chain variable fragment. CART cells were generated with lentiviral transduction and exhibited specific in vitro killing activity against EpCAM-positive human ovarian and colorectal cancer cells. A single intraperitoneal injection of the CART cells eradicated established ovarian xenografts and resulted in significantly prolonged animal survival. Since EpCAM is also expressed on normal epithelium, anti-EpCAM CART cells were generated by mRNA electroporation that display a controlled cytolytic activity with a limited CAR expression duration. Multiple repeated infusions of these RNA CAR-modified T cells delayed disease progression in immunodeficient mice bearing well-established peritoneal ovarian and colorectal xenografts. Thus, our study demonstrates the effectiveness of using anti-EpCAM CAR-expressing T cells for local treatment of PC in mice. The possibility of using this approach for clinical treatment of EpCAM-positive gastrointestinal and gynecological malignancies warrants further validation. PMID:28088790

  3. Prostate Cancer Xenograft Inhibitory Activity and Pharmacokinetics of Decursinol, a Metabolite of Angelica gigas Pyranocoumarins, in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei; Tang, Su-Ni; Zhang, Yong; Puppala, Manohar; Cooper, Timothy K; Xing, Chengguo; Jiang, Cheng; Lü, Junxuan

    2017-01-01

    We have previously shown that the ethanol extract of dried Angelica gigas Nakai (AGN) root exerts anticancer activity against androgen receptor (AR)-negative human DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts and primary carcinogenesis in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. The major pyranocoumarin isomers decursin (D) and decursinol angelate (DA), when provided at equi-molar intake to that provided by AGN extract, accounted for the inhibitory efficacy against precancerous epithelial lesions in TRAMP mice. Since we and others have shown in rodents and humans that D and DA rapidly and extensively convert to decursinol, here we tested whether decursinol might be an in vivo active compound for suppressing xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells expressing AR. In SCID-NSG mice carrying subcutaneously inoculated human LNCaP/AR-Luc cells overexpressing the wild type AR, we compared the efficacy of 4.5[Formula: see text]mg decursinol per mouse with equi-molar dose of 6[Formula: see text]mg D/DA per mouse. The result showed that decursinol decreased xenograft tumor growth by 75% and the lung metastasis, whereas D/DA exerted a much less effect. Measurement of plasma decursinol concentration, at 3[Formula: see text]h after the last dose of respective dosing regimen, showed higher circulating level in the decursinol-treated NSG mice than in the D/DA-treated mice. In a subsequent single-dose pharmacokinetic experiment, decursinol dosing led to 3.7-fold area under curve (AUC) of plasma decursinol over that achieved by equi-molar D/DA dosing. PK advantage notwithstanding, decursinol represents an active compound to exert in vivo prostate cancer growth and metastasis inhibitory activity in the preclinical model.

  4. High treatment efficacy by dual targeting of Burkitt's lymphoma xenografted mice with a (177)Lu-based CD22-specific radioimmunoconjugate and rituximab.

    PubMed

    Weber, Tobias; Bötticher, Benedikt; Mier, Walter; Sauter, Max; Krämer, Susanne; Leotta, Karin; Keller, Armin; Schlegelmilch, Anne; Grosse-Hovest, Ludger; Jäger, Dirk; Haberkorn, Uwe; Arndt, Michaela A E; Krauss, Jürgen

    2016-03-01

    Dual-targeted therapy has been shown to be a promising treatment option in recurrent and/or refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL). We generated radioimmunoconjugates (RICs) comprising either a novel humanized anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody, huRFB4, or rituximab, and the low-energy β-emitter (177)Lu. Both RICs were evaluated as single agents in a human Burkitt's lymphoma xenograft mouse model. To increase the therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC, combination therapy with unlabelled anti-CD20 rituximab was explored. The binding activity of CHX-A″-DTPA-conjugated antibodies to target cells was analysed by flow cytometry. To assess tumour targeting of (177)Lu-labelled antibodies, in vivo biodistribution experiments were performed. For radioimmunotherapy (RIT) studies, non-obese diabetic recombination activating gene-1 (NOD-Rag1 (null) ) interleukin-2 receptor common gamma chain (IL2rγ (null) ) null mice (NRG mice) were xenografted subcutaneously with Raji Burkitt's lymphoma cells. (177)Lu-conjugated antibodies were administered at a single dose of 9.5 MBq per mouse. For dual-targeted therapy, rituximab was injected at weekly intervals (0.5 - 1.0 mg). Tumour accumulation of RICs was monitored by planar scintigraphy. Conjugation of CHX-A"-DTPA resulted in highly stable RICs with excellent antigen-binding properties. Biodistribution experiments revealed higher tumour uptake of the (177)Lu-labelled anti-CD22 IgG than of (177)Lu-labelled rituximab. Treatment with (177)Lu-conjugated huRFB4 resulted in increased tumour growth inhibition and significantly longer survival than treatment with (177)Lu-conjugated rituximab. The therapeutic efficacy of the anti-CD22 RIC could be markedly enhanced by combination with unlabelled rituximab. These findings suggest that dual targeting with (177)Lu-based CD22-specific RIT in combination with rituximab is a promising new treatment option for refractory B-NHL.

  5. Ternary copper(II) complex: NCI60 screening, toxicity studies, and evaluation of efficacy in xenograft models of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Munirah; Suhaimi, Shazlan-Noor; Chu, Tai-Lin; Abdul Aziz, Norazlin; Mohd Kornain, Noor-Kaslina; Samiulla, D S; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Ng, Chew-Hee; Khoo, Alan Soo-Beng

    2018-01-01

    Copper(II) ternary complex, [Cu(phen)(C-dmg)(H2O)]NO3 was evaluated against a panel of cell lines, tested for in vivo efficacy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft models as well as for toxicity in NOD scid gamma mice. The Cu(II) complex displayed broad spectrum cytotoxicity against multiple cancer types, including lung, colon, central nervous system, melanoma, ovarian, and prostate cancer cell lines in the NCI-60 panel. The Cu(II) complex did not cause significant induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and 1A enzymes but moderately inhibited CYP isoforms 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2B6, 2C8 and 3A4. The complex significantly inhibited tumor growth in nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft bearing mice models at doses which were well tolerated without causing significant or permanent toxic side effects. However, higher doses which resulted in better inhibition of tumor growth also resulted in toxicity.

  6. Activin type IB receptor signaling in prostate cancer cells promotes lymph node metastasis in a xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Nomura, Masatoshi, E-mail: nomura@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Tanaka, Kimitaka; Wang, Lixiang

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling induces Snail and S100A4 expressions in prostate cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The prostate cancer cell lines expressing an active form of ActRIB were established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ActRIB signaling promotes EMT and lymph node metastasis in xenograft model. -- Abstract: Activin, a member of the transforming growth factor-{beta} family, has been known to be a growth and differentiating factor. Despite its pluripotent effects, the roles of activin signaling in prostate cancer pathogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we established several cell lines that express a constitutive active form of activin type IB receptor (ActRIBCA) in human prostate cancermore » cells, ALVA41 (ALVA-ActRIBCA). There was no apparent change in the proliferation of ALVA-ActRIBCA cells in vitro; however, their migratory ability was significantly enhanced. In a xenograft model, histological analysis revealed that the expression of Snail, a cell-adhesion-suppressing transcription factor, was dramatically increased in ALVA-ActRIBCA tumors, indicating epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). Finally, mice bearing ALVA-ActRIBCA cells developed multiple lymph node metastases. In this study, we demonstrated that ActRIBCA signaling can promote cell migration in prostate cancer cells via a network of signaling molecules that work together to trigger the process of EMT, and thereby aid in the aggressiveness and progression of prostate cancers.« less

  7. Quercetin induces cell apoptosis of myeloma and displays a synergistic effect with dexamethasone in vitro and in vivo xenograft models

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Enfan; Zi, Fuming; Chen, Jing; Chen, Qingxiao; Lin, Xuanru; Yang, Li; Li, Yi; Wu, Wenjun; Yang, Yang; He, Jingsong; Cai, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Quercetin, a kind of dietary flavonoid, has shown its anticancer activity in many kinds of cancers including hematological malignancies (acute myelogenous leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and MM) in vitro and in vivo. However, its effects on MM need further investigation. In this study, MM cell lines were treated with quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone. In order to observe the effects in vivo, a xenograft model of human myeloma was established. Quercetin inhibited proliferation of MM cells (RPMI8226, ARP-1, and MM.1R) by inducing cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Western blot showed that quercetin downregulated c-myc expression and upregulated p21 expression. Quercetin also activated caspase-3, caspase-9, and poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase 1. Caspase inhibitors partially blocked apoptosis induced by quercetin. Furthermore, quercetin combined with dexamethasone significantly increased MM cell apoptosis. In vivo xenograft models, quercetin obviously inhibited tumor growth. Caspase-3 was activated to a greater extent when quercetin was combined with dexamethasone. In conclusion, quercetin alone or in combination with dexamethasone may be an effective therapy for MM. PMID:27329589

  8. Antipodocalyxin Antibody chPcMab-47 Exerts Antitumor Activity in Mouse Xenograft Models of Colorectal Adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Mika K; Kunita, Akiko; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Chang, Yao-Wen; Handa, Saori; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Ohishi, Tomokazu; Abe, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kawada, Manabu; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-08-01

    Podocalyxin (PODXL) is expressed in several cancers, including brain tumors and colorectal cancers. PODXL overexpression is an independent predictor of progression, metastasis, and poor outcome. We recently immunized mice with recombinant human PODXL, which was produced using LN229 glioblastoma cells, and produced a clone PcMab-47 that could be used for investigating PODXL expression by flow cytometry and immunohistochemical analysis. Herein, we produced a human-mouse chimeric PcMab-47 (chPcMab-47) and investigated its antitumor activity against PODXL-expressing tumors. chPcMab-47 reacted with LN229, LN229/PODXL, and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)/PODXL cells, but it did not react with CHO-K1 or PODXL-knockout LN229 cell line (PDIS-13). chPcMab-47 exerted antitumor activity against a mouse xenograft model using CHO/PODXL. Furthermore, chPcMab-47 was reactive with colorectal cancer cell lines such as HCT-15, Caco-2, HCT-8, and DLD-1. chPcMab-47 also exhibited antitumor activity against a mouse xenograft model using HCT-15. These results suggest that chPcMab-47 could be useful for antibody therapy against PODXL-expressing cancers.

  9. Integrin αvβ3-targeted dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging using a gadolinium-loaded polyethylene gycol-dendrimer-cyclic RGD conjugate to evaluate tumor angiogenesis and to assess early antiangiogenic treatment response in a mouse xenograft tumor model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Tsung; Shih, Tiffany Ting Fang; Chen, Ran-Chou; Tu, Shin-Yang; Hsieh, Wen-Yuen; Yang, Pang-Chyr

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate an integrin αvβ3-targeted magnetic resonance contrast agent, PEG-G3-(Gd-DTPA)6-(cRGD-DTPA)2, for its ability to detect tumor angiogenesis and assess early response to antiangiogenic therapy using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Integrin αvβ3-positive U87 cells and control groups were incubated with fluorescein-labeled cRGD-conjugated dendrimer, and the cellular attachment of the dendrimer was observed. DCE MRI was performed on mice bearing KB xenograft tumors using either PEG-G3-(Gd-DTPA)6-(cRGD-DTPA)2 or PEG-G3-(Gd-DTPA)6-(cRAD-DTPA)2. DCE MRI was also performed 2 hours after anti-integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody treatment and after bevacizumab treatment on days 3 and 6t. Using DCE MRI, the 30-minute contrast washout percentage was significantly lower in the cRGD-conjugate injection groups. The enhancement patterns were different between the two contrast injection groups. In the antiangiogenic therapy groups, a rapid increase in 30-minute contrast washout percentage was observed in both the LM609 and bevacizumab treatment groups, and this occurred before there was an observable decrease in tumor size. The integrin αvβ3 targeting ability of PEG-G3-(Gd-DTPA)6-(cRGD-DTPA)2 in vitro and in vivo was demonstrated. The 30-minute contrast washout percentage is a useful parameter for examining tumor angiogenesis and for the early assessment of antiangiogenic treatment response.

  10. Interstitial laser photochemotherapy with new anthrapyrazole drugs for the treatment of xenograft tumors.

    PubMed

    Paiva, M B; Saxton, R E; Letts, G A; Chung, P S; Soudant, J; Vanderwerf, Q; Castro, D J

    1995-10-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with lasers and new dyes has gained popularity in recent years as a minimally invasive technique with high tumoricidal effects in vitro and in some cancer patients. However, because new laser dyes are not FDA approved at present, the clinical evaluation of PDT may be years away. During the past 6 years we have used laser alone for photothermal ablation in both preclinical studies and in a large number of patients with an observed 60% tumor response rate. The 40% treatment failure led us to explore the possibility of combined therapy with lasers and standard chemotherapeutic drugs. We have recently tested a promising preclinical alternative using implantation of a bare 600-microns KTP 532 laser fiberoptic in multiple tumor sites 30 min after intratumor injection of the anthrapyrazole DUP-941. As a control, this drug was injected in 3 sites of P3 human squamous cell tumor transplants in nude mice, which led to tumor stasis without regression. Similar 400-600 mm3 tumors exposed to laser illumination alone (0.8 W for 5 sec) at multiple sites resulted in tumor regrowth after 10 weeks in 80% of the animals. However, combining interstitial laser illumination with intratumor DUP-941 injections led to complete tumor regression in 85% of the mice. We propose that intratumor drug injection followed by interstitial laser fiberoptic treatment represents a potentially useful new method for tumor ablation in advanced cancer patients.

  11. A Small Molecule Inhibitor of ETV1, YK-4-279, Prevents Prostate Cancer Growth and Metastasis in a Mouse Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Said; Minas, Tsion; Hong, Sung-Hyeok; Justvig, Sarah; Çelik, Haydar; Kont, Yasemin Saygideger; Han, Jenny; Kallarakal, Abraham T.; Kong, Yali; Rudek, Michelle A.; Brown, Milton L.; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.; Üren, Aykut

    2014-01-01

    Background The erythroblastosis virus E26 transforming sequences (ETS) family of transcription factors consists of a highly conserved group of genes that play important roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion. Chromosomal translocations fusing ETS factors to promoters of androgen responsive genes have been found in prostate cancers, including the most clinically aggressive forms. ERG and ETV1 are the most commonly translocated ETS proteins. Over-expression of these proteins in prostate cancer cells results in a more invasive phenotype. Inhibition of ETS activity by small molecule inhibitors may provide a novel method for the treatment of prostate cancer. Methods and Findings We recently demonstrated that the small molecule YK-4-279 inhibits biological activity of ETV1 in fusion-positive prostate cancer cells leading to decreased motility and invasion in-vitro. Here, we present data from an in-vivo mouse xenograft model. SCID-beige mice were subcutaneously implanted with fusion-positive LNCaP-luc-M6 and fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 tumors. Animals were treated with YK-4-279, and its effects on primary tumor growth and lung metastasis were evaluated. YK-4-279 treatment resulted in decreased growth of the primary tumor only in LNCaP-luc-M6 cohort. When primary tumors were grown to comparable sizes, YK-4-279 inhibited tumor metastasis to the lungs. Expression of ETV1 target genes MMP7, FKBP10 and GLYATL2 were reduced in YK-4-279 treated animals. ETS fusion-negative PC-3M-luc-C6 xenografts were unresponsive to the compound. Furthermore, YK-4-279 is a chiral molecule that exists as a racemic mixture of R and S enantiomers. We established that (S)-YK-4-279 is the active enantiomer in prostate cancer cells. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that YK-4-279 is a potent inhibitor of ETV1 and inhibits both the primary tumor growth and metastasis of fusion positive prostate cancer xenografts. Therefore, YK-4-279 or similar compounds may be

  12. Evaluation of 6-([18F] fluoroacetamido)-1-hexanoic-anilide (18F-FAHA) as imaging probe in tumor xenograft mice model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fiona; Cho, Sung Ju; Yu, Lihai; Hudson, Robert H. E.; Luyt, Leonard G.; Pin, Christopher L.; Kovacs, Michael S.; Koropatnick, James; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2016-03-01

    Alteration in genetic expression is as important as gene mutation in cancer development and proliferation. Epigenetic changes affect gene expression without altering the DNA sequence. Histone deacetylase (HDAC), an enzyme facilitating histone remodelling, can lead to silencing of tumor suppressor genes making HDAC inhibitors viable anticancer drugs against tumors with increased activity of the enzyme. In this study we evaluated 18F-fluroacetamido-1-hexanoicanilide (18F-FAHA), an artificial HDAC substrate, as imaging probe of HDAC activity of human tumor xenografts in immunocompromised host mice. Human breast and melanoma cell lines, MDA-MB-468 and MDA-MB-435 respectively, known to overexpress HDAC activity were xenografted into immunocompromised mice and HDAC activity was imaged using 18F-FAHA. The melanoma group was treated with saline, SAHA (suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, an approved anticancer HDAC inhibitor) in DMSO, or DMSO as positive control. Tracer kinetic modelling and SUV were used to estimate HDAC activity from dynamic PET data. Both breast tumor and melanoma group showed great variability in binding rate constant (BRC) of 18F-FAHA suggesting highly variable inter- and intra-tumoral HDAC activity. For the SAHA treated melanoma group, HDAC activity, as monitored by BRC of 18F-FAHA, decreased more than the two (positive and negative) control groups but not tumor growth. Our preliminary study showed that noninvasive PET imaging with 18F-FAHA has the potential to identify patients for whom treatment with HDAC inhibitors are appropriate, to assess the effectiveness of that treatment as an early marker of target reduction, and also eliminate the need for invasive tissue biopsy to individualize treatment.

  13. Development of patient-derived xenograft models from a spontaneously immortal low-grade meningioma cell line, KCI-MENG1.

    PubMed

    Michelhaugh, Sharon K; Guastella, Anthony R; Varadarajan, Kaushik; Klinger, Neil V; Parajuli, Prahlad; Ahmad, Aamir; Sethi, Seema; Aboukameel, Amro; Kiousis, Sam; Zitron, Ian M; Ebrahim, Salah A; Polin, Lisa A; Sarkar, Fazlul H; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Mittal, Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    meningioma mouse xenograft models will provide biologically relevant platforms from which to investigate differences in low- vs. high-grade meningioma tumor biology and disease progression as well as to develop novel therapies to improve treatment options for poor prognosis or recurrent meningiomas.

  14. Supersonic Shear Wave Elastography of Response to Anti-cancer Therapy in a Xenograft Tumor Model.

    PubMed

    Chamming's, Foucauld; Le-Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Latorre-Ossa, Heldmuth; Fitoussi, Victor; Redheuil, Alban; Assayag, Franck; Pidial, Laetitia; Gennisson, Jean-Luc; Tanter, Mickael; Cuénod, Charles-André; Fournier, Laure S

    2016-04-01

    Our objective was to determine if supersonic shear wave elastography (SSWE) can detect changes in stiffness of a breast cancer model under therapy. A human invasive carcinoma was implanted in 22 mice. Eleven were treated with an anti-angiogenic therapy and 11 with glucose for 24 d. Tumor volume and stiffness were assessed during 2 wk before treatment and 0, 7, 12, 20 and 24 d after the start of therapy using SSWE. Pathology was assessed after 12 and 24 d of treatment. We found that response to therapy was associated with early softening of treated tumors only, resulting in a significant difference from non-treated tumors after 12 d of treatment (p = 0.03). On pathology, large areas of necrosis were observed at 12 d in treated tumors. Although treatment was still effective, treated tumors subsequently stiffened during a second phase of the treatment (days 12-24), with a small amount of necrosis observed on pathology on day 24. In conclusion, SSWE was able to measure changes in the stiffness of tumors in response to anti-cancer treatment. However, stiffness changes associated with good response to treatment may change over time, and increased stiffness may also reflect therapy efficacy. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antitumour and antiangiogenic activities of [Pt(O,O′‐acac)(γ‐acac)(DMS)] in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Vetrugno, C; Biagioni, F; Calabriso, N; Calierno, M T; Fornai, F; De Pascali, S A; Marsigliante, S; Fanizzi, F P

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose It is thought that the mechanism of action of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents is mainly due to a direct inhibition of tumour cell proliferation. In tumour specimens, the endothelial cell proliferation rate increases, suggesting that the therapeutic effects of anticancer agents could also be attributed to inhibition of tumour angiogenesis. Hence, we investigated the potential effects of [Pt(O,O′‐acac)(γ‐acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(DMS)]), a new platinum drug for non‐genomic targets, on human renal carcinoma and compared them with those of the well‐established anticancer drug, cisplatin. Experimental Approach Tumour growth, tumour cell proliferation and microvessel density were investigated in a xenograft model of renal cell carcinoma, developed by injecting Caki‐1 cells into BALB/c nude mice. The antiangiogenic potential of compounds was also investigated using HUVECs. Key Results Treatment of the Caki‐1 cells with cisplatin or [Pt(DMS)] resulted in a dose‐dependent inhibition of cell survival, but the cytotoxicity of [Pt(DMS)] was approximately fivefold greater than that of cisplatin. [Pt(DMS)] was much more effective than cisplatin at inhibiting tumour growth, proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo, as well as migration, tube formation and MMP1, MMP2 and MMP9 secretion of endothelial cells in vitro. Whereas, cisplatin exerted a greater cytotoxic effect on HUVECs, but did not affect tube formation or the migration of endothelial cells. In addition, treatment of the xenograft mice with [Pt(DMS)] decreased VEGF, MMP1 and MMP2 expressions in tumours. Conclusions and Implications The antiangiogenic and antitumour activities of [Pt(DMS)] provide a solid starting point for its validation as a suitable candidate for further pharmacological testing. PMID:27351124

  16. Antitumour and antiangiogenic activities of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] in a xenograft model of human renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Muscella, A; Vetrugno, C; Biagioni, F; Calabriso, N; Calierno, M T; Fornai, F; De Pascali, S A; Marsigliante, S; Fanizzi, F P

    2016-09-01

    It is thought that the mechanism of action of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents is mainly due to a direct inhibition of tumour cell proliferation. In tumour specimens, the endothelial cell proliferation rate increases, suggesting that the therapeutic effects of anticancer agents could also be attributed to inhibition of tumour angiogenesis. Hence, we investigated the potential effects of [Pt(O,O'-acac)(γ-acac)(DMS)] ([Pt(DMS)]), a new platinum drug for non-genomic targets, on human renal carcinoma and compared them with those of the well-established anticancer drug, cisplatin. Tumour growth, tumour cell proliferation and microvessel density were investigated in a xenograft model of renal cell carcinoma, developed by injecting Caki-1 cells into BALB/c nude mice. The antiangiogenic potential of compounds was also investigated using HUVECs. Treatment of the Caki-1 cells with cisplatin or [Pt(DMS)] resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell survival, but the cytotoxicity of [Pt(DMS)] was approximately fivefold greater than that of cisplatin. [Pt(DMS)] was much more effective than cisplatin at inhibiting tumour growth, proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo, as well as migration, tube formation and MMP1, MMP2 and MMP9 secretion of endothelial cells in vitro. Whereas, cisplatin exerted a greater cytotoxic effect on HUVECs, but did not affect tube formation or the migration of endothelial cells. In addition, treatment of the xenograft mice with [Pt(DMS)] decreased VEGF, MMP1 and MMP2 expressions in tumours. The antiangiogenic and antitumour activities of [Pt(DMS)] provide a solid starting point for its validation as a suitable candidate for further pharmacological testing. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Thymoquinone Inhibits Tumor Growth and Induces Apoptosis in a Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model: The Role of p38 MAPK and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Chern Chiuh; Hsu, Annie; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam; Tan, Kwong Huat Benny

    2013-01-01

    Due to narrow therapeutic window of cancer therapeutic agents and the development of resistance against these agents, there is a need to discover novel agents to treat breast cancer. The antitumor activities of thymoquinone (TQ), a compound isolated from Nigella sativa oil, were investigated in breast carcinoma in vitro and in vivo. Cell responses after TQ treatment were assessed by using different assays including MTT assay, annexin V-propidium iodide staining, Mitosox staining and Western blot. The antitumor effect was studied by breast tumor xenograft mouse model, and the tumor tissues were examined by histology and immunohistochemistry. The level of anti-oxidant enzymes/molecules in mouse liver tissues was measured by commercial kits. Here, we show that TQ induced p38 phosphorylation and ROS production in breast cancer cells. These inductions were found to be responsible for TQ’s anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects. Moreover, TQ-induced ROS production regulated p38 phosphorylation but not vice versa. TQ treatment was found to suppress the tumor growth and this effect was further enhanced by combination with doxorubicin. TQ also inhibited the protein expression of anti-apoptotic genes, such as XIAP, survivin, Bcl-xL and Bcl-2, in breast cancer cells and breast tumor xenograft. Reduced Ki67 and increased TUNEL staining were observed in TQ-treated tumors. TQ was also found to increase the level of catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione in mouse liver tissues. Overall, our results demonstrated that the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of TQ in breast cancer are mediated through p38 phosphorylation via ROS generation. PMID:24098377

  18. Genomic profiling is predictive of response to cisplatin treatment but not to PI3K inhibition in bladder cancer patient-derived xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Ramakrishnan, Swathi; Elbanna, May; Wang, Jianmin; Hu, Qiang; Glenn, Sean T.; Murakami, Mitsuko; Liu, Lu; Gomez, Eduardo Cortes; Sun, Yuchen; Conroy, Jacob; Miles, Kiersten Marie; Malathi, Kullappan; Ramaiah, Sudha; Anbarasu, Anand; Woloszynska-Read, Anna; Johnson, Candace S.; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Morrison, Carl D.; Pili, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Effective systemic therapeutic options are limited for bladder cancer. In this preclinical study we tested whether bladder cancer gene alterations may be predictive of treatment response. Experimental design We performed genomic profiling of two bladder cancer patient derived tumor xenografts (PDX). We optimized the exome sequence analysis method to overcome the mouse genome interference. Results We identified a number of somatic mutations, mostly shared by the primary tumors and PDX. In particular, BLCAb001, which is less responsive to cisplatin than BLCAb002, carried non-sense mutations in several genes associated with cisplatin resistance, including MLH1, BRCA2, and CASP8. Furthermore, RNA-Seq analysis revealed the overexpression of cisplatin resistance associated genes such as SLC7A11, TLE4, and IL1A in BLCAb001. Two different PIK3CA mutations, E542K and E545K, were identified in BLCAb001 and BLCAb002, respectively. Thus, we tested whether the genomic profiling was predictive of response to a dual PI3K/mTOR targeting agent, LY3023414. Despite harboring similar PIK3CA mutations, BLCAb001 and BLCAb002 exhibited differential response, both in vitro and in vivo. Sustained target modulation was observed in the sensitive model BLCAb002 but not in BLCAb001, as well as decreased autophagy. Interestingly, computational modelling of mutant structures and affinity binding to PI3K revealed that E542K mutation was associated with weaker drug binding than E545K. Conclusions Our results suggest that the presence of activating PIK3CA mutations may not necessarily predict in vivo treatment response to PI3K targeted therapies, while specific gene alterations may be predictive for cisplatin response in bladder cancer models and, potentially, in patients as well. PMID:27823983

  19. Efficacy of the highly selective focal adhesion kinase inhibitor BI 853520 in adenocarcinoma xenograft models is linked to a mesenchymal tumor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Ulrich A; Waizenegger, Irene C; Schweifer, Norbert; Haslinger, Christian; Gerlach, Daniel; Braunger, Jürgen; Weyer-Czernilofsky, Ulrike; Stadtmüller, Heinz; Sapountzis, Ioannis; Bader, Gerd; Zoephel, Andreas; Bister, Bojan; Baum, Anke; Quant, Jens; Kraut, Norbert; Garin-Chesa, Pilar; Adolf, Günther R

    2018-02-23

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, has attracted interest as a target for pharmacological intervention in malignant diseases. Here, we describe BI 853520, a novel ATP-competitive inhibitor distinguished by high potency and selectivity. In vitro, the compound inhibits FAK autophosphorylation in PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells with an IC 50 of 1 nmol/L and blocks anchorage-independent proliferation of PC-3 cells with an EC 50 of 3 nmol/L, whereas cells grown in conventional surface culture are 1000-fold less sensitive. In mice, the compound shows long half-life, high volume of distribution and high oral bioavailability; oral dosing of immunodeficient mice bearing subcutaneous PC-3 prostate adenocarcinoma xenografts resulted in rapid, long-lasting repression of FAK autophosphorylation in tumor tissue. Daily oral administration of BI 853520 to nude mice at doses of 50 mg/kg was well tolerated for prolonged periods of time. In a diverse panel of 16 subcutaneous adenocarcinoma xenograft models in nude mice, drug treatment resulted in a broad spectrum of outcomes, ranging from group median tumor growth inhibition values >100% and tumor regression in subsets of animals to complete lack of sensitivity. Biomarker analysis indicated that high sensitivity is linked to a mesenchymal tumor phenotype, initially defined by loss of E-cadherin expression and subsequently substantiated by gene set enrichment analysis. Further, we obtained microRNA expression profiles for 13 models and observed that hsa-miR-200c-3p expression is strongly correlated with efficacy (R 2  = 0.889). BI 853520 is undergoing evaluation in early clinical trials.

  20. Anti-CD45 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy using Bismuth-213: High Rates of Complete Remission and Long-Term Survival in a Mouse Myeloid Leukemia Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M; Kenoyer, Aimee L; Back, Tom

    2011-07-21

    Pretargeted radioimmunotherapy (PRIT) using an anti-CD45 antibody (Ab)-streptavidin (SA) conjugate and DOTA-biotin labeled with β-emitting radionuclides has been explored as a strategy to decrease relapse and toxicity. α-emitting radionuclides exhibit high cytotoxicity coupled with a short path-length, potentially increasing the therapeutic index and making them an attractive alternative to β-emitting radionuclides for patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). Accordingly, we have used 213Bi in mice with human leukemia xenografts. Results demonstrated excellent localization of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin to tumors with minimal uptake into normal organs. After 10 minutes, 4.5 ± 1.1% of the injected dose of 213Bi was delivered per gram ofmore » tumor. α imaging demonstrated uniform radionuclide distribution within tumor tissue 45 minutes after 213Bi-DOTA-biotin injection. Radiation absorbed doses were similar to those observed using a β-emitting radionuclide (90Y) in the same model. We conducted therapy experiments in a xenograft model using a single-dose of 213Bi-DOTA-biotin given 24 hours after anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate. Among mice treated with anti-CD45 Ab-SA conjugate followed by 800 μCi of 213Bi- or 90Y-DOTA-biotin, 80% and 20%, respectively, survived leukemia-free for >100 days with minimal toxicity. These data suggest that anti-CD45 PRIT using an α-emitting radionuclide may be highly effective and minimally toxic for treatment of AML.« less

  1. The synergistic effects of Apatinib combined with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents on gastric cancer cells and in a fluorescence imaging gastric cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Qin, Shukui

    2018-01-01

    Methylsulfonic apatinib (hereinafter referred to as Apatinib) is a small-molecule angiogenesis inhibitor highly and selectively targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. At present, a series of basic and clinical studies have confirmed that Apatinib mono-therapy can inhibit the growth of different carcinomas. Our experiment aimed to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between the combination of the traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel (TAX), oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and Apatinib. We evaluated the combined effect using cytological experiments and a fluorescence imaging xenograft model. In vitro, the inhibition of cell proliferation increased notably when Apatinib was combined with TAX, L-OHP, and 5-FU. Then, for the mechanistic research, we selected the optimal dose of drugs that also had a synergistic effect. Apatinib combined with the aforementioned drugs, especially the combination of Apatinib and 5-FU, decreased the invasion and migration ability of the cells and increased the apoptosis ratio; expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 significantly decreased, and expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax increased. In vivo, when Apatinib was combined with TAX, L-OHP, and 5-FU, the volume of the xenograft model was significantly inhibited, the strength of the green fluorescence was weakened and the microvessel density decreased. The combination of Apatinib with TAX and 5-FU was synergistic (coefficient of drug interaction <1); the combination effect of Apatinib and L-OHP was only additive, with a shorter associated survival time. The combination of Apatinib and classical chemotherapy drugs may be an optimal choice for gastric cancer treatment.

  2. The synergistic effects of Apatinib combined with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents on gastric cancer cells and in a fluorescence imaging gastric cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Qin, Shukui

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Methylsulfonic apatinib (hereinafter referred to as Apatinib) is a small-molecule angiogenesis inhibitor highly and selectively targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. At present, a series of basic and clinical studies have confirmed that Apatinib mono-therapy can inhibit the growth of different carcinomas. Our experiment aimed to determine whether there is a synergistic effect between the combination of the traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs paclitaxel (TAX), oxaliplatin (L-OHP), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and Apatinib. Materials and methods We evaluated the combined effect using cytological experiments and a fluorescence imaging xenograft model. In vitro, the inhibition of cell proliferation increased notably when Apatinib was combined with TAX, L-OHP, and 5-FU. Then, for the mechanistic research, we selected the optimal dose of drugs that also had a synergistic effect. Apatinib combined with the aforementioned drugs, especially the combination of Apatinib and 5-FU, decreased the invasion and migration ability of the cells and increased the apoptosis ratio; expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 significantly decreased, and expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax increased. In vivo, when Apatinib was combined with TAX, L-OHP, and 5-FU, the volume of the xenograft model was significantly inhibited, the strength of the green fluorescence was weakened and the microvessel density decreased. Results The combination of Apatinib with TAX and 5-FU was synergistic (coefficient of drug interaction <1); the combination effect of Apatinib and L-OHP was only additive, with a shorter associated survival time. Conclusion The combination of Apatinib and classical chemotherapy drugs may be an optimal choice for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:29872316

  3. RNA-Seq Differentiates Tumour and Host mRNA Expression Changes Induced by Treatment of Human Tumour Xenografts with the VEGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Cediranib

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, James R.; Farren, Matthew; Powell, Steve J.; Runswick, Sarah; Weston, Susie L.; Brown, Helen; Delpuech, Oona; Wappett, Mark; Smith, Neil R.; Carr, T. Hedley; Dry, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Neil J.; Barry, Simon T.

    2013-01-01

    Pre-clinical models of tumour biology often rely on propagating human tumour cells in a mouse. In order to gain insight into the alignment of these models to human disease segments or investigate the effects of different therapeutics, approaches such as PCR or array based expression profiling are often employed despite suffering from biased transcript coverage, and a requirement for specialist experimental protocols to separate tumour and host signals. Here, we describe a computational strategy to profile transcript expression in both the tumour and host compartments of pre-clinical xenograft models from the same RNA sample using RNA-Seq. Key to this strategy is a species-specific mapping approach that removes the need for manipulation of the RNA population, customised sequencing protocols, or prior knowledge of the species component ratio. The method demonstrates comparable performance to species-specific RT-qPCR and a standard microarray platform, and allowed us to quantify gene expression changes in both the tumour and host tissue following treatment with cediranib, a potent vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, including the reduction of multiple murine transcripts associated with endothelium or vessels, and an increase in genes associated with the inflammatory response in response to cediranib. In the human compartment, we observed a robust induction of hypoxia genes and a reduction in cell cycle associated transcripts. In conclusion, the study establishes that RNA-Seq can be applied to pre-clinical models to gain deeper understanding of model characteristics and compound mechanism of action, and to identify both tumour and host biomarkers. PMID:23840389

  4. Chemical synthesis, NMR analysis and evaluation on a cancer xenograft model (HL-60) of the aminosteroid derivative RM-133.

    PubMed

    Maltais, René; Hospital, Audrey; Delhomme, Audrey; Roy, Jenny; Poirier, Donald

    2014-04-01

    The aminosteroid derivative RM-133 has been reported to be a promising pro-apoptotic agent showing activity on various cancer cell lines. Following the development of solid-phase synthesis that generated a series of libraries of aminosteroid derivatives, we now report the development of a convenient liquid phase chemical synthesis of RM-133, the most promising candidate, in order to obtain sufficient quantities to proceed with the first preclinical assays. A simple and convergent six-step synthesis was designed and allowed the preparation of a gram-quantity scale of RM-133. This aminosteroid derivative was also fully characterized by NMR experiments which revealed an interesting mixture of conformers. Finally, the in vivo potency of RM-133 was evaluated on a xenograft model in nude mice with HL-60 tumors, which has resulted in the blocking of tumor progression by 57%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Whole transcriptome profiling of patient-derived xenograft models as a tool to identify both tumor and stromal specific biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Bradford, James R; Wappett, Mark; Beran, Garry; Logie, Armelle; Delpuech, Oona; Brown, Henry; Boros, Joanna; Camp, Nicola J; McEwen, Robert; Mazzola, Anne Marie; D'Cruz, Celina; Barry, Simon T

    2016-04-12

    The tumor microenvironment is emerging as a key regulator of cancer growth and progression, however the exact mechanisms of interaction with the tumor are poorly understood. Whilst the majority of genomic profiling efforts thus far have focused on the tumor, here we investigate RNA-Seq as a hypothesis-free tool to generate independent tumor and stromal biomarkers, and explore tumor-stroma interactions by exploiting the human-murine compartment specificity of patient-derived xenografts (PDX).Across a pan-cancer cohort of 79 PDX models, we determine that mouse stroma can be separated into distinct clusters, each corresponding to a specific stromal cell type. This implies heterogeneous recruitment of mouse stroma to the xenograft independent of tumor type. We then generate cross-species expression networks to recapitulate a known association between tumor epithelial cells and fibroblast activation, and propose a potentially novel relationship between two hypoxia-associated genes, human MIF and mouse Ddx6. Assessment of disease subtype also reveals MMP12 as a putative stromal marker of triple-negative breast cancer. Finally, we establish that our ability to dissect recruited stroma from trans-differentiated tumor cells is crucial to identifying stem-like poor-prognosis signatures in the tumor compartment.In conclusion, RNA-Seq is a powerful, cost-effective solution to global analysis of human tumor and mouse stroma simultaneously, providing new insights into mouse stromal heterogeneity and compartment-specific disease markers that are otherwise overlooked by alternative technologies. The study represents the first comprehensive analysis of its kind across multiple PDX models, and supports adoption of the approach in pre-clinical drug efficacy studies, and compartment-specific biomarker discovery.

  6. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology of a Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP)-activated Prodrug in Murine Xenograft Models of Human Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brennen, W. Nathaniel; Rosen, D. Marc; Chaux, Alcides; Netto, George J.; Isaacs, John T.; Denmeade, Samuel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background As carcinoma progresses, the stroma undergoes a variety of phenotypic changes, including the presence of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express fibroblast activation protein (FAP). FAP is a post-prolyl endopeptidase whose expression in a healthy adult is largely restricted to the cancer-associated stroma. FAP-targeted prodrugs with a 100-fold greater therapeutic window over the parent compound were previously generated. Methods Prodrugs and non-cleavable controls were incubated in the presence of FAP. Plasma and tumor half-lives (t1/2) of the full-length and active forms of the prodrugs were determined using LCMS. Biodistribution studies of prodrug activation were performed. Histopathological analysis of tissues from treated animals were compared to vehicle-treated controls. Toxicity and efficacy studies were performed in human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer xenografts models. Results These FAP-activated prodrugs have a significantly slower clearance from tumor tissue than the circulation (~12 vs. ~4.5 hrs). Micromolar concentrations of active drug persist in the tumor. Active drug is detected in non-target tissues; however, histopathologic evaluation reveals no evidence of drug-induced toxicity. A FAP-activated prodrug (ERGETGP-S12ADT) inhibits tumor growth in multiple human breast and prostate cancer xenograft models. The anti-tumor effect is comparable to that observed with docetaxel, but results in significantly less toxicity. Conclusion FAP-activated prodrugs are a viable strategy for the management of prostate and other cancers. These prodrugs exhibit less toxicity than a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Further refinement of the FAP cleavage site for greater specificity may reduce prodrug activation in non-target tissues and enhance clinical benefit. PMID:25053236

  7. Pharmacokinetics and toxicology of a fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-activated prodrug in murine xenograft models of human cancer.

    PubMed

    Brennen, W Nathaniel; Rosen, D Marc; Chaux, Alcides; Netto, George J; Isaacs, John T; Denmeade, Samuel R

    2014-09-01

    As carcinoma progresses, the stroma undergoes a variety of phenotypic changes, including the presence of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that express fibroblast activation protein (FAP). FAP is a post-prolyl endopeptidase whose expression in a healthy adult is largely restricted to the cancer-associated stroma. FAP-targeted prodrugs with a 100-fold greater therapeutic window over the parent compound were previously generated. Prodrugs and non-cleavable controls were incubated in the presence of FAP. Plasma and tumor half-lives (t1/2) of the full-length and active forms of the prodrugs were determined using LCMS. Biodistribution studies of prodrug activation were performed. Histopathological analysis of tissues from treated animals were compared to vehicle-treated controls. Toxicity and efficacy studies were performed in human breast (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) and prostate (LNCaP) cancer xenografts models. These FAP-activated prodrugs have a significantly slower clearance from tumor tissue than the circulation (∼12 vs. ∼4.5 hr). Micromolar concentrations of active drug persist in the tumor. Active drug is detected in non-target tissues; however, histopathologic evaluation reveals no evidence of drug-induced toxicity. A FAP-activated prodrug (ERGETGP-S12ADT) inhibits tumor growth in multiple human breast and prostate cancer xenograft models. The anti-tumor effect is comparable to that observed with docetaxel, but results in significantly less toxicity. FAP-activated prodrugs are a viable strategy for the management of prostate and other cancers. These prodrugs exhibit less toxicity than a commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. Further refinement of the FAP cleavage site for greater specificity may reduce prodrug activation in non-target tissues and enhance clinical benefit. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mouse Models in Prostate Cancer Translational Research: From Xenograft to PDX

    PubMed Central

    del Vecchio, Vitale; Palma, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Antonio; Falco, Michela; Luciano, Antonio; De Biase, Davide; Perdonà, Sisto; Facchini, Gaetano; Arra, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Despite the advancement of clinical and preclinical research on PCa, which resulted in the last five years in a decrement of disease incidence by 3-4%, it remains the most frequent cancer in men and the second for mortality rate. Based on this evidence we present a brief dissertation on numerous preclinical models, comparing their advantages and disadvantages; among this we report the PDX mouse models that show greater fidelity to the disease, in terms of histopathologic features of implanted tumor, gene and miRNA expression, and metastatic pattern, well describing all tumor progression stages; this characteristic encourages the translation of preclinical results. These models become particularly useful in meeting the need of new treatments identification that eradicate PCa bone metastases growing, clarifying pathway of angiogenesis, identifying castration-resistant stem-like cells, and studying the antiandrogen therapies. Also of considerable interest are the studies of 3D cell cultures derived from PDX, which have the ability to maintain PDX cell viability with continued native androgen receptor expression, also showing a differential sensitivity to drugs. 3D PDX PCa may represent a diagnostic platform for the rapid assessment of drugs and push personalized medicine. Today the development of preclinical models in vitro and in vivo is necessary in order to obtain increasingly reliable answers before reaching phase III of the drug discovery. PMID:27294148

  9. Fluorescent humanized anti-CEA antibody specifically labels metastatic pancreatic cancer in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lwin, Thinzar M.; Miyake, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi; DeLong, Jonathan C.; Yazaki, Paul J.; Shivley, John E.; Clary, Bryan; Hoffman, Robert M.; Bouvet, Michael

    2018-03-01

    Specific tumor targeting can result in selective labeling of cancer in vivo for surgical navigation. In the present study, we show that the use of an anti-CEA antibody conjugated to the near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent dye, IRDye800CW, can selectively target and label pancreatic cancer and its metastases in a clinically relevant patient derived xenograft mouse model.

  10. Image-guided photo-therapeutic nanoporphyrin synergized HSP90 inhibitor in patient-derived xenograft bladder cancer model.

    PubMed

    Long, Qilai; Lin, Tzu-Yin; Huang, Yee; Li, Xiaocen; Ma, Ai-Hong; Zhang, Hongyong; Carney, Randy; Airhart, Susan; Lam, Kit S; deVere White, Ralph W; Pan, Chong-Xian; Li, Yuanpei

    2018-04-01

    Photodynamic therapy is a promising and effective non-invasive therapeutic approach for the treatment of bladder cancers. Therapies targeting HSP90 have the advantage of tumor cell selectivity and have shown great preclinical efficacy. In this study, we evaluated a novel multifunctional nanoporphyrin platform loaded with an HSP90 inhibitor 17AAG (NP-AAG) for use as a multi-modality therapy against bladder cancer. NP-AAG was efficiently accumulated and retained at bladder cancer patient-derived xenograft (PDX) over 7 days. PDX tumors could be synergistically eradicated with a single intravenous injection of NP-AAG followed by multiple light treatments within 7 days. NP-AAG mediated treatment could not only specifically deliver 17AAG and produce heat and reactive oxygen species, but also more effectively inhibit essential bladder cancer essential signaling molecules like Akt, Src, and Erk, as well as HIF-1α induced by photo-therapy. This multifunctional nanoplatform has high clinical relevance and could dramatically improve management for bladder cancers with minimal toxicity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. OSI-930: a novel selective inhibitor of Kit and kinase insert domain receptor tyrosine kinases with antitumor activity in mouse xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Garton, Andrew J; Crew, Andrew P A; Franklin, Maryland; Cooke, Andrew R; Wynne, Graham M; Castaldo, Linda; Kahler, Jennifer; Winski, Shannon L; Franks, April; Brown, Eric N; Bittner, Mark A; Keily, John F; Briner, Paul; Hidden, Chris; Srebernak, Mary C; Pirrit, Carrie; O'Connor, Matthew; Chan, Anna; Vulevic, Bojana; Henninger, Dwight; Hart, Karen; Sennello, Regina; Li, An-Hu; Zhang, Tao; Richardson, Frank; Emerson, David L; Castelhano, Arlindo L; Arnold, Lee D; Gibson, Neil W

    2006-01-15

    OSI-930 is a novel inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases Kit and kinase insert domain receptor (KDR), which is currently being evaluated in clinical studies. OSI-930 selectively inhibits Kit and KDR with similar potency in intact cells and also inhibits these targets in vivo following oral dosing. We have investigated the relationships between the potency observed in cell-based assays in vitro, the plasma exposure levels achieved following oral dosing, the time course of target inhibition in vivo, and antitumor activity of OSI-930 in tumor xenograft models. In the mutant Kit-expressing HMC-1 xenograft model, prolonged inhibition of Kit was achieved at oral doses between 10 and 50 mg/kg and this dose range was associated with antitumor activity. Similarly, prolonged inhibition of wild-type Kit in the NCI-H526 xenograft model was observed at oral doses of 100 to 200 mg/kg, which was the dose level associated with significant antitumor activity in this model as well as in the majority of other xenograft models tested. The data suggest that antitumor activity of OSI-930 in mouse xenograft models is observed at dose levels that maintain a significant level of inhibition of the molecular targets of OSI-930 for a prolonged period. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic evaluation of the plasma exposure levels of OSI-930 at these effective dose levels provides an estimate of the target plasma concentrations that may be required to achieve prolonged inhibition of Kit and KDR in humans and which would therefore be expected to yield a therapeutic benefit in future clinical evaluations of OSI-930.

