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Sample records for xerostomia dry mouth

  1. Dry mouth: Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, Agnieszka M

    2016-07-01

    Mouth dryness may present as salivary gland hypofunction (SGH), xerostomia or both. It is considered one of the most underappreciated, underdiagnosed and undermanaged oral health conditions. Despite its common presentation and adverse impact on life quality, it is also generally poorly understood. Increased awareness of the condition is important in addressing these problems. This article discusses SGH and xerostomia, and the associated intra-oral and extra-oral implications. It also summarises currently available management approaches and the evidence behind them. SGH and xerostomia are complex problems. None of the currently available management approaches are entirely satisfactory. Addressing the causative or contributing factors is therefore paramount. While oral health complaints are generally left up to the dental professional to manage, the nature of mouth dryness necessitates increased dialogue between the dental and 
medical professions to ensure optimal patient care.

  2. Dry mouth and older people.

    PubMed

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Dry mouth: a critical topic for older adult patients.

    PubMed

    Han, Phuu; Suarez-Durall, Piedad; Mulligan, Roseann

    2015-01-01

    Diminished salivary flow, or dry mouth impacts the oral health of many older adults, dentate and edentulous. As a result typical oral conditions can prove more challenging to both the patient's comfort and home care and the treatment selected by the clinician. This paper will review issues of dry mouth from a clinical and symptomatic perspective and will include the condition's causes, treatment and prevention. We performed a review of PubMed using the words: older adults, dry mouth, xerostomia, radiation-induced xerostomia, and salivary gland hypofunction. We selected 90 articles with a clinical application perspective. When it comes to treatment of dry mouth conditions, either objective or subjective, there are no easy answers as to the best course of action for a specific individual. While most of the cited studies have examined the most difficult cases of dry mouth (e.g., Sjögren's syndrome, and that seen during and post head and neck cancer treatments), there are many older adults who demonstrate dry mouth from the use of multiple medications. This paper presents a summary of the etiology, diagnosis, prevention, and pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment of dry mouth (salivary hypofunction and xerostomia in older adults). It is important to understand the causes of dry mouth and to educate our patients. Starting a prevention program as early as possible considering the most practical, cost effective and efficient treatments with the best risk-benefit ratio will help to diminish dry mouth symptoms and sequelae. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility

    PubMed Central

    Eidet, Jon R.; Utheim, Tor P.; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S.; Messelt, Edvard B.; Dartt, Darlene A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as “daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months” (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; P<0.001). Patients with xerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; P<0.001). The use of prescription drugs was more prevalent among xerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; P<0.021; adjusted for age and sex). Patients with xerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; P<0.001). Moreover, xerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients. PMID:27148875

  5. Dry Eye Disease Patients with Xerostomia Report Higher Symptom Load and Have Poorer Meibum Expressibility.

    PubMed

    Fostad, Ida G; Eidet, Jon R; Utheim, Tor P; Ræder, Sten; Lagali, Neil S; Messelt, Edvard B; Dartt, Darlene A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if xerostomia (dry mouth) is associated with symptoms and signs of dry eye disease (DED). At the Norwegian Dry Eye Clinic, patients with symptomatic DED with different etiologies were consecutively included in the study. The patients underwent a comprehensive ophthalmological work-up and completed self-questionnaires on symptoms of ocular dryness (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI] and McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire) and the Sjögren's syndrome (SS) questionnaire (SSQ). Three hundred and eighteen patients (52% women and 48% men) with DED were included. Patient demographics were: 0 to 19 years (1%), 20 to 39 (25%), 40 to 59 (34%), 60 to 79 (35%) and 80 to 99 (5%). Xerostomia, defined as "daily symptoms of dry mouth the last three months" (as presented in SSQ) was reported by 23% of the patients. Female sex was more common among patients with xerostomia (81%) than among non-xerostomia patients (44%; P<0.001). Patients with xerostomia (60 ± 15 years) were older than those without xerostomia (51 ± 17; P<0.001). The use of prescription drugs was more prevalent among xerostomia patients (65%) than among non-xerostomia patients (35%; P<0.021; adjusted for age and sex). Patients with xerostomia had a higher OSDI score (19.0 ± 10.0) than those without xerostomia (12.9 ± 8.0; P<0.001). Moreover, xerostomia patients had more pathological meibum expressibility (0.9 ± 0.7) than those without xerostomia (0.7 ± 0.8; P = 0.046). Comparisons of OSDI and ocular signs were performed after controlling for the effects of sex, age and the number of systemic prescription drugs used. In conclusion, xerostomia patients demonstrated a higher DED symptom load and had poorer meibum expressibility than non-xerostomia patients.

  6. Xerostomia: causes and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wick, Jeanette Y

    2007-12-01

    When reduced salivary flow causes perpetual dry and sticky mucosa or sticky, stringy saliva, it becomes xerostomia-not a disease, but a symptom. Up to 30% of various populations self-report dry mouth (xerostomia) or have proven low salivary flow rates. Saliva is necessary for digestion and dental health, and it may have yet-unidentified immunological roles in humans. Xerostomia can lead to digestive problems, weight loss, and accelerated dental decay. Medications-several hundred of them-can cause or exacerbate xerostomia. Cancer, autoimmune diseases, and bone marrow transplants are associated with xerostomia. Including a dentist on the treatment team is essential for residents with dry mouth. As xerostomia progresses, they should shift focus primarily to prevention, maintenance, oral comfort, and emergency treatment. In all stages, they should keep treatment noninvasive if possible.

  7. Buccal drug delivery technologies for patient-centred treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia (dry mouth).

    PubMed

    Malallah, Osamah S; Garcia, Cristina M Aller; Proctor, Gordon B; Forbes, Ben; Royall, Paul G

    2018-04-25

    Radiotherapy is a life-saving treatment for head and neck cancers, but almost 100% of patients develop dry mouth (xerostomia) because of radiation-induced damage to their salivary glands. Patients with xerostomia suffer symptoms that severely affect their health as well as physical, social and emotional aspects of their life. The current management of xerostomia is the application of saliva substitutes or systemic delivery of saliva-stimulating cholinergic agents, including pilocarpine, cevimeline or bethanechol tablets. It is almost impossible for substitutes to replicate all the functional and sensory facets of natural saliva. Salivary stimulants are a better treatment option than saliva substitutes as the former induce the secretion of natural saliva from undamaged glands; typically, these are the minor salivary glands. However, patients taking cholinergic agents systemically experience pharmacology-related side effects including sweating, excessive lacrimation and gastrointestinal tract distresses. Local delivery direct to the buccal mucosa has the potential to provide rapid onset of drug action, i.e. activation of minor salivary glands within the buccal mucosa, while sparing systemic drug exposure and off-target effects. This critical review of the technologies for the local delivery of saliva-stimulating agents includes oral disintegrating tablets (ODTs), oral disintegrating films, medicated chewing gums and implantable drug delivery devices. Our analysis makes a strong case for the development of ODTs for the buccal delivery of cholinergic agents: these must be patient-friendly delivery platforms with variable loading capacities that release the drug rapidly in fluid volumes typical of residual saliva in xerostomia (0.05-0.1 mL). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between xerostomia and salivary flow rates in HIV-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Nittayananta, Wipawee; Chanowanna, Nilnara; Pruphetkaew, Nannapat; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and salivary flow rates among HIV-infected individuals. A cross-sectional study was performed on 173 individuals (81 HIV-infected individuals, mean age: 32 years, and 92 non-HIV controls, mean age: 30 years). Subjective complaints of dry mouth, based on a self-report of xerostomia questions, and dry mouth, based on a visual analogue scale (VAS), were recorded along with measurements of salivary flow rate of both unstimulated and wax-stimulated whole saliva. The relationship between subjective responses to the xerostomia questions, the VAS of dry mouth, and objective measurements of salivary flow rates were analyzed. Responses to the questions--Do you carry water or a saliva substitute? and Have you had taste disturbance?--were significantly different between HIV-infected and non-HIV individuals (P < 0.05). Individuals' responses to questions concerning dry mouth were significantly correlated with a low unstimulated salivary flow rate. A significant correlation between the VAS of dry mouth and salivary flow rates was observed (P = 0.023). Responses to self-reported xerostomia questions reflects low unstimulated salivary flow rates. Thus, questions concerning dry mouth might be useful tools to identify HIV-infected individuals with hyposalivation, especially at a resting stage. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Dental patients' self-reports of xerostomia and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Polimeni, Antonella; Strohmenger, Laura; Cicciù, Domenico; Gherlone, Enrico; Abati, Silvio

    2011-07-01

    Most studies regarding xerostomia focus on elderly people. Therefore, the authors conducted a study of dental patients 18 years or older to determine the prevalence of self-reported xerostomia and associated risk factors. The authors sent a total of 2,200 questionnaires to four dental clinics to assess patients' self-reported xerostomia. They also collected sociodemographic data and information regarding personal behavior. They used logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CI) to explore the relationship between self-reported xerostomia and risk factors that reasonably might be expected to be associated with self-reported xerostomia. The overall prevalence of xerostomia in participants was 7 percent. Participants with burning-mouth sensations were associated with having higher odds of experiencing dry mouth (OR, 2.1; 95 percent CI, 0.9-5.2). Participants 51 years or older were significantly more likely to report having dry mouth than were younger participants (P < .04). The prevalence of self-reported xerostomia increased with increasing numbers of medications patients reported using. The authors found that medication use and age were highly significant risk factors for dental patients reporting xerostomia. Clinicians should interview their patients carefully regarding their use of medications and provide proper oral health care to improve xerostomia resulting from medication use.

  10. Hyposalivation and xerostomia in dentate older adults

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, R. Constance; Wu, Bei; Crout, Richard; Wiener, Michael; Plassman, Brenda; Kao, Elizabeth; McNeil, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background Older adults are susceptible to reduced saliva production related to certain medications, radiation and chronic conditions. Many of these people have many physical and oral health problems and limited access to dental care. The use of effective screening tools for xerostomia and hyposalivation would be helpful in identifying those at risk. The authors conducted a study to investigate the association between three measures of oral dryness: hyposalivation (low unstimulated salivary flow), self-reported xerostomia and clinically assessed dry mouth. Methods The authors included a convenience sample of 252 nondemented and dentate West Virginia participants 70 years and older who were part of a larger study on oral health and cognition among older adults. Participants completed a self-reported xerostomia index, provided an unstimulated salivary sample and underwent an oral assessment for the study. Results Twenty-eight (11.1 percent) had hyposalivation, eight of whom reported having xerostomia (sensitivity = 28.6 percent). Of the 43 participants who reported having xerostomia, only eight had hyposalivation (positive predictive value = 18.6 percent). Hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia were not significantly related. Clinically assessed dry mouth correlated modestly, but significantly, with hyposalivation and self-reported xerostomia. Conclusions Obtaining routine unstimulated salivary flow rates in addition to self-reported information and oral evaluations may increase early detection of oral dryness, which would assist in implementing early interventions to improve patients’ quality of life. Clinical Implications Visually inspecting oral tissues for dryness and asking a patient if his or her mouth is dry are insufficient measures for clinicians to use to determine if the patient has hyposalivation. The authors recommend that clinicians determine the patients’ unstimulated salivary flow rate. PMID:20194383

  11. Xerostomia: a day and night difference.

    PubMed

    Dijkema, Tim; Raaijmakers, Cornelis P J; Braam, Pètra M; Roesink, Judith M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M; Terhaard, Chris H J

    2012-08-01

    To compare patient-reported xerostomia during daytime and during nighttime with objectively measured parotid and submandibular gland function in a cohort of head-and-neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with RT. A cohort of 138 HNC patients underwent objective measurements of parotid (PF) and submandibular (SMF) gland function and completed a xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) before RT, at 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT. No attempt was made to spare the submandibular gland(s). The XQ contained specific questions concerning the sensation of dry mouth during day- (XD) and nighttime (XN), scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Patients with no or mild (grade 1-3) xerostomia and patients with more severe (grade 4-5) complaints were grouped together. Before RT, no association existed between dry mouth complaints and PF or SMF. At 6 weeks, 6 months and 1 year after RT; 37%, 51% and 36% had grade 4-5 XD and 65%, 64% and 56% had grade 4-5 XN, respectively. Patients with grade 4-5 XD and XN had significantly worse SMF at all time points after RT compared to patients with grade 1-3 XD and XN, while PF was significantly worse only at 6 weeks after RT. In multivariate analyses, SMF was consistently the most important factor related to XN after treatment. PF significantly influenced XD at 6 weeks and 1 year after RT. Differentiating between complaints during day- and nighttime in xerostomia research is necessary. Dry mouth at night is a frequent problem after (parotid-sparing) RT for HNC and is explained by submandibular gland dysfunction. Sparing of the contralateral submandibular gland, in addition to parotid gland sparing, may result in improved patient-reported xerostomia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  13. Risk factors and symptoms associated with xerostomia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Villa, A; Abati, S

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the symptoms and risk factors associated with self-reported xerostomia. Data were collected from 601 self-administered questionnaires among dental clinic attendees. Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the association for exposures of interest, such as socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported symptoms, oral hygiene habits and xerostomia. Participants reported having dry mouth in 19.6% of cases. Xerostomia was associated with a significant increase in the odds of having dry lips, throat, eye, skin and nose. Patients with self-reported xerostomia were three times more likely to drink water to swallow food than were patients without xerstomia. Older individuals were significantly more likely to report dry mouth, and the prevalence of xerostomia increased with advancing age. The prevalence of xerostomia in patients taking one or more drugs was significantly higher compared to medication-free patients, and increased with increasing numbers of medications used. Finally, individuals with a nervous or mental disorder, or who wore removable dentures were five times more likely to develop xerostomia than patients without disorder or dentures. Dentists should be familiar with the symptoms of xerostomia and be prepared to take an active role in the diagnosis, management and treatment of the oral complications. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  14. Xerostomia of Various Etiologies: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Tanasiewicz, Marta; Hildebrandt, Tomasz; Obersztyn, Izabela

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the etiopathogenesis, symptomatology, evaluation and treatment of mouth dryness. Xerostomia affects 1-29% of the population, mostly women. It is observed in geriatric patients and in individuals using certain medications, those subjected to radiotherapy of the head and neck region or affected with autoimmune conditions. The main signs of xerostomia include the impression of a dry mouth, problems with food ingestion and dryness of the oral mucosa and skin. Evaluation is based on structured interviews (the Fox test) and determinations of unstimulated and stimulated salivary volume. The signs of xerostomia can be attenuated with saliva substitutes, cevimeline or malic acid. Only palliative treatment of this condition is available at present. Untreated xerostomia significantly impairs the quality of life, which can potentially lead to depression.

  15. [Xerostomia and its impact on oral health-related quality of life].

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Gianna; Müller, Karolina; Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian

    2017-02-01

    Dry mouth is a frequently occurrence in elderly people and causes numerous clinical and social problems. To investigate the quality of life in geriatric patients living in nursing homes depending on the subjective sensation of dry mouth and associated oral parameters. A total of 62 male and female elderly patients living in 7 cooperating nursing homes were interviewed employing questionnaires with regard to their oral health-related quality of life (GOHAI) and their subjective perception of dry mouth (sXI-D). Dental status, drinking habits and current medication were documented. The mean GOHAI score was 53.6 and the mean sXI-D score was 7.9. Oral health-related quality of life was significantly influenced by the subjective sensation of dry mouth (p < 0.001), whereas no significant impact of the number of residual teeth or implants or the character of prosthetic restorations could be identified. Xerostomia was significantly influenced by the number of medications consumed (p = 0.039). Xerostomia has a significant impact on the oral health-related quality of life of elderly people living in nursing homes. Thus, dental treatment should focus on the alleviation of xerostomia to improve the oral health-related quality of life in the elderly population.

  16. Diagnosis and management of xerostomia and hyposalivation

    PubMed Central

    Villa, Alessandro; Connell, Christopher L; Abati, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, the subjective complaint of dry mouth, and hyposalivation remain a significant burden for many individuals. Diagnosis of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction is dependent upon a careful and detailed history and thorough oral examination. There exist many options for treatment and symptom management: salivary stimulants, topical agents, saliva substitutes, and systemic sialogogues. The aim of this review is to investigate the current state of knowledge on management and treatment of patients affected by xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. PMID:25653532

  17. Pilocarpine tablets for the treatment of dry mouth and dry eye symptoms in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a randomized, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose, multicenter trial. P92-01 Study Group.

    PubMed

    Vivino, F B; Al-Hashimi, I; Khan, Z; LeVeque, F G; Salisbury, P L; Tran-Johnson, T K; Muscoplat, C C; Trivedi, M; Goldlust, B; Gallagher, S C

    1999-01-25

    Patients with Sjögren syndrome (SS) experience slowly progressive infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands by mononuclear cells. This leads to diminished secretions, with resultant symptoms of xerostomia and xerophthalmia. Although pilocarpine hydrochloride tablets are currently indicated for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia, their effects on dry mouth or dry eyes in patients with SS are unclear. To assess the safety and efficacy of pilocarpine (Salagen) tablets as symptomatic treatment for dry mouth and dry eyes caused by SS in a multicenter, doubleblind, placebo-controlled trial. After providing written informed consent, 373 patients with primary or secondary SS and clinically significant dry mouth and dry eyes were randomized to receive 2.5-mg pilocarpine, 5-mg pilocarpine, or placebo tablets 4 times daily for 12 weeks. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaires with visual analog scales or categorical checkboxes. Whole-mouth salivary flow rates were measured. A significantly greater proportion of patients in the 5-mg pilocarpine group showed improvement compared with the placebo group (P< or =.01) in global assessments of dry mouth, dry eyes, and other symptoms of dryness (P< or =.05). Salivary flow was significantly increased 2- to 3-fold (P<.001) after administration of the first dose and was maintained throughout the 12-week study. The most common adverse effect was sweating, and no serious drug-related adverse experiences were reported. Administration of 5-mg pilocarpine tablets 4 times daily (20 mg/d) was well tolerated and produced significant improvement in symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes and other xeroses in patients with SS.

  18. Successful Treatment of Dry Mouth and Dry Eye Symptoms in Sjögren's Syndrome Patients With Oral Pilocarpine: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Dose-Adjustment Study.

    PubMed

    Papas, Athena S; Sherrer, Yvonne S; Charney, Michael; Golden, Harvey E; Medsger, Thomas A; Walsh, Bridget T; Trivedi, Madhu; Goldlust, Barry; Gallagher, Susan C

    2004-08-01

    : Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by the presence of xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. Pilocarpine, a muscarinic cholinergic agonist, has been proven to be efficacious in treating radiation-induced xerostomia (up to 30 mg/day) and symptoms of dry mouth in Sjögren's patients (up to 20 mg/day). : To compare the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (dose-adjusted) versus placebo in the treatment of dry eye and dry mouth symptoms in Sjögren's syndrome at 6 and 12 weeks. : In this 11-center, 256-patient placebo-controlled study, the safety and efficacy of oral pilocarpine (20 mg to 30 mg daily) for relief of Sjögren's-related dry mouth and dry eye symptoms was assessed. Changes in symptoms and salivary flow were measured over 12 weeks. : Compared with placebo, salivary flow was significantly increased in the pilocarpine group (Pdry mouth (Pdry eyes (Pdry mouth symptoms was noted at 20 mg/day, and significant relief in ocular symptoms, including lower artificial tear requirement, was noted after the dose was increased to 30 mg/day.

  19. Shortening the Xerostomia Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, William Murray; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; de Baat, Cees; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-ichi; Enoki, Kaori; Hopcraft, Matthew; Ling, Guo Y

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine the validity and properties of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version in samples from Australia, The Netherlands, Japan and New Zealand. Study design Six cross-sectional samples of older people from The Netherlands (N = 50), Australia (N = 637 and N = 245), Japan (N = 401) and New Zealand (N = 167 and N = 86). Data were analysed using the Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version. Results Almost all data-sets revealed a single extracted factor which explained about half of the variance, with Cronbach’s alpha values of at least 0.70. When mean scale scores were plotted against a “gold standard” xerostomia question, statistically significant gradients were observed, with the highest score seen in those who always had dry mouth, and the lowest in those who never had it. Conclusion The Summated Xerostomia Inventory-Dutch Version is valid for measuring xerostomia symptoms in clinical and epidemiological research. PMID:21684773

  20. Salivary flow and xerostomia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Lima, Danilo Lopes Ferreira; Carneiro, Sandro Dias Rocha Mendes; Barbosa, Fladia Taciana de Sousa; Saintrain, Maria Vieira de Lima; Moizan, Jean André Hervé; Doucet, Jean

    2017-01-01

    To assess salivary flow in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and its association with xerostomia. Cross-sectional clinical study conducted with older patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least one year receiving treatment at the Integrated Center for Diabetes and Hypertension of Ceará (CIHD) in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Oral clinical examination was carried out to assess the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT). Perception of the presence of xerostomia/dry mouth was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and samples were obtained using an extra-soft silicone device. 120 older patients with diabetes (60 insulin-dependent and 60 non-insulin-dependent) aged 65-91 years, with a mean age of 72.26 ± 6.53 years, were assessed. Of these, 111 (92.5%) presented a decrease in salivary flow while 59 (49.2%) reported moderate to severe xerostomia/dry mouth. The DMFT Index presented a mean of 27.53 ± 4.86 teeth. Reduced salivary flow was found in the group assessed in the present research; however, this finding is not in accordance with the perception of xerostomia/dry mouth reported by the patients.

  1. Salivary flow and xerostomia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Danilo Lopes Ferreira; Carneiro, Sandro Dias Rocha Mendes; Barbosa, Fladia Taciana de Sousa; Moizan, Jean André Hervé; Doucet, Jean

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess salivary flow in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and its association with xerostomia. Methods Cross-sectional clinical study conducted with older patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for at least one year receiving treatment at the Integrated Center for Diabetes and Hypertension of Ceará (CIHD) in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará, Northeastern Brazil. Oral clinical examination was carried out to assess the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT). Perception of the presence of xerostomia/dry mouth was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale. Stimulated salivary flow was measured and samples were obtained using an extra-soft silicone device. Results 120 older patients with diabetes (60 insulin-dependent and 60 non-insulin-dependent) aged 65–91 years, with a mean age of 72.26 ± 6.53 years, were assessed. Of these, 111 (92.5%) presented a decrease in salivary flow while 59 (49.2%) reported moderate to severe xerostomia/dry mouth. The DMFT Index presented a mean of 27.53 ± 4.86 teeth. Conclusions Reduced salivary flow was found in the group assessed in the present research; however, this finding is not in accordance with the perception of xerostomia/dry mouth reported by the patients. PMID:28767676

  2. Relationship among perceived stress, xerostomia, and salivary flow rate in patients visiting a saliva clinic.

    PubMed

    Bulthuis, Marjolein S; Jan Jager, Derk H; Brand, Henk S

    2018-03-09

    This aimed to assess the potential role of chronic stress in saliva secretion, xerostomia, and oral health in a population attending a saliva clinic. Data of 114 patients who met the inclusion criteria and completed all questionnaires were analyzed in this study. Participants completed several validated questionnaires, including the Perceived Stress Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), Xerostomia Inventory (XI), and Bother xerostomia Index (BI). Subsequently, the unstimulated, chewing-stimulated, and citric acid-stimulated saliva secretion rates were determined gravimetrically. Data were evaluated using Spearman's correlation analysis and the Mann-Whitney U test. A significant correlation was observed between perceived stress and XI score (r = 0.312, p = 0.001), as well as between perceived stress and BI score (r = 0.334, p = 0.001). Stress levels also were significantly associated with OHIP-14 scores (r = 0.420, p < 0.001), but an association between experienced stress and salivary flow rate could not be established. In this population, perceived chronic stress seems to be related to several aspects of dry mouth, including the perception of dry mouth, suffering from dry mouth, and the impact on quality of life. These effects were independent of the use of psychotropic medication. No actual reduction in salivary flow was found. Further studies to explore the causal linkage of stress with xerostomia seem warranted. Perceived chronic stress seems to be related with several aspects of dry mouth. This finding might be relevant in future prevention and treatment of xerostomia.

  3. Risk factors associated with xerostomia in haemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    López-Pintor, R-M; López-Pintor, L; Casañas, E; de Arriba, L; Hernández, G

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation in Haemodialysis (HD) patients, to clarify risk factors, assess patient's quality of life, and to establish a possible correlation among interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and xerostomia. This study was performed on a group of 50 HD patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic and clinical variables, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for xerostomia, IDWG, and an oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected. A total of 28 HD patients (56%) suffered xerostomia. Dry mouth was associated with hypertension (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.11-24.89) and benzodiazepine consumption (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.05-33.99). The mean xerostomia VAS and OHIP-14 scores were 31.74±14.88 and 24.38±11.98, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between IDWG% and VAS and OHIP total score. Nonetheless, a positive correlation between VAS level of thirst and IDWG% was found (r=0.48 p=0.0001). UWS and SWS means (determined in 30 patients) were 0.16±0.17 and 1.12±0.64, respectively. Decreased values of UWS and SWS were reported in 53.33% and 36.66% of HD patients. Xerostomia in HD has a multifactorial aetiology due to accumulative risks as advanced age, systemic disorders, drugs, fluid intake restriction, and salivary parenchymal fibrosis and atrophy. Therefore, it is important to detect possible xerostomia risk factors to treat correctly dry mouth in HD patients and avoid systemic complications.

  4. Managing xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction: executive summary of a report from the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    PubMed

    Plemons, Jacqueline M; Al-Hashimi, Ibtisam; Marek, Cindy L

    2014-08-01

    Xerostomia, also known as "dry mouth," is a common but frequently overlooked condition that is typically associated with salivary gland hypofunction, which is the objective measurement of reduced salivary flow. Patients with dry mouth exhibit symptoms of variable severity that are commonly attributed to medication use, chronic disease and medical treatment, such as radiotherapy to the head and neck region. Chronic xerostomia significantly increases the risk of experiencing dental caries, demineralization, tooth sensitivity, candidiasis and other oral diseases that may affect quality of life negatively. This article presents a multidisciplinary approach to the clinical management of xerostomia, consistent with the findings of published systematic reviews on this key clinical issue. Initial evaluation of patients with dry mouth should include a detailed health history to facilitate early detection and identify underlying causes. Comprehensive evaluation, diagnostic testing and periodic assessment of salivary flow, followed by corrective actions, may help prevent significant oral disease. A systematic approach to xerostomia management can facilitate interdisciplinary patient care, including collaboration with physicians regarding systemic conditions and medication use. Comprehensive management of xerostomia and hyposalivation should emphasize patient education and lifestyle modifications. It also should focus on various palliative and preventive measures, including pharmacological treatment with salivary stimulants, topical fluoride interventions and the use of sugar-free chewing gum to relieve dry-mouth symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.

  5. Management of dry mouth: assessment of oral symptoms after use of a polysaccharide-based oral rinse.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Villines, Dana C; Singh, Mabi; Papas, Athena

    2017-01-01

    Salivary dysfunction is associated with a range of oral/dental issues, and management of oral symptoms may improve oral function and overall quality of life. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate oral symptoms and function in a xerostomic population after use of a proprietary topical for dry mouth, Moisyn (Synedgen Inc., Claremont, CA), which is a polysaccharide-based product. A pre- and post-test survey was completed by 57 patients with xerostomia. Patients rated their common oral symptoms, based on the Vanderbilt Head and Neck Symptom Survey, before and after 1-week use of Moisyn rinse and spray. Saliva production under resting and chewing stimulation was also assessed. Most patients reported relief from dry mouth symptoms and thick saliva (81.7% and 76.0%, respectively) for more than 30 minutes after product use. Statistically significant reductions were found in 15 of 33 oral symptoms. Symptom improvement ranged from 10.7% to 28.4% for thick saliva, 8.4% to 30.6% for pain, 5.5% to 30.4% for dry mouth, and 12% to 21.3% for taste/diet change. Whole unstimulated/resting saliva improved by 100%, and whole stimulated saliva improved by 23.8%. These findings suggest that the product has utility in symptom control in patients with xerostomia and may lead to an increase in saliva production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Type 1 diabetes mellitus, xerostomia, and salivary flow rates.

    PubMed

    Moore, P A; Guggenheimer, J; Etzel, K R; Weyant, R J; Orchard, T

    2001-09-01

    The Oral Health Science Institute at the University of Pittsburgh has completed a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 406 subjects with type 1 diabetes and 268 control subjects without diabetes that assessed the associations between oral health and diabetes. This report describes the prevalence of dry-mouth symptoms (xerostomia), the prevalence of hyposalivation in this population, and the possible interrelationships between salivary dysfunction and diabetic complications. The subjects with diabetes were participants in the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications study who were enrolled in an oral health substudy. Control subjects were spouses or best friends of participants or persons recruited from the community through advertisements in local newspapers. Assessments of salivary function included self-reported xerostomia measures and quantification of resting and stimulated whole saliva flow rates. Subjects with diabetes reported symptoms of dry mouth more frequently than did control subjects. Salivary flow rates were also impaired in the subjects with diabetes. Regression models of potential predictor variables were created for the 3 self-reported xerostomia measures and 4 salivary flow rate variables. Of the medical diabetic complications studied (ie, retinopathy, peripheral and autonomic neuropathy, nephropathy, and peripheral vascular disease), only neuropathy was found to be associated with xerostomia and decreased salivary flow measures. A report of dry-mouth symptoms was associated with current use of cigarettes, dysgeusia (report of a bad taste), and more frequent snacking behavior. Xerogenic medications and elevated fasting blood glucose concentrations were significantly associated with decreased salivary flow. Resting salivary flow rates less than 0.01 mL/min were associated with a slightly higher prevalence of dental caries. Subjects who reported higher levels of alcohol consumption were less likely to have lower rates of stimulated

  7. Risk factors associated with xerostomia in haemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    López-Pintor, Lucía; Casañas, Elisabeth; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2017-01-01

    Background To determine the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation in Haemodialysis (HD) patients, to clarify risk factors, assess patient´s quality of life, and to establish a possible correlation among interdialytic weight gain (IDWG) and xerostomia. Material and Methods This study was performed on a group of 50 HD patients. Data were collected using a questionnaire containing demographic and clinical variables, a visual analogue scale (VAS) for xerostomia, IDWG, and an oral health impact profile questionnaire (OHIP-14). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) and stimulated whole saliva (SWS) were collected. Results A total of 28 HD patients (56%) suffered xerostomia. Dry mouth was associated with hypertension (OR, 5.24; 95% CI, 1.11-24.89) and benzodiazepine consumption (OR, 5.96; 95% CI, 1.05-33.99). The mean xerostomia VAS and OHIP-14 scores were 31.74±14.88 and 24.38±11.98, respectively. No significant correlation was observed between IDWG% and VAS and OHIP total score. Nonetheless, a positive correlation between VAS level of thirst and IDWG% was found (r=0.48 p=0.0001). UWS and SWS means (determined in 30 patients) were 0.16±0.17 and 1.12±0.64, respectively. Decreased values of UWS and SWS were reported in 53.33% and 36.66% of HD patients. Conclusions Xerostomia in HD has a multifactorial aetiology due to accumulative risks as advanced age, systemic disorders, drugs, fluid intake restriction, and salivary parenchymal fibrosis and atrophy. Therefore, it is important to detect possible xerostomia risk factors to treat correctly dry mouth in HD patients and avoid systemic complications. Key words:Haemodialysis patients, xerostomia, salivary flow rate, hyposalivation, interdialytic weight gain, oral health-related quality of life. PMID:28160594

  8. Xerostomia and medication: a cross-sectional study in long-term geriatric wards.

    PubMed

    Desoutter, A; Soudain-Pineau, M; Munsch, F; Mauprivez, C; Dufour, T; Coeuriot, J-L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of xerostomia in old people living in long-term geriatric wards, and to measure the relationship between xerostomia and etiologic factors such as age and medication (total number of medications, xerogenic medications, anticholinergic medications and medications that induce hypersialorrhea). An observational retrospective, comparative, multicentre epidemiological study. Long-term geriatric wards, in Reims, France. 769 old people living in long-term geriatric wards. Prevalence of xerostomia assessed from age, total number of medications, xerogenic medications, anticholinergic medications and those that induce hypersialorrhea. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate Odds Ratios (OR) and their 95% Confidence Intervals (95% CI). Among 769 old people (average age 84.6±8.4 years old), 287 residents suffered from xerostomia (37.3%). Significant predictors of xerostomia were: resident's age OR=1.56, 95% CI (1.30-1.88), p<0.0001 and anticholinergic medications OR=1.35, 95% CI (1.05-1.73), p=0.02. The only protective factor against xerostomia identified was medications that induce hypersialorrhea OR=0.81, 95% CI (0.67-0.98), p=0.03. The total number of medications and xerogenic medications did not play a significant role in xerostomia. Increasing Age and anticholinergic medications induce a dry mouth. Conversely, the total number of medications and xerogenic medications do not influence xerostomia. Medications that induce hypersialorrhea protect against the occurrence of dry mouth.

  9. Products based on olive oil, betaine, and xylitol in the post-radiotherapy xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Martín, Margarita; Marín, Alicia; López, Mario; Liñán, Olga; Alvarenga, Felipe; Büchser, David; Cerezo, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was determining if the use of products based in olive oil, betaine and xylitol are efficacious to decrease the impact of the dry mouth in the quality of life of the patients with xerostomia due to radiotherapy treatment. Following therapeutic irradiation of the head and neck, patients with profound xerostomia have complaints associated with oral dryness, speech, and taste. There is no strong evidence that any topical therapy is effective for relieving the symptom of dry mouth. 40 patients who had been treated with radiotherapy for head and neck carcinoma and reported symptoms of dry mouth were included in the study. A xerostomia-related quality of life questionnaire, visual analogue scale questionnaire for subjective assessment of salivary dysfunction and salivary flow were reported before and 15 days after the use of topical products based on olive oil, betaina and xylitol. The four primary quality of life areas demonstrated significantly greater improvement after the use of topical products and all eight VAS items had favourable changes. The reduction of symptoms was statistically significant in 7 of the 8 items. After the use of the products, there were improvements in salivary flow in 45%. The use of products based on olive oil, betaine and xylitol, shaped like collutory, toothpaste, gel and spray significantly improved most symptoms and the quality of life limitations produced by dry mouth in patients treated with radiotherapy.

  10. Herbal Medicine for Xerostomia in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Park, Bongki; Noh, Hyeonseok; Choi, Dong-Jun

    2018-06-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth) causes many clinical problems, including oral infections, speech difficulties, and impaired chewing and swallowing of food. Many cancer patients have complained of xerostomia induced by cancer therapy. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the efficacy of herbal medicine for the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Randomized controlled trials investigating the use of herbal medicines to treat xerostomia in cancer patients were included. We searched the following 12 databases without restrictions on time or language. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. Twenty-five randomized controlled trials involving 1586 patients met the inclusion criteria. A total of 24 formulas were examined in the included trials. Most of the included trials were insufficiently reported in the methodology section. Five formulas were shown to significantly improve the salivary flow rate compared to comparators. Regarding the grade of xerostomia, all formulas with the exception of a Dark Plum gargle solution with normal saline were significantly effective in reducing the severity of dry mouth. Adverse events were reported in 4 trials, and adverse effects of herbal medicine were reported in 3 trials. We found herbal medicines had potential benefits for improving salivary function and reducing the severity of dry mouth in cancer patients. However, methodological limitations and a relatively small sample size reduced the strength of the evidence. More high-quality trials reporting sufficient methodological data are warranted to enforce the strength of evidence regarding the effectiveness of herbal medicines.

  11. Xerostomia in the Geriatric Patient: Causes, Oral Manifestations, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Ouanounou, Aviv

    2016-05-01

    Xerostomia, or dry mouth, is common among elderly people and is typically associated with decreased salivary gland function. Causes of xerostomia in the geriatric population have been attributed to the use of medications, chronic disorders, and radiation therapy to the head and neck region. Patients with chronic xerostomia may have multiple oral and dental consequences such as dental caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, ill-fitting dentures, and taste alterations. Xerostomia can seriously impact quality of life and may alter speech, eating, and swallowing. Current therapeutics for the management of xerostomia are grouped as local and systemic salivary stimulation. This article reviews the main reasons for xerostomia and the complications it causes in the oral cavity. It also discusses the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic agents used to treat this condition.

  12. The standardization of acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Xin; Tian, Guang; He, Jing

    2016-07-01

    To assess the relative standardization of acupuncture protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. A literature search was carried out up to November 10, 2012 in the databases PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE and China National Knowledge Infrastruction with the terms: radiation-induced xerostomia, acupuncture, acupuncture treatment, and acupuncture therapy. Five ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works were also reviewed with the keywords "dry mouth, thirst, dry tongue, dry eyes and dry lips" to search the effective acupuncture points for dry mouth-associated symptoms in ancient China. Twenty-two full-text articles relevant to acupuncture treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia were included and a total of 48 acupuncture points were searched in the 5 ancient Chinese classic acupuncture works, in which the most commonly used points were Chengjiang (CV24), Shuigou (GV 26), Duiduan (GV 27), Jinjin (EX-HN 12), and Yuye (EX-HN 13) on head and neck, Sanjian (LI 3), Shangyang (LI 1), Shaoshang (LU 11), Shaoze (SI 1), Xialian (LI 8) on hand, Fuliu (KI 7), Dazhong (KI 4), Zuqiaoyin (GB 44), Taichong (LR 3), Zhaohai (KI 6) on foot, Burong (ST 19), Zhangmen (LR 13), Tiantu (CV 22), Qimen (LR 14) on abdomen, Feishu (BL 13), Danshu (BL 19), Xiaochaogshu (BL 27), Ganshu (BL 18) on back, Shenmen (TF 4), Shen (CO10, Kidney), Yidan (CO11, Pancreas) and Pi (CO13, Spleen) on ear. There were considerable heterogeneities in the current acupuncture treatment protocols for radiation-induced xerostomia. Based on the results of the review and the personal perspectives, the authors provide a recommendation for manual acupuncture protocols in treating radiationinduced xerostomia patients with head and neck cancer.

  13. Relationship between xerostomia and gingival condition in young adults.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, S; Ekuni, D; Tomofuji, T; Azuma, T; Kataoka, K; Yamane, M; Iwasaki, Y; Morita, M

    2015-02-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective symptom of dryness in the mouth. Although a correlation between xerostomia and oral conditions in the elderly has been reported, there are few such studies in the young adults. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of xerostomia with the gingival condition in university students. A total of 2077 students (1202 male subjects and 875 female subjects), 18-24 years of age, were examined. The disease activity and severity of the gingival condition were assessed as the percentage of teeth with bleeding on probing (%BOP) and the presence of teeth with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm, respectively. Additional information on xerostomia, oral health behaviors, coffee/tea intake and nasal congestion was collected via a questionnaire. Path analysis was used to test pathways from xerostomia to the gingival condition. One-hundred and eighty-three (8.8%) students responded that their mouths frequently or always felt dry. Xerostomia was related to %BOP and dental plaque formation, but was not related to the presence of probing pocket depth ≥ 4 mm. In the structural model, xerostomia was related to dental plaque formation (p < 0.01), and a lower level of dental plaque formation was associated with a lower %BOP. Xerostomia was associated with coffee/tea intake (p < 0.01) and nasal congestion (p < 0.001). Xerostomia was indirectly related to gingival disease activity through the accumulation of dental plaque. Nasal congestion and coffee/tea intake also affected xerostomia. These findings suggest that xerostomia should be considered in screening for gingivitis risk in young adults. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Treatment of xerostomia and hyposalivation in the elderly: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Montoya, José-Antonio; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Barrios, Rocío

    2016-01-01

    Background Therapeutic strategies for xerostomia, regardless of etiology, have so far not had definitive or clearly effective results. Objectives. To systematically revise the latest scientific evidence available regarding the treatment of dry mouth, regardless of the cause of the problem. Material and Methods The literature search was conducted in March 2015, using the Medline and Embase databases. The “Clinical Trial”, from 2006 to March 2015, was carried out in English and only on human cases. The draft of the systematic review and assessment of the methodological quality of the trials was carried out following the criteria of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) and the “Oxford Quality Scale”. Results Finally, a total of 26 trials were identified that met the previously defined selection and quality criteria; 14 related to drug treatments for dry mouth, 10 with non-pharmacological treatment and 2 with alternative treatments. Conclusions Pilocarpine continues to be the best performing sialogogue drug for subjects with xerostomia due to radiation on head and neck cancer or diseases such as Sjogren’s Syndrome. For patients with dry mouth caused solely by medication, there are some positive indications from the use of malic acid, along with other elements that counteract the harmful effect on dental enamel. In general, lubrication of oral mucous membrane reduces the symptoms, although the effects are short-lived. Key words:Systematic review, xerostomia, clinical trial, hyposalivation. PMID:27031061

  15. Systematic literature review: xerostomia in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hanchanale, Sarika; Adkinson, Lucy; Daniel, Sunitha; Fleming, Michelle; Oxberry, Stephen G

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth (xerostomia) is one of the commonest symptoms in cancer patients and can adversely affect quality of life. The aim of this review was to determine the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in treating xerostomia in adult advanced cancer patients. The literature search was performed in February 2014 using databases including EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BNI and Cochrane library. The search was carried out using standard MeSH terms and was limited to adult population and English language. Studies investigating xerostomia secondary to head and neck cancer treatment and autoimmune disease were excluded. Titles and abstracts were screened and reviewed for eligibility. Only studies involving primary research were included in the analysis. Six studies met the eligibility criteria for review: three randomized controlled trials and three prospective studies. The quality assessment and reporting was performed using PRISMA, Jadad and STROBE. These studies compared acupuncture, pilocarpine, Saliva Orthana and chewing gum with each other or with placebo. All interventions were considered effective in treating xerostomia. However, effectiveness versus placebo could not be demonstrated for Saliva Orthana. Meta-analysis could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the study type and intervention. Limited published data exists reporting the effectiveness of measures in the treatment of xerostomia in cancer patients. Based on primary research of low quality, firm conclusions cannot be drawn. However, pilocarpine, artificial saliva, chewing gum and acupuncture can be tried based on the available data. This highlights the explicit need to improve our evidence base. Properly constructed randomized controlled trials demonstrating effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions for dry mouth are required.