  12. TMOD-05. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ORTHOTOPIC PATIENT-DERIVED XENOGRAFT MODELS OF PEDIATRIC BRAIN TUMORS AND THEIR USE IN PRECLINICAL EXPERIMENTS

    PubMed Central

    Brabetz, Sebastian; Schmidt, Christin; Groebner, Susanne N.; Mack, Norman; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Jones, David T.W.; Chavez, Lukas; Milde, Till; Witt, Olaf; Leary, Sarah E.; Li, Xiao-Nan; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J.; Olson, James M.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Kool, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Genomic studies have shown that multiple molecular subtypes of pediatric brain tumors exist that are biologically and clinically highly distinct. These findings ask for novel subtype specific treatments. To develop these we need more and better preclinical models that correctly reflect the proper tumor (sub)type. Orthotopic patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models generated by intracranial injection of primary patient material into the brain of NSG mice offer the unique possibility to test novel substances in primary patient tissue in an in vivo environment. Prior to drug selection and testing, extensive molecular characterizations of PDX and matching primary tumor/blood (DNA methylation, DNA sequencing, and gene expression) are needed to see how the PDX represents the original disease and to learn about targetable oncogenic drivers in each model. In collaboration with several groups around the world we have generated and fully characterized thus far 75 PDX models reflecting 15 distinct subtypes of pediatric brain cancer. PDX models always retain their molecular subtype and in the vast majority of cases also mutations and copy number alterations compared to matching primary tumors. Most aggressive tumors, harboring MYC(N) amplifications, are overrepresented in the cohort, but also subtypes which have not been available for preclinical testing before due to lack of genetically engineered mouse models or suitable cell lines, such as Group 4 medulloblastoma, are included. All models and corresponding molecular data will become available for the community for preclinical research. Examples of such preclinical experiments will be presented. PDX models of pediatric brain tumors are still quite rare. Our repertoire of PDX models and corresponding molecular characterizations allow researchers all over the world to find the right models for their specific scientific questions. It will provide an unprecedented resource to study tumor biology and pave the way for

  13. Extract of Ginkgo biloba exacerbates liver metastasis in a mouse colon cancer Xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Wu, Xia; Lezmi, Stephane; Li, Qian; Helferich, William G; Xu, Yueqing; Chen, Hong

    2017-12-02

    Metastasis refers to the spread of a primary tumor cell from the primary site to other locations in the body and it is generally associated with the severity of a tumor. Extract of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) contains various bioactive compounds and it exerts beneficial effects including improvements in brain function and reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases. On the other hand, increased risk of thyroid and liver cancers by EGb have been reported in animals. A colon cancer metastasis model was established using intrasplenic injection of a human colon cancer cell line, SW620-luc in athymic mice to investigate the potential impact of EGb on colon cancer progression. After tumor establishment, EGb was intraperitonically injected daily for 5 wks. EGb significantly increased the rate of metastasis in mouse liver and decreased the number of necrotic and apoptotic cells in the metastatic liver when compared to the control. Meanwhile, EGb significantly induced proliferation of tumor cells in the metastatic liver, indicated by increased staining of Ki67 and H3S10p. mRNA expression of genes involved in cell cycle, metastasis, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were altered by EGb treatment in livers with tumors. Moreover, EGb activated the stress-responsive MAPK pathways in the liver with metastatic tumors. EGb exacerbated liver metastasis in a mouse colon cancer metastasis model. This is potentially due to the increased tumor cell proliferation involving stimulated MAPK pathways.

  14. Recombinant methioninase combined with doxorubicin (DOX) regresses a DOX-resistant synovial sarcoma in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Li, Shukuan; Han, Qinghong; Tan, Yuying; Gainor, Emily; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Miyake, Kentaro; Miyake, Masuyo; Higuchi, Takashi; Oshiro, Hiromichi; Singh, Arun S.; Eckardt, Mark A.; Nelson, Scott D.; Russell, Tara A.; Dry, Sarah M.; Li, Yunfeng; Yamamoto, Norio; Hayashi, Katsuhiro; Kimura, Hiroaki; Miwa, Shinji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Eilber, Fritz C.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2018-01-01

    Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a recalcitrant subgroup of soft tissue sarcoma (STS). A tumor from a patient with high grade SS from a lower extremity was grown orthotopically in the right biceps femoris muscle of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. The PDOX mice were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached approximately 100 mm3: G1, control without treatment; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (3 mg/kg, intraperitoneal [i.p.] injection, weekly, for 2 weeks; G3, rMETase (100 unit/mouse, i.p., daily, for 2 weeks); G4 DOX (3mg/kg), i.p. weekly, for 2 weeks) combined with rMETase (100 unit/mouse, i.p., daily, for 2 weeks). On day 14 after treatment initiation, all therapies significantly inhibited tumor growth compared to untreated control, except DOX: (DOX: p = 0.48; rMETase: p < 0.005; DOX combined with rMETase < 0.0001). DOX combined with rMETase was significantly more effective than both DOX alone (p < 0.001) and rMETase alone (p < 0.05). The relative body weight on day 14 compared with day 0 did not significantly differ between any treatment group or untreated control. The results indicate that r-METase can overcome DOX-resistance in this recalcitrant disease. PMID:29721200

  15. Establishment of primary cell culture and an intracranial xenograft model of pediatric ependymoma: a prospect for therapy development and understanding of tumor biology.

    PubMed

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Caminada de Toledo, Silvia Regina; Mara de Oliveira, Daniela; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Gabriel de Souza, Jean; Boufleur, Pamela; Marti, Luciana C; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Ferreira da Cruz, Edgar; Paiva, Fernando F; Malheiros, Suzana M F; de Paiva Neto, Manoel A; Tannús, Alberto; Mascarenhas de Oliveira, Sérgio; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Cappellano, Andrea Maria; Petrilli, Antonio Sérgio; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2018-04-24

    Ependymoma (EPN), the third most common pediatric brain tumor, is a central nervous system (CNS) malignancy originating from the walls of the ventricular system. Surgical resection followed by radiation therapy has been the primary treatment for most pediatric intracranial EPNs. Despite numerous studies into the prognostic value of histological classification, the extent of surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy, there have been relatively few studies into the molecular and cellular biology of EPNs. We elucidated the ultrastructure of the cultured EPN cells and characterized their profile of immunophenotypic pluripotency markers (CD133, CD90, SSEA-3, CXCR4). We established an experimental EPN model by the intracerebroventricular infusion of EPN cells labeled with multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), thereby generating a tumor and providing a clinically relevant animal model. MRI analysis was shown to be a valuable tool when combined with effective MION labeling techniques to accompany EPN growth. We demonstrated that GFAP/CD133+CD90+/CD44+ EPN cells maintained key histopathological and growth characteristics of the original patient tumor. The characterization of EPN cells and the experimental model could facilitate biological studies and preclinical drug screening for pediatric EPNs. In this work, we established notoriously challenging primary cell culture of anaplastic EPNs (WHO grade III) localized in the posterior fossa (PF), using EPNs obtained from 1 to 10-year-old patients ( n = 07), and then characterized their immunophenotype and ultrastructure to finally develop a xenograft model.

  16. Establishment of primary cell culture and an intracranial xenograft model of pediatric ependymoma: a prospect for therapy development and understanding of tumor biology

    PubMed Central

    Pavon, Lorena Favaro; Sibov, Tatiana Tais; Caminada de Toledo, Silvia Regina; Mara de Oliveira, Daniela; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Gabriel de Souza, Jean; Boufleur, Pamela; Marti, Luciana C.; Malheiros, Jackeline Moraes; Ferreira da Cruz, Edgar; Paiva, Fernando F.; Malheiros, Suzana M.F.; de Paiva Neto, Manoel A.; Tannús, Alberto; Mascarenhas de Oliveira, Sérgio; Silva, Nasjla Saba; Cappellano, Andrea Maria; Petrilli, Antonio Sérgio; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana Marisa; Cavalheiro, Sérgio

    2018-01-01

    Background Ependymoma (EPN), the third most common pediatric brain tumor, is a central nervous system (CNS) malignancy originating from the walls of the ventricular system. Surgical resection followed by radiation therapy has been the primary treatment for most pediatric intracranial EPNs. Despite numerous studies into the prognostic value of histological classification, the extent of surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy, there have been relatively few studies into the molecular and cellular biology of EPNs. Results We elucidated the ultrastructure of the cultured EPN cells and characterized their profile of immunophenotypic pluripotency markers (CD133, CD90, SSEA-3, CXCR4). We established an experimental EPN model by the intracerebroventricular infusion of EPN cells labeled with multimodal iron oxide nanoparticles (MION), thereby generating a tumor and providing a clinically relevant animal model. MRI analysis was shown to be a valuable tool when combined with effective MION labeling techniques to accompany EPN growth. Conclusions We demonstrated that GFAP/CD133+CD90+/CD44+ EPN cells maintained key histopathological and growth characteristics of the original patient tumor. The characterization of EPN cells and the experimental model could facilitate biological studies and preclinical drug screening for pediatric EPNs. Methods In this work, we established notoriously challenging primary cell culture of anaplastic EPNs (WHO grade III) localized in the posterior fossa (PF), using EPNs obtained from 1 to 10-year-old patients (n = 07), and then characterized their immunophenotype and ultrastructure to finally develop a xenograft model. PMID:29774098

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Gel Combined with Bovine-Derived Xenograft for the Treatment of Dehiscence Around Immediately Placed Conventionally Loaded Dental Implants in Humans: Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Three-Dimensional Image Evaluation.

    PubMed

    ArRejaie, Aws; Al-Harbi, Fahad; Alagl, Adel S; Hassan, Khalid S

    2016-01-01

    This study clinically and radiographically investigated the potential of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) gel combined with bovine-derived xenograft to treat dehiscence defects around immediate dental implants. This study was performed on 32 sites from 16 patients who each received an immediate implant for a single tooth replacement at a maxillary anterior or premolar site. Patients were divided into two groups according to the augmented materials used. One group received an immediate implant and filling of defects using a PRP gel plus bovine-derived xenograft. The other group received an immediate implant and filling of defects with a bovine-derived xenograft without PRP gel. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) was taken before placement, and at 6 and 12 months postsurgery. Both treatment procedures resulted in significant improvements for the primary outcome regarding bone fill, as well as the marginal bone level. In addition, statistically significant differences were found in the bone density for the combined therapy compared with sites treated with bovine-derived xenografts alone (P ≤ .01). Autogenous PRP gel combined with bovine-derived xenograft demonstrated superiority to the bovine-derived xenograft alone, which suggested that it could be successfully applicable for the treatment of dehiscence around an immediate dental implant. Moreover, CBCT can be used to measure dehiscence and to assess bone thickness along the implant.

  18. Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 in human tumor xenograft models

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Toshiaki; Ozaki, Kei-ichi; Fujio, Kohsuke

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Blockade of the ERK pathway enhances the anticancer efficacy of HDAC inhibitors. •MEK inhibitors sensitize human tumor xenografts to HDAC inhibitor cytotoxicity. •Such the enhanced efficacy is achieved by a transient blockade of the ERK pathway. •This drug combination provides a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. -- Abstract: The ERK pathway is up-regulated in various human cancers and represents a prime target for mechanism-based approaches to cancer treatment. Specific blockade of the ERK pathway alone induces mostly cytostatic rather than pro-apoptotic effects, however, resulting in a limited therapeutic efficacy of the ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitors. We previously showedmore » that MEK inhibitors markedly enhance the ability of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors to induce apoptosis in tumor cells with constitutive ERK pathway activation in vitro. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of such drug combinations, we administered the MEK inhibitor PD184352 or AZD6244 together with the HDAC inhibitor MS-275 in nude mice harboring HT-29 or H1650 xenografts. Co-administration of the MEK inhibitor markedly sensitized the human xenografts to MS-275 cytotoxicity. A dose of MS-275 that alone showed only moderate cytotoxicity thus suppressed the growth of tumor xenografts almost completely as well as induced a marked reduction in tumor cellularity when administered with PD184352 or AZD6244. The combination of the two types of inhibitor also induced marked oxidative stress, which appeared to result in DNA damage and massive cell death, specifically in the tumor xenografts. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of the drug combination was achieved by a relatively transient blockade of the ERK pathway. Administration of both MEK and HDAC inhibitors represents a promising chemotherapeutic strategy with improved safety for cancer patients.« less

  19. A predictive pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of tumor growth kinetics in xenograft mice after administration of anticancer agents given in combination.

    PubMed

    Terranova, Nadia; Germani, Massimiliano; Del Bene, Francesca; Magni, Paolo

    2013-08-01

    In clinical oncology, combination treatments are widely used and increasingly preferred over single drug administrations. A better characterization of the interaction between drug effects and the selection of synergistic combinations represent an open challenge in drug development process. To this aim, preclinical studies are routinely performed, even if they are only qualitatively analyzed due to the lack of generally applicable mathematical models. This paper presents a new pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that, starting from the well-known single agent Simeoni TGI model, is able to describe tumor growth in xenograft mice after the co-administration of two anticancer agents. Due to the drug action, tumor cells are divided in two groups: damaged and not damaged ones. The damaging rate has two terms proportional to drug concentrations (as in the single drug administration model) and one interaction term proportional to their product. Six of the eight pharmacodynamic parameters assume the same value as in the corresponding single drug models. Only one parameter summarizes the interaction, and it can be used to compute two important indexes that are a clear way to score the synergistic/antagonistic interaction among drug effects. The model was successfully applied to four new compounds co-administered with four drugs already available on the market for the treatment of three different tumor cell lines. It also provided reliable predictions of different combination regimens in which the same drugs were administered at different doses/schedules. A good and quantitative measurement of the intensity and nature of interaction between drug effects, as well as the capability to correctly predict new combination arms, suggest the use of this generally applicable model for supporting the experiment optimal design and the prioritization of different therapies.

  20. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patient-derived xenograft models capture the molecular and biological heterogeneity of the disease.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, Bjoern; Cheng, Hongwei; Watahiki, Akira; Ducar, Matthew D; Tan, Yuxiang; Chen, Linfeng; Roemer, Margaretha G M; Ouyang, Jing; Christie, Amanda L; Zhang, Liye; Gusenleitner, Daniel; Abo, Ryan P; Farinha, Pedro; von Bonin, Frederike; Thorner, Aaron R; Sun, Heather H; Gascoyne, Randy D; Pinkus, Geraldine S; van Hummelen, Paul; Wulf, Gerald G; Aster, Jon C; Weinstock, David M; Monti, Stefano; Rodig, Scott J; Wang, Yuzhuo; Shipp, Margaret A

    2016-05-05

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a heterogeneous disease defined by transcriptional classifications, specific signaling and survival pathways, and multiple low-frequency genetic alterations. Preclinical model systems that capture the genetic and functional heterogeneity of DLBCL are urgently needed. Here, we generated and characterized a panel of large B-cell lymphoma (LBCL) patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, including 8 that reflect the immunophenotypic, transcriptional, genetic, and functional heterogeneity of primary DLBCL and 1 that is a plasmablastic lymphoma. All LBCL PDX models were subjected to whole-transcriptome sequencing to classify cell of origin and consensus clustering classification (CCC) subtypes. Mutations and chromosomal rearrangements were evaluated by whole-exome sequencing with an extended bait set. Six of the 8 DLBCL models were activated B-cell (ABC)-type tumors that exhibited ABC-associated mutations such as MYD88, CD79B, CARD11, and PIM1. The remaining 2 DLBCL models were germinal B-cell type, with characteristic alterations of GNA13, CREBBP, and EZH2, and chromosomal translocations involving IgH and either BCL2 or MYC Only 25% of the DLBCL PDX models harbored inactivating TP53 mutations, whereas 75% exhibited copy number alterations of TP53 or its upstream modifier, CDKN2A, consistent with the reported incidence and type of p53 pathway alterations in primary DLBCL. By CCC criteria, 6 of 8 DLBCL PDX models were B-cell receptor (BCR)-type tumors that exhibited selective surface immunoglobulin expression and sensitivity to entospletinib, a recently developed spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor. In summary, we have established and characterized faithful PDX models of DLBCL and demonstrated their usefulness in functional analyses of proximal BCR pathway inhibition. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  1. Establishment of Patient-Derived Tumor Xenograft Models of Epithelial Ovarian Cancer for Preclinical Evaluation of Novel Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Joyce F; Palakurthi, Sangeetha; Zeng, Qing; Zhou, Shan; Ivanova, Elena; Huang, Wei; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K; Selfors, Laura M; Shen, Yiping; Pritchard, Colin C; Zheng, Mei; Adleff, Vilmos; Papp, Eniko; Piao, Huiying; Novak, Marian; Fotheringham, Susan; Wulf, Gerburg M; English, Jessie; Kirschmeier, Paul T; Velculescu, Victor E; Paweletz, Cloud; Mills, Gordon B; Livingston, David M; Brugge, Joan S; Matulonis, Ursula A; Drapkin, Ronny

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy in the United States, with high rates of recurrence and eventual resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Model systems that allow for accurate and reproducible target discovery and validation are needed to support further drug development in this disease. Experimental Design: Clinically annotated patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were generated from tumor cells isolated from the ascites or pleural fluid of patients undergoing clinical procedures. Models were characterized by IHC and by molecular analyses. Each PDX was luciferized to allow for reproducible in vivo assessment of intraperitoneal tumor burden by bioluminescence imaging (BLI). Plasma assays for CA125 and human LINE-1 were developed as secondary tests of in vivo disease burden. Results: Fourteen clinically annotated and molecularly characterized luciferized ovarian PDX models were generated. Luciferized PDX models retain fidelity to both the nonluciferized PDX and the original patient tumor, as demonstrated by IHC, array CGH, and targeted and whole-exome sequencing analyses. Models demonstrated diversity in specific genetic alterations and activation of PI3K signaling pathway members. Response of luciferized PDX models to standard-of-care therapy could be reproducibly monitored by BLI or plasma markers. Conclusions: We describe the establishment of a collection of 14 clinically annotated and molecularly characterized luciferized ovarian PDX models in which orthotopic tumor burden in the intraperitoneal space can be followed by standard and reproducible methods. This collection is well suited as a platform for proof-of-concept efficacy and biomarker studies and for validation of novel therapeutic strategies in ovarian cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 23(5); 1263-73. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Autophagy induction by leptin contributes to suppression of apoptosis in cancer cells and xenograft model: Involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis

    PubMed Central

    Nepal, Saroj; Kim, Mi Jin; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Sang Hyun; Sohn, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sung Hee; Song, Kyung; Choi, Dong Young; Lee, Eung Seok; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Leptin, a hormone mainly produced from adipose tissue, has been shown to induce proliferation of cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying leptin-induced tumor progression have not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of autophagy in leptin-induced cancer cell proliferation using human hepatoma (HepG2) and breast cancer cells (MCF-7), and tumor growth in a xenograft model. Herein, we showed that leptin treatment caused autophagy induction as assessed by increase in expression of autophagy-related genes, including beclin-1, Atg5 and LC3 II, further induction of autophagosome formation and autophagic flux. Interestingly, inhibition of autophagic process by treatment with inhibitors and LC3B gene silencing blocked leptin-induced increase in cell number and suppression of apoptosis, indicating a crucial role of autophagy in leptin-induced tumor progression. Moreover, gene silencing of p53 or FoxO3A prevented leptin-induced LC3 II protein expression, suggesting an involvement of p53/FoxO3A axis in leptin-induced autophagy activation. Leptin administration also accelerated tumor growth in BALB/c nude mice, which was found to be autophagy dependent. Taken together, our results demonstrate that leptin-induced tumor growth is mediated by autophagy induction and autophagic process would be a promising target to regulate development of cancer caused by leptin production. PMID:25704884

  3. Inhibition of human cervical carcinoma growth by cytokine-induced killer cells in nude mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hwan Mook; Lim, Jaeseung; Kang, Jong Soon; Park, Song-Kyu; Lee, Kiho; Kim, Jee Youn; Kim, Yeon Jin; Hong, Jin Tae; Kim, Youngsoo; Han, Sang-Bae

    2009-03-01

    Cervical cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality in women worldwide and is an important public health problem for adult women in developing countries. Despite aggressive treatment with surgery and chemoradiation, the outcomes for cervical cancer patients remain poor. In this study, the antitumor activity of cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells against human cervical cancer was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with IL-2-containing medium in anti-CD3 antibody-coated flasks for 5 days, followed by incubation in IL-2-containing medium for 9 days. The resulting populations of CIK cells comprised 95% CD3(+), 3% CD3(-)CD56(+), 35% CD3(+)CD56(+), 11% CD4(+), <1% CD4(+)CD56(+), 80% CD8(+), and 25% CD8(+)CD56(+). At an effector-target cell ratio of 100:1, CIK cells destroyed 56% of KB-3-1 human cervical cancer cells, as measured by the (51)Cr-release assay. In addition, CIK cells at doses of 3 and 10 million cells per mouse inhibited 34% and 57% of KB-3-1 tumor growth in nude mouse xenograft assays, respectively. This study suggests that CIK cells may be used as an adoptive immunotherapy for cervical cancer patients.

  4. Nilotinib and Imatinib Are Comparably Effective in Reducing Growth of Human Eosinophil Leukemia Cells in a Newly Established Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Salamon, Johannes; Thamer, Mohammed; Herrmann, Harald; Valent, Peter; Schumacher, Udo; Ullrich, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    We developed a xenograft model of human Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL) to study disease progression and remission-induction under therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors using imatinib and nilotinib as examples. The FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ human CEL cell lineEOL-1 was injected intravenously into scid mice, and MR imaging and FACS analysis of mouse blood samples were performed to monitor disease development and the effects of imatinib and nilotinib. Organ infiltration was analyzed in detail by immunohistochemistry after sacrifice. All animals developed CEL and within one week of therapy, complete remissions were seen with both imatinib and nilotinib, resulting in reduced total tumor volumes by MR-imaging and almost complete disappearance of EOL-1 cells in the peripheral blood and in tissues. The new model system is feasible for the evaluation of new tyrosine kinase inhibitors and our data suggest that nilotinib may be a valuable additional targeted drug active in patients with FIP1L1/PDGFRA+ CEL. PMID:22348015

  5. A xenograft model reveals that PU.1 functions as a tumor suppressor for multiple myeloma in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Nao; Endo, Shinya; Ueno, Shikiko

    We previously demonstrated that PU.1 expression is down-regulated in the majority of myeloma cell lines and primary myeloma cells from patients. We introduced the tet-off system into the human myeloma cell lines U266 and KMS12PE that conditionally express PU.1 and demonstrated that PU.1 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells in vitro. Here, we established a mouse xenograft model of myeloma using these cell lines to analyze the effects of PU.1 on the phenotype of myeloma cells in vivo. When doxycycline was added to the drinking water of mice engrafted with these myeloma cells, all mice had continuous growth ofmore » subcutaneous tumors and could not survived more than 65 days. In contrast, mice that were not exposed to doxycycline did not develop subcutaneous tumors and survived for at least 100 days. We next generated mice engrafted with subcutaneous tumors 5–10 mm in diameter that were induced by exposure to doxycycline. Half of the mice stopped taking doxycycline-containing water, whereas the other half kept taking the water. Although the tumors in the mice taking doxycycline continued to grow, tumor growth in the mice not taking doxycycline was significantly suppressed. The myeloma cells in the tumors of the mice not taking doxycycline expressed PU.1 and TRAIL and many of such cells were apoptotic. Moreover, the expression of a cell proliferation marker Ki67 was significantly decreased in tumors from the mice not taking doxycycline, compared with that of tumors from the mice continuously taking doxycycline. The present data strongly suggest that PU.1 functions as a tumor suppressor of myeloma cells in vivo. - Highlights: • PU.1 suppresses xenograft myeloma cell growth and prolongs survival periods of mice. • PU.1 induces TRAIL expression and apoptosis in myeloma cells in vivo. • PU.1 suppresses Ki67 expression in myeloma cells in vivo. • Up-regulation of PU.1 is a promising strategy for generating anti-myeloma agents.« less

  6. A Dual Tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET Imaging of an Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yilong; Ong, Lai-Chun; Ranganath, Sudhir H; Zheng, Lin; Kee, Irene; Zhan, Wenbo; Yu, Sidney; Chow, Pierce K H; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of low grade glioma has been a challenge to clinicians. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using 18F-FDG as a radio-tracer has limited utility in this area because of the high background in normal brain tissue. Other radiotracers such as 18F-Fluorocholine (18F-FCH) could provide better contrast between tumor and normal brain tissue but with high incidence of false positives. In this study, the potential application of a dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET is investigated in order to improve the sensitivity of PET imaging for low grade glioma diagnosis based on a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. BALB/c nude mice with and without orthotopic glioma xenografts from U87 MG-luc2 glioma cell line are used for the study. The animals are subjected to 18F-FCH and 18F-FDG PET imaging, and images acquired from two separate scans are superimposed for analysis. The 18F-FCH counts are subtracted from the merged images to identify the tumor. Micro-CT, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), histology and measurement of the tumor diameter are also conducted for comparison. Results show that there is a significant contrast in 18F-FCH uptake between tumor and normal brain tissue (2.65 ± 0.98), but with a high false positive rate of 28.6%. The difficulty of identifying the tumor by 18F-FDG only is also proved in this study. All the tumors can be detected based on the dual tracer technique of 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET imaging in this study, while the false-positive caused by 18F-FCH can be eliminated. Dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET imaging has the potential to improve the visualization of low grade glioma. 18F-FCH delineates tumor areas and the tumor can be identified by subtracting the 18F-FCH counts. The sensitivity was over 95%. Further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of applying this technique in clinical trials.

  7. A Dual Tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET Imaging of an Orthotopic Brain Tumor Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Sudhir H.; Zheng, Lin; Kee, Irene; Zhan, Wenbo; Yu, Sidney; Chow, Pierce K. H.; Wang, Chi-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis of low grade glioma has been a challenge to clinicians. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) using 18F-FDG as a radio-tracer has limited utility in this area because of the high background in normal brain tissue. Other radiotracers such as 18F-Fluorocholine (18F-FCH) could provide better contrast between tumor and normal brain tissue but with high incidence of false positives. In this study, the potential application of a dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG-PET is investigated in order to improve the sensitivity of PET imaging for low grade glioma diagnosis based on a mouse orthotopic xenograft model. BALB/c nude mice with and without orthotopic glioma xenografts from U87 MG-luc2 glioma cell line are used for the study. The animals are subjected to 18F-FCH and 18F-FDG PET imaging, and images acquired from two separate scans are superimposed for analysis. The 18F-FCH counts are subtracted from the merged images to identify the tumor. Micro-CT, bioluminescence imaging (BLI), histology and measurement of the tumor diameter are also conducted for comparison. Results show that there is a significant contrast in 18F-FCH uptake between tumor and normal brain tissue (2.65 ± 0.98), but with a high false positive rate of 28.6%. The difficulty of identifying the tumor by 18F-FDG only is also proved in this study. All the tumors can be detected based on the dual tracer technique of 18F-FCH/ 18F-FDG-PET imaging in this study, while the false-positive caused by 18F-FCH can be eliminated. Dual tracer 18F-FCH/18F-FDG PET imaging has the potential to improve the visualization of low grade glioma. 18F-FCH delineates tumor areas and the tumor can be identified by subtracting the 18F-FCH counts. The sensitivity was over 95%. Further studies are required to evaluate the possibility of applying this technique in clinical trials. PMID:26844770

  8. In vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of the VO-chrysin complex on a new three-dimensional osteosarcoma spheroids model and a xenograft tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    León, Ignacio E; Cadavid-Vargas, Juan F; Resasco, Agustina; Maschi, Fabricio; Ayala, Miguel A; Carbone, Cecilia; Etcheverry, Susana B

    2016-12-01

    Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary tumor of bone, occurring predominantly in the second decade of life. High-dose cytotoxic chemotherapy and surgical resection have improved prognosis, with long-term survival for patients with localized disease. Vanadium is an ultra-trace element that after being absorbed accumulates in bone. Besides, vanadium compounds have been studied during recent years to be considered as representative of a new class of non-platinum antitumor agents. Moreover, flavonoids are a wide family of polyphenolic compounds that display many interesting biological effects. Since coordination of ligands to metals can improve the pharmacological properties, we report herein, for the first time, the in vitro and in vivo effects of an oxidovanadium(IV) complex with the flavonoid chrysin on the new 3D human osteosarcoma and xenograft osteosarcoma mice models. The pharmacological results show that VOchrys inhibited the cell viability affecting the shape and volume of the spheroids and VOchrys suppressed MG-63 tumor growth in the nude mice without inducing toxicity and side effects. As a whole, the results presented herein demonstrate that the antitumor action of the complex was very promissory on human osteosarcoma models, whereby suggesting that VOchrys is a potentially good candidate for future use in alternative antitumor treatments.

  9. A novel type of cellular senescence that can be enhanced in mouse models and human tumor xenografts to suppress prostate tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Alimonti, Andrea; Nardella, Caterina; Chen, Zhenbang; Clohessy, John G.; Carracedo, Arkaitz; Trotman, Lloyd C.; Cheng, Ke; Varmeh, Shohreh; Kozma, Sara C.; Thomas, George; Rosivatz, Erika; Woscholski, Rudiger; Cognetti, Francesco; Scher, Howard I.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Irreversible cell growth arrest, a process termed cellular senescence, is emerging as an intrinsic tumor suppressive mechanism. Oncogene-induced senescence is thought to be invariably preceded by hyperproliferation, aberrant replication, and activation of a DNA damage checkpoint response (DDR), rendering therapeutic enhancement of this process unsuitable for cancer treatment. We previously demonstrated in a mouse model of prostate cancer that inactivation of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (Pten) elicits a senescence response that opposes tumorigenesis. Here, we show that Pten-loss–induced cellular senescence (PICS) represents a senescence response that is distinct from oncogene-induced senescence and can be targeted for cancer therapy. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we determined that PICS occurs rapidly after Pten inactivation, in the absence of cellular proliferation and DDR. Further, we found that PICS is associated with enhanced p53 translation. Consistent with these data, we showed that in mice p53-stabilizing drugs potentiated PICS and its tumor suppressive potential. Importantly, we demonstrated that pharmacological inhibition of PTEN drives senescence and inhibits tumorigenesis in vivo in a human xenograft model of prostate cancer. Taken together, our data identify a type of cellular senescence that can be triggered in nonproliferating cells in the absence of DNA damage, which we believe will be useful for developing a “pro-senescence” approach for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:20197621

  10. Rapamycin enhances docetaxel-induced cytotoxicity in a androgen-independent prostate cancer xenograft model by survivin downregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Morikawa, Yasuyuki, E-mail: yasu-m@med.gunma-u.ac.jp; Koike, Hidekazu; Sekine, Yoshitaka

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rapamycin (RPM) enhances the susceptibility of PC3 cells to docetaxel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low-dosage of docetaxel (DTX) did not reduce survivin expression levels in PC3 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combination treatment of RPM with DTX suppressed the expression of surviving. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SiRNA against survivin enhanced the susceptibility of PC3 cells to DTX. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RPM and DTX cotreatment inhibited PC3 cell growth and decreased surviving in vivo. -- Abstract: Background: Docetaxel is a first-line treatment choice in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the management of CRPC remains an important challenge in oncology. There have been many reports on the effects of rapamycin, whichmore » is an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in the treatment of carcinogenesis. We assessed the cytotoxic effects of the combination treatment of docetaxel and rapamycin in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between these treatments and survivin, which is a member of the inhibitory apoptosis family. Methods: Prostate cancer cells were cultured and treated with docetaxel and rapamycin. The effects on proliferation were evaluated with the MTS assay. In addition, we evaluated the effect on proliferation of the combination treatment induced knockdown of survivin expression by small interfering RNA transfection and docetaxel. Protein expression levels were assayed using western blotting. PC3 cells and xenograft growth in nude mice were used to evaluate the in vivo efficacy of docetaxel and its combination with rapamycin. Results: In vitro and in vivo, the combination of rapamycin with docetaxel resulted in a greater inhibition of proliferation than treatment with rapamycin or docetaxel alone. In addition, in vitro and in vivo, rapamycin decreased basal surviving levels, and cotreatment with docetaxel further decreased these

  11. LuCaP Prostate Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts Reflect the Molecular Heterogeneity of Advanced Disease an--d Serve as Models for Evaluating Cancer Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Holly M; Vessella, Robert L; Morrissey, Colm; Brown, Lisha G; Coleman, Ilsa M; Higano, Celestia S; Mostaghel, Elahe A; Zhang, Xiaotun; True, Lawrence D; Lam, Hung-Ming; Roudier, Martine; Lange, Paul H; Nelson, Peter S; Corey, Eva

    2017-05-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer is a common and lethal disease for which there are no therapies that produce cures or long-term durable remissions. Clinically relevant preclinical models are needed to increase our understanding of biology of this malignancy and to evaluate new agents that might provide effective treatment. Our objective was to establish and characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) from advanced prostate cancer (PC) for investigation of biology and evaluation of new treatment modalities. Samples of advanced PC obtained from primary prostate cancer obtained at surgery or from metastases collected at time of death were implanted into immunocompromised mice to establish PDXs. Established PDXs were propagated in vivo. Genomic, transcriptomic, and STR profiles were generated. Responses to androgen deprivation and docetaxel in vivo were characterized. We established multiple PDXs (LuCaP series), which represent the major genomic and phenotypic features of the disease in humans, including amplification of androgen receptor, PTEN deletion, TP53 deletion and mutation, RB1 loss, TMPRSS2-ERG rearrangements, SPOP mutation, hypermutation due to MSH2/MSH6 genomic aberrations, and BRCA2 loss. The PDX models also exhibit variation in intra-tumoral androgen levels. Our in vivo results show heterogeneity of response to androgen deprivation and docetaxel, standard therapies for advanced PC, similar to the responses of patients to these treatments. The LuCaP PDX series reflects the diverse molecular composition of human castration-resistant PC and allows for hypothesis-driven cause-and-effect studies of mechanisms underlying treatment response and resistance. Prostate 77: 654-671, 2017. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The Authors. The Prostate Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. PK-PD modeling of combination efficacy effect from administration of the MEK inhibitor GDC-0973 and PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941 in A2058 xenografts.

    PubMed

    Choo, Edna F; Ng, Chee M; Berry, Leanne; Belvin, Marcia; Lewin-Koh, Nicholas; Merchant, Mark; Salphati, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mutations and activations of the MEK and PI3K pathways are associated with the development of many cancers. GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 are inhibitors of MEK and PI3K, respectively, currently being evaluated clinically in combination as anti-cancer treatment. The objective of these studies was to characterize the relationship between the plasma concentrations of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 administered in combination and efficacy in A2058 melanoma xenograft. GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 were administered to A2058 tumor-bearing mice daily (QD) or every third day (Q3D) either as single agents or in combination. A semi-mechanistic population anti-cancer model was developed to simultaneously describe the tumor growth following QD/Q3D single-agent and QD combination treatments. The interaction terms ψ included in the model were used to assess whether the combination was additive. Using this model, data from the Q3D combination regimen were simulated and compared with the observed tumor volumes. The model consisting of saturable tumor growth provided the best fit of the data. The estimates for ψ were not significantly different from 1, suggesting an additive effect of GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 on tumor growth inhibition. The population rate constants associated with tumor growth inhibition for GDC-0973 and GDC-0941 were 0.00102 and 0000651 μM(-1) h(-1), respectively. Using the model based on single-agent and QD combination efficacy data, simulations adequately described the tumor growth from the Q3D combination regimen. These findings suggest that, based on minimal data, it is possible to predict the effects of various combinations preclinically and also assess the potential clinical efficacy of combinations using human pharmacokinetic inputs.

  13. Anticancer Effect of Nemopilema nomurai Jellyfish Venom on HepG2 Cells and a Tumor Xenograft Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Seong Kyeong; Kim, Munki; Pyo, Min Jung; Kim, Minkyung; Yang, Sujeoung; Yoon, Won Duk; Han, Chang Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Various kinds of animal venoms and their components have been widely studied for potential therapeutic applications. This study evaluated whether Nemopilema nomurai jellyfish venom (NnV) has anticancer activity. NnV strongly induced cytotoxicity of HepG2 cells through apoptotic cell death, as demonstrated by alterations of chromatic morphology, activation of procaspase-3, and an increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. Furthermore, NnV inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, PDK1, Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and 4EBP1, whereas it enhanced the expression of p-PTEN. Interestingly, NnV also inactivated the negative feedback loops associated with Akt activation, as demonstrated by downregulation of Akt at Ser473 and mTOR at Ser2481. The anticancer effect of NnV was significant in a HepG2 xenograft mouse model, with no obvious toxicity. HepG2 cell death by NnV was inhibited by tetracycline, metalloprotease inhibitor, suggesting that metalloprotease component in NnV is closely related to the anticancer effects. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that NnV exerts highly selective cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells via dual inhibition of the Akt and mTOR signaling pathways, but not in normal cells. PMID:28785288

  14. Injection of human mesenchymal stem cells improves healing of scarred vocal folds: analysis using a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Bengt; Nagubothu, R Srinivasa; Cedervall, Jessica; Le Blanc, Katarina; Ahrlund-Richter, Lars; Tolf, Anna; Hertegård, Stellan

    2010-07-01

    The aims were to analyze if improved histological and viscoelastic properties seen after injection of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in scarred vocal folds (VFs) of rabbits are sustainable and if the injected hMSCs survive 3 months in the VFs. Experimental xenograft model. Eighteen VFs of 11 New Zealand white rabbits were scarred by a bilateral localized resection. After 3 months the animals were sacrificed. Twelve VFs were dissected and stained for histology, lamina propria thickness, and relative collagen type I analyses. The hMSCs survival was analyzed using a human DNA-specific reference probe, that is, fluorescence in situ hybridization staining. Viscoelasticity, measured as the dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus, was analyzed in a parallel-plate rheometer for 10 VFs. The dynamic viscosity and elastic modulus of hMSC-treated VFs were similar to that of normal controls and significantly improved compared to untreated controls (P < .05). A reduction in lamina propria thickness and relative collagen type 1 content were also shown for the hMSC-treated VFs compared to the untreated VFs (P < .05). The histological pictures corresponded well to the viscoelastic results. No hMSCs survived. Human mesenchymal stem cells injected into a scarred vocal fold of rabbit enhance healing of the vocal fold with reduced lamina propria thickness and collagen type I content and restore the viscoelastic function.

  15. Longitudinal evaluation of the metabolic response of a tumor xenograft model to single fraction radiation therapy using magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tessier, A. G.; Yahya, A.; Larocque, M. P.; Fallone, B. G.; Syme, A.

    2014-09-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate the metabolic profile of human glioblastoma multiform brain tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice before, and at multiple time points after single fraction radiation therapy. Tumors were grown over the thigh in 16 mice in this study, of which 5 served as untreated controls and 11 had their tumors treated to 800 cGy with 200 kVp x-rays. Spectra were acquired within 24 h pre-treatment, and then at 3, 7 and 14 d post-treatment using a 9.4 T animal magnetic resonance (MR) system. For the untreated control tumors, spectra (1-2 per mouse) were acquired at different stages of tumor growth. Spectra were obtained with the PRESS pulse sequence using a 3  ×  3 × 3 mm3 voxel. Analysis was performed with the LCModel software platform. Six metabolites were profiled for this analysis: alanine (Ala), myo-inositol (Ins), taurine (Tau), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), glutamine and glutamate (Glu + Gln), and total choline (glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine) (GPC + PCh). For the treated cohort, most metabolite/water concentration ratios were found to decrease in the short term at 3 and 7 d post-treatment, followed by an increase at 14 d post-treatment toward pre-treatment values. The lowest concentrations were observed at 7 d post-treatment, with magnitudes (relative to pre-treatment concentration ratios) of: 0.42  ±  24.6% (Ala), 0.43  ±  15.3% (Ins), 0.68  ±  27.9% (Tau), 0.52  ±  14.6% (GPC+PCh), 0.49  ±  21.0% (Cr + PCr) and 0.78  ±  24.5% (Glu + Gln). Control animals did not demonstrate any significant correlation between tumor volume and metabolite concentration, indicating that the observed kinetics were the result of the therapeutic intervention. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using MRS to follow multiple metabolic markers over time for the purpose of evaluating therapeutic response of tumors to radiation therapy. This study provides

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of the metabolic response of a tumor xenograft model to single fraction radiation therapy using magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tessier, A G; Yahya, A; Larocque, M P; Fallone, B G; Syme, A

    2014-09-07

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was used to evaluate the metabolic profile of human glioblastoma multiform brain tumors grown as xenografts in nude mice before, and at multiple time points after single fraction radiation therapy. Tumors were grown over the thigh in 16 mice in this study, of which 5 served as untreated controls and 11 had their tumors treated to 800 cGy with 200 kVp x-rays. Spectra were acquired within 24 h pre-treatment, and then at 3, 7 and 14 d post-treatment using a 9.4 T animal magnetic resonance (MR) system. For the untreated control tumors, spectra (1-2 per mouse) were acquired at different stages of tumor growth. Spectra were obtained with the PRESS pulse sequence using a 3  ×  3 × 3 mm(3) voxel. Analysis was performed with the LCModel software platform. Six metabolites were profiled for this analysis: alanine (Ala), myo-inositol (Ins), taurine (Tau), creatine and phosphocreatine (Cr + PCr), glutamine and glutamate (Glu + Gln), and total choline (glycerophosphocholine + phosphocholine) (GPC + PCh). For the treated cohort, most metabolite/water concentration ratios were found to decrease in the short term at 3 and 7 d post-treatment, followed by an increase at 14 d post-treatment toward pre-treatment values. The lowest concentrations were observed at 7 d post-treatment, with magnitudes (relative to pre-treatment concentration ratios) of: 0.42  ±  24.6% (Ala), 0.43  ±  15.3% (Ins), 0.68  ±  27.9% (Tau), 0.52  ±  14.6% (GPC+PCh), 0.49  ±  21.0% (Cr + PCr) and 0.78  ±  24.5% (Glu + Gln). Control animals did not demonstrate any significant correlation between tumor volume and metabolite concentration, indicating that the observed kinetics were the result of the therapeutic intervention. We have demonstrated the feasibility of using MRS to follow multiple metabolic markers over time for the purpose of evaluating therapeutic response of tumors to radiation therapy

  17. [Cytosine deaminase and thymidine kinase double suicide gene system driven by carcinoembryonic antigen promoter for the treatment of colorectal carcinoma xenograft in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-jie; Feng, Qing-zhao; You, Jun; Xu, Lin; Luo, Wei-yuan; Yi, Wen-cheng; Zeng, Yue-yue; Luo, Qi

    2013-07-23

    To explore the therapeutic efficacy of double suicide gene system driven by carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) promoter (Cp-CDglyTK) on colorectal carcinoma xenograft in nude mice. The plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)Cp-CDglyTK was transfected into the CEA-positive SW480 and CEA-negative HeLa cells respectively. The expression of suicide gene was detected by RT-PCR. And the transfected cells were treated with 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) and ganciclovir (GCV) at different concentrations and the cell-killing and bystander effects assayed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT). By a transplantation of cultivated cells, SW480 or HeLa cell lines were injected subcutaneously into right axillary of nude mice to establish 96 SW480 and 72 HeLa tumor animal models. Nude mice were completely randomized with statistical software according to tumor volume. For prodrug therapy, 48 SW480-bearing mice were divided equally into 4 groups of I-IV. At the same time, 48 HeLa-bearing mice were divided equally into 4 groups of V-VIII. Groups I & V received an intratumoral injection of PBS, groups II & VIGCV and 5-FC intratumorally, groups III & VII PBS intraperitoneally and groups IV & VIII GCV and 5-FC intraperitoneally. Forty-eight SW480-bearing mice were divided equally into 4 groups of IX∼XII and 24 Hela-bearing ones into groups of & in therapy experiment by suicide gene plus prodrug. Six groups received an intratumoral injection of liposome Lipofectamine and plasmid CP-CDglyTK and then an intraperitoneal injection of drug. The groups of IX and received an injection of PBS, group X GCV, group XI 5-FC and groups XII & GCV and 5-FC. The observation parameters included tumor bulk, tumor weight, survival time and treatment effect in each group. SW480 cells transfected by plasmid pcDNA3.1(-)Cp- CDglyTK expressed CDglyTK gene. The inhibition rates of GCV and 5-FC were significantly higher than those of HeLa cells (59.87% ± 0.21% vs 9.90% ± 0.09%, P < 0.01). And higher inhibition rates and stronger bystander

  18. Frankincense essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins induces human pancreatic cancer cell death in cultures and in a xenograft murine model

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    weight compounds, including boswellic acids, in frankincense essential oil fraactions. Human pancreatic cancer cells were sensitive to Fractions III and IV (containing higher molecular weight compounds) treatment with suppressed cell viability and increased cell death. Essential oil activated the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, induced a rapid and transient activation of Akt and Erk1/2, and suppressed levels of cyclin D1 cdk4 expression in cultured pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, Boswellia sacra essential oil Fraction IV exhibited anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities against pancreatic tumors in the heterotopic xenograft mouse model. Conclusion All fractions of frankincense essential oil from Boswellia sacra are capable of suppressing viability and inducing apoptosis of a panel of human pancreatic cancer cell lines. Potency of essential oil-suppressed tumor cell viability may be associated with the greater abundance of high molecular weight compounds in Fractions III and IV. Although chemical component(s) responsible for tumor cell cytotoxicity remains undefined, crude essential oil prepared from hydrodistillation of Boswellia sacra gum resins might be a useful alternative therapeutic agent for treating patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma, an aggressive cancer with poor prognosis. PMID:23237355

  19. Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Carretta, Marco; de Boer, Bauke; Jaques, Jenny; Antonelli, Antonella; Horton, Sarah J; Yuan, Huipin; de Bruijn, Joost D; Groen, Richard W J; Vellenga, Edo; Schuringa, Jan Jacob

    2017-07-01

    Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ -/- (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 + hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 + cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis. Copyright © 2017 ISEH - International Society for Experimental Hematology. All rights reserved.

  20. KISS1 over-expression suppresses metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in a xenograft mouse model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying molecular targets for treatment of pancreatic cancer metastasis is critical due to the high frequency of dissemination prior to diagnosis of this lethal disease. Because the KISS1 metastasis suppressor is expressed at reduced levels in advanced pancreatic cancer, we hypothesized that re-...

  1. Development of a novel preclinical pancreatic cancer research model: bioluminescence image-guided focal irradiation and tumor monitoring of orthotopic xenografts.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Richard; Surmak, Andrew; Reyes, Juvenal; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Armour, Michael; Leubner, Ashley; Blackford, Amanda; Tryggestad, Erik; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Wong, John; Deweese, Theodore L; Herman, Joseph M

    2012-04-01

    We report on a novel preclinical pancreatic cancer research model that uses bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided irradiation of orthotopic xenograft tumors, sparing of surrounding normal tissues, and quantitative, noninvasive longitudinal assessment of treatment response. Luciferase-expressing MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were orthotopically injected in nude mice. BLI was compared to pathologic tumor volume, and photon emission was assessed over time. BLI was correlated to positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to estimate tumor dimensions. BLI and cone-beam CT (CBCT) were used to compare tumor centroid location and estimate setup error. BLI and CBCT fusion was performed to guide irradiation of tumors using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). DNA damage was assessed by γ-H2Ax staining. BLI was used to longitudinally monitor treatment response. Bioluminescence predicted tumor volume (R = 0.8984) and increased linearly as a function of time up to a 10-fold increase in tumor burden. BLI correlated with PET/CT and necropsy specimen in size (P < .05). Two-dimensional BLI centroid accuracy was 3.5 mm relative to CBCT. BLI-guided irradiated pancreatic tumors stained positively for γ-H2Ax, whereas surrounding normal tissues were spared. Longitudinal assessment of irradiated tumors with BLI revealed significant tumor growth delay of 20 days relative to controls. We have successfully applied the SARRP to a bioluminescent, orthotopic preclinical pancreas cancer model to noninvasively: 1) allow the identification of tumor burden before therapy, 2) facilitate image-guided focal radiation therapy, and 3) allow normalization of tumor burden and longitudinal assessment of treatment response.

  2. Development of a Novel Preclinical Pancreatic Cancer Research Model: Bioluminescence Image-Guided Focal Irradiation and Tumor Monitoring of Orthotopic Xenografts1

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Richard; Surmak, Andrew; Reyes, Juvenal; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Armour, Michael; Leubner, Ashley; Blackford, Amanda; Tryggestad, Erik; Jaffee, Elizabeth M; Wong, John; DeWeese, Theodore L; Herman, Joseph M

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: We report on a novel preclinical pancreatic cancer research model that uses bioluminescence imaging (BLI)-guided irradiation of orthotopic xenograft tumors, sparing of surrounding normal tissues, and quantitative, noninvasive longitudinal assessment of treatment response. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Luciferase-expressing MiaPaCa-2 pancreatic carcinoma cells were orthotopically injected in nude mice. BLI was compared to pathologic tumor volume, and photon emission was assessed over time. BLI was correlated to positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) to estimate tumor dimensions. BLI and cone-beam CT (CBCT) were used to compare tumor centroid location and estimate setup error. BLI and CBCT fusion was performed to guide irradiation of tumors using the small animal radiation research platform (SARRP). DNA damage was assessed by γ-H2Ax staining. BLI was used to longitudinally monitor treatment response. RESULTS: Bioluminescence predicted tumor volume (R = 0.8984) and increased linearly as a function of time up to a 10-fold increase in tumor burden. BLI correlated with PET/CT and necropsy specimen in size (P < .05). Two-dimensional BLI centroid accuracy was 3.5 mm relative to CBCT. BLI-guided irradiated pancreatic tumors stained positively for γ-H2Ax, whereas surrounding normal tissues were spared. Longitudinal assessment of irradiated tumors with BLI revealed significant tumor growth delay of 20 days relative to controls. CONCLUSIONS: We have successfully applied the SARRP to a bioluminescent, orthotopic preclinical pancreas cancer model to noninvasively: 1) allow the identification of tumor burden before therapy, 2) facilitate image-guided focal radiation therapy, and 3) allow normalization of tumor burden and longitudinal assessment of treatment response. PMID:22496923

  3. Discovery of imidazo[1,2- a ]-pyridine inhibitors of pan-PI3 kinases that are efficacious in a mouse xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Wooseok; Menezes, Daniel L.; Xu, Yongjin

    Alterations in PI3K/AKT signaling are known to be implicated with tumorigenesis. The PI3 kinases family of lipid kinases has been an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Imidazopyridine compound 1, a potent, selective, and orally available pan-PI3K inhibitor, identified by scaffold morphing of a benzothiazole hit, was further optimized in order to achieve efficacy in a PTEN-deleted A2780 ovarian cancer mouse xenograft model. With a hypothesis that a planar conformation between the core and the 6-heteroaryl ring will allow for the accommodation of larger 5'-substituents in a hydrophobic area under P-loop, SAR efforts focused on 5'-alkoxy heteroaryl rings at themore » 6-position of imidazopyridine and imidazopyridazine cores that have the same dihedral angle of zero degrees. 6'-Alkoxy 5'-aminopyrazines in the imidazopyridine series were identified as the most potent compounds in the A2780 cell line. Compound 14 with 1,1,1-trifluoroisopropoxy group at 6'-position demonstrated excellent potency and selectivity, good oral exposure in rats and in vivo efficacy in A2780 tumor-bearing mouse. Also, we disclose the X-ray co-crystal structure of one enantiomer of compound 14 in PI3Kα, confirming that the trifluoromethyl group fits nicely in the hydrophobic hot spot under P-loop.« less

  4. Discovery of imidazo[1,2-a]-pyridine inhibitors of pan-PI3 kinases that are efficacious in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Han, Wooseok; Menezes, Daniel L; Xu, Yongjin; Knapp, Mark S; Elling, Robert; Burger, Matthew T; Ni, Zhi-Jie; Smith, Aaron; Lan, Jiong; Williams, Teresa E; Verhagen, Joelle; Huh, Kay; Merritt, Hanne; Chan, John; Kaufman, Susan; Voliva, Charles F; Pecchi, Sabina

    2016-02-01

    Alterations in PI3K/AKT signaling are known to be implicated with tumorigenesis. The PI3 kinases family of lipid kinases has been an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. Imidazopyridine compound 1, a potent, selective, and orally available pan-PI3K inhibitor, identified by scaffold morphing of a benzothiazole hit, was further optimized in order to achieve efficacy in a PTEN-deleted A2780 ovarian cancer mouse xenograft model. With a hypothesis that a planar conformation between the core and the 6-heteroaryl ring will allow for the accommodation of larger 5'-substituents in a hydrophobic area under P-loop, SAR efforts focused on 5'-alkoxy heteroaryl rings at the 6-position of imidazopyridine and imidazopyridazine cores that have the same dihedral angle of zero degrees. 6'-Alkoxy 5'-aminopyrazines in the imidazopyridine series were identified as the most potent compounds in the A2780 cell line. Compound 14 with 1,1,1-trifluoroisopropoxy group at 6'-position demonstrated excellent potency and selectivity, good oral exposure in rats and in vivo efficacy in A2780 tumor-bearing mouse. Also, we disclose the X-ray co-crystal structure of one enantiomer of compound 14 in PI3Kα, confirming that the trifluoromethyl group fits nicely in the hydrophobic hot spot under P-loop. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Celastrol Attenuates the Invasion and Migration and Augments the Anticancer Effects of Bortezomib in a Xenograft Mouse Model of Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Ahn, Kwang S.; Lee, Jong H.; Kannaiyan, Radhamani; Mustafa, Nurulhuda; Manu, Kanjoormana A.; Siveen, Kodappully S.; Sethi, Gautam; Chng, Wee J.; Kumar, Alan P.

    2018-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have demonstrated that deregulated activation of NF-κB plays a pivotal role in the initiation and progression of a variety of cancers including multiple myeloma (MM). Therefore, novel molecules that can effectively suppress deregulated NF-κB upregulation can potentially reduce MM growth. In this study, the effect of celastrol (CSL) on patient derived CD138+ MM cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell invasion, and migration was investigated. In addition, we studied whether CSL can potentiate the apoptotic effect of bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor in MM cells and in a xenograft mouse model. We found that CSL significantly reduced cell proliferation and enhanced apoptosis when used in combination with bortezomib and upregulated caspase-3 in these cells. CSL also inhibited invasion and migration of MM cells through the suppression of constitutive NF-κB activation and expression of downstream gene products such as CXCR4 and MMP-9. Moreover, CSL when administered either alone or in combination with bortezomib inhibited MM tumor growth and decreased serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Overall, our results suggest that CSL can abrogate MM growth both in vitro and in vivo and may serve as a useful pharmacological agent for the treatment of myeloma and other hematological malignancies. PMID:29773987

  6. Styrene maleic acid-encapsulated RL71 micelles suppress tumor growth in a murine xenograft model of triple negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Martey, Orleans; Nimick, Mhairi; Taurin, Sebastien; Sundararajan, Vignesh; Greish, Khaled; Rosengren, Rhonda J

    2017-01-01

    Patients with triple negative breast cancer have a poor prognosis due in part to the lack of targeted therapies. In the search for novel drugs, our laboratory has developed a second-generation curcumin derivative, 3,5-bis(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidine-4-one (RL71), that exhibits potent in vitro cytotoxicity. To improve the clinical potential of this drug, we have encapsulated it in styrene maleic acid (SMA) micelles. SMA-RL71 showed improved biodistribution, and drug accumulation in the tumor increased 16-fold compared to control. SMA-RL71 (10 mg/kg, intravenously, two times a week for 2 weeks) also significantly suppressed tumor growth compared to control in a xenograft model of triple negative breast cancer. Free RL71 was unable to alter tumor growth. Tumors from SMA-RL71-treated mice showed a decrease in angiogenesis and an increase in apoptosis. The drug treatment also modulated various cell signaling proteins including the epidermal growth factor receptor, with the mechanisms for tumor suppression consistent with previous work with RL71 in vitro. The nanoformulation was also nontoxic as shown by normal levels of plasma markers for liver and kidney injury following weekly administration of SMA-RL71 (10 mg/kg) for 90 days. Thus, we report clinical potential following encapsulation of a novel curcumin derivative, RL71, in SMA micelles.

  7. Chronic anti-inflammatory drug therapy inhibits gel-forming mucin production in a murine xenograft model of human pseudomyxoma peritonei.

    PubMed

    Choudry, Haroon Asif; Mavanur, Arun; O'Malley, Mark E; Zeh, Herbert J; Guo, Z Sheng; Bartlett, David L

    2012-05-01

    Intraperitoneal accumulation of mucinous ascites in pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) promotes an inflammatory/fibrotic reaction that progresses to bowel obstruction and eventual patient demise. Cytokines and inflammation-associated transcription factor binding sites, such as glucocorticoid response elements and COX-2, regulate secretory mucin, specifically MUC2, production. We hypothesized that anti-inflammatory drugs targeting inflammation-associated pathways may reduce mucin production and subsequent disease morbidity in PMP. The effects of dexamethasone and Celebrex were assessed in mucin-secreting human colon cancer LS174T cells in vitro and murine xenograft models of LS174T and human appendiceal PMP in vivo by serial parametric measurements, MUC2 transcripts via real-time RT-PCR, and MUC2 protein expression via immunofluorescence assays. Dexamethasone significantly inhibited basal MUC2 mRNA levels in LS174T cells, inhibited mucinous tumor accumulation in an intraperitoneal PMP xenograft model, and prolonged survival in a subcutaneous LS174T xenograft model. Celebrex significantly inhibited sodium butyrate-stimulated MUC2 mRNA levels in LS174T cells and demonstrated a statistically nonsignificant trend toward reduced mucinous tumor growth and prolonged survival in the xenograft models. MUC2 protein analysis by immunofluorescence demonstrated a dual effect of dexamethasone on mucin production and tumor cell count. Inflammatory mediators are known to regulate mucin production and may promote overexpression of MUC2 by neoplastic cells with goblet cell phenotype in PMP. Anti-inflammatory drugs, dexamethasone and Celebrex, could inhibit extracellular mucin production in PMP by targeting inflammatory cascades and, therefore, may decrease compressive symptoms, increase the disease-free interval, and reduce the extent or frequency of morbid cytoreductive surgeries.

  8. Increased mitochondrial activity in a novel IDH1-R132H mutant human oligodendroglioma xenograft model: in situ detection of 2-HG and α-KG

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Point mutations in genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (especially IDH1) are common in lower grade diffuse gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and occur early during tumor development. The contribution of these mutations to gliomagenesis is not completely understood and research is hampered by the lack of relevant tumor models. We previously described the development of the patient-derived high-grade oligodendroglioma xenograft model E478 that carries the commonly occurring IDH1-R132H mutation. We here report on the analyses of E478 xenografts at the genetic, histologic and metabolic level. Results LC-MS and in situ mass spectrometric imaging by LESA-nano ESI-FTICR revealed high levels of the proposed oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), the product of enzymatic conversion of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by IDH1-R132H, in the tumor but not in surrounding brain parenchyma. α-KG levels and total NADP+-dependent IDH activity were similar in IDH1-mutant and -wildtype xenografts, demonstrating that IDH1-mutated cancer cells maintain α-KG levels. Interestingly, IDH1-mutant tumor cells in vivo present with high densities of mitochondria and increased levels of mitochondrial activity as compared to IDH1-wildtype xenografts. It is not yet clear whether this altered mitochondrial activity is a driver or a consequence of tumorigenesis. Conclusions The oligodendroglioma model presented here is a valuable model for further functional elucidation of the effects of IDH1 mutations on tumor metabolism and may aid in the rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for the large subgroup of gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations. PMID:24252742

  9. Increased mitochondrial activity in a novel IDH1-R132H mutant human oligodendroglioma xenograft model: in situ detection of 2-HG and α-KG.

    PubMed

    Navis, Anna C; Niclou, Simone P; Fack, Fred; Stieber, Daniel; van Lith, Sanne; Verrijp, Kiek; Wright, Alan; Stauber, Jonathan; Tops, Bastiaan; Otte-Holler, Irene; Wevers, Ron A; van Rooij, Arno; Pusch, Stefan; von Deimling, Andreas; Tigchelaar, Wikky; van Noorden, Cornelis J F; Wesseling, Pieter; Leenders, William P J

    2013-05-29

    Point mutations in genes encoding NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenases (especially IDH1) are common in lower grade diffuse gliomas and secondary glioblastomas and occur early during tumor development. The contribution of these mutations to gliomagenesis is not completely understood and research is hampered by the lack of relevant tumor models. We previously described the development of the patient-derived high-grade oligodendroglioma xenograft model E478 that carries the commonly occurring IDH1-R132H mutation. We here report on the analyses of E478 xenografts at the genetic, histologic and metabolic level. LC-MS and in situ mass spectrometric imaging by LESA-nano ESI-FTICR revealed high levels of the proposed oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2HG), the product of enzymatic conversion of α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) by IDH1-R132H, in the tumor but not in surrounding brain parenchyma. α-KG levels and total NADP+-dependent IDH activity were similar in IDH1-mutant and -wildtype xenografts, demonstrating that IDH1-mutated cancer cells maintain α-KG levels. Interestingly, IDH1-mutant tumor cells in vivo present with high densities of mitochondria and increased levels of mitochondrial activity as compared to IDH1-wildtype xenografts. It is not yet clear whether this altered mitochondrial activity is a driver or a consequence of tumorigenesis. The oligodendroglioma model presented here is a valuable model for further functional elucidation of the effects of IDH1 mutations on tumor metabolism and may aid in the rational development of novel therapeutic strategies for the large subgroup of gliomas carrying IDH1 mutations.

  10. Heterogeneous Binding and Central Nervous System Distribution of the Multitargeted Kinase Inhibitor Ponatinib Restrict Orthotopic Efficacy in a Patient-Derived Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Laramy, Janice K; Kim, Minjee; Gupta, Shiv K; Parrish, Karen E; Zhang, Shuangling; Bakken, Katrina K; Carlson, Brett L; Mladek, Ann C; Ma, Daniel J; Sarkaria, Jann N; Elmquist, William F

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated how differences in drug distribution and free fraction at different tumor and tissue sites influence the efficacy of the multikinase inhibitor ponatinib in a patient-derived xenograft model of glioblastoma (GBM). Efficacy studies in GBM6 flank (heterotopic) and intracranial (orthotopic) models showed that ponatinib is effective in the flank but not in the intracranial model, despite a relatively high brain-to-plasma ratio. In vitro binding studies indicated that flank tumor had a higher free (unbound) drug fraction than normal brain. The total and free drug concentrations, along with the tissue-to-plasma ratio (Kp) and its unbound derivative (Kp,uu), were consistently higher in the flank tumor than the normal brain at 1 and 6 hours after a single dose in GBM6 flank xenografts. In the orthotopic xenografts, the intracranial tumor core displayed higher Kp and Kp,uu values compared with the brain-around-tumor (BAT). The free fractions and the total drug concentrations, hence free drug concentrations, were consistently higher in the core than in the BAT at 1 and 6 hours postdose. The delivery disadvantages in the brain and BAT were further evidenced by the low total drug concentrations in these areas that did not consistently exceed the in vitro cytotoxic concentration (IC 50 ). Taken together, the regional differences in free drug exposure across the intracranial tumor may be responsible for compromising efficacy of ponatinib in orthotopic GBM6. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  11. Meta-[{sup 211}At]astatobenzylguanidine (MABG): In vivo evaluation in an athymic mouse human neuroblastoma xenograft model

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, G.; Friedman, H.S.; Keir, S.T.

    1996-05-01

    Because of the short range and high linear energy transfer of {sup 211}At {alpha}-particles, the MIBG analogue MABG might be useful for the therapy of micrometastatic neuroblastoma and previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that under single-cell conditions, the cytotoxicity of MABG is > 1000 times higher than [{sup 131}I]MIBG. A paired label protocol was used to compare the tissue distribution of MABG and [{sup 131}I]MIBG in athymic mice bearing subcutaneous SK-N-SH human neuroblastoma xenografts from 1-24 hr after injection. In tumor, significantly higher (p < 0.05) uptake was observed for MABG (3.8 {plus_minus} 0.8%ID/g vs 3.1 {plus_minus} 0.7%ID/g atmore » 8 hr). Pretreatment with desipramine reduced tumor uptake of MABG by 43%, suggesting that accumulation was related to the uptake-1 mechanism. Significantly higher uptake of MABG also was observed in normal tissue targets. For example, at 8 hr, heart uptake of MABG was 6.0 {plus_minus} 0.9 % ID/g compared with 4.5 {plus_minus} 0.8%ID/g for [{sup 131}I]MIBG. Two strategies were investigated to increase the tumor-to-hear uptake ratio. Pretreatment of mice with unlabeled MIBG (4 mg/kg) increased MABG tumor uptake by 1.5-fold while reducing uptake in several normal tissues including heart. The vesicular uptake blocker tetrabenazine (TBZ; 20 mg/kg), reduced MABG hear uptake by 30% of control values with not significant decrease in tumor levels. We conclude that MABG deserves further evaluation as a potential agent for the treatment of neuroblastoma, particularly in combination with strategies to minimize radiation dose to normal target tissues.« less

  12. Characterization of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models for estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+) breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Kanaya, Noriko; Somlo, George; Wu, Jun; Frankel, Paul; Kai, Masaya; Liu, Xueli; Wu, Shang Victoria; Nguyen, Duc; Chan, Nymph; Hsieh, Meng-Yin; Kirschenbaum, Michele; Kruper, Laura; Vito, Courtney; Badie, Behnam; Yim, John H; Yuan, Yuan; Hurria, Arti; Peiguo, Chu; Mortimer, Joanne; Chen, Shiuan

    2017-06-01

    The research was to appraise the utility of the patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models of estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+) breast cancers. We compared protein expression profiles by Reverse Phase Protein Array (RPPA) in tumors that resulted in PDXs compared to those that did not. Our overall PDX intake rate for ER+ breast cancer was 9% (9/97). The intake rate for ER+HER2+ tumors (3/16, 19%) was higher than for ER+HER2- tumors (6/81, 7%). Heat map analyses of RPPA data showed that ER+HER2- tumors were divided into 2 groups by luminal A/B signature [protein expression of ER, AR, Bcl-2, Bim (BCL2L11), GATA3 and INPP4b], and this expression signature was also associated with the rate of PDX intake. Cell survival pathways such as the PI3K/AKT signaling and RAS/ERK pathways were more activated in the specimens that could be established as PDX in both classes. Expression of the ER protein itself may have a bearing on the potential success of an ER+ PDX model. In addition, HER2 and its downstream protein expressions were up-regulated in the ER+HER2+ patient tumors that were successfully established as PDX models. Moreover, the comparison of RPPA data between original and PDX tumors suggested that the selection/adaptation process required to grow the tumors in mice is unavoidable for generation of ER+ PDX models, and we identified differences between patient tumor samples and paired PDX tumors. A better understanding of the biological characteristics of ER+PDX would be the key to using PDX models in assessing treatment strategies in a preclinical setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishment and characterization of in vivo orthotopic bioluminescent xenograft models from human osteosarcoma cell lines in Swiss nude and NSG mice.

    PubMed

    Marques da Costa, Maria Eugenia; Daudigeos-Dubus, Estelle; Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Bawa, Olivia; Rouffiac, Valerie; Serra, Massimo; Scotlandi, Katia; Santos, Conceição; Geoerger, Birgit; Gaspar, Nathalie

    2018-03-01

    Osteosarcoma is one of the most common primary bone tumors in childhood and adolescence. Metastases occurrence at diagnosis or during disease evolution is the main therapeutic challenge. New drug evaluation to improve patient survival requires the development of various preclinical models mimicking at best the complexity of the disease and its metastatic potential. We describe here the development and characteristics of two orthotopic bioluminescent (Luc/mKate2) cell-derived xenograft (CDX) models, Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX and HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX, in different immune (nude and NSG mouse strains) and bone (intratibial and paratibial with periosteum activation) contexts. IVIS SpectrumCT system allowed both longitudinal computed tomography (CT) and bioluminescence real-time follow-up of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread, which was confirmed by histology. The murine immune context influenced tumor engraftment, primary tumor growth, and metastatic spread to lungs, bone, and spleen (an unusual localization in humans). Engraftment in NSG mice was found superior to that found in nude mice and intratibial bone environment more favorable to engraftment compared to paratibial injection. The genetic background of the two CDX models also led to distinct primary tumor behavior observed on CT scan. Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX showed osteocondensed, HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX osteolytic morphology. Bioluminescence defined a faster growth of the primary tumor and metastases in Saos-2-B-Luc/mKate2-CDX than in HOS-Luc/mKate2-CDX. The early detection of primary tumor growth and metastatic spread by bioluminescence allows an improved exploration of osteosarcoma disease at tumor progression, and metastatic spread, as well as the evaluations of anticancer treatments. Our orthotopic models with metastatic spread bring complementary information to other types of existing osteosarcoma models. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Molecular Imaging and Quantitation of EphA2 Expression in Xenograft Models with 89Zr-DS-8895a.

    PubMed

    Burvenich, Ingrid J G; Parakh, Sagun; Gan, Hui K; Lee, Fook-Thean; Guo, Nancy; Rigopoulos, Angela; Lee, Sze-Ting; Gong, Sylvia; O'Keefe, Graeme J; Tochon-Danguy, Henri; Kotsuma, Masakatsu; Hasegawa, Jun; Senaldi, Giorgio; Scott, Andrew M

    2016-06-01

    Subtype A2 of the erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular tyrosine kinase (EphA2) cell surface receptor is expressed in a range of epithelial cancers. This study evaluated the molecular imaging of EphA2 expression in vivo in mouse tumor models using SPECT/MR and PET/MR and a humanized anti-EphA2 antibody, DS-8895a. DS-8895a was labeled with (111)In, (125)I, and (89)Zr and assessed for radiochemical purity, immunoreactivity (Lindmo analysis), antigen-binding affinity (Scatchard analysis), and serum stability in vitro. In vivo biodistribution, imaging, and pharmacokinetic studies were performed with SPECT/MR and PET/MR. A dose-escalation study was also performed to determine EphA2 receptor saturability through tissue and imaging quantitative analysis. All conjugates demonstrated good serum stability and specific binding to EphA2-expressing cells in vitro. In vivo biodistribution studies showed high uptake of (111)In-CHX-A″-DTPA-DS-8895a and (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-DS-8895a in EphA2-expressing xenograft models, with no specific uptake in normal tissues. In comparison, retention of (125)I-DS-8895a in tumors was lower because of internalization of the radioconjugate and dehalogenation. These results were confirmed by SPECT/MR and PET/MR. EphA2 receptor saturation was observed at the 30 mg/kg dose. Molecular imaging of tumor uptake of DS-8895a allows noninvasive measurement of EphA2 expression in tumors in vivo and determination of receptor saturation. (89)Zr-Df-Bz-NCS-DS-8895a is suited for human bioimaging trials on the basis of superior imaging characteristics and will inform DS-8895a dose assessment and patient response evaluation in clinical trials. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  15. Histologic differences between orthotopic xenograft pancreas models affect Verteporfin uptake measured by fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Chen, Alina; Isabelle, Martin; Hoopes, P. J.; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2012-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) that uses the second generation photosensitizer, verteporfin (VP), is a developing therapy for pancreatic cancer. The optimal timing of light delivery related to VP uptake and distribution in pancreatic tumors will be important information to obtain to improve treatment for this intractable disease. In this work we examined uptake and distribution of VP in two orthotopic pancreatic tumors with different histological structure. ASPC-1 (fast-growing) and Panc-1 (slower growing) tumors were implanted in SCID mice and studied when tumors were approximately 100mm3. In a pilot study, these tumors had been shown to differ in uptake of VP using lightinduced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) in vivo and fluorescence imaging ex vivo and that work is extended here. In vivo fluorescence mean readings of tumor and liver increased rapidly up to 15 minutes after photosensitizer injection for both tumor types, and then continued to increase up to 60 minutes post injection to a higher level in ASPC-1 than in Panc-1. There was variability among animals with the same tumor type, in both liver and tumor uptake and no selectivity of tumor over liver. In this work we further examined VP uptake at multiple time points in relation to microvascular density and perfusion, using DiOC7 (to mark blood vessels) and VP fluorescence in the same tissue slices. Analysis of DiOC7 fluorescence indicates that AsPC-1 and Panc-1 have different vascular densities but AsPC-1 vasculature is more perfusive. Analysis of colocalized DiOC7 and VP fluorescence showed ASPC-1 with higher accumulation of VP 3 hrs after injection and more VP at a distance from blood vessels compared to Panc-1. This work shows the need for techniques to analyze photosensitizer distribution in order to optimize photodynamic therapy as an effective treatment for pancreatic tumors.

  16. [Establishment of a human bladder cancer cell line stably co-expressing hSPRY2 and luciferase genes and its subcutaneous tumor xenograft model in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Yin, Xiaotao; Li, Fanglong; Jin, Yipeng; Yin, Zhaoyang; Qi, Siyong; Wu, Shuai; Wang, Zicheng; Wang, Lin; Yu, Jiyun; Gao, Jiangping

    2017-03-01

    Objective To establish a human bladder cancer cell line stably co-expressing human sprouty2 (hSPRY2) and luciferase (Luc) genes simultaneously, and develop its subcutaneous tumor xenograft model in nude mice. Methods The hSPRY2 and Luc gene segments were amplified by PCR, and were cloned into lentiviral vector pCDH and pLVX respectively to produce corresponding lentivirus particles. The J82 human bladder cancer cells were infected with these two kinds of lentivirus particles, and then further screened by puromycin and G418. The expressions of hSPRY2 and Luc genes were detected by bioluminescence, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. The screened J82-hSPRY2/Luc cells were injected subcutaneously into BALB/c nude mice, and the growth of tumor was monitored dynamically using in vivo fluorescence imaging system. Results J82-hSPRY2/Luc cell line stably expressing hSPRY2 and Luc genes was established successfully. Bioluminescence, immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis validated the expressions of hSPRY2 and Luc genes. The in vivo fluorescence imaging system showed obvious fluorescence in subcutaneous tumor xenograft in nude mice. Conclusion The J82-hSPRY2/Luc bladder cancer cell line and its subcutaneous tumor xenograft model in nude mice have been established successfully.

  17. Identification of potential serum markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma from a xenografted mouse model using Cy-dye labeling combined with three-dimensional fractionation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Ching; Peng, Pei-Hua; Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, Yu-Shan; Chang, Kai-Ping; Hao, Sheng-Po; Tsang, Ngan-Ming; Yeh, Chau-Ting; Chang, Yu-Sun; Yu, Jau-Song

    2008-09-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), one of the most common cancers in Southeast Asia, is commonly diagnosed late due to its deep location and vague symptoms. To identify biomarkers for improving NPC diagnosis, we established a proteomic platform for detecting aberrant serum proteins in nude mice bearing NPC xenografts. We first removed the three most abundant proteins from serum samples of tumor-bearing and control mice, and then labeled the samples with different fluorescent cyanine (Cy) dyes. The labeled serum proteins were then mixed equally and fractionated with ion-exchange chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by in-gel tryptic digestion and MALDI-TOF MS. We identified peroxiredoxin 2 (Prx-II) and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CA-II) as being elevated in the xenograft mouse model compared to controls. Western blot analysis confirmed up-regulation of Prx-II and CA-II in plasma from five NPC patients, and ELISA showed that plasma Prx-II levels were significantly higher in NPC patients (n = 84) versus healthy controls (n = 90) (3.03 +/- 4.47 versus 1.90 +/- 2.74 microg/mL, p = 0.047). In conclusion, Cy dye labeling combined with three-dimensional fractionation is a feasible strategy for identifying differentially expressed serum proteins in an NPC xenograft model, and Prx-II may represent a potential NPC biomarker.

  18. Multicolor fluorescent intravital live microscopy (FILM) for surgical tumor resection in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Thurber, Greg M; Figueiredo, Jose L; Weissleder, Ralph

    2009-11-30

    Complete surgical resection of neoplasia remains one of the most efficient tumor therapies. However, malignant cell clusters are often left behind during surgery due to the inability to visualize and differentiate them against host tissue. Here we establish the feasibility of multicolor fluorescent intravital live microscopy (FILM) where multiple cellular and/or unique tissue compartments are stained simultaneously and imaged in real time. Theoretical simulations of imaging probe localization were carried out for three agents with specificity for cancer cells, stromal host response, or vascular perfusion. This transport analysis gave insight into the probe pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution, facilitating the experimental design and allowing predictions to be made about the localization of the probes in other animal models and in the clinic. The imaging probes were administered systemically at optimal time points based on the simulations, and the multicolor FILM images obtained in vivo were then compared to conventional pathological sections. Our data show the feasibility of real time in vivo pathology at cellular resolution and molecular specificity with excellent agreement between intravital and traditional in vitro immunohistochemistry. Multicolor FILM is an accurate method for identifying malignant tissue and cells in vivo. The imaging probes distributed in a manner similar to predictions based on transport principles, and these models can be used to design future probes and experiments. FILM can provide critical real time feedback and should be a useful tool for more effective and complete cancer resection.

  19. Long-term efficiency of mesenchymal stromal cell-mediated CD-MSC/5FC therapy in human melanoma xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Kucerova, L; Skolekova, S; Demkova, L; Bohovic, R; Matuskova, M

    2014-10-01

    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) can be exploited as cellular delivery vehicles for the enzymes converting non-toxic prodrugs to toxic substances. Because of their inherent chemoresistance, they exert potent bystander and antitumor effect. Here we show that the human adipose tissue-derived MSC expressing fusion yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD-MSC) in combination with 5-fluorocytosine (5FC) mediated a long-term tumor-free survival in the 83.3% of tumor-bearing animals. CD-MSC/5FC treatment induced cytotoxicity against model human melanoma cells EGFP-A375. Only 4% of the therapeutic CD-MSC cells eliminated >98.5% of the tumor cells in vitro. Long-term tumor-free survival was confirmed in 15 out of the 18 animals. However, repeatedly used CD-MSC/5FC therapeutic regimen generated more aggressive and metastatic variant of the melanoma cells EGFP-A375/Rel3. These cells derived from the refractory xenotransplants exhibited increased resistance to the CD-MSC/5FC treatment, altered cell adhesion, migration, tumorigenic and metastatic properties. However, long-term curative effect was achieved by the augmentation of the CD-MSC/5FC regimen along with the inhibition of c-Met/hepatocyte growth factor signaling axis in this aggressive melanoma derivative. In summary, the CD-MSC/5FC regimen can be regarded as a very effective antitumor approach to achieve long-term tumor-free survival as demonstrated on a mouse model of aggressive human melanoma xenografts.

  20. Novel Mouse Xenograft Models Reveal a Critical Role of CD4+ T Cells in the Proliferation of EBV-Infected T and NK Cells

    PubMed Central

    Arai, Ayako; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kawano, Fuyuko; Ichikawa, Sayumi; Shimizu, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ohga, Shouichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Mamoru; Miura, Osamu; Komano, Jun; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, ectopically infects T or NK cells to cause severe diseases of unknown pathogenesis, including chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed xenograft models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH by transplanting patients' PBMC to immunodeficient mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγnull strain. In these models, EBV-infected T, NK, or B cells proliferated systemically and reproduced histological characteristics of the two diseases. Analysis of the TCR repertoire expression revealed that identical predominant EBV-infected T-cell clones proliferated in patients and corresponding mice transplanted with their PBMC. Expression of the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2, but not EBNA2, in the engrafted cells is consistent with the latency II program of EBV gene expression known in CAEBV. High levels of human cytokines, including IL-8, IFN-γ, and RANTES, were detected in the peripheral blood of the model mice, mirroring hypercytokinemia characteristic to both CAEBV and EBV-HLH. Transplantation of individual immunophenotypic subsets isolated from patients' PBMC as well as that of various combinations of these subsets revealed a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. In accordance with this finding, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells by the administration of the OKT4 antibody following transplantation of PBMC prevented the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This is the first report of animal models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH that are expected to be useful tools in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the diseases. PMID:22028658

  1. Novel mouse xenograft models reveal a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the proliferation of EBV-infected T and NK cells.

    PubMed

    Imadome, Ken-ichi; Yajima, Misako; Arai, Ayako; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kawano, Fuyuko; Ichikawa, Sayumi; Shimizu, Norio; Yamamoto, Naoki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ohga, Shouichi; Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Ito, Mamoru; Miura, Osamu; Komano, Jun; Fujiwara, Shigeyoshi

    2011-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a ubiquitous B-lymphotropic herpesvirus, ectopically infects T or NK cells to cause severe diseases of unknown pathogenesis, including chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and EBV-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (EBV-HLH). We developed xenograft models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH by transplanting patients' PBMC to immunodeficient mice of the NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2Rγ(null) strain. In these models, EBV-infected T, NK, or B cells proliferated systemically and reproduced histological characteristics of the two diseases. Analysis of the TCR repertoire expression revealed that identical predominant EBV-infected T-cell clones proliferated in patients and corresponding mice transplanted with their PBMC. Expression of the EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1), the latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1), and LMP2, but not EBNA2, in the engrafted cells is consistent with the latency II program of EBV gene expression known in CAEBV. High levels of human cytokines, including IL-8, IFN-γ, and RANTES, were detected in the peripheral blood of the model mice, mirroring hypercytokinemia characteristic to both CAEBV and EBV-HLH. Transplantation of individual immunophenotypic subsets isolated from patients' PBMC as well as that of various combinations of these subsets revealed a critical role of CD4+ T cells in the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. In accordance with this finding, in vivo depletion of CD4+ T cells by the administration of the OKT4 antibody following transplantation of PBMC prevented the engraftment of EBV-infected T and NK cells. This is the first report of animal models of CAEBV and EBV-HLH that are expected to be useful tools in the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of the diseases.

  2. Therapeutic efficacy of aldoxorubicin in an intracranial xenograft mouse model of human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Luis; Wyczechowska, Dorota; Musto, Alberto E; Wilk, Anna; Vashistha, Himanshu; Zapata, Adriana; Walker, Chelsey; Velasco-Gonzalez, Cruz; Parsons, Christopher; Wieland, Scott; Levitt, Daniel; Reiss, Krzysztof; Prakash, Om

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor with a median survival of 12 to 15 months after diagnosis. Acquired chemoresistance, high systemic toxicity, and low penetration of the blood brain barrier by many anticancer drugs contribute to the failure of anti-GBM therapies. To circumvent some of these obstacles, we tested a novel prodrug approach to evaluate anti-GBM efficacy by utilizing serum albumin-binding doxorubicin (Doxo), aldoxorubicin (Aldoxo), which is less toxic, is released from albumin in an acidic environment and accumulates in tumor tissues. A human GBM cell line that expresses a luciferase reporter (U87-luc) was stereotactically injected into the left striatum of the brain of immunodeficient mice. Following initial tumor growth for 12 days, mice were injected once a week in the tail-vein with Aldoxo [24 mg/kg or 18 mg/kg of doxorubicin equivalents-3/4 maximum tolerated dose (MTD)], Doxo [6 mg/kg (3/4 MTD)], or vehicle. Aldoxo-treated mice demonstrated significantly slower growth of the tumor when compared to vehicle-treated or Doxo-treated mice. Five out of eight Aldoxo-treated mice remained alive more than 60 days with a median survival of 62 days, while the median survival of vehicle- and Doxo-treated mice was only 26 days. Importantly, Aldoxo-treated mice exhibited high levels of Doxo within the tumor tissue, accompanied by low tumor cell proliferation (Ki67) and abundant intratumoral programmed cell death (cleaved caspase-3). Effective accumulation of Aldoxo in brain tumor tissues but not normal brain, its anti-tumor efficacy, and low toxicity, provide a strong rationale for evaluating this novel drug conjugate as a treatment for patients afflicted with GBM.

  3. Antibody-directed neutralization of annexin II (ANX II) inhibits neoangiogenesis and human breast tumor growth in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Meena; Blackman, Marc R; Sharma, Mahesh C

    2012-02-01

    Activation of the fibrinolytic pathway has long been associated with human breast cancer. Plasmin is the major end product of the fibrinolytic pathway and is critical for normal physiological functions. The mechanism by which plasmin is generated in breast cancer is not yet fully described. We previously identified annexin II (ANX II), a fibrinolytic receptor, in human breast tumor tissue samples and observed a strong positive correlation with advanced stage cancer (Sharma et al., 2006a). We further demonstrated that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) binds to ANX II in invasive breast cancer MDA-MB231cells, which leads to plasmin generation (Sharma et al., 2010). We hypothesize that ANX II-dependent plasmin generation in breast tumor is necessary to trigger the switch to neoangiogenesis, thereby stimulating a more aggressive cancer phenotype. Our immunohistochemical studies of human breast tumor tissues provide compelling evidence of a strong positive correlation between ANX II expression and neoangiogenesis, and suggest that ANX II is a potential target to slow or inhibit breast tumor growth by inhibiting neoangiogenesis. We now report that administration of anti-ANX II antibody potently inhibits the growth of human breast tumor in a xenograft model. Inhibition of tumor growth is at least partly due to attenuation of neoangiogenic activity within the tumor. In vitro studies demonstrate that anti-ANX II antibody inhibits angiogenesis on three dimensional matrigel cultures by eliciting endothelial cell (EC) death likely due to apoptosis. Taken together, these data suggest that selective disruption of the fibrinolytic activity of ANX II may provide a novel strategy for specific inhibition of neoangiogenesis in human breast cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of Citrus bergamia juice on human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and in metastatic xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Navarra, M; Ursino, M R; Ferlazzo, N; Russo, M; Schumacher, U; Valentiner, U

    2014-06-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor with poor prognosis in children with disseminated stage of disease. A number of studies show that molecules largely distributed in commonly consumed fruits and vegetables may have anti-tumor activity. In this study we evaluate the effect of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ) in vitro and in a spontaneous metastatic neuroblastoma SCID mouse model. Qualitative and quantitative characterizations of BJ flavonoid fractions were performed by RP-HPLC/PDA/MS. We show that BJ significantly affects SK-N-SH and LAN-1 cell proliferation in vitro, but fails to reduce primary tumor weight in vivo. Moreover, BJ reduced cell adhesiveness and invasion of LAN-1 and SK-N-SH cells in vitro and the number of pulmonary metastases under consideration of the number of tumor cells in the blood in mice inoculated with LAN-1 cells in vivo. These effects without any apparent sign of systemic toxicity confirm the potential clinical interest of BJ and lay the basis for further investigation in cancer. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Combined magnetic resonance, fluorescence, and histology imaging strategy in a human breast tumor xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Lu; Greenwood, Tiffany R.; Amstalden van Hove, Erika R.; Chughtai, Kamila; Raman, Venu; Winnard, Paul T.; Heeren, Ron; Artemov, Dmitri; Glunde, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Applications of molecular imaging in cancer and other diseases frequently require combining in vivo imaging modalities, such as magnetic resonance and optical imaging, with ex vivo optical, fluorescence, histology, and immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging, to investigate and relate molecular and biological processes to imaging parameters within the same region of interest. We have developed a multimodal image reconstruction and fusion framework that accurately combines in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI), ex vivo brightfield and fluorescence microscopic imaging, and ex vivo histology imaging. Ex vivo brightfield microscopic imaging was used as an intermediate modality to facilitate the ultimate link between ex vivo histology and in vivo MRI/MRSI. Tissue sectioning necessary for optical and histology imaging required generation of a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction module for 2D ex vivo optical and histology imaging data. We developed an external fiducial marker based 3D reconstruction method, which was able to fuse optical brightfield and fluorescence with histology imaging data. Registration of 3D tumor shape was pursued to combine in vivo MRI/MRSI and ex vivo optical brightfield and fluorescence imaging data. This registration strategy was applied to in vivo MRI/MRSI, ex vivo optical brightfield/fluorescence, as well as histology imaging data sets obtained from human breast tumor models. 3D human breast tumor data sets were successfully reconstructed and fused with this platform. PMID:22945331

  6. Effects of PHA-665752 and vemurafenib combination treatment on in vitro and murine xenograft growth of human colorectal cancer cells with BRAFV600E mutations.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Jie; Li, Zhongxin; Lv, Jian; Feng, Bo; Yang, Donghai; Xue, Liang; Zhao, Zhaolong; Zhang, Yanni; Wu, Jianhua; Jv, Yingchao; Jia, Yitao

    2018-03-01

    It remains unknown whether blockade of B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) V600E signaling and MET proto-oncogene, receptor tyrosine kinase (c-Met) signaling is effective in suppressing the growth of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The present study investigated the effects of the vemurafenib alone and in combination with c-Met inhibitor PHA-665752 on the growth of human CRC cells in vitro and in mouse xenografts. HT-29 and RKO CRC cell lines with BRAF V600E mutations and mice bearing HT-29 xenografts were treated with vemurafenib in the absence or presence of PHA-665752. Cell viability and cycle phase were respectively examined by using the MTT and flow cytometry assay. Immunohistochemistry was conducted to detect the protein expression levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), phosphorylated (p)-c-Met, p-AKT serine/threonine kinase (AKT) and p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). The MTT assay demonstrated that the growth of RKO and HT-29 cells was inhibited by PHA-665752 in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.05), however no significant suppressive effects were observed with vemurafenib. Relative to the PHA-665752 or vemurafenib stand-alone treatment groups, the combination of PHA-665752 and vemurafenib had a significant inhibitory effect on the proliferation of CRC cell lines (P<0.05). The mean tumor volume in mice treated with vemurafenib in combination with PHA-665752 was significantly smaller compared with those treated with only vemurafenib or PHA-665752 (P<0.05). Flow cytometry assay revealed that the G0/G1 phase frequency was significantly increased in the combination group compared with any other treatment groups (P<0.05). Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that vemurafenib in combination with PHA-665752 effectively induced the expression of p-c-Met, p-AKT and p-ERK, however had no effect on HGF.

  7. EGFRvIII-specific chimeric antigen receptor T cells migrate to and kill tumor deposits infiltrating the brain parenchyma in an invasive xenograft model of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Miao, Hongsheng; Choi, Bryan D; Suryadevara, Carter M; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Yang, Shicheng; De Leon, Gabriel; Sayour, Elias J; McLendon, Roger; Herndon, James E; Healy, Patrick; Archer, Gary E; Bigner, Darell D; Johnson, Laura A; Sampson, John H

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression.