  16. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Furness, Susan; Bryan, Gemma; McMillan, Roddy; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-08-30

    Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth. Common causes of xerostomia include adverse effects of many commonly prescribed medications, disease (e.g. Sjogren's Syndrome) and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers. Non-pharmacological techniques such as acupuncture or mild electrostimulation may be used to improve symptoms. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions administered to stimulate saliva production for the relief of dry mouth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 16th April 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 16th April 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 16th April 2013), AMED via OVID (1985 to 16th April 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 16th April 2013), and CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 16th April 2013). The metaRegister of Controlled Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched to identify ongoing and completed trials. References lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also searched. There were no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. We included parallel group randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions to treat dry mouth, where participants had dry mouth symptoms at baseline. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes or where different scales were used to assess an outcome, we calculated standardised mean differences (SMD) together with 95% CIs. We attempted to extract data on adverse effects of interventions. Where data were missing or unclear we attempted to contact study authors to obtain further information. There were nine studies (total 366

  17. Interventions for the management of dry mouth: non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Furness, Susan; Bryan, Gemma; McMillan, Roddy; Birchenough, Sarah; Worthington, Helen V

    2013-09-05

    Xerostomia is the subjective sensation of dry mouth. Common causes of xerostomia include adverse effects of many commonly prescribed medications, disease (e.g. Sjogren's Syndrome) and radiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancers. Non-pharmacological techniques such as acupuncture or mild electrostimulation may be used to improve symptoms. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions administered to stimulate saliva production for the relief of dry mouth. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 16th April 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE via OVID (1948 to 16th April 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 16th April 2013), AMED via OVID (1985 to 16th April 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1981 to 16th April 2013), and CANCERLIT via PubMed (1950 to 16th April 2013). The metaRegister of Controlled Clinical Trials (www.controlled-trials.com) and ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) were also searched to identify ongoing and completed trials. References lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also searched. There were no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. We included parallel group randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological interventions to treat dry mouth, where participants had dry mouth symptoms at baseline. At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assess risk of bias and extract data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous outcomes or where different scales were used to assess an outcome, we calculated standardised mean differences (SMD) together with 95% CIs. We attempted to extract data on adverse effects of interventions. Where data were missing or unclear we attempted to contact study authors to obtain further information. There were nine studies (total 366

  18. Taste function in xerostomia before and after treatment with a saliva substitute containing carboxymethylcellulose.

    PubMed

    Temmel, Andreas F P; Quint, Christian; Schickinger-Fischer, Bettina; Hummel, Thomas

    2005-04-01

    The feeling of a dry mouth may affect individual dietary habits, nutritional status, oral hygiene, speech, and gustatory sensitivity. The present study aimed to specifically investigate gustatory function before and after saliva replacement therapy. Whole-mouth gustatory function was assessed in 25 patients suffering from xerostomia (6 male, 19 female; age range 42-82 years) before and after 4 to 6 weeks of saliva replacement therapy using a preparation containing carboxymethylcellulose. The results were compared with those from healthy controls matched for age and sex (6 male, 19 female; age range 42-82 years). Using a whole-mouth test, gustatory function was assessed for sucrose, citric acid, sodium chloride, and caffeine. All subjects detected the four taste qualities at the highest concentration. However, the patients with xerostomia had lower scores in the gustatory test compared with the healthy controls (p < .001). No correlation was found between gustatory scores and the duration or severity of the disorder. Therapy had no effect on measured gustatory function (p = .33); however, saliva replacement led to a significant improvement in other xerostomia-related symptoms (p < .001). This study confirms previous work indicating that xerostomia is accompanied by decreased gustatory sensitivity. Lubricants based on carboxymethylcellulose may have a positive effect on some of the symptoms of xerostomia. However, these "simple" lubricants based on carboxymethylcellulose have little or no effect on whole-mouth gustatory function.

  19. The impact of xerostomia on oral-health-related quality of life among younger adults

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, W Murray; Lawrence, Herenia P; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Poulton, Richie

    2006-01-01

    Background Recent research has suggested that chronic dry mouth affects the day-to-day lives of older people living in institutions. The condition has usually been considered to be a feature of old age, but recent work by our team produced the somewhat surprising finding that 10% of people in their early thirties are affected. This raises the issue of whether dry mouth is a trivial condition or a more substantial threat to quality of life among younger people. The objective of this study was to examine the association between xerostomia and oral-health-related quality of life among young adults while controlling for clinical oral health status and other potential confounding factors. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data from a longstanding prospective observational study of a Dunedin (New Zealand) birth cohort: clinical dental examinations and questionnaires were used at age 32. The main measures were xerostomia (the subjective feeling of dry mouth, measured with a single question) and oral-health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Results Of the 923 participants (48.9% female), one in ten were categorised as 'xerostomic', with no apparent gender difference. There was a strong association between xerostomia and OHRQoL (across all OHIP-14 domains) which persisted after multivariate analysis to control for clinical characteristics, gender, smoking status and personality characteristics (negative emotionality and positive emotionality). Conclusion Xerostomia is not a trivial condition; it appears to have marked and consistent effects on sufferers' day-to-day lives. PMID:17090332

  20. Xerostomia and salivary hypofunction in vulnerable elders: prevalence and etiology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bing; Dion, Michael R; Jurasic, M Marianne; Gibson, Gretchen; Jones, Judith A

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this article is to review existing research on the prevalence and etiology of dry mouth in the vulnerable elders and identify knowledge gaps. Vulnerable elders (VE) are persons aged >65 years who have any or all of the following: limited mobility, limited resources, or complex health status. A systematic search was conducted of PubMed sources from 1989 to May 2010. Evidence was evaluated on the prevalence and etiology of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction (SGH) in VE. The search identified 1,422 publications. The inclusion/exclusion criteria yielded 348 articles, 80 of which are cited herein. Research has showed a high prevalence of xerostomia and SGH in VE. Common etiologies include medications, poor general health, female gender, and age. Gaps still exist in the evaluation of dry mouth in VE. Nonetheless, oral dryness will remain an important health issue as life expectancy increases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An Evidence-Based Review Literature About Risk Indicators and Management of Unknown-Origin Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2013-01-01

    This evidence-based article reviews risk indicators and management of unknown-origin xerostomia. Xerostomia and hyposalivation refer to different aspects of dry mouth. Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of dry mouth, whilst hyposalivation is defined as an objective assessment of reduced salivary flow rate. About 30% of the elderly (65 years and older) experience xerostomia and hyposalivation. Structural and functional factors, or both may lead to salivary gland dysfunction. The EBM literature search was conducted by using the medical literature database MEDLINE via PubMed and OvidMedline search engines. Results were limited to English language articles (1965 to present) including clinical trials (CT), randomized controlled trials (RCT), systematic reviews and review articles. Case control or cohort studies were included for the etiology. Neuropathic etiology such as localized oral alteration of thermal sensations, saliva composition change (for example higher levels of K, Cl, Ca, IgA, amylase, calcium, PTH and cortisol), lower levels of estrogen and progesterone, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as lichen planus, are risk indicators for unknown-origin xerostomia. The management is palliative and preventative. Management of symptoms includes drug administration (systemic secretogogues, saliva substitutes and bile secretion-stimulator), night guard, diet and habit modifications. Other managements may be indicated to treat adverse effects. Neuropathic etiology, saliva composition change, smaller salivary gland size, and illnesses such as oral lichen planus can be suggestive causes for unknown-origin xerostomia. However, longitudinal studies will be important to elucidate the causes of unknown-origin xerostomia. PMID:25512755

  2. Oral mucosal manifestations in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and dry mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Olewicz-Gawlik, Anna; Polańska, Adriana; Nowak-Gabryel, Michalina; Kocięcki, Jarosław; Witmanowski, Henryk; Sokalski, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the most important symptoms of Sjögren syndrome is xerostomia. The oral cavity deprived of saliva and its natural lubricative, protective and antibacterial properties is prone to a number of unfavourable consequences. Aim To present the most important lesions on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome and in dry mouth syndrome. Material and methods The study group comprised 55 patients including 52 women and 3 men aged 20–72 years (average: 28.25 years). Results Basing on the accepted criteria, primary Sjögren syndrome was diagnosed in 22 (40%) patients, secondary Sjögren syndrome in 18 (32.7%) patients, and dry mouth syndrome in 15 (27.27%) patients. The physical examination and the examination of the mouth were performed and history was elicited from every patient. Conclusions The most common pathologies appearing on the oral mucosa in primary and secondary Sjögren syndrome are angular cheilitis, cheilitis, increased lip dryness as well as non-specific ulcerations, aphthae and aphthoid conditions. PMID:26985175

  3. ARIX: a randomised trial of acupuncture v oral care sessions in patients with chronic xerostomia following treatment of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Simcock, R; Fallowfield, L; Monson, K; Solis-Trapala, I; Parlour, L; Langridge, C; Jenkins, V

    2013-03-01

    Radiation treatment of head and neck cancer can cause chronic xerostomia which impairs patients' quality of life. The study reported here examined the efficacy of acupuncture in alleviating xerostomia symptoms especially dry mouth. A total of 145 patients with chronic radiation-induced xerostomia >18 months after treatments were recruited from seven UK cancer centres. The study employed a randomised crossover design with participants receiving two group sessions of oral care education and eight of acupuncture using standardised methods. Patient-reported outcome (PROs) measures were completed at baseline and weeks 5, 9, 13, 17, and 21. The primary outcome was improvement in dry mouth. saliva measurements were also carried out. Acupuncture compared with oral care, produced significant reductions in patient reports of severe dry mouth (OR = 2.01, P = 0.031) sticky saliva (OR = 1.67, P = 0.048), needing to sip fluids to swallow food (OR = 2.08, P = 0.011) and in waking up at night to drink (OR = 1.71, P = 0.013). There were no significant changes in either stimulated or unstimulated saliva measurements over time. Eight sessions of weekly group acupuncture compared with group oral care education provide significantly better relief of symptoms in patients suffering from chronic radiation-induced xerostomia.

  4. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, Farzaneh; Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto's Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren's syndrome. HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions.

  5. Evaluation of Xerostomia and salivary flow rate in Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Shirzad, Nooshin; Moosavi, Mahdieh-Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is Hashimoto´s Thyroiditis (HT). Early detection of dry mouth is critical in preserving and promoting systemic and oral health. In this study we have assessed, for the first time, salivary function and xerostomia in HT patients who have not been involved with Sjögren´s syndrome. Material and Methods HT was diagnosed in 40 patients based on clinical findings and positive anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies (anti-TPO). Controls, matched by sex, age and body mass index (BMI), and with no history of thyroid disease, were selected. A questionnaire was used for diagnosis of xerostomia. Saliva samples were taken between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m., and at least 2 hours after the last intake of food or drink. The flow rate was calculated in milliliters per minute. Results Xerostomia was significantly higher in patients with HT. Unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the HT group. Stimulated salivary flow rate was lower in HT group, but the difference was not significant. Conclusions The patients with HT experienced xerostomia, and their salivary flow rate was diminished. Spitting the saliva then assessing salivary flow rate based on milliliter per minute is non-invasive, fast, and simple for chair-side diagnosis of dry mouth. Autoimmune diseases can be accompanied by salivary gland dysfunction. This may be due to the effect of cytokines in the autoimmune process or because of thyroid hormone dysfunctions. Key words:Thyroid, salivary gland, xerostomia. PMID:26595829

  6. Effects of mouthwash interventions on xerostomia and unstimulated whole saliva flow rate among hemodialysis patients: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Yu, I-Chen; Tsai, Yun-Fang; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Yeh, Mei-Ming; Fang, Jia-You; Liu, Chieh-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Dry mouth (xerostomia) is a common symptom in hemodialysis patients, which is associated with a reduced salivary flow. Xerostomia affects patients' oral health and quality of life. The aim of this study was to investigate using a mouthwash as a means to reduce xerostomia and improve saliva flow rates in hemodialysis patients. A randomized controlled trial. Three dialysis centers in Northern Taiwan served as the study sites. Patients were purposively sampled from three hemodialysis centers in Taiwan and randomly assigned to one of three groups: pure water mouthwash; n=41, licorice mouthwash; n=44, or no mouthwash (control); n=37. The Summated Xerostomia Inventory, and unstimulated whole salivary flow rate measured dry mouth and salivary flow, respectively. Data was collected at baseline, dialysis Day 5 and Day 10. One hundred twenty-two patients participated in this study. Baselines were adjusted for any imbalances in variables and generalized estimating equations analysed the data. Compared to control, a pure water mouthwash resulted in an increase in the unstimulated salivary flow rate of 25.85×10 -3 mL/min and 25.78×10 -3 mL/min (p<0.05) at Day 5 and Day 10, respectively. The estimated effect size was 1.38. However, there was no significant decrease in Summated Xerostomia Inventory scores. The licorice mouthwash also significantly improved the unstimulated salivary flow rates to 114.92×10 -3 mL/min, and 131.61×10 -3 mL/min at Day 5 and Day 10, respectively (p< 0.001). However, in contrast to the pure water mouthwash, the licorice mouthwash resulted in a significant improvement in the scores for the Summated Xerostomia Inventory (p<0.001). Although a pure water or a licorice mouthwash and improved the objective measure of salivary flow rate, only the licorice mouthwash provided subjective relief of xerostomia. This suggests the use of a licorice mouthwash may effectively relieve feelings of dry mouth in hemodialysis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  7. Effects of A Novel Disc Formulation on Dry Mouth Symptoms and Enamel Remineralization in Patients With Hyposalivation: An In Vivo Study.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jessica; Firmalino, Miracle Vania; Anbarani, Afarin Golabgir; Takesh, Thair; Epstein, Joel; Wilder-Smith, Petra

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to identify the in vivo effects in patients with hyposalivation of a novel slowly dissolving adhering test disc upon on enamel remineralization, oral biofilm, salivary production, pH and buffering, gingival health, and on self-evaluation of oral well-being. Five subjects with xerostomia wore custom made retainers carrying 5 demineralized enamel chips for periods of 1 week each. In 1 study arm, subjects used the test agent plus oral hygiene self-care; in the other they used oral hygiene self-care only, with a 1 week washout in between arms. The treatment sequence was randomized. Before and after each study arm Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI) and Sulcus Bleeding Index (mSBI) were recorded. Clinical plaque staining was quantified using digital image analysis. Saliva production, pH and buffering capacity were recorded. Subjects completed a self-evaluation questionnaire for oral comfort. Enamel samples underwent standardized Knoop microhardness testing to quantify mineralization status. Plaque presence and clinical Plaque Indices decreased significantly with test agent use (p<0.05). Five-minute saliva production almost doubled 10 and 40 minutes after oral test disc insertion (significant, p<0.05). Salivary pH buffering improved in 4/5 subjects with disc use. All demineralized tooth samples re-hardened intraorally (p>0.05). The discs favorably impacted eating problems and dental sensitivity. Subjects were positive about disc flavor and mouth feel. Using established in vivo techniques, the effects of a novel product in xerostomic patients were evaluated and quantified. The adhering disc facilitated eating, reduced dental sensitivity, improved saliva production and buffering capacity, reduced plaque, and alleviated xerostomia symptoms. Xerostomia management is challenging. A novel dry mouth disc was effective in alleviating dry mouth symptoms.

  8. Xerostomia in geriatric patients: a burgeoning global concern.

    PubMed

    Anil, Sukumaran; Vellappally, Sajith; Hashem, Mohamed; Preethanath, Reghunathan S; Patil, Shankargouda; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-02-01

    Saliva plays a key role in maintaining oral homeostasis, function, and health. The prevalence of xerostomia and its consequences are rising due to the increasing aging population, the effects of some systemic diseases, medical management, and commonly-prescribed medications that reduce saliva production. When salivary function is diminished, patients are at a greater risk of developing caries, discomfort in wearing dentures, and opportunistic diseases, such as candidiasis. The psychosocial aspects of xerostomia can range from a mild effect on self-rated oral health to frustration, embarrassment, unhappiness, or substantial disruptions in quality of life. This article reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and prevalence of dry mouth, as well as its treatment strategies. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Xerostomia and Salivary Gland Hypofunction in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus Before and After Treatment with Topical Corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Al-Janaby, Hala; El-Sakka, Haytham; Masood, Manal; Ashani W Mendis, Walimuni; M Slack-Smith, Linda; Parsons, Richard; M Frydrych, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Oral lichen planus and mouth dryness are common pathoses, yet not entirely understood. These two conditions may be associated, with a few studies investigating the relationship between mouth dryness and oral lichen planus providing conflicting results. None of the studies have explored the specific impact of disease treatment on mouth dryness. The purpose of this observational before and after comparison study was to examine the effect of treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids on mouth dryness. Nineteen subjects with oral lichen planus were evaluated for the severity of xerostomia using a xerostomia inventory and a visual analogue scale. Stimulated and unstimulated whole salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH and buffering capacity were also measured. All subjects were evaluated before and after treatment with topical corticosteroids. All subjects reported xerostomia before treatment with topical corticosteroids, with 79% reporting a significant improvement ( P = 0.03) after treatment. Topical corticosteroid treatment was not associated with statistically significant differences in stimulated or unstimulated salivary flow rates, unstimulated salivary pH or buffering capacity. The results of this study suggest that treatment of oral lichen planus with topical corticosteroids may decrease the severity of dry mouth symptoms.

  10. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dry Mouth Mouthwash, which also offer protection against tooth decay. Avoid using over-the-counter antihistamines and decongestants ... and drinks because they increase your risk of tooth decay. Brush with a fluoride toothpaste — ask your dentist ...

  11. Management of Hyposalivation and Xerostomia: Criteria for Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Joel B; Beier Jensen, Siri

    2015-09-01

    Saliva management in patients with hyposalivation is potentially complex. Future development of oral care products and treatment strategies requires attention to the biology of saliva and the best means of providing a continuum of relief for people with xerostomia--the sensation of dry mouth--and hyposalivation--documented reduction in saliva flow. Improvement in patient care requires that clinicians be aware of approaches to management, desirable qualities of methods and products, and that they seek the development of products that support the functions of saliva and promote comfort and health. In this brief review of the epidemiology of hyposalivation, the biology and functions of saliva are presented in order to guide clinical decision-making to address the needs of patients with dry mouth.

  12. Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... A sticky, dry feeling in the mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in ... avoiding drinks with caffeine, tobacco, and alcohol, and chewing sugarless gum or sucking on sugarless hard candy. ...

  13. Prevalence and impact of xerostomia on the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Thomaz, Mariana; Toda, Alexandre Issamu; Alanis, Danilo Gustavo Pulita; França, Beatriz Helena Sottile; de Lima, Antônio Adilson Soares; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of xerostomia on the quality of life (QOL) of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) from Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed on 195 PLWHA. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having "dry mouth," and Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on QOL. Time of diagnosis of HIV/AIDS was assessed. A total of 78 (40.0%) subjects presented with xerostomia. Xerostomia was associated with female gender, low amount of saliva perceived (p ≤ .01), difficulty in swallowing food (p ≤ .05), and showed to have a negative impact on QOL as measured by OHIP-14 (p ≤ .01). Xerostomia was frequent and showed to have a negative impact on the QOL of PLWHA. ©2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Impact of xerostomia on the quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Brancher, João Armando; Grégio, Ana Maria Trindade; Machado, Maria Angela Naval; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2009-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of xerostomia on the quality of life (QOL) of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1). The sample was comprised of 51 adolescents with DM1. Diabetic status was determined by glycosylated hemoglobin (HbG) and capillary glucose (CG) tests. Poor metabolic control was defined as HbG >8.0% and CG <90 mg/dL or >130 mg/dL. Measurement of salivary flow was performed by means of stimulated saliva collection. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having "dry mouth," and OHIP-14 was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on QOL. A total of 52.9% of subjects presented with xerostomia and 40.8% with hyposalivation. Significant differences between the subjects with and without xerostomia regarding metabolic control levels were not observed (P > .05). However, OHIP-14 scores were significantly different between the subjects with and without xerostomia (P < .001). Xerostomia is frequent and has a negative impact on QOL of adolescents with DM1.

  15. [Dynamic observation on the short-term change of xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjie; Zhao, Changqing

    2015-01-01

    To dynamically analyze the change of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy by DW MRI. Twenty-three nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients confirmed by pathology were enrolled. Male/Female: 19/4. The age was from 37 to 69 years. The patients were divided into two groups: G1, Dmean<26 Gy, G2, Dmean ≥ 26 Gy. All patients underwent salivary glands examination by DW MRI before IMRT, at the end of IMRT, 6 months and 12 months after IMRT, at the same time the ADC value of salivary glands were calculated. According to the RTOG/EORTC salivary gland injury grading standard and referring the subjective index, the degree of xerostomia was assessed. SPSS 13.0 and SAS 8.2 software were used to analyze the data. At the end of IMRT, the change tendency of ADC in parotid and submandibular glands value was different in patients with different degree of xerostomia (F = 11.52, P < 0.01). At the end of IMRT, a significant difference for degree of xerostomia could be found in patients within different irradiation dose groups (Z = -3.622, P < 0.01). Clinical stage, treatment mode and age had no significant effect on the degree of xerostomia for patients at the end of IMRT (Z value was -0.791, -0.949, 2.488, all P > 0.05). A significant difference of xerostomia degree in patients was found at the various follow-up time after IMRT (χ(2) = 19.59, P < 0.01). There is good correlation between the function of salivary gland and subjective rating of xerostomia in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma after radiotherapy. The degrees of salivary gland function and dry mouth in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma damage evaluate with illuminated dose increases. The function of salivary gland gradually restored and the degree of dry mouth gradually reduce with the extension of time after radiotherapy.

  16. Efficacy of a new oral lubricant solution in the management of psychotropic drug-induced xerostomia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mouly, Stéphane J; Orler, Jean-Baptiste; Tillet, Yves; Coudert, Anne-Claude; Oberli, Frantz; Preshaw, Phillip; Bergmann, Jean-François

    2007-10-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective sensation of mouth dryness often occurring as an unwanted effect of psychotropic drugs. The clinical efficacy and acceptability of a new oxygenated glycerol triester (OGT) oral spray (1 or 2 sprays up to 4 times daily) in the treatment of xerostomia was compared with those of a commercially available artificial saliva substitute (ASS [Saliveze]) in a 2-week, open-labeled, randomized, parallel-group study. Clinical assessment of xerostomia included evaluation of mouth dryness by means of a 10-cm-long visual analog scale, objective blinded assessment of the oral tissue condition by a dental hygienist by means of a 4-point ordinal scale, and subjective patient-based assessment of dry mouth symptoms by means of dichotomous responses to a questionnaire. [Day 14 - baseline] patient-based mouth dryness score was the primary end point. Seventy-four patients (41 women and 33 men, 44 +/- 15 years) undergoing long-term psychotropic drug treatment were consecutively enrolled. At day 14, OGT resulted in better efficacy than ASS in mouth dryness score (mean difference, 1.2 +/- 0.4; P = 0.006), speech difficulties (mean difference, 1.2 +/- 0.4; P = 0.005), taste (mean difference, 1.1 +/- 0.4; P = 0.02), and overall mouth condition (mean difference, 1.4 +/- 0.9; P = 0.005). Taste of OGT was better than that of ASS (mean difference, 1.4 +/- 0.6; P = 0.04), as was OGT acceptability (mean difference, 1.4 +/- 0.9; P = 0.005). Oxygenated glycerol triester lubricant oral spray was superior to a commercially available ASS in improving xerostomia and overall condition of the oral tissue.

  17. Yukmijihwang-tang for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Gajin; Park, Jae-Woo; Ko, Seok-Jae; Son, Jihee; Seon, Jongki; Kim, Juyeon; Kim, Seulki; Yeo, Inkwon; Ryu, Bongha; Kim, Jinsung

    2013-09-03

    Xerostomia, a subjective sense of dry mouth, is not generally regarded a disease despite its high prevalence among the elderly, and therefore continues to impair affected patients' quality of life. In traditional Korean medicine, 'Yin-Deficiency' has been implicated in the pathogenesis of xerostomia among the elderly. Yukmijihwang-tang is a famous herbal prescription used to relieve 'Yin-Deficiency', and reportedly has antioxidant effects; therefore, it is postulated that Yukmijihwang-tang can be used to treat xerostomia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, no clinical trial has been conducted on the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia. Thus, we designed a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effects and safety of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia in the elderly. In addition, we will clarify the aforementioned assumption that 'Yin-Deficiency' is the major cause of xerostomia in the elderly by identifying a correlation between xerostomia and 'Yin-Deficiency'. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out at two centers: Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We will recruit 96 subjects aged 60-80 years who have experienced xerostomia for 3 months prior to participation. Subjects who present with score >40 on the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and unstimulated salivary flow rate under 0.3mL/min will be included and the randomization will be carried out by an independent statistician by using a random number creation program. The subjects and all researchers except the statistician will be blinded to the group assignment. Yukmijihwang-tang or placebo will be administered to each group for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is change in the scores for the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and the dry mouth symptom questionnaire from 0 to 8 weeks. It will be assessed whether Yukmijihwang-tang can be used as a new herbal treatment for xerostomia in the elderly by

  18. Yukmijihwang-tang for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly: study protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-center trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xerostomia, a subjective sense of dry mouth, is not generally regarded a disease despite its high prevalence among the elderly, and therefore continues to impair affected patients’ quality of life. In traditional Korean medicine, ‘Yin-Deficiency’ has been implicated in the pathogenesis of xerostomia among the elderly. Yukmijihwang-tang is a famous herbal prescription used to relieve ‘Yin-Deficiency’, and reportedly has antioxidant effects; therefore, it is postulated that Yukmijihwang-tang can be used to treat xerostomia in the elderly. However, to our knowledge, no clinical trial has been conducted on the effects of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia. Thus, we designed a randomized clinical trial to investigate the effects and safety of Yukmijihwang-tang on xerostomia in the elderly. In addition, we will clarify the aforementioned assumption that ‘Yin-Deficiency’ is the major cause of xerostomia in the elderly by identifying a correlation between xerostomia and ‘Yin-Deficiency’. Methods/Design This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial will be carried out at two centers: Kyung Hee University Korean Medicine Hospital and Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong. We will recruit 96 subjects aged 60-80 years who have experienced xerostomia for 3 months prior to participation. Subjects who present with score >40 on the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and unstimulated salivary flow rate under 0.3mL/min will be included and the randomization will be carried out by an independent statistician by using a random number creation program. The subjects and all researchers except the statistician will be blinded to the group assignment. Yukmijihwang-tang or placebo will be administered to each group for 8 weeks. The primary outcome is change in the scores for the visual analogue scale for xerostomia and the dry mouth symptom questionnaire from 0 to 8 weeks. Discussion It will be assessed whether Yukmijihwang-tang can be used as a

  19. A risk prediction model for xerostomia: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alessandro; Nordio, Francesco; Gohel, Anita

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the prevalence of xerostomia in dental patients and built a xerostomia risk prediction model by incorporating a wide range of risk factors. Socio-demographic data, past medical history, self-reported dry mouth and related symptoms were collected retrospectively from January 2010 to September 2013 for all new dental patients. A logistic regression framework was used to build a risk prediction model for xerostomia. External validation was performed using an independent data set to test the prediction power. A total of 12 682 patients were included in this analysis (54.3%, females). Xerostomia was reported by 12.2% of patients. The proportion of people reporting xerostomia was higher among those who were taking more medications (OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.08-1.13) or recreational drug users (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9). Rheumatic diseases (OR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.88-2.51), psychiatric diseases (OR = 2.34, 95% CI = 2.05-2.68), eating disorders (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.55-3.36) and radiotherapy (OR = 2.00, 95% CI = 1.43-2.80) were good predictors of xerostomia. For the test model performance, the ROC-AUC was 0.816 and in the external validation sample, the ROC-AUC was 0.799. The xerostomia risk prediction model had high accuracy and discriminated between high- and low-risk individuals. Clinicians could use this model to identify the classes of medications and systemic diseases associated with xerostomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Relationship between xerostomia and psychotropic drugs in patients with schizophrenia: evaluation using an oral moisture meter.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, A; Miyachi, H; Tanaka, K; Chikazu, D; Miyaoka, H

    2016-12-01

    Patients with schizophrenia are most commonly treated with antipsychotic medications, often with the addition of anxiolytics. This study used an oral moisture meter to evaluate xerostomia in patients with schizophrenia taking typical and atypical antipsychotics, anxiolytics and non-psychotropic medications. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia according to ICD-10 criteria in the Department of Psychiatry, Kitasato University East, and affiliated hospitals were studied. All patients were on psychotropic medications. Patients with diseases associated with xerostomia, such as Sjögren's syndrome I, were excluded. A total of 127 patients were enrolled. Mean oral moisture was 27·81 ± 2·27% (normal, ≥30·0%). A significant association was observed between objective oral moisture and the subjective sense of dry mouth. Multivariate analysis revealed a negative correlation between the number of antipsychotics and, especially, anxiolytics, and the degree of oral moisture. Drug dosages themselves were not significantly correlated with dry mouth. These findings suggest that objective oral moisture measurements show decreased moisture in patients on these medications and that the degree of moisture shows a greater negative correlation with the number, as opposed to the dosages, of psychotropic drugs administered. When patients with schizophrenia visit a dental clinic, it is important for the dentist to accurately assess the degree of oral moisture and to determine the medications being taken. Based on these findings of the association of polypharmacy with xerostomia, dentists are encouraged to inform the psychiatrist of the need to actively manage patients' xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Salivary hypofunction and xerostomia: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Jane C; Grisius, Margaret; Massey, Ward

    2005-04-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction and complaints of xerostomia are common in elderly patients, irrespective of their living situation. Medication use is frequently related to dry mouth symptoms and reductions in salivary flow rates. Patients with reduced salivary flow are at increased risk for caries, oral fungal infections, swallowing problems, and diminished or altered taste. Oral health care providers should institute aggressive preventive measures and recommend palliative care for patients with significant reduction in salivary gland function. The systemic agents pilocarpine and cevimeline may help selected patients. Selective use of fluoride-releasing restorative materials and conservative treatment plans are recommended for this patient group.

  2. Evaluation of the efficacy of two mouthrinses formulated for the relief of xerostomia of diverse origin in adult subjects.

    PubMed

    Morales-Bozo, Irene; Rojas, Gonzalo; Ortega-Pinto, Ana; Espinoza, Iris; Soto, Lilian; Plaza, Anita; Lozano, Carla; Urzúa, Blanca

    2012-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of two new mouthrinses in the reduction of xerostomía-associated symptomatology. Xerostomia is a common chronic health condition that affects a great number of adults and significantly deteriorates quality of life, such that treatment is necessary. Sixty-seven adult subjects of both sexes presenting xerostomia of diverse origin were selected. Mouthrinses were tested using a double-blind, randomized, cross-over clinical trial with an intervining wash out period. The 100% of subjects presented sensation of dry mouth, and 86% stated sensation of thick saliva. Burning tongue sensation, need to drink liquids to swallow and the sensation of swallowing difficulty were recorded in more than 50% of the patients. The most frequent pathologies in the sample were depression, arthritis, and arterial hypertension. Results of the clinical tests showed that mouthrinse 1 relieves sensation of dry mouth, need to drink liquids, and swallowing difficulty. In contrast, mouthrinse 2 relieves only latter two symptoms. Both rinses were more effective in relieving xerostomía-associated symptomatology in patients taking 3 or more medicines simultaneously. Both mouthrinses were effective in relieving various xerostomia symptoms, could be distributed at a low cost, thereby improving the quality of life of population affected. © 2012 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Self-reported prevalence and severity of xerostomia and its related conditions in individuals attending hospital for general health examinations.

    PubMed

    Lee, E; Lee, Y-H; Kim, W; Kho, H-S

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, severity, and relationships between xerostomia and its related symptoms in individuals who attended hospital for general health examinations. Participants included 883 men and 618 women aged between 30 and 60 years. History of symptoms during the previous 6 months, current symptoms, and severity of current symptoms were evaluated using a questionnaire that included questions about xerostomia, burning mouth, taste disturbance, and oral malodor. The prevalence of xerostomia and its related symptoms was 60.2%; the prevalence of oral malodor was 52.3%, xerostomia 33.0%, burning mouth 13.6%, and taste disturbance 12.5%. Men in their 30s and women in their 60s showed significantly higher prevalence and greater severity of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance compared with their counterparts. The prevalence of xerostomia, burning mouth, and taste disturbance, and the severity of xerostomia increased significantly with age in women. The prevalence and severity of these four symptoms were significantly related and the association was the highest between burning mouth and taste disturbance. In conclusion, xerostomia and its related symptoms were highly prevalent at all ages. The prevalence and severity of these symptoms were closely related. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship of hyposalivation and xerostomia in Mexican elderly with socioeconomic, sociodemographic and dental factors

    PubMed Central

    Islas-Granillo, Horacio; Borges-Yáñez, Aida; Fernández-Barrera, Miguel Ángel; Ávila-Burgos, Leticia; Patiño-Marín, Nuria; Márquez-Corona, María de Lourdes; Mendoza-Rodríguez, Martha; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    We determined the prevalence of hyposalivation and xerostomia in older Mexicans (≥60 years), and its relationship with diverse factors. A cross-sectional study was realized in elderly subjects from Pachuca, Mexico. Chewing-stimulated saliva was collected under standardized conditions and salivary flow was measured; subjects were considered to have hyposalivation if their stimulated salivary flow was less than 0.7 mL per minute. Xerostomia was evaluated by asking subjects ‘Does your mouth feel dry?’. Hyposalivation was present in 59.7%, and xerostomia in 25.2% of subjects. 16.5% of subjects had both conditions. Xerostomia was present in 27.7% of subjects with hyposalivation and 21.4% of subjects without hyposalivation, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). Thus, 68.3% of older Mexicans had xerostomia and/or hyposalivation. Factors associated with hyposalivation were: using fewer devices in oral hygiene, lacking social benefits for retirement/pension, living in a public retirement home, brushing teeth less than twice a day and lacking teeth without dentures. None of the factors included in this study were associated with xerostomia. We concluded that several variables studied were associated with hyposalivation, but none for xerostomia. Additional research should examine the amount of hyposalivation and factors associated with hyposalivation especially in elderly with increased risk for hyposalivation. PMID:28094800

  5. The management of xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis: comparison of artificial saliva and chewing gum.

    PubMed

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bezemer, Pieter D; ter Wee, Piet M

    2005-04-01

    Many patients on haemodialysis (HD) therapy suffer from a dry mouth and xerostomia. This can be relieved by mechanical and gustatory stimulation or palliative care. The aim of this crossover study was to investigate the effect and preferences of a sugar-free chewing gum (Freedent White) and a xanthan gum-based artificial saliva (Xialine) in the management of xerostomia in chronic HD patients. Sixty-five HD patients participated in a 6-week crossover trial. The artificial saliva was rated significantly lower than the chewing gum for effectiveness, taste and a global assessment. No preference differences were found for gender and age, although older subjects rated the artificial saliva with a higher mark. Thirty-nine subjects (60%) preferred chewing gum, 15% (n=10) preferred the artificial saliva. Therefore, both chewing gum and artificial saliva could play an important role in the palliative care of xerostomia in HD patients.

  6. Diagnostic performance of labial minor salivary gland flow measurement for assessment of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Iikubo, Masahiro; Shoji, Noriaki; Sakamoto, Maya; Sasano, Takashi

    2012-08-01

    Minor salivary gland flow rate (MF) has been proposed as a key feature of xerostomia (subjective feeling of dry mouth). To assess its diagnostic performance, MF was compared in xerostomia and control subjects. Sixty-six subjects with xerostomia and 30 controls were enrolled. MF was measured in the lower labial mucosa using the iodine-starch filter paper method. Stimulated whole salivary flow rates were also measured using the gum test (stimulated-WF). Both labial-MF and stimulated-WF were significantly lower in xerostomia subjects than in controls. There was a positive correlation between labial-MF and stimulated-WF in control but not xerostomia subjects. In xerostomia subjects compared to controls, there was a significantly larger reduction in labial-MF than in stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most accurately diagnosed using a labial-MF cutoff value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy at this cutoff value were 1.00, 0.87, 0.93, 1.00, and 0.96, respectively. Compared to respective values of 0.64, 1.00, 1.00, 0.56, and 0.75 for stimulated-WF at the traditional cutoff of 1.0 mL/min, these data indicate the higher sensitivity, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of labial-MF. Xerostomia was more strongly related to reduction of labial-MF than to that of stimulated-WF. Xerostomia was most likely triggered at a labial-MF cut-off value of 0.25 μL/cm(2)/min based on results from the iodine-starch method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

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  8. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

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  9. Evaluation of effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare; Babu, G Subhas; Rao, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common sequel in patients undergoing irradiation of malignant tumors of the head and neck. Palliative treatments of xerostomia like topical agents such as ice-chips, saliva substitutes, systemic sialogogues like pilocarpine and cevimeline work well for some patients. Electrostimulation was studied in the past and showed moderate promise but never became part of the mainstream therapy for better management of xerostomia patients. The aim of the following study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) unit in stimulating the whole salivary flow rate in radiation induced xerostomia patients. A total of 40 subjects were included in the study. The study group consisted of 30 individuals and was divided into Group S1 (n = 20), which was further subdivided into Group S1A (n = 10) subjects complaining of dry mouth who were undergoing head and neck radiotherapy with TENS stimulation during the commencement of radiotherapy, on the 3 rd , 6 th week and after a month of completion of radiotherapy and Group S1B (n = 10) with TENS stimulation daily during the full course of radiotherapy and Group S2 (n = 10) subjects complaining of dry mouth who had undergone head and neck radiotherapy that ended 1 month prior to their entry into the study. The control group (n = 10) consisted of healthy individuals not complaining of dry mouth and who have not undergone head and neck radiotherapy. Whole saliva was collected without stimulation for 10 min and after electrostimulation with TENS unit for additional 10 min in a graduated test tube. The results were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney U-test and Kruskal-Wallis's test. The data analysis revealed that control and S1B group showed increased salivary flow rate after stimulation by TENS therapy compared with the unstimulated salivary flow, whereas in S1A and S2 group it was found to be statistically non-significant. The present study gave us an insight about the

  10. Cost-effectiveness landscape analysis of treatments addressing xerostomia in patients receiving head and neck radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sasportas, Laura S.; Hosford, Andrew T.; Sodini, Maria A.; Waters, Dale J.; Zambricki, Elizabeth A.; Barral, Joëlle K.; Graves, Edward E.; Brinton, Todd J.; Yock, Paul G.; Le, Quynh-Thu; Sirjani, Davud

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck (H&N) radiation therapy (RT) can induce irreversible damage to the salivary glands thereby causing long-term xerostomia or dry mouth in 68%–85% of the patients. Not only does xerostomia significantly impair patients’ quality-of-life (QOL) but it also has important medical sequelae, incurring high medical and dental costs. In this article, we review various measures to assess xerostomia and evaluate current and emerging solutions to address this condition in H&N cancer patients. These solutions typically seek to accomplish 1 of the 4 objectives: (1) to protect the salivary glands during RT, (2) to stimulate the remaining gland function, (3) to treat the symptoms of xerostomia, or (4) to regenerate the salivary glands. For each treatment, we assess its mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, clinical utilization, and cost. We conclude that intensity-modulated radiation therapy is both the most widely used prevention approach and the most cost-effective existing solution and we highlight novel and promising techniques on the cost-effectiveness landscape. PMID:23643579

  11. Meta-analysis: Risk of dry mouth with second generation antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Cappetta, Kiley; Beyer, Chad; Johnson, Jessica A; Bloch, Michael H

    2018-06-08

    The goal of this meta-analysis was to quantify the risk of dry mouth associated with commonly prescribed antidepressant agents and examine the potential implications of medication class, dose, and pharmacodynamics and dose on risk of treatment-induced dry mouth. A PubMed search was conducted to identify double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of second generation antidepressant medications for adults with depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and OCD. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to quantify the pooled risk ratio of treatment-emergent dry mouth with second generation antidepressants compared to placebo. Stratified subgroup analysis and meta-regression was utilized to further examine the effects antidepressant agent, class, dosage, indication, and receptor affinity profile on the measured risk of dry mouth. 99 trials involving 20,868 adults. SNRIs (Relative Risk (RR)=2.24, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.95-2.58, z=11.2, p<0.001) were associated with a significantly greater risk of dry mouth (test for subgroup differences χ 2 =7.6, df=1; p=0.006) compared to placebo than SSRIs (RR=1.65, 95% CI: 1.39-1.95, z=5.8, p<0.001). There was a significant difference found in the risk of dry mouth between diagnostic indications within the SNRI class (test for subgroup differences χ 2 =9.63, df=1; p=0.002). Anxiety diagnoses (RR=2.78, 95% CI: 2.29-3.38, z=10.32, p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of dry mouth compared to depression (RR=1.80, 95% CI: 1.48-2.18, z=5.85, p<0.001). Decreased affinity for Alpha-1 (PE=0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.28, z=3.26, p=0.001) and Alpha-2 (PE=0.49, 95% CI: 0.22-0.75, z=3.64, p<0.001) receptors and SERT (PE=0.07, 95% CI: 0.01-0.14, z=2.10, p<0.05) was significantly associated with increased risk of dry mouth. The current meta-analysis suggests that SSRIs, SNRIs, and atypical antidepressants are all associated with varying degrees of increased risk of dry mouth. SNRIs were

  12. Influence of oral moisturizing jelly as a saliva substitute for the relief of xerostomia in elderly patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Dalodom, Supranee; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Jeanmaneechotechai, Sutha; Takamfoo, Lalana; Intachai, Watanyoo; Duangchada, Kochaporn; Hongsachum, Buakhao; Kanjanatiwat, Panitnart; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Trachootham, Dunyaporn

    2016-01-01

    Dry mouth is common in elderly patients. However, the use of saliva substitute has been limited due to its inedibility. This study investigated the efficacy of oral moisturizing jelly (OMJ), a novel edible saliva substitute. A pre-post design was conducted in 118 elderly patients diagnosed with hypertension and/or diabetes mellitus. After using OMJ, signs and symptoms of dry mouth were compared with baseline data. The properties of saliva were compared between the OMJ use and non-use periods. The use of OMJ for 2 weeks significantly reduced symptoms of dry mouth, while the use for 1 month reduced the signs of xerostomia, prevented the decline of salivary pH(s) and improved buffering capacities. OMJ was equally effective in patients taking 1 to 2 and 3 to 7 medications. Furthermore, 65% of patients preferred OMJ over a commercial product. OMJ could be new edible saliva substitute for elderly patients suffering from dry mouth. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02317172. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A longitudinal study of medication exposure and xerostomia among older people.

    PubMed

    Murray Thomson, W; Chalmers, Jane M; John Spencer, A; Slade, Gary D; Carter, Knute D

    2006-12-01

    To describe the incidence of xerostomia among a population of older people over a 6-year period, with particular attention to medications as risk factors. Understanding the natural history of xerostomia requires longitudinal epidemiological research, but only one study has examined changes in xerostomia over time. While medication is a recognised risk factor for dry mouth, the role of particular medication categories continues to be controversial. Older South Australians (aged 60+) underwent an interview and dental examination at baseline, and these assessments were repeated 2, 5 and 11 years afterward. Medication data were collected at baseline, 5 and 11 years. Xerostomia data were collected at 5 and 11 years using the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and a standard question. Of the 1205 dentate participants assessed at baseline, 669 remained after 5 years, and 246 were assessed at 11 years. Medication prevalence increased over the observation period, such that 94.8% of the cohort were taking at least one medication by 11 years. The prevalence of xerostomia increased from 21.4% to 24.8% between 5 and 11 years (p > 0.05), and the mean XI score increased from 20.0 (SD, 6.7) to 21.5 (SD, 7.9; p < 0.001). Some 14.7% of participants were incident cases of xerostomia, while 11.4% were remitted cases; 10.1% were cases at both 5 and 11 years. After controlling for gender and 'baseline' xerostomia severity (represented by the XI score at 5 years), participants who commenced taking daily aspirin after 5 years had over four times the odds of becoming incident cases, while those who commenced taking a diuretic after 5 years had nearly six times the odds of doing so. While the overall prevalence of xerostomia increased during the observation period, there was considerable instability, with one-quarter of the cohort changing their status. Medication exposure was strongly associated with the incidence of the condition, with recent exposure to diuretics or daily aspirin strongly

  14. Chewing gum and a saliva substitute alleviate thirst and xerostomia in patients on haemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bots, Casper P; Brand, Henk S; Veerman, Enno C I; Korevaar, Johanna C; Valentijn-Benz, Marianne; Bezemer, Pieter D; Valentijn, Robert M; Vos, Pieter F; Bijlsma, Joost A; ter Wee, Piet M; Van Amerongen, Barbara M; Nieuw Amerongen, Arie V

    2005-03-01

    Most patients on haemodialysis (HD) have to maintain a fluid-restricted diet to prevent a high interdialytic weight gain (IWG). The prevalence of xerostomia (the feeling of a dry mouth) is higher in HD patients than in controls. Recently, we demonstrated that xerostomia and thirst were positively correlated with IWG in HD patients. Thus, this may play a role as a stimulus for fluid intake between dialysis sessions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of chewing gum or a saliva substitute on xerostomia, thirst and IWG. This study was a randomized two-treatment crossover design with repeated measures. After the use of chewing gum or saliva substitute for 2 weeks, a wash-out period of 2 weeks was introduced and hereafter the other regimen was carried out. Xerostomia and thirst were assessed by validated questionnaires as xerostomia inventory (XI) and dialysis thirst inventory (DTI), at baseline and after each treatment period, as were IWG and salivary flow rates. Sixty-five HD patients (42 men, 54.6+/-14.1 years; 23 women, 54.7+/-16.3 years) participated in this study. Chewing gum decreased XI from 29.9+/-9.5 to 28.1+/-9.1 (P<0.05). Chewing gum as well as a saliva substitute reduced DTI significantly (P<0.05), but no differences occurred for the average IWG or salivary flow rates. The use of chewing gum and, to a lesser extent, a saliva substitute may alleviate thirst and xerostomia in some HD patients.

  15. Omeprazole and dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Teare, J P; Spedding, C; Whitehead, M W; Greenfield, S M; Challacombe, S J; Thompson, R P

    1995-03-01

    Omeprazole causes irreversible inhibition of the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme, leading to a marked reduction in both acid secretion and volume of gastric juice. Reported side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, and headache. We report the development of dry mouth during omeprazole therapy. We have identified six patients taking omeprazole for more than 6 weeks who complained of a dry mouth. Salivary production was measured as whole salivary flow produced over a 10-min period spat into a collecting vessel and as 5% citric acid-stimulated parotid salivary flow collected with a Lashley cup device placed over the parotid duct. Flow rates were evaluated both during and after cessation of treatment. Saliva produced was then cultured for microbes. Four of the six had subnormal parotid or whole salivary flow rates on treatment that recovered after stopping treatment. The increase after treatment was marked in four. Significant amounts of Candida albicans grew from the saliva of the three patients with the lowest salivary flows; one saliva also grew Staphylococcus aureus. Salivary flow is reduced in some patients treated with omeprazole, returning to normal after cessation of treatment. This reduction may predispose to opportunistic infection, particularly in the edentulous.

  16. Limited mouth opening after primary therapy of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Weber, Clemens; Dommerich, Steffen; Pau, Hans Wilhelm; Kramp, Burkhard

    2010-09-01

    Patients after surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for treatment of head and neck cancer often suffer from oral complications. These problems may be caused by surgery and radiation. Patients complain, for example, of swallowing problems and limited mouth opening (trismus). The maximal interincisal mouth opening (MIO) was measured in patients treated with surgery and radiation/chemoradiation for head and neck cancer at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology at the University of Rostock. These patients also completed a 20-item questionnaire concerning nutritional, sensual, and speech disorders and pain. One hundred one patients (16 female and 85 male) returned the questionnaire and were included in the study. About 50% of the patients had a limited mouth opening (<36 mm); patients with oropharyngeal cancer had a significant higher risk for trismus (p = .024) than patients with other head and neck cancers, especially compared to patients with laryngeal cancer (p = .013). The questionnaire showed that especially patients with oral cancer report about problems with opening the mouth (73%), eating (65%), drinking (73%), xerostomia (92%), speech disorders (68%), and voice (62%). Patients with laryngeal cancer only reported about problems with xerostomia (62%), speech (83%), and voice (90%), similar to patients with pharyngeal cancer. About half of the patients who underwent primary treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancer developed trismus and reported about problems with opening the mouth, eating, drinking, dry mouth, voice, and speech. Trismus has a negative impact on quality of life and should be a focus in the postoperative management of patients with oral and oropharyngeal cancer, and, if diagnosed, special treatment should be initialized.

  17. Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Special Issues Subscribe March 2012 Print this issue Dry Eyes and Mouth? You May Have Sjögren’s Syndrome Send us your comments If your eyes and mouth feel as dry as a desert, there are many possible causes, ...

  18. Dry Mouth or Xerostomia

    MedlinePlus

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  19. The effect of toothpicks containing flavoring and flavoring plus jambu extract (spilanthol) to promote salivation in patients -diagnosed with opioid-induced dry mouth (xerostomia).

    PubMed

    Davis, Bennet; Davis, Kathy; Bigelow, Sandy; Healey, Patricia

    To determine if the use of toothpicks infused with flavoring and flavoring plus the food additive spilanthol (Xerosticks™) improve saliva flow in people with opioid-induced dry mouth. Time series, nonrandomized, double-blind within-subject design. Private practice/academic multidisciplinary pain and palliative care clinic. Ten subjects with opioid-induced dry mouth were recruited, and all finished the study. Salivary flow and pH were measured consecutively at baseline, following use of a mango-flavored toothpick, and again after use of a mango-flavored toothpick infused with spilanthol. Salivary flow rates and saliva pH were compared between flavored and baseline, between flavored + spilanthol and baseline, and between the flavored and flavored + spilanthol. Mouthfeel of each toothpick was assessed using the Bluestone Mouthfeel Questionnaire. The primary measure was salivary flow, and the secondary measures were salivary pH and mouthfeel. Saliva flow increased 440 percent over baseline with use of a flavored toothpick and 628 percent over baseline with similarly flavored toothpicks infused with spilanthol, and these differences are significant (p = 0.00002). Saliva pH increased with both toothpicks (p = 0.04). The addition of spilanthol produced a greater increase in salivary flow (p = 0.05) compared to control toothpicks with flavoring alone. Furthermore, addition of spilanthol improved the "mouthfeel" of the toothpick (p = 0.00001). Toothpicks infused with either flavoring or flavoring plus spilanthol are likely to be an effective remedy for opioid-induced dry mouth. Addition of spilanthol may improve effectiveness over flavoring alone and may be better ac-cepted because spilanthol appears to improve mouthfeel.

  20. Prevalence of Drug-Induced Xerostomia in Older Adults with Cognitive Impairment or Dementia: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Gil-Montoya, José Antonio; Barrios, Rocío; Sánchez-Lara, Inés; Carnero-Pardo, Cristobal; Fornieles-Rubio, Francisco; Montes, Juan; Gonzalez-Moles, Miguel Angel; Bravo, Manuel

    2016-08-01

    Older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment or dementia, frequently consume drugs with potential xerostomic effects that impair their quality of life and oral health. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and analyze the possible pharmacological etiology of xerostomia in older people with or without cognitive impairment. Individuals with cognitive impairment were recruited from patients diagnosed using standardized criteria in two neurology departments in Southern Spain. A comparison group was recruited from healthcare centers in the same city after ruling out cognitive impairment. Data on oral health, xerostomia, and drug consumption were recorded in both groups. Dry mouth was evaluated using a 1-item questionnaire and recording clinical signs of oral dryness. All drugs consumed by the participants were recorded, including memantine, anticholinesterases, antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics. The final sample comprised 200 individuals with mild cognitive impairment or dementia and 156 without. Xerostomia was present in 70.5 % of participants with cognitive impairment versus 36.5 % of those without, regardless of the drug consumed. Memantine consumption was the only variable significantly related to xerostomia in the multivariate model (OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.1-8.7), and this relationship persisted after adjusting for possible confounders and forcing the inclusion of drugs with xerostomic potential. More than 70 % of participants diagnosed with cognitive impairment or dementia had xerostomia. Anticholinesterases and memantine were both associated with the presence of xerostomia. In the case of memantine, this association was independent of the consumption of the other drugs considered.

  1. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of cevimeline in Sjögren's syndrome patients with xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca.

    PubMed

    Petrone, Dianne; Condemi, John J; Fife, Rose; Gluck, Oscar; Cohen, Stanley; Dalgin, Paul

    2002-03-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of 2 dosages of cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca in patients with Sjögren's syndrome. A 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was performed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either placebo, 15 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily, or 30 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily. Patients were evaluated at baseline and throughout the study for their global assessment of dryness (mouth, eyes, overall) as well as their subjective assessment of the specific symptoms of dry mouth and dry eyes. Total saliva and tear flow also were measured. Patients taking 30 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily had statistically significant improvements in their subjective global assessment of dry eyes (P = 0.0453), dry mouth (P = 0.0004), and increased salivary flow (P = 0.007). Patients receiving the 30-mg dosage also showed greater objective improvement (increased salivary and lacrimal flow rates, as measured by Schirmer's test) than did patients receiving placebo. Frequently reported adverse events included headache, increased sweating, abdominal pain, and nausea. Treatment with cevimeline at a dosage of 30 mg 3 times daily resulted in substantive improvement by increasing the rate of saliva and tear flow in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, as well as improving subjective symptoms of dry mouth, dry eyes, and overall dryness. The 15-mg dosage relieved some symptoms, and both dosages were well tolerated.

  2. Impact of clinical status and salivary conditions on xerostomia and oral health-related quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Busato, Ivana Maria Saes; Ignácio, Sérgio Aparecido; Brancher, João Armando; Moysés, Simone Tetu; Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the influence of clinical status and salivary conditions on the presence of xerostomia on adolescents with and without type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM1), and further to investigate the influence of clinical status, salivary conditions and xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL) of those with DM1. A cross-sectional study was performed on 102 adolescents, 51 with DM1 and 51 nondiabetics. Xerostomia was detected by asking a question about the sensation of having 'dry mouth', and Oral Health Impact Profile-14 was used to measure the impact of xerostomia on OHQoL. The clinical status was assessed by using decayed, missing or filled and Community Periodontal indices, and by evaluating oral manifestations; and the following salivary conditions were evaluated: stimulated salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity, total protein, amylase, urea, calcium, and glucose salivary concentrations. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of clinical status and salivary conditions on xerostomia and the impact of xerostomia on the OHQoL of adolescents with DM1. Clinical status and salivary conditions was shown to have no influence on the presence of xerostomia. Bivariate (P = 0.00) and logistic regression (P = 0.01) analysis showed a significant association between DM1 and xerostomia. Logistic regression analysis showed association between xerostomia (P = 0.00) and OHQoL, and caries experience (P = 0.03) and OHQoL. DM1 showed to be predictive of a high prevalence of xerostomia in adolescents. Caries experience and xerostomia showed to have a negative impact on the OHQoL of adolescents with DM1. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of a traditional herbal formula, Yukmijihwang-tang in elderly subjects with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Han, Gajin; Ko, Seok-Jae; Kim, Juyeon; Oh, Ja-Young; Park, Jae-Woo; Kim, Jinsung

    2016-04-22

    Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ) is a typical herbal formula to treat Yin-deficiency (YD) syndrome by enriching the fluid-humor of the body. YMJ has been used to treat dry mouth symptoms for hundreds of years in traditional East Asian medicine. Xerostomia, a subjective oral dryness, is common in the elderly and results in impaired quality of life. Many conventional treatments for xerostomia provide only temporary symptom relief, and have side effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy and safety of YMJ for the treatment of xerostomia in the elderly. This study was designed as a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, two center trial. Ninety-six subjects aged 60-80 years who had experienced xerostomia for at least 3 months and presented with score>40 on the visual analog scale (VAS) for subjective oral dryness were recruited and randomly allocated to YMJ and placebo groups. YMJ or placebo was administered to each group for 8 weeks (3g of YMJ or placebo, three times per day). The primary outcome was change of VAS for xerostomia from 0 to 8 weeks. VAS for xerostomia was decreased by 22.04±22.76 in the YMJ group and 23.58±23.04 in the placebo group. YMJ had no effect on xerostomia. However, participants with BMIs lower than 29.37kg/m(2) showed improvement of xerostomia after 8 weeks of treatment with YMJ compared to placebo. In addition, YMJ improved oral moisture, which is associated with subjective oral dryness in the YMJ group, and the relationship between VAS for xerostomia and YD was significant. A trend was observed in which YMJ improved oral moisture status and subjective oral dryness in elderly subjects with lower BMI and greater tendency toward YD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in older people.

    PubMed

    Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Einarson, Susanne; Jonsson, Margareta; Aronsson, Kerstin; Johansson, Ingegerd

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of dry mouth conditions on oral health-related quality of life in frail old people, residents at community care centers. Further, reliability and validity of a visual analogue scale (VAS) for dry mouth symptoms were determined within the study cohort. In old people functional, social and psychological impacts of oral conditions are associated with an overall sense of well being and general health. Subjective dry mouth and reduced saliva flow are common disorders in old people caused by disease and medication. Thus, dry mouth conditions may be determinants for compromised oral health-related quality of life in old people. In total, 50 old people living at service homes for the old people were asked to answer questionnaires on subjective dry mouth (VAS) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP14) for oral health-related quality of life. Saliva flow was estimated by absorbing saliva into a pre-weighed cotton roll. The final study cohort comprised 41 old people (aged 83-91 years). Significant associations were identified between both objective and subjective dry mouth and overall or specific aspects of oral health-related quality of life. Dry mouth (objective and subjective) is significantly associated with oral health-related quality of life strengthening the value of monitoring dry mouth conditions in the care of frail old people.

  5. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    May, A.J.; Chatzeli, L.; Proctor, G.B.; Tucker, A.S.

    2017-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia. PMID:26321752

  6. Salivary Gland Dysplasia in Fgf10 Heterozygous Mice: A New Mouse Model of Xerostomia.

    PubMed

    May, A J; Chatzeli, L; Proctor, G B; Tucker, A S

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia, or chronic dry mouth, is a common syndrome caused by a lack of saliva that can lead to severe eating difficulties, dental caries and oral candida infections. The prevalence of xerostomia increases with age and affects approximately 30% of people aged 65 or older. Given the large numbers of sufferers, and the potential increase in incidence given our aging population, it is important to understand the complex mechanisms that drive hyposalivation and the consequences for the dentition and oral mucosa. From this study we propose the Fgf10 +/- mouse as a model to investigate xerostomia. By following embryonic salivary gland development, in vivo and in vitro, we show that a reduction in Fgf10 causes a delay in branching of salivary glands. This leads to hypoplasia of the glands, a phenotype that is not rescued postnatally or by adulthood in both male and female Fgf10 +/- mice. Histological analysis of the glands showed no obvious defect in cellular differentiation or acini/ductal arrangements, however there was a significant reduction in their size and weight. Analysis of saliva secretion showed that hypoplasia of the glands led to a significant reduction in saliva production in Fgf10 +/- adults, giving rise to a reduced saliva pellicle in the oral cavity of these mice. Mature mice were shown to drink more and in many cases had severe tooth wear. The Fgf10 +/- mouse is therefore a useful model to explore the causes and effects of xerostomia.

  7. Parotid gland shrinkage during IMRT predicts the time to Xerostomia resolution.

    PubMed

    Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Ricchetti, Francesco; Wu, Binbin; McNutt, Todd; Fiorino, Claudio

    2015-01-17

    To assess the impact of mid-treatment parotid gland shrinkage on long term xerostomia during IMRT for oropharyngeal SCC. All patients treated with IMRT at a single Institution from November 2007 to June 2010 and undergoing weekly CT scans were selected. Parotid glands were contoured retrospectively on the mid treatment CT scan. For each parotid gland, the percent change relative to the planning volume was calculated and combined as weighted average. Patients were considered to be xerostomic if developed GR2+ dry mouth according to CTCAE v3.0. Predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution or downgrade to 1 were investigated at both uni- and multivariate analysis. 85 patients were selected. With a median follow up of 35.8 months (range: 2.4-62.6 months), the actuarial rate of xerostomia is 26.2% (SD: 5.3%) and 15.9% (SD: 5.3%) at 2 and 3 yrs, respectively. At multivariate analysis, mid-treatment shrink along with weighted average mean parotid dose at planning and body mass index are independent predictors of the time to xerostomia resolution. Patients were pooled in 4 groups based on median values of both mid-treatment shrink (cut-off: 19.6%) and mean WA parotid pl-D (cut-off: 35.7 Gy). Patients with a higher than median parotid dose at planning and who showed poor shrinkage at mid treatment are the ones with the outcome significantly worse (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 50%) than the other three subgroups (3-yr rate of xerostomia ≈ 10%). For a given planned dose, patients whose parotids significantly shrink during IMRT are less likely to be long-term supplemental fluids dependent.

  8. Natural products for the management of xerostomia: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Navarro Morante, Anabel; Wolff, Andy; Bautista Mendoza, Gloria Rocio; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil in spray form used to treat patients with drug-induced xerostomia, comparing this with a placebo spray. This double-blind, randomized clinical trial included elderly subjects with drug-induced xerostomia (n = 60). Resting salivary flow was measured using the draining technique. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was used to assess symptoms and the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) to assess patient quality of life. Evaluations were made before and after 12 weeks of product/placebo application. Sixty patients took part in the study. Symptoms improved among the treatment group (n = 30) after 12 weeks in the following XI domains: 'Rate the difficulty you experience in speaking because of dryness' (P = 0.03); 'Rate how much saliva is in your mouth' (P = 0.03); and 'Rate the dryness of your lips' (P = 0.04). The placebo group (n = 30) underwent improvements in: 'Rate how much saliva is in your mouth' (P = 0.02) and 'Rate the dryness of your mouth' (P = 0.01). A significant improvement (P = 0.001) in oral-related quality of life (OHIP-14) was identified in the treatment group, while no significant differences were observed in the placebo group (P > 0.05). The topical application of lycopene-enriched virgin olive oil and its placebo counterpart improved xerostomia-related symptoms significantly (but not salivary flow rate) in patients with drug-induced xerostomia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of malic acid 1% in patients with xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs

    PubMed Central

    Guardia, Javier; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Cabrera-Ayala, Maribel; Maté-Sánchez de-Val, José E.; Calvo-Guirado, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Assessing the clinical effectiveness of a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) in the treatment of xerostomia induced by antihypertensive drugs. Study Design: This research has been carried out through a randomized double-blind clinical trial. 45 patients suffering from hypertensive drugs-induced xerostomia were divided into 2 groups: the first group (25 patients) received a topical sialogogue on spray (malic acid, 1%) whereas the second group (20 patients) received a placebo. Both of them were administered on demand for 2 weeks. Dry Mouth Questionnaire (DMQ) was used in order to evaluate xerostomia levels before and after product/placebo application. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates, before and after application, were measured. All the statistical analyses were performed by using SPSS software v17.0. Different DMQ scores at the earliest and final stage of the trial were analysed by using Mann-Whitney U test, whereas Student’s T-test was used to analyse salivary flows. Critical p-value was established at p<0.05. Results: DMQ scores increased significantly (clinical recovery) from 1.21 to 3.36 points (p<0.05) after malic acid (1%) application whereas DMQ scores increased from 1.18 to 1.34 points (p>0.05) after placebo application. After two weeks of treatment with malic acid, unstimulated salivary flow increased from 0.17 to 0.242 mL/min whereas the stimulated one increased from 0.66 to 0.92 mL/min (p<0.05). After placebo application unstimulated flow ranged from 0.152 to 0.146 mL/min and stimulated flow increased from 0.67 to 0.70 mL/min (p>0.05). Conclusions: Malic acid 1% spray improved antihypertensive-induced xerostomia and stimulated the production of saliva. Key words:Xerostomia, hyposialia, malic acid, antihypertensive drugs. PMID:22926481

  10. Usefulness of new wetness tester for diagnosis of dry mouth in disabled patients.

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Yasuaki; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Arita, Masahiro; Shibuya, Koji; Ishikawa, Masao

    2004-12-01

    The condition of dry mouth is an influential factor in the incidence of caries, periodontal disease, fungal infections, masticatory dysfunctions and denture function. Bedridden elderly and disabled persons often suffer from oral dryness and the aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of measuring the amount of moisture in the oral mucosa for clinical diagnosis of dry mouth in this group. The subjects were 20 elderly bedridden individuals, age range 65-89 years old, living in a nursing home and six healthy laboratory researchers, aged 20-46 years old, used as controls. Tongue dorsum moisture measurements were performed using a newly developed wetness tester (L-SALIVO), in which the wet portion was measured after 10 s. Further, clinical diagnosis of dry mouth was carried out using a clinical classification scale of the tongue mucosa (grade range, 0-3). It was possible to measure tongue dorsum moisture in all subjects with the wetness tester. The average moisture value was 0.1+/-0.2 mm in elderly subjects with a dry mouth grade of 2 (n = 8) or 3 (n = 12), while the average moisture value in the control subjects was 3.67+/-1.75 mm with a dry mouth grade of 0 (n = 4) or 1 (n = 2). Tester values and cliniical classification showed a positive co-relationship (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). Our results show that this new tester could be useful for evaluating oral dryness and diagnosing dry mouth.

  11. Limited evidence for non-pharmacological interventions for the relief of dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Bakarman, Eman O; Keenan, Analia Veitz

    2014-03-01

    The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Medline, Embase, AMED, CINAHL and CANCERLIT databases were searched. The metaRegister of Controlled Clinical Trials and ClinicalTrials.gov were also searched to identify ongoing and completed trials. Reference lists of included studies and relevant reviews were also searched. There were no restrictions on the language of publication or publication status. Randomised controlled trials of non-pharmacological treatments for patients with dry mouth at baseline. Study assessment and data extraction were carried out independently by at least two reviewers. Mean difference (MD) and standardised mean differences (SMD) together with 95% CIs were calculated where appropriate. Nine studies (366 participants) were included in this review, eight were assessed at high risk of bias and one at unclear risk of bias. Five small studies (153 participants), with dry mouth following radiotherapy treatment compared acupuncture with placebo. Four were at high risk and one at unclear risk of bias. Two trials reported outcome data for dry mouth in a form suitable for meta- analysis. The pooled estimate of these two trials (70 participants, low quality evidence) showed no difference between acupuncture and control in dry mouth symptoms (SMD -0.34, 95% CI -0.81 to 0.14, P value 0.17, I2 = 39%) with the confidence intervals including both a possible reduction or a possible increase in dry mouth symptoms.Acupuncture was associated with more adverse effects (tiny bruises and tiredness which were mild and temporary). There was a very small increase in unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) at the end of four to six weeks of treatment (three trials, 71 participants, low quality evidence) (MD 0.02 ml/minute, 95% CI 0 to 0.04, P value 0.04, I2 = 57%), and this benefit persisted at the 12-month follow-up evaluation (two trials, 54 participants, low quality evidence) (UWS, MD 0.06 ml/minute, 95

  12. A randomized clinical trial in subjects with dry mouth evaluating subjective perceptions of an experimental oral gel, an oral rinse and a mouth spray compared to water.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Siddiqi, Muhammad; Cronin, Matthew; DiLauro, Thomas S; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-02-01

    This multicenter, randomized, parallel group study analyzed the effectiveness of an experimental oral gel, a commercially available oral rinse and a commercially available mouth spray versus water alone at relieving self-reported symptoms of dry mouth over a 28-day home use treatment period. The effects of the study treatments on dry mouth-related quality of life (QoL) were also investigated. Eligible subjects were stratified by dry mouth severity (mild, moderate or severe) and randomized to receive one of the study treatments. Prior to first use they completed a questionnaire designed to assess their baseline dry mouth-related QoL. Following first use and on Day 8 (2 hours post-treatment only) and Day 29, subjects completed the modified Product Performance and Attributes Questionnaire (PPAQ) I at 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 hours post-treatment. Subjects further assessed treatment performance using the PPAQ II questionnaire on Days 8 and 29 and the dry mouth-related QoL questionnaire on Day 29. In 396 randomized subjects almost all comparisons of responses to PPAQ I, including those for the primary endpoint (response to PPAQ I Question 1 'Relieving the discomfort of dry mouth' after 2 hours on Day 29), were statistically significant in favor of active treatment groups versus water (P < 0.05). All comparisons of responses to PPAQ II on Days 8 and 29 were statistically significant in favor of active treatments versus water (P < 0.05). Moreover, nearly all comparisons for dry mouth-related QoL scores on Day 29 were statistically significant in favor of the active treatments versus water. All the dry mouth management strategies in this trial were well tolerated.

  13. Correct Diagnosis Provides Relief for Those with Dry Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Friday, June 29, 2018 About | Contact InfoBites Quick ... issue of AGD Impact , the Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) monthly newsmagazine. Dry mouth, also known as ...

  14. Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer improves xerostomia related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    van Rij, CM; Oughlane-Heemsbergen, WD; Ackerstaff, AH; Lamers, EA; Balm, AJM; Rasch, CRN

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose To assess the impact of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) versus conventional radiation on late xerostomia and Quality of Life aspects in head and neck cancer patients. Patients and nethods Questionnaires on xerostomia in rest and during meals were sent to all patients treated between January 1999 and December 2003 with a T1-4, N0-2 M0 head and neck cancer, with parotid gland sparing IMRT or conventional bilateral neck irradiation to a dose of at least 60 Gy, who were progression free and had no disseminated disease (n = 192). Overall response was 85% (n = 163); 97% in the IMRT group (n = 75) and 77% in the control group (n = 88) the median follow-up was 2.6 years. The prevalence of complaints was compared between the two groups, correcting for all relevant factors at multivariate ordinal regression analysis. Results Patients treated with IMRT reported significantly less difficulty transporting and swallowing their food and needed less water for a dry mouth during day, night and meals. They also experienced fewer problems with speech and eating in public. Laryngeal cancer patients in general had fewer complaints than oropharynx cancer patients but both groups benefited from IMRT. Within the IMRT group the xerostomia scores were better for those patients with a mean parotid dose to the "spared" parotid below 26 Gy. Conclusion Parotid gland sparing IMRT for head and neck cancer patients improves xerostomia related quality of life compared to conventional radiation both in rest and during meals. Laryngeal cancer patients had fewer complaints but benefited equally compared to oropharyngeal cancer patients from IMRT. PMID:19068126

  15. Prevalence of xerostomia and the salivary flow rate in diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Malicka, Barbara; Kaczmarek, Urszula; Skośkiewicz-Malinowska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia, which results from relative or absolute insulin deficiency. One of the first oral symptoms of diabetes is xerostomia. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of the xerostomia symptoms and salivary flow rate in diabetic patients according to the type of diabetes, the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. The study involved 156 adult patients of both sexes including 34 patients with diabetes type 1 (group C1), 59 with diabetes type 2 (group C2), and 63 generally healthy individuals as two control groups, sex- and age-matched to the diabetic group. The patients suffering from both types of diabetes were additionally subdivided according to the level of metabolic control and the duration of the disease. Xerostomia was diagnosed with the use of a specially prepared questionnaire and Fox's test. Moreover, the salivary flow rate of resting mixed saliva was measured. In type 1 diabetics, a significantly lower salivary flow rate in comparison to the age-matched control group (0.38 ± 0.19 mL/min vs. 0.53 ± 0.20 mL/min, p < 0.01) was found. However in type 2 diabetics, a slight lower salivary flow rate was noticed (on average, 20% lower). Dry mouth was far more frequently diagnosed in type 1 diabetics than in the control group. In type 1 diabetics, in comparison to healthy subjects, a significantly lower resting flow rate of saliva and significantly higher prevalence of xerosomia were observed, but in type 2 diabetics, only a trend of such variability was observed.

  16. Xerostomia Due to Systemic Disease: A Review of 20 Conditions and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, H; Baharvand, M; Movahhedian, A; Mohammadi, M; Khodadoustan, A

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is a common complaint of nearly half of the elderly population and about one-fifth of younger adults. It causes several signs and symptoms, and compromise oral functions and health-related quality-of-life. Multiple reasons are proposed to describe the etiology of xerostomia such as local factors, psychogenic factors, and systemic diseases. In order to manage xerostomia effectively, identification of the main causality is mandatory. The aim of this review was to present systemic diseases leading to xerostomia with their mechanisms of action. We used various general search engines and specialized databases such as Google, Google Scholar, Yahoo, PubMed, PubMed Central, MedLine Plus, Medknow, EBSCO, ScienceDirect, Scopus, WebMD, EMBASE, and authorized textbooks to find relevant topics by means of Medical Subject Headings keywords such as “xerostomia,” “hyposalivations,” “mouth dryness,” “disease,” and “systemic.” We appraised 97 English-language articles published over the last 40 years in both medical and dental journals including reviews, meta-analysis, original papers, and case reports. Upon compilation of relevant data, it was concluded that autoimmune diseases most frequently involve salivary glands and cause xerostomia followed by diabetes mellitus, renal failure, and graft-versus-host disease. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms of systemic disease-related xerostomia are: autoimmunity, infiltration of immunocompetent cells, granuloma formation, fibrosis and dehydration, deposition of proteinaceous substances, bacterial infection, and side-effects of medications. PMID:25221694

  17. Management of cancer therapy-induced oral mucositis pain and xerostomia with extra- and intra oral laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libik, T. V.; Gileva, O. S.; Danilov, K. V.; Grigorev, S. S.; Pozdnyakova, A. A.

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of combined (intra- and extraoral) low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and conventional pharmacological modalities in prevention and treatment of oral mucositis (OM) and associated pain and xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) undergoing concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). A prospective comparative randomized study was conducted with 21 patients with head and neck cancer subjected to CRT. Eleven patients received extra- and intraoral LLLT daily from the 1st day until the end of CRT-course before each session during 5 consecutive days, and the other 10 patients received conventional preventive and treatment procedures based on the use of benzidamine 0.15% solution also throughout the duration of CRT, including weekends. OM was measured using an oral toxicity scale (OTS), oral pain was measured using the color-numeric visual analogue scale (VAS), unstimulated salivary flow rate measured by the spitting technique (ml/min), dry mouth symptoms were self-estimated by patients using The Xerostomia Inventory (XI). The LLLT group showed lower mean OTS and VAS scores, lower level of reduction of salivary flow rate during the course of CRT. In both groups, no interruption of CRT was needed. The prophylactic use of both treatments proposed in this study seems to reduce the incidence of severe OM lesions. However, the LLLT was more effective in delaying the appearance of severe OM, oral pain and xerostomia.

  18. Xerostomia is associated with old age and poor appetite in patients on chronic hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Bossola, Maurizio; Di Stasio, Enrico; Giungi, Stefania; Vulpio, Carlo; Papa, Valerio; Rosa, Fausto; Tortorelli, Antonio; Tazza, Luigi

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to assess variables associated with xerostomia in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). This was a cross-sectional study of 75 HD patients at an outpatient HD service. Demographic, clinical (renal disease, HD regimen/duration, Charlson comorbidity index, activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living [IADL], body mass index), and laboratory (hemoglobin, albumin, interleukin-6 [IL-6], and parathyroid hormone) parameters were recorded. We assessed the appetite through the Hemodialysis Study Appetite questionnaire and xerostomia through the Xerostomia Inventory (XI). A single question ("How often does your mouth feel dry?"; never = Class 1, almost never = Class 2, occasionally = Class 3, often = Class 4, very often = Class 5) was also included in the study questionnaire. The main outcome measure was factors correlated with XI. The median XI score was 18 (min-max = 11-33). Forty patients had an XI score of 18 or less (Group 1) and between 18 and 35 (Group 2). In Group 2, age, Charlson comorbidity index score, and number of patients with poor/very poor appetite were significantly higher. At the univariate analysis, the score of the XI was significantly associated with age, appetite, IADL, Charlson comorbidity index, and serum IL-6 levels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the XI was independently associated with age and appetite. Thirty-one patients were in Class 1 to 2, 23 were in Class 3, and 21 were in Class 4 to 5. In Classes 4 to 5, age and the number of patients with poor/very poor appetite were higher (P = .012 and .09, respectively). Xerostomia is associated with old age and poor appetite in patients on chronic HD. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Randomized controlled trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients and available treatments are of little benefit. The objective of this trial was to determine if acupuncture can prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A randomized, controlled trial among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma was conducted comparing acupuncture to standard care. Participants were treated at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China. Forty patients were randomized to acupuncture treatment and 46 to standard care. Patients were treated 3 times/week on the same days they received radiotherapy. Subjective measures included the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head/Neck (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated and stimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR; SSFR). Patients were followed for 6 months after the end of radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were statistically significantly lower than controls starting in week 3 through the 6-months(P=0.003 at week3, all other P’s < 0.0001), with clinically significant differences as follows: week 11- RR 0.63 [95% CI, 0.45, 0.87]; 6 months - RR 0.38 [95% CI, 0.19, 0.76]. Similar findings were seen for MDASI-HN scores. Group differences emerged as early as 3 weeks into treatment for saliva (UWSFR, P = 0.0004), with greater saliva flow in the acupuncture group at week 7 (UWSFR, P < 0.0001; SSFR, P = 0.002) and 11 (UWSFR, P < 0.02; SSFR, P < 0.03) and at 6 months (SSFR, P < 0.003). Conclusions Acupuncture given concurrently with radiotherapy significantly reduced xerostomia and improved QOL. PMID:22072272

  20. Close association between oral Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki, S; Moriyama, M; Hayashida, J-N; Tanaka, A; Maehara, T; Ieda, S; Nakamura, S

    2012-10-01

    Heightened interest in oral health has lead to an increase in patients complaining of xerostomia, which is associated with various oral mucosal disorders. In this study, we investigated the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. We evaluated whole salivary flow rate and presence of oral mucosal disorders in 48 patients with xerostomia and 15 healthy controls. The number of Candida species was measured as colony-forming units after propagation on selective medium. Identification of Candida at the species level was carried out by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. We then examined the relationship between Candida species and oral mucosal symptoms. Compared with controls, patients with xerostomia exhibited significantly decreased whole salivary flow rate, increased rate of oral mucosal symptoms, and higher numbers of Candida. Salivary flow rate negatively correlated with the number Candida. Among patients with oral candidiasis, Candida albicans was isolated from the tongue mucosa and Candida glabrata was isolated from the angle of the mouth. These results suggest that particular Candida species are involved in the pathogenesis of oral mucosal disorders in patients with xerostomia. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. [Prognosis and treatment of dry mouth. Systematic review].

    PubMed

    López-López, José; Jané Salas, Enric; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo

    2014-02-04

    There are no clearly established protocols for the treatment of dry mouth. The aim of this paper is a systematic review of the literature of the past 10 years using the words « dry mouth », « prognosis », « treatment » and « dentistry ». The initial search found 1,450 entries and within the restriction « clinical trials OR randomized controlled trial OR systemic reviews » it has been reduced to 522, which 145 were meta-analysis and systematic reviews. Papers not relevant to the issue were removed reducing the entries to 53. Twenty-four were dismissed (8 irrelevant, 7 reviews without adequate information and 9 personal opinions). Of the 29 items tested, 15 were controlled trials, 2 uncontrolled trials, 4 observational studies, 2 systematic reviews and 5 non systematic reviews. The most studied patients were Sjögren's syndrome and the irradiated patients. Treatments are focused on the etiology, prevention, symptomatic, local salivary stimulation and systemic treatments. It can be concluded that treatment must be individualized, salivary substitutes and mechanical stimulation techniques can be applied. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Sham-controlled, randomized, feasibility trial of acupuncture for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhiqiang; Garcia, M. Kay; Hu, Chaosu; Chiang, Joseph; Chambers, Mark; Rosenthal, David I.; Peng, Huiting; Wu, Caijun; Zhao, Qi; Zhao, Genming; Liu, Luming; Spelman, Amy; Palmer, J. Lynn; Wei, Qi; Cohen, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Background Xerostomia (dry mouth) after head/neck radiation is a common problem among cancer patients. Quality of life (QOL) is impaired, and available treatments are of little benefit. This trial determined the feasibility of conducting a sham-controlled trial of acupuncture and whether acupuncture could prevent xerostomia among head/neck patients undergoing radiotherapy. Methods A sham controlled, feasibility trial was conducted at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai, China among patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma undergoing radiotherapy. To determine feasibility of a sham procedure, 23 patients were randomized to real acupuncture (N = 11) or to sham acupuncture (N = 12). Patients were treated 3 times/week during their course of radiotherapy. Subjective measures were the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) and MD Anderson Symptom Inventory for Head and Neck Cancer (MDASI-HN). Objective measures were unstimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR) and stimulated salivary flow rates (SSFR). Patients were followed for 1 month after radiotherapy. Results XQ scores for acupuncture were significantly lower than sham controls starting in week 3 and lasted through the 1-month follow-up (all P’s < 0.001 except for week 3, which was 0.006), with clinically significant differences as follows: week 6 – RR 0.28 [95% CI, 0.10, 0.79]; week 11- RR 0.17 [95% CI, 0.03, 1.07]. Similar findings were seen for MDASI-HN scores and MDASI-Intrusion scores. Group differences for UWSFR and SSFR were not found. Conclusions In this small pilot study, true acupuncture given concurrently with radiotherapy significantly reduced xerostomia symptoms and improved QOL when compared with sham acupuncture. Large-scale, multi-center, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are now needed. PMID:22285177

  3. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea: A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    2017-03-01

    Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. Our objective was to compile a list of medications affecting salivary gland function and inducing xerostomia or subjective sialorrhea. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published until June 2013. Of 3867 screened records, 269 had an acceptable degree of relevance, quality of methodology, and strength of evidence. We found 56 chemical substances with a higher level of evidence and 50 with a moderate level of evidence of causing the above-mentioned disorders. At the first level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, 9 of 14 anatomical groups were represented, mainly the alimentary, cardiovascular, genitourinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. Management strategies include substitution or discontinuation of medications whenever possible, oral or systemic therapy with sialogogues, administration of saliva substitutes, and use of electro-stimulating devices. While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when administered in conjunction with others or for which xerostomia as an adverse reaction has not been reported in the literature or was not detected in our search. We compiled a comprehensive list of medications with documented effects on salivary gland function or symptoms that may assist practitioners in assessing patients who complain of dry mouth while taking medications. The list may also prove useful in helping practitioners anticipate adverse effects and consider alternative medications.

  4. Cevimeline for the treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren syndrome: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Fife, Rose S; Chase, Walter F; Dore, Robin K; Wiesenhutter, Craig W; Lockhart, Peter B; Tindall, Elizabeth; Suen, James Y

    2002-06-10

    Cevimeline hydrochloride is a cholinergic agent with muscarinic agonist activity prominently affecting the M1 and M3 receptors prevalent in exocrine glands. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of cevimeline in the treatment of xerostomia in patients with Sjögren syndrome. Seventy-five patients with Sjögren syndrome and associated salivary gland dysfunction were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial at 8 university- and office-based outpatient clinical facilities in the United States. Eligible study participants were randomized to receive 30 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily, 60 mg of cevimeline 3 times daily, or placebo for 6 weeks. Subjective responses were determined using global patient evaluation and visual analog scales. Salivary flow was measured objectively. Sixty-one participants completed the study. Patients in both cevimeline groups had significant improvements in dry mouth, as indicated by symptoms, salivary flow, and use of artificial saliva, compared with the placebo group. The drug was generally well tolerated, with expected adverse events resulting from the drug's muscarinic agonist action. Fourteen patients withdrew from the study because of adverse events, the most frequent being nausea. Therapy with cevimeline, 30 mg 3 times daily, seems to be well tolerated and to provide substantive relief of xerostomia symptoms. Although both dosages of cevimeline provided symptomatic improvement, 60 mg 3 times daily was associated with an increase in the occurrence of adverse events, particularly gastrointestinal tract disorders. Use of 30 mg of cevimeline provides a new option for the treatment of xerostomia in Sjögren syndrome.

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: an enigmatic disorder.

    PubMed

    Javali, M A

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain or burning sensation affecting the oral mucosa, often unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women and may be accompanied by xerostomia and altered taste. Burning mouth syndrome is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, preferably on the tongue or in other areas of mouth. This disorder is one of the most common, encountered in the clinical practice. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin; however the exact underlying etiology remains uncertain. This article discusses several aspects of BMS, updates current knowledge about the etiopathogenesis and describes the clinical features as well as the diagnosis and management of BMS patients.

  6. 7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View from gate spanning mouth of Dry Dock 5, showing (1-r) north wall of Pier 10 and south wall of Pier 11. - Charlestown Navy Yard, Pier 10, Between Piers 9 & 11 along Mystic River on Charlestown Waterfront at eastern edge of Charlestown Navy Yard, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Effect of Long-term Smoking on Whole-mouth Salivary Flow Rate and Oral Health.

    PubMed

    Rad, Maryam; Kakoie, Shahla; Niliye Brojeni, Fateme; Pourdamghan, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Change in the resting whole-mouth salivary flow rate (SFR) plays a significant role in patho-genesis of various oral conditions. Factors such as smoking may affect SFR as well as the oral and dental health. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of smoking on SFR, and oral and dental health. One-hundred smokers and 100 non-tobacco users were selected as case and control groups, respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect the demographic data and smoking habits. A previously used questionnaire about dry mouth was also employed. Then, after a careful oral examination, subjects' whole saliva was collected in the resting condition. Data was analyzed by chi-square test using SPSS 15. The mean (±SD) salivary flow rate were 0.38 (± 0.13) ml/min in smokers and 0.56 (± 0.16) ml/min in non-smokers. The difference was statistically significant (P=0.00001). Also, 39% of smokers and 12% of non-smokers reported experiencing at least one xerostomia symptom, with statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.0001). Oral lesions including cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus and halitosis were significantly higher in smokers. Our findings indicated that long-term smoking would significantly reduce SFR and increase oral and dental disorders associated with dry mouth, especially cervical caries, gingivitis, tooth mobility, calculus, and halitosis.

  8. Prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation and their association with quality of life in elderly patients in dependence on dental status and prosthetic rehabilitation: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hahnel, Sebastian; Schwarz, Simone; Zeman, Florian; Schäfer, Lina; Behr, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The aims of this pilot study were to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation and their impact on quality of life in a cohort of elderly patients including dental status and the character of potential prosthetic restorations as independent variables. Patients aged 60 years or older without any objective or subjective need for prosthodontic treatment taking part in a regular recall programme were included in the trial. Quality of life was assessed using the German version of the GOHAI; prevalence and severity of xerostomia was investigated using the shortened version of the Xerostomia Inventory (XI). Stimulated salivary flow rate was determined using a sialometric approach. Dental status and the character of prosthetic restorations (no/fixed restorations and removable but tooth-supported dentures vs. gum-supported dentures) were assessed in a clinical examination by experienced dentists specialized in prosthodontic treatment. A total of 68 patients were included in the trial; a prevalence of xerostomia of 16% and a prevalence of hyposalivation of 31% were identified. The quality of life in the study cohort decreased significantly as a function of xerostomia severity but not salivary flow; moreover, a significant impact of the number of teeth/implants in the upper jaw and the presence of gum-supported dentures in both jaws on GOHAI scores could be identified. Within the limitations of a pilot study, the results support the assumption that the quality of life in elderly patients is particularly related to their subjective perception of xerostomia. A decline in salivary flow, the dental status and the character of prosthetic restorations appear to play a subordinate role for the quality of life in elderly patients. The quality of life in elderly patients may be severely diminished due to an increased subjective perception of dry mouth. Dental treatment should focus on alleviating xerostomia, whereas the impact of dental status and prosthetic

  9. [Degree of dry mouth and factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders].