  8. Novel 2-step synthetic indole compound 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane inhibits cancer cell growth in lung cancer cells and xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Yao, Ching-Fa; Huang, Sin-Ming; Ko, Shengkai; Tan, Yi-Hung; Lee-Chen, Guey-Jen; Wang, Yi-Ching

    2008-08-15

    The clinical responses to chemotherapy in lung cancer patients are unsatisfactory. Thus, the development of more effective anticancer drugs for lung cancer is urgently needed. A 2-step novel synthetic compound, referred to as 1,1,3-tri(3-indolyl)cyclohexane (3-indole), was generated in high purity and yield. 3-Indole was tested for its biologic activity in A549, H1299, H1435, CL1-1, and H1437 lung cancer cells. Animal studies were also performed. The data indicate that 3-indole induced apoptosis in various lung cancer cells. Increased cytochrome-c release from mitochondria to cytosol, decreased expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2, and increased expression of proapoptotic Bax were observed. In addition, 3-indole stimulated caspases-3, -9, and to a lesser extent caspase-8 activities in cancer cells, suggesting that the intrinsic mitochondria pathway was the potential mechanism involved in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. 3-Indole-induced a concentration-dependent mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation and an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and triggering of DNA damage were also apparent. Note that 3-indole-induced JNK activation and DNA damage can be partially suppressed by an ROS inhibitor. Apoptosis induced by 3-indole could be abrogated by ROS or JNK inhibitors, suggesting the importance of ROS and JNK stress-related pathways in 3-indole-induced apoptosis. Moreover, 3-indole showed in vivo antitumor activities against human xenografts in murine models. On the basis of its potent anticancer activity in cell and animal models, the data suggest that this 2-step synthetic 3-indole compound of high purity and yield is a potential candidate to be tested as a lead pharmaceutical compound for cancer treatment. 2008 American Cancer Society

  9. Efficient Human Breast Cancer Xenograft Regression after a Single Treatment with a Novel Liposomal Formulation of Epirubicin Prepared Using the EDTA Ion Gradient Method

    PubMed Central

    Gubernator, Jerzy; Lipka, Dominik; Korycińska, Mariola; Kempińska, Katarzyna; Milczarek, Magdalena; Wietrzyk, Joanna; Hrynyk, Rafał; Barnert, Sabine; Süss, Regine; Kozubek, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Liposomes act as efficient drug carriers. Recently, epirubicin (EPI) formulation was developed using a novel EDTA ion gradient method for drug encapsulation. This formulation displayed very good stability and drug retention in vitro in a two-year long-term stability experiment. The cryo-TEM images show drug precipitate structures different than ones formed with ammonium sulfate method, which is usually used to encapsulate anthracyclines. Its pharmacokinetic properties and its efficacy in the human breast MDA-MB-231 cancer xenograft model were also determined. The liposomal EPI formulation is eliminated slowly with an AUC of 7.6487, while the free drug has an AUC of only 0.0097. The formulation also had a much higher overall antitumor efficacy than the free drug. PMID:24621591

  10. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    SciTech Connect

    Kaylani, Samer Z.; Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K.

    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissuemore » sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis

  11. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice.

    PubMed

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Putt, Mary E; Leeper, Dennis B; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L; Glickson, Jerry D

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined.

  12. Comparison of the Lonidamine Potentiated Effect of Nitrogen Mustard Alkylating Agents on the Systemic Treatment of DB-1 Human Melanoma Xenografts in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Putt, Mary E.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Garman, Bradley; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Glickson, Jerry D.

    2016-01-01

    Previous NMR studies demonstrated that lonidamine (LND) selectively diminishes the intracellular pH (pHi) of DB-1 melanoma and mouse xenografts of a variety of other prevalent human cancers while decreasing their bioenergetic status (tumor βNTP/Pi ratio) and enhancing the activities of melphalan and doxorubicin in these cancer models. Since melphalan and doxorubicin are highly toxic agents, we have examined three other nitrogen (N)-mustards, chlorambucil, cyclophosphamide and bendamustine, to determine if they exhibit similar potentiation by LND. As single agents LND, melphalan and these N-mustards exhibited the following activities in DB-1 melanoma xenografts; LND: 100% tumor surviving fraction (SF); chlorambucil: 100% SF; cyclophosphamide: 100% SF; bendamustine: 79% SF; melphalan: 41% SF. When combined with LND administered 40 min prior to administration of the N-mustard (to maximize intracellular acidification) the following responses were obtained; chlorambucil: 62% SF; cyclophosphamide: 42% SF; bendamustine: 36% SF; melphalan: 10% SF. The effect of LND on the activities of these N-mustards is generally attributed to acid stabilization of the aziridinium active intermediate, acid inhibition of glutathione-S-transferase, which acts as a scavenger of aziridinium, and acid inhibition of DNA repair by O6-alkyltransferase. Depletion of ATP by LND may also decrease multidrug resistance and increase tumor response. At similar maximum tolerated doses, our data indicate that melphalan is the most effective N-mustard in combination with LND when treating DB-1 melanoma in mice, but the choice of N-mustard for coadministration with LND will also depend on the relative toxicities of these agents, and remains to be determined. PMID:27285585

  13. FXR controls the tumor suppressor NDRG2 and FXR agonists reduce liver tumor growth and metastasis in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Deuschle, Ulrich; Schüler, Julia; Schulz, Andreas; Schlüter, Thomas; Kinzel, Olaf; Abel, Ulrich; Kremoser, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is expressed predominantly in tissues exposed to high levels of bile acids and controls bile acid and lipid homeostasis. FXR(-/-) mice develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and show an increased prevalence for intestinal malignancies, suggesting a role of FXR as a tumor suppressor in enterohepatic tissues. The N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) has been recognized as a tumor suppressor gene, which is downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma, colorectal carcinoma and many other malignancies.We show reduced NDRG2 mRNA in livers of FXR(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice and both, FXR and NDRG2 mRNAs, are reduced in human HCC compared to normal liver. Gene reporter assays and Chromatin Immunoprecipitation data support that FXR directly controls NDRG2 transcription via IR1-type element(s) identified in the first introns of the human, mouse and rat NDRG2 genes. NDRG2 mRNA was induced by non-steroidal FXR agonists in livers of mice and the magnitude of induction of NDRG2 mRNA in three different human hepatoma cell lines was increased when ectopically expressing human FXR. Growth and metastasis of SK-Hep-1 cells was strongly reduced by non-steroidal FXR agonists in an orthotopic liver xenograft tumor model. Ectopic expression of FXR in SK-Hep1 cells reduced tumor growth and metastasis potential of corresponding cells and increased the anti-tumor efficacy of FXR agonists, which may be partly mediated via increased NDRG2 expression. FXR agonists may show a potential in the prevention and/or treatment of human hepatocellular carcinoma, a devastating malignancy with increasing prevalence and limited therapeutic options.

  14. A novel, selective inhibitor of fibroblast growth factor receptors that shows a potent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Genshi; Li, Wei-Ying; Chen, Daohong; Henry, James R; Li, Hong-Yu; Chen, Zhaogen; Zia-Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Bloem, Laura; Zhai, Yan; Huss, Karen; Peng, Sheng-Bin; McCann, Denis J

    2011-11-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptors (FGFR) are tyrosine kinases that are present in many types of endothelial and tumor cells and play an important role in tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as in maintaining tumor angiogenesis. Overexpression of FGFRs or aberrant regulation of their activities has been implicated in many forms of human malignancies. Therefore, targeting FGFRs represents an attractive strategy for development of cancer treatment options by simultaneously inhibiting tumor cell growth, survival, and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis. Here, we describe a potent, selective, small-molecule FGFR inhibitor, (R)-(E)-2-(4-(2-(5-(1-(3,5-Dichloropyridin-4-yl)ethoxy)-1H-indazol-3yl)vinyl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanol, designated as LY2874455. This molecule is active against all 4 FGFRs, with a similar potency in biochemical assays. It exhibits a potent activity against FGF/FGFR-mediated signaling in several cancer cell lines and shows an excellent broad spectrum of antitumor activity in several tumor xenograft models representing the major FGF/FGFR relevant tumor histologies including lung, gastric, and bladder cancers and multiple myeloma, and with a well-defined pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship. LY2874455 also exhibits a 6- to 9-fold in vitro and in vivo selectivity on inhibition of FGF- over VEGF-mediated target signaling in mice. Furthermore, LY2874455 did not show VEGF receptor 2-mediated toxicities such as hypertension at efficacious doses. Currently, this molecule is being evaluated for its potential use in the clinic.

  15. A ketogenic diet supplemented with medium-chain triglycerides enhances the anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic efficacy of chemotherapy on neuroblastoma xenografts in a CD1-nu mouse model.

    PubMed

    Aminzadeh-Gohari, Sepideh; Feichtinger, René Günther; Vidali, Silvia; Locker, Felix; Rutherford, Tricia; O'Donnel, Maura; Stöger-Kleiber, Andrea; Mayr, Johannes Adalbert; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2017-09-12

    Neuroblastoma (NB) is a pediatric malignancy characterized by a marked reduction in aerobic energy metabolism. Recent preclinical data indicate that targeting this metabolic phenotype by a ketogenic diet (KD), especially in combination with calorie restriction, slows tumor growth and enhances metronomic cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy of NB xenografts. Because calorie restriction would be contraindicated in most cancer patients, the aim of the present study was to optimize the KD such that the tumors are sensitized to CP without the need of calorie restriction. In a NB xenograft model, metronomic CP was combined with KDs of different triglyceride compositions and fed to CD1-nu mice ad libitum . Metronomic CP in combination with a KD containing 8-carbon medium-chain triglycerides exerted a robust anti-tumor effect, suppressing growth and causing a significant reduction of tumor blood-vessel density and intratumoral hemorrhage, accompanied by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in NB cells. Furthermore, the KDs caused a significant reduction in the serum levels of essential amino acids, but increased those of serine, glutamine and glycine. Our data suggest that targeting energy metabolism by a modified KD may be considered as part of a multimodal treatment regimen to improve the efficacy of classic anti-NB therapy.

  16. Effects of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 expression in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and breast carcinoma of nude mice xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xue, Rong-quan; Gu, Jun-chao; Yu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Zhong-tao; Ma, Xue-mei

    2012-02-01

    It is important to identify the multiple sites of leptin activity in obese women with breast cancer. In this study, we examined the effect of exogenous human leptin on heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) expression in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in a breast carcinoma xenograft model of nude mice. We cultured MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and established nude mice bearing xenografts of these cells, and randomly divided them into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was treated with human leptin, while the control group was treated with the same volume of normal saline. A real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed to quantify the mRNA expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and in tumor tissues. Western blotting analysis was applied to quantify the protein expression of HSP70 in the MCF-7 cells. Immunohistochemical staining was done to assess the positive rate of HSP70 expression in the tumor tissues. Leptin activated HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro: leptin upregulated significantly the expression of HSP70 at mRNA and protein levels in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in expression of HSP70 mRNA in the implanted tumors between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P > 0.05). Immunohistochemical staining revealed no significant difference in tumor HSP70 expression between the leptin-treated group and the control group (P > 0.05). A nude mouse xenograft model can be safely and efficiently treated with human leptin by subcutaneous injections around the tumor. HSP70 may be target of leptin in breast cancer. Leptin can significantly upregulate the expression of HSP70 in a dose-dependent manner in vitro.

  17. The presence of a membrane-bound progesterone receptor induces growth of breast cancer with norethisterone but not with progesterone: A xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue; Ruan, Xiangyan; Wang, Husheng; Li, Xue; Gu, Muqing; Wang, Lijuan; Li, Yanglu; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2017-08-01

    During menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) a possible increase in breast cancer risk is thought to depend mainly on the progestogen component. In vitro studies have shown that the progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) is important for tumor proliferation induced by progestogens. The primary aim of this study was to compare for the first time the natural progestogen, progesterone (P), with a synthetic progestogen, norethisterone (NET), using a xenograft model. MCF7 cells, transfected with PGRMC1 plasmid or empty vector, were injected into nude mice and estradiol (E2) pellets were implanted. After 12days, NET or P or placebo pellets were implanted. Tumor volumes in all groups (6 mice/group) were monitored for 6-7 weeks. Immunohistochemical expression of PGRMC1 and KI-67 was assessed. These experiments were repeated using T47D cells. Compared with the control condition, E2 and sequential E2/NET combination increased xenograft tumor growth with MCF7 and T47D cells that transgenically expressed PGRMC1 (p<0.01); progesterone did not increase growth. Breast cancer cells transfected with empty vectors did not respond to either progestogen. Comparing KI-67 and PGRMC1 expression, the Pearson correlation was r=0.848, p=0.002. E2 plus NET increases tumor growth in human breast cancer cells overexpressing PGRMC1, but there is no change with progesterone. To our knowledge, this is the first comparison of both progestogens in vivo using nude mice, which are frequently used in xenograft models. Clinical trials are needed to determine whether women with overexpression of PGRMC1 are at increased risk of breast cancer if NET instead of progesterone is used in MHT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Application of Heptamethine Cyanine Dye DZ-1 and Indocyanine Green for Imaging and Targeting in Xenograft Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Caiqin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, He; Chen, Xue; Zhao, Ningning; Tan, Dengxu; Zhang, Hai; Shi, Changhong

    2017-06-21

    Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has strong potential for widespread use in noninvasive tumor imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -approved NIRF dye for clinical diagnosis; however, it is unstable and poorly targets tumors. DZ-1 is a novel heptamethine cyanine NIRF dye, suitable for imaging and tumor targeting. Here, we compared the fluorescence intensity and metabolism of DZ-1 and ICG. Additionally, we assayed their specificities and abilities to target tumor cells, using cultured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, a nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model of liver cancer, and a rabbit orthotopic transplantation model. We found that DZ-1 accumulates in tumor tissue and specifically recognizes HCC in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. The NIRF intensity of DZ-1 was one order of magnitude stronger than that of ICG, and DZ-1 showed excellent intraoperative tumor targeting in the rabbit model. Importantly, ICG accumulated at tumor sites, as well as in the liver and kidney. Furthermore, DZ-1 analog-gemcitabine conjugate (NIRG) exhibited similar tumor-specific targeting and imaging properties, including inhibition of tumor growth, in HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice. DZ-1 and NIRG demonstrated superior tumor-targeting specificity, compared to ICG. We show that DZ-1 is an effective molecular probe for specific imaging, targeting, and therapy in HCC.

  19. The Application of Heptamethine Cyanine Dye DZ-1 and Indocyanine Green for Imaging and Targeting in Xenograft Models of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Caiqin; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, He; Chen, Xue; Zhao, Ningning; Tan, Dengxu; Zhang, Hai; Shi, Changhong

    2017-01-01

    Near infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging has strong potential for widespread use in noninvasive tumor imaging. Indocyanine green (ICG) is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) -approved NIRF dye for clinical diagnosis; however, it is unstable and poorly targets tumors. DZ-1 is a novel heptamethine cyanine NIRF dye, suitable for imaging and tumor targeting. Here, we compared the fluorescence intensity and metabolism of DZ-1 and ICG. Additionally, we assayed their specificities and abilities to target tumor cells, using cultured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, a nude mouse subcutaneous xenograft model of liver cancer, and a rabbit orthotopic transplantation model. We found that DZ-1 accumulates in tumor tissue and specifically recognizes HCC in subcutaneous and orthotopic models. The NIRF intensity of DZ-1 was one order of magnitude stronger than that of ICG, and DZ-1 showed excellent intraoperative tumor targeting in the rabbit model. Importantly, ICG accumulated at tumor sites, as well as in the liver and kidney. Furthermore, DZ-1 analog-gemcitabine conjugate (NIRG) exhibited similar tumor-specific targeting and imaging properties, including inhibition of tumor growth, in HCC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) mice. DZ-1 and NIRG demonstrated superior tumor-targeting specificity, compared to ICG. We show that DZ-1 is an effective molecular probe for specific imaging, targeting, and therapy in HCC. PMID:28635650

  20. Discovery of LY2457546: a multi-targeted anti-angiogenic kinase inhibitor with a novel spectrum of activity and exquisite potency in the acute myelogenous leukemia-Flt-3-internal tandem duplication mutant human tumor xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Timothy P; Clayton, Joshua R; Rempala, Mark E; Henry, James R; Knobeloch, John M; Mendel, David; McLean, Johnathan A; Hao, Yan; Barda, David A; Considine, Eileen L; Uhlik, Mark T; Chen, Yuefeng; Ma, Liandong; Bloem, Laura J; Akunda, Jacqueline K; McCann, Denis J; Sanchez-Felix, Manuel; Clawson, David K; Lahn, Michael M; Starling, James J

    2012-06-01

    LY2457546 is a potent and orally bioavailable inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases involved in angiogenic and tumorigenic signalling. In biochemical and cellular assays, LY2457546 demonstrates potent activity against targets that include VEGFR2 (KDR), PDGFRβ, FLT-3, Tie-2 and members of the Eph family of receptors. With activities against both Tie2 and Eph receptors, LY2457546 possesses an activity profile that distinguishes it from multikinase inhibitors. When compared head to head with sunitinib, LY2457546 was more potent for inhibition of endothelial tube formation in an in vitro angiogenesis co-culture model with an intermittent treatment design. In vivo, LY2457546 inhibited VEGF-driven autophosphorylation of lung KDR in the mouse and rat in a dose and concentration dependent manner. LY2457546 was well tolerated and exhibited efficacy in a 13762 syngeneic rat mammary tumor model in both once and twice daily continuous dosing schedules and in mouse human tumor xenograft models of lung, colon, and prostate origin. Additionally, LY2457546 caused complete regression of well-established tumors in an acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) FLT3-ITD mutant xenograft tumor model. The observed efficacy that was displayed by LY2457546 in the AML FLT3-ITD mutant tumor model was superior to sunitinib when both were evaluated using equivalent doses normalized to in vivo inhibition of pKDR in mouse lung. LY2457546 was well tolerated in non-clinical toxicology studies conducted in rats and dogs. The majority of the toxicities observed were similar to those observed with other multi-targeted anti-angiogenic kinase inhibitors (MAKs) and included bone marrow hypocellularity, hair and skin depigmentation, cartilage dysplasia and lymphoid organ degeneration and necrosis. Thus, the unique spectrum of target activity, potent in vivo anti-tumor efficacy in a variety of rodent and human solid tumor models, exquisite potency against a clinically relevant model of AML, and non

  1. The feasibility of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for monitoring early response of Endostar antiangiogenic therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model compared with 18F-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Zhang, Caiyuan; Cheng, Weiwei; Hai, Wangxi; Yin, Bing; Wang, Dengbin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have been developed for PET imaging of integrin avβ3 in the tumor vasculature, leading to great potential for noninvasively evaluating tumor angiogenesis and monitoring antiangiogenic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for PET/CT for detecting tumor angiogenesis and monitoring the early therapeutic efficacy of antiangiogenic agent Endostar in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft model. Experimental design and results Mice bearing NPC underwent 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT at baseline and after 2, 4, 7, and 14 days of consecutive treatment with Endostar or PBS, compared with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Tumors were harvested at all imaging time points for histopathological analysis with H & E and microvessel density (MVD) and integrin avβ3 immunostaining. The maximum percent injected dose per gram of body weight (%ID/gmax) tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT was significantly lower than that in the control group starting from day 2 (p < 0.01), much earlier and more accurately than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT. Moreover, a moderate linear correlation was observed between tumor MVD and the corresponding tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT (r = 0.853, p < 0.01). Conclusions 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT can be used for in vivo angiogenesis imaging and monitoring early response to Endostar antiangiogenic treatment in NPC xenograft model, favoring its potential clinical translation. PMID:27029065

  2. Time-dependent pharmacokinetics of dexamethasone and its efficacy in human breast cancer xenograft mice: a semi-mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Chen, Rong; Yao, Qing-Yu; Liu, Sheng-Jun; Tian, Xiu-Yun; Hao, Chun-Yi; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tian-Yan

    2018-03-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is the substrate of CYP3A. However, the activity of CYP3A could be induced by DEX when DEX was persistently administered, resulting in auto-induction and time-dependent pharmacokinetics (pharmacokinetics with time-dependent clearance) of DEX. In this study we investigated the pharmacokinetic profiles of DEX after single or multiple doses in human breast cancer xenograft nude mice and established a semi-mechanism-based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model for characterizing the time-dependent PK of DEX as well as its anti-cancer effect. The mice were orally given a single or multiple doses (8 mg/kg) of DEX, and the plasma concentrations of DEX were assessed using LC-MS/MS. Tumor volumes were recorded daily. Based on the experimental data, a two-compartment model with first order absorption and time-dependent clearance was established, and the time-dependence of clearance was modeled by a sigmoid E max equation. Moreover, a semi-mechanism-based PK/PD model was developed, in which the auto-induction effect of DEX on its metabolizing enzyme CYP3A was integrated and drug potency was described using an E max equation. The PK/PD model was further used to predict the drug efficacy when the auto-induction effect was or was not considered, which further revealed the necessity of adding the auto-induction effect into the final PK/PD model. This study established a semi-mechanism-based PK/PD model for characterizing the time-dependent pharmacokinetics of DEX and its anti-cancer effect in breast cancer xenograft mice. The model may serve as a reference for DEX dose adjustments or optimization in future preclinical or clinical studies.

  3. Subharmonic-Aided Pressure Estimation for Monitoring Interstitial Fluid Pressure in Tumors: Calibration and Treatment with Paclitaxel in Breast Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Halldorsdottir, Valgerdur G; Dave, Jaydev K; Marshall, Andrew; Forsberg, Anya I; Fox, Traci B; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; Liu, Ji-Bin; Merton, Daniel A; Forsberg, Flemming

    2017-07-01

    Interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in rats with breast cancer xenografts was non-invasively estimated using subharmonic-aided pressure estimation (SHAPE) versus an invasive pressure monitor. Moreover, monitoring of IFP changes after chemotherapy was assessed. Eighty-nine rats (calibration n = 25, treatment n = 64) were injected with 5 × 10 6 breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Radiofrequency signals were acquired (39 rats successfully imaged) with a Sonix RP scanner (BK Ultrasound, Richmond, BC, Canada) using a linear array (L9-4, transmit/receive: 8/4 MHz) after administration of Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, North Billerica, MA, USA; 180 μL/kg) and compared with readings from an invasive pressure monitor (Stryker, Berkshire, UK). An inverse linear relationship was established between tumor IFP and SHAPE (y = -1.06x + 28.27, r = -0.69, p = 0.01) in the calibration group. Use of this relationship in the treatment group resulted in r = 0.74 (p < 0.05) between measured (pressure monitor) and SHAPE-estimated IFP (average error: 6.24 mmHg). No significant before/after differences were observed with respect to paclitaxel treatment (5 mg/kg, Mayne Pharma, Paramus, NJ, USA) with either method (p ≥ 0.15). Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the Anticancer Properties of Liposomal Copper in a Nude Mouse Xenograft Model of Human Prostate Cancer: Formulation, In Vitro, In Vivo, Histology and Tissue Distribution Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Zeng, San; Lin, Tien-Min; Krugner-Higby, Lisa; Lyman, Doug; Steffen, Dana; Xiong, May P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although copper (Cu) complexes have been investigated as anticancer agents, there has been no description of Cu itself as a cancer killing agent. A stealth liposomal Cu formulation (LpCu) was studied in vitro and in vivo. Methods LpCu was evaluated in prostate cancer origin PC-3 cells by a metabolic cytotoxicity assay, by monitoring reactive oxygen species (ROS), and by flow cytometry. LpCu efficacy was evaluated in vivo using intratumoral and intravenous injections into mice bearing PC-3 xenograft tumors. Toxicology was assessed by performing hematological and blood biochemistry assays, and tissue histology and Cu distribution was investigated by elemental analysis. Results LpCu and free Cu salts displayed similar levels of cell metabolic toxicity and ROS. Flow cytometry indicated that the mechanisms of cell death were both apoptosis and necrosis. Animals injected i.t. with 3.5 mg/kg or i.v. with 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg LpCu exhibited significant tumor growth inhibition. Kidney and eye were the main organs affected by Cu-mediated toxicities, but spleen and liver were the major organs of Cu deposition. Conclusions LpCu was effective at reducing tumor burden in the xenograft prostate cancer model. There was histological evidence of Cu toxicity in kidneys and eyes of animals treated at the maximum tolerated dose of LpCu 7.0 mg/kg. PMID:24848339

  5. Orthotopic Patient-Derived Glioblastoma Xenografts in Mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhongye; Kader, Michael; Sen, Rajeev; Placantonakis, Dimitris G

    2018-01-01

    Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) provide in vivo glioblastoma (GBM) models that recapitulate actual tumors. Orthotopic tumor xenografts within the mouse brain are obtained by injection of GBM stem-like cells derived from fresh surgical specimens. These xenografts reproduce GBM's histologic complexity and hallmark biological behaviors, such as brain invasion, angiogenesis, and resistance to therapy. This method has become essential for analyzing mechanisms of tumorigenesis and testing the therapeutic effect of candidate agents in the preclinical setting. Here, we describe a protocol for establishing orthotopic tumor xenografts in the mouse brain with human GBM cells.

  6. Antitumor activity of erlotinib (OSI-774, Tarceva) alone or in combination in human non-small cell lung cancer tumor xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Brian; Kolinsky, Kenneth; Smith, Melissa; Beck, Gordon; Rashed, Mohammad; Adames, Violeta; Linn, Michael; Wheeldon, Eric; Gand, Laurent; Birnboeck, Herbert; Hoffmann, Gerhard

    2004-06-01

    Our objective was the preclinical assessment of the pharmacokinetics, monotherapy and combined antitumor activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (HER1/EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in athymic nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft models. Immunohistochemistry determined the HER1/EGFR status of the NSCLC tumor models. Pharmacokinetic studies assessed plasma drug concentrations of erlotinib in tumor- and non-tumor-bearing athymic nude mice. These were followed by maximum tolerated dose (MTD) studies for erlotinib and each chemotherapy. Erlotinib was then assessed alone and in combination with these chemotherapies in the NSCLC xenograft models. Complete necropsies were performed on most of the animals in each study to further assess antitumor or toxic effects. Erlotinib monotherapy dose-dependently inhibited tumor growth in the H460a tumor model, correlating with circulating levels of drug. There was antitumor activity at the MTD with each agent tested in both the H460a and A549 tumor models (erlotinib 100 mg/kg: 71 and 93% tumor growth inhibition; gemcitabine 120 mg/kg: 93 and 75% tumor growth inhibition; cisplatin 6 mg/kg: 81 and 88% tumor growth inhibition). When each compound was given at a fraction of the MTD, tumor growth inhibition was suboptimal. Combinations of gemcitabine or cisplatin with erlotinib were assessed at 25% of the MTD to determine efficacy. In both NSCLC models, doses of gemcitabine (30 mg/kg) or cisplatin (1.5 mg/kg) with erlotinib (25 mg/kg) at 25% of the MTD were well tolerated. For the slow growing A549 tumor, there was significant tumor growth inhibition in the gemcitabine/erlotinib and cisplatin/erlotinib combinations (above 100 and 98%, respectively), with partial regressions. For the faster growing H460a tumor, there was significant but less remarkable tumor growth inhibition in these same combinations (86 and 53% respectively). These results show that in NSCLC xenograft tumors with similar

  7. Comparison of planar, PET and well-counter measurements of total tumor radioactivity in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael V; Seidel, Jurgen; Williams, Mark R; Wong, Karen J; Ton, Anita; Basuli, Falguni; Choyke, Peter L; Jagoda, Elaine M

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative small animal radionuclide imaging studies are often carried out with the intention of estimating the total radioactivity content of various tissues such as the radioactivity content of mouse xenograft tumors exposed to putative diagnostic or therapeutic agents. We show that for at least one specific application, positron projection imaging (PPI) and PET yield comparable estimates of absolute total tumor activity and that both of these estimates are highly correlated with direct well-counting of these same tumors. These findings further suggest that in this particular application, PPI is a far more efficient data acquisition and processing methodology than PET. Forty-one athymic mice were implanted with PC3 human prostate cancer cells transfected with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA (+)) and one additional animal (for a total of 42) with a control blank vector (PSMA (-)). All animals were injected with [ 18 F] DCFPyl, a ligand for PSMA, and imaged for total tumor radioactivity with PET and PPI. The tumors were then removed, assayed by well counting for total radioactivity and the values between these methods intercompared. PET, PPI and well-counter estimates of total tumor radioactivity were highly correlated (R 2 >0.98) with regression line slopes near unity (0.95xenograft tumor radioactivity can be measured with PET or PPI with an accuracy comparable to well counting if certain experimental and pharmacokinetic conditions are met. In this particular application, PPI is significantly more efficient than PET in making these measurements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Color-coding cancer and stromal cells with genetic reporters in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model of pancreatic cancer enhances fluorescence-guided surgery

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Shuya; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Maawy, Ali; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Suetsugu, Atsushi; Miwa, Shinji; Toneri, Makoto; Yamamoto, Mako; Katz, Matthew H.G.; Fleming, Jason B.; Urata, Yasuo; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Bouvet, Michael; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Precise fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) for pancreatic cancer has the potential to greatly improve the outcome in this recalcitrant disease. In order to achieve this goal, we have used genetic reporters to color code cancer and stroma cells in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The telomerase-dependent green fluorescent protein (GFP) containing adenovirus OBP401 was used to label the cancer cells of the pancreatic cancer PDOX. The PDOX was previously grown in a red fluorescent protein (RFP) transgenic mouse that stably labeled the PDOX stroma cells bright red. The color-coded PDOX model enabled FGS to completely resect the pancreatic tumors including stroma. Dual-colored FGS significantly prevented local recurrence, which bright-light surgery (BLS) or single color could not. FGS, with color-coded cancer and stroma cells has important potential for improving the outcome of recalcitrant cancer. PMID:26088297

  9. Prevention of EBV lymphoma development by oncolytic myxoma virus in a murine xenograft model of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Manbok, E-mail: manbok66@dankook.ac.kr; Rahman, Masmudur M.; Cogle, Christopher R.

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) has been associated with a variety of epithelial and hematologic malignancies, including B-, T- and NK cell-lymphomas, Hodgkin's disease (HD), post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases (LPDs), nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinomas, smooth muscle tumors, and HIV-associated lymphomas. Currently, treatment options for EBV-associated malignancies are limited. We have previously shown that myxoma virus specifically targets various human solid tumors and leukemia cells in a variety of animal models, while sparing normal human or murine tissues. Since transplant recipients of bone marrow or solid organs often develop EBV-associated post-transplant LPDs and lymphoma, myxoma virus may be of utility to prevent EBV-associated malignanciesmore » in immunocompromised transplant patients where treatment options are frequently limited. In this report, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of myxoma virus purging as a prophylactic strategy for preventing post-transplant EBV-transformed human lymphomas, using a highly immunosuppressed mouse xenotransplantation model. This provides support for developing myxoma virus as a potential oncolytic therapy for preventing EBV-associated LPDs following transplantation of bone marrow or solid organ allografts. - Highlights: • Myxoma virus effectively infects and purges EBV lymphoma cells in vivo. • Oncolytic myxoma virus effectively eradicates oncogenic EBV tumorigenesis. • Ex vivo pre-treatment of myxoma virus can be effective as a preventive treatment modality for post-transplant lymphoproliferative diseases.« less

  10. Vitrification and xenografting of human ovarian tissue.

    PubMed

    Amorim, Christiani Andrade; Dolmans, Marie-Madeleine; David, Anu; Jaeger, Jonathan; Vanacker, Julie; Camboni, Alessandra; Donnez, Jacques; Van Langendonckt, Anne

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficiency of two vitrification protocols to cryopreserve human preantral follicles with the use of a xenografting model. Pilot study. Gynecology research unit in a university hospital. Ovarian biopsies were obtained from seven women aged 30-41 years. Ovarian tissue fragments were subjected to one of three cryopreservation protocols (slow freezing, vitrification protocol 1, and vitrification protocol 2) and xenografted for 1 week to nude mice. The number of morphologically normal follicles after cryopreservation and grafting and fibrotic surface area were determined by histologic analysis. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL method. Morphometric analysis of TUNEL-positive surface area also was performed. Follicle proliferation was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. After xenografting, a difference was observed between the cryopreservation procedures applied. According to TUNEL analysis, both vitrification protocols showed better preservation of preantral follicles than the conventional freezing method. Moreover, histologic evaluation showed a significantly higher proportion of primordial follicles in vitrified (protocol 2)-warmed ovarian tissue than in frozen-thawed tissue. The proportion of growing follicles and fibrotic surface area was similar in all groups. Vitrification procedures appeared to preserve not only the morphology and survival of preantral follicles after 1 week of xenografting, but also their ability to resume folliculogenesis. In addition, vitrification protocol 2 had a positive impact on the quiescent state of primordial follicles after xenografting. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Inhibition on the growth of human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells in vitro and tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model by Se-containing polysaccharides from Pyracantha fortuneana.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chengfu; Wang, Changdong; Wang, Junjie; Kumar, Vikas; Anwar, Firoz; Xiao, Fangxiang; Mushtaq, Gohar; Liu, Yufei; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Yuan, Ding

    2016-11-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of cancer-related death among Women. Current therapies for breast cancer have adverse side-effects. Selenium (Se)-containing polysaccharides have multiple health benefits to humans. Pyracantha fortuneana (P. fortuneana) contains rich Se polysaccharides. We hypothesized that Se-containing polysaccharides from P. fortuneana possess anticancer activity on breast cancer via inhibiting growth and inducing apoptosis. This study aimed to assess the anticancer effect of Se-containing polysaccharides from P. fortuneana and the underlying mechanisms. Se-containing polysaccharides were purified. Their properties and monosaccharide compositions were analyzed. Their effects on cell growth, expression of cycle proteins, apoptosis and apoptosis-related protein, and tumor growth in mouse xenograft model were examined. This extract contained 93.7% (w/w) of carbohydrate, 2.1% (w/w) of uronic acid and 3.7μg/g of Se, and was considered as Se-conjugated polysaccharides (Se-PFPs). In vitro studies showed that treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) MDA-MB-231 cells with Se-PFPs (1) inhibited cell growth dose-dependently by arresting cells at G2 phase via inhibiting CDC25C-CyclinB1/CDC2 pathway; (2) caused apoptosis associated with increased p53, Bax, Puma and Noxa, decreased Bcl2, increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio and increased activities of caspases 3/9, suggesting its effect on p53-mediated cytochrome c-caspase pathway. Treatment of nude mice bearing MDA-MB-231-derived xenograft tumors with Se-PFPs significantly reduced tumor growth without altering body weight, confirming its antitumor activity without toxic side effects. Se-PFPs enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxic effects. It is concluded that Se-containing polysaccharides from P. fortuneana potently inhibit the growth and induce apoptosis of TNBC cells and can be potential anticancer agent for TNBC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase induces apoptosis in PC-3 cells and suppresses PC-3 solid tumor growth in a tumor xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mui Li; Fung, Shin Yee; Chung, Ivy; Pailoor, Jayalakshmi; Cheah, Swee Hung; Tan, Nget Hong

    2014-01-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) venom L-amino acid oxidase (OH-LAAO), a heat stable enzyme, has been shown to exhibit very potent anti-proliferative activity against human breast and lung tumorigenic cells but not in their non-tumorigenic counterparts. We further examine its in vitro and in vivo anti-tumor activity in a human prostate adenocarcinoma (PC-3) model. OH-LAAO demonstrated potent cytotoxicity against PC-3 cells with IC50 of 0.05 µg/mL after 72 h incubation in vitro. It induced apoptosis as evidenced with an increase in caspase-3/7 cleavages and an increase in annexin V-stained cells. To examine its in vivo anti-tumor activity, we treated PC-3 tumor xenograft implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient NU/NU (nude) mice with 1 µg/g OH-LAAO given intraperitoneally (i.p.). After 8 weeks of treatment, OH-LAAO treated PC-3 tumors were markedly inhibited, when compared to the control group (P <0.05). TUNEL staining analysis on the tumor sections showed a significantly increase of apoptotic cells in the LAAO-treated animals. Histological examinations of the vital organs in these two groups showed no significant differences with normal tissues, indicating no obvious tissue damage. The treatment also did not cause any significant changes on the body weight of the mice during the duration of the study. These observations suggest that OH-LAAO cytotoxic effects may be specific to tumor xenografts and less to normal organs. Given its potent anti-tumor activities shown in vitro as well as in vivo, the king cobra venom LAAO can potentially be developed to treat prostate cancer and other solid tumors.

  13. Development of induced glioblastoma by implantation of a human xenograft in Yucatan minipig as a large animal model.

    PubMed

    Khoshnevis, Mehrdad; Carozzo, Claude; Bonnefont-Rebeix, Catherine; Belluco, Sara; Leveneur, Olivia; Chuzel, Thomas; Pillet-Michelland, Elodie; Dreyfus, Matthieu; Roger, Thierry; Berger, François; Ponce, Frédérique

    2017-04-15

    Glioblastoma is the most common and deadliest primary brain tumor for humans. Despite many efforts toward the improvement of therapeutic methods, prognosis is poor and the disease remains incurable with a median survival of 12-14.5 months after an optimal treatment. To develop novel treatment modalities for this fatal disease, new devices must be tested on an ideal animal model before performing clinical trials in humans. A new model of induced glioblastoma in Yucatan minipigs was developed. Nine immunosuppressed minipigs were implanted with the U87 human glioblastoma cell line in both the left and right hemispheres. Computed tomography (CT) acquisitions were performed once a week to monitor tumor growth. Among the 9 implanted animals, 8 minipigs showed significant macroscopic tumors on CT acquisitions. Histological examination of the brain after euthanasia confirmed the CT imaging findings with the presence of an undifferentiated glioma. Yucatan minipig, given its brain size and anatomy (gyrencephalic structure) which are comparable to humans, provides a reliable brain tumor model for preclinical studies of different therapeutic METHODS: in realistic conditions. Moreover, the short development time, the lower cyclosporine and caring cost and the compatibility with the size of commercialized stereotactic frames make it an affordable and practical animal model, especially in comparison with large breed pigs. This reproducible glioma model could simulate human anatomical conditions in preclinical studies and facilitate the improvement of novel therapeutic devices, designed at the human scale from the outset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Anti-podocalyxin antibody exerts antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mouse xenograft models of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Itai, Shunsuke; Ohishi, Tomokazu; Kaneko, Mika K; Yamada, Shinji; Abe, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Chang, Yao-Wen; Ohba, Shun-Ichi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kawada, Manabu; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-04-27

    Podocalyxin (PODXL) overexpression is associated with progression, metastasis, and poor outcomes in cancers. We recently produced the novel anti-PODXL monoclonal antibody (mAb) PcMab-47 (IgG 1 , kappa). Herein, we engineered PcMab-47 into 47-mG 2a , a mouse IgG 2a -type mAb, to add antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We further developed 47-mG 2a -f, a core fucose-deficient type of 47-mG 2a to augment its ADCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of oral cancer tissues using PcMab-47 and 47-mG 2a revealed that the latter stained oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in a cytoplasmic pattern at a much lower concentration. PcMab-47 and 47-mG 2a detected PODXL in 163/201 (81.1%) and in 197/201 (98.0%) OSCC samples, respectively. 47-mG 2a -f also detected PODXL in OSCCs at a similar frequency as 47-mG 2a . In vitro analysis revealed that both 47-mG 2a and 47-mG 2a -f exhibited strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against CHO/hPODXL cells. In contrast, 47-mG 2a -f exhibited much stronger ADCC than 47-mG 2a against OSCC cells, indicating that ADCC and CDC of those anti-PODXL mAbs depend on target cells. In vivo analysis revealed that both 47-mG 2a and 47-mG 2a -f exerted antitumor activity in CHO/hPODXL xenograft models at a dose of 100 μg or 500 μg/mouse/week administered twice. 47-mG 2a -f, but not 47-mG 2a , exerted antitumor activity in SAS and HSC-2 xenograft models at a dose of 100 μg/mouse/week administered three times. Although both 47-mG 2a and 47-mG 2a -f exerted antitumor activity in HSC-2 xenograft models at a dose of 500 μg/mouse/week administered twice, 47-mG 2a -f also showed higher antitumor activity than 47-mG 2a . These results suggested that a core fucose-deficient anti-PODXL mAb could be useful for antibody-based therapy against PODXL-expressing OSCCs.

  15. Anti-podocalyxin antibody exerts antitumor effects via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in mouse xenograft models of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Itai, Shunsuke; Ohishi, Tomokazu; Kaneko, Mika K.; Yamada, Shinji; Abe, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Chang, Yao-Wen; Ohba, Shun-Ichi; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kawada, Manabu; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2018-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PODXL) overexpression is associated with progression, metastasis, and poor outcomes in cancers. We recently produced the novel anti-PODXL monoclonal antibody (mAb) PcMab-47 (IgG1, kappa). Herein, we engineered PcMab-47 into 47-mG2a, a mouse IgG2a-type mAb, to add antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We further developed 47-mG2a-f, a core fucose-deficient type of 47-mG2a to augment its ADCC. Immunohistochemical analysis of oral cancer tissues using PcMab-47 and 47-mG2a revealed that the latter stained oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cells in a cytoplasmic pattern at a much lower concentration. PcMab-47 and 47-mG2a detected PODXL in 163/201 (81.1%) and in 197/201 (98.0%) OSCC samples, respectively. 47-mG2a-f also detected PODXL in OSCCs at a similar frequency as 47-mG2a. In vitro analysis revealed that both 47-mG2a and 47-mG2a-f exhibited strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) against CHO/hPODXL cells. In contrast, 47-mG2a-f exhibited much stronger ADCC than 47-mG2a against OSCC cells, indicating that ADCC and CDC of those anti-PODXL mAbs depend on target cells. In vivo analysis revealed that both 47-mG2a and 47-mG2a-f exerted antitumor activity in CHO/hPODXL xenograft models at a dose of 100 μg or 500 μg/mouse/week administered twice. 47-mG2a-f, but not 47-mG2a, exerted antitumor activity in SAS and HSC-2 xenograft models at a dose of 100 μg/mouse/week administered three times. Although both 47-mG2a and 47-mG2a-f exerted antitumor activity in HSC-2 xenograft models at a dose of 500 μg/mouse/week administered twice, 47-mG2a-f also showed higher antitumor activity than 47-mG2a. These results suggested that a core fucose-deficient anti-PODXL mAb could be useful for antibody-based therapy against PODXL-expressing OSCCs. PMID:29854293

  16. Oxygen and Perfusion Kinetics in Response to Fractionated Radiation Therapy in FaDu Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts Are Related to Treatment Outcome

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Fangyao; Vishwanath, Karthik; Salama, Joseph K.

    Purpose: To test whether oxygenation kinetics correlate with the likelihood for local tumor control after fractionated radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: We used diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to noninvasively measure tumor vascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration associated with radiation therapy of 5 daily fractions (7.5, 9, or 13.5 Gy/d) in FaDu xenografts. Spectroscopy measurements were obtained immediately before each daily radiation fraction and during the week after radiation therapy. Oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin concentration were computed using an inverse Monte Carlo model. Results: First, oxygenation kinetics during and after radiation therapy, but before tumor volumes changed, were associated with localmore » tumor control. Locally controlled tumors exhibited significantly faster increases in oxygenation after radiation therapy (days 12-15) compared with tumors that recurred locally. Second, within the group of tumors that recurred, faster increases in oxygenation during radiation therapy (day 3-5 interval) were correlated with earlier recurrence times. An area of 0.74 under the receiver operating characteristic curve was achieved when classifying the local control tumors from all irradiated tumors using the oxygen kinetics with a logistic regression model. Third, the rate of increase in oxygenation was radiation dose dependent. Radiation doses ≤9.5 Gy/d did not initiate an increase in oxygenation, whereas 13.5 Gy/d triggered significant increases in oxygenation during and after radiation therapy. Conclusions: Additional confirmation is required in other tumor models, but these results suggest that monitoring tumor oxygenation kinetics could aid in the prediction of local tumor control after radiation therapy.« less

  17. Preclinical evaluation of the anti-tumor effects of the natural isoflavone genistein in two xenograft mouse models monitored by [18F]FDG, [18F]FLT, and [64Cu]NODAGA-cetuximab small animal PET.

    PubMed

    Honndorf, Valerie S; Wiehr, Stefan; Rolle, Anna-Maria; Schmitt, Julia; Kreft, Luisa; Quintanilla-Martinez, Letitia; Kohlhofer, Ursula; Reischl, Gerald; Maurer, Andreas; Boldt, Karsten; Schwarz, Michael; Schmidt, Holger; Pichler, Bernd J

    2016-05-10

    The natural phytoestrogen genistein is known as protein kinase inhibitor and tumor suppressor in various types of cancers. We studied its antitumor effect in two different xenograft models using positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo combined with ex vivo histology and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolic fingerprinting. A431 and Colo205 tumor-bearing mice were treated with vehicle or genistein (500 mg/kg/d) over a period of 12 days. Imaging was performed with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18F]FDG) and 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine ([18F] FLT). In a second study A431 tumor-bearing mice were treated with vehicle, genistein (500 mg/kg/d), cetuximab (1 mg/3d) or a combination of the compounds and imaged using [18F]FDG, [18F]FLT and [64Cu]NODAGA-cetuximab. Data were compared to histology and principal components analysis (PCA) of NMR fingerprinting data. Genistein reduced tumor growth significantly in both xenografts. [18F] FLT uptake was consistent in both models and corresponded to histological findings and also PCA whereas [18F]FDG and [64Cu]NODAGA-cetuximab were not suitable for therapy monitoring. As mono-therapy the natural isoflavone genistein has a powerful therapeutic effect in vivo on A431 and Colo205 tumors. [18F]FLT has superior consistency compared to the other tested tracers in therapy monitoring, while the treatment effect could be shown on the molecular level by histology and metabolic fingerprinting.

  18. Biodistribution and Safety Assessment of Bladder Cancer Specific Recombinant Oncolytic Adenovirus in Subcutaneous Xenografts Tumor Model in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhiping; Tian, Hongwei; Qi, Meijiao; Zhai, Zhenxing; Li, Shuwen; Li, Renju; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenyun; Fu, Shenjun; Lu, Jianzhong; Rodriguez, Ronald; Guo, Yinglu; Zhou, Liqun

    2012-01-01

    Background The previous works about safety evaluation for constructed bladder tissue specific adenovirus are poorly documented. Thus, we investigated the biodistribution and body toxicity of bladder specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A (APU-E1A) and Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A-AR (APU-E1A-AR), providing meaningful information prior to embarking on human clinical trials. Materials and Method Conditionally replicate recombinant adenovirus (CRADs) APU-E1A, APU-EIA-AR were constructed with bladder tissue specific Uroplakin II (UP II) promoter to induce the expression of Ad5E1A gene and E1A-AR fusing gene, and PSCAE was inserted at upstream of promoter to enhance the function of promoter. Based on the cytopathic and anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer, these CRADs were intratumorally injected into subcutaneous xenografts tumor in nude mice. We then determined the toxicity through general health and behavioral assessment, hepatic and hematological toxicity evaluation, macroscopic and microscopic postmortem analyses. The spread of the transgene E1A of adenovirus was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot. Virus replication and distribution were examined with APU-LUC administration and Luciferase Assay. Results General assessment and body weight of the animals did not reveal any alteration in general behavior. The hematological alterations of groups which were injected with 5×108 pfu or higher dose (5×109 pfu) of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR showed no difference in comparison with PBS group, and only slight increased transaminases in contrast to PBS group at 5×109 pfu of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR were observed. E1A transgene did not disseminate to organs outside of xenograft tumor. Virus replication was not detected in other organs beside tumor according to Luciferase Assay. Conclusions Our study showed that recombinant adenovirus APU-E1A-AR and APU-E1A appear safe with 5×107 pfu and 5×108 pfu intratumorally injection in mice, without any discernable effects on general health

  19. Biodistribution and safety assessment of bladder cancer specific recombinant oncolytic adenovirus in subcutaneous xenografts tumor model in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Wang, Zhiping; Tian, Hongwei; Qi, Meijiao; Zhai, Zhenxing; Li, Shuwen; Li, Renju; Zhang, Hongjuan; Wang, Wenyun; Fu, Shenjun; Lu, Jianzhong; Rodriguez, Ronald; Guo, Yinglu; Zhou, Liqun

    2012-04-01

    The previous works about safety evaluation for constructed bladder tissue specific adenovirus are poorly documented. Thus, we investigated the biodistribution and body toxicity of bladder specific oncolytic adenovirus Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A (APU-E1A) and Ad-PSCAE-UPII-E1A-AR (APU-E1A-AR), providing meaningful information prior to embarking on human clinical trials. Conditionally replicate recombinant adenovirus (CRADs) APU-E1A, APU-EIA-AR were constructed with bladder tissue specific UroplakinII(UPII) promoter to induce the expression of Ad5E1A gene and E1A-AR fusing gene, and PSCAE was inserted at upstream of promoter to enhance the function of promoter. Based on the cytopathic and anti-tumor effect of bladder cancer, these CRADs were intratumorally injected into subcutaneous xenografts tumor in nude mice. We then determined the toxicity through general health and behavioral assessment, hepatic and hematological toxicity evaluation, macroscopic and microscopic postmortem analyses. The spread of the transgene E1A of adenovirus was detected with RT-PCR and Western blot. Virus replication and distribution were examined with APU-LUC administration and Luciferase Assay. General assessment and body weight of the animals did not reveal any alteration in general behavior. The hematological alterations of groups which were injected with 5x10(8) pfu or higher dose (5x10(9) pfu) of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR showed no difference in comparison with PBS group, and only slight increased transaminases in contrast to PBS group at 5x10(9) pfu of APU-E1A and APU-E1A-AR were observed. E1A transgene did not disseminate to organs outside of xenograft tumor. Virus replication was not detected in other organs beside tumor according to Luciferase Assay. Our study showed that recombinant adenovirus APU-E1A-AR and APU-E1A appear safe with 5x10(7) pfu and 5x10(8) pfu intratumorally injection in mice, without any discernable effects on general health and behavior.

  20. In vivo molecular imaging of gastric cancer in human-murine xenograft models with confocal laser endomicroscopy using a tumor vascular homing peptide.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Yin, Jipeng; Liu, Changhao; Guan, Guofeng; Shi, Doufei; Wang, Xiaojuan; Xu, Bing; Tian, Zuhong; Zhao, Jing; Nie, Yongzhan; Wang, Biaoluo; Liang, Shuhui; Wu, Kaichun; Ding, Jie

    2015-01-28

    The early detection of premalignant lesions and cancers are very important for improving the survival of patients with gastric malignancies. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel imaging tool for achieving real-time microscopy during the ongoing endoscopy at subcellular resolution. In the present study, to evaluate the feasibility of real-time molecular imaging of GEBP11 by CLE in gastric cancer, CLE was performed on two types of tumor-bearing mice models, as well as surgical specimens of patients with gastric cancer, after the application of GEBP11. A whole-body fluorescent imaging device was first used to screen for the strongest specific fluorescent signal in xenograft models. Next, the tumor sites, as well as human tissues, were scanned with CLE. After this, targeted specimens were obtained for fluorescence microscopy and histology. We confirmed that GEBP11 could specifically bind to co-HUVECs by means of CLE in cell experiments. Thereafter, a specific signal was observed in both subcutaneous and orthotopic xenograft models in vivo after the injection of FITC-GEBP11 via tail vein, whereas the group injected with FITC-URP showed no fluorescent signals. In human tissues, a specific signal of GEBP11 was observed in 26/28 neoplastic specimens and in 8/28 samples of non-neoplastic specimens from the patients (p < 0.01). The findings from ex vivo immunofluorescence microscopy of cryostat sections correlated well with that obtained by CLE. These findings indicate that the peptide, GEBP11, might be a potential candidate for the molecular imaging of gastric cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Minocycline, a putative neuroprotectant, co-administered with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in a xenograft model of triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Himmel, Lauren E.; Lustberg, Maryam B.; DeVries, A. Courtney; Poi, Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Kulp, Samuel K.

    2016-01-01

    Minocycline is purported to have neuroprotective properties in experimental models of some human neurologic diseases, and has therefore been identified as a putative neuroprotectant for chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. However, because its mechanism of action is believed to be mediated through anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways, co-administration of minocycline with chemotherapeutic agents has the potential to reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of minocycline on the activity of the AC chemotherapeutic regimen (Adriamycin [doxorubicin], Cytoxan [cyclophosphamide]) in in vitro and in vivo models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Clonogenic and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assays were used to assess survival and viability in two TNBC cell lines treated with increasing concentrations of AC in the presence or absence of minocycline. Biomarkers of apoptosis, cell stress, and DNA damage were evaluated by western blot. The in vivo effects of AC and minocycline, each alone and in combination, were assessed in a xenograft model of TNBC in female athymic nude mice by weekly tumor volume measurement, body and organ weight measurement, and histopathology. Apoptosis and proliferation were characterized by immunohistochemistry in the xenografts tumors. Brains from tumor-bearing mice were evaluated for microglial activation, glial scars, and the proportion of neural progenitor cells. Data from these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that minocycline does not diminish the cytotoxic and tumor-suppressive effects of this chemotherapeutic drug combination in TNBC cells. Moreover, minocycline appeared to prevent the reduction in doublecortin-positive neural progenitor cells observed in AC-treated mice. We posit that minocycline may be useful clinically for its reported neuroprotective activity in breast cancer patients receiving AC without

  2. Minocycline, a putative neuroprotectant, co-administered with doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide chemotherapy in a xenograft model of triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Himmel, Lauren E; Lustberg, Maryam B; DeVries, A Courtney; Poi, Ming; Chen, Ching-Shih; Kulp, Samuel K

    2016-10-01

    Minocycline is purported to have neuroprotective properties in experimental models of some human neurologic diseases, and has therefore been identified as a putative neuroprotectant for chemotherapy-induced cognitive impairment (CICI) in breast cancer patients. However, because its mechanism of action is believed to be mediated through anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and anti-oxidant pathways, co-administration of minocycline with chemotherapeutic agents has the potential to reduce the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of minocycline on the activity of the AC chemotherapeutic regimen (Adriamycin [doxorubicin], Cytoxan [cyclophosphamide]) in in vitro and in vivo models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Clonogenic and methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assays were used to assess survival and viability in two TNBC cell lines treated with increasing concentrations of AC in the presence or absence of minocycline. Biomarkers of apoptosis, cell stress, and DNA damage were evaluated by western blot. The in vivo effects of AC and minocycline, each alone and in combination, were assessed in a xenograft model of TNBC in female athymic nude mice by weekly tumor volume measurement, body and organ weight measurement, and histopathology. Apoptosis and proliferation were characterized by immunohistochemistry in the xenografts tumors. Brains from tumor-bearing mice were evaluated for microglial activation, glial scars, and the proportion of neural progenitor cells. Data from these in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that minocycline does not diminish the cytotoxic and tumor-suppressive effects of this chemotherapeutic drug combination in TNBC cells. Moreover, minocycline appeared to prevent the reduction in doublecortin-positive neural progenitor cells observed in AC-treated mice. We posit that minocycline may be useful clinically for its reported neuroprotective activity in breast cancer patients receiving AC without

  3. Anti-tumour efficacy of etoposide alone and in combination with piroxicam against canine osteosarcoma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Ong, S M; Saeki, K; Kok, M K; Tanaka, Y; Choisunirachon, N; Yoshitake, R; Nishimura, R; Nakagawa, T

    2017-08-01

    Osteosarcoma (OSA) in dogs is locally invasive and highly malignant. Distant metastasis is the most common cause of death. To date, the survival rate in dogs with OSA remains poor. The cytotoxic effects of etoposide against canine OSA cell lines, either alone or in combination with piroxicam, have been previously demonstrated in vitro. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumour effect of etoposide alone and in combination with piroxicam on canine OSA using murine models. Etoposide single agent treatment significantly delayed tumour progression with a marked reduction in Ki-67 immunoreactivity in tumour tissue. Concomitant treatment with piroxicam did not enhance the anti-tumour efficacy of etoposide. Etoposide single agent treatment and combination treatment with piroxicam down-regulated survivin expression, but was not followed by increased apoptotic activity. These findings indicate that etoposide might be a promising novel therapeutic for canine OSA. Further investigations into its potential for clinical application in veterinary oncology are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-06-22

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs.

  5. Functional Ginger Extracts from Supercritical Fluid Carbon Dioxide Extraction via In Vitro and In Vivo Assays: Antioxidation, Antimicroorganism, and Mice Xenografts Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Chen; Chiou, Li-Yu; Wang, Jheng-Yang; Chou, Sin-You; Lan, John Chi-Wei; Huang, Tsi-Shu; Huang, Kuo-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction technology was developed to gain the active components from a Taiwan native plant, Zingiber officinale (ginger). We studied the biological effects of ginger extracts via multiple assays and demonstrated the biofunctions in each platform. Investigations of ginger extracts indicated antioxidative properties in dose-dependant manners on radical scavenging activities, reducing powers and metal chelating powers. We found that ginger extracts processed moderate scavenging values, middle metal chelating levels, and slight ferric reducing powers. The antibacterial susceptibility of ginger extracts on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus sobrinus, S. mutans, and Escherichia coli was determined with the broth microdilution method technique. The ginger extracts had operative antimicroorganism potentials against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We further discovered the strong inhibitions of ginger extracts on lethal carcinogenic melanoma through in vivo xenograft model. To sum up, the data confirmed the possible applications as medical cosmetology agents, pharmaceutical antibiotics, and food supplements. PMID:23983624

  6. Filamentous, mixed micelles of triblock copolymers enhance tumor localization of indocyanine green in a murine xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hee; Mount, Christopher W; Dulken, Benjamin W; Ramos, Jenelyn; Fu, Caroline J; Khant, Htet A; Chiu, Wah; Gombotz, Wayne R; Pun, Suzie H

    2012-01-01

    Polymeric micelles formed by the self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers can be used to encapsulate hydrophobic drugs for tumor-delivery applications. Filamentous carriers with high aspect ratios offer potential advantages over spherical carriers, including prolonged circulation times. In this work, mixed micelles comprised of poly (ethylene oxide)-poly-[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]-poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO-PHB-PEO) and Pluronic F-127 (PF-127) were used to encapsulate a near-infrared fluorophore. The micelle formulations were assessed for tumor accumulation after tail vein injection to xenograft tumor-bearing mice by non-invasive optical imaging. The mixed micelle formulation that facilitated the highest tumor accumulation was shown by cryo-electron microscopy to be filamentous in structure compared to spherical structures of pure PF-127 micelles. In addition, increased dye loading efficiency and dye stability was attained in this mixed micelle formulation compared to pure PEO-PHB-PEO micelles. Therefore, the optimized PEO-PHB-PEO/PF-127 mixed micelle formulation offers advantages for cancer delivery over micelles formed from the individual copolymer components. PMID:22118658

  7. α-Mangostin: a dietary antioxidant derived from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. inhibits pancreatic tumor growth in xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-08-10

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC.

  8. MR diffusion-weighted imaging-based subcutaneous tumour volumetry in a xenografted nude mouse model using 3D Slicer: an accurate and repeatable method

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zelan; Chen, Xin; Huang, Yanqi; He, Lan; Liang, Cuishan; Liang, Changhong; Liu, Zaiyi

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and repeatable measurement of the gross tumour volume(GTV) of subcutaneous xenografts is crucial in the evaluation of anti-tumour therapy. Formula and image-based manual segmentation methods are commonly used for GTV measurement but are hindered by low accuracy and reproducibility. 3D Slicer is open-source software that provides semiautomatic segmentation for GTV measurements. In our study, subcutaneous GTVs from nude mouse xenografts were measured by semiautomatic segmentation with 3D Slicer based on morphological magnetic resonance imaging(mMRI) or diffusion-weighted imaging(DWI)(b = 0,20,800 s/mm2) . These GTVs were then compared with those obtained via the formula and image-based manual segmentation methods with ITK software using the true tumour volume as the standard reference. The effects of tumour size and shape on GTVs measurements were also investigated. Our results showed that, when compared with the true tumour volume, segmentation for DWI(P = 0.060–0.671) resulted in better accuracy than that mMRI(P < 0.001) and the formula method(P < 0.001). Furthermore, semiautomatic segmentation for DWI(intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.9999) resulted in higher reliability than manual segmentation(ICC = 0.9996–0.9998). Tumour size and shape had no effects on GTV measurement across all methods. Therefore, DWI-based semiautomatic segmentation, which is accurate and reproducible and also provides biological information, is the optimal GTV measurement method in the assessment of anti-tumour treatments. PMID:26489359

  9. Histologic evaluation of human benign prostatic hyperplasia treated by dutasteride: a study by xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient mice.

    PubMed

    Tsujimura, Akira; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Soda, Tetsuji; Takezawa, Kentaro; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Nonomura, Norio; Adachi, Shigeki; Tokita, Yoriko; Nomura, Taisei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate histologic change in human prostate samples treated with dutasteride and to elucidate direct effects of dutasteride on human prostate tissue, the present study was conducted by using a xenograft model with improved severe combined immunodeficient (super-SCID) mice, although it is well known that dutasteride reduces prostate volume. After establishment of a xenograft model of human benign prostatic hyperplasia in morphology and function, samples implanted into super-SCID mice with and without dutasteride were evaluated pathohistologically at 2 and 6 months after initiation of dutasteride administration. The proliferative index evaluated by Ki-67 staining was significantly lower in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Apoptotic index evaluated by the terminal transferase TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling staining was higher in the dutasteride group than the control at 2 and 6 months after administration. Quick scores in the dutasteride group for staining of both cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) were significantly lower than those in the control group at 2 and 6 months after administration. Dutasteride inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis of prostatic cells, causing a reduced prostate volume. Furthermore, decreased expression of Cox-2 and RhoA within benign prostatic hyperplasia tissue by dutasteride may induce an early effect on improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms, probably by attenuating inflammation reaction of the prostate and decreasing intraurethral pressure, other than the mechanism of reduced prostate volume. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of MLH1 expression on tumor evolution after curative surgical tumor resection in a murine orthotopic xenograft model for human MSI colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Meunier, Katy; Ferron, Marianne; Calmel, Claire; Fléjou, Jean-François; Pocard, Marc; Praz, Françoise

    2017-09-01

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) displaying microsatellite instability (MSI) most often result from MLH1 deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MLH1 expression per se on tumor evolution after curative surgical resection using a xenograft tumor model. Transplantable tumors established with the human MLH1-deficient HCT116 cell line and its MLH1-complemented isogenic clone, mlh1-3, were implanted onto the caecum of NOD/SCID mice. Curative surgical resection was performed at day 10 in half of the animals. The HCT116-derived tumors were more voluminous compared to the mlh1-3 ones (P = .001). Lymph node metastases and peritoneal carcinomatosis occurred significantly more often in the group of mice grafted with HCT116 (P = .007 and P = .035, respectively). Mlh1-3-grafted mice did not develop peritoneal carcinomatosis or liver metastasis. After surgical resection, lymph node metastases only arose in the group of mice implanted with HCT116 and the rate of cure was significantly lower than in the mlh1-3 group (P = .047). The murine orthotopic xenograft model based on isogenic human CRC cell lines allowed us to reveal the impact of MLH1 expression on tumor evolution in mice who underwent curative surgical resection and in mice whose tumor was left in situ. Our data indicate that the behavior of MLH1-deficient CRC is not only governed by mutations arising in genes harboring microsatellite repeated sequences but also from their defect in MLH1 as such. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Patient-derived Hormone-naive Prostate Cancer Xenograft Models Reveal Growth Factor Receptor Bound Protein 10 as an Androgen Receptor-repressed Gene Driving the Development of Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Jun; Ci, Xinpei; Xue, Hui; Wu, Rebecca; Dong, Xin; Choi, Stephen Yiu Chuen; He, Haiqing; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Fang; Qu, Sifeng; Zhang, Fan; Haegert, Anne M; Gout, Peter W; Zoubeidi, Amina; Collins, Colin; Gleave, Martin E; Lin, Dong; Wang, Yuzhuo

    2018-06-01

    Although androgen deprivation therapy is initially effective in controlling growth of hormone-naive prostate cancers (HNPCs) in patients, currently incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) inevitably develops. To identify CRPC driver genes that may provide new targets to enhance CRPC therapy. Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of HNPCs that develop CRPC following host castration were examined for changes in expression of genes at various time points after castration using transcriptome profiling analysis; particular attention was given to pre-CRPC changes in expression indicative of genes acting as potential CRPC drivers. The functionality of a potential CRPC driver was validated via its knockdown in cultured prostate cancer cells; its clinical relevance was established using data from prostate cancer patient databases. Eighty genes were found to be significantly upregulated at the CRPC stage, while seven of them also showed elevated expression prior to CRPC development. Among the latter, growth factor receptor bound protein 10 (GRB10) was the most significantly and consistently upregulated gene. Moreover, elevated GRB10 expression in clinical prostate cancer samples correlated with more aggressive tumor types and poorer patient treatment outcome. GRB10 knockdown markedly reduced prostate cancer cell proliferation and activity of AKT, a well-established CRPC mediator. A positive correlation between AKT activity and GRB10 expression was also found in clinical cohorts. GRB10 acts as a driver of CRPC and sensitizes androgen receptor pathway inhibitors, and hence GRB10 targeting provides a novel therapeutic strategy for the disease. Development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is a major problem in the management of the disease. Using state-of-the-art patient-derived hormone-naive prostate cancer xenograft models, we found and validated the growth factor receptor bound protein 10 gene as a driver of CRPC, indicating that it may be used as a

  12. Rotator cuff repair augmentation in a rat model that combines a multilayer xenograft tendon scaffold with bone marrow stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Rei; Gingery, Anne; Steinmann, Scott P.; Amadio, Peter C.; An, Kai-Nan; Zhao, Chunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis A composite of multilayer tendon slices (COMTS) seeded with bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may impart mechanical and biologic augmentation effects on supraspinatus tendon repair under tension, thereby improving the healing process after surgery in rats. Methods Adult female Lewis rats (n = 39) underwent transection of the supraspinatus tendon and a 2-mm tendon resection at the distal end, followed by immediate repair to its bony insertion site under tension. Animals received 1 of 3 treatments at the repair site: (1) no augmentation, (2) COMTS augmentation alone, or (3) BMSC-seeded COMTS augmentation. BMSCs were labeled with a fluorescent cell marker. Animals were euthanized 6 weeks after surgery, and the extent of healing of the repaired supraspinatus tendon was evaluated with biomechanical testing and histologic analysis. Results Histologic analysis showed gap formation between the repaired tendon and bone in all specimens, regardless of treatment. Robust fibrous tissue was observed in rats with BMSC-seeded COMTS augmentation; however, fibrous tissue was scarce within the gap in rats with no augmentation or COMTS-only augmentation. Labeled transplanted BMSCs were observed throughout the repair site. Biomechanical analysis showed that the repairs augmented with BMSC-seeded COMTS had significantly greater ultimate load to failure and stiffness compared with other treatments. However, baseline (time 0) data showed that COMTS-only augmentation did not increase mechanical strength of the repair site. Conclusion Although the COMTS scaffold did not increase the initial repair strength, the BMSC-seeded scaffold increased healing strength and stiffness 6 weeks after rotator cuff repair in a rat model. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Animal Model. PMID:26387915

  13. Calculated and TLD-based absorbed dose estimates for I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody in a human neuroblastoma xenograft nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ugur, O; Scott, A M; Kostakoglu, L; Hui, T E; Masterson, M E; Febo, R; Sgouros, G; Rosa, E; Mehta, B M; Fisher, D R

    1995-01-01

    Preclinical evaluation of the therapeutic potential of radiolabeled antibodies is commonly performed in a xenografted nude mouse model. To assess therapeutic efficacy it is important to estimate the absorbed dose to the tumor and normal tissues of the nude mouse. The current study was designed to accurately measure radiation does to human neuroblastoma xenografts and normal organs in nude mice treated with I-131-labeled 3F8 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) against disialoganglioside GD2 antigen. Absorbed dose estimates were obtained using two different approaches: (1) measurement with teflon-imbedded CaSO4:Dy mini-thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) and (2) calculations using mouse S-factors. The calculated total dose to tumor one week after i.v. injection of the 50 microCi I-131-3F8 MoAb was 604 cGy. The corresponding decay corrected and not corrected TLD measurements were 109 +/- 9 and 48.7 +/- 3.4 cGy respectively. The calculated to TLD-derived dose ratios for tumor ranged from 6.1 at 24 h to 5.5 at 1 week. The light output fading rate was found to depend upon the tissue type within which the TLDs were implanted. The decay rate in tumor, muscle, subcutaneous tissue and in vitro, were 9.5, 5.0, 3.7 and 0.67% per day, respectively. We have demonstrated that the type of tissue in which the TLD was implanted strongly influenced the in vivo decay of light output. Even with decay correction, a significant discrepancy was observed between MIRD-based calculated and CaSO4:Dy mini-TLD measured absorbed doses. Batch dependence, pH of the tumor or other variables associated with TLDs which are not as yet well known may account for this discrepancy.

  14. Knockdown of NF-E2-related factor 2 inhibits the proliferation and growth of U251MG human glioma cells in a mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang-Jun; Chen, Sui-Hua; Zhu, Lin; Pan, Hao; Zhou, Yuan; Li, Wei; You, Wan-Chun; Gao, Chao-Chao; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Jiang, Kuan; Wang, Han-Dong

    2013-07-01

    NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor of cellular responses to oxidative stress and recent evidence suggests that Nrf2 plays an important role in cancer pathobiology. However, the underlying mechanism has yet to be elucidated, particularly in glioma. In the present study, we investigated the role of Nrf2 in the clinical prognosis, cell proliferation and tumor growth of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We detected overexpression of Nrf2 protein levels in GBM compared to normal brain tissues. Notably, higher protein levels of Nrf2 were significantly associated with poorer overall survival and 1-year survival for GBM patients. Furthermore, we constructed the plasmid Si-Nrf2 and transduced it into U251MG cells to downregulate the expression of Nrf2 and established stable Nrf2 knockdown cells. The downregulation of Nrf2 suppressed cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in mouse xenograft models. We performed immunohistochemistry staining to detect the protein levels of Nrf2, Ki-67, caspase-3 and CD31 in the xenograft tumors and found that the expression levels of Nrf2 and Ki-67 were much lower in the Si-Nrf2 group compared to the Si-control group. In addition, the number of caspase-3-positive cells was significantly increased in the Si-Nrf2 group. By analysis of microvessel density (MVD) assessed by CD31, the MVD value in the Si-Nrf2 group decreased significantly compared to the Si-control group. These findings indicate that the knockdown of Nrf2 may suppress tumor growth by inhibiting cell proliferation, increasing cell apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. These results highlight the potential of Nrf2 as a candidate molecular target to control GBM cell proliferation and tumor growth.

  15. Spatial and temporal mapping of heterogeneity in liposome uptake and microvascular distribution in an orthotopic tumor xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Ekdawi, Sandra N; Stewart, James M P; Dunne, Michael; Stapleton, Shawn; Mitsakakis, Nicholas; Dou, Yannan N; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

    2015-06-10

    Existing paradigms in nano-based drug delivery are currently being challenged. Assessment of bulk tumor accumulation has been routinely considered an indicative measure of nanomedicine potency. However, it is now recognized that the intratumoral distribution of nanomedicines also impacts their therapeutic effect. At this time, our understanding of the relationship between the bulk (i.e., macro-) tumor accumulation of nanocarriers and their intratumoral (i.e., micro-) distribution remains limited. Liposome-based drug formulations, in particular, suffer from diminished efficacy in vivo as a result of transport-limiting properties, combined with the heterogeneous nature of the tumor microenvironment. In this report, we perform a quantitative image-based assessment of macro- and microdistribution of liposomes. Multi-scalar assessment of liposome distribution was enabled by a stable formulation which co-encapsulates an iodinated contrast agent and a near-infrared fluorescence probe, for computed tomography (CT) and optical microscopy, respectively. Spatio-temporal quantification of tumor uptake in orthotopic xenografts was performed using CT at the bulk tissue level, and within defined sub-volumes of the tumor (i.e., rim, periphery and core). Tumor penetration and relative distribution of liposomes were assessed by fluorescence microscopy of whole tumor sections. Microdistribution analysis of whole tumor images exposed a heterogeneous distribution of both liposomes and tumor vasculature. Highest levels of liposome uptake were achieved and maintained in the well-vascularized tumor rim over the study period, corresponding to a positive correlation between liposome and microvascular density. Tumor penetration of liposomes was found to be time-dependent in all regions of the tumor however independent of location in the tumor. Importantly, a multi-scalar comparison of liposome distribution reveals that macro-accumulation in tissues (e.g., blood, whole tumor) may not reflect

  16. Development and evaluation of camptothecin loaded polymer stabilized nanoemulsion: Targeting potential in 4T1-breast tumour xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Sugumaran, Abimanyu; Ponnusamy, Chandrasekar; Kandasamy, Palanivel; Krishnaswami, Venkateshwaran; Palanichamy, Rajaguru; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Lakshmanan, Manikandan; Natesan, Subramanian

    2018-04-30

    Targeted delivery of anticancer agents is poised to improve cancer therapy, for which polymers can serve as targeting ligands or nanocarriers for chemotherapeutic agents. In this study, we have developed and evaluated the efficacy of a camptothecin (CPT)-loaded polymer stabilized nanoemulsion (PSNE) for the passive targeted delivery to breast cancer. Based on the pseudo-ternary phase diagrams, PSNEs were developed using capmul MCM:poloxamer 407 (4:1), solutol HS 15:simulsol P23 (1:2) and water. CPT polymer mixture was developed by solvent evaporation technique. The PSNEs were characterized for droplet size distribution, plasma protein adsorption, drug release, in-vivo targeting potential, hemolytic potential, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, in-vivo biodistribution and CPT lactone ring stability. The developed PSNEs showed uniform droplet distribution, extended drug release (76.59±6.12% at 24h), acceptable hemolytic potential, significant cytotoxicity (IC 50 =176±4.3ng/mL) and genotoxicity against MCF-7 cancer cells but low DNA damage potential in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. The efficiency of PSNEs for the targeted delivery of CPT into the tumour regions was documented in 4T1-breast tumour xenografted BALB/c mice. In-vivo biodistribution study shows that 7105.84±568.46ng/g of CPT was passively targeted from PSNE to breast cancer tissue. About 80% of the lactone form was stable for 24h. Taken together, our study provides a promising strategy for developing PSNE-targeted drug delivery system for the breast cancer therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Irradiation-Dependent Effects on Tumor Perfusion and Endogenous and Exogenous Hypoxia Markers in an A549 Xenograft Model

    SciTech Connect

    Fokas, Emmanouil, E-mail: emmanouil.fokas@yahoo.d; Haenze, Joerg; Kamlah, Florentine

    2010-08-01

    Purpose: Hypoxia is a major determinant of tumor radiosensitivity, and microenvironmental changes in response to ionizing radiation (IR) are often heterogenous. We analyzed IR-dependent changes in hypoxia and perfusion in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma xenografts. Materials and Methods: Immunohistological analysis of two exogenously added chemical hypoxic markers, pimonidazole and CCI-103F, and of the endogenous marker Glut-1 was performed time dependently after IR. Tumor vessels and apoptosis were analyzed using CD31 and caspase-3 antibodies. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and fluorescent beads (Hoechst 33342) were used to monitor vascular perfusion. Results: CCI-103F signals measuring the fraction of hypoxic areas aftermore » IR were significantly decreased by approximately 50% when compared with pimonidazole signals, representing the fraction of hypoxic areas from the same tumors before IR. Interestingly, Glut-1 signals were significantly decreased at early time point (6.5 h) after IR returning to the initial levels at 30.5 h. Vascular density showed no difference between irradiated and control groups, whereas apoptosis was significantly induced at 10.5 h post-IR. DCE-MRI indicated increased perfusion 1 h post-IR. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the hypoxic fractions of CCI-103F and Glut-1 forces us to consider the possibility that both markers reflect different metabolic alterations of tumor microenvironment. The reliability of endogenous markers such as Glut-1 to measure reoxygenation in irradiated tumors needs further consideration. Monitoring tumor microvascular response to IR by DCE-MRI and measuring tumor volume alterations should be encouraged.« less

  18. DICER governs characteristics of glioma stem cells and the resulting tumors in xenograft mouse models of glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Sheila; Singh, Sanjay; Alamsahebpour, Amir; Burrell, Kelly; Li, Mira; Karabork, Merve; Ekinci, Can; Koch, Elizabeth; Solaroglu, Ihsan; Chang, Jeffery T; Wouters, Bradly; Aldape, Kenneth; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-08-30

    The RNAse III endonuclease DICER is a key regulator of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis and is frequently decreased in a variety of malignancies. We characterized the role of DICER in glioblastoma (GB), specifically demonstrating its effects on the ability of glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) to form tumors in a mouse model of GB. DICER silencing in GSCs reduced their stem cell characteristics, while tumors arising from these cells were more aggressive, larger in volume, and displayed a higher proliferation index and lineage differentiation. The resulting tumors, however, were more sensitive to radiation treatment. Our results demonstrate that DICER silencing enhances the tumorigenic potential of GSCs, providing a platform for analysis of specific relevant miRNAs and development of potentially novel therapies against GB.

  19. Applications of immunoPET: Using 124I-anti-PSCA A11 minibody for imaging disease progression and response to therapy in mouse xenograft models of prostate cancer

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Scott M.; Tavare, Richard; Zettlitz, Kirstin A.; ...

    2014-10-17

    Here, prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) is highly expressed in local prostate cancers and prostate cancer bone metastases and its expression correlates with androgen receptor activation and a poor prognosis. Here in this study, we investigate the potential clinical applications of immunoPET with the anti-PSCA A11 minibody, an antibody fragment optimized for use as an imaging agent. We compare A11 minibody immunoPET to 18F-Fluoride PET bone scans for detecting prostate cancer bone tumors and evaluate the ability of the A11 minibody to image tumor response to androgen deprivation. Osteoblastic, PSCA expressing, LAPC-9 intratibial xenografts were imaged with serial 124I-anti-PSCA A11more » minibody immunoPET and 18F-Fluoride bone scans. Mice bearing LAPC-9 subcutaneous xenografts were treated with either vehicle or MDV-3100 and imaged with A11 minibody immunoPET/CT scans pre- and post-treatment. Ex vivo flow cytometry measured the change in PSCA expression in response to androgen deprivation. A11 minibody demonstrated improved sensitivity and specificity over 18F-Fluoride bone scans for detecting LAPC-9 intratibial xenografts at all time points. Finally, LAPC-9 subcutaneous xenografts showed downregulation of PSCA when treated with MDV-3100 which A11 minibody immunoPET was able to detect in vivo.« less

  20. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos: a new platform for translational research in neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Gaudenzi, Germano; Albertelli, Manuela; Dicitore, Alessandra; Würth, Roberto; Gatto, Federico; Barbieri, Federica; Cotelli, Franco; Florio, Tullio; Ferone, Diego; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2017-08-01

    Preclinical research on neuroendocrine tumors usually involves immortalized cell lines and few animal models. In the present study we described an in vivo model based on patient-derived xenografts of neuroendocrine tumor cells in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos, allowing a rapid analysis of the angiogenic and invasive potential. Patient-derived neuroendocrine tumor cells were transplanted in 48 hours post-fertilization Tg(fli1a:EGFP) y1 zebrafish embryos that express enhanced green fluorescent protein in the entire vasculature. Neuroendocrine tumor cells, stained with CM-Dil, were injected into the subperidermal (perivitelline) space, close to the developing subintestinal venous plexus. A proper control group, represented by zebrafish injected with only D-PBS, was included in this study. Angiogenic and invasive potentials of each patient-derived xenograft were evaluated by both epifluorescence and confocal microscopes. Six out of eight neuroendocrine tumor samples were successfully transplanted in zebrafish embryos. Although the implanted tumor mass had a limited size (about 100 cells for embryos), patient-derived xenografts showed pro-angiogenic (5 cases) and invasive (6 cases) behaviors within 48 hours post injection. Patient-derived xenograft in zebrafish embryos appears to be a reliable in vivo preclinical model for neuroendocrine tumors, tumors with often limited cell availability. The rapidity of this procedure makes our model a promising platform to perform preclinical drug screening and opens a new scenario for personalized treatment in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

  1. In vivo sampling of Verteporfin uptake in pancreas cancer xenograft models: comparison of surface, oral, and interstitial measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, Martin; O'Hara, Julia A.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Hoopes, P. Jack; Mosse, Sandy; Pereira, Stephen; Hasan, Tayyaba; Pogue, Brian W.

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated with Verteporfin is being investigated as a pancreatic cancer treatment in the cases for non-surgical candidates. Tissue response to PDT is based on a number of parameters including photosensitizer (PS) dose, light dose and time interval between light application and PS injection. In this study, PS uptake and distribution in animal leg muscle, oral cavity tissues, pancreas and tumor was measured in vivo using light-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) via an Aurora Optics Inc. PDT fluorescence dosimeter. An orthotopic pancreatic cancer model (AsPC-1) was implanted in SCID mice and treated with the PS. Probe measurements were made using a surface probe and an interstitial needle probe before and up to one hour after intravenous tail vein injection of the PS. The study demonstrated that it is possible to correlate in-vivo LIFS measurements of the PS uptake in the pancreas with measurements taken from the oral cavity indicating that light dosimetry of PDT of the pancreas can be ascertained from the LIFS measurements in the oral cavity. These results emphasize the importance of light dosimetry in improving the therapeutic outcome of PDT through light dose adaptation to the relative in situ tissue PS concentration.

  2. Cryo-image Analysis of Tumor Cell Migration, Invasion, and Dispersal in a Mouse Xenograft Model of Human Glioblastoma Multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Qutaish, Mohammed Q.; Sullivant, Kristin E.; Burden-Gulley, Susan M.; Lu, Hong; Roy, Debashish; Wang, Jing; Basilion, James P.; Brady-Kalnay, Susann M.; Wilson, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The goals of this study were to create cryo-imaging methods to quantify characteristics (size, dispersal, and blood vessel density) of mouse orthotopic models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and to enable studies of tumor biology, targeted imaging agents, and theranostic nanoparticles. Procedures Green fluorescent protein-labeled, human glioma LN-229 cells were implanted into mouse brain. At 20–38 days, cryo-imaging gave whole brain, 4-GB, 3D microscopic images of bright field anatomy, including vasculature, and fluorescent tumor. Image analysis/visualization methods were developed. Results Vessel visualization and segmentation methods successfully enabled analyses. The main tumor mass volume, the number of dispersed clusters, the number of cells/cluster, and the percent dispersed volume all increase with age of the tumor. Histograms of dispersal distance give a mean and median of 63 and 56 μm, respectively, averaged over all brains. Dispersal distance tends to increase with age of the tumors. Dispersal tends to occur along blood vessels. Blood vessel density did not appear to increase in and around the tumor with this cell line. Conclusion Cryo-imaging and software allow, for the first time, 3D, whole brain, microscopic characterization of a tumor from a particular cell line. LN-229 exhibits considerable dispersal along blood vessels, a characteristic of human tumors that limits treatment success. PMID:22125093

  3. Antitumor effect of FGFR inhibitors on a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft mouse model endogenously expressing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Ding, Xiwei; Wang, Shaoqing; Moser, Catherine D; Shaleh, Hassan M; Mohamed, Essa A; Chaiteerakij, Roongruedee; Allotey, Loretta K; Chen, Gang; Miyabe, Katsuyuki; McNulty, Melissa S; Ndzengue, Albert; Barr Fritcher, Emily G; Knudson, Ryan A; Greipp, Patricia T; Clark, Karl J; Torbenson, Michael S; Kipp, Benjamin R; Zhou, Jie; Barrett, Michael T; Gustafson, Michael P; Alberts, Steven R; Borad, Mitesh J; Roberts, Lewis R

    2016-09-28

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a highly lethal cancer with limited therapeutic options. Recent genomic analysis of cholangiocarcinoma has revealed the presence of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) fusion proteins in up to 13% of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA). FGFR fusions have been identified as a novel oncogenic and druggable target in a number of cancers. In this study, we established a novel cholangiocarcinoma patient derived xenograft (PDX) mouse model bearing an FGFR2-CCDC6 fusion protein from a metastatic lung nodule of an iCCA patient. Using this PDX model, we confirmed the ability of the FGFR inhibitors, ponatinib, dovitinib and BGJ398, to modulate FGFR signaling, inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma tumors harboring FGFR2 fusions. In addition, BGJ398 appeared to be superior in potency to ponatinib and dovitinib in this model. Our findings provide a strong rationale for the investigation of FGFR inhibitors, particularly BGJ398, as a therapeutic option for cholangiocarcinoma patients harboring FGFR2 fusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Selective modulation of the prostaglandin F2α pathway markedly impacts on endometriosis progression in a xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Syed Furquan; Akoum, Ali; Horne, Andrew W

    2015-12-01

    Selective activation or blockade of the prostaglandin (PG) F2α receptor (FP receptor) affects ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. FP receptor antagonists might represent a promising approach for the treatment of peritoneal endometriosis. Eutopic and ectopic endometrium from women with endometriosis exhibit higher expression of key enzymes involved in the PGF2α biosynthetic pathway. It has also been shown that the PGF2α-FP receptor interaction induces angiogenesis in human endometrial adenocarcinoma. For this study, a mouse model of endometriosis was developed by inoculating human endometrial biopsies into the peritoneal cavity of nude mouse (n = 15). Mice were treated with AL8810 (FP receptor antagonist), Fluprostenol (FP receptor agonist) or PBS. Endometriosis-like lesions were collected and analysed for set of markers for angiogenesis, tissue remodelling, apoptosis, cell proliferation and capillary formation using qPCR and immunohistochemistry. We found that selective inhibition of the FP receptor with a specific antagonist, AL8810, led to a significant decline in the number (P < 0.01) and size of endometriosis-like lesions (P < 0.001), down-regulated the expression of key mediators of tissue remodelling (MMP9, P < 0.05) and angiogenesis (VEGF, P < 0.01) and up-regulated the pro-apoptotic factor (Bax, P < 0.01) as compared with controls. Immunohistochemical analyses further showed a marked decrease in cell proliferation and capillary formation in endometrial implants from AL8810-treated mice, as determined by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) immunostaining, respectively. Moreover, Fluprostenol, a selective FP receptor agonist, showed the opposite effects. We carried out this study in nude mice, which have low levels of endogenous estrogens which may affect the lesion growth. Caution is required when interpreting these results to women. This study extends the role of PG signalling in

  5. α-Mangostin: A Dietary Antioxidant Derived from the Pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. Inhibits Pancreatic Tumor Growth in Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Mustafa, Ala; Fischer, Joseph W.; Singh, Ashok; Zhong, Weixiong; Shekhani, Mohammed Ozair; Meske, Louise; Havighurst, Thomas; Kim, KyungMann; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is the most aggressive malignant disease, ranking as the fourth most leading cause of cancer-related death among men and women in the United States. In this study, we provide evidence of chemotherapeutic effects of α-mangostin, a dietary antioxidant isolated from the pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. against human PC. Results: The chemotherapeutic effect of α-mangostin was determined using four human PC cells (PL-45, PANC1, BxPC3, and ASPC1). α-Mangostin resulted in a significant inhibition of PC cells viability without having any effects on normal human pancreatic duct epithelial cells. α-Mangostin showed a dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in PC cells. Also, α-mangostin inhibited the expression levels of pNF-κB/p65Ser552, pStat3Ser727, and pStat3Tyr705. α-Mangostin inhibited DNA binding activity of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and signal transducer and activator 3 (Stat3). α-Mangostin inhibited the expression levels of matrix metallopeptidase 9 (MMP9), cyclin D1, and gp130; however, increased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) was observed in PC cells. In addition, i.p. administration of α-mangostin (6 mg/kg body weight, 5 days a week) resulted in a significant inhibition of both primary (PL-45) and secondary (ASPC1) human PC cell-derived orthotopic and ectopic xenograft tumors in athymic nude mice. No sign of toxicity was observed in any of the mice administered with α-mangostin. α-Mangostin treatment inhibited the biomarkers of cell proliferation (Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen [PCNA]) in the xenograft tumor tissues. Innovation: We present, for the first time, that dietary antioxidant α-mangostin inhibits the growth of PC cells in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion: These results suggest the potential therapeutic efficacy of α-mangostin against human PC. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 682–699. PMID:24295217

  6. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R regresses an osteosarcoma in a patient-derived xenograft model resistant to a molecular-targeting drug.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Nelson, Scott D; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; Yanagawa, Jane; Russell, Tara; Federman, Noah; Singh, Arun; Elliott, Irmina; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2017-01-31

    Osteosarcoma occurs mostly in children and young adults, who are treated with multiple agents in combination with limb-salvage surgery. However, the overall 5-year survival rate for patients with recurrent or metastatic osteosarcoma is 20-30% which has not improved significantly over 30 years. Refractory patients would benefit from precise individualized therapy. We report here that a patient-derived osteosarcoma growing in a subcutaneous nude-mouse model was regressed by tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R, p<0.001 compared to untreated control). The osteosarcoma was only partially sensitive to the molecular-targeting drug sorafenib, which did not arrest its growth. S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more effective than sorafenib (P <0.001). S. typhimurium grew in the treated tumors and caused extensive necrosis of the tumor tissue. These data show that S. typhimurium A1-R is powerful therapy for an osteosarcoma patient-derived xenograft model.

  7. Tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R regresses an osteosarcoma in a patient-derived xenograft model resistant to a molecular-targeting drug

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takashi; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Zhang, Yong; Zhao, Ming; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Nelson, Scott D.; Dry, Sarah M.; Li, Yunfeng; Yanagawa, Jane; Russell, Tara; Federman, Noah; Singh, Arun; Elliott, Irmina; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2017-01-01

    Osteosarcoma occurs mostly in children and young adults, who are treated with multiple agents in combination with limb-salvage surgery. However, the overall 5-year survival rate for patients with recurrent or metastatic osteosarcoma is 20-30% which has not improved significantly over 30 years. Refractory patients would benefit from precise individualized therapy. We report here that a patient-derived osteosarcoma growing in a subcutaneous nude-mouse model was regressed by tumor-targeting Salmonella typhimurium A1-R (S. typhimurium A1-R, p<0.001 compared to untreated control). The osteosarcoma was only partially sensitive to the molecular-targeting drug sorafenib, which did not arrest its growth. S. typhimurium A1-R was significantly more effective than sorafenib (P <0.001). S. typhimurium grew in the treated tumors and caused extensive necrosis of the tumor tissue. These data show that S. typhimurium A1-R is powerful therapy for an osteosarcoma patient-derived xenograft model. PMID:28030831

  8. A non-invasive approach to monitor chronic lymphocytic leukemia engraftment in a xenograft mouse model using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide-magnetic resonance imaging (USPIO-MRI).