    PubMed

    Park, Myung Sook; Ryu, Se Ang

    2010-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the degree of dry mouth and oral health-related quality of life and to identify factors contributing to oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling elders. A descriptive correlational study design was used. Participants were 156 older adults from two senior welfare centers. Data were collected on February 21, 22 and 29, 30, 2009 using structured questionnaires. Enter type multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing oral health-related quality of life according to general and oral health characteristics. There were significant differences in oral health-related quality of life according to living arrangement, insurance, smoking, number of natural teeth, and denture type. The oral health-related quality of life had significant correlations with the number of chronic disease, number of medications, and dry mouth. Factors influencing oral health-related quality of life for community-dwelling older adults were dry mouth, number of chronic disease, and medical aid, which explained about 47.9% of total variance. These results indicate that in order to promote oral health-related quality of life for older adults, prevention or management of chronic diseases as well as oral health and dry mouth are needed for this population, and especially economically poor elders.

  10. Cevimeline for the treatment of postirradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Mark S; Posner, Marshall; Jones, Christopher Uwe; Biel, Merrill A; Hodge, Kenneth M; Vitti, Robert; Armstrong, Ingrid; Yen, Cindy; Weber, Randal S

    2007-07-15

    To study the efficacy and safety of cevimeline in two double-blind trials (Studies 003 and 004) enrolling patients with head and neck cancer in whom xerostomia developed after radiotherapy. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive cevimeline, 30 mg three times daily, or placebo for 12 weeks, with the possibility of dose escalation to 45 mg three times daily at 6 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the patient's final global evaluation of oral dryness; change in unstimulated salivary flow was a secondary endpoint. Five hundred seventy subjects (284 in Study 003 and 286 in Study 004) were randomized. Significantly more cevimeline-treated subjects than placebo recipients (47.4% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.0162) in Study 003 reported improvement in dry mouth in the final global evaluation of oral dryness. No significant difference between groups in the final global evaluation was seen in Study 004, in which a high placebo response rate of 47.6% was observed. In both studies, cevimeline-treated subjects had significantly greater increases in the objective measure of unstimulated salivary flow than placebo recipients (p = 0.0093 [Study 003] and p = 0.0215 [Study 004]), whereas no significant differences in stimulated salivary flow were observed. The most frequent adverse event was increased sweating. Cevimeline was well tolerated by patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and oral administration of 30-45 mg of cevimeline three times daily increased unstimulated salivary flow.

  11. Promoting Mouth-Drying Responses to Reduce Drooling Effects by Persons with Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities: A Study of Two Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Smaldone, Angela; La Martire, Maria L.; Pichierri, Sabrina; Groeneweg, Jop

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the use of microswitch technology to promote mouth-drying responses and thereby reduce the effects of drooling by two adults with severe intellectual and multiple disabilities. Mouth-drying responses were performed via a special napkin that contained pressure sensors, a microprocessor and an MP3 to monitor the responses and…

  12. [Clinical significance of cevimeline hydrochloride in the treatment of dry mouth in patients with Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Noriyoshi; Shimoyama, Kumiko; Karasawa, Hiromi; Fukushima, Toshihiro; Masaki, Yasufumi; Wano, Yuji; Hirose, Yuko; Sugai, Susumu

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cevimeline hydrochloride for the treatment of dry mouth in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS), eight SS patients received 30 mg of cevimeline twice or three times daily for 24 weeks. Six out of the eight patients had improvement in dry mouth. Five patients had more than 20% increase in saliva secretion. In the assessment of salivary gland scintigraphy, three patients showed improvement. There was a significant negative correlation between the improvement of saliva secretion and the severity of tissue damage assessed by MR sialography (r= - 0.754, p<0.05). One patient stopped cevimeline at 4 weeks because of headache and nausea. There was no significant change in laboratory data. Cevimeline is safe and effective medicine for dry mouth in patients with SS, in particular, with less severe salivary gland destruction.

  13. Information for physicians and pharmacists about drugs that might cause dry mouth: a study of monographs and published literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Caroline T; MacEntee, Michael I; Mintzes, Barbara; Perry, Thomas L

    2014-01-01

    Over three-quarters of the older population take medications that can potentially cause dry mouth. Physicians or pharmacists rarely inform patients about this adverse effect and its potentially severe damage to the teeth, mouth and general health. The objectives of this study were to (1) identify warnings in the literature about dry mouth associated with the most frequently prescribed pharmaceutical products in Canada; and (2) consider how this information might be obtained by physicians, pharmacists and patients. Monographs on the 72 most frequently prescribed medications during 2010 were retrieved from the Compendium of Pharmaceuticals and Specialties (CPS, a standard drug information reference for physicians and pharmacists), the National Library of Medicine's 'DailyMed' database, directly from the manufacturers, and from a systematic search of biomedical journals. The CPS provided monographs for 43% of the medications, and requests to manufacturers produced the remaining monographs. Mentions of dry mouth were identified in 61% of the products (43% amongst CPS monographs; an additional 43% amongst manufacturers' monographs; 7% in the DailyMed database and 7% from biomedical journals); five medications had contradictory reports in different monographs. Nearly two-thirds (61%) of the most commonly prescribed medications can cause dry mouth, yet warnings about this adverse effect and its potentially serious consequences are not readily available to physicians, pharmacists, dentists or patients.

  14. Relieving Dry Mouth: Varying Levels of pH Found in Bottled Water.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Bailey Jean; Spencer, Angela; Haywood, Van; Konchady, Gayathri

    2017-07-01

    It is estimated that 30% of people older than 60 years suffer from hyposalivation or dry mouth. Drinking water frequently has been recommended as a safe, non-pharmacologic way to combat hyposalivation. The saliva in patients with dry mouth is acidic. Beverages consumed daily may have an erosive potential on teeth. The pH and the mineral content of the beverage determine its erosive potential. An acidic beverage, therefore, may have harmful effects on mineralized tooth structures, causing erosion of enamel, dentin, and cementum. Because bottled water is both convenient and easily available, the authors tested the pH of eight common brands of bottled water. (One brand included two different bottle types, for a total of nine bottled waters tested.) To standardize the pH electrode, pH buffers of 4.7 and 10 were used. The pH was measured using the Denver Instruments basic pH meter. Six recordings were used for each brand and then averaged to report the pH. Two of the bottled water samples tested were below the critical level of 5.2 pH to 5.5 pH, the level at which erosion of enamel occurs. Six of the samples tested were below the critical pH of 6.8, at which erosion of root dentin occurs. The authors conclude that both patients and clinicians incorrectly presume bottled water to be innocuous. Clinicians should be cognizant of the erosive potential of different brands of bottled water to both educate patients and to recommend water with neutral or alkaline pH for patients with symptoms of dry mouth to prevent further deterioration and demineralization of tooth structure.

  15. Liposomal treatment of xerostomia, odor, and taste abnormalities in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Heiser, Clemens; Hofauer, Benedikt; Scherer, Elias; Schukraft, Johannes; Knopf, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Smell and taste disorders, sicca symptoms, can be detected in patients with head and neck cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of local liposomal application in the treatment of patients with head and neck cancers. Ninety-eight patients with head and neck cancer were included in this study. The groups were defined as: group 1 = only surgery; group 2 = surgery + adjuvant radiochemotherapy; and group 3 = primarily radiochemotherapy. All patients had finished cancer treatment and received liposomal sprays for the nose and mouth for 2 months (LipoNasal, LipoSaliva; Optima Pharmaceutical GmbH, Germany) and suffered from taste and smell disorders. We performed tests with "Sniffin' Sticks," "Taste Strips," and a xerostomia questionnaire before and after treatment. After application of liposomes, patients demonstrated a statistically significant increase in smell and taste, and reduced xerostomia. Our results demonstrate that using nonpharmaceutical liposomal sprays improve smell, taste, and symptoms of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1232-E1237, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Acupuncture in Treating Dry Mouth Caused By Radiation Therapy in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    RATIONALE: Acupuncture may help relieve dry mouth caused by radiation therapy. PURPOSE: This randomized phase III trial is studying to see how well one set of acupuncture points work in comparison to a different set of acupuncture points or standard therapy in treating dry mouth caused by radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. |

  17. Open-label, long-term safety study of cevimeline in the treatment of postirradiation xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Mark S; Jones, Christopher Uwe; Biel, Merrill A; Weber, Randal S; Hodge, Kenneth M; Chen, Y; Holland, John M; Ship, Jonathan A; Vitti, Robert; Armstrong, Ingrid; Garden, Adam S; Haddad, Robert

    2007-12-01

    To assess the safety of long-term cevimeline treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head-and-neck cancer; and to assess the efficacy of cevimeline in these patients. A total of 255 adults with head-and-neck cancer who had received more than 40 Gy of radiation 4 months or more before entry and had clinically significant salivary gland dysfunction received cevimeline hydrochloride 45 mg t.i.d. orally for 52 weeks. Adverse events (AEs), their severity, and their relationship to the study medication were assessed by each investigator. The efficacy assessment was based on subjects' global evaluation of oral dryness on a scale of 0 (none) to 3 (severe). Overall, 175 subjects (68.6%) experienced expected treatment-related AEs, most mild to moderate. The most frequent was increased sweating (47.5%), followed by dyspepsia (9.4%), nausea (8.2%), and diarrhea (6.3%). Fifteen subjects (5.9%) experienced Grade 3 treatment-related AEs, of which the most frequent was increased sweating. Eighteen subjects (7.1%) reported at least one serious AE, and 45 subjects (17.6%) discontinued study medication because of an AE. The global efficacy evaluation at the last study visit showed that cevimeline improved dry mouth in most subjects (59.2%). Significant improvement was seen at each study visit in the mean change from baseline of the numeric global evaluation score (p < 0.0001). Cevimeline 45 mg t.i.d. was generally well tolerated over a period of 52 weeks in subjects with xerostomia secondary to radiotherapy for cancer in the head-and-neck region.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonic histogram features to evaluate radiation toxicity of the parotid glands: a clinical study of xerostomia following head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Tridandapani, Srini; Beitler, Jonathan J; Yu, David S; Chen, Zhengjia; Kim, Sungjin; Bruner, Deborah W; Curran, Walter J; Liu, Tian

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound histogram features in the quantitative assessment of radiation-induced parotid gland injury and to identify potential imaging biomarkers for radiation-induced xerostomia (dry mouth)-the most common and debilitating side effect after head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). Thirty-four patients, who have developed xerostomia after RT for head-and-neck cancer, were enrolled. Radiation-induced xerostomia was defined by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer morbidity scale. Ultrasound scans were performed on each patient's parotids bilaterally. The 34 patients were stratified into the acute-toxicity groups (16 patients, ≤ 3 months after treatment) and the late-toxicity group (18 patients, > 3 months after treatment). A separate control group of 13 healthy volunteers underwent similar ultrasound scans of their parotid glands. Six sonographic features were derived from the echo-intensity histograms to assess acute and late toxicity of the parotid glands. The quantitative assessments were compared to a radiologist's clinical evaluations. The diagnostic accuracy of these ultrasonic histogram features was evaluated with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. With an area under the ROC curve greater than 0.90, several histogram features demonstrated excellent diagnostic accuracy for evaluation of acute and late toxicity of parotid glands. Significant differences (P < .05) in all six sonographic features were demonstrated between the control, acute-toxicity, and late-toxicity groups. However, subjective radiologic evaluation cannot distinguish between acute and late toxicity of parotid glands. We demonstrated that ultrasound histogram features could be used to measure acute and late toxicity of the parotid glands after head-and-neck cancer RT, which may be developed into a low-cost imaging method for xerostomia monitoring and assessment. Copyright © 2014 AUR

  19. [Xerostomia: clinic, etiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Guobis, Zygimantas; Baseviciene, Nomeda; Paipaliene, Pajauta; Sabalys, Gintautas; Kubilius, Ricardas

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this article is to review the problem of xerostomia considering its clinical, etiological, diagnostic and treatment features, basing on the today's tutorials and scientific articles found in databases on the Internet. Recent epidemiologic data on the prevalence of xerostomia in different countries are introduced. There are analyzed the main aspects of clinical manifestations of xerostomia, according to the different etiology analyzed. The most common etiological factors causing xerostomia, especially the main three of them: radiation therapy, Sjögren's syndrome, and drugs, are pointed out. The most popular and accepted clinical and laboratory assays for measuring and evaluating the function of salivary glands are represented. Attention is paid to xerostomia as substantiation of the separate diagnosis and its role in diagnosing other diseases. The concept of possible treatment modalities and prognosis are discussed. The main and most common problems concerning xerostomia are revealed.

  20. Two-stage autotransplantation of human submandibular gland: a novel approach to treat postradiogenic xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Rudolf; Scheich, Matthias; Kleinsasser, Norbert; Burghartz, Marc

    2016-08-01

    Xerostomia is a persistent side effect of radiotherapy (RT), which severely reduces the quality of life of the patients affected. Besides drug treatment and new irradiation strategies, surgical procedures aim for tissue protection of the submandibular gland. Using a new surgical approach, the submandibular gland was autotransplanted in 6 patients to the patient's forearm for the period of RT and reimplanted into the floor of the mouth 2-3 months after completion of RT. Saxon's test was performed during different time points to evaluate patient's saliva production. Furthermore patients had to answer EORTC QLQ-HN35 questionnaire and visual analog scale. Following this two-stage autotransplantation, xerostomia in the patients was markedly reduced due to improved saliva production of the reimplanted gland. Whether this promising novel approach is a reliable treatment option for RT patients in general should be evaluated in further studies.

  1. Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 activation prevents radiation-induced xerostomia by protecting salivary stem cells from toxic aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Saiki, Julie P.; Cao, Hongbin; Van Wassenhove, Lauren D.; Viswanathan, Vignesh; Bloomstein, Joshua; Nambiar, Dhanya K.; Mattingly, Aaron J.; Jiang, Dadi; Chen, Che-Hong; Simmons, Amanda L.; Park, Hyun Shin; von Eyben, Rie; Kool, Eric T.; Sirjani, Davud; Knox, Sarah M.; Le, Quynh Thu; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2018-01-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth) is the most common side effect of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer and causes difficulty speaking and swallowing. Since aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is highly expressed in mouse salivary stem/progenitor cells (SSPCs), we sought to determine the role of ALDH3A1 in SSPCs using genetic loss-of-function and pharmacologic gain-of-function studies. Using DarkZone dye to measure intracellular aldehydes, we observed higher aldehyde accumulation in irradiated Aldh3a1−/− adult murine salisphere cells and in situ in whole murine embryonic salivary glands enriched in SSPCs compared with wild-type glands. To identify a safe ALDH3A1 activator for potential clinical testing, we screened a traditional Chinese medicine library and isolated d-limonene, commonly used as a food-flavoring agent, as a single constituent activator. ALDH3A1 activation by d-limonene significantly reduced aldehyde accumulation in SSPCs and whole embryonic glands, increased sphere-forming ability, decreased apoptosis, and improved submandibular gland structure and function in vivo after radiation. A phase 0 study in patients with salivary gland tumors showed effective delivery of d-limonene into human salivary glands following daily oral dosing. Given its safety and bioavailability, d-limonene may be a good clinical candidate for mitigating xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer receiving radiation therapy. PMID:29794221

  2. Outcomes of xerostomia-related quality of life for nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by IMRT: based on the EORTC QLQ-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Bian, Xiuhua; Song, Tao; Wu, Shixiu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published literature addressing the question of whether intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) resulted in an improvement of quality of life (QoL), especially xerostomia-related QoL of all nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients as time progressed. A literature search of PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar was performed, only reports containing original data of the QoL scores after treated by IMRT were included. Two independent reviewers extracted information of study design, study population, interventions, outcome measures and conclusions for each article. The inclusion criteria were met by 14 articles covering outcomes based on the questionnaires treated by IMRT. Data from same questionnaires (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and H&N35 questionnaires) were exacted and we analyzed four items (global health status, dry mouth and sticky saliva, swallowing, social eating and social contact), which have a close relationship with xerostomia-related QoL. Results indicated that a maximal deterioration of most QoL scales including global health status developed during treatment or at the end of the treatment course and then followed by a gradual recovery to 1 year, 1-2 years after IMRT, compared with their baseline level, some specific head and neck items, most in the EORTC QLQ H&N35, remained worse for the surviving patients. In conclusion, the published data reasonably support the benefits of IMRT in improving QoL, but xerostomia-related items still had a significantly negative effect in 2 years to impact a survivor's QoL.

  3. A randomized clinical trial of an intervention to relieve thirst and dry mouth in intensive care unit patients.

    PubMed

    Puntillo, Kathleen; Arai, Shoshana R; Cooper, Bruce A; Stotts, Nancy A; Nelson, Judith E

    2014-09-01

    To test an intervention bundle for thirst intensity, thirst distress, and dry mouth, which are among the most pervasive, intense, distressful, unrecognized, and undertreated symptoms in ICU patients, but for which data-based interventions are lacking. This was a single-blinded randomized clinical trial in three ICUs in a tertiary medical center in urban California. A total of 252 cognitively intact patients reporting thirst intensity (TI) and/or thirst distress (TD) scores ≥3 on 0-10 numeric rating scales (NRS) were randomized to intervention or usual care groups. A research team nurse (RTN#1) obtained patients' pre-procedure TI and TD scores and reports of dry mouth. She then administered a thirst bundle to the intervention group: oral swab wipes, sterile ice-cold water sprays, and a lip moisturizer, or observed patients in the usual care group. RTN#2, blinded to group assignment, obtained post-procedure TI and TD scores. Up to six sessions per patient were conducted across 2 days. Multilevel linear regression determined that the average decreases in TI and TD scores from pre-procedure to post-procedure were significantly greater in the intervention group (2.3 and 1.8 NRS points, respectively) versus the usual care group (0.6 and 0.4 points, respectively) (p < 0.05). The usual care group was 1.9 times more likely than the intervention group to report dry mouth for each additional session on day 1. This simple, inexpensive thirst bundle significantly decreased ICU patients' thirst and dry mouth and can be considered a practice intervention for patients experiencing thirst.

  4. Open-Label, Long-Term Safety Study of Cevimeline in the Treatment of Postirradiation Xerostomia

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Mark S.; Jones, Christopher Uwe; Biel, Merrill A.

    Purpose: To assess the safety of long-term cevimeline treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head-and-neck cancer; and to assess the efficacy of cevimeline in these patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 255 adults with head-and-neck cancer who had received more than 40 Gy of radiation 4 months or more before entry and had clinically significant salivary gland dysfunction received cevimeline hydrochloride 45 mg t.i.d. orally for 52 weeks. Adverse events (AEs), their severity, and their relationship to the study medication were assessed by each investigator. The efficacy assessment was based on subjects' global evaluation of oral dryness onmore » a scale of 0 (none) to 3 (severe). Results: Overall, 175 subjects (68.6%) experienced expected treatment-related AEs, most mild to moderate. The most frequent was increased sweating (47.5%), followed by dyspepsia (9.4%), nausea (8.2%), and diarrhea (6.3%). Fifteen subjects (5.9%) experienced Grade 3 treatment-related AEs, of which the most frequent was increased sweating. Eighteen subjects (7.1%) reported at least one serious AE, and 45 subjects (17.6%) discontinued study medication because of an AE. The global efficacy evaluation at the last study visit showed that cevimeline improved dry mouth in most subjects (59.2%). Significant improvement was seen at each study visit in the mean change from baseline of the numeric global evaluation score (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Cevimeline 45 mg t.i.d. was generally well tolerated over a period of 52 weeks in subjects with xerostomia secondary to radiotherapy for cancer in the head-and-neck region.« less

  5. Salivary flow and xerostomia in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Carramolino-Cuéllar, Esther; Lauritano, Dorina; Silvestre, Francisco-Javier; Carinci, Francesco; Lucchese, Alberta; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier

    2018-05-01

    Saliva is secreted by the major and minor salivary glands. There are a number of physiological factors that can reduce this secretion such as age, sex, body weight, number of teeth present in the mouth or time of day. This decrease may also be caused by the use of certain drugs, radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, chronic rheumatic diseases such as Sjögren's syndrome and other systemic disorders such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of type 2 DM on salivary secretion and its relation to the sensation of xerostomia. Forty-seven patients with type 2 DM and 46 healthy individuals, aged 40-80, participated in the study. Samples of saliva were collected, at rest and after stimulation, at baseline and after the administration of a meal. A questionnaire of 10 items was used to define the patients' sensations of xerostomia. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the difference in salivary flow between the two groups and the relationship between the response to each of the questions and salivary flow levels. The degree of the patients' sensation of xerostomia was analysed by the Fisher test. There was a significant decrease in total saliva levels at rest in patients with type 2 DM compared to the control group. The study group also experienced higher levels of dryness at night and on waking as well as a greater sensation of lingual burning compared to the control group. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Etiology, evaluation, and management of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian W; Wang, Elizabeth A; Fazel, Nasim

    Xerostomia is defined as the complaint of oral dryness. It is a condition that primarily affects older adults and can have a significant negative effect on one's quality of life. Patients with xerostomia often do not have objective signs of hyposalivation. The underlying etiology of xerostomia includes a variety of systemic diseases and local factors. Our aim is to provide a comprehensive review of the differential diagnosis, evaluation, and management of xerostomia. Prompt diagnosis and management can alleviate the clinical manifestations of this debilitating condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mouthwashes: Do They Work and Should We Use Them? Part 2: Anticaries, Antihalitosis and Dry Mouth Relief Efficacy of Mouthwashes.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Penny

    2016-09-01

    This article will review the anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief efficacy of mouthwashes. Fluoride mouthwashes may provide an additional benefit to toothpaste and gel in children with a high risk of dental caries, but toothpaste alone may be a more acceptable mode of delivery. There may be a beneficial effect of fluoride mouthwashes on caries levels in older adults, particularly those at higher risk of root caries. The available data of the antihalitosis effect of mouthwashes neither supports nor contra-indicates their use. The key area where a mouthwash may be of use in the treatment of patients with a dry mouth is through the anticaries effect of fluoride. Clinical relevance: The evidence supporting the use of anticaries, antihalitosis and dry mouth relief mouthwashes is evaluated. This provides guidance for dentists and dental care professionals of when it is appropriate to recommend the use of a mouthwash in these situations.

  8. Xerostomia among older home care clients.

    PubMed

    Viljakainen, Sari; Nykänen, Irma; Ahonen, Riitta; Komulainen, Kaija; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Tiihonen, Miia

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine drug use and other factors associated with xerostomia in home care clients aged 75 years or older. The study sample included 270 home care clients aged ≥75 years living in Eastern and Central Finland. The home care clients underwent in-home interviews carried out by trained home care nurses, nutritionists, dental hygienists and pharmacists. The collected data contained information on sociodemographic factors, health and oral health status, drug use, depressive symptoms (GDS-15), cognitive functioning (MMSE), functional ability (Barthel Index, IADL) and nutrition (MNA). The primary outcome was xerostomia status (never, occasionally or continuously). Among the home care clients, 56% (n = 150) suffered from xerostomia. Persons with continuous xerostomia used more drugs and had more depressive symptoms and a higher number of comorbidities than other home care clients. In multivariate analyses, excessive polypharmacy (OR = 1.83, 95% Cl 1.08-3.10) and depressive symptoms (OR = 1.12, 95% Cl 1.03-1.22) were associated with xerostomia. Xerostomia is a common problem among old home care clients. Excessive polypharmacy, use of particular drug groups and depressive symptoms were associated with xerostomia. The findings support the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the care of older home care clients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Two Persons with Multiple Disabilities Use a Mouth-Drying Response to Reduce the Effects of Their Drooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Oliva, Doretta; Smaldone, Angela; La Martire, Maria L.

    2009-01-01

    These two studies involved a boy and a man with multiple disabilities, who were taught to use a mouth-drying response to reduce the effects of their drooling. Both studies relied on microswitch technology to monitor the drying response and follow it with positive stimulation (i.e., during intervention). In Study I, the boy performed the drying…

  10. Effect of a local anesthetic lozenge in relief of symptoms in burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Treldal, C; Jacobsen, C B; Mogensen, S; Rasmussen, M; Jacobsen, J; Petersen, J; Lynge Pedersen, A M; Andersen, O

    2016-03-01

    Patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) often represent a clinical challenge as available agents for symptomatic treatment are few and often ineffective. The aim was to evaluate the effect of a bupivacaine lozenge on oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations in patients with BMS. Eighteen patients (4 men and 14 women) aged 39-71 years with BMS were included in this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Lozenges (containing bupivacaine or placebo) were administrated three times a day for 2 weeks for two separate treatment periods. Assessment of oral mucosal pain, xerostomia, and taste alterations was performed in a patient diary on a visual analog scale (ranging from 0 to 100 mm) before and after the lozenge was dissolved. The bupivacaine lozenge significantly reduced the burning oral pain (P < 0.001), increased the sense of taste disturbances (P < 0.001), and had no impact on xerostomia, when adjusted for the treatment period. Our results indicate that the bupivacaine lozenge offers a novel therapeutic modality to patients with BMS, although without alleviating effect on the associated symptoms, taste alterations, and xerostomia. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A screening test for capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper: a study for diagnosis of hyposalivation with a complaint of dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Kanehira, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Tomotaka; Asano, Kozo; Morita, Manabu; Maeshima, Etsuko; Matsuda, Akemi; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Sakamoto, Wataru

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple screening technique for diagnosis of hyposalivation with dry mouth by estimation of capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow using filter paper. An assay system comprising 5 spots containing starch and potassium iodide on filter paper incorporating or without capsaicin and a coloring reagent was designed. We investigated whether the number of colored spots using the filter paper incorporating capsaicin could distinguish between healthy subjects and subjects with hyposalivation and dry mouth. In the healthy group (>200 μL/min; n = 33), the capsaicin-stimulated salivary flow significantly increased as compared with the resting salivary flow, from 1.2 ± 1.4 to 2.9 ± 1.3 colored spots (P < .05). In contrast, the hyposalivation group with dry mouth (<100 μL/min; n = 32) hardly changed (4.4 ± 1.0 vs 4.9 ± 0.2), except for 3 subjects who had considerable elevated secretion on capsaicin stimulation. By measuring resting and stimulated salivary flows, this method should be useful for evaluating retained functional ability of salivary glands and screening of hyposalivation with dry mouth. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ipsilateral irradiation for well lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx: results on tumor control and xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Cerezo, Laura; Martín, Margarita; López, Mario; Marín, Alicia; Gómez, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Background In head and neck cancer, bilateral neck irradiation is the standard approach for many tumor locations and stages. Increasing knowledge on the pattern of nodal invasion leads to more precise targeting and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the morbidity and tumor control for patients with well lateralized squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx treated with ipsilateral radiotherapy. Methods Twenty consecutive patients with lateralized carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx were treated with a prospective management approach using ipsilateral irradiation between 2000 and 2007. This included 8 radical oropharyngeal and 12 postoperative oral cavity carcinomas, with Stage T1-T2, N0-N2b disease. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal recurrence was determined. Late xerostomia was evaluated using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 questionnaire and the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE), version 3. Results At a median follow-up of 58 months, five-year overall survival and loco-regional control rates were 82.5% and 100%, respectively. No local or contralateral nodal recurrences were observed. Mean dose to the contralateral parotid gland was 4.72 Gy and to the contralateral submandibular gland was 15.30 Gy. Mean score for dry mouth was 28.1 on the 0-100 QLQ-H&N35 scale. According to CTCAE v3 scale, 87.5% of patients had grade 0-1 and 12.5% grade 2 subjective xerostomia. The unstimulated salivary flow was > 0.2 ml/min in 81.2% of patients and 0.1-0.2 ml/min in 19%. None of the patients showed grade 3 xerostomia. Conclusion In selected patients with early and moderate stages, well lateralized oral and oropharyngeal carcinomas, ipsilateral irradiation treatment of the primary site and ipsilateral neck spares salivary gland function without compromising loco-regional control. PMID:19723329

  13. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment. PMID:23429751

  14. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy

    2013-02-07

    Burning mouth syndrome is a debilitating medical condition affecting nearly 1.3 million of Americans. Its common features include a burning painful sensation in the mouth, often associated with dysgeusia and xerostomia, despite normal salivation. Classically, symptoms are better in the morning, worsen during the day and typically subside at night. Its etiology is largely multifactorial, and associated medical conditions may include gastrointestinal, urogenital, psychiatric, neurologic and metabolic disorders, as well as drug reactions. BMS has clear predisposition to peri-/post menopausal females. Its pathophysiology has not been fully elucidated and involves peripheral and central neuropathic pathways. Clinical diagnosis relies on careful history taking, physical examination and laboratory analysis. Treatment is often tedious and is aimed at correction of underlying medical conditions, supportive therapy, and behavioral feedback. Drug therapy with alpha lipoic acid, clonazepam, capsaicin, and antidepressants may provide symptom relief. Psychotherapy may be helpful. Short term follow up data is promising, however, long term prognosis with treatment is lacking. BMS remains an important medical condition which often places a recognizable burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate recognition and treatment.

  15. Xerostomia and medications among 32-year-olds

    PubMed Central

    THOMSON, WILLIAM MURRAY; POULTON, RICHIE; BROADBENT, JONATHAN MARK; AL-KUBAISY, SHAIMA

    2008-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence and associations of xerostomia among adults in their early thirties, with particular attention to medication exposure as a putative risk factor. Material and Methods The prevalence and associations of xerostomia were investigated among 32-year-old participants in a long-standing prospective cohort study. Some 950 individuals were assessed at ages 26 and 32 years, with medications being recorded on both occasions. Results The prevalence of xerostomia was 10.0% (with no apparent gender difference), and was significantly higher among those taking antidepressants (odds ratio =4.7), iron supplements (OR =4.1) or narcotic analgesics (OR =2.4). Those taking antidepressants at both ages 26 and 32 years had 22 times the odds of reporting xerostomia. Conclusion Xerostomia may be a problem for a sizeable minority of young adults. PMID:16829502

  16. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. Aim To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. Results In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (p<0.01). Xerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ xerostomia whereas the control group had ‘mild’ xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18–49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had

  17. Prevalence of xerostomia in an adolescent inpatient psychiatric clinic: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Manvir; Himadi, Elaine; Chi, Donald L

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents with psychiatric conditions may be at risk for xerostomia. In this preliminary study, we estimated xerostomia prevalence in adolescents ages 9 to 17 years from an inpatient psychiatric clinic (N = 25) and examined whether: (1) gender and age were associated with xerostomia and (2) xerostomia was associated with self-reported cavities. We used a modified 11-item Xerostomia Index to identify xerostomia (no/yes) and asked if adolescents ever had or currently have cavities (no/yes). The mean age was 14 years (SD = 2.3) and 72% were male. Sixty percent reported xerostomia (SD = 50). There were no significant associations between xerostomia and gender (p = 0.99) or age (p = 0.66), or between xerostomia and past (p = 0.26) or current cavities (p = 0.11). Larger proportions of adolescents with xerostomia reported previous and current cavities. Sixty percent of adolescents from an inpatient psychiatric clinic reported having xerostomia, which may lead to increased caries risk over time. Additional research should examine the prevalence and consequences of xerostomia in high-risk adolescents. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A systematic review of the effects of acupuncture on xerostomia and hyposalivation.

    PubMed

    Assy, Zainab; Brand, Henk S

    2018-02-13

    Saliva is fundamental to our oral health and our well-being. Many factors can impair saliva secretion, such as adverse effects of prescribed medication, auto-immune diseases (for example Sjögren's syndrome) and radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Several studies have suggested a positive effect of acupuncture on oral dryness. Pubmed and Web of Science were electronically searched. Reference lists of the included studies and relevant reviews were manually searched. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated. Two reviewers assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility and assessing the risk of bias. Ten randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of acupuncture were included. Five trials compared acupuncture to sham/placebo acupuncture. Four trials compared acupuncture to oral hygiene/usual care. Only one clinical trial used oral care sessions as control group. For all the included studies, the quality for all the main outcomes has been assessed as low. Although some publications suggest a positive effect of acupuncture on either salivary flow rate or subjective dry mouth feeling, the studies are inconclusive about the potential effects of acupuncture. Insufficient evidence is available to conclude whether acupuncture is an evidence-based treatment option for xerostomia/hyposalivation. Further well-designed, larger, double blinded trials are required to determine the potential benefit of acupuncture. Sample size calculations should be performed before before initiating these studies.

  19. Antiseptic mouthwashes could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Marlene; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Precheur, Isabelle; Lamure, Julie; Pouyssegur-Rougier, Valerie

    2015-05-01

    Polypharmacy is a common cause of xerostomia. This study aimed to investigate whether xerostomia could be an adverse drug event of mouthwashes, when they are used for longer than 2 weeks by patients taking polypharmacy. This cross-sectional observational study included 120 hospitalized patients (60 middle-aged and 60 elderly patients), taking polypharmacy (≥4 drugs daily) and at risk of drug-induced xerostomia. Xerostomia was assessed by questioning participants. A total of 62.5% of patients complained of xerostomia. In the middle-aged group (mean age=44.0 (8.7) years; 35.0% women) xerostomia seemed independently associated to mouthwashes, at the limit of significance (OR=5.00, 95% CI=0.99-25.3, p=0.052). Active principles in mouthwashes were mainly quaternary ammonium compounds (91.9%). Mouthwashes may disturb the healthy balance of the biofilm moisturizing the oral mucosa. The biofilm contains mucins, salivary glycoproteins with oligosaccharides side chains able to sequester water and endogenous bacteria surrounded by a glycocalyx. Oral bacteria are fully susceptible to quaternary ammonium (chlorhexidine, hexetidine, cetylpyridinium chloride) and to other antiseptics used in mouthwashes, such as betain, resorcin, triclosan, essential oils and alcohol. However, caregivers currently recommend such dental plaque control products to patients suffering from xerostomia in order to reduce the risk of caries and periodontitis. This study is the first report that use of antiseptic mouthwashes for more than 2 weeks could worsen xerostomia in patients taking polypharmacy. Oral care protocols should avoid this iatrogenic practice, particularly when xerostomia alters the quality-of-life and worsens malnutrition.

  20. Treatment planning constraints to avoid xerostomia in head and neck radiotherapy: an independent test of QUANTEC criteria using a prospectively collected dataset

    PubMed Central

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Wu, Jonn; Hovan, Allan; Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O.; Harrow, Stephen; Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam; Thompson, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication following radiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group (1) and by Ortholan et al. (2). We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared to a previously published dataset. Method and Materials Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12 month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution (WUSTL) were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value, NPV) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. (2) recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results Both data sets showed a rate of xerostomia < 20 % when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept below 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D50=32.4 Gy and and γ=0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. (2) guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA), and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion This confirms that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy. PMID:21640505

  1. Serum and saliva magnesium in postmenopausal women with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Agha-Hosseini, F; Mirzaii-Dizgah, I

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate serum, stimulated and unstimulated salivary magnesium in postmenopausal women with xerostomia. A case-control study was carried out on 60 selected postmenopausal women aged 41-77 years with or without xerostomia (30 as cases with xerostomia and 30 as controls without xerostomia), conducted at the Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were obtained by expectoration. Magnesium concentration was determined by the spectrophotometer method. Statistical analysis was carried out using Student's t-test. The mean serum concentration, but not stimulated and unstimulated whole saliva magnesium concentrations, was significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. Serum magnesium level appears to be associated with xerostomia in menopause.

  2. Efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cai-Qi; Xu, Hao; Liu, Ling; Wang, Rui-Nan; Liu, Yu-Ting; Li, Jing; Zhou, Xi-Kun

    2016-04-01

    Pilocarpine has been used widely in the treatment of dry mouth and glaucoma. In this review, the authors assessed the efficacy and safety of pilocarpine for patients with head and neck cancer who have radiation-induced xerostomia. The authors conducted a systematic search including meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials in the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Science Citation Index Expanded. The primary outcome was the severity of xerostomia (measured using visual analog scale [VAS] scores). Adverse events were other outcomes of interest. The authors performed meta-analyses where appropriate. The authors used the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias to assess the quality of the study. The authors identified 6 studies (including 752 patients in total). The results of a meta-analysis of 3 articles showed that pilocarpine was associated with a 12-point increase in VAS score (mean difference, 12.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.93-22.08; P = .02) and higher rates of adverse events compared with placebo in terms of sweating (odds ratio [OR], 3.71; 95% CI, 2.34-5.86; P < .00001). There were no differences in rhinitis (OR, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.68-2.16; P = .52) and nausea (OR, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.83-2.49; P = .19). On the basis of the best available evidence, the results of this meta-analysis provide evidence that pilocarpine offers statistically significant clinical benefits for the symptomatic treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. However, the authors of this systematic review found the best available evidence in the meta-analysis in 3 studies, 1 of which showed no effect. The authors of this systematic review suggest that these patients take 5 milligrams of pilocarpine 3 times daily, and that there is need for further study. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prevalence of oral mucositis, dry mouth, and dysphagia in advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Sebastiano; Aielli, Federica; Adile, Claudio; Ferrera, Patrizia; Valle, Alessandro; Fusco, Flavio; Caruselli, Amanda; Cartoni, Claudio; Massimo, Pizzuto; Masedu, Francesco; Valenti, Marco; Porzio, Giampiero

    2015-11-01

    Oral symptoms can be a sign of an underlying systemic condition and have a significant impact on quality of life, nutrition, and cost of care, while these lesions are often studied in the context of cancer treatment. However, information regarding oral symptoms in advanced cancer patients is poor. The aim of this multicenter study was to determine the prevalence and the characteristics of oral symptoms in a large population of advanced cancer patients. A consecutive sample of patients with advanced cancer for a period of 6 months was prospectively assessed for an observational study. At time of admission, the epidemiological characteristics, surgery-radiotherapy of head and neck, and oncologic treatments in the last month were recorded. The presence of mucositis, dry mouth, and dysphagia was assessed by clinical examination and patients' report and their intensity recorded. Patients were also asked whether they had limitation on nutrition of hydration due to the local condition. Six hundred sixty-nine patients were surveyed in the period taken into consideration. The mean age was 72.1 years (SD 12.3), and 342 patients were males. The primary tumors are listed in Table 1. The prevalence of mucositis was 22.3 %. The symptom relevantly reduced the ingestion of food or fluids and was statistically associated with the Karnofsky level and head and neck cancer. The prevalence of dry mouth was 40.4 %, with a mean intensity of 5.4 (SD 2.1). Several drugs were concomitantly given, particularly opioids (78 %), corticosteroids (75.3 %), and diuretics (70.2 %). Various and nonhomogeneous treatments were given for dry mouth, that was statistically associated with current or recent chemotherapy, and hematological tumors. The prevalence of dysphagia was 15.4 % with a mean intensity of 5.34 (SD 3). Dysphagia for liquids was observed in 52.4 % of cases. A high level of limitation for oral nutrition due to dysphagia was found, and in 53.4 % of patients, alternative routes to the oral

  4. Prevalence of xerostomia in patients attending Shorish dental speciality in Sulaimani city

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients and explore the possible risk factors and symptoms associated with this condition. Patient and Methods: The prevalence of xerostomia and its associations were investigated among patients (n=1132) who were visiting the department of oral medicine at shorish dental speciality in sulaimani city. The age range was between 10-79 years. 512 (45.2%) of participants were males and 620 (54.8%) were females. The data collected were age, sex, systemic diseases, medications and habit of smoking. Logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to investigate the association of xerostomia with age, systemic diseases and medications and Chi Square test was also used to analyze the data. Results: Prevalence of xerostomia was 16.07%. Prevalence of xerostomia was significantly higher among females (19.51%) than males (11.91%) (P=0.001). The most common diseases with the highest prevalence of xerostomia were psychological disorders (57.14%) followed by diabetes mellitus (53.84%), neurological disorders (40%), thyroid disorders (37.5%) and hypertension (36.48%). The most common medication with the highest prevalence of xerostomia was antihistamine (66.66%) followed by psychotherapeutic medications (60%), pain medications (55.88%), endocrinologic agents (51.21%), antidyslipidic agents (50%) and antihypertensive medication (38.98%). Xerostomia was significantly associated with ageing (OR: 1.02, P=0.000), systemic diseases (OR: 2.80, P=0.000) and medications (OR: 5.17, P=0.000). There was a high prevalence of reported symptoms of xerostomia and these symptoms were more prevalent among females, Prevalence of xerostomia was higher in heavy smoker patients (19.48%) than non smoker patients but not significantly (16.14%) (p= 0.44). Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of xerostomia among dental patients; xerostomia was significantly more

  5. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Francisco J; Silvestre-Rangil, Javier; López-Jornet, Pía

    2015-05-16

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is mainly found in middle aged or elderly women and is characterized by intense burning or itching sensation of the tongue or other regions of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by xerostomia and dysgeusia. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during the evening and at night. Although BMS classically has been attributed to a range of factors, in recent years evidence has been obtained relating it peripheral (sensory C and/or trigeminal nerve fibers) or central neuropathic disturbances (involving the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system). The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Patient management is based on the avoidance of causes of oral irritation and the provision of psychological support. Drug treatment for burning sensation in primary BMS of peripheral origin can consist of topical clonazepam, while central type BMS appears to improve with the use of antidepressants such as duloxetine, antiseizure drugs such as gabapentin, or amisulpride.

  6. Clinical characterization of women with burning mouth syndrome in a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shikha; Carlén, Anette; Wenneberg, Bengt; Jontell, Mats; Hägglin, Catharina

    2018-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic orofacial pain disorder that is defined by a burning sensation in the oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying factors, clinical characteristics and self-reported oral and general health factors associated with BMS. Fifty-six women with BMS (mean age: 67.7) and their age-matched controls were included in the study. A general questionnaire, an OHRQL index and BMS-specific questionnaires were used. Each subject underwent an oral examination. The mean severity of the BMS symptoms (VAS, 0-100) was 66.2 (SD 19.7). Overall, 45% of the patients reported taste disturbances. More of the patients than the controls rated their general health, oral health and life situation as 'less satisfactory'. The patients also reported more frequently on-going medications, diseases/disorders, xerostomia, allergy and skin diseases. Except for more bruxofacets among the patients, there were no significant differences regarding signs of parafunction. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, xerostomia and skin diseases showed the strongest prediction for BMS and no significant effect was found for medication, allergy or bruxofacets. Skin diseases and xerostomia but not parafunction were strongly associated with BMS. Our findings provide the basis for additional studies to elucidate the causal factors of BMS.

  7. Treatment planning constraints to avoid xerostomia in head-and-neck radiotherapy: an independent test of QUANTEC criteria using a prospectively collected dataset.