    PubMed

    Valdora, Francesca; Cutrona, Giovanna; Matis, Serena; Morabito, Fortunato; Massucco, Carlotta; Emionite, Laura; Boccardo, Simona; Basso, Luca; Recchia, Anna Grazia; Salvi, Sandra; Rosa, Francesca; Gentile, Massimo; Ravina, Marco; Pace, Daniele; Castronovo, Angela; Cilli, Michele; Truini, Mauro; Calabrese, Massimo; Neri, Antonino; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele; Fais, Franco; Baio, Gabriella; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2016-11-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most prevalent leukemia among adults. Despite its indolent nature, CLL remains an incurable disease. Herein we aimed to monitor CLL disease engraftment and, progression/regression in a xenograft CLL mouse model using ultra-small superparamagnetic iron oxide-magnetic resonance imaging (USPIO-MRI). Spleen contrast enhancement, quantified as percentage change in signal intensity upon USPIO administration, demonstrated a difference due to a reduced USPIO uptake, in the spleens of mice injected with CLL cells (NSG-CLL, n=71) compared to controls (NSG-CTR, n=17). These differences were statistically significant both after 2 and 4weeks from CLL cells injection. In addition comparison of mice treated with rituximab with untreated controls for changes in spleen iron uptake confirmed that it is possible to monitor treatment efficacy in this mouse model of CLL using USPIO-enhanced MRI. Further applications could include the preclinical in vivo monitoring of new therapies and the clinical evaluation of CLL patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Amarogentin secoiridoid inhibits in vivo cancer cell growth in xenograft mice model and induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells (SNU-16) through G2/M cell cycle arrest and PI3K/Akt signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Ling; Xiang, Xiao-Jun; Yu, Feng; Ye, Wan-Li; Wu, Dong-Ping; Wang, Jian-Fang; Xiong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects of amarogentin in SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells as well as in nude mice xenograft model. The effects of this compound on cell apoptosis, cell cycle phase distribution and PI3K/Akt and m-TOR signalling pathways were also studied in detail. MTT assay was used to study the effect of amarogentin on SNU-16 cell viability while clonogenic assay indicated the effect of the compound on colony formation tendency of these cells. Phase contrast microscopy revealed the effect on cellular morphology while flow cytometry was engaged to study the effects on cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. SNU-16 cancer cells were subcutaneously inoculated into nude mice to investigate the in vivo antitumor effects of amarogentin. Amarogentin induced potent, dose-dependent as well as time-dependent cytotoxic effects on the growth of SNU-16 human gastric cancer cells. Amarogentin also inhibited the colony forming capability of these tumor cells and its treatment led to morphological alterations in these cells in which the cells became withered and rounded, detached from one another and adopted irregular shapes while floating freely in the culture medium. In comparison to untreated control cells, the amarogentin treated cells with 10, 50 and 75 μM exhibited 32.5, 45.2 and 57.1 % apoptotic cells, respectively. Amarogentin induced potent and dose-dependent G2/M cell cycle arrest in these cells and led to downregulation of m-TOR, p-PI3K, PI3K, p-Akt and Akt and upregulation of cyclin D1 and cyclin E protein expressions. The tumor tissues obtained from the amarogentin-treated mice were much smaller than the tumor tissues derived from the control group. Amarogentin exerts potent in vitro and in vivo antitumor effects in SNU-16 cell model as well as in nude mice xenograft model. These antitumor effects were found to be mediated through apoptosis induction, G2/M cell cycle arrest and downregulation of PI3K/Akt/m-TOR signalling pathways.

  10. Effect of fenhexamid and cyprodinil on the expression of cell cycle- and metastasis-related genes via an estrogen receptor-dependent pathway in cellular and xenografted ovarian cancer models

    SciTech Connect

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Kim, Cho-Won; Choi, Kyung-Chul, E-mail: kchoi@cbu.ac.kr

    ABSTRACT: Fenhexamid and cyprodinil are antifungal agents (pesticides) used for agriculture, and are present at measurable amounts in fruits and vegetables. In the current study, the effects of fenhexamid and cyprodinil on cancer cell proliferation and metastasis were examined. Additionally, the protein expression levels of cyclin D1 and cyclin E as well as cathepsin D were analyzed in BG-1 ovarian cancer cells that express estrogen receptors (ERs). The cells were cultured with 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; control), 17β-estradiol (E2; 10{sup −9} M), and fenhexamid or cyprodinil (10{sup –5}–10{sup −7} M). Results of a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay showed that fenhexamidmore » and cyprodinil increased BG-1 cell proliferation about 1.5 to 2 times similar to E2 (5 times) compared to the control. When the cells were co-treated with ICI 182,780 (10{sup −8} M), an ER antagonist, the proliferation of pesticide-treated BG-1 cells was decreased to the level of the control. A wound healing assay revealed that the pesticides reduced the disrupted area in the BG-1 cell monolayer similar to E2. Protein levels of cyclin D1 and E as well as cathepsin D were increased by fenhexamid and cyprodinil. This effect was reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780. In a xenograft mouse model with transplanted BG-1 cells, cyprodinil significantly increased tumor mass formation about 2 times as did E2 (6 times) compared to the vehicle (0.1% DMSO) over an 80-day period. In contrast, fenhexamid did not promote ovarian tumor formation in this mouse model. Cyprodinil also induced cell proliferation along with the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cathepsin D in tumor tissues similar to E2. Taken together, these results imply that fenhexamid and cyprodinil may have disruptive effects on ER-expressing cancer by altering the cell cycle- and metastasis-related gene expression via an ER-dependent pathway. - Highlights

  11. Development of a Preclinical Orthotopic Xenograft Model of Ewing Sarcoma and Other Human Malignant Bone Disease Using Advanced In Vivo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batey, Michael A.; Almeida, Gilberto S.; Wilson, Ian; Dildey, Petra; Sharma, Abhishek; Blair, Helen; Hide, I. Geoff; Heidenreich, Olaf; Vormoor, Josef; Maxwell, Ross J.; Bacon, Chris M.

    2014-01-01

    Ewing sarcoma and osteosarcoma represent the two most common primary bone tumours in childhood and adolescence, with bone metastases being the most adverse prognostic factor. In prostate cancer, osseous metastasis poses a major clinical challenge. We developed a preclinical orthotopic model of Ewing sarcoma, reflecting the biology of the tumour-bone interactions in human disease and allowing in vivo monitoring of disease progression, and compared this with models of osteosarcoma and prostate carcinoma. Human tumour cell lines were transplanted into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NSG) and Rag2−/−/γc−/− mice by intrafemoral injection. For Ewing sarcoma, minimal cell numbers (1000–5000) injected in small volumes were able to induce orthotopic tumour growth. Tumour progression was studied using positron emission tomography, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and bioluminescent imaging. Tumours and their interactions with bones were examined by histology. Each tumour induced bone destruction and outgrowth of extramedullary tumour masses, together with characteristic changes in bone that were well visualised by computed tomography, which correlated with post-mortem histology. Ewing sarcoma and, to a lesser extent, osteosarcoma cells induced prominent reactive new bone formation. Osteosarcoma cells produced osteoid and mineralised “malignant” bone within the tumour mass itself. Injection of prostate carcinoma cells led to osteoclast-driven osteolytic lesions. Bioluminescent imaging of Ewing sarcoma xenografts allowed easy and rapid monitoring of tumour growth and detection of tumour dissemination to lungs, liver and bone. Magnetic resonance imaging proved useful for monitoring soft tissue tumour growth and volume. Positron emission tomography proved to be of limited use in this model. Overall, we have developed an orthotopic in vivo model for Ewing sarcoma and other primary and secondary human bone malignancies, which

  12. [Effects of baicalin on HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing; Hu, Jian-Da; Huang, Yi; Chen, Ying-Yu; Li, Jing; Chen, Bu-Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effects of baicalin on HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice in vivo and explore its mechanism. Xenograft tumor model of HL-60 cells in nude mice was established, which was divided randomly into 6 groups: negative control group (injection of 5% NaHCO(3)), 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg baicalin groups, combination group (50 mg/kg baicalin + 2 mg/kg VP16) and positive control group (VP16 4 mg/kg). The nude mice with HL-60 cell xenografts were treated with drugs via intraperitoneal injection daily. After treatment for 14 days average weigh and inhibitory rate of transplanted tumor stripped from 5 nude mice in each group were calculated, and the ultrastructure change of xenografts cells were tested by transmission electron microscopy. Histopathologic examination was used to observed the change of main organs in nude mice. The expression of signaling molecular PI3K/Akt proteins extracted from xenografts was detected by Western blot. The effects of baicalin on overall survival time in nude mice with HL-60 cell xenografts were evaluated. The results showed that baicalin could inhibit the growth of transplanted tumors in dose-dependent manner. There were more necrotic and apoptotic cells in mice of baicalin-treated groups and combination group than that in mice of negative control group. Baicalin could inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells in vivo by down-regulating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signal pathway, where the expressions of p-Akt, mTOR and p-mTOR proteins decreased compared with negative control group, and no significant difference of Akt expression was found between different groups. Compared with negative control group, the median survival time of mice in combination group was more prolongated (P < 0.05). It is concluded that baicalin can inhibit growth and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cell xenografts in nude mice, and prolong median survival time of nude mice. The possible mechanisms may be related to inhibition of Akt activity and down

  13. Targeting αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins inhibits pulmonary metastasis in an intratibial xenograft osteosarcoma mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Gvozdenovic, Ana; Boro, Aleksandar; Meier, Daniela; Bode-Lesniewska, Beata; Born, Walter; Muff, Roman; Fuchs, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone cancer that has a high propensity for metastasis to the lungs. Patients with metastatic disease face a very poor prognosis. Therefore, novel therapeutics, efficiently suppressing the metastatic process, are urgently needed. Integrins play a pivotal role in tumor cell adhesion, motility and metastasis. Here, we evaluated αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrin inhibition with cilengitide as a novel metastasis-suppressive therapeutic approach in osteosarcoma. Immunohistochemical analysis of αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins expression in a tissue microarray of tumor specimens collected from osteosarcoma patients revealed that αvβ5 integrin is mainly found on tumor cells, whereas αvβ3 is predominantly expressed by stromal cells. In vitro functional assays demonstrated that cilengitide dose-dependently inhibited de novo adhesion, provoked detachment and inhibited migration of osteosarcoma cell lines. Cilengitide induced a decline in cell viability, blocked the cell cycle in the G1 phase and caused anoikis by activation of the Hippo pathway. In a xenograft orthotopic mouse model cilengitide minimally affected intratibial primary tumor growth but, importantly, suppressed pulmonary metastasis. The data demonstrate that targeting αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in osteosarcoma should be considered as a novel therapeutic option for patients with metastatic disease. PMID:27409827

  14. Pulsatilla saponin A, an active molecule from Pulsatilla chinensis, induces cancer cell death and inhibits tumor growth in mouse xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Chen, Weichang; Jiao, Yang; Hou, Jianquan; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yanli; Qi, Xiaofei

    2014-05-15

    Many natural compounds possess antitumor growth activities. Pulsatilla chinensis is an herb used in traditional Chinese medicine to treat infectious diseases. More recently, extracts from P chinensis have been shown to contain antitumor activities. In this study, we isolated Pulsatilla saponin A as an active compound from P chinensis extracts and tested its anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. In cell culture, Pulsatilla saponin A significantly inhibited the growth of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMCC-7721 cells and pancreatic BXPC3 and SW1990 cancer cells. Similar inhibitory activities were observed when the compound was tested in mouse xenograft tumor models using human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402 and pancreatic cancer SW1990 cells. In Comet assay and flow cytometric analysis of cell cycle distribution and annexin V expression, DNA damage, G2 arrest, and apoptosis were identified in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells. Based on the results of Western blotting, p53 and cyclin B protein levels were higher, whereas Bcl-2 protein levels were lower in Pulsatilla saponin A-treated cancer cells than in vehicle-treated cells. Pulsatilla saponin A may exert its antitumor effect by inducing DNA damage and causing G2 arrest and apoptosis in cancer cells. Pulsatilla saponin A and its derivatives may be developed as a new class of anticancer agents. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 64Cu-PSMA-617: A novel PSMA-targeted radio-tracer for PET imaging in gastric adenocarcinoma xenografted mice model.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Di; Liu, Chen; Liu, Fei; Xie, Qing-Hua; Liu, Te-Li; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Xu, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xing; Zhu, Hua; Yang, Zhi

    2017-09-26

    Here, we report that it's feasible for imaging gastric adenocarcinoma mice model with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting imaging agents, which could potentially provide an alternate and readily translational tool for managing gastric adenocarcinoma. DKFZ-PSMA-617, a PSMA targeting ligand reported recently, was chosen to be radio-labeled with nuclide 64 Cu. 64 Cu-PSMA-617 was radio-synthesized in high radio-chemical yield and specific activity up to 19.3 GBq/µmol. It showed good stability in vitro . The specificity of 64 Cu-PSMA-617 was confirmed by cell uptake experiments in PSMA (+) LNCaP cell and PSMA (-) PC-3 and gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 cells. Micro-PET imaging in BGC-823 and PC-3 xenografts nude mice was evaluated ( n = 4). And the tumors were visualized and better tumor-to-background achieved till 24 h. Co-administration of N- [[[(1S)-1-Carboxy-3-methylbutyl]amino]-carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZJ-43) can substantially block the uptake in those tumors. Dissected tumor tissues were analyzed by auto-radiography and immunohistochemistry, and these results confirmed the PSMA expression in neo-vasculature which explained the target molecular imaging of 64 Cu-PSMA-617. All those results suggested 64 Cu-PSMA-617 may serve as a novel radio-tracer for tumor imaging more than prostate cancer.

  16. Formulation, Characterization, and Antitumor Properties of Trans- and Cis-Citral in the 4T1 Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, San; Kapur, Arvinder; Patankar, Manish S.; Xiong, May P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Citral is composed of a random mixture of two geometric stereoisomers geranial (trans-citral) and neral (cis-citral) yet few studies have directly compared their in vivo antitumor properties. A micelle formulation was therefore developed. Methods Geranial and neral were synthesized. Commercially-purchased citral, geranial, and neral were formulated in PEG-b-PCL (block sizes of 5000:10000, Mw/Mn 1.26) micelles. In vitro degradation, drug release, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, and western blot studies were conducted. The antitumor properties of drug formulations (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg based on MTD studies) were evaluated on the 4T1 xenograft mouse model and tumor tissues were analyzed by western blot. Results Micelles encapsulated drugs with >50% LE at 5-40% drug to polymer (w/w), displayed sustained release (t1/2 of 8-9 hours), and improved drug stability at pH 5.0. The IC50 of drug formulations against 4T1 cells ranged from 1.4-9.9 μM. Western blot revealed that autophagy was the main cause of cytotoxicity. Geranial at 80 mg/kg was most effective at inhibiting tumor growth. Conclusions Geranial is significantly more potent than neral and citral at 80 mg/kg (p<0.001) and western blot of tumor tissues confirms that autophagy and not apoptosis is the major mechanism of tumor growth inhibition in p53-null 4T1 cells. PMID:25673043

  17. Novel cancer gene variants and gene fusions of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) reveal their molecular diversity conserved in the patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyun; Jang, Kiwon; Ju, Jung Min; Lee, Eunji; Lee, Jong Won; Kim, Hee Jung; Kim, Jisun; Lee, Sae Byul; Ko, Beom Seok; Son, Byung Ho; Lee, Hee Jin; Gong, Gyungyup; Ahn, Sei Yeon; Choi, Jung Kyoon; Singh, Shree Ram; Chang, Suhwan

    2018-08-01

    Despite the improved 5-year survival rate of breast cancer, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenge due to lack of effective targeted therapy and higher recurrence and metastasis than other subtypes. To identify novel druggable targets and to understand its unique biology, we tried to implement 24 patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) of TNBC. The overall success rate of PDX implantation was 45%, much higher than estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed conserved ER/PR/Her2 negativity (with two exceptions) between the original and PDX tumors. Genomic analysis of 10 primary tumor-PDX pairs with Ion AmpliSeq CCP revealed high degree of variant conservation (85.0%-96.9%) between primary and PDXs. Further analysis showed 44 rare variants with a predicted high impact in 36 genes including Trp53, Pten, Notch1, and Col1a1. Among them, we confirmed frequent Notch1 variant. Furthermore, RNA-seq analysis of 24 PDXs revealed 594 gene fusions, of which 163 were in-frame, including AZGP1-GJC3 and NF1-AARSD1. Finally, western blot analysis of oncogenic signaling proteins supporting molecular diversity of TNBC PDXs. Overall, our report provides a molecular basis for the usefulness of the TNBC PDX model in preclinical study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. 64Cu-PSMA-617: A novel PSMA-targeted radio-tracer for PET imaging in gastric adenocarcinoma xenografted mice model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xue-Di; Liu, Chen; Liu, Fei; Xie, Qing-Hua; Liu, Te-Li; Guo, Xiao-Yi; Xu, Xiao-Xia; Yang, Xing; Zhu, Hua; Yang, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report that it’s feasible for imaging gastric adenocarcinoma mice model with prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeting imaging agents, which could potentially provide an alternate and readily translational tool for managing gastric adenocarcinoma. DKFZ-PSMA-617, a PSMA targeting ligand reported recently, was chosen to be radio-labeled with nuclide 64Cu. 64Cu-PSMA-617 was radio-synthesized in high radio-chemical yield and specific activity up to 19.3 GBq/µmol. It showed good stability in vitro. The specificity of 64Cu-PSMA-617 was confirmed by cell uptake experiments in PSMA (+) LNCaP cell and PSMA (-) PC-3 and gastric adenocarcinoma BGC-823 cells. Micro-PET imaging in BGC-823 and PC-3 xenografts nude mice was evaluated (n = 4). And the tumors were visualized and better tumor-to-background achieved till 24 h. Co-administration of N- [[[(1S)-1-Carboxy-3-methylbutyl]amino]-carbonyl]-L-glutamic acid (ZJ-43) can substantially block the uptake in those tumors. Dissected tumor tissues were analyzed by auto-radiography and immunohistochemistry, and these results confirmed the PSMA expression in neo-vasculature which explained the target molecular imaging of 64Cu-PSMA-617. All those results suggested 64Cu-PSMA-617 may serve as a novel radio-tracer for tumor imaging more than prostate cancer. PMID:29088775

  19. Fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody improves detection and resection of human colon cancer in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Metildi, Cristina A; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Luiken, George A; Talamini, Mark A; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a new fluorescently labeled chimeric anti-CEA antibody for improved detection and resection of colon cancer. Frozen tumor and normal human tissue samples were stained with chimeric and mouse antibody-fluorophore conjugates for comparison. Mice with patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDOX) of colon cancer underwent fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) or bright-light surgery (BLS) 24 hr after tail vein injection of fluorophore-conjugated chimeric anti-CEA antibody. Resection completeness was assessed using postoperative images. Mice were followed for 6 months for recurrence. The fluorophore conjugation efficiency (dye/mole ratio) improved from 3-4 to >5.5 with the chimeric CEA antibody compared to mouse anti-CEA antibody. CEA-expressing tumors labeled with chimeric CEA antibody provided a brighter fluorescence signal on frozen human tumor tissues (P = 0.046) and demonstrated consistently lower fluorescence signals in normal human tissues compared to mouse antibody. Chimeric CEA antibody accurately labeled PDOX colon cancer in nude mice, enabling improved detection of tumor margins for more effective FGS. The R0 resection rate increased from 86% to 96% with FGS compared to BLS. Improved conjugating efficiency and labeling with chimeric fluorophore-conjugated antibody resulted in better detection and resection of human colon cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The two novel DLL4-targeting antibody-drug conjugates MvM03 and MGD03 show potent anti-tumour activity in breast cancer xenograft models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shijing; Zhou, Rihong; Sun, Fumou; Li, Renjie; Wang, Min; Wu, Min

    2017-11-28

    The anti-human Delta-like 4 (DLL4) monoclonal antibody MMGZ01 has a high affinity to hrDLL4 and arrests the DLL4-mediated human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) phenotype, promotes immature vessels, and effectively reduces breast cancer cell growth in vivo. To develop a much more effective therapy, we conjugated MMGZ01 with two small-molecule cytotoxic agents, i.e., monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and doxorubicin (DOX), with different linkers to generate antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), i.e., MMGZ01-vc-MMAE (named MvM03) and MMGZ01-GMBS-DOX (named MGD03), that are more potent therapeutic agents than naked antibody therapeutic agents. The produced anti-DLL4 ADCs can be effectively directed against DLL4 and internalized. Then, the release of MMAE or DOX into the cytosol can induce G2/M or G0/G1 phase growth arrest and cell death through the induction of apoptosis. In vitro, MvM03 was highly potent and selective against DLL4 cell lines. The anti-DLL4 ADCs, particularly MvM03, showed more potent anti-tumour activity than Docetaxel, which is an inhibitor of the depolymerisation of microtubules, in two xenograft breast cancer tumour models. Our findings indicate that anti-DLL4 ADCs have promising potential as an effective therapy for breast cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Per2 overexpression on growth inhibition and metastasis, and on MTA1, nm23-H1 and the autophagy-associated PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHAOXIA; LI, LI; WANG, YANG

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Period2 (Per2) and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, in addition to evaluating the effect of this gene on the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in nude mice xenograft models. The detection of Per2 by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blotting methods at various stages of ovarian cancer in tumor tissue samples was conducted. Nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer were constructed using an ovarian cancer cell line and, using a gene transfection technique, exogenous infusion of the recombinant gene, Per2, was performed. To assess for the successful and stable expression of Per2 in the tumor tissue, levels of Per2 expression in the nude mice xenograft models were detected by RT-qPCR. During the experimental period, the tumor volumes were measured every three days. Two weeks following treatment cessation, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumor weight and volume were measured. Furthermore, detection of the changes in expression levels of metastasis-associated gene 1 (MTA-1) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene, non-metastasis protein 23-H1 (nm23-H1), and the expression change of autophagy-associated signal transduction pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that with ovarian cancer stage development, the expression of Per2 gradually reduced or ceased. In addition, exogenous Per2 was successfully and stably expressed in nude mice tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, in the Per2 overexpression group, MTA-1 protein expression was significantly reduced when compared with the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control and empty plasmid groups, while nm23-H1 protein expression was significantly higher when compared with those two groups. The expression levels of PI3K and PKB kinase, which are marker proteins of the autophagy associated signaling pathway PI3

  2. Effects of Per2 overexpression on growth inhibition and metastasis, and on MTA1, nm23-H1 and the autophagy-associated PI3K/PKB signaling pathway in nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhaoxia; Li, Li; Wang, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between Period2 (Per2) and the occurrence and development of ovarian cancer, in addition to evaluating the effect of this gene on the growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer in nude mice xenograft models. The detection of Per2 by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) and western blotting methods at various stages of ovarian cancer in tumor tissue samples was conducted. Nude mice xenograft models of ovarian cancer were constructed using an ovarian cancer cell line and, using a gene transfection technique, exogenous infusion of the recombinant gene, Per2, was performed. To assess for the successful and stable expression of Per2 in the tumor tissue, levels of Per2 expression in the nude mice xenograft models were detected by RT‑qPCR. During the experimental period, the tumor volumes were measured every three days. Two weeks following treatment cessation, the nude mice were sacrificed and the tumor weight and volume were measured. Furthermore, detection of the changes in expression levels of metastasis‑associated gene 1 (MTA‑1) and tumor metastasis suppressor gene, non‑metastasis protein 23‑H1 (nm23‑H1), and the expression change of autophagy‑associated signal transduction pathway, phosphatidylinositol 3‑kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase were analyzed. The findings demonstrated that with ovarian cancer stage development, the expression of Per2 gradually reduced or ceased. In addition, exogenous Per2 was successfully and stably expressed in nude mice tumor tissue samples. Furthermore, in the Per2 overexpression group, MTA‑1 protein expression was significantly reduced when compared with the phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS) control and empty plasmid groups, while nm23‑H1 protein expression was significantly higher when compared with those two groups. The expression levels of PI3K and PKB kinase, which are marker proteins of the autophagy

  3. The intriguing role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in the chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yi-Nong; Wang, Kai; Jin, Song; Fan, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ming-Shuai; Xing, Nian-Zeng; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In a large clinical trial, finasteride reduced the rate of low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) while increasing the incidence of high-grade cancer. Whether finasteride promotes the development of high-grade tumors remains controversial. We demonstrated the role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of PCa. LNCaP (PC3) cells or recombinants of cancer cells and fibroblasts were implanted in male athymic nude mice treated with finasteride. Tumor growth, cell proliferation, apoptosis, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were evaluated. In LNCaP (PC3) mono-grafted models, finasteride did not change the tumor growth. In recombinant-grafted models, fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted tumor growth; finasteride induced proliferation of LNCaP cells and repressed PC3 cell apoptosis. When c-Jun was knocked out, fibroblasts and/or finasteride did not promote the tumor growth. Finasteride inhibited p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 in mono-culture cancer cells while stimulating the same signaling molecules in the presence of fibroblasts. Reduced p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 were noted in the presence of c-Jun−/− fibroblasts. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promote PCa growth; finasteride further stimulates tumor growth with promoted proliferation, repressed apoptosis, and up-regulated pro-proliferative molecular pathway in the presence of fibroblasts and c-Jun. Stromal-epithelial interactions play critical roles in finasteride's therapeutic effects on PCa. Our findings have preliminary implications in using finasteride as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for PCa patients. PMID:26698232

  4. Antitumor activity of (2E,5Z)-5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-((4-phenoxyphenyl)imino) thiazolidin-4-one, a novel microtubule-depolymerizing agent, in U87MG human glioblastoma cells and corresponding mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu; Liu, Xiaojun; Li, Xiue; Li, Changlong; Zhou, Hongyu; Yan, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most lethal brain cancer. In spite of intensive therapy, the prognosis of patients with glioblastoma is very poor. To discover novel therapeutic agents, we screened a combinatorial compound library containing 372 thiazolidinone compounds using U87MG human glioblastoma cells. (2E,5Z)-5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-((4-phenoxyphenyl)imino) thiazolidin-4-one (HBPT) was identified as the most potent anti-glioblastoma compound. HBPT inhibits U87MG human glioblastoma cell proliferation with an IC50 of 20 μM, which is almost 5-fold more potent than temozolomide (a widely used drug for treating malignant glioma in the clinic). Mechanistic investigation demonstrated that HBPT is a novel microtubule-depolymerizing agent, which arrests cancer cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle and induces cell apoptosis. In the mouse U87MG xenograft model, HBPT elicits a robust tumor inhibitory effect. More importantly, no obvious toxicity was observed for HBPT therapy in animal experiments. These findings indicate that HBPT has the potential to be developed as a novel agent for the treatment of glioblastoma. [Supplementary Tables: available only at http://dx.doi.org/10.1254/jphs.13064FP].

  5. Evaluation of Cytarabine Against Ewing Sarcoma Xenografts by the Pediatric Preclinical Testing Program

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Peter J.; Morton, Christopher L.; Kang, Min; Reynolds, C. Patrick; Billups, Catherine A.; Favours, Edward; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Tucker, Chandra; Smith, Malcolm A.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment with the nucleoside analog cytarabine has been shown to mimic changes in gene expression associated with down-regulation of the EWS-FLI1 oncogene in Ewing sarcoma cell lines, selectively inhibit their growth in vitro, and cause tumor regression in athymic nude mice. For this report cytarabine was studied in vitro against a panel of 23 pediatric cancer cell lines and in vivo against 6 Ewing sarcoma xenografts. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell lines were the most sensitive to cytarabine in vitro (median IC50 9 nM), while Ewing sarcoma cell lines showed intermediate sensitivity (median IC50 232 nM). Cytarabine at a dose of 150 mg/kg administered daily 5× failed to significantly inhibit growth of five xenograft models, but reduced growth rate of the A673 xenograft by 50%. Cytarabine shows no differential in vitro activity against Ewing sarcoma cell lines and is ineffective in vivo against Ewing sarcoma xenografts at the dose and schedule studied. PMID:20979180

  6. Antitumor activity of ZD6126, a novel vascular-targeting agent, is enhanced when combined with ZD1839, an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and potentiates the effects of radiation in a human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Raben, David; Bianco, Cataldo; Damiano, Vincenzo; Bianco, Roberto; Melisi, Davide; Mignogna, Chiara; D'Armiento, Francesco Paolo; Cionini, Luca; Bianco, A Raffaele; Tortora, Giampaolo; Ciardiello, Fortunato; Bunn, Paul

    2004-08-01

    Targeting the tumor vasculature may offer an alternative or complementary therapeutic approach to targeting growth factor signaling in lung cancer. The aim of these studies was to evaluate the antitumor effects in vivo of the combination of ZD6126, a tumor-selective vascular-targeting agent; ZD1839 (gefitinib, Iressa), an epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor; and ionizing radiation in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model. Athymic nude mice with established flank A549 human non-small cell lung cancer xenograft model xenografts were treated with fractionated radiation therapy, ZD6126, ZD1839, or combinations of each treatment. ZD6126 (150 mg/kg) was given i.p. the day after each course of radiation. Animals treated with ZD1839 received 100 mg/kg per dose per animal, 5 or 7 days/wk for 2 weeks. Immunohistochemistry was done to evaluate the effects on tumor growth using an anti-Ki67 monoclonal antibody. Effects on tumor-induced vascularization were quantified using an anti-factor VIII-related antigen monoclonal antibody. ZD6126 attenuated the growth of human A549 flank xenografts compared with untreated animals. Marked antitumor effects were observed when animals were treated with a combination of ZD6126 and fractionated radiation therapy with protracted tumor regression. ZD6126 + ZD1839 resulted in a greater tumor growth delay than either agent alone. Similar additive effects were seen with ZD1839 + fractionated radiation. Finally, the addition of ZD6126 to ZD1839 and radiation therapy seemed to further improve tumor growth control, with a significant tumor growth delay compared with animals treated with single agent or with double combinations. Immunohistochemistry showed that ZD1839 induced a marked reduction in A549 tumor cell proliferation. Both ZD1839 and ZD6126 treatment substantially reduced tumor-induced angiogenesis. ZD6126 caused marked vessel destruction through loss of endothelial cells and thrombosis

  7. Lidocaine Induces Apoptosis and Suppresses Tumor Growth in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and in a Xenograft Model In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Chen, Dong-Tai; Pan, Jia-Hao; Chen, Yong-Hua; Yan, Yan; Li, Qiang; Xue, Rui-Feng; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Zeng, Wei-An

    2017-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have focused on the potential beneficial effects of regional anesthetics, and the differences in cancer prognosis may be the result of anesthetics on cancer biologic behavior. However, the function and underlying mechanisms of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma both in vitro and in vivo have been poorly studied. Human HepG2 cells were treated with lidocaine. Cell viability, colony formation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were assessed. The effects of lidocaine on apoptosis-related and mitogen-activated protein kinase protein expression were evaluated by Western blot analysis. The antitumor activity of lidocaine in hepatocellular carcinoma with or without cisplatin was investigated with in vitro experiments and also with animal experiments. Lidocaine inhibited the growth of HepG2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The authors also found that lidocaine arrested cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle (63.7 ± 1.7% vs. 72.4 ± 3.2%; P = 0.0143) and induced apoptosis (1.7 ± 0.3% vs. 5.0 ± 0.7%; P = 0.0009). Lidocaine may exert these functions by causing an increase in Bax protein and activated caspase-3 and a corresponding decrease in Bcl-2 protein through the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 pathways. More importantly, for the first time, xenograft experiments (n = 8 per group) indicated that lidocaine suppressed tumor development (P < 0.0001; lidocaine vs. control) and enhanced the sensitivity of cisplatin (P = 0.0008; lidocaine plus cisplatin vs. cisplatin). The authors' findings suggest that lidocaine may exert potent antitumor activity in hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, combining lidocaine with cisplatin may be a novel treatment option for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Harnessing Autopsied DIPG Tumor Tissues for Orthotopic Xenograft Model Development in the Brain Stems of SCID Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    patched-1-deficient mouse medulloblastoma . Cancer Res. 2009;69:4682-4690. 14. Mao XG, Zhang X, Xue XY, et al. Brain Tumor Stem-Like Cells Identified by...propagating cells in a mouse model of medulloblastoma . Cancer Cell. 2009;15:135-147. 16. Yagi H, Yanagisawa M, Suzuki Y, et al. HNK-1 epitope-carrying

  9. Baseline [(18)F]FMISO μPET as a Predictive Biomarker for Response to HIF-1α Inhibition Combined with 5-FU Chemotherapy in a Human Colorectal Cancer Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    De Bruycker, Sven; Vangestel, Christel; Van den Wyngaert, Tim; Wyffels, Leonie; Wouters, An; Pauwels, Patrick; Staelens, Steven; Stroobants, Sigrid

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize imaging biomarkers for the potential benefit of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1)α inhibition (by PX-12) during 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therapy response to 5-FU ± PX-12 was assessed with baseline [(18)F]fluoromisonidazole ([(18)F]FMISO) and longitudinal 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) positron emission computed tomography (μPET/CT) in CRC xenograft model (n = 36) during breathing of a hypoxic (10 % O2) or normoxic (21 % O2) atmosphere. Ex vivo, immunohistochemistry was performed. Baseline [(18)F]FMISO uptake and relative tumor volume (RTV) 2 days after 5-FU or 5-FU + PX-12 administration correlated significantly (p ≤ 0.01). Under hypoxic breathing conditions, [(18)F]FDG uptake (-53.1 ± 8.4 %) and Ki67 expression (-16 %) decreased and RTV stagnated in the 5-FU + PX-12 treatment group, but not in 5-FU alone-treated tumors. Under normoxic breathing, [(18)F]FDG uptake (-23.5 ± 15.2 % and -72.8 ± 7.1 %) and Ki67 expression (-5 % and -19 %) decreased and RTV stagnated in both the 5-FU and the combination treatment group, respectively. Baseline [(18)F]FMISO μPET may predict the beneficial effect of HIF-1α inhibition during 5-FU chemotherapy in CRC.

  10. Successful high-resolution animal positron emission tomography of human Ewing tumours and their metastases in a murine xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Franzius, Christiane; Hotfilder, Marc; Poremba, Christopher; Hermann, Sven; Schäfers, Klaus; Gabbert, Helmut Erich; Jürgens, Heribert; Schober, Otmar; Schäfers, Michael; Vormoor, Josef

    2006-12-01

    As primary osseous metastasis is the main adverse prognostic factor in patients with Ewing tumours, a NOD/scid mouse model for human Ewing tumour metastases has been established to examine the mechanisms of metastasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic molecular imaging by small animal PET in this mouse model. Human Ewing tumour cells were transplanted into immune-deficient NOD/scid mice via s.c injection (n=17) or i.v. injection (n=17). The animals (mean weight 23.2 g) were studied 2-7 weeks after transplantation using a submillimetre resolution animal PET scanner. To assess glucose utilisation and bone metabolism, mice were scanned after intravenous injection of 9.6 MBq (mean) 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D: -glucose (FDG) or 9.4 MBq (mean) [(18)F]fluoride. Whole-body PET images were analysed visually and semi-quantitatively [%ID/g, tumour to non-tumour ratio (T/NT)]. Foci of pathological uptake were identified with respect to the physiological organ uptake in corresponding regions. Subcutaneously transplanted Ewing tumours demonstrated a moderately increased glucose uptake (median %ID/g 2.5; median T/NT 2.2). After i.v. transplantation, the pattern of metastasis was similar to that in patients with metastases in lung, bone and soft tissue. These metastases showed an increased FDG uptake (median %ID/g 3.6; median T/NT 2.7). Osseous metastases were additionally visible on [(18)F]fluoride PET by virtue of decreased [(18)F]fluoride uptake (osteolysis; median %ID/g 8.4; median T/NT 0.59). Metastases were confirmed immunohistologically. Diagnostic molecular imaging of Ewing tumours and their small metastases in an in vivo NOD/scid mouse model is feasible using a submillimetre resolution PET scanner.

  11. Treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma xenografts with the HB22.7 anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody and phosphatase inhibitors improves efficacy.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Robert T; Pearson, David; McKnight, Hayes C; Ma, Ya Peng; Tuscano, Joseph M

    2009-10-01

    To examine the role of phosphatase inhibition on anti-CD22, HB22.7-mediated lymphomacidal effects. CD22 is a cell-surface molecule expressed on most B cell lymphomas (NHL). HB22.7 is an anti-CD22 monoclonal antibody that binds a unique CD22-epitope, blocks ligand binding, initiates signaling, and has demonstrated lymphomacidal activity. The SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase is associated with the cytoplasmic domain of CD22. Sodium orthovanadate (NaV) is a phosphatase inhibitor. The SHP-1-CD22 interaction presents an opportunity to manipulate CD22-mediated signaling effects. In vitro cell culture assays and in vivo human NHL xenograft studies were used to assess the effects of phosphatase inhibition. NaV caused dose dependent killing of NHL cells in vitro; when HB22.7 was given with NaV, antibody-mediated cell death was augmented. Flow cytometry showed that NaV-pretreatment resulted in less CD22 internalization after ligation with HB22.7 than did control cells. Studies in mice bearing Raji NHL xenografts showed that the combination of NaV and HB22.7 shrank NHL tumors more rapidly, had a higher complete response rate (80%), and produced the best survival compared to controls; no toxicity was detected. Studies using Raji cells stably transfected with SHP-1DN confirmed that these observations were due to SHP-1 inhibition. The relatively specific association of SHP-1 with CD22 suggests that CD22-specific signal augmentation by phosphatase inhibitors can improve the clinical outcome of anti-CD22 based immunotherapy.

  12. Natural killer T cell facilitated engraftment of rat skin but not islet xenografts in mice.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Ethel J; Kelkar, Vinaya

    2009-01-01

    We have studied cellular components required for xenograft survival mediated by anti-CD154 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and a transfusion of donor spleen cells and found that the elimination of CD4(+) but not CD8(+) cells significantly improves graft survival. A contribution of other cellular components, such as natural killer (NK) cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells, for costimulation blockade-induced xenograft survival has not been clearly defined. We therefore tested the hypothesis that NK or NKT cells would promote rat islet and skin xenograft acceptance in mice. Lewis rat islets or skin was transplanted into wild type B6 mice or into B6 mice that were Jalpha18(null), CD1(null), or beta2 microglobulin (beta2M)(null) NK 1.1 depleted, or perforin(null). Graft recipients were pretreated with an infusion of donor derived spleen cells and a brief course of anti-CD154 mAb treatments. Additional groups received mAb or cells only. We first observed that the depletion of NK1.1 cells does not significantly interfere with graft survival in C57BL/6 (B6) mice. We used NKT cell deficient B6 mice to test the hypothesis that NKT cells are involved in islet and skin xenograft survival in our model. These mice bear a null mutation in the gene for the Jalpha18 component of the T-cell receptor. The component is uniquely associated with NKT cells. We found no difference in islet xenograft survival between Jalpha18(null) and wild type B6 mice. In contrast, median skin graft survival appeared shorter in Jalpha18(null) recipients. These data imply a role for Jalpha18(+) NKT cells in skin xenograft survival in treated mice. In order to confirm this inference, we tested skin xenograft survival in B6 CD1(null) mice because NKT cells are CD1 restricted. Results of these trials demonstrate that the absence of CD1(+) cells adversely affects rat skin graft survival. An additional assay in beta2M(null) mice demonstrated a requirement for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I

  13. The biodistribution and pharmacokinetic evaluation of choline-bound gold nanoparticles in a human prostate tumor xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Rene; Zhou, Joe; Yang, XiaoHong; Pervez, Nadim; Bédard, Eric Lr; Moore, Ronald B; Shaw, Andrew; Amanie, John; Roa, Wilson H

    2013-06-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have attracted significant attention in the treatment of cancer due to their potential as novel radiation enhancers, particularly when functionalized with various targeting ligands. The aim of this study was to assess the biodistribution and pharmacokinetic characteristics of a novel choline-bound GNP (choline-GNP) stabilized with polyethelenimine (PEI). Choline bound to 27 nm diameter GNPs was characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Toxicity of choline-GNPs was examined on DU-145 prostate cancer cells using an MTT assay. Using balb/c mice bearing flank DU-145 prostate tumors, choline-GNPs bio-distribution was measured using inductively coupled mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Blood, heart, lung, liver, spleen, brain, kidney and tumor gold content were examined at multiple time points over a 24-hour period after tail vein injection. An MTT assay using DU-145 prostate cancer cells yielded a 95% cell viability 72 hours after choline-GNP administration. The tumor GNP area under the concentration-time curve during the first 4 hours (AUC0-4) was 2.2 µg/ml h, representing 13% of the circulating blood GNP concentration over the same time period. The maximum intra-tumor GNP concentration observed was 1.4% of the injected dose per gram of tumor tissue (%ID/g) one hour post injection. GNPs functionalized with choline demonstrates a viable future nanoparticle platform with increased intra-tumor uptake as compared to unconjugated GNPs. Decreased intra-hepatic accumulation appears to be the reason for the improved systemic bioavailability. The next logical translational investigation will incorporate external beam radiation with the observed maximum intra-tumor uptake.

  14. Formulation, Characterization, and Antitumor Properties of Trans- and Cis-Citral in the 4T1 Breast Cancer Xenograft Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, San; Kapur, Arvinder; Patankar, Manish S; Xiong, May P

    2015-08-01

    Citral is composed of a random mixture of two geometric stereoisomers geranial (trans-citral) and neral (cis-citral) yet few studies have directly compared their in vivo antitumor properties. A micelle formulation was therefore developed. Geranial and neral were synthesized. Commercially-purchased citral, geranial, and neral were formulated in PEG-b-PCL (block sizes of 5000:10,000, Mw/Mn 1.26) micelles. In vitro degradation, drug release, cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, and western blot studies were conducted. The antitumor properties of drug formulations (40 and 80 mg/kg based on MTD studies) were evaluated on the 4T1 xenograft mouse model and tumor tissues were analyzed by western blot. Micelles encapsulated drugs with >50% LE at 5-40% drug to polymer (w/w), displayed sustained release (t1/2 of 8-9 h), and improved drug stability at pH 5.0. The IC50 of drug formulations against 4T1 cells ranged from 1.4 to 9.9 μM. Western blot revealed that autophagy was the main cause of cytotoxicity. Geranial at 80 mg/kg was most effective at inhibiting tumor growth. Geranial is significantly more potent than neral and citral at 80 mg/kg (p < 0.001) and western blot of tumor tissues confirms that autophagy and not apoptosis is the major mechanism of tumor growth inhibition in p53-null 4T1 cells.

  15. Oxygen Plasma-Fragmented KMnF3 Nanoparticle Benefits Contrast Enhancement for MR Imaging of a Patient-derived Tumor Xenograft Model.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xin; Yu, Lulu; Li, Yanshu; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jinsheng; Shu, Ting; Jing, Cai; Tang, Qun

    2018-06-11

    Magnetic nanoparticles are emerging as promising candidates for next-generation of imaging contrast agents and its performance was largely dependent on physico-chemistry properties. In this paper, A new type of "top down" fabrication technique was developed to synthesize ultrasmall magnetic nanoparticle as contrast enhancer. In detailed, home-made oxygen plasma generator fragments larger KMnF3 nanoparticle (22 nm) into smaller (<5 nm) particle with enhanced hydrophilicity, as massive activated oxygen species produced during plasma could severally etch the nanoparticle, and VUV light irradiated it heavily as well, leaving it weak crystallinity, even splitting into ultrafine particle, also its surface transformed from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by oxidizing the passivated ligand, evidenced from the spectroscopy and microscopy. The fragmented nanoparticle is characteristic of unprecedented high longitudinal relaxivity (r1=35.52 mM-1.s-1) and appropriate biocompatibility. In healthy mouse, the ultrafine nanoparticle did not exert observable toxicity, evaluated by histology of the main organ and hemogram analysis, including kidney and liver function analysis. More interesting, the ultrasmall NP has very long circulation time, as its blood half time is around 20 hours. When applied as a contrast enhancer for MR imaging of patient-derived tumor xenograft model, the accumulation of KMnF3 nanoparticle within the tumor can be as high as averaged 12.13%ID per gram, which greatly shortens relaxation time of the tumor, therefore control-to-noise ratio got significant enhancement, relative to the same dosage of Gd-DTPA (Magvenist) (P<0.001). Our primary results demonstrate that fragmentation of nanoparticle via our home-made O2 plasma technique might be an effective route to fabricate ultrasmall NPs, and benefit their contrast effect as applied as MRI enhancer for clinical diagnosis of tumor. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. [Inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on HepG2 cell xenograft growth and expression of β-catenin and Tbx3 in nude mice].

    PubMed

    Wen, Bin; Sun, Hai-Tao; He, Song-Qi; LA, Lei; An, Hai-Yan; Pang, Jie

    2016-02-01

    To explore the molecular mechanism by which Biejiajian pills inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma in a nude mouse model bearing HepG2 cell xenograft. The inhibitory effect of Biejiajian pills on the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice was observed. Immunohistochemical method was used to examine proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in HepG2 cell xenograft, and TUNEL method was employed to detect the cell apoptosis; the expression levels of β-catenin and Tbx3 were measured by Western blotting. Biejiajian pills significantly suppressed the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice. The tumor-bearing mice treated with a high and a moderate dose of Biejiajian pills showed significantly increased apoptosis rate of the tumor cells [(22.9±1.220)% and (14.7±0.50)%, respectively] compared with the control group [(5.5±0.90)%, P<0.05]. Treatment with Biejiajian pills significantly decreased the expressions of PNCA, β-catenin, and Tbx3 in the cell xenograft (P<0.05). Biejiajian pills can inhibit the growth of HepG2 cell xenograft in nude mice and promote tumor cell apoptosis possibly by inhibiting PNCA expression and the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  17. Evaluating dynamic contrast-enhanced and photoacoustic CT to assess intra-tumor heterogeneity in xenograft mouse models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stantz, Keith M.; Liu, Bo; Cao, Minsong; Reinecke, Dan; Dzemidzic, Mario; Liang, Yun; Kruger, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate photoacoustic CT spectroscopy (PCT-S) and dynamic contrast-enhanced CT (DCE-CT) ability to measure parameters - oxygen saturation and vascular physiology - associated with the intra-tumor oxygenation status. Material and Methods: Breast (VEGF165 enhance MCF-7) and ovarian (SKOV3x) cancer cells were implanted into the fat pads and flanks of immune deficient mice and allowed to grow to a diameter of 8-15 mm. CT was used to determine physiological parameters by acquiring a sequence of scans over a 10 minute period after an i.v. injection of a radio-opaque contrast agent (Isovue). These time-dependent contrast-enhanced curves were fit to a two-compartmental model determining tumor perfusion, fractional plasma volume, permeability-surface area produce, and fractional interstitial volume on a voxel-by-voxel basis. After which, the tumors were imaged using photoacoustic CT (Optosonics, Inc., Indianapolis, IN 46202). The near infrared spectra (700-910 nm) within the vasculature was fit to linear combination of measured oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin blood samples to obtain oxygen saturation levels (SaO II). Results: The PCT-S scanner was first calibrated using different samples of oxygenated blood, from which a statistical error ranging from 2.5-6.5% was measured and a plot of the hemoglobin dissociation curve was consistent with empirical formula. In vivo determination of tumor vasculature SaO II levels were measurably tracked, and spatially correlated to the periphery of the tumor. Tumor depend variations in SaO II - 0.32 (ovarian) and 0.60 (breast) - and in vascular physiology - perfusion, 1.03 and 0.063 mL/min/mL, and fractional plasma volume, 0.20 and 0.07 - were observed. Conclusion: Combined, PCT-S and CED-CT has the potential to measure intra-tumor levels of tumor oxygen saturation and vascular physiology, key parameters associated with hypoxia.

  18. Human pancreatic cancer xenografts recapitulate key aspects of cancer cachexia.

    PubMed

    Delitto, Daniel; Judge, Sarah M; Delitto, Andrea E; Nosacka, Rachel L; Rocha, Fernanda G; DiVita, Bayli B; Gerber, Michael H; George, Thomas J; Behrns, Kevin E; Hughes, Steven J; Wallet, Shannon M; Judge, Andrew R; Trevino, Jose G

    2017-01-03

    Cancer cachexia represents a debilitating syndrome that diminishes quality of life and augments the toxicities of conventional treatments. Cancer cachexia is particularly debilitating in patients with pancreatic cancer (PC). Mechanisms responsible for cancer cachexia are under investigation and are largely derived from observations in syngeneic murine models of cancer which are limited in PC. We evaluate the effect of human PC cells on both muscle wasting and the systemic inflammatory milieu potentially contributing to PC-associated cachexia. Specifically, human PC xenografts were generated by implantation of pancreatic cancer cells, L3.6pl and PANC-1, either in the flank or orthotopically within the pancreas. Mice bearing orthotopic xenografts demonstrated significant muscle wasting and atrophy-associated gene expression changes compared to controls. Further, despite the absence of adaptive immunity, splenic tissue from orthotopically engrafted mice demonstrated elevations in several pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with cancer cachexia, including TNFα, IL1β, IL6 and KC (murine IL8 homologue), when compared to controls. Therefore, data presented here support further investigation into the complexity of cancer cachexia in PC to identify potential targets for this debilitating syndrome.

  19. Acyclic Cucurbit[n]uril-Type Molecular Container Enables Systemic Delivery of Effective Doses of Albendazole for Treatment of SK-OV-3 Xenograft Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hettiarachchi, Gaya; Samanta, Soumen K; Falcinelli, Shane; Zhang, Ben; Moncelet, Damien; Isaacs, Lyle; Briken, Volker

    2016-03-07

    Approximately, 40-70% of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) are severely limited by their extremely poor aqueous solubility, and consequently, there is a high demand for excipients that can be used to formulate clinically relevant doses of these drug candidates. Here, proof-of-concept studies demonstrate the potential of our recently discovered acyclic cucurbit[n]uril-type molecular container Motor1 (M1) as a solubilizing agent for insoluble drugs. M1 did not induce significant rates of mutations in various Salmonella typhimurium test strains during the Ames test, suggesting low genotoxicity. M1 also has low risk of causing cardiac toxicity in humans since it did not inhibit the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene channel as tested on transfected CHO cell lines via patch clamp analysis. Albendazole (ABZ) is a widely used antihelminthic agent but that has also shown promising efficacy against cancerous cells in vitro. However, due to its low aqueous solubility (2.7 μM) and poor pharmacokinetics, ABZ is clinically limited as an anticancer agent. Here we investigated the potential of M1 as a solubilizing excipient for ABZ formulation. A pharmacokinetic study indicated that ABZ escapes the peritoneal cavity resulting in 78% absolute bioavailability, while its active intermediate metabolite, albendazole sulfoxide, achieved 43% absolute bioavailability. The daily dosing of 681 mg/kg M1 complexed with 3.2 mg/kg of ABZ for 14 days did not result in significant weight loss or pathology in Swiss Webster mice. In vivo efficacy studies using this M1·ABZ inclusion complex showed significant decreases in tumor growth rates and increases in survival of mice bearing SK-OV-3 xenograft tumors. In conclusion, we provide substantial new evidence demonstrating that M1 is a safe and efficient excipient that enables in vivo parenteral delivery of poorly water-soluble APIs.

  20. ISSLS PRIZE IN BASIC SCIENCE 2018: Growth differentiation factor-6 attenuated pro-inflammatory molecular changes in the rabbit anular-puncture model and degenerated disc-induced pain generation in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Shingo; Diwan, Ashish D; Kato, Kenji; Cheng, Kevin; Bae, Won C; Sun, Yang; Yamada, Junichi; Muehleman, Carol; Lenz, Mary E; Inoue, Nozomu; Sah, Robert L; Kawakami, Mamoru; Masuda, Koichi

    2018-04-01

    To elucidate the effects of growth differentiation factor-6 (GDF6) on: (i) gene expression of inflammatory/pain-related molecules and structural integrity in the rabbit intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration model, and (ii) sensory dysfunction and changes in pain-marker expression in dorsal nerve ganglia (DRGs) in the rat xenograft radiculopathy model. Forty-six adolescent rabbits received anular-puncture in two non-consecutive lumbar IVDs. Four weeks later, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) or GDF6 (1, 10 or 100 µg) was injected into the nucleus pulposus (NP) of punctured discs and followed for 4 weeks for gene expression analysis and 12 weeks for structural analyses. For pain assessment, eight rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks post-injection and NP tissues of injected discs were transplanted onto L5 DRGs of 16 nude rats to examine mechanical allodynia. The rat DRGs were analyzed immunohistochemically. In GDF6-treated rabbit NPs, gene expressions of interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, vascular endothelial growth factor, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, and nerve growth factor were significantly lower than those in the PBS group. GDF6 injections resulted in partial restoration of disc height and improvement of MRI disc degeneration grades with statistical significance in rabbit structural analyses. Allodynia induced by xenograft transplantation of rabbit degenerated NPs onto rat DRGs was significantly reduced by GDF6 injection. Staining intensities for ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 and calcitonin gene-related peptide in rat DRGs of the GDF6 group were significantly lower than those of the PBS group. GDF6 injection may change the pathological status of degenerative discs and attenuate degenerated IVD-induced pain.

  1. Anticancer activity of taraxerol acetate in human glioblastoma cells and a mouse xenograft model via induction of autophagy and apoptotic cell death, cell cycle arrest and inhibition of cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing-Fang; Song, Ying-Fang; Liu, Zheng; Zheng, Zhao-Cong; Chen, Hong-Jie; Wang, Shou-Sen

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer and apoptotic effects of taraxerol acetate in U87 human glioblastoma cells. The effects on cell cycle phase distribution, cell cycle-associated proteins, autophagy, DNA fragmentation and cell migration were assessed. Cell viability was determined using the MTT assay, and phase contrast and fluorescence microscopy was utilized to determine the viability and apoptotic morphological features of the U87 cells. Flow cytometry using propidium iodide and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate demonstrated the effect of taraxerol acetate on the cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis induction. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate the effect of the taraxerol acetate on cell cycle‑associated proteins and autophagy‑linked LC3B‑II proteins. The results demonstrated that taraxerol acetate induced dose‑ and time‑dependent cytotoxic effects in the U87 cells. Apoptotic induction following taraxerol acetate treatment was observed and the percentage of apoptotic cells increased from 7.3% in the control cells, to 16.1, 44.1 and 76.7% in the 10, 50 and 150 µM taraxerol acetate‑treated cells, respectively. Furthermore, taraxerol acetate treatment led to sub‑G1 cell cycle arrest with a corresponding decrease in the number of S‑phase cells. DNA fragments were observed as a result of the gel electrophoresis experiment following taraxerol acetate treatment. To investigate the inhibitory effects of taraxerol acetate on the migration of U87 cell, a wound healing assay was conducted. The number of cells that migrated to the scratched area decreased significantly following treatment with taraxerol acetate. In addition, taraxerol acetate inhibited tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Administration of 0.25 and 0.75 µg/g taraxerol acetate reduced the tumor weight from 1.2 g in the phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS)‑treated group (control) to 0.81 and 0.42

  2. Targeting the 5T4 oncofetal glycoprotein with an antibody drug conjugate (A1mcMMAF) improves survival in patient-derived xenograft models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    McGinn, Owen J; Krishnan, Shekhar; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Sapra, Puja; Dempsey, Clare; Saha, Vaskar; Stern, Peter L

    2017-06-01

    Outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is prognosticated from levels of minimal residual disease after remission induction therapy. Higher levels of minimal residual disease are associated with inferior results even with intensification of therapy, thus suggesting that identification and targeting of minimal residual disease cells could be a therapeutic strategy. Here we identify high expression of 5T4 in subclonal populations of patient-derived xenografts from patients with high, post-induction levels of minimal residual disease. 5T4-positive cells showed preferential ability to overcome the NOD- scid IL2Rγ null mouse xenograft barrier, migrated in vitro on a CXCL12 gradient, preferentially localized to bone marrow in vivo and displayed the ability to reconstitute the original clonal composition on limited dilution engraftment. Treatment with A1mcMMAF (a 5T4-antibody drug conjugate) significantly improved survival without overt toxicity in mice engrafted with a 5T4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Mice engrafted with 5T4-positive patient-derived xenograft cells were treated with combination chemotherapy or dexamethasone alone and then given A1mcMMAF in the minimal residual disease setting. Combination chemotherapy was toxic to NOD- scid IL2Rγ null mice. While dexamethasone or A1mcMMAF alone improved outcomes, the sequential administration of dexamethasone and A1mcMMAF significantly improved survival ( P =0.0006) over either monotherapy. These data show that specifically targeting minimal residual disease cells improved outcomes and support further investigation of A1mcMMAF in patients with high-risk B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia identified by 5T4 expression at diagnosis. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  3. Targeting the 5T4 oncofetal glycoprotein with an antibody drug conjugate (A1mcMMAF) improves survival in patient-derived xenograft models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    McGinn, Owen J.; Krishnan, Shekhar; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Sapra, Puja; Dempsey, Clare; Saha, Vaskar; Stern, Peter L.

    2017-01-01

    Outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia is prognosticated from levels of minimal residual disease after remission induction therapy. Higher levels of minimal residual disease are associated with inferior results even with intensification of therapy, thus suggesting that identification and targeting of minimal residual disease cells could be a therapeutic strategy. Here we identify high expression of 5T4 in subclonal populations of patient-derived xenografts from patients with high, post-induction levels of minimal residual disease. 5T4-positive cells showed preferential ability to overcome the NOD-scidIL2Rγnull mouse xenograft barrier, migrated in vitro on a CXCL12 gradient, preferentially localized to bone marrow in vivo and displayed the ability to reconstitute the original clonal composition on limited dilution engraftment. Treatment with A1mcMMAF (a 5T4-antibody drug conjugate) significantly improved survival without overt toxicity in mice engrafted with a 5T4-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Mice engrafted with 5T4-positive patient-derived xenograft cells were treated with combination chemotherapy or dexamethasone alone and then given A1mcMMAF in the minimal residual disease setting. Combination chemotherapy was toxic to NOD-scidIL2Rγnull mice. While dexamethasone or A1mcMMAF alone improved outcomes, the sequential administration of dexamethasone and A1mcMMAF significantly improved survival (P=0.0006) over either monotherapy. These data show that specifically targeting minimal residual disease cells improved outcomes and support further investigation of A1mcMMAF in patients with high-risk B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia identified by 5T4 expression at diagnosis. PMID:28341731

  4. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of an antagonist (SM-406/AT-406) of multiple inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) in a mouse xenograft model of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Li, Yanyan; Zou, Peng; Yu, Jing-yu; McEachern, Donna; Wang, Shaomeng; Sun, Duxin

    2013-09-01

    The inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are a class of key apoptosis regulators overexpressed or dysregulated in cancer. SM-406/AT-406 is a potent and selective small molecule mimetic of Smac that antagonizes the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs). A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK-PD) model was developed to predict the tissue concentration-time profiles of SM-406, the related onco-protein levels in tumor, and the tumor growth inhibition in a mouse model bearing human breast cancer xenograft. In the whole body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pharmacokinetics characterization, a well stirred (perfusion rate-limited) model was used to describe SM-406 pharmacokinetics in the lung, heart, kidney, intestine, liver and spleen, and a diffusion rate-limited (permeability limited) model was used for tumor. Pharmacodynamic (PD) models were developed to correlate the SM-406 concentration in tumor to the cIAP1 degradation, pro-caspase 8 decrease, CL-PARP accumulation and tumor growth inhibition. The PBPK-PD model well described the experimental pharmacokinetic data, the pharmacodynamic biomarker responses and tumor growth. This model may be helpful to predict tumor and plasma SM-406 concentrations in the clinic. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Experimental model of bone response to collagenized xenografts of porcine origin (OsteoBiol® mp3): a radiological and histomorphometric study.

    PubMed

    Calvo Guirado, Jose Luis; Ramírez Fernández, Maria Piedad; Negri, Bruno; Delgado Ruiz, Rafael Arcesio; Maté Sánchez de-Val, José Eduardo; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo

    2013-02-01

    Adequate alveolar ridges are fundamental to successful rehabilitation with implants. There are diverse techniques for reconstructing atrophied ridges, of which bone substitute grafts is one possibility. The aim of this study was to carry out radiological and histomorphometric evaluations of bone response to collagenized porcine bone xenografts over a 4-month period following their insertion in rabbits' tibiae. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were used. Twenty collagenized porcine bone xenografts (Osteobiol® mp3, Tecnoss Dental s.r.l., Torino, Italy), in granulated form of 600 to 1,000 µm, were inserted in the proximal metaphyseal area of the animals' tibiae and 20 control areas were created. Following implantation, the animals were sacrificed in four groups of five, after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months, respectively. Radiological and histomorphometric studies were made. After 4 months, radiological images revealed bone defects with a decrease in graft volume and the complete repair of the osseous defect. No healed or residual bone alterations attributable to the presence of the implants were observed. Histomorphometric analysis at 4 months found mean values for newly formed bone, residual graft material, and non-mineralized connective tissue of 25.4 ± 1.8%, 36.37 ± 3.0%, and 38.22 ± 2.5%, respectively. There were no statistical differences in the length of cortical formation with collagenized porcine xenograft (98.9 ± 1.1%) compared with the control samples (99.1 ± 0.7%) at the end of the study period. The biomaterial used proved to be biocompatible, bioabsorbable, and osteoconductive and as such, a possible bone substitute that did not interfere with the bone's normal reparative processes. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Anti-proliferative Effect of Engineered Neural Stem Cells Expressing Cytosine Deaminase and Interferon-β against Lymph Node–Derived Metastatic Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in Cellular and Xenograft Mouse Models

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geon-Tae; Kim, Seung U.; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Genetically engineered stem cells may be advantageous for gene therapy against various human cancers due to their inherent tumor-tropic properties. In this study, genetically engineered human neural stem cells (HB1.F3) expressing Escherichia coli cytosine deaminase (CD) (HB1.F3.CD) and human interferon-β (IFN-β) (HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β) were employed against lymph node–derived metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma. Materials and Methods CD can convert a prodrug, 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC), to active 5-fluorouracil, which inhibits tumor growth through the inhibition of DNA synthesis,while IFN-β also strongly inhibits tumor growth by inducing the apoptotic process. In reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis, we confirmed that HB1.F3.CD cells expressed the CD gene and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells expressed both CD and IFN-β genes. Results In results of a modified trans-well migration assay, HB1.F3.CD and HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells selectively migrated toward SW-620, human lymph node–derived metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The viability of SW-620 cells was significantly reduced when co-cultured with HB1.F3.CD or HB1.F3.CD.IFN-β cells in the presence of 5-FC. In addition, it was found that the tumor-tropic properties of these engineered human neural stem cells (hNSCs) were attributed to chemoattractant molecules including stromal cell-derived factor 1, c-Kit, urokinase receptor, urokinase-type plasminogen activator, and C-C chemokine receptor type 2 secreted by SW-620 cells. In a xenograft mouse model, treatment with hNSC resulted in significantly inhibited growth of the tumor mass without virulent effects on the animals. Conclusion The current results indicate that engineered hNSCs and a prodrug treatment inhibited the growth of SW-620 cells. Therefore, hNSC therapy may be a clinically effective tool for the treatment of lymph node metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:27188205

  7. Use of a conformational switching aptamer for rapid and specific ex vivo identification of central nervous system lymphoma in a xenograft model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georges, Joseph F.; Liu, Xiaowei; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Nichols, Joshua; Mooney, Michael A.; Joy, Anna; Spetzler, Robert F.; Feuerstein, Burt G.; Anderson, Trent; Preul, Mark C.; Yan, Hao; Nakaji, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 10 minutes of incubation. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

  8. The B-Raf status of tumor cells may be a significant determinant of both antitumor and anti-angiogenic effects of pazopanib in xenograft tumor models.

    PubMed

    Gril, Brunilde; Palmieri, Diane; Qian, Yong; Anwar, Talha; Ileva, Lilia; Bernardo, Marcelino; Choyke, Peter; Liewehr, David J; Steinberg, Seth M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2011-01-01

    Pazopanib is an FDA approved Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor inhibitor. We previously reported that it also inhibits tumor cell B-Raf activity in an experimental brain metastatic setting. Here, we determine the effects of different B-Raf genotypes on pazopanib efficacy, in terms of primary tumor growth and anti-angiogenesis. A panel of seven human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines harboring different mutations in the Ras-Raf pathway was implanted orthotopically in mice, and tumor growth, ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and AKT activation, and blood vessel density and permeability were analyzed. Pazopanib was significantly inhibitory to xenografts expressing either exon 11 mutations of B-Raf, or HER2 activated wild type B-Raf; no significant inhibition of a xenograft expressing the common V600E B-Raf mutation was observed. Decreased pMEK staining in the responsive tumors confirmed that B-Raf was targeted by pazopanib. Interestingly, pazopanib inhibition of tumor cell B-Raf also correlated with its anti-angiogenic activity, as quantified by vessel density and area. In conclusion, using pazopanib, tumor B-Raf status was identified as a significant determinant of both tumor growth and angiogenesis.

  9. The B-Raf Status of Tumor Cells May Be a Significant Determinant of Both Antitumor and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Pazopanib in Xenograft Tumor Models

    PubMed Central

    Gril, Brunilde; Palmieri, Diane; Qian, Yong; Anwar, Talha; Ileva, Lilia; Bernardo, Marcelino; Choyke, Peter; Liewehr, David J.; Steinberg, Seth M.; Steeg, Patricia S.

    2011-01-01

    Pazopanib is an FDA approved Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor inhibitor. We previously reported that it also inhibits tumor cell B-Raf activity in an experimental brain metastatic setting. Here, we determine the effects of different B-Raf genotypes on pazopanib efficacy, in terms of primary tumor growth and anti-angiogenesis. A panel of seven human breast cancer and melanoma cell lines harboring different mutations in the Ras-Raf pathway was implanted orthotopically in mice, and tumor growth, ERK1/2, MEK1/2 and AKT activation, and blood vessel density and permeability were analyzed. Pazopanib was significantly inhibitory to xenografts expressing either exon 11 mutations of B-Raf, or HER2 activated wild type B-Raf; no significant inhibition of a xenograft expressing the common V600E B-Raf mutation was observed. Decreased pMEK staining in the responsive tumors confirmed that B-Raf was targeted by pazopanib. Interestingly, pazopanib inhibition of tumor cell B-Raf also correlated with its anti-angiogenic activity, as quantified by vessel density and area. In conclusion, using pazopanib, tumor B-Raf status was identified as a significant determinant of both tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:21998674

  10. Use of a conformational switching aptamer for rapid and specific ex vivo identification of central nervous system lymphoma in a xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Georges, Joseph F; Liu, Xiaowei; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Nichols, Joshua; Mooney, Michael A; Joy, Anna; Spetzler, Robert F; Feuerstein, Burt G; Preul, Mark C; Anderson, Trent; Yan, Hao; Nakaji, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 15 minutes of incubation as observed by flow cytometry. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

  11. Dual HER2 targeting impedes growth of HER2 gene-amplified uterine serous carcinoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Groeneweg, Jolijn W; Hernandez, Silvia F; Byron, Virginia F; DiGloria, Celeste M; Lopez, Hector; Scialabba, Vanessa; Kim, Minji; Zhang, Ling; Borger, Darrell R; Tambouret, Rosemary; Foster, Rosemary; Rueda, Bo R; Growdon, Whitfield B

    2014-12-15

    Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is an aggressive subtype of endometrial cancer that commonly harbors HER2 gene amplification. We investigated the effectiveness of HER2 inhibition using lapatinib and trastuzumab in vitro and in xenografts derived from USC cell lines and USC patient-derived xenografts. Immunohistochemistry and FISH were performed to assess HER2 expression in 42 primary USC specimens. ARK1, ARK2, and SPEC2 cell lines were treated with trastuzumab or lapatinib. Cohorts of mice harboring xenografts derived from ARK2 and SPEC2 cell lines and EnCa1 and EnCa2 primary human USC samples were treated with either vehicle, trastuzumab, lapatinib, or the combination of trastuzumab and lapatinib. Acute and chronic posttreatment tumor samples were assessed for downstream signaling alterations and examined for apoptosis and proliferation. HER2 gene amplification (24%) correlated significantly with HER2 protein overexpression (55%). All models were impervious to single-agent trastuzumab treatment. Lapatinib decreased in vitro proliferation of all cell lines and in vivo growth of HER2-amplified xenografts (ARK2, EnCa1). In addition, dual therapy with trastuzumab and lapatinib resulted in significant antitumor activity only in ARK2 and EnCa1 tumors. Dual HER2 therapy induced on target alteration of downstream MAPK and PI3K pathway mediators only in HER2-amplified models, and was associated with increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation. Although trastuzumab alone did not impact USC growth, dual anti-HER2 therapy with lapatinib led to improved inhibition of tumor growth in HER2-amplified USC and may be a promising avenue for future investigation. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  12. Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic Modeling of the Anti-Tumor Effect of Sunitinib Combined with Dopamine in the Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenograft.

    PubMed

    Hao, Fangran; Wang, Siyuan; Zhu, Xiao; Xue, Junsheng; Li, Jingyun; Wang, Lijie; Li, Jian; Lu, Wei; Zhou, Tianyan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the anti-tumor effect of sunitinib in combination with dopamine in the treatment of nu/nu nude mice bearing non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells and to develop the combination PK/PD model. Further, simulations were conducted to optimize the administration regimens. A PK/PD model was developed based on our preclinical experiment to explore the relationship between plasma concentration and drug effect quantitatively. Further, the model was evaluated and validated. By fixing the parameters obtained from the PK/PD model, simulations were built to predict the tumor suppression under various regimens. The synergistic effect was observed between sunitinib and dopamine in the study, which was confirmed by the effect constant (GAMA, estimated as 2.49). The enhanced potency of dopamine on sunitinib was exerted by on/off effect in the PK/PD model. The optimal dose regimen was selected as sunitinib (120 mg/kg, q3d) in combination with dopamine (2 mg/kg, q3d) based on the simulation study. The synergistic effect of sunitinib and dopamine was demonstrated by the preclinical experiment and confirmed by the developed PK/PD model. In addition, the regimens were optimized by means of modeling as well as simulation, which may be conducive to clinical study.

  13. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  14. Nicotine Promotes Cholangiocarcinoma Growth in Xenograft Mice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Allyson K; Jensen, Kendal; Hall, Chad; O'Brien, April; Ehrlich, Laurent; White, Tori; Meng, Fanyin; Zhou, Tianhao; Greene, John; Bernuzzi, Francesca; Invernizzi, Pietro; Dostal, David E; Lairmore, Terry; Alpini, Gianfranco; Glaser, Shannon S

    2017-05-01

    Nicotine, the main addictive substance in tobacco, is known to play a role in the development and/or progression of a number of malignant tumors. However, nicotine's involvement in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma is controversial. Therefore, we studied the effects of nicotine on the growth of cholangiocarcinoma cells in vitro and the progression of cholangiocarcinoma in a mouse xenograft model. The predominant subunit responsible for nicotine-mediated proliferation in normal and cancer cells, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR), was more highly expressed in human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines compared with normal human cholangiocytes. Nicotine also stimulated the proliferation of cholangiocarcinoma cell lines and promoted α7-nAChR-dependent activation of proliferation and phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase in Mz-ChA-1 cells. In addition, nicotine and PNU282987 (α7-nAChR agonist) accelerated the growth of the cholangiocarcinoma tumors in our xenograft mouse model and increased fibrosis, proliferation of the tumor cells, and phosphorylation of extracellular-regulated kinase activation. Finally, α7-nAChR was expressed at significantly higher levels in human cholangiocarcinoma compared with normal human control liver samples. Taken together, results of this study suggest that nicotine acts through α7-nAChR and plays a novel role in the pathogenesis of cholangiocarcinoma. Furthermore, nicotine may act as a mitogen in cholestatic liver disease processes, thereby facilitating malignant transformation. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimising the combination dosing strategy of abemaciclib and vemurafenib in BRAF-mutated melanoma xenograft tumours.

    PubMed

    Tate, Sonya C; Burke, Teresa F; Hartman, Daisy; Kulanthaivel, Palaniappan; Beckmann, Richard P; Cronier, Damien M

    2016-03-15

    Resistance to BRAF inhibition is a major cause of treatment failure for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma patients. Abemaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, overcomes this resistance in xenograft tumours and offers a promising drug combination. The present work aims to characterise the quantitative pharmacology of the abemaciclib/vemurafenib combination using a semimechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling approach and to identify an optimum dosing regimen for potential clinical evaluation. A PK/biomarker model was developed to connect abemaciclib/vemurafenib concentrations to changes in MAPK and cell cycle pathway biomarkers in A375 BRAF-mutated melanoma xenografts. Resultant tumour growth inhibition was described by relating (i) MAPK pathway inhibition to apoptosis, (ii) mitotic cell density to tumour growth and, under resistant conditions, (iii) retinoblastoma protein inhibition to cell survival. The model successfully described vemurafenib/abemaciclib-mediated changes in MAPK pathway and cell cycle biomarkers. Initial tumour shrinkage by vemurafenib, acquisition of resistance and subsequent abemaciclib-mediated efficacy were successfully captured and externally validated. Model simulations illustrate the benefit of intermittent vemurafenib therapy over continuous treatment, and indicate that continuous abemaciclib in combination with intermittent vemurafenib offers the potential for considerable tumour regression. The quantitative pharmacology of the abemaciclib/vemurafenib combination was successfully characterised and an optimised, clinically-relevant dosing strategy was identified.

  16. Optimising the combination dosing strategy of abemaciclib and vemurafenib in BRAF-mutated melanoma xenograft tumours

    PubMed Central

    Tate, Sonya C; Burke, Teresa F; Hartman, Daisy; Kulanthaivel, Palaniappan; Beckmann, Richard P; Cronier, Damien M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Resistance to BRAF inhibition is a major cause of treatment failure for BRAF-mutated metastatic melanoma patients. Abemaciclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 inhibitor, overcomes this resistance in xenograft tumours and offers a promising drug combination. The present work aims to characterise the quantitative pharmacology of the abemaciclib/vemurafenib combination using a semimechanistic pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modelling approach and to identify an optimum dosing regimen for potential clinical evaluation. Methods: A PK/biomarker model was developed to connect abemaciclib/vemurafenib concentrations to changes in MAPK and cell cycle pathway biomarkers in A375 BRAF-mutated melanoma xenografts. Resultant tumour growth inhibition was described by relating (i) MAPK pathway inhibition to apoptosis, (ii) mitotic cell density to tumour growth and, under resistant conditions, (iii) retinoblastoma protein inhibition to cell survival. Results: The model successfully described vemurafenib/abemaciclib-mediated changes in MAPK pathway and cell cycle biomarkers. Initial tumour shrinkage by vemurafenib, acquisition of resistance and subsequent abemaciclib-mediated efficacy were successfully captured and externally validated. Model simulations illustrate the benefit of intermittent vemurafenib therapy over continuous treatment, and indicate that continuous abemaciclib in combination with intermittent vemurafenib offers the potential for considerable tumour regression. Conclusions: The quantitative pharmacology of the abemaciclib/vemurafenib combination was successfully characterised and an optimised, clinically-relevant dosing strategy was identified. PMID:26978007

  17. Evaluation of Heterogeneous Metabolic Profile in an Orthotopic Human Glioblastoma Xenograft Model Using Compressed Sensing Hyperpolarized 3D 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ilwoo; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Ozawa, Tomoko; Ito, Motokazu; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Phillips, Joanna J.; James, C. David; Pieper, Russell O.; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    High resolution compressed sensing hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was applied in orthotopic human glioblastoma xenografts for quantitative assessment of spatial variations in 13C metabolic profiles and comparison with histopathology. A new compressed sensing sampling design with a factor of 3.72 acceleration was implemented to enable a factor of 4 increase in spatial resolution. Compressed sensing 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired from a phantom and 10 tumor-bearing rats following injection of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate using a 3T scanner. The 13C metabolic profiles were compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining and carbonic anhydrase 9 staining. The high-resolution compressed sensing 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data enabled the differentiation of distinct 13C metabolite patterns within abnormal tissues with high specificity in similar scan times compared to the fully sampled method. The results from pathology confirmed the different characteristics of 13C metabolic profiles between viable, non-necrotic, nonhypoxic tumor, and necrotic, hypoxic tissue. PMID:22851374

  18. Evaluation of heterogeneous metabolic profile in an orthotopic human glioblastoma xenograft model using compressed sensing hyperpolarized 3D 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.

    PubMed

    Park, Ilwoo; Hu, Simon; Bok, Robert; Ozawa, Tomoko; Ito, Motokazu; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Phillips, Joanna J; James, C David; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M; Vigneron, Daniel B; Nelson, Sarah J

    2013-07-01

    High resolution compressed sensing hyperpolarized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was applied in orthotopic human glioblastoma xenografts for quantitative assessment of spatial variations in (13)C metabolic profiles and comparison with histopathology. A new compressed sensing sampling design with a factor of 3.72 acceleration was implemented to enable a factor of 4 increase in spatial resolution. Compressed sensing 3D (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data were acquired from a phantom and 10 tumor-bearing rats following injection of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]-pyruvate using a 3T scanner. The (13)C metabolic profiles were compared with hematoxylin and eosin staining and carbonic anhydrase 9 staining. The high-resolution compressed sensing (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging data enabled the differentiation of distinct (13)C metabolite patterns within abnormal tissues with high specificity in similar scan times compared to the fully sampled method. The results from pathology confirmed the different characteristics of (13)C metabolic profiles between viable, non-necrotic, nonhypoxic tumor, and necrotic, hypoxic tissue. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Optimized S-Trityl-l-cysteine-Based Inhibitors of Kinesin Spindle Protein with Potent in Vivo Antitumor Activity in Lung Cancer Xenograft Models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mitotic kinesin Eg5 is critical for the assembly of the mitotic spindle and is a promising chemotherapy target. Previously, we identified S-trityl-l-cysteine as a selective inhibitor of Eg5 and developed triphenylbutanamine analogues with improved potency, favorable drug-like properties, but moderate in vivo activity. We report here their further optimization to produce extremely potent inhibitors of Eg5 (Kiapp < 10 nM) with broad-spectrum activity against cancer cell lines comparable to the Phase II drug candidates ispinesib and SB-743921. They have good oral bioavailability and pharmacokinetics and induced complete tumor regression in nude mice explanted with lung cancer patient xenografts. Furthermore, they display fewer liabilities with CYP-metabolizing enzymes and hERG compared with ispinesib and SB-743921, which is important given the likely application of Eg5 inhibitors in combination therapies. We present the case for this preclinical series to be investigated in single and combination chemotherapies, especially targeting hematological malignancies. PMID:23394180

  20. Improvement of Parameter Estimations in Tumor Growth Inhibition Models on Xenografted Animals: Handling Sacrifice Censoring and Error Caused by Experimental Measurement on Larger Tumor Sizes.

    PubMed

    Pierrillas, Philippe B; Tod, Michel; Amiel, Magali; Chenel, Marylore; Henin, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of censoring due to animal sacrifice on parameter estimates and tumor volume calculated from two diameters in larger tumors during tumor growth experiments in preclinical studies. The type of measurement error that can be expected was also investigated. Different scenarios were challenged using the stochastic simulation and estimation process. One thousand datasets were simulated under the design of a typical tumor growth study in xenografted mice, and then, eight approaches were used for parameter estimation with the simulated datasets. The distribution of estimates and simulation-based diagnostics were computed for comparison. The different approaches were robust regarding the choice of residual error and gave equivalent results. However, by not considering missing data induced by sacrificing the animal, parameter estimates were biased and led to false inferences in terms of compound potency; the threshold concentration for tumor eradication when ignoring censoring was 581 ng.ml(-1), but the true value was 240 ng.ml(-1).

  1. Overexpression of YB1 C-terminal domain inhibits proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in a SK-BR-3 breast cancer xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jian-Hong; Cui, Nai-Peng; Wang, Shuo; Zhao, Ming-Zhi; Wang, Bing; Wang, Ya-Nan; Chen, Bao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Y-box-binding protein 1 (YB1) is a multifunctional transcription factor with vital roles in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. In this study, we have examined the role of its C-terminal domain (YB1 CTD) in proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity in breast cancer. Breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3 was infected with GFP-tagged YB1 CTD adenovirus expression vector. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) proliferation assay showed that YB1 CTD decreased SK-BR-3 cell proliferation, and down-regulated cyclin B1 and up-regulated p21 levels in SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD overexpression changed the cytoskeletal organization and slightly inhibited the migration of SK-BR-3 cells. YB1 CTD also inhibited secreted VEGF expression in SK-BR-3 cells, which decreased SK-BR-3-induced EA.hy926 endothelial cell angiogenesis in vitro. YB1 CTD overexpression attenuated the ability of SK-BR-3 cells to form tumours in nude mice, and decreased in vivo VEGF levels and angiogenesis in the xenografts in SK-BR-3 tumour-bearing mice. Taken together, our findings demonstrate the vital role of YB1 CTD overexpression in inhibiting proliferation, angiogenesis and tumorigenicity of breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3.

  2. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-Nan; Xie, Wen-Hua; Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Cao, Jin-Ping; Cao, Pei-Rang; Chen, Qing-Jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-09-27

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit ( Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo.

  3. The Growth of SGC-7901 Tumor Xenografts Was Suppressed by Chinese Bayberry Anthocyanin Extract through Upregulating KLF6 Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Zhang, Xia-nan; Xie, Wen-hua; Zheng, Yi-xiong; Cao, Jin-ping; Cao, Pei-rang; Chen, Qing-jun; Li, Xian; Sun, Chong-de

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the antitumor effect of anthocyanins extracted from Chinese bayberry fruit (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.), a nude mouse tumor xenograft model was established. Treatments with C3G (cyanidin-3-glucoside, an anthocyanin) significantly suppressed the growth of SGC-7901 tumor xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed a significant increase in p21 expression, indicating that the cell cycle of tumor xenografts was inhibited. qPCR screening showed that C3G treatment up-regulated the expression of the KLF6 gene, which is an important tumor suppressor gene inactivated in many human cancers. Western blot showed that C3G treatments markedly increased KLF6 and p21 protein levels, inhibited CDK4 and Cyclin D1 expression, but did not notably change the expression of p53. These results indicated that KLF6 up-regulates p21 in a p53-independent manner and significantly reduces tumor proliferation. This study provides important information for the possible mechanism of C3G-induced antitumor activity against gastric adenocarcinoma in vivo. PMID:27690088

  4. Comparison of [¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]CHO) and S(+)-β-methyl-[¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]SMC) as imaging probes for prostate cancer in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Schwarzenböck, Sarah Marie; Gertz, Jana; Souvatzoglou, Michael; Kurth, Jens; Sachs, David; Nawroth, Roman; Treiber, Uwe; Schuster, Tibor; Senekowitsch-Schmidtke, Reingard; Schwaiger, Markus; Ziegler, Sibylle Ilse; Henriksen, Gjermund; Wester, Hans-Jürgen; Krause, Bernd Joachim

    2015-04-01

    Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives have been introduced as promising tracers for prostate cancer imaging. However, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, there is a need for new tracers with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing prostate cancer to improve tracer uptake and enhance imaging contrast. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(11)C]choline ([(11)C]CHO) with S(+)-β-methyl-[(11)C]choline ([(11)C]SMC) as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small-animal positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT). We carried out a dual-tracer small-animal PET/CT study comparing [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) (nu/nu) mice (n = 11). Mice-6 weeks post-xenograft implantation-were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO via the tail vein. On a separate day, the mice were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]SMC. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 min with the Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions) on two separate days (randomizing the sequence of the tracers). The dynamic PET images were acquired in list mode. Regions of interest (5 × 5 × 5 mm) were placed in transaxial slices in tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood. Image analysis was performed calculating tumor to muscle (T/M) ratios based on summed images as well as dynamic data. For [(11)C]SMC, the mean T/M ratio was 2.24 ± 0.56 while the corresponding mean [(11)C]CHO T/M ratio was 1.35 ± 0.28. The T/M ratio for [(11)C]SMC was significant higher compared to [(11)C]CHO (p < 0.001). The time course of T/M ratio (T/Mdyn ratio) of [(11)C]SMC was higher compared to [(11)C]CHO with a statistically significant difference between the magnitudes of the T/M ratios and a significant different change of the T/M ratios over time

  5. Evaluation of Protein Profiles From Treated Xenograft Tumor Models Identifies an Antibody Panel for Formalin-fixed and Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) Tissue Analysis by Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA)*

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Sabine; Zajac, Magdalena; Friess, Thomas; Ruge, Elisabeth; Rieder, Natascha; Gierke, Berthold; Heubach, Yvonne; Thomas, Marlene; Pawlak, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Reverse phase protein arrays (RPPA) are an established tool for measuring the expression and activation status of multiple proteins in parallel using only very small amounts of tissue. Several studies have demonstrated the value of this technique for signaling pathway analysis using proteins extracted from fresh frozen (FF) tissue in line with validated antibodies for this tissue type; however, formalin fixation and paraffin embedding (FFPE) is the standard method for tissue preservation in the clinical setting. Hence, we performed RPPA to measure profiles for a set of 300 protein markers using matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens to identify which markers performed similarly using the RPPA technique in fixed and unfixed tissues. Protein lysates were prepared from matched FF and FFPE tissue specimens of individual tumors taken from three different xenograft models of human cancer. Materials from both untreated mice and mice treated with either anti-HER3 or bispecific anti-IGF-1R/EGFR monoclonal antibodies were analyzed. Correlations between signals from FF and FFPE tissue samples were investigated. Overall, 60 markers were identified that produced comparable profiles between FF and FFPE tissues, demonstrating significant correlation between the two sample types. The top 25 markers also showed significance after correction for multiple testing. The panel of markers covered several clinically relevant tumor signaling pathways and both phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated proteins were represented. Biologically relevant changes in marker expression were noted when RPPA profiles from treated and untreated xenografts were compared. These data demonstrate that, using appropriately selected antibodies, RPPA analysis from FFPE tissue is well feasible and generates biologically meaningful information. The identified panel of markers that generate similar profiles in matched fixed and unfixed tissue samples may be clinically useful for pharmacodynamic studies of drug effect

  6. Reduced 64Cu uptake and tumor growth inhibition by knockdown of human copper transporter 1 in xenograft mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cai, Huawei; Wu, Jiu-sheng; Muzik, Otto; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong; Lee, Robert J; Peng, Fangyu

    2014-04-01

    Copper is an element required for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. Human prostate cancer xenografts with increased (64)Cu radioactivity were visualized previously by PET using (64)CuCl2 as a radiotracer ((64)CuCl2 PET). This study aimed to determine whether the increased tumor (64)Cu radioactivity was due to increased cellular uptake of (64)Cu mediated by human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) or simply due to nonspecific binding of ionic (64)CuCl2 to tumor tissue. In addition, the functional role of hCtr1 in proliferation of prostate cancer cells and tumor growth was also assessed. A lentiviral vector encoding short-hairpin RNA specific for hCtr1 (Lenti-hCtr1-shRNA) was constructed for RNA interference-mediated knockdown of hCtr1 expression in prostate cancer cells. The degree of hCtr1 knockdown was determined by Western blot, and the effect of hCtr1 knockdown on copper uptake and proliferation were examined in vitro by cellular (64)Cu uptake and cell proliferation assays. The effects of hCtr1 knockdown on tumor uptake of (64)Cu were determined by PET quantification and tissue radioactivity assay. The effects of hCtr1 knockdown on tumor growth were assessed by PET/CT and tumor size measurement with a caliper. RNA interference-mediated knockdown of hCtr1 was associated with the reduced cellular uptake of (64)Cu and the suppression of prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. At 24 h after intravenous injection of the tracer (64)CuCl2, the (64)Cu uptake by the tumors with knockdown of hCtr1 (4.02 ± 0.31 percentage injected dose per gram [%ID/g] in Lenti-hCtr1-shRNA-PC-3 and 2.30 ± 0.59 %ID/g in Lenti-hCtr1-shRNA-DU-145) was significantly lower than the (64)Cu uptake by the control tumors without knockdown of hCtr1 (7.21 ± 1.48 %ID/g in Lenti-SCR-shRNA-PC-3 and 5.57 ± 1.20 %ID/g in Lenti-SCR-shRNA-DU-145, P < 0.001) by PET quantification. Moreover, the volumes of prostate cancer xenograft tumors with knockdown of hCtr1 (179 ± 111 mm(3) for Lenti-hCtr1-sh

  7. Orthotopic xenografts of RCC retain histological, immunophenotypic and genetic features of tumors in patients

    PubMed Central

    Grisanzio, Chiara; Seeley, Apryle; Chang, Michelle; Collins, Michael; Di Napoli, Arianna; Cheng, Su-Chun; Percy, Andrew; Beroukhim, Rameen; Signoretti, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is an aggressive malignancy with limited responsiveness to existing treatments. In vivo models of human cancer, including RCC, are critical for developing more effective therapies. Unfortunately, current RCC models do not accurately represent relevant properties of the human disease. The goal of this study was to develop clinically relevant animal models of RCC for preclinical investigations. We transplanted intact human tumor tissue fragments orthotopically in immunodeficient mice. The xenografts were validated by comparing the morphologic, phenotypic, and genetic characteristics of the kidney tumor tissues before and after implantation. Twenty kidney tumors were transplanted into mice. Successful tumor growth was detected in 19 cases (95%). The histopathologic and immunophenotypic features of the xenografts and those of the original tumors largely overlapped in all the cases. Evaluation of genetic alterations in a subset of 10 cases demonstrated that the grafts largely retained the genetic features of the pre-implantation RCC tissues. Indeed, primary tumors and corresponding grafts displayed identical VHL mutations. Moreover, an identical pattern of DNA copy amplification or loss was observed in 6 of 10 cases (60%). In summary, orthotopic engrafting of RCC tissue fragments can be successfully used to generate animal models that closely resemble RCC in patients. These models will be invaluable for in vivo preclinical drug testing, and for deeper understanding of kidney carcinogenesis. PMID:21710693

  8. The JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor pacritinib effectively inhibits patient-derived GBM brain tumor initiating cells in vitro and when used in combination with temozolomide increases survival in an orthotopic xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Katharine Victoria; Cseh, Orsolya; Aman, Ahmed; Weiss, Samuel; Luchman, Hema Artee

    2017-01-01

    The prognosis for patients diagnosed with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains dismal, with current treatment prolonging survival only modestly. As such, there remains a strong need for novel therapeutic strategies. The janus kinase (JAK)2/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)3 pathway regulates many cellular processes in GBM, including survival, proliferation, invasion, anti-apoptosis, and immune evasion. Here, we evaluated the preclinical efficacy of pacritinib, a novel compound targeting JAK2, using a collection of diverse patient-derived brain tumor initiating cells (BTICs). The effects of pacritinib on BTIC viability and sphere forming capacity were evaluated in vitro using the alamarBlue and neurosphere assays, respectively. On-target inhibition of JAK2/STAT3 signaling was investigated using western blotting. The efficacy of pacritinib was tested in vivo in pharmacokinetic analyses, liver microsome analyses, and Kaplan-Meier survival studies. In vitro, pacritinib decreased BTIC viability and sphere forming potential at low micromolar doses and demonstrated on-target inhibition of STAT3 signaling. Additionally, pacritinib was found to improve the response to temozolomide (TMZ) in TMZ-resistant BTICs. In vivo, systemic treatment with pacritinib demonstrated blood-brain barrier penetration and led to improved overall median survival in combination with TMZ, in mice orthotopically xenografted with an aggressive recurrent GBM BTIC culture. This preclinical study demonstrates the efficacy of pacritinib and supports the feasibility of testing pacritinib for the treatment of GBM, in combination with the standard of care TMZ.