    PubMed

    Moiseenko, Vitali; Wu, Jonn; Hovan, Allan; Saleh, Ziad; Apte, Aditya; Deasy, Joseph O; Harrow, Stephen; Rabuka, Carman; Muggli, Adam; Thompson, Anna

    2012-03-01

    The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50 patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D(50) = 32.4 Gy and and γ = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment Planning Constraints to Avoid Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Radiotherapy: An Independent Test of QUANTEC Criteria Using a Prospectively Collected Dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Moiseenko, Vitali, E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca; Wu, Jonn; Hovan, Allan

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: The severe reduction of salivary function (xerostomia) is a common complication after radiation therapy for head-and-neck cancer. Consequently, guidelines to ensure adequate function based on parotid gland tolerance dose-volume parameters have been suggested by the QUANTEC group and by Ortholan et al. We perform a validation test of these guidelines against a prospectively collected dataset and compared with a previously published dataset. Methods and Materials: Whole-mouth stimulated salivary flow data from 66 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy at the British Columbia Cancer Agency (BCCA) were measured, and treatment planning data were abstracted. Flow measurements were collected from 50more » patients at 3 months, and 60 patients at 12-month follow-up. Previously published data from a second institution, Washington University in St. Louis (WUSTL), were used for comparison. A logistic model was used to describe the incidence of Grade 4 xerostomia as a function of the mean dose of the spared parotid gland. The rate of correctly predicting the lack of xerostomia (negative predictive value [NPV]) was computed for both the QUANTEC constraints and Ortholan et al. recommendation to constrain the total volume of both glands receiving more than 40 Gy to less than 33%. Results: Both datasets showed a rate of xerostomia of less than 20% when the mean dose to the least-irradiated parotid gland is kept to less than 20 Gy. Logistic model parameters for the incidence of xerostomia at 12 months after therapy, based on the least-irradiated gland, were D{sub 50} = 32.4 Gy and and {gamma} = 0.97. NPVs for QUANTEC guideline were 94% (BCCA data), and 90% (WUSTL data). For Ortholan et al. guideline NPVs were 85% (BCCA) and 86% (WUSTL). Conclusion: These data confirm that the QUANTEC guideline effectively avoids xerostomia, and this is somewhat more effective than constraints on the volume receiving more than 40 Gy.« less

  9. Dry Mouth - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Treatment - العربية (Arabic) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文) Expand Section Dry ... Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Dry ...

  10. Bioadhesive, rheological, lubricant and other aspects of an oral gel formulation intended for the treatment of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, H M; Deasy, P B; Busquet, M; Torrance, A A

    2004-07-08

    Xerostomia is commonly known as 'dry mouth' and is characterised by a reduction or loss in salivary production. A bioadhesive gel for its localised treatment was formulated to help enhance the residence time of the product, based on the polymer Carbopol 974P. The bioadhesion of various formulations was evaluated on different mucosal substrates, as simulations of the oral mucosa of xerostomic patients. Depending on the type of model substrate used, the mechanism of bioadhesion could alter. When the rheology of various formulations was examined, changes in bioadhesion were more easily interpreted, as the presence of other excipients caused an alteration in the rheological profile, with a change from a fully expanded and partially cross-linked system to an entangled system. Improving the lubricity of the product was considered important, with optimum incorporation of vegetable oil causing a desirable lowering of the observed friction of the product. The final complex formulation developed also contained salivary levels of electrolytes to help remineralisation of teeth, fluoride to prevent caries, zinc to enhance taste sensation, triclosan as the main anti-microbial/anti-inflammatory agent and non-cariogenic sweeteners with lemon flavour to increase the palatability of the product while stimulating any residual salivary function.

  11. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na+/H+ exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na+/H+ exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia. PMID:28814903

  12. Ixeris dentata extract regulates salivary secretion through the activation of aquaporin-5 and prevents diabetes-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Sang-Won; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Ixeris dentata (IXD) extract to improve the salivation rate in dry mouth induced by diabetes. Both control and diabetic rats were treated with a sublingual spray of either water or IXD extract to determine the effects of IXD on salivation. During the study, we observed that IXD extract treatment increased the salivary flow rate in diabetic rats. The expression of α-amylase was increased significantly in both saliva and glandular tissue lysates of IXD-treated diabetic rats. Aquaporin-5 protein expression was abnormally low in the salivary glands of diabetic rats, which increased hyposalivation and led to salivary dysfunction. However, a single oral spray of IXD extract drastically increased the expression of aquaporin-5 in salivary gland acinar and ductal cells in diabetic rats. Moreover, IXD extract induced expression of Na + /H + exchangers in the salivary gland, which suggests that Na + /H + exchangers modulate salivary secretions and aid in the fluid-secretion mechanism. Furthermore, transient treatment with IXD extract increased the intracellular calcium in human salivary gland cells. Taken together, these results suggest the potential value of an IXD extract for the treatment of diabetes-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia.

  13. Xerostomia relates to the degree of asthma control.

    PubMed

    Alcázar Navarrete, Bernardino; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Romero Palacios, Pedro José

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the relationships between xerostomia and the use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). The main objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xerostomia in a respiratory outpatient clinic and its relationship with bronchial asthma and ICS use. A cross-sectional observational study of patients recruited in an outpatient setting divided them according to previous diagnoses of bronchial asthma. Data about pulmonary function, concomitant medication, medical comorbidities, Xerostomia Inventory test (XI test), and the degree of asthma control by ACT (asthma control test) were collected for each patient. A linear regression model was applied, using the XI score as dependent variable and the ACT score as independent variable. The 57 patients were divided into asthmatics (40 patients, 70.2%) and control group without asthma (17, 29.8%). The prevalence of xerostomia was 87.7% (50 patients), with no differences between the study groups or current dose of ICS. In the asthmatic group, patients with uncontrolled asthma had worse XI scores than those with partially or totally controlled asthma (30.43 ± 8.71 vs. 24.92 ± 8.08; P < 0.05). In a logistic regression model, the XI test was significantly associated to ACT scores with a moderately strong correlation (r = 0.55; P = 0.005) after adjusting for the current daily dose of ICS. Xerostomia is a common symptom in the ambulatory setting. There is a moderate relationship between the degree of asthma control and the severity of xerostomia. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Xerostomia Among Older Adults With Low Income: Nuisance or Warning?

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Shin; Kim, Hee-Gerl; Moreno, Kim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of xerostomia and related factors among low-income older adults in South Korea. A cross-sectional, population-based study. Using data from the Home Healthcare Service Project, a population-based interview survey with home healthcare service, a total of 9,840 adults 65 years of age and older were assessed for the presence of xerostomia in association with aspects of health lifestyles, chronic disease, oral conditions, and oral function. Overall, 40% of participants reported experiencing xerostomia. Multivariate regression analysis indicated xerostomia was more likely to be reported by women having symptoms of gingival bleeding/pain, having difficulty swallowing liquid or chewing solid food, and having multiple chronic diseases. Interestingly, older adults who live alone and drink alcohol (two or more times per week) reported fewer problems with xerostomia. Increased focus on the detrimental health consequences of xerostomia would make treatment a higher priority. Improved assessment of at-risk populations, particularly among the elderly, could lead to earlier preventative interventions, lessening the negative impact on quality of life. Health professionals along with the general public need increased knowledge about the detrimental effects of xerostomia on overall health. There is a need for earlier assessment and treatment to facilitate optimal health promotion and disease prevention. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  15. 76 FR 72713 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... pitfall to avermectins is central nervous system (CNS) toxicities in herding dogs. As a result, all new... containing the canine wild-type gene (Yancy 2 line). The paired mouse system can be utilized to assess the... xerostomia (dry mouth) that is caused by immune system attack on moisture producing salivary glands...

  16. Safety and efficacy of an intra-oral electrostimulator for the relief of dry mouth in patients with chronic graft versus host disease: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zeevi, Itai; Luboshitz-Shon, Noa; Dakwar, Nasri; Wolff, Andy; Shapira, Michael Y.; Or, Reuven

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) often suffer from dry mouth and oral mucosal lesions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety of an intra-oral electrostimulator (GenNarino) in symptomatic cGVHD patients. The secondary objective was to study the impact on the salivary gland involvement of cGVHD patients. Study Design: This paper presents a case series. The study included patients treated for 4 weeks, randomly assigned to the active device and then crossed-over to a sham-device or vice versa. The patients and clinicians were blind to the treatment delivered. Data regarding oral mucosal and salivary gland involvement were collected. Results: Six patients were included in this series. Most of the intraoral areas with manifestations of cGVHD were not in contact with the GenNarino device. Two patients developed mild mucosal lesions in areas in contact with the GenNarino during the study. However, only one of them had a change in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) score for oral cGVHD. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate increased in 4 out of the 5 patients included in this analysis. Symptoms of dry mouth and general oral comfort improved. Conclusion: This study suggests that GenNarino is safe in cGVHD patients with respect to oral tissues. Furthermore the use of GenNarino resulted in subjective and objective improvements in dry mouth symptoms. A large scale study is needed to confirm the impact and safety of GenNarino on systemic cGVHD. Key words:Dry mouth, graft versus host disease, electrostimulation, oral mucosa, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24121920

  17. An evaluation of the effect of acupuncture on salivary pH and the Xerostomia Inventory score innasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with chemoradiation-induced xerostomia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihardja, H.; Susworo, R.; Srilestari, A.; Umri, H.

    2017-08-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is a distressing side-effect of radiation for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) treatment, commonly occurring in almost 100% of patients who undergo this procedure. It has been proposed that acupuncture can be used to treat radiation-induced xerostomia. To the best of our knowledge, the current study constitutes the first acupuncture research that has been conducted in Indonesia on xerostomia following chemo-irradiation in NPC patients. Twenty-five patients with xerostomia due tochemo-irradiation for NPC were divided randomly into three groups of auriculopuncture (group A), body acupuncture (group B), and combination acupuncture (group C). The subjects were evaluated according to Xerostomia Inventory scores before and after six and 12 acupuncture treatments. Salivary pH was determined before and after the 12th acupuncture treatment using a saliva check buffer kit. The success rate of acupuncture therapy in group A was 71-100%, 68-89% ingroup B, and 89-100% in group C (p > 0.050). The mean salivary pH increased after therapy from 6.18±0.60 to 6.83±4.48 in group A, from 6.16±0.54 to 6.67±2.26 in group B, and from 6.00±0.40 to 6.60±2.23 in group C (p > 0.050). After the 12th acupuncture therapy session, the mean Xerostomia Inventory score decreased from 35.70±5.14 prior to acupuncture therapy to 22.89±16.15 after it in group A, with corresponding decreases of 34.70±7.77 to 20.89±10.06 in group B, and of 36.70±5.25 to 21.44±8.97 in group C (p > 0.050). Auriculopuncture, body acupuncture, and combination acupuncture had the same effect of increasing salivary pH and decreasing the Xerostomia Inventory score in patients with xerostomia following chemo irradiation for NPC.

  18. Low basal salivary flow and burning mouth syndrome: new evidence in this enigmatic pathology.

    PubMed

    Spadari, Francesco; Venesia, Paolo; Azzi, Lorenzo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Costantino, Dario; Croveri, Fabio; Farronato, Davide; Tagliabue, Angelo; Tettamanti, Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome remains a puzzling condition. One symptom commonly associated with the burning sensation is xerostomia. The current study measured basal and stimulated salivary flow in a group of burning mouth syndrome patients. Three groups of patients were recruited: 44 burning mouth syndrome patients, 27 oral lichen planus patients and 40 healthy patients. We chose to measure basal salivary flow and stimulated salivary flow in the three groups of patients using the 'spitting' method. Thus, the patients were asked to spit every minute for 5 min. Afterwards, they were asked to repeat the procedure a second time, but a drop of citric acid was positioned on their tongue every minute to stimulate salivary secretion. After 14 days, the same procedure was repeated for 15 min. Although there was no significant difference between the burning mouth syndrome group and the other two groups regarding the stimulated volumes, an important difference was found in the basal volumes, with the burning mouth syndrome patients showing lower values. The outcomes of our research demonstrate the presence of very low basal salivary flow in burning mouth syndrome patients compared with the other two groups, but the stimulated salivary flow was equal, if not higher, in the burning mouth syndrome patients. This study contributes new topics for further investigation of a solution to the very mysterious pathology represented by burning mouth syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Parotid gland mean dose as a xerostomia predictor in low-dose domains.

    PubMed

    Gabryś, Hubert Szymon; Buettner, Florian; Sterzing, Florian; Hauswald, Henrik; Bangert, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Xerostomia is a common side effect of radiotherapy resulting from excessive irradiation of salivary glands. Typically, xerostomia is modeled by the mean dose-response characteristic of parotid glands and prevented by mean dose constraints to either contralateral or both parotid glands. The aim of this study was to investigate whether normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models based on the mean radiation dose to parotid glands are suitable for the prediction of xerostomia in a highly conformal low-dose regime of modern intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) techniques. We present a retrospective analysis of 153 head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy. The Lyman Kutcher Burman (LKB) model was used to evaluate predictive power of the parotid gland mean dose with respect to xerostomia at 6 and 12 months after the treatment. The predictive performance of the model was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and precision-recall (PR) curves. Average mean doses to ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands were 25.4 Gy and 18.7 Gy, respectively. QUANTEC constraints were met in 74% of patients. Mild to severe (G1+) xerostomia prevalence at both 6 and 12 months was 67%. Moderate to severe (G2+) xerostomia prevalence at 6 and 12 months was 20% and 15%, respectively. G1 + xerostomia was predicted reasonably well with area under the ROC curve ranging from 0.69 to 0.76. The LKB model failed to provide reliable G2 + xerostomia predictions at both time points. Reduction of the mean dose to parotid glands below QUANTEC guidelines resulted in low G2 + xerostomia rates. In this dose domain, the mean dose models predicted G1 + xerostomia fairly well, however, failed to recognize patients at risk of G2 + xerostomia. There is a need for the development of more flexible models able to capture complexity of dose response in this dose regime.

  20. Assessment of radiation-induced xerostomia: validation of the Italian version of the xerostomia questionnaire in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Federica; Groff, Elena; Bastiani, Luca; Fattori, Bruno; Sotti, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Xerostomia is the most common acute and late side effect of radiation treatment for head and neck cancer. Affecting taste perception, chewing, swallowing and speech, xerostomia is also the major cause of decreased quality of life. The aims of this study were to validate the Italian translation of the self-reported eight-item xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) and determine its psychometric properties in patients treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted in the Radiotherapy Unit of the Veneto Institute of Oncology - IOV in Padua. The XQ was translated according to international guidelines and filled out by 102 patients. Construct validity was assessed using principal component analysis, internal consistency using Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability at 1-month interval using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Criterion-related validity was evaluated to compare the Italian version of XQ with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and its Head and Neck Cancer Module (QLQ-H&N35). Cronbach's α for the Italian version of XQ was strong at α = 0.93, test-retest reliability was also strong (0.79) and factor analysis confirmed that the questionnaire was one-dimensional. Criterion-related validity was excellent with high association with the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 xerostomia and sticky saliva scales. The Italian version of XQ has excellent psychometric properties and can be used to evaluate the impact of emerging radiation delivery techniques aiming at preventing xerostomia.

  1. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fox, Nyssa F; Xiao, Christopher; Sood, Amit J; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand; Day, Terry A

    2015-07-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common morbidities of radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer. However, in spite of its high rate of occurrence, there are few effective therapies available for its management. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of hyperbaric oxygen on the treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia and xerostomia-related quality of life. PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched for retrospective or prospective trials assessing subjective xerostomia, objective xerostomia, or xerostomia-related quality of life. To be included, patients had to have received radiation therapy for head and neck cancer, but not hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). The systematic review initially identified 293 potential articles. Seven studies, comprising 246 patients, qualified for inclusion. Of the included studies, 6 of 7 were prospective in nature, and 1 was a retrospective study; and 2 of the 7 were controlled studies. HBOT may have utility for treating radiation-induced xerostomia refractory to other therapies. Additionally, HBOT may induce long-term improvement in subjective assessments of xerostomia, whereas other therapies currently available only provide short-term relief. The strength of these conclusions is limited by the lack of randomized controlled clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An overview of burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Carmen; Di Stasio, Dario; Petruzzi, Massimo; Lauritano, Dorina; Gentile, Enrica; Guida, Agostino; Maio, Claudio; Tammaro, Mariasofia; Serpico, Rosario; Lucchese, Alberta

    2016-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterised by the presence of a burning sensation in the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinically apparent mucosal sign. It occurs more commonly in older women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palates. Besides the burning sensation, patients with BMS may complain of unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. The exact pathophysiology of primary BMS remains unknown. A major challenge for the clinician is the treatment of BMS: identifying possible causative factors is the first step, but BMS is often idiopathic. Drug therapy, in addition to behavioural therapy and psychotherapy, may help to eliminate the symptoms. Considering the growing incidence of BMS in older people, further research is required to determine the true efficacy of current management strategies for patients with this disorder.

  3. Metabolic imaging biomarkers of postradiotherapy xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Blake; Schwartz, David L; Dong, Lei

    2012-08-01

    Xerostomia is a major complication of head and neck radiotherapy (RT). Available xerostomia measures remain flawed. [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose-labeled positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) is routinely used for staging and response assessment of head and neck cancer. We investigated quantitative measurement of parotid gland FDG uptake as a potential biomarker for post-RT xerostomia. Ninety-eight locally advanced head and neck cancer patients receiving definitive RT underwent baseline and post-RT FDG-PET-CT on a prospective imaging trial. A separate validation cohort of 14 patients underwent identical imaging while prospectively enrolled in a second trial collecting sialometry and patient-reported outcomes. Radiation dose and pre- and post-RT standard uptake values (SUVs) for all voxels contained within parotid gland ROI were deformably registered. Average whole-gland or voxel-by-voxel models incorporating parotid D(Met) (defined as the pretreatment parotid SUV weighted by dose) accurately predicted posttreatment changes in parotid FDG uptake (e.g., fractional parotid SUV). Fractional loss of parotid FDG uptake closely paralleled early parotid toxicity defined by posttreatment salivary output (p < 0.01) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer xerostomia scores (p < 0.01). In this pilot series, loss of parotid FDG uptake was strongly associated with acute clinical post-RT parotid toxicity. D(Met) may potentially be used to guide function-sparing treatment planning. Prospective validation of FDG-PET-CT as a convenient, quantifiable imaging biomarker of parotid function is warranted and ongoing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of parotid gland irradiation in the development of severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: Temporal patterns, risk factors, and testing the QUANTEC guidelines.

    PubMed

    Owosho, Adepitan A; Thor, Maria; Oh, Jung Hun; Riaz, Nadeem; Tsai, C Jillian; Rosenberg, Haley; Varthis, Spyridon; Yom, Sae Hee K; Huryn, Joseph M; Lee, Nancy Y; Deasy, Joseph O; Estilo, Cherry L

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate temporal patterns and potential risk factors for severe hyposalivation (xerostomia) after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC), and to test the two QUANTEC (Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic) guidelines. Sixty-three patients treated at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center between 2006 and 2015, who had a minimum of three stimulated whole mouth saliva flow measurements (WMSFM) at a median follow-up time of 11 (range: 3-24) months were included. Xerostomia was defined as WMSFM ≤25% compared to relative pre-radiotherapy. Patients were stratified into three follow-up groups: 1: <6 months; 2: 6-11 months; and 3: 12-24 months. Potential risk factors were investigated (Mann-Whitney U test), and relative risks (RRs) assessed for the two QUANTEC guidelines. The incidence of xerostomia was 27%, 14% and 17% at follow-up time points 1, 2 and 3, respectively. At <6 months, the mean dose to the contralateral and the ipsilateral parotid glands (Dmean contra , Dmean ipsi ) was higher among patients with xerostomia (Dmean contra : 25 Gy vs. 15 Gy; Dmean ipsi : 44 Gy vs. 25 Gy). Patients with xerostomia had higher pre-RT WMSFM (3.5 g vs. 2.4 g), and had been treated more frequently with additional chemotherapy (93% vs. 63%; all 4 variables: p < 0.05). At 6-11 months, Dmean contra among patients with xerostomia was higher compared to patients without (26 Gy vs. 20 Gy). The RR as specified by the one- and two-gland QUANTEC guideline was 2.3 and 1.4 for patients with <6 months follow-up time, and 2.0 and 1.2 for patients with longer follow-up (6-11 + 6-24 months). Xerostomia following IMRT peaks within six months post-radiotherapy and fades with time. Limiting the mean dose to both parotid glands (ipsilateral <25 Gy, contralateral <25 Gy) and reducing the use of chemotherapy will likely decrease the rate of xerostomia. Both QUANTEC guidelines are effective in

  5. Effect of a 2% topical chamomile application for treating burning mouth syndrome: a controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Sara; Pons-Fuster, Alvaro; López-Jornet, Pia

    2016-08-01

    The treatments for burning mouth syndrome (BMS) proposed to date have been varied but have only achieved limited efficacy. Chamomile has analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical applications of 2% chamomile gel in comparison with a placebo for the treatment of BMS. The study was designed as a prospective randomized placebo-controlled double-blind monocentric study. A total of 62 patients with idiopathic BMS were divided into two groups: Group A received applications of a 2% chamomile gel, and Group B (placebo) were administered a placebo; both treatments were applied twice daily for 1 month. Three variables were evaluated at base line, 15 and 30 days: pain (assessed using a visual analogue scale [VAS]), xerostomia severity (Xerostomia Inventory), and oral quality of life (assessed by means of the Oral Health Impact Profile-14). A total of 57 patients completed the study. Pain, xerostomia, and quality of life underwent improvements with statistical significance at 15 and 30 days in both groups (P < 0.001). But when the two groups were compared, differences in VAS pain were not significant (P = 0.847), nor were xerostomia severity (P = 0.536), or oral quality of life (P = 0.076). The chamomile gel product was well tolerated. As treatment with chamomile and the placebo produced similar outcomes, the efficacy of 2% chamomile gel for treating BMS appears questionable. However, further studies with larger patient samples are needed to confirm this. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Significance and Implications of Patient-reported Xerostomia in Sjögren's Syndrome: Findings From the National Institutes of Health Cohort.

    PubMed

    Billings, Monisha; Dye, Bruce A; Iafolla, Timothy; Baer, Alan N; Grisius, Margaret; Alevizos, Ilias

    2016-10-01

    Xerostomia is a chief complaint of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). However, newer proposals for SS classification remove xerostomia and hyposalivation from the criteria list. Given these developments and the importance of patient-centered research outcomes, we sought to evaluate the utility of patient-reported xerostomia with implications for classification criteria, and clinical trials targeting SS treatment modalities. A nested case-control study was designed within The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research/National Institutes of Health (NIDCR/NIH) SS Cohort - one of the largest SS cohorts in the US. Clinical characteristics of those with and without xerostomia in SS and other salivary gland dysfunctions were compared. Several analytical methods were employed, including multivariable logistic regression modeling. The NIDCR/NIH Sjögren's Syndrome Clinic has an open cohort with ongoing enrollment since 1984. This open cohort comprised of 2046 participants by August 27, 2015. Baseline data of 701 SS, 355 Sicca, and 247 ISS participants within the source cohort were analyzed. Xerostomia was highest among SS participants (87.4%, 95% CI: 84.8%-89.8%) compared to Sicca (72.4%, 95% CI: 67.4%-77.0%, p<0.001) and ISS groups (38.1%, 95% CI: 32.0%-44.4%, p<0.001). Those with xerostomia were more likely to have SS than Sicca/ISS (OR=4.98, 95% CI: 3.78-6.56). The ability of xerostomia to screen for SS among those with salivary gland dysfunction was higher than screening for Sicca/ISS. Screening diagnostics of xerostomia were of greater utility compared to hyposalivation. After adjusting for confounding in multivariable modeling, SS participants with xerostomia were more likely to be White (Black/African Americans (OR: 0.40, 95% CI: 0.23-0.68, p-value=0.001) and Asians (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.96, p-value=0.038) were less likely to have xerostomia compared to Whites), have dry eye symptoms for >3months (OR: 5.80, 95% CI: 3.62-9.28, p-value <0.001), a

  7. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose–response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) and minor salivary glands within the oral cavity, and the contribution of radiotherapy-related effect on important swallowing structures causing dysphagia. Recommendations for dose limits to these organs, based on measurements of xerostomia and dysphagia following radiotherapy, are provided here. PMID:27538846

  8. Risk factors, hyposalivation and impact of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Niklander, Sven; Veas, Laura; Barrera, Cristina; Fuentes, Flavio; Chiappini, Giuliana; Marshall, Maureen

    2017-01-16

    To determine xerostomia-related frequency, factors, salivary flow rates and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) of patients attending the Universidad Andrés Bello Dental School Clinic, in the city of Viña del Mar, Chile. The study involved 566 patients assessed with xerostomia, based on a single standardized questionnaire. The severity and impact of xerostomia on OHRQoL was assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the short version of the Oral Health Impact Profile Questionnaire (OHIP-14sp), respectively. Stimulated and non-stimulated salivary flow rates were obtained from a sample of patients. Xerostomia was reported in 61 patients (10.8%), comprising 50 women (83.3%) and 11 men (16.7%) (p < 0.013). The prevalence was 13% among the women and 6.1% among the men. Gender, age and medication were found to be independent risk factors for the development of xerostomia. Hyposalivation was found in 10 of the 35 patients with xerostomia (28.6%) and in 2 patients without it (p < 0.011). Patients with xerostomia had a reduced OHRQoL, compared with patients without xerostomia, as shown by the total OHIP-14sp score (p < 0.001). Xerostomia was a common, potentially debilitating condition with a major impact on the OHRQoL of a patient population attending a university-based dental clinic. Hyposalivation was present in almost 30% of the patients who complained of xerostomia. It is important that general dentists be aware of this condition, so that they can provide patients with a good diagnosis, treatment and follow-up.

  9. Different therapeutic strategies for burning mouth syndrome: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Marino, Roberto; Torretta, Sara; Capaccio, Pasquale; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Spadari, Francesco

    2010-09-01

    To compare different therapeutic supportive approaches in patients with burning mouth syndrome. A prospective study was carried out for this purpose. The study involved 56 patients with burning mouth syndrome. They were randomly assigned to treatment with capsaicin, alpha-lipoic acid or lysozyme-lactoperoxidase (test drugs) or boric acid (control group). Symptoms were scored after 60 days treatment and 60 days after drug discontinuation. At the end of the treatment period, there was a significant reduction in the symptom scores of all of the patients who received the test drugs (P<0.01), and at the end of the follow-up period in the test groups as a whole (P<0.01); the reduction was not significant when considering each test group separately after the treatment period. All of the treatments were more effective than boric acid and there was no significant difference in the symptom scores of the control group at either of the study time-points. Our results demonstrate the similar effectiveness of capsaicin and alpha-lipoic acid in controlling the symptoms of burning mouth syndrome. Lysozyme-lactoperoxidase may be effective in the supportive care of BMS patients with xerostomia. The transitory effect observed after discontinuing drug administration justifies the use of prolonged therapy in chronically affected patients. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients.

    PubMed

    López-Pintor, Rosa María; Casañas, Elisabeth; González-Serrano, José; Serrano, Julia; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%-53.5% versus 0-30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection.

  11. IMRT for head and neck cancer: reducing xerostomia and dysphagia.

    PubMed

    Wang, XiaoShen; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-08-01

    Dysphagia and xerostomia are the main sequellae of chemoradiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and the main factors in reducing long-term patient quality of life. IMRT uses advanced technology to focus the high radiation doses on the targets and avoid irradiation of non-involved tissues. The decisions about sparing organs and tissues whose damage causes xerostomia and dysphagia depends on the evidence for dose-response relationships for the organs causing these sequellae. This paper discusses the evidence for the contribution of radiotherapy to xerostomia via damage of the major salivary glands (parotid and submandibular) and minor salivary glands within the oral cavity, and the contribution of radiotherapy-related effect on important swallowing structures causing dysphagia. Recommendations for dose limits to these organs, based on measurements of xerostomia and dysphagia following radiotherapy, are provided here. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  12. Sleep quality in patients with xerostomia: a prospective and randomized case-control study.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Jornet, Pia; Lucero Berdugo, Maira; Fernandez-Pujante, Alba; C, Castillo Felipe; Lavella C, Zamora; A, Pons-Fuster; J, Silvestre Rangil; Silvestre, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate sleep quality, anxiety/depression and quality-of-life in patients with xerostomia. Materials and methods This prospective, observational, cross-sectional study was conducted among a group of xerostomia patients (n = 30) compared with 30 matched control subjects. The following evaluation scales were used to assess the psychological profile of each patient: the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14), the Xerostomia Inventory, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results The PSQI obtained 5.3 3 ± 1.78 for patients with xerostomia compared with 4.26 ± 1.01 for control subjects (p = 0.006); ESS obtained 5.7 ± 2.1 for test patients vs 4.4 0 ± 1 for control subjects (p = 0.010). Statistical regression analysis showed that xerostomia was significantly associated with depression (p = 0.027). Conclusions Patients with xerostomia exhibited significant decreases in sleep quality compared with control subjects.

  13. Understanding of xerostomia and strategies for the development of artificial saliva.

    PubMed

    Kho, Hong-Seop

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is becoming a major issue in dental and medical clinics with an increase of aged population. Medication is the most common etiology of xerostomia, while the most severe xerostomia generally occurs in patients with a history of head and neck radiotherapy. Xerostomic patients usually suffer from diminished quality of life due to various symptoms and complications. Decreased salivary output is a definite objective sign, but oral mucosal wetness is a more reliable factor for the evaluation of xerostomia. At present there are no effective therapeutic methods for the treatment of xerostomia. Sialogogues may have problematic side effects and their therapeutic effects last only brief duration. Artificial saliva typically does not produce satisfactory results in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, further research and development of better therapeutic modalities are necessary. The basic concept for the development of ideal and functional artificial saliva is the mimicry of natural human saliva. We need proper candidate molecules and antimicrobial supplements to simulate the rheological and biological properties of human saliva. We also need better understanding of the interactions between the ingredients of artificial saliva themselves and between the ingredients and components of human saliva both in solution and on surface phases. In addition, we need accepted measures to evaluate the efficacy of artificial saliva. In conclusion, for the development of ideal artificial saliva, research based on the understanding of pathophysiology of xerostomia and knowledge about rheological and biological functions of human saliva are necessary.

  14. Self-reported oral health and xerostomia in adult patients with celiac disease versus a comparison group.

    PubMed

    van Gils, Tom; Bouma, Gerd; Bontkes, Hetty J; Mulder, Chris J J; Brand, Henk S

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of celiac disease (CD) on oral health and xerostomia. Members of the Dutch Celiac Society (n = 5522) were invited to complete an online questionnaire based on the Oral Health Impact Profile 14 (OHIP-14) and Xerostomia Inventory (XI). Acquaintances and partners of the CD respondents served as the comparison group. In total, data of 740 patients with CD and 270 comparison participants were evaluated. The median age of the responding patients with CD (55 years) was similar to the median age in the comparison group (53 years). Oral health problems, including aphthous stomatitis, painful mouth, and gingival problems, were more frequently reported by patients with CD. Mean OHIP-14 score (4.9 vs 2.6; P < .001) and the mean XI score (22.2 vs 17.2; P < .001) were higher in the CD group than in the comparison group. No significant effects of gender, age at CD diagnosis, or time on a gluten-free diet in mean OHIP-14 and XI scores were observed. This study showed that oral health problems are more commonly experienced in adult patients with CD than in the comparison group. Collaboration between dentists and gastroenterologists is recommended to increase detection of undiagnosed CD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Xerostomia on the Functional Capacity of Subjects with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lins E Silva, Marília; Carvalho, Camila Nunes; Carvalho, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares; Leão, Jair Carneiro; Duarte, Angela Luzia Pinto; Gueiros, Luiz Alcino

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the intensity of xerostomia and hyposalivation in subjects with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as well as the effects of these conditions on functional incapacity and disease activity. The study sample comprised 236 individuals of both sexes who had RA. All the individuals were submitted to clinical evaluation and unstimulated sialometry. Functional capacity was determined by using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), xerostomia was assessed using the Xerostomia Inventory, and disease activity was evaluated with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). The effect of Sjögren syndrome (SS) was analyzed, and the sample was divided into 2 groups: RA (191 subjects) and RA/SS (45 subjects). The Xerostomia Inventory showed positive and significant correlation with fatigue (r = 0.243; p < 0.0001), number of painful joints (r = 0.218; p = 0.001), HAQ (r = 0.279; p < 0.0001), and DAS28 (r = 0.156; p < 0.0001). On regression analysis, both xerostomia (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.84-8.23, p < 0.001) and DAS28 (for severe disease activity: OR 13.26, 95% CI 3.15-55.79, p < 0.001) showed influence on functional incapacity. Forty-five individuals (19.1%) presented with secondary SS, and having this diagnosis was not associated with disease activity or functional capacity. Xerostomia demonstrated an adverse effect on quality of life of subjects with RA, being associated with a reduction in functional capacity. In this clinical setting, xerostomia can be monitored as a marker of worse clinical evolution.

  16. A pragmatic evidence-based clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yohanan; Yoo, Timothy; Han, Peter; Liu, Yuan; Inman, Jared C

    2018-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a poorly understood disease process with no current standard of treatment. The goal of this article is to provide an evidence-based, practical, clinical algorithm as a guideline for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Using available evidence and clinical experience, a multi-step management algorithm was developed. A retrospective cohort study was then performed, following STROBE statement guidelines, comparing outcomes of patients who were managed using the algorithm and those who were managed without. Forty-seven patients were included in the study, with 21 (45%) managed using the algorithm and 26 (55%) managed without. The mean age overall was 60.4 ±16.5 years, and most patients (39, 83%) were female. Cohorts showed no statistical difference in age, sex, overall follow-up time, dysgeusia, geographic tongue, or psychiatric disorder; xerostomia, however, was significantly different, skewed toward the algorithm group. Significantly more non-algorithm patients did not continue care (69% vs. 29%, p =0.001). The odds ratio of not continuing care for the non-algorithm group compared to the algorithm group was 5.6 [1.6, 19.8]. Improvement in pain was significantly more likely in the algorithm group ( p =0.001), with an odds ratio of 27.5 [3.1, 242.0]. We present a basic clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome which may increase the likelihood of pain improvement and patient follow-up. Key words: Burning mouth syndrome, burning tongue, glossodynia, oral pain, oral burning, therapy, treatment.

  17. Geometric Image Biomarker Changes of the Parotid Gland Are Associated With Late Xerostomia.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Laan, Hans Paul; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Langendijk, Johannes A; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Sijtsema, Nanna M

    2017-12-01

    To identify a surrogate marker for late xerostomia 12 months after radiation therapy (Xer 12m ), according to information obtained shortly after treatment. Differences in parotid gland (PG) were quantified in image biomarkers (ΔIBMs) before and 6 weeks after radiation therapy in 107 patients. By performing stepwise forward selection, ΔIBMs that were associated with Xer 12m were selected. Subsequently other variables, such as PG dose and acute xerostomia scores, were added to improve the prediction performance. All models were internally validated. Prediction of Xer 12m based on PG surface reduction (ΔPG-surface) was good (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.82). Parotid gland dose was related to ΔPG-surface (P<.001, R 2  = 0.27). The addition of acute xerostomia scores to the ΔPG-surface improved the prediction of Xer 12m significantly, and vice versa. The final model including ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia had outstanding performance in predicting Xer 12m early after radiation therapy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.90). Parotid gland surface reduction was associated with late xerostomia. The early posttreatment model with ΔPG-surface and acute xerostomia scores can be considered as a surrogate marker for late xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sialendoscopy for Patients with Radioiodine-Induced Sialadenitis and Xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Bhayani, Mihir K; Acharya, Varun; Kongkiatkamon, Suchada; Farah, Sally; Roberts, Dianna B; Sterba, Jennifer; Chambers, Mark S; Lai, Stephen Y

    2015-07-01

    We examined outcomes in patients treated for radioactive iodine-induced sialadenitis (RAIS) and xerostomia with sialendoscopy. Data was prospectively collected for all patients undergoing sialendoscopy for RAIS from a single institution. Interventional details and intraoperative findings were recorded. Qualitative data were obtained through patient examination, telephone interviews, and use of a standard quality of life questionnaire, Xerostomia Questionnaire. Quantitative data were obtained from patients who underwent sialometry. Twenty-six patients (24 women and 2 men; median age, 43 years; age range, 19-57 years) underwent interventional sialendoscopy after conservative management of symptoms proved unsuccessful. Sialadenitis was present in 25 patients and xerostomia in 22 patients. Mucus plugging in the duct of the gland was the most common finding (22 patients) followed by stenosis (18 patients), inflammation (eight patients), and erythema (eight patients). Median follow-up time was 23.4±12.1 months. Sixteen patients (64%) reported complete resolution; seven (28%), partial resolution; one (4%), no change in symptoms; and one (4%), regression in RAIS-related symptoms. Patients subjectively noted the following regarding their xerostomia symptoms: seven (31.8%) had complete resolution; 10 (45.5%), partial resolution; four (18.2%), no change; and one (4.5%), regression. Statistical analysis of the available sialometry data revealed a statistically significant difference in saliva production at 6 months following sialendoscopy for unstimulated saliva production (p=0.028). Sialendoscopy is an effective treatment option for the management of RAIS and xerostomia refractory to conservative therapy and medical management. Patients in our cohort report durable improvement in symptoms after intervention.

  19. Xerostomia, Hyposalivation, and Salivary Flow in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Casañas, Elisabeth; Ramírez, Lucía; de Arriba, Lorenzo; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    The presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is frequent among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. It is not clear if the presence of xerostomia and hyposalivation is greater in DM than non-DM patients. The aims of this systematic review are (1) to compare the prevalence rates of xerostomia, (2) to evaluate the salivary flow rate, and (3) to compare the prevalence rates of hyposalivation in DM versus non-DM population. This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA group guidelines by performing systematic literature searches in biomedical databases from 1970 until January 18th, 2016. All studies showed higher prevalence of xerostomia in DM patients in relation to non-DM population, 12.5%–53.5% versus 0–30%. Studies that analyzed the quantity of saliva in DM population in relation to non-DM patients reported higher flow rates in non-DM than in DM patients. The variation flow rate among different studies in each group (DM/CG) is very large. Only one existing study showed higher hyposalivation prevalence in DM than non-DM patients (45% versus 2.5%). In addition, quality assessment showed the low quality of the existing studies. We recommend new studies that use more precise and current definitions concerning the determination and diagnosis of DM patients and salivary flow collection. PMID:27478847

  20. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G; Ouyang, Dai-qiao; Ringash, Jolie; Su, Yu-xiong

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patients was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Is Pilocarpine Effective in Preventing Radiation-Induced Xerostomia? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wei-fa; Liao, Gui-qing; Hakim, Samer G.

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of concomitant administration of pilocarpine on radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers. Methods and Materials: The PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials were searched to identify randomized, controlled trials studying the effect of concomitant administration of pilocarpine for radiation-induced xerostomia. Included trials were systematically reviewed, and quantifiable outcomes were pooled for meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included salivary flow, clinician-rated xerostomia grade, patient-reported xerostomia scoring, quality of life, and adverse effects. Results: Six prospective, randomized, controlled trials in 8 articles were included in this systematic review. The total number of patientsmore » was 369 in the pilocarpine group and 367 in the control group. Concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation could increase the unstimulated salivary flow rate in a period of 3 to 6 months after treatment, and also reduce the clinician-rated xerostomia grade. Patient-reported xerostomia was not significantly impacted by pilocarpine in the initial 3 months but was superior at 6 months. No significant difference of stimulated salivary flow rate could be confirmed between the 2 arms. Adverse effects of pilocarpine were mild and tolerable. Conclusions: The concomitant administration of pilocarpine during radiation increases unstimulated salivary flow rate and reduces clinician-rated xerostomia grade after radiation. It also relieves patients' xerostomia at 6 months and possibly at 12 months. However, pilocarpine has no effect on stimulated salivary flow rate.« less

  2. Analysis of factors influencing the development of xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Randall, Ken; Stevens, Jason; Yepes, Juan Fernando; Randall, Marcus E; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Feddock, Jonathan; Xi, Jing; Kryscio, Richard J; Miller, Craig S

    2013-06-01

    Factors influencing xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were assessed. A 6-week study of 32 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients was performed. Subjects completed the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and provided stimulated saliva (SS) at baseline, week 2 and at end of IMRT. Influence of SS flow rate (SSFR), calcium and mucin 5b (MUC5b) concentrations and radiation dose on xerostomia was determined. HNC subjects experienced mean SSFR decline of 36% by visit 2 (N = 27; P = .012) and 57% by visit 3 (N = 20; P = .0004). Concentrations of calcium and MUC5b increased, but not significantly during IMRT (P > .05). Xerostomia correlated most with decreasing salivary flow rate as determined by Spearman correlations (P < .04) and linear mixed models (P < .0001). Although IMRT is sparing to the parotid glands, it has an early effect on SSFR and the constituents in saliva in a manner that is associated with the perception of xerostomia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of Factors Influencing the Development of Xerostomia during Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Ken; Stevens, Jason; Yepes, Juan Fernando; Randall, Marcus E.; Kudrimoti, Mahesh; Feddock, Jonathan; Xi, Jing; Kryscio, Richard J.; Miller, Craig S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Factors influencing xerostomia during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) were assessed. METHODS A 6-week study of 32 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients was performed. Subjects completed the Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and provided stimulated saliva (SS) at baseline, week two and at end of IMRT. Influence of SS flow rate (SSFR), calcium and mucin 5b (MUC5b) concentrations and radiation dose on xerostomia was determined. RESULTS HNC subjects experienced mean SSFR decline of 36% by visit two (N=27; p=0.012) and 57% by visit three (N=20; p=0.0004), Concentrations of calcium and MUC5b increased, but not significantly during IMRT (p>0.05). Xerostomia correlated most with decreasing salivary flow rate as determined by Spearman correlations (p<0.04) and linear mixed models (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Although IMRT is sparing to the parotid glands, it has an early effect on SSFR and the constituents in saliva in a manner that is associated with the perception of xerostomia. PMID:23523462

  4. Trismus, xerostomia and nutrition status in nasopharyngeal carcinoma survivors treated with radiation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-J; Chen, S-C; Wang, C-P; Fang, Y-Y; Lee, Y-H; Lou, P-J; Ko, J-Y; Chiang, C-C; Lai, Y-H

    2016-05-01

    The aims of the study were to: (1) examine levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status; (2) compare levels of trismus, xerostomia and nutritional status in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) receiving different types of radiation modalities; and (3) identify factors related to NPC survivors' risk status for malnutrition and existing malnutrition. A cross-sectional study with consecutive sampling was conducted. NPC survivors were recruited from otolaryngology/oncology outpatient clinics in a medical centre in Northern Taiwan. Study measures included (1) Mandibular Function Impairment Questionnaire, (2) Xerostomia Questionnaire, (3) Mini Nutrition Assessment, (4) Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale - Depression subscale, and (5) Symptom Severity Scale. A total of 110 subjects were recruited. Those receiving intensity-modulated radiation therapy had less trismus and xerostomia than patients receiving two-dimensional radiation therapy. Patients with female gender, advanced stage, completion of treatments within 1 year, higher levels of depression, more severe trismus and higher symptom severity tended to have malnutrition or were at risk of malnutrition. Trismus and xerostomia are long-term problems in some NPC survivors and may contribute to malnutrition. To better manage a patient's trismus and xerostomia and to enhance nutritional status, clinicians should develop a patient-specific care programme based on careful assessment and targeted measures to improve oral function and insure adequate nutritional intake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Safety and efficacy of an intra-oral electrostimulator for the relief of dry mouth in patients with chronic graft versus host disease: Case series.