  9. Effects of photoacoustic imaging and photothermal ablation therapy mediated by targeted hollow gold nanospheres in an orthotopic mouse xenograft model of glioma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Melancon, Marites P.; Xiong, Chiyi; Huang, Qian; Elliott, Andrew; Song, Shaoli; Zhang, Rui; Flores, Leo G.; Gelovani, Juri G.; Wang, Lihong V.; Ku, Geng; Stafford, R. Jason; Li, Chun

    2011-01-01

    Advancements in nanotechnology have made it possible to create multifunctional nanostructures that can be used simultaneously to image and treat cancers. For example, hollow gold nanospheres (HAuNS) have been shown to generate intense photoacoustic signals and induce efficient photothermal ablation (PTA) therapy. In this study, we used photoacoustic tomography (PAT), a hybrid imaging modality, to assess the intravenous delivery of HAuNS targeted to integrins that are overexpressed in both glioma and angiogenic blood vessels in a mouse model of glioma. Mice were then treated with near-infrared laser, which elevated tumor temperature by 20.7 °C. We found that PTA treatment significantly prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. Taken together, these results demonstrate the feasibility of using a single nanostructure for image-guided local tumor PTA therapy using photoacoustic molecular imaging. PMID:21856744

  10. Melanoma patient derived xenografts acquire distinct Vemurafenib resistance mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Monsma, David J; Cherba, David M; Eugster, Emily E; Dylewski, Dawna L; Davidson, Paula T; Peterson, Chelsea A; Borgman, Andrew S; Winn, Mary E; Dykema, Karl J; Webb, Craig P; MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Duesbery, Nicholas S; Nickoloff, Brian J; Monks, Noel R

    2015-01-01

    Variable clinical responses, tumor heterogeneity, and drug resistance reduce long-term survival outcomes for metastatic melanoma patients. To guide and accelerate drug development, we characterized tumor responses for five melanoma patient derived xenograft models treated with Vemurafenib. Three BRAFV600E models showed acquired drug resistance, one BRAFV600E model had a complete and durable response, and a BRAFV600V model was expectedly unresponsive. In progressing tumors, a variety of resistance mechanisms to BRAF inhibition were uncovered, including mutant BRAF alternative splicing, NRAS mutation, COT (MAP3K8) overexpression, and increased mutant BRAF gene amplification and copy number. The resistance mechanisms among the patient derived xenograft models were similar to the resistance pathways identified in clinical specimens from patients progressing on BRAF inhibitor therapy. In addition, there was both inter- and intra-patient heterogeneity in resistance mechanisms, accompanied by heterogeneous pERK expression immunostaining profiles. MEK monotherapy of Vemurafenib-resistant tumors caused toxicity and acquired drug resistance. However, tumors were eradicated when Vemurafenib was combined the MEK inhibitor. The diversity of drug responses among the xenograft models; the distinct mechanisms of resistance; and the ability to overcome resistance by the addition of a MEK inhibitor provide a scheduling rationale for clinical trials of next-generation drug combinations. PMID:26101714

  11. Imaging biomarkers to monitor response to the hypoxia-activated prodrug TH-302 in the MiaPaCa2 flank xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Li, Yuguo; Galons, Jean-Philippe; Cornnell, Heather; Gillies, Robert J; Pagel, Mark D; Baker, Amanda F

    2012-09-01

    TH-302, a hypoxia-activated anticancer prodrug, was evaluated for antitumor activity and changes in dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer. TH-302 monotherapy resulted in a significant delay in tumor growth compared to vehicle-treated controls. TH-302 treatment was also associated with a significant decrease in the volume transfer constant (K(trans)) compared to vehicle-treated controls 1 day following the first dose measured using DCE-MRI. This early decrease in K(trans) following the first dose as measured is consistent with selective killing of the hypoxic fraction of cells which are associated with enhanced expression of hypoxia inducible transcription factor-1 alpha that regulates expression of permeability and perfusion factors including vascular endothelial growth factor-A. No changes were observed in DW-MRI following treatment with TH-302, which may indicate that this technique is not sensitive enough to detect changes in small hypoxic fractions of the tumor targeted by TH-302. These results suggest that changes in tumor permeability and/or perfusion may be an early imaging biomarker for response to TH-302 therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Hedgehog signal inhibitor forskolin suppresses cell proliferation and tumor growth of human rhabdomyosarcoma xenograft.

    PubMed

    Yamanaka, Hiroaki; Oue, Takaharu; Uehara, Shuichiro; Fukuzawa, Masahiro

    2011-02-01

    We have previously reported that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is activated in pediatric malignancies. In this study, we examined the effect of the Hh signal inhibitor forskolin on the growth of rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) in vivo and in vitro and thereby elucidated the possibility of considering Hh signaling pathway as a therapeutic target for RMS. We evaluated the messenger RNA expressions of Hh signal mediators in 3 human RMS cell lines using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction method. The effect of forskolin on the tumor cell proliferation was investigated using WST-1 assay (Dojindo Co, Kumamoto, Japan). We inoculated 10(7) tumor cells into the back of nude mice to create RMS xenograft tumor models. Forskolin was subcutaneously administered in the region around the tumor, and the effect on the tumor growth was evaluated. The messenger RNA expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1, the marker of Hh signaling activation, was expressed at various levels in RMS cell lines. The proliferation of RMS cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by forskolin. Similarly, in the xenograft model, tumor growth was also significantly reduced by forskolin treatment. Our findings suggest that the Hh signaling pathway plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of RMS and that this pathway can be considered to be a potential molecular target of new treatment strategies for RMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply in human melanoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Trude G; Gaustad, Jon-Vidar; Leinaas, Marit N; Rofstad, Einar K

    2013-01-01

    The efficacy of most cancer treatments is strongly influenced by the tumor blood supply. The results of experimental studies using xenografted tumors to evaluate novel cancer treatments may therefore vary considerably depending on the blood supply of the specific tumor model being used. Mechanisms underlying intertumor heterogeneity in the blood supply of xenografted tumors derived from same tumor line are poorly understood, and were investigated here by using intravital microscopy to assess tumor blood supply and vascular morphology in human melanomas growing in dorsal window chambers in BALB/c nu/nu mice. Two melanoma lines, A-07 and R-18, were included in the study. These lines differed substantially in angiogenic profiles. Thus, when the expression of 84 angiogenesis-related genes was investigated with a quantitative PCR array, 25% of these genes showed more than a 10-fold difference in expression. Furthermore, A-07 tumors showed higher vascular density, higher vessel tortuosity, higher vessel diameters, shorter vessel segments, and more chaotic vascular architecture than R-18 tumors. Both lines showed large intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply. In the A-07 line, tumors with low microvascular density, long vessel segment, and high vessel tortuosity showed poor blood supply, whereas in the R-18 line, poor tumor blood supply was associated with low tumor arteriolar diameters. Thus, tumor-line specific causes of intertumor heterogeneity in blood supply were identified in human melanoma xenografts, and these tumor-line specific mechanisms were possibly a result of tumor-line specific angiogenic profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accounting for dropout in xenografted tumour efficacy studies: integrated endpoint analysis, reduced bias and better use of animals.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emma C; Aarons, Leon; Yates, James W T

    2016-07-01

    Xenograft studies are commonly used to assess the efficacy of new compounds and characterise their dose-response relationship. Analysis often involves comparing the final tumour sizes across dose groups. This can cause bias, as often in xenograft studies a tumour burden limit (TBL) is imposed for ethical reasons, leading to the animals with the largest tumours being excluded from the final analysis. This means the average tumour size, particularly in the control group, is underestimated, leading to an underestimate of the treatment effect. Four methods to account for dropout due to the TBL are proposed, which use all the available data instead of only final observations: modelling, pattern mixture models, treating dropouts as censored using the M3 method and joint modelling of tumour growth and dropout. The methods were applied to both a simulated data set and a real example. All four proposed methods led to an improvement in the estimate of treatment effect in the simulated data. The joint modelling method performed most strongly, with the censoring method also providing a good estimate of the treatment effect, but with higher uncertainty. In the real data example, the dose-response estimated using the censoring and joint modelling methods was higher than the very flat curve estimated from average final measurements. Accounting for dropout using the proposed censoring or joint modelling methods allows the treatment effect to be recovered in studies where it may have been obscured due to dropout caused by the TBL.

  15. Fasting cycles potentiate the efficacy of gemcitabine treatment in in vitro and in vivo pancreatic cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Mazza, Tommaso; Panebianco, Concetta; Saracino, Chiara; Pereira, Stephen P.; Graziano, Paolo; Pazienza, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    Background/aims Pancreatic cancer (PC) is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite recent advances in treatment options, a modest impact on the outcome of the disease is observed so far. Short-term fasting cycles have been shown to potentiate the efficacy of chemotherapy against glioma. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of fasting cycles on the efficacy of gemcitabine, a standard treatment for PC patients, in vitro and in an in vivo pancreatic cancer mouse xenograft model. Materials and Methods BxPC-3, MiaPaca-2 and Panc-1 cells were cultured in standard and fasting mimicking culturing condition to evaluate the effects of gemcitabine. Pancreatic cancer xenograft mice were subjected to 24h starvation prior to gemcitabine injection to assess the tumor volume and weight as compared to mice fed ad libitum. Results Fasted pancreatic cancer cells showed increased levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter (hENT1), the transporter of gemcitabine across the cell membrane, and decreased ribonucleotide reductase M1 (RRM1) levels as compared to those cultured in standard medium. Gemcitabine was more effective in inducing cell death on fasted cells as compared to controls. Consistently, xenograft pancreatic cancer mice subjected to fasting cycles prior to gemcitabine injection displayed a decrease of more than 40% in tumor growth. Conclusion Fasting cycles enhance gemcitabine effect in vitro and in the in vivo PC xenograft mouse model. These results suggest that restrictive dietary interventions could enhance the efficacy of existing cancer treatments in pancreatic cancer patients. PMID:26176887

  16. Improving In Vivo High-Resolution CT Imaging of the Tumour Vasculature in Xenograft Mouse Models through Reduction of Motion and Bone-Streak Artefacts

    PubMed Central

    Kersemans, Veerle; Kannan, Pavitra; Beech, John S.; Bates, Russell; Irving, Benjamin; Gilchrist, Stuart; Allen, Philip D.; Thompson, James; Kinchesh, Paul; Casteleyn, Christophe; Schnabel, Julia; Partridge, Mike; Muschel, Ruth J.; Smart, Sean C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical in vivo CT is commonly used to visualise vessels at a macroscopic scale. However, it is prone to many artefacts which can degrade the quality of CT images significantly. Although some artefacts can be partially corrected for during image processing, they are best avoided during acquisition. Here, a novel imaging cradle and tumour holder was designed to maximise CT resolution. This approach was used to improve preclinical in vivo imaging of the tumour vasculature. Procedures A custom built cradle containing a tumour holder was developed and fix-mounted to the CT system gantry to avoid artefacts arising from scanner vibrations and out-of-field sample positioning. The tumour holder separated the tumour from bones along the axis of rotation of the CT scanner to avoid bone-streaking. It also kept the tumour stationary and insensitive to respiratory motion. System performance was evaluated in terms of tumour immobilisation and reduction of motion and bone artefacts. Pre- and post-contrast CT followed by sequential DCE-MRI of the tumour vasculature in xenograft transplanted mice was performed to confirm vessel patency and demonstrate the multimodal capacity of the new cradle. Vessel characteristics such as diameter, and branching were quantified. Results Image artefacts originating from bones and out-of-field sample positioning were avoided whilst those resulting from motions were reduced significantly, thereby maximising the resolution that can be achieved with CT imaging in vivo. Tumour vessels ≥ 77 μm could be resolved and blood flow to the tumour remained functional. The diameter of each tumour vessel was determined and plotted as histograms and vessel branching maps were created. Multimodal imaging using this cradle assembly was preserved and demonstrated. Conclusions The presented imaging workflow minimised image artefacts arising from scanner induced vibrations, respiratory motion and radiopaque structures and enabled in vivo CT imaging

  17. Targeting Bcl-2/Bcl-XL induces antitumor activity in uveal melanoma patient-derived xenografts.

    PubMed

    Némati, Fariba; de Montrion, Catherine; Lang, Guillaume; Kraus-Berthier, Laurence; Carita, Guillaume; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Berniard, Aurélie; Vallerand, David; Geneste, Olivier; de Plater, Ludmilla; Pierré, Alain; Lockhart, Brian; Desjardins, Laurence; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Depil, Stéphane; Decaudin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is associated with a high risk of metastases and lack of efficient therapies. Reduced capacity for apoptosis induction by chemotherapies is one obstacle to efficient treatments. Human UM is characterized by high expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Consequently, regulators of apoptosis such as Bcl-2 family inhibitors may constitute an attractive approach to UM therapeutics. In this aim, we have investigated the efficacy of the Bcl-2/Bcl-XL inhibitor S44563 on 4 UM Patient-Derived Xenografts (PDXs) and derived-cell lines. Four well characterized UM PDXs were used for in vivo experiments. S44563 was administered alone or combined with fotemustine either concomitantly or after the alkylating agent. Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 expressions after S44563 administration were evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). S44563 administered alone by at 50 and 100 mg/kg i.p. induced a significant tumour growth inhibition in only one xenograft model with a clear dose effect. However, when S44563 was concomitantly administered with fotemustine, we observed a synergistic activity in 3 out of the 4 tested models. In addition, S44563 administered after fotemustine induced a tumour growth delay in 2 out of 3 tested xenografts. Finally, IHC analyses showed that Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, and Mcl-1 expression were not modified after S44563 administration. The novel anti-apoptotic experimental compound S44563, despite a relative low efficacy when administered alone, increased the efficacy of fotemustine in either concomitant or sequential combinations or indeed subsequent to fotemustine. These data support further exploration of potential therapeutic effect of Bcl-2/Bcl-xl inhibition in human UM.

  18. Patient-derived orthotopic xenograft models for cancer of unknown primary precisely distinguish chemotherapy, and tumor-targeting S. typhimurium A1-R is superior to first-line chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kentaro; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Miyake, Masuyo; Kawaguchi, Kei; Yoon, Sang Nam; Zhang, Zhiying; Igarashi, Kentaro; Razmjooei, Sahar; Wangsiricharoen, Sintawat; Murakami, Takashi; Li, Yunfeng; Nelson, Scott D; Russell, Tara A; Singh, Arun S; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Momiyama, Masashi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Singh, Shree Ram; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is a recalcitrant disease with poor prognosis because it lacks standard first-line therapy. CUP consists of diverse malignancy groups, making personalized precision therapy essential. The present study aimed to identify an effective therapy for a CUP patient using a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. This paper reports the usefulness of the PDOX model to precisely identify effective and ineffective chemotherapy and to compare the efficacy of S. typhimurium A1-R with first-line chemotherapy using the CUP PDOX model. The present study is the first to use a CUP PDOX model, which was able to precisely distinguish the chemotherapeutic course. We found that a carboplatinum (CAR)-based regimen was effective for this CUP patient. We also demonstrated that S. typhimurium A1-R was more effective against the CUP tumor than first-line chemotherapy. Our results indicate that S. typhimurium A1-R has clinical potential for CUP, a resistant disease that requires effective therapy.

  19. Effects of Combining Rapamycin and Resveratrol on Apoptosis and Growth of TSC2-Deficient Xenograft Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Alayev, Anya; Salamon, Rachel S.; Sun, Yang; Schwartz, Naomi S.; Li, Chenggang; Yu, Jane J.

    2015-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare neoplastic metastatic disease affecting women of childbearing age. LAM is caused by hyperactivation of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) as a consequence of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 inactivation. Clinically, LAM results in cystic lung destruction. mTORC1 inhibition using rapamycin analogs (rapalogs) is partially effective in reducing disease progression and improving lung function. However, cessation of treatment results in continued progression of the disease. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of the combination of rapamycin treatment with resveratrol, an autophagy inhibitor, in the TSC2-null xenograft tumor model. We determined that this combination inhibits phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 signaling and activates apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of rapamycin and resveratrol may be an effective clinical strategy for treatment of LAM and other diseases with mTORC1 hyperactivation. PMID:25844891

  20. Eribulin regresses a doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with a FUS-ERG fusion and CDKN2A-deletion in a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Kentaro; Murakami, Takashi; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; Li, Yunfeng; Singh, Arun S; Dry, Sarah M; Eckardt, Mark A; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Momiyama, Masashi; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2018-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a recalcitrant tumor greatly in need of more effective therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of eribulin on a doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The Ewing's sarcoma PDOX model was previously established in the right chest wall of nude mice from tumor resected form the patient's right chest wall. In the previous study, the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX was resistant to doxorubicin (DOX) and sensitive to palbociclib and linsitinib. In the present study, the PDOX models were randomized into three groups when the tumor volume reached 60 mm 3 : G1, untreated control (n = 6); G2, DOX treated (n = 6), intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, Eribulin treated (n = 6, intravenous (i.v.) injection, weekly for 2 weeks). All mice were sacrificed on day 15. Changes in body weight and tumor volume were assessed two times per week. Tumor weight was measured after sacrifice. DOX did not suppress tumor growth compared to the control group (P = 0.589), consistent with the previous results in the patient and PDOX. Eribulin regressed tumor size significantly compared to G1 and G2 (P = 0.006, P = 0.017) respectively. No significant difference was observed in body weight among any group. Our results demonstrate that eribulin is a promising novel therapeutic agent for Ewing's sarcoma. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R.

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin is the first dual acting NO and H{sub 2}S releasing hybrid. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Its IC{sub 50} for cell growth inhibition is in the low nano-molar range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure-activity studies show that the sum of the parts does not equal the whole. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NOSH-aspirin reduced tumor growth by 85% in mice bearing a colon cancer xenograft. -- Abstract: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the developmentmore » of NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H{sub 2}S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC{sub 50}s of 45.5 {+-} 2.5, 19.7 {+-} 3.3, and 7.7 {+-} 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation.« less

  2. Initiation and Characterization of Small Cell Lung Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts from Ultrasound-Guided Transbronchial Needle Aspirates

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Wade C.; Boyd, Michael B.; Aguilar, Jorge; Pickell, Brett; Laysang, Amy; Pysz, Marybeth A.; Bheddah, Sheila; Ramoth, Johanna; Slingerland, Brian C.; Dylla, Scott J.; Rubio, Edmundo R.

    2015-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a devastating disease with limited treatment options. Due to its early metastatic nature and rapid growth, surgical resection is rare. Standard of care treatment regimens remain largely unchanged since the 1980’s, and five-year survival lingers near 5%. Patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have been established for other tumor types, amplifying material for research and serving as models for preclinical experimentation; however, limited availability of primary tissue has curtailed development of these models for SCLC. The objective of this study was to establish PDX models from commonly collected fine needle aspirate biopsies of primary SCLC tumors, and to assess their utility as research models of primary SCLC tumors. These transbronchial needle aspirates efficiently engrafted as xenografts, and tumor histomorphology was similar to primary tumors. Resulting tumors were further characterized by H&E and immunohistochemistry, cryopreserved, and used to propagate tumor-bearing mice for the evaluation of standard of care chemotherapy regimens, to assess their utility as models for tumors in SCLC patients. When treated with Cisplatin and Etoposide, tumor-bearing mice responded similarly to patients from whom the tumors originated. Here, we demonstrate that PDX tumor models can be efficiently established from primary SCLC transbronchial needle aspirates, even after overnight shipping, and that resulting xenograft tumors are similar to matched primary tumors in cancer patients by both histology and chemo-sensitivity. This method enables physicians at non-research institutions to collaboratively contribute to the rapid establishment of extensive PDX collections of SCLC, enabling experimentation with clinically relevant tissues and development of improved therapies for SCLC patients. PMID:25955027

  3. Therapeutic Activity of Anti-AXL Antibody against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patient-Derived Xenografts and Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Leconet, Wilhem; Chentouf, Myriam; du Manoir, Stanislas; Chevalier, Clément; Sirvent, Audrey; Aït-Arsa, Imade; Busson, Muriel; Jarlier, Marta; Radosevic-Robin, Nina; Theillet, Charles; Chalbos, Dany; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Pèlegrin, André; Larbouret, Christel; Robert, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: AXL receptor tyrosine kinase has been described as a relevant molecular marker and a key player in invasiveness, especially in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Experimental Design: We evaluate the antitumor efficacy of the anti-AXL monoclonal antibody 20G7-D9 in several TNBC cell xenografts or patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models and decipher the underlying mechanisms. In a dataset of 254 basal-like breast cancer samples, genes correlated with AXL expression are enriched in EMT, migration, and invasion signaling pathways. Results: Treatment with 20G7-D9 inhibited tumor growth and bone metastasis formation in AXL-positive TNBC cell xenografts or PDX, but not in AXL-negative PDX, highlighting AXL role in cancer growth and invasion. In vitro stimulation of AXL-positive cancer cells by its ligand GAS6 induced the expression of several EMT-associated genes ( SNAIL, SLUG , and VIM ) through an intracellular signaling implicating the transcription factor FRA-1, important in cell invasion and plasticity, and increased their migration/invasion capacity. 20G7-D9 induced AXL degradation and inhibited all AXL/GAS6-dependent cell signaling implicated in EMT and in cell migration/invasion. Conclusions: The anti-AXL antibody 20G7-D9 represents a promising therapeutic strategy in TNBC with mesenchymal features by inhibiting AXL-dependent EMT, tumor growth, and metastasis formation. Clin Cancer Res; 23(11); 2806-16. ©2016 AACR . ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. p16-Cdk4-Rb axis controls sensitivity to a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor PD0332991 in glioblastoma xenograft cells

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Ling; Carlson, Brett L.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Ostrem, Jamie L.; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Mladek, Ann C.; Fink, Stephanie R.; Decker, Paul A.; Wu, Wenting; Kim, Jung-Sik; Waldman, Todd; Jenkins, Robert B.; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2012-01-01

    Deregulation of the p16INK4a-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway is commonly detected in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and is a rational therapeutic target. Here, we characterized the p16INK4a-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway in the Mayo panel of GBM xenografts, established from primary tissue samples from patients with GBM, and evaluated their response to PD0332991, a specific inhibitor of Cdk4/6. All GBM xenograft lines evaluated in this study had disruptions in the p16INK4a-Cdk4/6-Rb pathway. In vitro evaluation using short-term explant cultures from selected GBM xenograft lines showed that PD0332991 effectively arrested cell cycle in G1-phase and inhibited cell proliferation dose-dependently in lines deleted for CDKN2A/B-p16INK4a and either single-copy deletion of CDK4 (GBM22), high-level CDK6 amplification (GBM34), or deletion of CDKN2C/p18INK4c (GBM43). In contrast, 2 GBM lines with p16INK4a expression and either CDK4 amplification (GBM5) or RB mutation (GBM28) were completely resistant to PD0332991. Additional xenograft lines were screened, and GBM63 was identified to have p16INK4a expression and CDK4 amplification. Similar to the results with GBM5, GBM63 was resistant to PD0332991 treatment. In an orthotopic survival model, treatment of GBM6 xenografts (CDKN2A/B-deleted and CDK4 wild-type) with PD0332991 significantly suppressed tumor cell proliferation and prolonged survival. Collectively, these data support the concept that GBM tumors lacking p16INK4a expression and with nonamplified CDK4 and wild-type RB status may be more susceptible to Cdk4/6 inhibition using PD0332991. PMID:22711607

  5. Resveratrol Enhances Antitumor Activity of TRAIL in Prostate Cancer Xenografts through Activation of FOXO Transcription Factor

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, Suthakar; Chen, Qinghe; Singh, Karan P.; Shankar, Sharmila; Srivastava, Rakesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Background Resveratrol (3, 4′, 5 tri-hydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenol, exhibits anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and antitumor activities. We have recently shown that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in prostate cancer cells through multiple mechanisms in vitro. Therefore, the present study was designed to validate whether resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL in a xenograft model of prostate cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited growth of PC-3 xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting tumor cell proliferation (PCNA and Ki67 staining) and inducing apoptosis (TUNEL staining). The combination of resveratrol and TRAIL was more effective in inhibiting tumor growth than single agent alone. In xenografted tumors, resveratrol upregulated the expressions of TRAIL-R1/DR4, TRAIL-R2/DR5, Bax and p27/K IP1, and inhibited the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1. Treatment of mice with resveratrol and TRAIL alone inhibited angiogenesis (as demonstrated by reduced number of blood vessels, and VEGF and VEGFR2 positive cells) and markers of metastasis (MMP-2 and MMP-9). The combination of resveratrol with TRAIL further inhibited number of blood vessels in tumors, and circulating endothelial growth factor receptor 2-positive endothelial cells than single agent alone. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the cytoplasmic phosphorylation of FKHRL1 resulting in its enhanced activation as demonstrated by increased DNA binding activity. Conclusions/Significance These data suggest that resveratrol can enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of TRAIL by activating FKHRL1 and its target genes. The ability of resveratrol to inhibit tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenesis, and enhance the therapeutic potential of TRAIL suggests that resveratrol alone or in combination with TRAIL can be used for the management of prostate cancer. PMID:21209944

  6. Spatiotemporal assessment of spontaneous metastasis formation using multimodal in vivo imaging in HER2+ and triple negative metastatic breast cancer xenograft models in mice.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Inga B; De Souza, Raquel; Costa Ayub, Lais; Francia, Giulio; Kerbel, Robert; Jaffray, David A; Zheng, Jinzi

    2018-01-01

    and functional imaging techniques can provide high sensitivity characterization of metastatic disease spread, progression and overall disease burden. The described models and imaging toolset can be implemented as an effective means for quantitative treatment response evaluation in metastatic breast cancer.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of a porphyrazine-Gd(III) MRI contrast agent and in vivo imaging of a breast cancer xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Evan R; Ma, Zhidong; Waters, Emily A; Macrenaris, Keith W; Subramanian, Rohit; Barrett, Anthony G M; Meade, Thomas J; Hoffman, Brian M

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrazines (Pz), or tetraazaporphyrins, are being studied for their potential use in detection and treatment of cancer. Here, an amphiphilic Cu-Pz-Gd(III) conjugate has been prepared via azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition or 'click' chemistry between an azide functionalized Pz and alkyne functionalized DOTA-Gd(III) analog for use as an MRI contrast agent. This agent, Cu-Pz-Gd(III), is synthesized in good yield and exhibits solution-phase ionic relaxivity (r1  = 11.5 mM(-1) s(-1)) that is approximately four times higher than that of a clinically used monomeric Gd(III) contrast agent, DOTA-Gd(III). Breast tumor cells (MDA-MB-231) associate with Cu-Pz-Gd(III) in vitro, where significant contrast enhancement (9.336 ± 0.335 contrast-to-noise ratio) is observed in phantom cell pellet MR images. This novel contrast agent was administered in vivo to an orthotopic breast tumor model in athymic nude mice and MR images were collected. The average T1 of tumor regions in mice treated with 50 mg kg(-1) Cu-Pz-Gd(III) decreased relative to saline-treated controls. Furthermore, the decrease in T1 was persistent relative to mice treated with the monomeric Gd(III) contrast agent. An ex vivo biodistribution study confirmed that Cu-Pz-Gd(III) accumulates in the tumors and is rapidly cleared, primarily through the kidneys. Differential accumulation and T1 enhancement by Cu-Pz-Gd(III) in the tumor's core relative to the periphery offer preliminary evidence that this agent would find application in the imaging of necrotic tissue. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. NOSH-aspirin (NBS-1120), a novel nitric oxide- and hydrogen sulfide-releasing hybrid is a potent inhibitor of colon cancer cell growth in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Mitali; Kodela, Ravinder; Olson, Kenneth R; Kashfi, Khosrow

    2012-03-16

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are prototypical anti-cancer agents. However, their long-term use is associated with adverse gastrointestinal effects. Recognition that endogenous gaseous mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) can increase mucosal defense mechanisms has led to the development of NO- and H(2)S-releasing NSAIDs with increased safety profiles. Here we report on a new hybrid, NOSH-aspirin, which is an NO- and H(2)S-releasing agent. NOSH-aspirin inhibited HT-29 colon cancer growth with IC(50)s of 45.5 ± 2.5, 19.7 ± 3.3, and 7.7 ± 2.2 nM at 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. This is the first NSAID based agent with such high degree of potency. NOSH-aspirin inhibited cell proliferation, induced apoptosis, and caused G(0)/G(1) cell cycle block. Reconstitution and structure-activity studies representing a fairly close approximation to the intact molecule showed that NOSH-aspirin was 9000-fold more potent than the sum of its parts towards growth inhibition. NOSH-aspirin inhibited ovine COX-1 more than ovine COX-2. NOSH-ASA treatment of mice bearing a human colon cancer xenograft caused a reduction in volume of 85%. Taken together, these results demonstrate that NOSH-aspirin has strong anti-cancer potential and merits further evaluation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Down-regulation of MDR1 by Ad-DKK3 via Akt/NFκB pathways augments the anti-tumor effect of temozolomide in glioblastoma cells and a murine xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Toshitaka; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Nakajima, Kohei; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Kitazato, Keiko T; Otsuka, Ryotaro; Hara, Keijiro; Mure, Hideo; Okazaki, Toshiyuki; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji; Takagi, Yasushi

    2018-05-19

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant of brain tumors. Acquired drug resistance is a major obstacle for successful treatment. Earlier studies reported that expression of the multiple drug resistance gene (MDR1) is regulated by YB-1 or NFκB via the JNK/c-Jun or Akt pathway. Over-expression of the Dickkopf (DKK) family member DKK3 by an adenovirus vector carrying DKK3 (Ad-DKK3) exerted anti-tumor effects and led to the activation of the JNK/c-Jun pathway. We investigated whether Ad-DKK3 augments the anti-tumor effect of temozolomide (TMZ) via the regulation of MDR1. GBM cells (U87MG and U251MG), primary TGB105 cells, and mice xenografted with U87MG cells were treated with Ad-DKK3 or TMZ alone or in combination. Ad-DKK3 augmentation of the anti-tumor effects of TMZ was associated with reduced MDR1 expression in both in vivo and in vitro studies. The survival of Ad-DKK3-treated U87MG cells was inhibited and the expression of MDR1 was reduced. This was associated with the inhibition of Akt/NFκB but not of YB-1 via the JNK/c-Jun- or Akt pathway. Our results suggest that Ad-DKK3 regulates the expression of MDR1 via Akt/NFκB pathways and that it augments the anti-tumor effects of TMZ in GBM cells.

  10. Establishing prostate cancer patient derived xenografts: lessons learned from older studies.

    PubMed

    Russell, Pamela J; Russell, Peter; Rudduck, Christina; Tse, Brian W C; Williams, Elizabeth D; Raghavan, Derek

    2015-05-01

    Understanding the progression of prostate cancer to androgen-independence/castrate resistance and development of preclinical testing models are important for developing new prostate cancer therapies. This report describes studies performed 30 years ago, which demonstrate utility and shortfalls of xenografting to preclinical modeling. We subcutaneously implanted male nude mice with small prostate cancer fragments from transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) from 29 patients. Successful xenografts were passaged into new host mice. They were characterized using histology, immunohistochemistry for marker expression, flow cytometry for ploidy status, and in some cases by electron microscopy and response to testosterone. Two xenografts were karyotyped by G-banding. Tissues from 3/29 donors (10%) gave rise to xenografts that were successfully serially passaged in vivo. Two, (UCRU-PR-1, which subsequently was replaced by a mouse fibrosarcoma, and UCRU-PR-2, which combined epithelial and neuroendocrine features) have been described. UCRU-PR-4 line was a poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma derived from a patient who had undergone estrogen therapy and bilateral castration after his cancer relapsed. Histologically, this comprised diffusely infiltrating small acinar cell carcinoma with more solid aggregates of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The xenografted line showed histology consistent with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and stained positively for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and the cytokeratin cocktail, CAM5.2, with weak staining for prostate specific antigen (PSA). The line failed to grow in female nude mice. Castration of three male nude mice after xenograft establishment resulted in cessation of growth in one, growth regression in another and transient growth in another, suggesting that some cells had retained androgen sensitivity. The karyotype (from passage 1) was 43-46, XY, dic(1;12)(p11;p11

  11. Establishing Prostate Cancer Patient Derived Xenografts: Lessons Learned From Older Studies

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Pamela J; Russell, Peter; Rudduck, Christina; Tse, Brian W-C; Williams, Elizabeth D; Raghavan, Derek

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding the progression of prostate cancer to androgen-independence/castrate resistance and development of preclinical testing models are important for developing new prostate cancer therapies. This report describes studies performed 30 years ago, which demonstrate utility and shortfalls of xenografting to preclinical modeling. Methods We subcutaneously implanted male nude mice with small prostate cancer fragments from transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) from 29 patients. Successful xenografts were passaged into new host mice. They were characterized using histology, immunohistochemistry for marker expression, flow cytometry for ploidy status, and in some cases by electron microscopy and response to testosterone. Two xenografts were karyotyped by G-banding. Results Tissues from 3/29 donors (10%) gave rise to xenografts that were successfully serially passaged in vivo. Two, (UCRU-PR-1, which subsequently was replaced by a mouse fibrosarcoma, and UCRU-PR-2, which combined epithelial and neuroendocrine features) have been described. UCRU-PR-4 line was a poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma derived from a patient who had undergone estrogen therapy and bilateral castration after his cancer relapsed. Histologically, this comprised diffusely infiltrating small acinar cell carcinoma with more solid aggregates of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. The xenografted line showed histology consistent with a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and stained positively for prostatic acid phosphatase (PAcP), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) and the cytokeratin cocktail, CAM5.2, with weak staining for prostate specific antigen (PSA). The line failed to grow in female nude mice. Castration of three male nude mice after xenograft establishment resulted in cessation of growth in one, growth regression in another and transient growth in another, suggesting that some cells had retained androgen sensitivity. The karyotype (from passage 1) was 43

  12. The growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effect of deferoxamine combined with arsenic trioxide on HL-60 xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Yu, Runhong; Wang, Dao; Ren, Xiuhua; Zeng, Li; Liu, Yufeng

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the growth-inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effect of deferoxamine (DFO) combined with arsenic trioxide (ATO) on the human HL-60 xenografts in nude mice and its mechanism. The highly tumorigenic leukemia cell line HL-60 cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice to establish a human leukemia xenograft model. The HL-60 xenograft nude mice models were randomly divided into four groups: control (Normal saline, NS), 50mg/kg DFO, 3mg/kg ATO, the combined treatment (50mg/kg DFO+1.5mg/kg ATO) once HL-60 cells were inoculated. Tumor sizes, growth curves, inhibitory rates, cell apoptosis, and the expression of apoptosis related markers were measured to evaluate the tumor growth. Xenografted tumors were observed in all nude mice since the 5th day of inoculation. The inhibitory rates of tumor weight were 2.67%, 10.69%, and 25.57% in DFO, ATO and combination therapy groups, respectively. The combination of DFO with ATO induces significantly more tumor cell apoptosis than either agent alone (p<0.05). The expression of NF-κBp65 and survivin proteins decreased significantly while the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax increased in the combination therapy group (p<0.05). Double immunofluorescence for Caspase-3 and NFκBp65 demonstrated an inverse relationship between Caspase-3-positive areas and NFκBp65-positive areas, as well as the co-localization of Bax and survivin in xenografted tumor cells. Combination of DFO and ATO has synergistic effects on tumor growth inhibition and apoptosis-inducing in vivo with no significant side effects. The DFO and ATO can up-regulate the expression of Caspase-3 and Bax, and down-regulate the expression of NF-κBp65 and survivin, especially for their combination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. PTEN Loss Does Not Predict for Response to RAD001 (Everolimus) in a Glioblastoma Orthotopic Xenograft Test Panel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Clarke, Michelle J.; Carlson, Brett L.; Mladek, Ann C.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Decker, Paul; Wu, Wenting; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Grogan, Patrick T.; Goble, Jennie M.; Uhm, Joon; Galanis, Evanthia; Giannini, Caterina; Lane, Heidi A.; James, C. David; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling through disruption of PTEN function is common in glioblastoma multiforme, and these genetic changes are predicted to enhance sensitivity to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as RAD001 (everolimus). Experimental Design To test whether PTEN loss could be used as a predictive marker for mTOR inhibitor sensitivity, the response of 17 serially transplantable glioblastoma multiforme xenografts was evaluated in an orthotopic therapy evaluation model. Of these 17 xenograft lines, 7 have either genomic deletion or mutation of PTEN. Results Consistent with activation of Akt signaling, there was a good correlation between loss of PTEN function and elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation. However, of the 7 lines with disrupted PTEN function, only 1 tumor line (GBM10) was significantly sensitive to RAD001 therapy (25% prolongation in median survival), whereas1 of 10 xenograft lines with wild-type PTEN was significantly sensitive to RAD001 (GS22; 34% prolongation in survival). Relative to placebo, 5 days of RAD001 treatment was associated with a marked 66% reduction in the MIB1 proliferation index in the sensitive GBM10 line (deleted PTEN) compared with a 25% and 7% reduction in MIB1 labeling index in the insensitive GBM14 (mutant PTEN) and GBM15 (wild-type PTEN) lines, respectively. Consistent with a cytostatic antitumor effect, bioluminescent imaging of luciferase-transduced intracranial GBM10 xenografts showed slowed tumor growth without significant tumor regression during RAD001 therapy. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of PTEN function is insufficient to adequately predict responsiveness to mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:18559622

  14. Optimal Design for Informative Protocols in Xenograft Tumor Growth Inhibition Experiments in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lestini, Giulia; Mentré, France; Magni, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) models are increasingly used during preclinical drug development in oncology for the in vivo evaluation of antitumor effect. Tumor sizes are measured in xenografted mice, often only during and shortly after treatment, thus preventing correct identification of some TGI model parameters. Our aims were (i) to evaluate the importance of including measurements during tumor regrowth and (ii) to investigate the proportions of mice included in each arm. For these purposes, optimal design theory based on the Fisher information matrix implemented in PFIM4.0 was applied. Published xenograft experiments, involving different drugs, schedules, and cell lines, were used to help optimize experimental settings and parameters using the Simeoni TGI model. For each experiment, a two-arm design, i.e., control versus treatment, was optimized with or without the constraint of not sampling during tumor regrowth, i.e., "short" and "long" studies, respectively. In long studies, measurements could be taken up to 6 g of tumor weight, whereas in short studies the experiment was stopped 3 days after the end of treatment. Predicted relative standard errors were smaller in long studies than in corresponding short studies. Some optimal measurement times were located in the regrowth phase, highlighting the importance of continuing the experiment after the end of treatment. In the four-arm designs, the results showed that the proportions of control and treated mice can differ. To conclude, making measurements during tumor regrowth should become a general rule for informative preclinical studies in oncology, especially when a delayed drug effect is suspected.

  15. Optimal design for informative protocols in xenograft tumor growth inhibition experiments in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lestini, Giulia; Mentré, France; Magni, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Tumor growth inhibition (TGI) models are increasingly used during preclinical drug development in oncology for the in vivo evaluation of antitumor effect. Tumor sizes are measured in xenografted mice, often only during and shortly after treatment, thus preventing correct identification of some TGI model parameters. Our aims were i) to evaluate the importance of including measurements during tumor regrowth; ii) to investigate the proportions of mice included in each arm. For these purposes, optimal design theory based on the Fisher information matrix implemented in PFIM4.0 was applied. Published xenograft experiments, involving different drugs, schedules and cell lines, were used to help optimize experimental settings and parameters using the Simeoni TGI model. For each experiment, a two-arm design, i.e. control vs treatment, was optimized with or without the constraint of not sampling during tumor regrowth, i.e. “short” and “long” studies, respectively. In long studies, measurements could be taken up to 6 grams of tumor weight, whereas in short studies the experiment was stopped three days after the end of treatment. Predicted relative standard errors were smaller in long studies than in corresponding short studies. Some optimal measurement times were located in the regrowth phase, highlighting the importance of continuing the experiment after the end of treatment. In the four-arm designs, the results showed that the proportions of control and treated mice can differ. To conclude, making measurements during tumor regrowth should become a general rule for informative preclinical studies in oncology, especially when a delayed drug effect is suspected. PMID:27306546

  16. Economic modeling of HIV treatments.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Kit N

    2010-05-01

    To review the general literature on microeconomic modeling and key points that must be considered in the general assessment of economic modeling reports, discuss the evolution of HIV economic models and identify models that illustrate this development over time, as well as examples of current studies. Recommend improvements in HIV economic modeling. Recent economic modeling studies of HIV include examinations of scaling up antiretroviral (ARV) in South Africa, screening prior to use of abacavir, preexposure prophylaxis, early start of ARV in developing countries and cost-effectiveness comparisons of specific ARV drugs using data from clinical trials. These studies all used extensively published second-generation Markov models in their analyses. There have been attempts to simplify approaches to cost-effectiveness estimates by using simple decision trees or cost-effectiveness calculations with short-time horizons. However, these approaches leave out important cumulative economic effects that will not appear early in a treatment. Many economic modeling studies were identified in the 'gray' literature, but limited descriptions precluded an assessment of their adherence to modeling guidelines, and thus to the validity of their findings. There is a need for developing third-generation models to accommodate new knowledge about adherence, adverse effects, and viral resistance.

  17. The B-Raf Status of Tumor Cells May Be a Significant Determinant of Both Antitumor and Anti-Angiogenic Effects of Pazopanib in Xenograft Tumor Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    B-Raf status was identified as a significant determinant of both tumor growth and angiogenesis. Citation: Gril B, Palmieri D , Qian Y, Anwar T, Ileva L...231-B R EJ MCF7-HER2 D MCF7 100mg/kg * 30m g/kg 100mg/kg * * • WM3899 ElWM3918 DSKMEL28 DSKMEL2 30mg/kg * * * * 30mg/kg 100mg/kg c...without any pazopanib treatment (average of the three experiments). D - Cell viability by MTT assay at T96 with the indicated Pazopanib treatments. (PDF

  18. Effective molecular targeting of CDK4/6 and IGF-1R in a rare FUS-ERG fusion CDKN2A-deletion doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Takashi; Singh, Arun S.; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Dry, Sarah M.; Li, Yunfeng; James, Aaron W.; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; DeLong, Jonathan C.; Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Russell, Tara; Eckardt, Mark A.; Yanagawa, Jane; Federman, Noah; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C.; Hoffman, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. In the present study, tumor from a patient with a Ewing's sarcoma with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) loss and FUS-ERG fusion was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The aim of the present study was to determine efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors on the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 50 mm3: G1, untreated control; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib, PD0332991, per oral (p.o.), daily, for 14 days); G4, IGF-1R inhibitor (linsitinib, OSI-906, p.o., daily, for 14 days). Tumor growth was significantly suppressed both in G3 (palbociclib) and in G4 (linsitinib) compared to G1 (untreated control) at all measured time points. In contrast, DOX did not inhibit tumor growth at any time point, which is consistent with the failure of DOX to control tumor growth in the patient. The results of the present study demonstrate the power of the PDOX model to identify effective targeted molecular therapy of a recalcitrant DOX-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with specific genetic alterations. The results of this study suggest the potential of PDOX models for individually-tailored, effective targeted therapy for recalcitrant cancer. PMID:27286459

  19. Effective molecular targeting of CDK4/6 and IGF-1R in a rare FUS-ERG fusion CDKN2A-deletion doxorubicin-resistant Ewing's sarcoma patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takashi; Singh, Arun S; Kiyuna, Tasuku; Dry, Sarah M; Li, Yunfeng; James, Aaron W; Igarashi, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Kei; DeLong, Jonathan C; Zhang, Yong; Hiroshima, Yukihiko; Russell, Tara; Eckardt, Mark A; Yanagawa, Jane; Federman, Noah; Matsuyama, Ryusei; Chishima, Takashi; Tanaka, Kuniya; Bouvet, Michael; Endo, Itaru; Eilber, Fritz C; Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-07-26

    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare and aggressive malignancy. In the present study, tumor from a patient with a Ewing's sarcoma with cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A/B (CDKN2A/B) loss and FUS-ERG fusion was implanted in the right chest wall of nude mice to establish a patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) model. The aim of the present study was to determine efficacy of cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) and insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors on the Ewing's sarcoma PDOX. The PDOX models were randomized into the following groups when tumor volume reached 50 mm3: G1, untreated control; G2, doxorubicin (DOX) (intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, weekly, for 2 weeks); G3, CDK4/6 inhibitor (palbociclib, PD0332991, per oral (p.o.), daily, for 14 days); G4, IGF-1R inhibitor (linsitinib, OSI-906, p.o., daily, for 14 days). Tumor growth was significantly suppressed both in G3 (palbociclib) and in G4 (linsitinib) compared to G1 (untreated control) at all measured time points. In contrast, DOX did not inhibit tumor growth at any time point, which is consistent with the failure of DOX to control tumor growth in the patient. The results of the present study demonstrate the power of the PDOX model to identify effective targeted molecular therapy of a recalcitrant DOX-resistant Ewing's sarcoma with specific genetic alterations. The results of this study suggest the potential of PDOX models for individually-tailored, effective targeted therapy for recalcitrant cancer.

  20. Developing a Novel Embryo-Larval Zebrafish Xenograft Assay to Prioritize Human Glioblastoma Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Wehmas, Leah Christine; Tanguay, Robert L; Punnoose, Alex; Greenwood, Juliet A

    2016-08-01

    Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer requiring improved treatments. Existing methods of drug discovery and development require years before new therapeutics become available to patients. Zebrafish xenograft models hold promise for prioritizing drug development. We have developed an embryo-larval zebrafish xenograft assay in which cancer cells are implanted in a brain microenvironment to discover and prioritize compounds that impact glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the well-studied, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), which demonstrate selective cancer cytotoxicity in cell culture, but the in vivo effectiveness has not been established. Exposures of 3.125-6.25 μM LY294002 significantly decreased proliferation up to 34% with concentration-dependent trends. Exposure to 6.25 μM LY294002 significantly inhibited migration/invasion by ∼27% within the glioblastoma cell mass (0-80 μm) and by ∼32% in the next distance region (81-160 μm). Unexpectedly, ZnO enhanced glioblastoma proliferation by ∼19% and migration/invasion by ∼35% at the periphery of the cell mass (161+ μm); however, dissolution of these NPs make it difficult to discern whether this was a nano or ionic effect. These results demonstrate that we have a short, relevant, and sensitive zebrafish-based assay to aid glioblastoma therapeutic development.

  1. Developing a Novel Embryo–Larval Zebrafish Xenograft Assay to Prioritize Human Glioblastoma Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wehmas, Leah Christine; Tanguay, Robert L.; Punnoose, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glioblastoma is an aggressive brain cancer requiring improved treatments. Existing methods of drug discovery and development require years before new therapeutics become available to patients. Zebrafish xenograft models hold promise for prioritizing drug development. We have developed an embryo–larval zebrafish xenograft assay in which cancer cells are implanted in a brain microenvironment to discover and prioritize compounds that impact glioblastoma proliferation, migration, and invasion. We illustrate the utility of our assay by evaluating the well-studied, phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs), which demonstrate selective cancer cytotoxicity in cell culture, but the in vivo effectiveness has not been established. Exposures of 3.125–6.25 μM LY294002 significantly