    PubMed

    Zadik, Yehuda; Zeevi, Itai; Luboshitz-Shon, Noa; Dakwar, Nasri; Wolff, Andy; Shapira, Michael Y; Or, Reuven; Elad, Sharon

    2014-05-01

    Patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) often suffer from dry mouth and oral mucosal lesions. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the safety of an intra-oral electrostimulator (GenNarino) in symptomatic cGVHD patients. The secondary objective was to study the impact on the salivary gland involvement of cGVHD patients. This paper presents a case series. The study included patients treated for 4 weeks, randomly assigned to the active device and then crossed-over to a sham-device or vice versa. The patients and clinicians were blind to the treatment delivered. Data regarding oral mucosal and salivary gland involvement were collected. Six patients were included in this series. Most of the intraoral areas with manifestations of cGVHD were not in contact with the GenNarino device. Two patients developed mild mucosal lesions in areas in contact with the GenNarino during the study. However, only one of them had a change in the National Institutes of Health (NIH) score for oral cGVHD. The unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate increased in 4 out of the 5 patients included in this analysis. Symptoms of dry mouth and general oral comfort improved. This study suggests that GenNarino is safe in cGVHD patients with respect to oral tissues. Furthermore the use of GenNarino resulted in subjective and objective improvements in dry mouth symptoms. A large scale study is needed to confirm the impact and safety of GenNarino on systemic cGVHD.

  6. Effect of stress, anxiety and depression on unstimulated salivary flow rate and xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Neda; Hosseini Sabzvari, Behrous; Razzaghi, Alireza; Salah, Shilan

    2017-01-01

    Background. Unstimulated salivary flow rate can be influenced by different factors. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stress, anxiety and depression on unstimulated salivary flow rate in adults. Methods. A total of 247 adult subjects, randomly selected from patients referring to Zanjan Dental School, were included in this investigation. The study procedures consisted of collecting salivary samples (in 5 minutes), completing a form for feeling of xerostomia and completing Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS) Questionnaire to assess the severity of stress, anxiety and depression. Based on the results, the patients were categorized in four groups: Low salivary flow rate plus xerostomia (group 1, n=60), normal salivary flow rate plus xerostomia (group 2, n=59), low salivary flow rate without xerostomia (group 3, n=60) and normal salivary flow rate without xerostomia (control group, n=68). Results. The frequencies of subjects with severe and major depression in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 31.4%, 11.7% and 8.5%, respectively, with 4.4% in the control group. The frequencies of subjects with severe stress in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 21.7%, 3.3% and 11.9%, respectively, with 1.5% in the control group. The frequencies of patients with severe anxiety in groups 1, 2 and 3 were 50%, 30% and 61.1%, respectively, with 4.4% in the control group. Stress, anxiety and depression exhibited a statistically significant relationship with unstimulated salivary flow rate and xerostomia (P<0.05). Conclusion. Stress, anxiety and depression can influence unstimulated salivary flow rate and lead to xerostomia.

  7. A Clinical Evaluation Denture Adhesives Used by Patients With Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Bogucki, Zdzislaw A.; Napadlek, Piotr; Dabrowa, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of study was to analyze the participants’ opinions concerning the effectiveness of 6 denture adhesives (DA). The study group included 60 participants. Criteria for selecting the patients were as follows: reduced retention and stabilization of maxillary complete dentures and xerostomia. These features were evaluated on basis of clinical examination and standard sialometry tests (u-SFR). Retention of maxillary dentures was scored by modified Kapur index before application of DA. All participants were divided randomly into 6 groups regarding the use of the 6 DA during a 6-month period. After this time, participants completed an HRQL questionnaire. DA noticeably improved retention and stabilization of maxillary complete dentures. DA in the glue form had the best retention effectiveness in participants with xerostomia. These materials are difficult to clean from the denture base. The data are presented in tables and figures. The results of the study collected positive influence of adhesives on retention of dentures in xerostomia patients. The cleaning dentures and denture bearing tissues was difficult. DA help in the use of prostheses, but it is also necessary for the treatment of the causes and symptoms of xerostomia. PMID:25700320

  8. A clinical evaluation denture adhesives used by patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Bogucki, Zdzislaw A; Napadlek, Piotr; Dabrowa, Tomasz

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of study was to analyze the participants' opinions concerning the effectiveness of 6 denture adhesives (DA). The study group included 60 participants. Criteria for selecting the patients were as follows: reduced retention and stabilization of maxillary complete dentures and xerostomia. These features were evaluated on basis of clinical examination and standard sialometry tests (u-SFR). Retention of maxillary dentures was scored by modified Kapur index before application of DA. All participants were divided randomly into 6 groups regarding the use of the 6 DA during a 6-month period. After this time, participants completed an HRQL questionnaire. DA noticeably improved retention and stabilization of maxillary complete dentures. DA in the glue form had the best retention effectiveness in participants with xerostomia. These materials are difficult to clean from the denture base. The data are presented in tables and figures. The results of the study collected positive influence of adhesives on retention of dentures in xerostomia patients. The cleaning dentures and denture bearing tissues was difficult. DA help in the use of prostheses, but it is also necessary for the treatment of the causes and symptoms of xerostomia.

  9. A pragmatic evidence-based clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Timothy; Han, Peter; Liu, Yuan; Inman, Jared C.

    2018-01-01

    Background Burning mouth syndrome is a poorly understood disease process with no current standard of treatment. The goal of this article is to provide an evidence-based, practical, clinical algorithm as a guideline for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome. Material and Methods Using available evidence and clinical experience, a multi-step management algorithm was developed. A retrospective cohort study was then performed, following STROBE statement guidelines, comparing outcomes of patients who were managed using the algorithm and those who were managed without. Results Forty-seven patients were included in the study, with 21 (45%) managed using the algorithm and 26 (55%) managed without. The mean age overall was 60.4 ±16.5 years, and most patients (39, 83%) were female. Cohorts showed no statistical difference in age, sex, overall follow-up time, dysgeusia, geographic tongue, or psychiatric disorder; xerostomia, however, was significantly different, skewed toward the algorithm group. Significantly more non-algorithm patients did not continue care (69% vs. 29%, p=0.001). The odds ratio of not continuing care for the non-algorithm group compared to the algorithm group was 5.6 [1.6, 19.8]. Improvement in pain was significantly more likely in the algorithm group (p=0.001), with an odds ratio of 27.5 [3.1, 242.0]. Conclusions We present a basic clinical management algorithm for burning mouth syndrome which may increase the likelihood of pain improvement and patient follow-up. Key words:Burning mouth syndrome, burning tongue, glossodynia, oral pain, oral burning, therapy, treatment. PMID:29750091

  10. Hyposalivation and xerostomia among Parkinson's disease patients and its impact on quality of life.

    PubMed

    Barbe, A G; Heinzler, A; Derman, Shm; Hellmich, M; Timmermann, L; Noack, M J

    2017-05-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) adversely affects oral health (OH). However, the informative value of xerostomia compared to objective parameters and its impact on quality of life (QoL) are still unclear. This study aimed to explore whether xerostomia correlates with hyposalivation and to define its impact on OH-related QoL. Whole stimulated saliva (WSS) was collected from 30 patients with PD and 30 matched healthy controls. Objective parameters (community periodontal index of treatment needs, plaque/gingivitis index, mucosa situation and cheilitis angularis) and questionnaires (German Oral Health Impact Profile [OHIPG]-14, visual analogue scale [VAS], xerostomia [yes/no] and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-II) were assessed. Eighty-seven per cent of patients with PD showed hyposalivation vs 50% of controls (P = 0.001); 50% of patients with PD reported xerostomia, and none of controls (P < 0.001). The OHIPG-14 was impaired in patients with PD compared to controls (P < 0.001), PD patients with xerostomia reported mean VAS values of 4.1 (s.d.: 2.2). WSS did not correlate with VAS values. Half of the patients with PD reported xerostomia and underestimated their xerostomic status, with higher probability than healthy controls. WSS did not reflect the grade of xerostomia. Patients with PD suffered from impaired OH-related QoL. Dental teams should not overlook these oral health risks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sparing bilateral neck level IB in oropharyngeal carcinoma and xerostomia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tam, Moses; Riaz, Nadeem; Kannarunimit, Danita; Peña, Angela P; Schupak, Karen D; Gelblum, Daphna Y; Wolden, Suzanne L; Rao, Shyam; Lee, Nancy Y

    2015-08-01

    To assess whether sparing neck-level IB in target delineation of node-positive (N+) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) can improve xerostomia outcomes without compromising locoregional control (LRC). A total of 125 N+ OPC patients with a median age of 57 years underwent chemoradiation between May 2010 and December 2011. A total of 74% of patients had T1-T2 disease, 26% T3-T4, 16% N1, 8% N2A, 48% N2B, 28% N2C; 53% base of tongue, 41% tonsil, and 6% other. Patients were divided into those who had target delineation sparing of bilateral level IB (the spared cohort) versus no sparing (the treated cohort). Sparing of contralateral high-level II nodes was also performed more consistently in the spared cohort. A prospective xerostomia questionnaire (patient reported) was given at each patient follow-up visit to this cohort of patients to assess late xerostomia. Clinical assessment (observer rated) at each patient follow-up visit was also recorded. The 2-year LRC for the spared and treated cohorts was 97.5% and 93.8%, respectively (median follow-up, 23.2 mo). No locoregional failures occurred outside of treatment fields. The spared cohort experienced significant benefits in patient-reported xerostomia summary scores (P=0.021) and observer-rated xerostomia scores (P=0.006). In addition, there were significant reductions in mean doses to the ipsilateral submandibular gland (63.9 vs. 70.5 Gy; P<0.001), contralateral submandibular gland (45.0 vs. 56.2 Gy; P<0.001), oral cavity (35.9 vs. 45.2 Gy; P<0.001), and contralateral parotid gland (20.0 vs. 24.4 Gy; P<0.001). Target delineation sparing of bilateral level IB nodes in N+ OPC reduced mean doses to salivary organs without compromising LRC. Patients with reduced target volumes had better patient-reported xerostomia outcomes.

  12. [Prospective evaluation of mouth and eye dryness induced by antimuscarinic drugs used for neurogenic overactive bladder in 35 patients with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Weglinski, L; Manceau, P; Thomas-Pohl, M; Le Breton, F; Amarenco, G

    2017-03-01

    Mouth and eye dryness are frequently reported by patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) as side effects of antimuscarinic drugs used for neurogenic overactive bladder. We evaluated the impact of antimuscarinic drugs prescription on these symptoms. MS patients consulting for overactive bladder were included. Xerostomia were evaluated at baseline and thirty days after treatment by self-reporting questionnaires (Xerostomia Quality of Life [X-Qol] and Xerostomia Questionnaire [XQ]), by salivary flow rate and sugar test. Xerophtalmia were evaluated by a self-reporting questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI]) and Schirmer test. Iatrogenic anticholinergic impregnation was evaluated by the Anticholinergic Drug Scale. From January to December 2014, 35 patients were included. Mean age was 50.1±10.2 years, mean EDSS=4.9. Mean anticholinergic impregnation was 0.6±1.0. Before treatment, none correlation was found between anticholinergic impregnation and other parameters. Twenty-two patients were evaluated after treatment. At baseline and thirty days after treatment, mean scores were respectively: 0.78±0.51 and 0.73±0.43 (P=0.67) for X-Qol, 9.22±11.8 and 7.03±11.4 (P=0.32) for XQ, 18.8±14.9 and 13.9±11.6 (P=0.06) for OSDI. Mean salivary flow rates were respectively 1.54±1.11 and 1.22±1.3 (P=0.53), positive sugar tests concerned respectively 68% and 55% of patients (P=0.53), and positive Schirmer test concerned 50% before and after treatment. Eye and mouth dryness exist in our MS population, even before prescription of antimuscarinic treatment, and is not getting worse after prescription. Those symptoms should not be the reason to stop an efficient treatment, but should be the reason to find and treat their aetiology. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Xerostomia and its predictors following parotid-sparing irradiation of head-and-neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Eisbruch, A; Kim, H M; Terrell, J E; Marsh, L H; Dawson, L A; Ship, J A

    2001-07-01

    To assess long-term xerostomia in patients receiving parotid-sparing radiation therapy (RT) for head-and-neck cancer, and to find the patient and therapy-related factors that affect its severity. From March 1994 through January 2000, 84 patients received comprehensive bilateral neck RT using conformal and multisegmental intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) aiming to spare the major salivary glands. Before RT and periodically through 2 years after the completion of RT, salivary flow rates from each of the major salivary glands were selectively measured. At the same time intervals, each patient completed an 8-item self-reported xerostomia-specific questionnaire (XQ). To gain a relative measure of the effect of RT on the minor salivary glands, whose output could not be measured, the surfaces of the oral cavity (extending to include the surface of the base of tongue) were outlined in the planning CT scans. The mean doses to the new organ ("oral cavity") were recorded. Forty-eight patients receiving unilateral neck RT were similarly studied and served as a benchmark for comparison. Factors predicting the XQ scores were analyzed using a random-effects model. The XQ was found to be reliable and valid in measuring patient-reported xerostomia. The spared salivary glands which had received moderate doses in the bilateral RT group recovered to their baseline salivary flow rates during the second year after RT, and the spared glands in the unilateral RT group, which had received very low doses, demonstrated increased salivary production beyond their pre-RT levels. The increase in the salivary flow rates during the second year after RT paralleled an improvement in xerostomia in both patient groups. The improvement in xerostomia was faster in the unilateral compared with the bilateral RT group, but the difference narrowed at 2 years. The major salivary gland flow rates had only a weak correlation with the xerostomia scores. Factors found to be independently associated with the

  14. Radiotherapy induced xerostomia: mechanisms, diagnostics, prevention and treatment--evidence based up to 2013.

    PubMed

    Kałużny, Jarosław; Wierzbicka, Małgorzata; Nogala, Hanna; Milecki, Piotr; Kopeć, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Definition and prevalence of xerostomia were shortly presented. Radiosensitivity of the salivary glands, mechanism, diagnostics, and possible prediction methods of the intensity of xerostomia in the pre-radiotherapy period are widely discussed. Prevention of xerostomia: salivary gland sparing radiotherapy, cytoprotective agents, preservation by stimulation with cholinergic muscarinic agonists, surgical transfer of submandibular glands according to ASCO Management Guidelines and Quality of Life Recommendations were cited. Oral Care Study Group (2010) therapeutic approaches for relieving xerostomia are referred. Current therapies, restricted to symptom relief such as oral hygiene with fluoride agents, antimicrobials to prevent dental caries, saliva substitutes to relieve symptoms, and sialogenic agents to stimulate saliva were also discussed. Copyright © 2013 Polish Otorhinolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery Society. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z.o.o. All rights reserved.

  15. Steroid dysregulation and stomatodynia (burning mouth syndrome).

    PubMed

    Woda, Alain; Dao, Thuan; Gremeau-Richard, Christelle

    2009-01-01

    Stomatodynia ( burning mouth syndrome) is characterized by a spontaneous, continuous burning pain felt in the oral mucosa typically of anxiodepressive menopausal women. Because there is no obvious organic cause, it is considered a nonspecific pain. This Focus Article proposes a hypothesis based on the following pathophysiological cascade: chronic anxiety or post traumatic stress leads to a dysregulation of the adrenal production of steroids. One consequence is a decreased or modified production of some major precursors for the neuroactive steroid synthesis occurring in the skin, mucosa, and nervous system. At menopause, the drastic fall of the other main precursor supply , the gonadal steroids, leads to a brisk alteration of the production of neuroactive steroids. This results in neurodegenerative alterations of small nerves fibers of the oral mucosa and /or some brain areas involved in oral somatic sensations. These neuropathic changes become irreversible and precipitate the burning pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia associated with stomatodynia, which all involve thin nerve fibers.

  16. Mouth Disorders - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... dialect) (繁體中文) Hmong (Hmoob) Russian (Русский) Spanish (español) Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) HealthReach resources will open in a ... Dry Mouth - español (Spanish) PDF California Dental Association Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) Expand Section Bad Breath - English PDF ...

  17. Impact of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia on Quality of Life After Primary Radiotherapy Among Patients With Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jellema, Anke Petra; Department of Radiation Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam; Slotman, Ben J.

    2007-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the impact of xerostomia on overall quality of life (QoL) outcome and related dimensions among head and neck cancer patients treated with primary radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 288 patients with Stage I-IV disease without distant metastases were included. Late xerostomia according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG-xerostomia) and QoL (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLC-C30) were assessed at baseline and every 6th month from 6 months to 24 months after radiotherapy. Results: A significant association was found between RTOG-xerostomia and overall QoL outcome (effect size [ES] 0.07, p < 0.001).more » A significant relationship with global QoL, all functioning scales, and fatigue and insomnia was observed. A significant interaction term was present between RTOG-xerostomia and gender and between RTOG-xerostomia and age. In terms of gender, RTOG-xerostomia had a larger impact on overall QoL outcome in women (ES 0.13 for women vs. 0.07 for men). Furthermore, in women ES on individual scales were larger, and a marked worsening was observed with increasing RTOG-xerostomia. No different ES according to age was seen (ES 0.10 for 18-65 years vs. 0.08 for >65 years). An analysis of the impact of RTOG-xerostomia on overall QoL outcome over time showed an increase from 0.09 at 6 months to 0.22 at 24 months. With elapsing time, a worsening was found for these individual scales with increasing RTOG-xerostomia. Conclusions: The results of this prospective study are the first to show a significant impact of radiation-induced xerostomia on QoL. Although the incidence of Grade {>=}2 RTOG-xerostomia decreases with time, its impact on QoL increases. This finding emphasizes the importance of prevention of xerostomia.« less

  18. Influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life in the elderly: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Enoki, Kaori; Matsuda, Ken-Ich; Ikebe, Kazunori; Murai, Shunsuke; Yoshida, Minoru; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Thomson, William Murray

    2014-06-01

    Xerostomia and tooth loss are major oral health problems in the elderly. The aim of this longitudinal study was to characterize the influence of xerostomia on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) among elderly Japanese people. A total of 99 community-dwelling, independently living individuals aged 60 years and older were interviewed and underwent dental examination at baseline and at a 5-year follow-up. The Oral Health Impact Profile-14 and the Xerostomia Inventory were used to assess OHRQoL and xerostomia severity, respectively. Participants whose xerostomia worsened over the 5-year period had a significantly poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Linear regression models showed that tooth loss and worsening xerostomia were significant predictors of poorer follow-up OHRQoL. Tooth loss and worsening xerostomia result in poorer OHRQoL among older Japanese people. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the Oral Tolerance of Three Fluoride Toothpaste Formulations in a Dry Mouth Population: Results from Two Randomized Studies.

    PubMed

    Jose, Anto; Ward, John; Shneyer, Lucy; Skinner, Jacob; Jeal, Nathan; Cronin, Matthew; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the oral tolerance of three experimental toothpaste formulations containing sodium fluoride (NaF), compared with two marketed sodium monofluorophosphate (SMFP)-containing biotène® toothpastes, in a dry mouth population after 14 days (primary objective) and 7 days (secondary objective) of use. Toothpastes were tested in two separate dual-site, examiner-blind, randomized, parallel group studies in subjects (35-84 years) with self-reported dry mouth. Oral soft tissue (OST) and oral hard tissue (OHT) examinations were performed at screening, followed by a 7- to 28-day wash-in period using a control toothpaste. Subjects were randomized to receive a NaF-containing toothpaste (Study 1: commercially available toothpaste Pronamel® for Children, n = 82; Study 2: experimental plaque biofilm-loosening formula [PBF] toothpaste, n = 79; or experimental Gentle Mint toothpaste, n = 78) or a reference toothpaste (Study 1: biotène® Fresh Mint Original toothpaste [previously marketed formulation], n = 82; Study 2: biotène® Gentle Mint Gel toothpaste [previously marketed formulation], n = 77) during the 14-day treatment phase. Subjects brushed their teeth twice daily for one timed minute with a ribbon of toothpaste to cover the head of the toothbrush provided. Subjects received further OST and OHT examinations at Day 1 and Day 15, and an additional OST examination at Day 8. Adverse events (AEs) and serious AEs (SAEs) were reported throughout the study. Study 1: At Day 15, 42 oral treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) were reported in 33 subjects, of which seven in five subjects (commercially available toothpaste Pronamel for Children: n = 2; control: n = 3) were considered to be treatment-related. One SAE (dyspnea) was reported in a participant who was randomized but withdrew from the study before receiving the allocated toothpaste. Study 2: At Day 15, 41 oral TEAEs were reported in 38 subjects, of which two in two subjects (experimental Gentle Mint toothpaste: n = 1

  20. Xerostomia after radiotherapy and its effect on quality of life in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kakoei, Shahla; Haghdoost, Ali-Akbar; Rad, Maryam; Mohammadalizadeh, Sakineh; Pourdamghan, Nasim; Nakhaei, Mahdieh; Bahador, Maryam

    2012-04-01

    Xerostomia is one of the one complications following radiotherapy that can affect quality of life (QoL). This study aims to assess the severity of xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancers after radiotherapy and its effect on QoL. In this longitudinal prospective study, the severity of xerostomia and related QoL were was assessed in 63 head and neck cancer patients who referred to the Radiotherapy Ward. Patients completed a xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) at the beginning, and 2, 4, and 6 weeks after treatment over a period of 6 months. Additionally, unstimulated saliva was collected using the spitting method at all 4 visits. QoL significantly worsened with increased time (P = 0.0001); meanwhile, the severity of xerostomia increased significantly (P = 0.0001). However, there was no significant change in the amount of saliva at these 4 time points (P = 0.23). Regression analysis showed that with each milliliter decrease in saliva secretion, the QoL score decreased 2.25%. With one score increase in xerostomia, from the QoL mean score there was a 1.65% decrease. The decrease in saliva and xerostomia that resulted from radiotherapy plays an important role in worsening QoL among patients who undergo radiotherapy for head and neck cancers. Although the amount of saliva has a significant association with QoL, the xerostomia score which shows subjects' general feeling also independently impacts QoL. In future studies, we recommend patient assessments for periods longer than 6 months.

  1. Study on the clinical significance and related factors of thirst and xerostomia in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Li-Hong; Niu, Jian-Ying; Gu, Yong

    2013-01-01

    To analyse the clinical significance and related factors of thirst and xerostomia and to find methods to alleviate thirst and xerostomia in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. Forty-two MHD patients were included for observational study and eleven patients were enrolled for crossover trial. Thirst was assessed by 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS) and dialysis thirst inventory (DTI). Meanwhile, xerostomia was assessed by VAS and xerostomia inventory (XI). Depression, kidney disease quality of life (KDQOL), salivary flow rates and inter dialytic weight gain (IDWG) were measured. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlations between continuous variables. The results of crossover trial were investigated by two-sample T-tests. Strong positive correlations among DTI, VAS thirst score, XI and VAS xerostomia score were found (P=0.000). Daily IDWG was positively correlated with VAS thirst score (r=0.315, P=0.042) and DTI(r=0.391, P=0.010). UWS (unstimulated whole saliva) was negatively correlated with VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.308, P=0.048). Residual urine output was negatively correlated with DTI (r=-0.402, P=0.008), VAS xerostomia score (r=-0.461, P=0.002) and XI (r=-0.403, P=0.008). In the crossover trial, DTI, XI, IDWG2d, IDWG3d, VAS thirst and xerostomia score were significantly reduced by the use of chewing gum (P=0.000, 0.001, 0.009, 0.017, 0.038, 0.001). The VAS thirst score, DTI and IDWG3d were significantly reduced by receiveing straw (P=0.016, 0.003, 0.049). Thirst and xerostomia might affect the quality of life in MHD patients. Both chewing gum and straw could decrease thirst and IDWG. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Impact of xerostomia on oral health and quality of life among adults infected with HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Sarangapany; Carey, Helen; Purnomo, Julianita

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the impact of xerostomia on oral health and quality of life (QoL) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who were attending for routine HIV monitoring in Australia. This cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaire survey and oral screening (OS) included 100 subjects who were HIV positive. The OS was conducted by a dentist blinded to the subject's survey responses. Xerostomia was determined by asking the subjects a single question. Subjects with xerostomia were found to have increased caries activity and poorer QoL, especially in the psychological dimensions of the oral health impact profile. Age and duration of HIV infection were associated with xerostomia. Early diagnosis of xerostomia and intervention with preventive dental care would potentially reduce caries and improve QoL among patients infected with HIV-1. Ongoing chronic inflammation of salivary glands despite the beneficial effects of antiretroviral therapy may play a role in the etiology of xerostomia in patients infected with HIV and requires further study. © 2012 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Sparing Bilateral Neck Level IB in Oropharyngeal Carcinoma and Xerostomia Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Moses; Riaz, Nadeem; Kannarunimit, Danita; Peña, Angela P.; Schupak, Karen D.; Gelblum, Daphna Y.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Rao, Shyam; Lee, Nancy Y.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether sparing neck level IB in target delineation of node positive (N+) oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) can improve xerostomia outcomes without compromising local-regional control (LRC). Methods 125 N+ OPC patients with a median age of 57 years underwent chemoradiation between 5/10 and 12/11. 74% of patients had T1-2 disease, 26% T3-4, 16% N1, 8% N2A, 48% N2B, 28% N2C; 53% base of tongue, 41% tonsil, and 6% other. Patients were divided into those who had target delineation sparing of bilateral level IB (the spared cohort) vs. no sparing (the treated cohort). Sparing of contralateral high level II nodes was also performed more consistently in the spared cohort. A prospective xerostomia questionnaire (patient reported) was given at each patient follow-up visit to this cohort of patients to assess late xerostomia. Clinical assessment (observer rated) at each patient follow-up visit was also recorded. Results The 2-year LRC for the spared and treated cohorts was 97.5% and 93.8%, respectively (median follow-up, 23.2 months). No local-regional failures occurred outside of treatment fields. The spared cohort experienced significant benefits in patient-reported xerostomia summary scores (P = 0.021) and observer-rated xerostomia scores (P = 0.006). In addition, there were significant reductions in mean doses to the ipsilateral submandibular gland (SMG; 63.9 Gy vs. 70.5 Gy; P < 0.001), contralateral SMG (45.0 Gy vs. 56.2 Gy; P < 0.001), oral cavity (35.9 Gy vs. 45.2 Gy; P < 0.001), and contralateral parotid gland (20.0 Gy vs. 24.4 Gy; P < 0.001). Conclusions Target delineation sparing of bilateral level IB nodes in N+ OPC reduced mean doses to salivary organs without compromising LRC. Patients with reduced target volumes had better patient-reported xerostomia outcomes. PMID:26208401

  4. Black hairy tongue associated with olanzapine treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tamam, Lut; Annagur, Bilge Burcak

    2006-10-01

    Olanzapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug approved for acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. Although relatively safe as compared to other classical antipsychotic medications, there are a number of uncommon adverse effects of olanzapine such as oral cavity lesions. In addition to the relatively common side effect of dry mouth, several articles have reported an association between olanzapine treatment and the development of oral lesions such as apthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, glossitis and oral ulceration. Although there are several cases in which the tongue was affected in conjunction with stomatitis or pharyngitis, we could not find a case report indicating a direct relationship between olanzapine use and a tongue lesion. We present here the case of a patient with bipolar disorder, who developed recurrent black hairy tongue on two different occasions following the addition of olanzapine to lithium treatment. In the present case, xerostomia (dry mouth), which is an adverse reaction of both olanzapine and lithium, may have played a role in the development of black hairy tongue. All agents with a possible side effect of xerostomia may predispose patients to black hairy tongue, especially when they are administered in combination. To preclude the development of this complication with such drugs, extra time and effort should be given to improving oral hygiene.

  5. Effectiveness of cevimeline to improve oral health in patients with postradiation xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Witsell, David L; Stinnett, Sandra; Chambers, Mark S

    2012-08-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of cevimeline 30 mg 3 times daily in patient-reported oral health (Oral Health Impact Profile [OHIP-49]) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with xerostomia. In our investigator-initiated, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, patients who received >40 Gy of radiation therapy to the head and neck including at least 3 major salivary glands were randomized to cevimeline 30 mg or placebo orally 3 times daily for 6 weeks. Patients had to have grade 1 or 2 xerostomia and be >16 weeks posttreatment. Clinical data were collected and questionnaires administered at baseline and week 6. The primary outcome was change in OHIP-49 total score from baseline to week 6. No statistically significant differences in oral health or QOL were observed. During the 6 weeks of the study, the severity of xerostomia decreased from baseline. Xerostomia is a significant sequela of treatment of head and neck cancer that may improve with time. The role of oral parasympathetic muscarinic secretogogues in alleviating patient symptoms and complaints remains unclear. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The efficacy of cevimeline hydrochloride in the treatment of xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome in southern Chinese patients: a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study.

    PubMed

    Leung, K C M; McMillan, A S; Wong, M C M; Leung, W K; Mok, M Y; Lau, C S

    2008-04-01

    Cevimeline hydrochloride, a specific agonist of the M3 muscarinic receptor, is beneficial in the treatment of symptoms of xerostomia and xerophthalmia associated with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Cevimeline has not been evaluated in southern Chinese patients. Furthermore, the effects of cevimeline on health-related quality of life and oral health status are not known. In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, patients received cevimeline 30 mg or matched placebo three times per day over 10 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period before treatment crossover. Participants self-completed the following questionnaires: Xerostomia Inventory (XI), the General Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI), the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Medical Outcomes Short Form (SF-36). Clinical assessments included sialometry, examination of the oral cavity for the degree of xerostomia and dental complications of xerostomia. Fifty patients (22 primary SS and 28 secondary SS) were enrolled in the trial. Forty-four patients completed the study. There was a significant improvement in the XI and GOHAI scores as well as the objective rating of xerostomic signs of the oral cavity after treatment with cevimeline. However, there was no improvement in salivary flow rates and dry eye symptoms. SS patients had lower SF-36 scores, but these did not improve after treatment with cevimeline.

  7. [Effects on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elders after oral function improvement exercises].

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jin; Park, Kyung Min

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in elderly people. The participants in the study were 48 female community-dwelling elders in D city. The Oral Function Improvement Exercises were given 3 times a week, for a total of 24 times from August to October 2011. Spitting method, Visual Analogue Scale, and halimeter (mBA-21) were used to evaluate the effects of Oral Function Improvement Exercises on salivation, xerostomia, and halitosis. The data were analyzed using χ²-test and t-test with the SPSS program. The experimental group had significantly better salivation, and less xerostomia and halitosis than the control group. The results indicate that Oral Function Improvement Exercises were effective for salivation, xerostomia and halitosis in the elders. Therefore, it was suggested that Oral Function Improvement Exercise are applicable in a community nursing intervention program to improve the quality of life for elders.

  8. Biotechnological advances in neuro-electro-stimulation for the treatment of hyposalivation and xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Lafaurie, Gloria; Fedele, Stefano; López, Rafael Martín-Granizo; Wolff, Andy; Strietzel, Frank; Porter, Stephen R; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2009-02-01

    Treatment of xerostomia is a common clinical challenge in the oral medicine practice. Although some treatments have been used to improve the symptoms of xerostomia, none is completely satisfactory for the patients who suffer of this alteration. In the last years non-pharmacological treatments based on electro-stimulation for the treatment of xerostomia have been developed. This review is aimed at presenting new developments for the treatment of xerostomia, applying neuro-electro-stimulation by miniaturized intra-oral electro-stimulators. These devices increase salivary secretion and improve symptoms of oral dryness. Their effect is obtained by means of stimulation of the lingual nerve, in whose proximity the electrodes of the apparatus are placed. The objective of this mechanism is both to directly stimulate the salivary glands controlled by that nerve and to enhance the salivary reflex. Clinical studies have been carried out that have demonstrated the wetting effect of the method described in this article.

  9. Auricular Acupressure Helps Alleviate Xerostomia in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guowen; Lin, Shaoqin; Wu, Yuchi; Zhang, Shangpeng; Wu, Xiuqing; Liu, Xusheng; Zou, Chuan; Lin, Qizhan

    2017-04-01

    Xerostomia is one of the most common complaints in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. This problem contributes to excess fluid intake and results in poor survival outcome. Based on Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) theory and literature studies, the authors have been practicing auricular acupressure therapy (AAT) to help patients with xerostomia. This pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the potential of AAT for xerostomia in MHD patients. Eligible subjects who agreed to participate in this study were recruited and provided with AAT for 4 weeks. The Summated Xerostomia Inventory (SXI), as well as measurement of inter-dialytic weight gain (IDWG), daily inter-dialytic weight gain (daily IDWG), percentage of inter-dialytic weight gain (IDWG%), blood pressure, and biochemical parameters, were completed at baseline and after a 4-week intervention. A total of 26 eligible participants were recruited. Of them, 10 men and 16 women (M age  = 52.92 ± 11.80 years; dialysis vintage 81.86 ± 46.05 months) completed the study. After the 4-week AAT intervention, the SXI scores were significantly decreased compared with baseline (from 10.08 ± 2.26 to 9.04 ± 2.14; p < 0.05). However, the IDWG, daily IDWG, IDWG%, blood pressure, and biochemical parameters did not change significantly after the intervention. This study provides preliminary evidence that AAT may be effective in reducing xerostomia intensity for MHD patients.

  10. Salivary gland transfer to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sood, Amit J; Fox, Nyssa F; O'Connell, Brendan P; Lovelace, Tiffany L; Nguyen, Shaun A; Sharma, Anand K; Hornig, Joshua D; Day, Terry A

    2014-02-01

    Salivary gland transfer (SGT) has the potential to prevent radiation-induced xerostomia. We attempt to analyze the efficacy of SGT in prevention of xerostomia and maintenance of salivary flow rates after radiation treatment (XRT). Systematic review and meta-analysis. Primary endpoint was efficacy of SGT in prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia. Secondary endpoint was change from baseline of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates after XRT. Seven articles, accruing data from 12 institutions, met inclusion criteria. In a total of 177 patients at mean follow-up of 22.7months, SGT prevented radiation-induced xerostomia in 82.7% (95% CI, 76.6-87.7%) of patients. Twelve months after XRT, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates rose to 88% and 76% of baseline values, respectively. In comparison to control subjects twelve months after XRT, SGT subjects' unstimulated (75% vs. 11%) and stimulated (86% vs. 8%) salivary flow rates were drastically higher in SGT patients. Salivary gland transfer appears to be highly effective in preventing the incidence of xerostomia in patients receiving definitive head and neck radiation therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reducing Xerostomia After Chemo-IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer: Beyond Sparing the Parotid Glands

    PubMed Central

    Little, Michael; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Vineberg, Karen; Cornwall, Craig; Murdoch-Kinch, Carol-Anne; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To assess whether in addition to sparing parotid glands (PGs), xerostomia after chemo-IMRT of head and neck cancer is affected by reducing doses to other salivary glands. Methods Prospective study: 78 patients with stages III/IV oropharynx/nasopharynx cancers received chemo-IMRT aiming to spare the parts outside the targets of bilateral PGs, oral cavity (OC) containing the minor salivary glands, and contralateral submandibular gland (SMG) (when contralateral level I was not a target). Pretherapy and periodically through 24 months, validated patient-reported xerostomia questionnaires (XQ) scores and observer-graded xerostomia were recorded, and stimulated and unstimulated saliva measured selectively from each of the PGs and SMGs. Mean OC doses served as surrogates of minor salivary glands dysfunction. Regression models assessed XQ and observer-graded xerostomia predictors. Results Statistically significant predictors of the XQ score in univariate analysis included OC, PG, and SMG mean doses, as well as baseline XQ score, time since RT, and both stimulated and unstimulated PG saliva flow rates. Similar factors were statistically significant predictors of observer-graded xerostomia. OC, PG and SMG mean doses were moderately inter-correlated (r=0.47–0.55). In multivariate analyses, after adjusting for PG and SMG doses, OC mean dose (p < 0.0001), time from RT (p < 0.0001), and stimulated PG saliva (p < 0.0025) were significant predictors for XQ scores, and OC mean dose and time for observer-graded xerostomia. While scatter plots showed no thresholds, OC mean doses <40 Gy and contralateral SMG mean <50 Gy were each associated with low patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia at almost all post-therapy time points. Conclusion PG, SMG and OC mean doses were significant predictors of both patient-reported and observer-rated xerostomia after chemo-IMRT, with OC doses remaining significant after adjusting for PG and SMG doses. These results support efforts to

  12. Oral sugar clearance and root caries prevalence in rheumatic patients with dry mouth symptoms.

    PubMed

    Risheim, H; Arneberg, P; Birkhed, D

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between root caries, oral sugar clearance, salivary flow rate, and salivary counts of mutans streptococci, lactobacilli and candida has been studied in a group of 22 rheumatic patients (age range 40-72 years). The study group comprised all subjects volunteering for a clinical trial on relief of dry mouth symptoms. The median salivary flow was 0.09 ml/min at rest and 0.9 ml/min during chewing stimulation. The median sugar clearance time was about 5 min in the sublingual area and 16 min in the lower buccal vestibule. For subjects with 0-2 root caries lesions the clearance time at both sites was shorter than for subjects with 3 or more lesions (p < 0.05). A long oral clearance time was significantly correlated with age, root caries (DS and DFS), low resting salivary flow, and high salivary counts of mutans streptococci. It is concluded that root caries in rheumatic patients with low salivary flow is significantly related to oral sugar clearance time.

  13. [Cappuccino coffee treatment of xerostomia in patients taking tricyclic antidepressants: preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Chodorowski, Zygmunt

    2002-01-01

    10 patients underwent a trial treatment with Cappuccino coffee. All of them (8 university lecturers and 2 clerks) aged from 60 to 69 (average 63) years old, used tricyclic antidepressant because of insomnia as a monosymptomatic type of depression or insomnia as a dominant symptom in the course of depression. One, evening dose of doxepine was from 150 to 250 (average 225) mg, causing xerostomia next day usually between 9-15 o'clock. The five-minute--chewing of 15.0 g of Cappuccino coffee increased the amount of saliva, decreased xerostomia and improved the ability of speech. Beneficial effect of coffee lasted from 0.5 to 4 (average about 2) hours. To the best of our knowledge there are no publications dealing with the positive effect of coffee in xerostomia.

  14. Effect of low-level laser therapy on radiotherapy-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Jamil; Figueiredo, Maria Antonia Zancanaro; Cherubini, Karen; Braga-Filho, Aroldo; Salum, Fernanda Gonçalves

    2014-10-01

    The present pilot study aimed to assess the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on hyposalivation and xerostomia as a consequence of head and neck radiotherapy. The benefits of LLLT in salivary flow have been shown; however, there are no studies investigating its effects on patients who have already undergone radiotherapy and present hyposalivation and xerostomia as a sequela. Twenty-three patients with a history of head and neck malignancy, who were treated by fractioned teletherapy (dosimetry ranging from 45 to 70 Gy) in the cervicofacial region were selected. They all presented with xerostomia and severe hyposalivation. Patients were randomly distributed into a laser group (n=12) and a control group (n=11). A GaAlAs laser (830 nm, 100 mW, illuminated area 0.028 cm2, 3.57 W/cm2, 20 sec, 2.0 J, 71 J/cm2) was used punctually in the major salivary glands, twice a week for 6 weeks, with a 12 session total. Stimulated and unstimulated salivary flow rate (SFR) were assessed, as well as the xerostomia and quality of life related to oral health (QLROH). The analysis did not show any significant difference between the groups with regards to the SFR and xerostomia, and the QLROH. However, at the end of the treatment, the xerostomia and the QLROH showed significant improvement in both groups compared with assessments performed at baseline, highlighting the importance of advice given to the irradiated patients, and their follow-up. With the parameters used, LLLT was not able to increase SFR or decrease xerostomia. The results may be associated with the late effects of radiotherapy on glandular structure, such as fibrosis and acinar atrophy.

  15. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. This study was a descriptive study. The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24-48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia.

  16. A Pilot Study of Perceived Mouth Dryness, Perceived Swallowing Effort, and Saliva Substitute Effects in Healthy Adults Across the Age Range.

    PubMed

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M; Gangnon, Ronald; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P; Asthana, Sanjay

    2018-04-01

    Xerostomia, or perceived mouth dryness, increases with advancing age, but its influence on swallowing effort is unknown. This study: (1) quantified relationships among age, perceived sense of swallowing effort, and ratings of perceived mouth dryness, and (2) examined changes in swallowing effort following application of a gel-based saliva substitute in healthy participants. This was a cross-sectional observational study and data were collected from attendees of a community healthy aging fair. Forty-two healthy participants (mean age = 65 years; 20 female) were enrolled. Each participant rated perceived effort with swallowing and perceived mouth dryness on a 10-cm horizontal, undifferentiated line. After participants applied a gel-based saliva substitute (Biotene ® Oral Balance) to their tongue and oral mucosa, they rated perceived effort with swallowing again. Age was associated with greater perceived mouth dryness (r = 0.37, p < 0.03) but not with perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.16, p = 0.32). Perceived mouth dryness was associated with greater perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Perceived swallowing effort declined following application of the salivary substitute (mean difference = 9.39 mm, p < 0.002). Age was found to be a significant predictor of perceived mouth dryness (p < .02); and perceived mouth dryness was found to significantly predict perceived swallow effort (p < .001). Perceived mouth dryness increased with advancing age, but perceived swallowing effort did not. Regardless of age, participants with higher levels of perceived mouth dryness also reported more perceived effort with swallowing suggesting a role for adequate oral lubrication in this perception. Even in healthy participants, use of a gel-based saliva substitute lowered perceived swallowing effort.

  17. Association of Xerostomia and Ultrasonographic Features of the Major Salivary Glands After Radioactive Iodine Ablation for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Soo Roh, Sang; Wook Kim, Dong; Jin Baek, Hye

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the association between xerostomia and sonographic features of the major salivary glands after patients undergo radioactive iodine ablation (RIA) for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The study included 256 consecutive patients who underwent total thyroidectomy, RIA, and neck ultrasound examinations. Changes in the ultrasound features of the parotid and submandibular glands after RIA were evaluated retrospectively by a single radiologist, on the basis of direct comparison of sonograms obtained before and after RIA. Clinical data, including the presence of xerostomia, were investigated retrospectively by the same radiologist via a review of the electronic medical records. For 111 of the 256 patients (43.4%), ultrasound examination revealed changes in the major salivary glands after RIA. The presence of xerostomia was undetermined in 85 of the 256 patients. Among the remaining 171 patients, the frequency of xerostomia was 36.8% (63/171). When patients with xerostomia were compared with those without xerostomia, no statistically significant differences in patient sex and age, the dose of RIA received, or the number of RIA sessions were noted (p > 0.05). Considering the changes in the ultrasound features of the major salivary glands after RIA, no statistically significant association was found between xerostomia and the number of involved major salivary glands or the presence of an involved submandibular gland (p > 0.05). In this study, ultrasound was unhelpful for evaluating xerostomia after RIA in patients with PTC.

  18. A relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in patients with xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Nadig, Suchetha Devendrappa; Ashwathappa, Deepak Timmasandra; Manjunath, Muniraju; Krishna, Sowmya; Annaji, Araleri Gopalkrishna; Shivaprakash, Praveen Kunigal

    2017-01-01

    Context: Most of the adult population is colonized by Candida in their oral cavity. The process of colonization depends on several factors, including the interaction between Candida and salivary proteins. Therefore, salivary gland hypofunction may alter the oral microbiota and increase the risk for opportunistic infections, such as candidiasis. Hence, it is necessary to evaluate the relationship between salivary flow rates (SFRs) and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Aims: This study aims to determine and evaluate the relationship between SFRs and Candida colony forming units (CFUs) in patients with xerostomia. Settings and Design: This study was a descriptive study. Subjects and Methods: The study participants were taken from the patients attending outpatient department in a private dental college. Fifty patients, who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire of the symptoms of xerostomia, were selected. Chewing stimulated whole saliva samples were collected from them and their SFRs were assessed. Saliva samples were inoculated in the Sabouraud dextrose agar culture media for 24–48 h, and Candida CFUs were counted. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-squared test was used to analyze the data. Results: There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and candida CFUs count when patients with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). Females had less SFR than males. Most of the patients who had hyposalivation were taking medication for the underlying systemic diseases. Candida albicans was the most frequent species. Conclusions: There was a significantly negative correlation between SFRs and Candida CFUs in the patients with xerostomia. PMID:28932047

  19. The QUANTEC criteria for parotid gland dose and their efficacy to prevent moderate to severe patient-rated xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Ivo; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Chouvalova, Olga; Leemans, Charles R; Doornaert, Patricia; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Christianen, Miranda E M C; Vissink, Arjan; Bijl, Henk P; van Luijk, Peter; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effect in the Clinic (QUANTEC) Group defined dose-volume constraints for the parotid glands to avoid severe xerostomia. The aim of this study was to determine if application of these QUANTEC criteria also protected against moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia. The study population consisted of 307 head and neck cancer patients treated with primary (chemo)radiotherapy, either with 3D-CRT (56%) or with IMRT (44%). All patients participated in a standard follow-up program in which radiation-induced toxicity and quality of life were prospectively assessed. Patients who met the QUANTEC criteria were classified as low risk and otherwise as high risk. In total, 41% of the patients (treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT) were classified as low risk patients. In the group treated with 3D-CRT and IMRT, it was possible to meet the QUANTEC criteria in 47% and 32% of the patients, respectively. Sparing the parotid glands with IMRT was considerably more difficult in patients with lymph node metastases and in patients with nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal tumours. Low risk patients reported significantly less moderate-to-severe xerostomia than high risk patients. However, the predicted risk of elderly patients and patients with pre-existing minor patient-rated xerostomia at baseline was > 20%, even when the QUANTEC criteria were met. Significantly lower rates of radiation-induced patient-rated xerostomia were found among low risk patients treated according to the QUANTEC criteria, but these criteria do not completely protect against xerostomia. Particularly in elderly patients and patients already suffering from minor xerostomia at baseline, the QUANTEC criteria do not sufficiently protect against persistent, moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia.

  20. Hermeneutic phenomenological interpretations of patients with head and neck neoplasm experiences living with radiation-induced xerostomia: the price to pay?

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    Patients with head and neck neoplasms often experience a number of persistent treatment related symptoms including xerostomia. The impact of xerostomia can be profound and wearing on the patients, hence negatively influencing their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to explore the in-depth experiences of the patients living with radiation-induced xerostomia. This was a hermeneutic phenomenological study inspired by the Philosophy of Paul Ricoeur. Research data were retrieved with individual narratives from 15 patients diagnosed with head and neck neoplasm that underwent radiotherapy. Interpretation proceeded through three phases: naïve reading, structural analysis and comprehensive understanding. Five themes consisting of ten sub-themes emerged from the narratives reflecting on the patients' lived experiences. The themes were "suffering of the body", "suffering of the person's world", "being helpless against xerostomia", "suffering of the mind" and "being alone". The comprehensive understanding disclosed new possibilities for being-in-the world in relation to living with xerostomia. The precedent consideration of xerostomia mainly as a physical side-effect of radiotherapy was outweighed by the social and psychological effects revealed by this study. These xerostomia's effects are inflicted on the patients with an obvious reflection on their perceived quality of life. The findings call upon a shift towards acknowledging the severity of xerostomia and the need to care for these patients holistically. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Management of Salivary Gland Hypofunction and Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients: Successes and Barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B.; Baum, Bruce J.

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head-and-neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This review addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy.

  2. Clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: successes and barriers*

    PubMed Central

    Vissink, Arjan; Mitchell, James B; Baum, Bruce J; Limesand, Kirsten H; Jensen, Siri Beier; Fox, Philip C; Elting, Linda S; Langendijk, Johannes A; Coppes, Robert P; Reyland, Mary E

    2010-01-01

    The most significant long-term complication of radiotherapy in the head and neck region is hyposalivation and its related complaints, particularily xerostomia. This paper addresses the pathophysiology underlying irradiation damage to salivary gland tissue, the consequences of radiation injury, and issues contributing to the clinical management of salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia. These include ways to: (1) prevent or minimize radiation injury of salivary gland tissue, (2) manage radiation-induced hyposalivation and xerostomia, and (3) restore the function of salivary gland tissue damaged by radiotherapy. PMID:20970030

  3. Prevalence and factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation among community-dwelling older people in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yuki; Hirano, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Obuchi, Shuichi; Ihara, Kazushige; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Mataki, Shiro

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation among community-dwelling older people. Xerostomia and hyposalivation are common symptoms in the older population. This study included with 894 community-dwelling, Japanese older people (355 men, 539 women; age 65-84 years) who participated in a comprehensive geriatric health examination, which included questionnaires and interviews regarding medical history, medications, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC), depressive condition. The Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was used to evaluate depression. Resting salivary flow rate was evaluated by the modified cotton roll method. In this study, 34.8% of the participants (mean age, 73.5 ± 5.0 years) complained about xerostomia, while the prevalence of hyposalivation was 11.5%. Multiple regression analysis revealed hypnotics use [odds ratio (OR) = 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.13-2.61], SDS (OR = 1.05, CI = 1.04-1.07) and TMIG-IC total points (OR = 0.87, CI = 0.76-0.99) to be significantly associated with xerostomia. In contrast, female gender (OR = 2.59, CI = 1.55-4.31) and the use of agents affecting digestive organs (OR = 1.78, CI = 1.11-2.86) were associated with hyposalivation. Our findings showed that the prevalence of xerostomia and hyposalivation were approximately 1 in 3 and 1 in 10 respectively. The factors associated with psychological factors and high-level functional competence, while hyposalivation was associated with medications and gender, as well as systemic and/or metabolic differences. It is important to consider these multidimensional factors associated with xerostomia and hyposalivation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Salivary flow rate and xerostomia in patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Hoseini, Amineh; Mirzapour, Ali; Bijani, Ali; Shirzad, Atena

    2017-09-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, with complications such as decreased salivary flow rate and xerostomia. This study aimed to determine the salivary flow rate and xerostomia in type I and II diabetic patients in comparison with healthy controls. This case-control study was performed on diabetic patients of a private office in Babol, Iran, between May 2015 and October 2016. This study involved two study groups (type I and II diabetes, with 40 in each group) and two control groups (control I and II, with 35 in each group) which were age- and sex-matched with the related study groups. They were all selected through simple sampling. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected through Navazesh method and the salivary flow rate was measured (ml/min). Xerostomia was evaluated via Fox's test. Moreover, the patients' data were recorded including age, sex, disease duration, type of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1C. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 17. Independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, Pearson correlation and multiple comparison post-hoc tests were employed as appropriated. p<0.05 was considered significant. The mean salivary flow rate in type I diabetics (0.35±0.11 ml/min) was lower than that in control I (0.50±0.07 ml/min) (p=0.01). The same difference was observed between type II diabetics (0.37±0.13 ml/min) and control II groups (0.47±0.11 ml/min) (p=0.01). No significant difference was observed in the salivary flow rate between type I and II diabetics (p=0.345). Furthermore, xerostomia was higher in type I (2.70±2.50, 1.17±1.60) and II (2.65±2.20-1.62±1.50) diabetics compared with the related control groups (p=0.01), (p=0.02). Type I, II diabetic patients revealed lower salivary flow rate and higher xerostomia compared with healthy controls. The salivary flow rate and xerostomia had inverse correlation.

  5. Texture analysis as a predictor of radiation-induced xerostomia in head and neck patients undergoing IMRT.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Valerio; Tini, Paolo; Nioche, Christophe; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Carfagno, Tommaso; Battaglia, Giuseppe; Pastina, Pierpaolo; Grassi, Roberta; Sebaste, Lucio; Pirtoli, Luigi

    2018-06-01

    Image texture analysis (TA) is a heterogeneity quantifying approach that cannot be appreciated by the naked eye, and early evidence suggests that TA has great potential in the field of oncology. The aim of this study is to evaluate parotid gland texture analysis (TA) combined with formal dosimetry as a factor for predicting severe late xerostomia in patients undergoing radiation therapy for head and neck cancers. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated at our Radiation Oncology Unit between January 2010 and December 2015, and selected the patients whose normal dose constraints for the parotid gland (mean dose < 26 Gy for the bilateral gland) could not be satisfied due to the presence of positive nodes close to the parotid glands. The parotid gland that showed the higher V30 was contoured on CT simulation and analysed with LifeX Software©. TA parameters included features of grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM), neighbourhood grey-level dependence matrix (NGLDM), grey-level run length matrix (GLRLM), grey-level zone length matrix (GLZLM), sphericity, and indices from the grey-level histogram. We performed a univariate and multivariate analysis between all the texture parameters, the volume of the gland, the normal dose parameters (V30 and Mean Dose), and the development of severe chronic xerostomia. Seventy-eight patients were included and 25 (31%) developed chronic xerostomia. The TA parameters correlated with severe chronic xerostomia included V30 (OR 5.63), Dmean (OR 5.71), Kurtosis (OR 0.78), GLCM Correlation (OR 1.34), and RLNU (OR 2.12). The multivariate logistic regression showed a significant correlation between V30 (0.001), GLCM correlation (p: 0.026), RLNU (p: 0.011), and chronic xerostomia (p < 0.001, R2:0.664). Xerostomia represents an important cause of morbidity for head and neck cancer survivors after radiation therapy, and in certain cases normal dose constraints cannot be satisfied. Our results seem promising as texture

  6. Outcomes and xerostomia after postoperative radiotherapy for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-He; Yan, Chao; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Chen-Ping; Hu, Hai-Sheng; Tu, Wen-Yong; Kirwan, Jessica; Mendenhall, William M

    2014-10-01

    We compared outcomes and xerostomia grade after postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and conventional radiotherapy (RT) in patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Eighty-eight patients with oral cavity (n = 77) and oropharyngeal (n = 11) carcinoma underwent postoperative IMRT (n = 44) or conventional RT (n = 44). Outcomes, failure patterns, volume, doses, salivary gland V30, and xerostomia grade were evaluated. The median follow-up was 53 months (range, 48-58 months). The median interval from surgery to RT was 4 weeks (range, 3-6 weeks). Twenty-one patients (7 and 14 for the IMRT and conventional RT groups, respectively) experienced local-regional failure. For the IMRT group, all 7 local-regional failures occurred in the high-dose target volumes. For the conventional RT group, there were 12 in-field failures, 1 at the margin, and 1 out-of-field. Nine patients experienced distant failure (5 and 4 for the IMRT and conventional RT groups, respectively). The 4-year local-regional control, disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and distant-metastasis rates for the IMRT and conventional RT groups were 84.1% versus 68.2% (p = .055), 68.2% versus 52.3% (p = .091), 70.5% versus 56.8% (p = .124), and 11.4% versus 9.1% (p = .927), respectively. Xerostomia grade after RT was lower for IMRT compared to conventional RT (p < .001). Postoperative IMRT for oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma significantly improves mean dose, salivary gland V30, and xerostomia grade when compared to conventional RT. The predominant failure pattern was local. No differences were found in survival outcomes between both groups. There was a marginal difference in local-regional control. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique.

    PubMed

    Gohel, Mukesh; Patel, Madhabhai; Amin, Avani; Agrawal, Ruchi; Dave, Rikita; Bariya, Nehal

    2004-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influence of 2 formulation variables: amount of camphor and crospovidone. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining a rapidly disintegrating dosage form, tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone. A contour plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the disintegration time and percentage friability. A checkpoint batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables.

  8. XRCC3 polymorphisms are associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with intensity modulation radiated therapy.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Song, Tao; Yu, Wei; Zhao, Ruping; Wang, Yong; Xie, Ruifei; Chen, Tian; Wu, Bo; Wu, Shixiu

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of radiation-induced late xerostomia varies greatly in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes involved in DNA repair and fibroblast proliferation may be correlated with such variability. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the association between the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia and four genetic polymorphisms: TGFβ1 C-509T, TGFβ1 T869C, XRCC3 722C>T and ATM 5557G>A in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. The severity of late xerostomia was assessed using a patient self-reported validated xerostomia questionnaire. Polymerase chain reaction-ligation detection reaction methods were performed to determine individual genetic polymorphism. The development of radiation-induced xerostomia associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for equivalent uniform dose. A total of 43 (41.7%) patients experienced radiation-induced late xerostomia. Univariate Cox proportional hazard analyses showed a higher risk of late xerostomia for patients with XRCC3 722 TT/CT alleles. In multivariate analysis adjusted for clinical and dosimetric factors, XRCC3 722C>T polymorphisms remained a significant factor for higher risk of late xerostomia. To our knowledge, this is the first study that demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of radiation-induced late xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients treated with Intensity Modulation Radiated Therapy. Our findings suggest that the polymorphisms in XRCC3 are significantly associated with the risk of developing radiation-induced late xerostomia.

  9. Occurrence and impact of xerostomia among dentate adult New Zealanders: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Benn, A M L; Broadbent, J M; Thomson, W M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the prevalence, associations and impact of xerostomia in a nationally representative sample of dentate adult community-dwelling New Zealanders aged 18 years and over. The data were collected from a representative sample of 2209 adults, as part of the 2009 New Zealand Oral Health Survey (NZOHS). Data were collected using face-to-face interviews, dental examinations and the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). Data analysis used appropriate weighting for all procedures to account for the complex survey design. The overall prevalence estimate for xerostomia was 13.1% (95% CI 11.7, 14.7), and it was more common among females. Those in the 75+  and 25-34 age groups were more likely (odds ratios of 6.5 and 4.0, respectively) to have xerostomia. After controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and clinical oral disease, the mean OHIP-14 score among xerostomics was 50% higher than among those who did not have the condition. These data indicate that xerostomia is a common condition which can affect quality of life among people of all ages. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Impact of xerostomia on dysphagia after chemotherapy-intensity-modulated radiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer: Prospective longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M; Samuels, Stuart; Tao, Yebin; Lyden, Teresa; Haxer, Marc; Spector, Matthew; Schipper, Matthew; Eisbruch, Avraham

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess how xerostomia affects dysphagia. Prospective longitudinal studies of 93 patients with oropharyngeal cancer treated with definitive chemotherapy-intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Observer-rated dysphagia (ORD), patient-reported dysphagia (PRD), and patient-reported xerostomia (PRX) assessment of the swallowing mechanics by videofluoroscopy (videofluoroscopy score), and salivary flow rates, were prospectively assessed from pretherapy through 2 years. ORD grades ≥2 were rare and therefore not modeled. Of patients with no/mild videofluoroscopy abnormalities, a substantial proportion had PRD that peaked 3 months posttherapy and subsequently improved. Through 2 years, highly significant correlations were observed between PRX and PRD scores for all patients, including those with no/mild videofluoroscopy abnormalities. Both PRX and videofluoroscopy scores were highly significantly associated with PRD. On multivariate analysis, PRX score was a stronger predictor of PRD than the videofluoroscopy score. Xerostomia contributes significantly to PRD. Efforts to further decrease xerostomia, in addition to sparing parotid glands, may translate into improvements in PRD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1605-E1612, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Differential Diagnosis of Dry Eyes, Dry Mouth, and Parotidomegaly: A Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Cornec, Divi; Saraux, Alain; Jousse-Joulin, Sandrine; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Boisramé-Gastrin, Sylvie; Renaudineau, Yves; Gauvin, Yves; Roguedas-Contios, Anne-Marie; Genestet, Steeve; Chastaing, Myriam; Cochener, Béatrice; Devauchelle-Pensec, Valérie

    2015-12-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a frequent autoimmune systemic disease, clinically characterized by eyes and mouth dryness in all patients, salivary gland swelling or extraglandular systemic manifestations in half of the patients, and development of lymphoma in 5 to 10 % of the patients. However, patients presenting with sicca symptoms or salivary gland swelling may have a variety of conditions that may require very different investigations, treatments, or follow-up. Eye and/or mouth dryness is a frequent complaint in clinical setting, and its frequency increases with age. When evaluating a patient with suspected pSS, the first step is to rule out its differential diagnoses, before looking for positive arguments for the disease. Knowledge of normal and abnormal lachrymal and salivary gland physiology allows the clinician to prescribe the most adapted procedures for evaluating their function and structure. New tests have been developed in recent years for evaluating these patients, notably new ocular surface staining scores or salivary gland ultrasonography. We describe the different diagnoses performed in our monocentric cohort of 240 patients with suspected pSS. The most frequent diagnoses are pSS, other systemic autoimmune diseases, idiopathic sicca syndrome and drug-induced sicca syndrome. However, other diseases are important to rule out due to their specific management, such as sarcoidosis, granulomatosis with polyangeitis, IgG4-related disease, chronic hepatitis C virus or human immunodeficiency virus infections, graft-versus-host disease, and head and neck radiation therapy. At the light of these data, we propose a core of minimal investigations to be performed when evaluating a patient with suspected pSS.

  12. Salivary flow rate and xerostomia in patients with type I and II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Hoseini, Amineh; Mirzapour, Ali; Bijani, Ali; Shirzad, Atena

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent metabolic diseases, with complications such as decreased salivary flow rate and xerostomia. Objective This study aimed to determine the salivary flow rate and xerostomia in type I and II diabetic patients in comparison with healthy controls. Methods This case-control study was performed on diabetic patients of a private office in Babol, Iran, between May 2015 and October 2016. This study involved two study groups (type I and II diabetes, with 40 in each group) and two control groups (control I and II, with 35 in each group) which were age- and sex-matched with the related study groups. They were all selected through simple sampling. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected through Navazesh method and the salivary flow rate was measured (ml/min). Xerostomia was evaluated via Fox’s test. Moreover, the patients’ data were recorded including age, sex, disease duration, type of diabetes, fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1C. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS version 17. Independent-samples t-test, Chi-square, Pearson correlation and multiple comparison post-hoc tests were employed as appropriated. p<0.05 was considered significant. Results The mean salivary flow rate in type I diabetics (0.35±0.11 ml/min) was lower than that in control I (0.50±0.07 ml/min) (p=0.01). The same difference was observed between type II diabetics (0.37±0.13 ml/min) and control II groups (0.47±0.11 ml/min) (p=0.01). No significant difference was observed in the salivary flow rate between type I and II diabetics (p=0.345). Furthermore, xerostomia was higher in type I (2.70±2.50, 1.17±1.60) and II (2.65±2.20–1.62±1.50) diabetics compared with the related control groups (p=0.01), (p=0.02). Conclusion Type I, II diabetic patients revealed lower salivary flow rate and higher xerostomia compared with healthy controls. The salivary flow rate and xerostomia had inverse correlation. PMID:29038704

  13. Can sparing of the superficial contralateral parotid lobe reduce xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer?

    PubMed

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to see whether sparing the superficial contralateral parotid lobe can help limiting xerostomia following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer. 88 patients that were included in two prospective randomized studies were analysed in the current study. Using the dosimetry of both the parotid glands, we divided our patients in four groups. Group 1 includes patients where we were able to reduce the radiation dose below the threshold in order to spare both the ipsilateral and contralateral parotid glands, Group 2 consists of patients where only the contralateral parotid gland could be spared. Group 3 consists of patients where only the contralateral superficial parotid lobe could be spared, while in Group 4 not even the contralateral superficial lobe could be spared. When we compared Group 1 and Group 2, we did not observe a significant difference between both groups in terms of xerostomia scores at 6 or 12 months. When we compared these groups with Group 3, we observed significant differences with more xerostomia in Group 3 where only the contralateral superficial lobe was spared. A significant difference was also observed between Group 3 and Group 4 with more xerostomia in Group 4. Sparing of just one superficial parotid lobe results in less xerostomia when compared to not sparing any lobe of both parotid glands. Advances in knowledge: When sparing of the whole contralateral parotid gland is not possible, delineating both the superficial parotid glands and trying to spare at least one of them can mean a way forward in limiting xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy.

  14. The Role of Medications in Causing Dry Eye

    PubMed Central

    Fraunfelder, Frederick T.; Sciubba, James J.; Mathers, William D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the possible role of polypharmacy in causing dry eye disease (DED), reflecting the complex interactions and complications associated with the use of multiple systemic and topical ocular medications. The pharmacological, physiological, anatomical, and histological mechanisms causing dry mouth differ little from those causing dry eye. Oral polypharmacy is the most common cause of dry mouth, but has not been investigated as a cause of dry eye. Topical ocular polypharmacy has been shown to cause DED. Information on drugs that likely cause or aggravate DED and the controversial role of preservatives in topical ocular medications are examined. Systemic or topical ocular medications and preservatives used in topical ocular drugs may cause dry eye through the drug's therapeutic action, ocular surface effects, or preservatives, and the effects probably are additive. Long-term use of topical ocular medications, especially those containing preservatives such as BAK, may play an important role in DED and the role of polypharmacy needs further study. We review possible ways to decrease the risk of medication-related dry eye. PMID:23050121

  15. Prevalence of Candida spp., xerostomia, and hyposalivation in oral lichen planus--a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Artico, G; Freitas, R S; Santos Filho, A M; Benard, G; Romiti, R; Migliari, D A

    2014-04-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida spp., xerostomia, and salivary flow rate (SFR) in three different groups: patients with OLP (OLP group), patients with oral mucosal lesions other than OLP (non-OLP group), and subjects without oral mucosal lesions (control group). Xerostomia as well as SFR was investigated in the three groups. Samples for isolation of Candida spp. were collected from OLP lesions (38 patients), non-OLP lesions (28 patients), and healthy subjects (32 subjects). There was no statistically significant difference regarding the frequency of xerostomia and hyposalivation among the three groups (P > 0.05). A higher prevalence for colonization by Candida spp. was found in the healthy subject as compared to that of patients with OLP (P = 0.03) and non-OLP (P = 0.02) groups. Low SFR was not a factor for colonization by Candida spp. Xerostomia and hyposalivation occur with similar frequency in subjects with and without oral lesions; also, the presence of oral lesions does not increase the susceptibility to colonization by Candida spp. It seems that any study implicating Candida spp. in the malignant transformation of oral lesions should be carried out mostly on a biochemical basis, that is, by testing the capability of Candida spp. to produce carcinogenic enzyme. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Salivary flow and its relationship to oral signs and symptoms in patients with dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Koseki, M; Maki, Y; Matsukubo, T; Ohashi, Y; Tsubota, K

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate oral symptoms and clinical parameters in dry eye patients. Subjective reports of the sensation of a dry mouth, salivary flow rates, and clinical parameters of oral disease related to three different types of dry eye patients were examined. There were 224 individuals, including dry eye patients and control subjects. The dry eye patients were classified into three types: patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS-DE), patients without SS-DE (non-SS-DE), and patients with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS-DE). Salivary flow rates were measured using two kinds of sialometry. Subjective and objective oral symptoms and signs were also examined. Over half of the dry eye patients complained of a dry mouth. The flow rates of their stimulated whole saliva and parotid saliva were significantly lower than those of the control groups (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The sensation of a dry mouth and changes in oral soft tissues, dental caries, and oral Candida frequently occurred in dry eye patients.

  17. [The effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride on dry cough in Sjögren's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nishinarita, Makoto; Hanzawa, Midori; Iikuni, Noriko; Ota, Syuji

    2004-04-01

    Dry cough in Sjögren syndrome (SS) is not an uncommon symptom observed in clinical fields. However, effective treatments for the cough have not been established. The recently introduced cevimeline hydrochloride, a muscarinic receptor stimulant, has been confirmed to be definitely effective for xerostomia of SS. In the present study, the effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride on dry cough was studied in 9 Sjögren patients and evaluated using the visual analog scale (VAS) and face scale. Improvement of dry cough was observed in 8 out of the 9 patients, suggesting the effectiveness of cevimeline hydrochloride. Although the detailed etiology of dry cough in SS is unknown, the result of the study suggested the mechanism that cevimeline hydrochloride increased the secretion in the airway mucus, improving dry bronchial conditions. Further studies are needed with more subjects.

  18. Burning Mouth Syndrome and "Burning Mouth Syndrome".

    PubMed

    Rifkind, Jacob Bernard

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is distressing to both the patient and practitioner unable to determine the cause of the patient's symptoms. Burning mouth syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion, which is used only after nutritional deficiencies, mucosal disease, fungal infections, hormonal disturbances and contact stomatitis have been ruled out. This article will explore the many causes and treatment of patients who present with a chief complaint of "my mouth burns," including symptomatic treatment for those with burning mouth syndrome.

  19. Management of xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction.

    PubMed

    Ram, Saravanan; Kumar, Satish; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2011-09-01

    Xerostomia and salivary gland hypofunction are conditions that have been associated with increased prevalence of caries, periodontitis, and candidiasis. Oral health care providers must be aware of the etiologies and clinical manifestations of salivary gland hypofunction in order to identify patients with this condition and to prevent its potential complications. The various modalities available to manage this condition range from frequent sips of water to the intake of systemic medications like pilocarpine or cevimeline.

  20. Oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. Part two.

    PubMed

    Sargeant, S; Chamley, C

    2013-04-01

    This is the second part of a two-part article on oral health assessment and mouth care for children and young people receiving palliative care. This article covers basic oral hygiene and management of oral health problems: oral candidiasis, coated tongue/dirty mouth, dry mouth, hypersalivation, ulceration, painful mouth, stomatitis and mucositis. The article also covers treating patients who are immunocompromised and the need to educate families and carers in the basic principles of oral care, including the importance of preventing cross-infection. Part one outlined oral assessment and discussed the adaptation of the Nottingham Oral Health Assessment Tool (Freer 2000).

  1. Review of the Pharmacological Properties and Clinical Usefulness of Muscarinic Agonists for Xerostomia in Patients with Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Hiroshi; Niki, Hiroshi

    2002-01-01

    The anti-xerostomia effects of muscarinic agonists (cholinomimetics) are reviewed. Cevimeline (cevimeline monohydrochloride hemihydrate) is a novel muscarinic agonist that stimulates salivary secretion in animals and humans both with normal salivary gland function and with impaired salivary secretion (xerostomia or oral dryness) as effectively as pilocarpine. Other classic and nonselective muscarinic agonists, such as arecoline, carbachol, muscarine and oxotremorine, as well as acetylcholine, failed to exhibit a sufficient salivation effect even at sublethal doses in animals.Oral administration of cevimeline 30mg to humans induces a moderate and lasting increase in salivary flow, and the effect is maintained for at least 4 to 6 hours, longer than with pilocarpine. Mean increases in salivary flow rates after cevimeline treatment were 2-fold higher than after placebo, and no evidence of tolerance of the pharmacological effect has been observed during prolonged administration for up to 12 months.The clinical efficacy of cevimeline in relieving symptoms of xerostomia, including oral dryness and difficulties in chewing, swallowing and speaking, has been demonstrated by placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomised clinical trials in the USA and Japan. In these studies, cevimeline 30mg three times daily increased salivary flow and improved the symptoms of xerostomia in a significantly higher percentage of patients compared with placebo. Some patients receiving cevimeline therapy for xerostomia experienced adverse events such as sweating, gastrointestinal symptoms (nausea, diarrhoea, abdominal pain and vomiting), dizziness and rigors; these effects were related to muscarinic activity and were generally mild and tolerable in comparison with those of pilocarpine.These findings suggest that muscarinic M3 agonists are suitable for the treatment of xerostomia. Cevimeline in particular has a long-lasting salivation effect with fewer adverse events than pilocarpine, and so is

  2. Effect of radiation-induced xerostomia on the human oral microflora. Report no. 12 (final), 1 Jul 1971-30 Jun 1976

    SciTech Connect

    Dreizen, S.; Brown, L.R.

    1976-06-30

    The caries-conducive impact of xerostomia was studied in 42 irradiated cancer patients. The radiation-induced xerostomia was paralleled by changes in the physical, microbial, biochemical, immunologic and dietary parameters of cariogenicity that collectively comprised an overwhelming caries challenge. Microbiologically, significant xerostomia-related increases in Strep. mutans, lactobacilli, staphylococci, yeasts and catalase-positive diphtheroids were accompanied by decreases in Strep. sanguis, bacteroides and fusobacteria in each of the 5 microenvironments tested. The scanty xerostomic saliva contained greater amounts of Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(++), Mg(++), Prot(-), lysozyme, IgA and IgG and considerably less HCO3(-). The increased concentrations of caries protective electrolytes and immunoproteins were negated bymore » huge reductions in total daily saliva output. The xerostomia created caries challenge was almost completely neutralized by a preventive program of daily topical NaF applications and strict oral hygiene. (GRA)« less

  3. Effects of Diabetes on Salivary Gland Protein Expression of Tetrahydrobiopterin and Nitric Oxide Synthesis and Function.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Cassandra R; Obi, Nneka; Epane, Elodie C; Akbari, Alexander A; Halpern, Leslie; Southerland, Janet H; Gangula, Pandu R

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is defined as dry mouth resulting from a change in the amount or composition of saliva and is often a major oral health complication associated with diabetes mellitus (DM). Studies have shown that xerostomia is more common in females at the onset of DM. Evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in healthy salivary gland function. However, the specific mechanisms by which NO regulates salivary gland function at the onset of DM have yet to be determined. This study has two aims: 1) to determine whether protein expression or dimerization of NO synthase enzymes (neuronal [nNOS] and endothelial [eNOS]) are altered in the onset of diabetic xerostomia; and 2) to determine whether the changes in nNOS/eNOS protein expression or dimerization are correlated with changes in NO cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) biosynthetic enzymes (guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1 and dihydrofolate reductase). Functional and Western blot studies were performed in streptozotocin-induced and control Sprague-Dawley female rats with DM (type 1 [t1DM]) using standardized protocols. Confirmation of xerostomia was determined by increased water intake and decreased salivary flow rate. The results showed that in female rats with DM, salivary hypofunction is correlated with decreased submandibular and parotid gland sizes. The results also show a decrease in NOS and BH4 biosynthetic enzyme in submandibular glands. These results indicate that a decrease in submandibular NO-BH4 protein expression may provide insight pertaining to mechanisms for the development of hyposalivation in DM-induced xerostomia. Furthermore, understanding the role of the NO-BH4 pathway may give insight into possible treatment options for the patient with DM experiencing xerostomia.

  4. Interventions for the management of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mercadante, Valeria; Al Hamad, Arwa; Lodi, Giovanni; Porter, Stephen; Fedele, Stefano

    2017-03-01

    Salivary gland hypofunction is a common and permanent adverse effect of radiotherapy to the head and neck. Randomised trials of available treatment modalities have produced unclear results and offer little reliable guidance for clinicians to inform evidence-based therapy. We have undertaken this systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the effectiveness of available interventions for radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation. We searched MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMED, and CINAHL database through July 2016 for randomised controlled trials comparing any topical or systemic intervention to active and/or non-active controls for the treatment of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia. The results of clinically and statistically homogenous studies were pooled and meta-analyzed. 1732 patients from twenty studies were included in the systematic review. Interventions included systemic or topical pilocarpine, systemic cevimeline, saliva substitutes/mouthcare systems, hyperthermic humidification, acupuncture, acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, low-level laser therapy and herbal medicine. Results from the meta-analysis, which included six studies, suggest that both cevimeline and pilocarpine can reduce xerostomia symptoms and increase salivary flow compared to placebo, although some aspects of the relevant effect size, duration of the benefit, and clinical meaningfulness remain unclear. With regard to interventions not included in the meta-analysis, we found no evidence, or very weak evidence, that they can reduce xerostomia symptoms or increase salivary flow in this population. Pilocarpine and cevimeline should represent the first line of therapy in head and neck cancer survivors with radiotherapy-induced xerostomia and hyposalivation. The use of other treatment modalities cannot be supported on the basis of current evidence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia following IMRT for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Thor, Maria; Owosho, Adepitan A; Clark, Haley D; Oh, Jung Hun; Riaz, Nadeem; Hovan, Allan; Tsai, Jillian; Thomas, Steven D; Yom, Sae Hee K; Wu, Jonn S; Huryn, Joseph M; Moiseenko, Vitali; Lee, Nancy Y; Estilo, Cherry L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose To study internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer, and to investigate potential amendments of the QUANTEC guidelines. Material and Methods Objective xerostomia was assessed in 121 patients (nCohort1=55; nCohort2=66) treated to 70Gy@2Gy in 2006–2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses (UVA, MVA with 1000 bootstrap populations) were conducted in Cohort1, and generalizability of the best-performing MVA model was investigated in Cohort2 (performance: AUC, p-values, and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-values (pHL)). Ultimately and for clinical guidance, minimum mean dose thresholds to the contralateral and the ipsilateral parotid glands (Dmeancontra, Dmeanipsi) were estimated from the generated dose-response curves. Results The observed xerostomia rate was 38%/47% (3 months) and 19%/23% (11–12 months) in Cohort1/Cohort2. Risk of xerostomia at 3 months increased for higher Dmeancontra and Dmeanipsi (Cohort1: 0.17•Dmeancontra+0.11•Dmeanipsi−8.13; AUC=0.90±0.05; p=0.0002±0.002; pHL=0.22±0.23; Cohort2: AUC=0.81; p<0.0001; pHL=0.27). The identified minimum Dmeancontra thresholds were lower than in the QUANTEC guidelines (Cohort1/Cohort2: Dmeancontra=12/19 Gy; Dmeancontra, Dmeanipsi=16, 25/20, 26 Gy). Conclusions Increased Dmeancontra and Dmeanipsi explain short-term xerostomia following IMRT. Our results also suggest decreasing Dmeancontra to below 20 Gy, while keeping Dmeanipsi to around 25 Gy. Long-term xerostomia was less frequent, and no dose-response relationship was established for this follow-up time. PMID:27890427

  6. Internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia following IMRT for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Thor, Maria; Owosho, Adepitan A; Clark, Haley D; Oh, Jung Hun; Riaz, Nadeem; Hovan, Allan; Tsai, Jillian; Thomas, Steven D; Yom, Sae Hee K; Wu, Jonn S; Huryn, Joseph M; Moiseenko, Vitali; Lee, Nancy Y; Estilo, Cherry L; Deasy, Joseph O

    2017-02-01

    To study internal and external generalizability of temporal dose-response relationships for xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer, and to investigate potential amendments of the QUANTEC guidelines. Objective xerostomia was assessed in 121 patients (n Cohort1 =55; n Cohort2 =66) treated to 70Gy@2Gy in 2006-2015. Univariate and multivariate analyses (UVA, MVA with 1000 bootstrap populations) were conducted in Cohort1, and generalizability of the best-performing MVA model was investigated in Cohort2 (performance: AUC, p-values, and Hosmer-Lemeshow p-values (p HL )). Ultimately and for clinical guidance, minimum mean dose thresholds to the contralateral and the ipsilateral parotid glands (Dmean contra , Dmean ipsi ) were estimated from the generated dose-response curves. The observed xerostomia rate was 38%/47% (3months) and 19%/23% (11-12months) in Cohort1/Cohort2. Risk of xerostomia at 3months increased for higher Dmean contra and Dmean ipsi (Cohort1: 0.17·Dmean contra +0.11·Dmean ipsi -8.13; AUC=0.90±0.05; p=0.0002±0.002; p HL =0.22±0.23; Cohort2: AUC=0.81; p<0.0001; p HL =0.27). The identified minimum Dmean contra thresholds were lower than in the QUANTEC guidelines (Cohort1/Cohort2: Dmean contra =12/19Gy; Dmean contra , Dmean ipsi =16, 25/20, 26Gy). Increased Dmean contra and Dmean ipsi explain short-term xerostomia following IMRT. Our results also suggest decreasing Dmean contra to below 20Gy, while keeping Dmean ipsi to around 25Gy. Long-term xerostomia was less frequent, and no dose-response relationship was established for this follow-up time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy to spare the parotid glands and decrease the risk of xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Joel; Simon, Antoine; Louvel, Guillaume; Henry, Olivier; Chajon, Enrique; Nassef, Mohamed; Haigron, Pascal; Cazoulat, Guillaume; Ospina, Juan David; Jegoux, Franck; Benezery, Karen; de Crevoisier, Renaud

    2015-01-09

    Large anatomical variations occur during the course of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC). The risks are therefore a parotid glands (PG) overdose and a xerostomia increase. The purposes of the study were to estimate: - the PG overdose and the xerostomia risk increase during a "standard" IMRT (IMRTstd); - the benefits of an adaptive IMRT (ART) with weekly replanning to spare the PGs and limit the risk of xerostomia. Fifteen patients received radical IMRT (70 Gy) for LAHNC. Weekly CTs were used to estimate the dose distributions delivered during the treatment, corresponding either to the initial planning (IMRTstd) or to weekly replanning (ART). PGs dose were recalculated at the fraction, from the weekly CTs. PG cumulated doses were then estimated using deformable image registration. The following PG doses were compared: pre-treatment planned dose, per-treatment IMRTstd and ART. The corresponding estimated risks of xerostomia were also compared. Correlations between anatomical markers and dose differences were searched. Compared to the initial planning, a PG overdose was observed during IMRTstd for 59% of the PGs, with an average increase of 3.7 Gy (10.0 Gy maximum) for the mean dose, and of 8.2% (23.9% maximum) for the risk of xerostomia. Compared to the initial planning, weekly replanning reduced the PG mean dose for all the patients (p<0.05). In the overirradiated PG group, weekly replanning reduced the mean dose by 5.1 Gy (12.2 Gy maximum) and the absolute risk of xerostomia by 11% (p<0.01) (30% maximum). The PG overdose and the dosimetric benefit of replanning increased with the tumor shrinkage and the neck thickness reduction (p<0.001). During the course of LAHNC IMRT, around 60% of the PGs are overdosed of 4 Gy. Weekly replanning decreased the PG mean dose by 5 Gy, and therefore by 11% the xerostomia risk.

  8. Mouth development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Justin; Jacox, Laura A; Saldanha, Francesca; Sive, Hazel

    2017-09-01

    A mouth is present in all animals, and comprises an opening from the outside into the oral cavity and the beginnings of the digestive tract to allow eating. This review focuses on the earliest steps in mouth formation. In the first half, we conclude that the mouth arose once during evolution. In all animals, the mouth forms from ectoderm and endoderm. A direct association of oral ectoderm and digestive endoderm is present even in triploblastic animals, and in chordates, this region is known as the extreme anterior domain (EAD). Further support for a single origin of the mouth is a conserved set of genes that form a 'mouth gene program' including foxA and otx2. In the second half of this review, we discuss steps involved in vertebrate mouth formation, using the frog Xenopus as a model. The vertebrate mouth derives from oral ectoderm from the anterior neural ridge, pharyngeal endoderm and cranial neural crest (NC). Vertebrates form a mouth by breaking through the body covering in a precise sequence including specification of EAD ectoderm and endoderm as well as NC, formation of a 'pre-mouth array,' basement membrane dissolution, stomodeum formation, and buccopharyngeal membrane perforation. In Xenopus, the EAD is also a craniofacial organizer that guides NC, while reciprocally, the NC signals to the EAD to elicit its morphogenesis into a pre-mouth array. Human mouth anomalies are prevalent and are affected by genetic and environmental factors, with understanding guided in part by use of animal models. WIREs Dev Biol 2017, 6:e275. doi: 10.1002/wdev.275 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. © 2017 The Authors. WIREs Developmental Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Characteristic changes of saliva and taste in burning mouth syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Imura, Hiroko; Shimada, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yoko; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2016-03-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by chronic pain with a burning sensation of the tongue and oral mucosa and reported to be often accompanied by subjective xerostomia and dysgeusia. Since the etiology of BMS has not been elucidated, to understand the characteristics of BMS, we measured some components of saliva and taste sensitivity and compared the measured values between BMS and healthy subjects. Unstimulated saliva was collected from 15 female BMS patients and 30 healthy women. The flow rate, viscosity (spinnability) and concentration of secretory IgA (SIgA) of saliva and serum antioxidant capacity were measured. The recognition thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami tastes were measured by whole-mouth method. The statistical analyses were performed using Student's t-test, and P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. In BMS group, the flow rate of saliva was significantly lower and the spinnability was significantly higher compared with healthy group. The secreted amount of SIgA per min and serum antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in the patients. The threshold for sourness in patients was significantly higher, while those for other tastes did not differ from healthy group. BMS patients showed lower salivary flow and higher salivary spinnability. These results together with decreased SIgA amount, suggest that BMS may be relevant to the deterioration of salivary condition, which could in turn affect taste function. Furthermore, the lower antioxidant capacity in patient's serum suggests that it can serve as a diagnostic tool for BMS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Randomized Trial of Vitamin C/E Complex for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chung, Man Ki; Kim, Do Hun; Ahn, Yong Chan; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Eun Hye; Son, Young-Ik

    2016-09-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the preventive efficacy of vitamin C/E complex supplementation for radiotherapy (RT)-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. Prospective, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study. A single tertiary referral institution. The trial group (n = 25) received antioxidant supplements (100 IU of vitamin E + 500 mg of vitamin C) twice per day during RT, while the control group (n = 20) received an identical placebo. Pre-RT and 1 and 6 months post-RT, patient-reported xerostomia questionnaires, observer-rated xerostomia score, and salivary scintigraphy were serially obtained to compare xerostomia severity between the 2 groups. The trial group showed greater improvements in xerostomia questionnaire and score at 6 months post-RT when compared with those at 1 month post-RT (P = .007 and .008, respectively). In contrast, the control group showed no changes between 1 and 6 months post-RT. By salivary scintigraphy, there was no difference in maximal accumulation or ejection fraction between the 2 groups. However, the trial group maintained significantly better oral indices at the prestimulatory (P = .01) and poststimulatory (P = .009) stages at 1 month post-RT, compared with the control group. At the final follow-up, there was no difference in overall survival and disease-free survival between the 2 groups. Our data suggest that short-term supplementation with an antioxidant vitamin E/C complex exerts a protective effect against RT-induced xerostomia. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  11. German register for glaucoma patients with dry eye. I. Basic outcome with respect to dry eye.

    PubMed

    Erb, Carl; Gast, Ulrike; Schremmer, Dieter

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this register was to determine the links between glaucoma, age, concomitant disease, medication, and dry eye in a large group of glaucoma patients. A total of 20,506 patients from 900 centers across Germany were included. The first 30 consecutive glaucoma patients at each center were recruited. Epidemiological data as well as information on glaucoma, medication, concomitant diseases, dry eye, and local symptoms were elicited by means of a questionnaire. We analyzed primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEX), and pigmentary glaucoma (PDG). According to the register data, more women develop dry eye and glaucoma than men (56.9 vs. 45.7%). The most frequent concomitant systemic diseases were hypertension (48.1%), diabetes mellitus (22.5%), and dry mouth, nose, and skin (11.3%). As expected, the highest incidence of dry eye was found in those patients with dry mouth, nose, and skin. Dry eye occurred with dissimilar frequencies in association with the various glaucoma types: PEX>POAG>PDG. The incidence of dry eye increases with age. The gender difference in the occurrence of dry eye becomes apparent from the age of 50. Dry eye occurred more frequently when three or more antiglaucoma drugs were used and increased with the duration of glaucoma disease. We publish the first results from the German Glaucoma and Dry Eye Register. We found that the occurrence of dry eye is linked to several factors. Thus, the type of glaucoma has an impact on the risk of dry eye. The quantity of eye drops applied also plays a role in the development of the dry eye syndrome if more than three medications are used. While POAG is usually treated with one drug, PEX and PDG tend to be treated with multiple drugs. The gender difference in the occurrence of dry eye becomes apparent from the age 50 years. Because of the vicious circle of dry eye, antiglaucoma eye drops containing benzalkonium chloride compromises patient compliance. The results of the register

  12. Xerostomia induced by radiotherapy: an overview of the physiopathology, clinical evidence, and management of the oral damage

    PubMed Central

    Pinna, Roberto; Campus, Guglielmo; Cumbo, Enzo; Mura, Ida; Milia, Egle

    2015-01-01

    Background The irradiation of head and neck cancer (HNC) often causes damage to the salivary glands. The resulting salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia seriously reduce the patient’s quality of life. Purpose To analyze the literature of actual management strategies for radiation-induced hypofunction and xerostomia in HNC patients. Methods MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library databases were electronically evaluated for articles published from January 1, 1970, to June 30, 2013. Two reviewers independently screened and included papers according to the predefined selection criteria. Results Sixty-one articles met the inclusion criteria. The systematic review of the literature suggests that the most suitable methods for managing the clinical and pathophysiological consequences of HNC radiotherapy might be the pharmacological approach, for example, through the use of cholinergic agonists when residual secretory capacity is still present, and the use of salivary substitutes. In addition, a modified diet and the patient’s motivation to enhance oral hygiene can lead to a significant improvement. Conclusion Radiation-induced xerostomia could be considered a multifactorial disease. It could depend on the type of cancer treatment and the cumulative radiation dose to the gland tissue. A preventive approach and the correct treatment of the particular radiotherapeutic patient can help to improve the condition of xerostomia. PMID:25691810

  13. Xerostomia in patients treated for oropharyngeal carcinoma: comparing linear accelerator-based intensity-modulated radiation therapy with helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Israël; Fortin, Bernard; Lambert, Louise; Clavel, Sébastien; Alizadeh, Moein; Filion, Edith J; Soulières, Denis; Bélair, Manon; Guertin, Louis; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2014-09-01

    In comparison to sliding-window intensity-modulated radiation therapy (sw-IMRT), we hypothesized that helical tomotherapy (HT) would achieve similar locoregional control and, at the same time, decrease the parotid gland dose, thus leading to a xerostomia reduction. The association between radiation techniques, mean parotid dose, and xerostomia incidence, was reviewed in 119 patients with advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma treated with concurrent chemoradiation using sw-IMRT (n = 59) or HT (n = 60). Ipsilateral and contralateral parotid mean doses were significantly lower for patients treated with HT versus sw-IMRT: 24 Gy versus 32 Gy ipsilaterally and 20 Gy versus 25 Gy contralaterally. The incidence of grade ≥2 xerostomia was significantly lower in the HT group than in the sw-IMRT group: 12% versus 78% at 6 months, 3% versus 51% at 12 months, and 0% versus 25% at 24 months. Total parotid mean dose <25 Gy was strongly associated to a lower incidence of grade ≥2 xerostomia at 6, 12, and 24 months. This retrospective series suggests that using HT can better spare the parotid glands while respecting quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC)'s criteria. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation by chest compression alone or with mouth-to-mouth ventilation.

    PubMed

    Hallstrom, A; Cobb, L; Johnson, E; Copass, M

    2000-05-25

    Despite extensive training of citizens of Seattle in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), bystanders do not perform CPR in almost half of witnessed cardiac arrests. Instructions in chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation given by dispatchers over the telephone can require 2.4 minutes. In experimental studies, chest compression alone is associated with survival rates similar to those with chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. We conducted a randomized study to compare CPR by chest compression alone with CPR by chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The setting of the trial was an urban, fire-department-based, emergency-medical-care system with central dispatching. In a randomized manner, telephone dispatchers gave bystanders at the scene of apparent cardiac arrest instructions in either chest compression alone or chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. The primary end point was survival to hospital discharge. Data were analyzed for 241 patients randomly assigned to receive chest compression alone and 279 assigned to chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Complete instructions were delivered in 62 percent of episodes for the group receiving chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation and 81 percent of episodes for the group receiving chest compression alone (P=0.005). Instructions for compression required 1.4 minutes less to complete than instructions for compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation. Survival to hospital discharge was better among patients assigned to chest compression alone than among those assigned to chest compression plus mouth-to-mouth ventilation (14.6 percent vs. 10.4 percent), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.18). The outcome after CPR with chest compression alone is similar to that after chest compression with mouth-to-mouth ventilation, and chest compression alone may be the preferred approach for bystanders inexperienced in CPR.

  15. Translation and validation of a Spanish version of the xerostomia inventory.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Carlos; Fariña, María P; Pérez, Cristhian; Fernández, Marcos; Forman, Katherine; Carrasco, Mauricio

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate a Spanish cross-cultural adaptation of the xerostomia inventory (XI). The original English version of XI was translated into Spanish, cross-culturally adapted and field tested. The Spanish version of XI (XI-Sp) was tested with a sample of 41 patients with xerostomia. The reliability of the XI-Sp was determined through internal consistency and test-retest methods. The construct validity of XI-Sp was determined by means of correlation between XI-Sp scores and salivary flow measurements. Overall XI-Sp scores were 40.8 (SD = 10) for the first application and 40.2 (SD = 9.5) for the second. Cronbach's alpha value for the XI-Sp was 0.89 and 0.87, respectively, while interitem correlation averages were r = 0.44 and r = 0.39 for each application. Interitem correlation and corrected total was r c ≥0.30. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficient value for the XI-Sp score was 0.59 and 0.91. Convergent validity for construct validity correlation with salivary flow showed a medium effect size (r 2  = 0.10) for the first application but did not make a statistically significant prediction for the second (r 2  = 0.7). This study provides evidence concerning the reliability of the XI-Sp, showing that it may be a useful tool for Spanish-speaking xerostomia patients for both clinical and epidemiologic research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Crow, Heidi C; Gonzalez, Yoly

    2013-02-01

    Pain in the tongue or oral tissues described as "burning" has been referred to by many terms including burning mouth syndrome. When a burning sensation in the mouth is caused by local or systemic factors, it is called secondary burning mouth syndrome and when these factors are treated the pain will resolve. When burning mouth syndrome occurs in the absence of identified risk indicators, the term primary burning mouth syndrome is utilized. This article focuses on descriptions, etiologic theories, and management of primary burning mouth syndrome, a condition for which underlying causative agents have been ruled out. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. The role of stem cells in the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Nevens, Daan; Nuyts, Sandra

    2016-06-01

    Xerostomia is an important complication following radiotherapy (RT) for head and neck cancer. Current treatment approaches are insufficient and can only temporarily relieve symptoms. New insights into the physiopathology of radiation-induced xerostomia might help us in this regard. This review discusses the current knowledge of salivary gland stem cells in radiation-induced xerostomia and their value in the prevention and treatment of this complication. Salivary gland stem cell transplantation, bone marrow-derived cell mobilization, molecular regulation of parotid stem cells, stem cell sparing RT, and adaptive RT are promising techniques that are discussed in this study. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The effectiveness of thyme honey for the management of treatment-induced xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients: A feasibility randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Andreas; Lambrinou, Ekaterini; Katodritis, Nicos; Vomvas, Dimitrios; Raftopoulos, Vasilios; Georgiou, Morpho; Paikousis, Lefkios; Charalambous, Melanie

    2017-04-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is one of the most common side effects that head and neck cancer patients experience during and after treatment. Despite the various methods for the prevention and treatment of radiation-induced xerostomia, it remains highly prevalent among patients treated for head and neck cancers negatively influencing their lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of thyme honey as a means for managing radiation-induced xerostomia. This was a parallel randomised controlled trial with two equal arms, the experimental arm (thyme honey) and the control arm (saline). 72 head and neck cancer patients receiving radiotherapy or/and chemotherapy or/and surgery were recruited in a specialised cancer centre. Patients in both arms followed the same administration protocol with thyme honey and saline respectively. Identical assessments at baseline, 1 month and 6 months following completion of the intervention were performed in both arms including the National Cancer Institute (NCI) xerostomia scale and the Xerostomia Questionnaire (XQ) additionally to weekly oral clinical assessments. The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier for this study is NCT01465308. Linear Mixed Models revealed the statistically significant effect of the intervention on xerostomia (F = 8.474 p < 0.001) and overall quality of life (F = 13.158 p < 0.001). Moreover, Generalised Estimating Equations revealed a statistically significant effect on strong and unbearable pain (F = 10.524 p < 0.001) and dysphagia (F = 4.525 p = 0.033). The study has demonstrated the safety and efficacy findings of Thyme honey in head and neck cancer patients for the management of treatment induced xerostomia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-induced Xerostomia in Head-and-Neck Cancer (RTOG 0244)

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, Naresh, E-mail: naresh.jha@albertahealthservices.ca; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi

    Purpose: We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were 'not per protocol,'more » then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of {<=}51% was acceptable. Results: Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was 'per protocol' or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia.« less

  20. A phase II study of submandibular gland transfer prior to radiation for prevention of radiation-induced xerostomia in head-and-neck cancer (RTOG 0244).

    PubMed

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R; McEwan, A J B; Robbins, K Thomas; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K; Ang, K Kian

    2012-10-01

    We report the results of a phase II study to determine the reproducibility of a submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) surgical technique for prevention of radiation (XRT)-induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT, followed by XRT, during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. Intensity modulated radiation therapy, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by 2 reviewers and radiation by 1 reviewer. If 13 or more (of 43) were "not per protocol," then the technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, grade 2 or higher, and a rate of ≤ 51% was acceptable. Forty-four of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was "per protocol" or within acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. Nine patients (20.9%) developed grade 2 acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0-1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. Treatment for these 11 patients (25.6%) was considered a failure for the xerostomia endpoint. Thirteen patients died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients was 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates were 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. The technique of submandibular SGT is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients were prevented from XRT-induced acute xerostomia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Validity and reliability of the Greek version of the xerostomia questionnaire in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Memtsa, Pinelopi Theopisti; Tolia, Maria; Tzitzikas, Ioannis; Bizakis, Ioannis; Pistevou-Gombaki, Kyriaki; Charalambidou, Martha; Iliopoulou, Chrysoula; Kyrgias, George

    2017-03-01

    Xerostomia after radiation therapy for head and neck (H&N) cancer has serious effects on patients' quality of life. The purpose of this study was to validate the Greek version of the self-reported eight-item xerostomia questionnaire (XQ) in patients treated with radiotherapy for H&N cancer. The XQ was translated into Greek and administered to 100 XQ patients. An exploratory factor analysis was performed. Reliability measures were calculated. Several types of validity were evaluated. The observer-rated scoring system was also used. The mean XQ value was 41.92 (SD 22.71). Factor analysis revealed the unidimensional nature of the questionnaire. High reliability measures (ICC, Cronbach's α, Pearson coefficients) were obtained. Patients differed statistically significantly in terms of XQ score, depending on the RTOG/EORTC classification. The Greek version of XQ is valid and reliable. Its score is well related to observer's findings and it can be used to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy on the subjective feeling of xerostomia.

  2. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER...

  3. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER...

  4. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER...

  5. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DISEASE, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER, CLASSICAL SWINE FEVER...

  6. 9 CFR 94.17 - Dry-cured pork products from regions where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... where foot-and-mouth disease, rinderpest, African swine fever, classical swine fever, or swine vesicular disease exists. 94.17 Section 94.17 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... RINDERPEST, FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, NEWCASTLE DISEASE, HIGHLY PATHOGENIC AVIAN INFLUENZA, AFRICAN SWINE FEVER...

  7. Burning mouth syndrome: a systematic review of treatments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y F; Kim, Y; Yoo, T; Han, P; Inman, J C

    2018-04-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral pain syndrome that primarily affects peri- and postmenopausal women. It is characterized by oral mucosal burning and may be associated with dysgeusia, paresthesia, dysesthesia, and xerostomia. The etiology of the disease process is unknown, but is thought to be neuropathic in origin. The goal of this systematic review was to assess the efficacy of the various treatments for BMS. Literature searches were conducted through PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases, which identified 22 randomized controlled trials. Eight studies examined alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), three clonazepam, three psychotherapy, and two capsaicin, which all showed modest evidence of potentially decreasing pain/burning. Gabapentin was seen in one study to work alone and synergistically with ALA. Other treatments included vitamins, benzydamine hydrochloride, bupivacaine, Catuama, olive oil, trazodone, urea, and Hypericum perforatum. Of these other treatments, Catuama and bupivacaine were the only ones with significant positive results in symptom improvement. ALA, topical clonazepam, gabapentin, and psychotherapy may provide modest relief of pain in BMS. Gabapentin may also boost the effect of ALA. Capsaicin is limited by its side effects. Catuama showed potential for benefit. Future studies with standardized methodology and outcomes containing more patients are needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Ixeris dentata Extract Increases Salivary Secretion through the Regulation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in a Diabetes-Induced Xerostomia Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Bhattarai, Kashi Raj; Lee, Hwa-Young; Kim, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2018-04-02

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanism of diabetes mellitus (DM)-induced dry mouth and an application of natural products from Ixeris dentata (IXD), a recently suggested regulator of amylase secretion in salivary cells. Vehicle-treated or diabetic rats were orally treated with either water or an IXD extract for 10 days to observe the effect on salivary flow. We found that the IXD extract increased aquaporin 5 (AQP5) and alpha-amylase protein expression in the submandibular gland along with salivary flow rate. Similarly, the IXD extract and its purified compound increased amylase secretion in high glucose-exposed human salivary gland cells. Furthermore, increased endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the submandibular gland of diabetic rats was inhibited by treatment with the IXD extract, suggesting that IXD extract treatment improves the ER environment by increasing the protein folding capacity. Thus, pharmacological treatment with the IXD extract is suggested to relieve DM-induced dry mouth symptoms.

  9. [Long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Yu, Lijiang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xiuhong; Xiao, Fufu; Zeng, Guoxing; Lan, Xiaolin

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Sixty-five cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients were randomly divided into study group of 32 patients and control group of 33 patents. The submandibular gland was transferred to submental region on 32 cases with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before receiving conventional radiotherapy and a block was used to cover the submental region. Before radiotherapy, two groups of submandibular gland function was detected by imaging of the submandibular gland. At 60 months after radiotherapy, submandibular gland function was detected by 99mTc radionuclide scanning, the questionnaire about the degree of xerostomia was investigated respectively. Five-year survival rate was counted. After following up for 60 months, submandibular gland uptake and secretion function in the study group was significantly higher than that in the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.01) respectively. The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia in the study group was significantly lower than that in the control group (15.4% vs 76.9%, P < 0.01). Five-year survival rate of the study group and control group was 81.3% and 78.8% respectively, there was no significant difference between the two groups (P > 0.05). The long-term efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma was well. It could improve the quality of life in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients after radiotherapy, and did not affect the long-term efficacy of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

  10. Socio-ecological factors and hand, foot and mouth disease in dry climate regions: a Bayesian spatial approach in Gansu, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gou, Faxiang; Liu, Xinfeng; Ren, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongpeng; Liu, Haixia; Wei, Kongfu; Yang, Xiaoting; Cheng, Yao; Zheng, Yunhe; Jiang, Xiaojuan; Li, Juansheng; Meng, Lei; Hu, Wenbiao

    2017-01-01

    The influence of socio-ecological factors on hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) were explored in this study using Bayesian spatial modeling and spatial patterns identified in dry regions of Gansu, China. Notified HFMD cases and socio-ecological data were obtained from the China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention, Gansu Yearbook and Gansu Meteorological Bureau. A Bayesian spatial conditional autoregressive model was used to quantify the effects of socio-ecological factors on the HFMD and explore spatial patterns, with the consideration of its socio-ecological effects. Our non-spatial model suggests temperature (relative risk (RR) 1.15, 95 % CI 1.01-1.31), GDP per capita (RR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.01-1.39) and population density (RR 1.98, 95 % CI 1.19-3.17) to have a significant effect on HFMD transmission. However, after controlling for spatial random effects, only temperature (RR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.04-1.53) showed significant association with HFMD. The spatial model demonstrates temperature to play a major role in the transmission of HFMD in dry regions. Estimated residual variation after taking into account the socio-ecological variables indicated that high incidences of HFMD were mainly clustered in the northwest of Gansu. And, spatial structure showed a unique distribution after taking account of socio-ecological effects.

  11. Sedative load and salivary secretion and xerostomia in community-dwelling older people.

    PubMed

    Tiisanoja, Antti; Syrjälä, Anna-Maija; Komulainen, Kaija; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Taipale, Heidi; Knuuttila, Matti; Ylöstalo, Pekka

    2016-06-01

    The aim was to investigate how sedative load and the total number of drugs used are related to hyposalivation and xerostomia among 75-year-old or older dentate, non-smoking, community-dwelling people. The study population consisted of 152 older people from the Oral Health GeMS study. The data were collected by interviews and clinical examinations during 2004-2005. Sedative load, which measures the cumulative effect of taking multiple drugs with sedative properties, was calculated using the Sedative Load Model. The results showed that participants with a sedative load of either 1-2 or ≥3 had an increased likelihood of having low stimulated salivary flow (<0.7 ml/min; OR: 2.4; CI: 0.6-8.6 and OR: 11; CI: 2.2-59; respectively) and low unstimulated salivary flow (<0.1 ml/min; OR: 2.7, CI: 1.0-7.4 and OR: 4.5, CI: 1.0-20, respectively) compared with participants without a sedative load. Participants with a sedative load ≥3 had an increased likelihood of having xerostomia (OR: 2.5, CI: 0.5-12) compared with participants without a sedative load. The results showed that the association between the total number of drugs and hyposalivation was weaker than the association between sedative load and hyposalivation. Sedative load is strongly related to hyposalivation and to a lesser extent with xerostomia. The adverse effects of drugs on saliva secretion are specifically related to drugs with sedative properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Xerostomia, salivary characteristics and gland volumes following intensity-modulated radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a two-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Sim, Cpc; Soong, Y L; Pang, Epp; Lim, C; Walker, G D; Manton, D J; Reynolds, E C; Wee, Jts

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate changes in xerostomia status, salivary characteristics and gland volumes 2 years following radiotherapy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients. Xerostomia scores, salivary flow rates, pH and buffering capacity were measured at pre-radiotherapy, mid-radiotherapy, 2 weeks, 3 months and 2 years post-radiotherapy. Salivary gland volumes and their correlation with radiation dose were also assessed. Mean radiation dose to oral cavity, parotid and submandibular glands (SMG) was 44.5, 65.0 and 38.6 Gy respectively. Parotid and SMG volumes decreased 33% at 3 months post-radiotherapy; volumes at 2 years post-radiotherapy were 84% and 51% of pre-radiotherapy levels, respectively. Correlations were observed between parotid gland volume per cent reduction and its radiation dose and between resting salivary flow rate reduction and post-radiotherapy/pre-radiotherapy SMG volume ratio. Salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly low at 2 years post-radiotherapy (both flow rates, P = 0.001; resting saliva pH, P = 0.005). Similarly, xerostomia scores remained significantly higher compared with pre-radiotherapy levels. Submandibular gland volumetric shrinkage persisted 2 years after radiotherapy. Xerostomia scores remained significantly higher, and salivary flow rates and resting saliva pH remained significantly lower, suggesting that study participants were still at risk for hyposalivation-related oral diseases. © 2018 Australian Dental Association.

  13. A Phase II Study of Submandibular Gland Transfer Prior to Radiation for Prevention of Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Head and Neck Cancer (Rtog 0244)s

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Naresh; Harris, Jonathan; Seikaly, Hadi; Jacobs, John R.; McEwan, AJB.; Thomas Robbins, K.; Grecula, John; Sharma, Anand K.; Ang, K. Kian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose We report the results of a phase II study to determine reproducibility of surgical technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer (SGT) for prevention of radiation (XRT) induced xerostomia in a multi-institutional setting and to assess severity of xerostomia. Methods and Materials Eligible patients had surgery for primary, neck dissection, and SGT followed by XRT during which the transferred salivary gland was shielded. IMRT, amifostine, and pilocarpine were not allowed, but postoperative chemotherapy was allowed. Each operation was reviewed by two and radiation by one reviewer. If 13 or more (out of 43) were “not per protocol”, then technique would be considered not reproducible as per study design. The secondary endpoint was the rate of acute xerostomia, Grade 2 or higher and a rate of ≤ 51% was acceptable. Results 44 of the total 49 patients were analyzable: male (81.8%), oropharynx (63.6%), stage IV (61.4%), median age 56.5 years. SGT was “per protocol” or with acceptable variation in 34 patients (77.3%) and XRT in 79.5%. 9 patients (20.9%) developed grade II acute xerostomia; 2 had grade 0 -1 xerostomia (4.7%) but started on amifostine/pilocarpine. These 11 patients (25.6%) were considered failures for the xerostomia endpoint. 13 patients have died; median follow-up for 31 surviving patients is 2.9 years. Two-year overall and disease-free survival rates are 76.4% and 71.7%, respectively. Conclusions the technique of submandibular salivary gland transfer procedure is reproducible in a multicenter setting. Seventy-four percent of patients had prevention of XRT induced acute xerostomia. PMID:22541957

  14. Role of minor salivary glands in developing patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva during day and night.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Ivo; Schilstra, Cornelis; Visink, Arjan; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Bijl, Henk P; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate the relationship between xerostomia during the day (XERday) and night (XERnight) and sticky saliva during the day (STICday) and night (STICnight) and dose distributions in different major and minor salivary glands among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) or chemoradiation (CHRT). The study population was composed of 201 consecutive HNC patients treated with intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) or 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT). All patients were included in a standard follow up programme in which acute and late side effects and quality of life (QoL) were prospectively assessed, prior to, during and after treatment. The primary endpoints were XERday, XERnight, STICday, STICnight as assessed by the Groningen Radiotherapy Induced Xerostomia questionnaire (GRIX) six months after completion of treatment. Organs at risk (OARs) potentially involved in salivary function were delineated on planning-CT, including the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the minor glands in the soft palate, buccal mucosa and lips. Patients with moderate-to-severe xerostomia or moderate-to-severe sticky saliva, respectively, at baseline were excluded. In order to determine which salivary glands were most important, a multivariate logistic regression analysis with an extended bootstrapping technique was used. In total, 29% and 19% of the cases suffered from XERday and XERnight, respectively. The multivariate analysis showed that baseline xerostomia and the mean parotid gland dose were the most important predictors for XERday and XERnight. At 6months after (CH)RT, 10% and 12% of the cases reported STICday and STICnight respectively. We were not able to identify prognostic factors related to dose distributions with regard to STICday. The mean submandibular gland dose was associated with STICnight. Baseline xerostomia and sticky saliva scores on the GRIX were associated

  15. Early changes of parotid density and volume predict modifications at the end of therapy and intensity of acute xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Belli, Maria Luisa; Scalco, Elisa; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Fiorino, Claudio; Broggi, Sara; Dinapoli, Nicola; Ricchetti, Francesco; Valentini, Vincenzo; Rizzo, Giovanna; Cattaneo, Giovanni Mauro

    2014-10-01

    To quantitatively assess the predictive power of early variations of parotid gland volume and density on final changes at the end of therapy and, possibly, on acute xerostomia during IMRT for head-neck cancer. Data of 92 parotids (46 patients) were available. Kinetics of the changes during treatment were described by the daily rate of density (rΔρ) and volume (rΔvol) variation based on weekly diagnostic kVCT images. Correlation between early and final changes was investigated as well as the correlation with prospective toxicity data (CTCAEv3.0) collected weekly during treatment for 24/46 patients. A higher rΔρ was observed during the first compared to last week of treatment (-0,50 vs -0,05HU, p-value = 0.0001). Based on early variations, a good estimation of the final changes may be obtained (Δρ: AUC = 0.82, p = 0.0001; Δvol: AUC = 0.77, p = 0.0001). Both early rΔρ and rΔvol predict a higher "mean" acute xerostomia score (≥ median value, 1.57; p-value = 0.01). Median early density rate changes for patients with mean xerostomia score ≥ / < 1.57 were -0.98 vs -0.22 HU/day respectively (p = 0.05). Early density and volume variations accurately predict final changes of parotid glands. A higher longitudinally assessed score of acute xerostomia is well predicted by higher rΔρ and rΔvol in the first two weeks of treatment: best cut-off values were -0.50 HU/day and -380 mm(3)/day for rΔρ and rΔvol respectively. Further studies are necessary to definitively assess the potential of early density/volume changes in identifying more sensitive patients at higher risk of experiencing xerostomia.

  16. Mouth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... by some medicines and certain diseases Gum or tooth problems Bad breath Treatment for mouth disorders varies, depending on the problem. Keeping a clean mouth by brushing and flossing often is important.

  17. Xerostomia and quality of life after intensity-modulated radiotherapy vs. conventional radiotherapy for early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Initial report on a randomized controlled clinical trial

    SciTech Connect

    Pow, Edmond; Kwong, Dora; McMillan, Anne S.

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To compare directly the effect of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) vs. conventional radiotherapy (CRT) on salivary flow and quality of life (QoL) in patients with early-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: Fifty-one patients with T2, N0/N1, M0 NPC took part in a randomized controlled clinical study and received IMRT or CRT. Stimulated whole (SWS) and parotid (SPS) saliva flow were measured and Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core quetionnaire, and EORTC head-and-neck module (QLQ-H and N35) were completed at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after radiotherapy. Results:more » Forty-six patients (88%) were in disease remission 12 months after radiotherapy. At 12 months postradiotherapy, 12 (50.0%) and 20 patients (83.3%) in the IMRT group had recovered at least 25% of preradiotherapy SWS and SPS flow respectively, compared with 1 (4.8%) and 2 patients (9.5%), respectively, in the CRT group. Global health scores showed continuous improvement in QoL after both treatments (p < 0.001). However, after 12 months subscale scores for role-physical, bodily pain, and physical function were significantly higher in the IMRT group, indicating a better condition (p < 0.05). Dry mouth and sticky saliva were problems in both groups 2 months after treatment. In the IMRT group, there was consistent improvement over time with xerostomia-related symptoms significantly less common than in the CRT group at 12 months postradiotherapy. Conclusions: IMRT was significantly better than CRT in terms of parotid sparing and improved QoL for early-stage disease. The findings support the case for assessment of health-related QoL in relation to head-and-neck cancer using a site-specific approach.« less

  18. Patient- and therapy-related factors associated with the incidence of xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving parotid-sparing helical tomotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Lee, Hsiao-Yi; Wan Leung, Stephen; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chao, Pei-Ju

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the incidence of moderate to severe patient-reported xerostomia among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT) and identified patient- and therapy-related factors associated with acute and chronic xerostomia toxicity. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed using quality-of-life questionnaire datasets from 67 patients with NPC. For acute toxicity, the dosimetric factors of the mean doses to the ipsilateral submandibular gland (Dis) and the contralateral submandibular gland (Dcs) were selected as the first two significant predictors. For chronic toxicity, four predictive factors were selected: age, mean dose to the oral cavity (Doc), education, and T stage. The substantial sparing data can be used to avoid xerostomia toxicity. We suggest that the tolerance values corresponded to a 20% incidence of complications (TD20) for Dis = 39.0 Gy, Dcs = 38.4 Gy, and Doc = 32.5 Gy, respectively, when mean doses to the parotid glands met the QUANTEC 25 Gy sparing guidelines. To avoid patient-reported xerostomia toxicity, the mean doses to the parotid gland, submandibular gland, and oral cavity have to meet the sparing tolerance, although there is also a need to take inherent patient characteristics into consideration. PMID:26289304

  19. Patient- and therapy-related factors associated with the incidence of xerostomia in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving parotid-sparing helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Lee, Hsiao-Yi; Wan Leung, Stephen; Huang, Chih-Jen; Chao, Pei-Ju

    2015-08-20

    We investigated the incidence of moderate to severe patient-reported xerostomia among nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with helical tomotherapy (HT) and identified patient- and therapy-related factors associated with acute and chronic xerostomia toxicity. The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed using quality-of-life questionnaire datasets from 67 patients with NPC. For acute toxicity, the dosimetric factors of the mean doses to the ipsilateral submandibular gland (Dis) and the contralateral submandibular gland (Dcs) were selected as the first two significant predictors. For chronic toxicity, four predictive factors were selected: age, mean dose to the oral cavity (Doc), education, and T stage. The substantial sparing data can be used to avoid xerostomia toxicity. We suggest that the tolerance values corresponded to a 20% incidence of complications (TD20) for Dis = 39.0 Gy, Dcs = 38.4 Gy, and Doc = 32.5 Gy, respectively, when mean doses to the parotid glands met the QUANTEC 25 Gy sparing guidelines. To avoid patient-reported xerostomia toxicity, the mean doses to the parotid gland, submandibular gland, and oral cavity have to meet the sparing tolerance, although there is also a need to take inherent patient characteristics into consideration.

  20. Mouth Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... lips and the inside of your mouth. Most oral cancers are squamous cell carcinomas. It's not clear what causes the mutations in squamous cells that lead to mouth cancer. But doctors have identified factors that may increase ...

  1. Dendrobium candidum extract increases the expression of aquaporin-5 in labial glands from patients with Sjögren's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lin; Ng, Tzi Bun; Feng, Yi-Bin; Yao, Tong; Wong, Jack Ho; Yao, Ren-Min; Li, Lei; Mo, Fei-Zhi; Xiao, Yin; Shaw, Pang-Chui; Li, Ze-Min; Sze, Stephen Cho Wing; Zhang, Kalin Yanbo

    2011-01-15

    This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of Dendrobium candidum extract in promoting expression of aquaporin-5 for treatment of Sjögren's syndrome (SS). Sixteen patients with SS suffered from deficient secretion of saliva due to an autoimmune destruction of salivary glands leading to dry mouth symptoms (xerostomia). However, glandular dysfunction also occurred without destruction. Based upon its abnormal distribution in SS salivary glands, a potential role of the water channel protein aquaporin-5 (AQP-5) in the pathogenesis of SS was proposed. After oral administration of D. candidum extracted liquid (DCEL) for 1 week, saliva and salivary gland biopsies from labial glands of patients were collected and examined by employing immunoreactivity and immunohistochemistry techniques. Results showed that salivary secretion increased by about 65% in patients treated with DCEL as compared with the control group. Higher labeling indices (percentage of acinus area immunoreactive for AQP-5) in the biopsies were found in SS patients who had taken DCEL. This study demonstrated that D. candidum would regulate the expression of AQP-5 in labial glands of SS patients and thereby promoted secretion of saliva to improve dry mouth symptoms. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. SU-F-J-218: Predicting Radiation-Induced Xerostomia by Dosimetrically Accounting for Daily Setup Uncertainty During Head and Neck IMRT

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S; Quon, H; McNutt, T

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To determine if the accumulated parotid dosimetry using planning CT to daily CBCT deformation and dose re-calculation can predict for radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods: To track and dosimetrically account for the effects of anatomical changes on the parotid glands, we propagated physicians’ contours from planning CT to daily CBCT using a deformable registration with iterative CBCT intensity correction. A surface mesh for each OAR was created with the deformation applied to the mesh to obtain the deformed parotid volumes. Daily dose was computed on the deformed CT and accumulated to the last fraction. For both the accumulated and the plannedmore » parotid dosimetry, we tested the prediction power of different dosimetric parameters including D90, D50, D10, mean, standard deviation, min/max dose to the combined parotids and patient age to severe xerostomia (NCI-CTCAE grade≥2 at 6 mo follow-up). We also tested the dosimetry to parotid sub-volumes. Three classification algorithms, random tree, support vector machine, and logistic regression were tested to predict severe xerostomia using a leave-one-out validation approach. Results: We tested our prediction model on 35 HN IMRT cases. Parameters from the accumulated dosimetry model demonstrated an 89% accuracy for predicting severe xerostomia. Compared to the planning dosimetry, the accumulated dose consistently demonstrated higher prediction power with all three classification algorithms, including 11%, 5% and 30% higher accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively. Geometric division of the combined parotid glands into superior-inferior regions demonstrated ∼5% increased accuracy than the whole volume. The most influential ranked features include age, mean accumulated dose of the submandibular glands and the accumulated D90 of the superior parotid glands. Conclusion: We demonstrated that the accumulated parotid dosimetry using CT-CBCT registration and dose re-calculation more accurately

  3. The significance of saliva during sleep and the relevance of oromotor movements.

    PubMed

    Thie, Norman M R; Kato, Takafumi; Bader, Gaby; Montplaisir, Jacques Y; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2002-06-01

    Saliva is an essential component of the oroesophageal milieu and allows for normal speech, taste, mastication, food bolus formation and swallowing. Saliva has important functions in protecting the hard and soft tissues of the oral cavity from acids and pathogenic microbes. A large number of people suffer either subjective or objective alterations in quantity and/or quality of their saliva that may be secondary to disease, medications, medical treatments or emotional events. Sleep-related xerostomia is a sensation of dry mouth associated with a report of either mouth and/or throat discomfort that induces awakenings for water intake. The prevalence of self-reported dry mouth complaint during sleep (associated with awakening and water intake) in a Canadian survey was estimated at 23%. The biological significance of decreased saliva during sleep is unknown and it is unclear how the oral cavity compensates for this period of relative dryness. The amount of saliva produced is greatest during the waking hours of the day and diminishes dramatically during sleep and may represent another process in the human body that displays a circadian rhythmicity. Salivary secretion during wakefulness is, in part, associated with oromotor activity involving the masticatory muscles. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity and swallowing are non-disruptive events that occur during normal sleep. We hypothesize herein that lubrication from saliva is necessary during sleep to protect tissue integrity and health of oroesophageal structures.

  4. Mouth ulcers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gingivostomatitis Herpes simplex ( fever blister ) Leukoplakia Oral cancer Oral lichen planus Oral thrush A skin sore caused by histoplasmosis may ... mouth Images Oral thrush Canker sore (aphthous ulcer) Lichen planus on the oral mucosa Mouth sores References Daniels TE, Jordan RC. ...

  5. Candidate chromosome 1 disease susceptibility genes for Sjogren’s syndrome xerostomia are narrowed by novel NOD.B10 congenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Mongini, Patricia K. A.; Kramer, Jill M.; Ishikawa, Tomo-o; Herschman, Harvey; Esposito, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Sjogren’s syndrome (SS) is characterized by salivary gland leukocytic infiltrates and impaired salivation (xerostomia). Cox-2 (Ptgs2) is located on chromosome 1 within the span of the Aec2 region. In an attempt to demonstrate that COX-2 drives antibody-dependent hyposalivation, NOD.B10 congenic mice bearing a Cox-2flox gene were generated. A congenic line with non-NOD alleles in Cox-2-flanking genes failed manifest xerostomia. Further backcrossing yielded disease-susceptible NOD.B10 Cox-2flox lines; fine genetic mapping determined that critical Aec2 genes lie within a 1.56 to 2.17 Mb span of DNA downstream of Cox-2. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that susceptible and non-susceptible lines exhibit non-synonymous coding SNPs in 8 protein-encoding genes of this region, thereby better delineating candidate Aec2 alleles needed for SS xerostomia. PMID:24685748

  6. Association between crack cocaine use and reduced salivary flow.

    PubMed

    Antoniazzi, Raquel Pippi; Sari, Amanda Rodrigues; Casarin, Maísa; Moraes, Cristina Machado Bragança de; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2017-06-05

    Crack cocaine use appears to have an impact on oral conditions. However, changes in the salivary flow among crack users have not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to compare stimulated salivary flow and the occurrence of hyposalivation between crack users and non-users. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 40 crack users and 40 controls matched for sex, age, and smoking habits. Interviews were conducted to acquire data on the perception of dry mouth (xerostomia) and drug use. Stimulated salivary flow was determined using the spitting method. A significant reduction in stimulated salivary flow was found among crack users in comparison to non-users (1.02 vs. 1.59 ml/min). A total of 42.5% and 15% of crack users had very low and low stimulated salivary flow, respectively. Moreover, 65% of users reported xerostomia in comparison to 37.5% non-users (p < 0.012). No significant association was found between xerostomia and hyposalivation (p = 0.384). A multivariate analysis revealed that individuals older than 26 years of age, those with a low household income, and crack users (prevalence ratio: 2.59) had a significant association with the occurrence of hyposalivation. A significant association was found between the use of crack and reduced salivary flow. The use of crack was associated with the occurrence of hyposalivation in the multivariate analysis.

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy of a topical sialogogue spray containing malic acid 1% in elderly people with xerostomia: a double-blind, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; Cabrera-Ayala, Maribel; Aguilar-Salvatierra, Antonio; Guardia, Javier; Ramírez-Fernández, María Piedad; González-Jaranay, Maximino; Calvo-Guirado, José Luis

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of a topical sialogogue spray containing 1% malic acid for elderly people affected by xerostomia. This research took the form of a double-blind, randomized clinical trial. Forty-one individuals (mean age: 78.7 years) with xerostomia were divided into two groups: for the first 'intervention group' (21 subjects) a topical sialogogue spray (1% malic acid) was applied, while for the second 'control group' (20 subjects), a placebo spray was applied; for both groups, the sprays were applied on demand during 2 weeks. The Xerostomia Inventory (XI) was used to evaluate xerostomia levels before and after product/placebo application. Unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates, before and after spray application, were measured. XI scores decreased significantly (clinically meaningful) from 36.4 ± 7.3 points to 29.1 ± 7.1 (p < 0.05) with an XI difference of 7.2 ± 6.1, after the combination among 1% malic acid with xylitol and fluoride application. After 2 weeks of 1% malic acid application, unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates increased significantly (p < 0.05). A topical sialogogue spray containing 1% malic acid improved xerostomia in an elderly population and increased unstimulated and stimulated salivary flows rates. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Effectiveness of Positioning Stents in Radiation-Induced Xerostomia in Patients with Tongue Carcinoma: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Mall, Priyanka; Chand, Pooran; Singh, Balendra Pratap; Rao, Jitendra; Siddarth, Ramashanker; Srivastava, Kirti

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform an objective and subjective evaluation of the efficacy of positioning stents in radiation-induced xerostomia in patients with tongue carcinoma. A total of 30 patients with tongue carcinoma and undergoing conventional radiotherapy were randomly assigned to control (n = 15) and study (n = 15) groups, without and with a positioning stent, respectively. Assessment of salivary output reduction was done before and after radiotherapy, at 3- and 6-month intervals, by measurement of unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates (objective evaluation). Xerostomia (subjective evaluation) was noted using six items from the Quality of Life Head and Neck Module (QLQ-H&N35) as proposed by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer. The significance level was set at .05. Mean unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rates at 3- and 6-month intervals revealed significantly (P < .05) higher scores for the study group as compared with the control group. The mean quality of life scores in the study group were significantly (P < .05) lower compared with the control group. The use of a positioning stent minimized radiation-induced xerostomia and its symptoms.

  9. First-in-man mesenchymal stem cells for radiation-induced xerostomia (MESRIX): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grønhøj, Christian; Jensen, David H; Glovinski, Peter V; Jensen, Siri Beier; Bardow, Allan; Oliveri, Roberto S; Specht, Lena; Thomsen, Carsten; Darkner, Sune; Kiss, Katalin; Fischer-Nielsen, Anne; von Buchwald, Christian

    2017-03-07

    Salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia are major complications following radiotherapy for head and neck cancer and may lead to debilitating oral disorders and impaired quality of life. Currently, only symptomatic treatment is available. However, mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy has shown promising results in preclinical studies. Objectives are to assess safety and efficacy in a first-in-man trial on adipose-derived MSC therapy (ASC) for radiation-induced xerostomia. This is a single-center, phase I/II, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial. A total of 30 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive ultrasound-guided, administered ASC or placebo to the submandibular glands. The primary outcome is change in unstimulated whole salivary flow rate. The secondary outcomes are safety, efficacy, change in quality of life, qualitative and quantitative measurements of saliva, as well as submandibular gland size, vascularization, fibrosis, and secretory tissue evaluation based on contrast-induced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and core-needle samples. The assessments are performed at baseline (1 month prior to treatment) and 1 and 4 months following investigational intervention. The trial is the first attempt to evaluate the safety and efficacy of adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) in patients with radiation-induced xerostomia. The results may provide evidence for the effectiveness of ASC in patients with salivary gland hypofunction and xerostomia and deliver valuable information for the design of subsequent trials. EudraCT, Identifier: 2014-004349-29. Registered on 1 April 2015. ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT02513238 . First received on 2 July 2015. The trial is prospectively registered.

  10. Submandibular gland-sparing radiation therapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gensheimer, Michael F; Liao, Jay J; Garden, Adam S; Laramore, George E; Parvathaneni, Upendra

    2014-11-26

    Saliva from submandibular glands (SMG) is necessary to minimize xerostomia. It is unclear whether SMG can be safely spared in patients undergoing bilateral neck radiotherapy for locally advanced oropharyngeal cancer without increasing the risk of marginal recurrence. We evaluated the outcomes of contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All patients with stage III/IV oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with bilateral neck IMRT from 2006-2012 at our institution were included. Appropriately selected patients with favorable primary tumor characteristics and no definite contralateral neck disease were treated with cSMG-sparing IMRT. Patterns of failure and xerostomia outcomes were retrospectively analyzed. 114 patients were treated. 89% had stage IV disease and 89% received definitive radiation therapy. 76 patients (67%) received cSMG sparing IMRT. With a median follow-up of 30 months, there were 10 local, 9 regional, and 10 distant recurrences. 2-year overall survival was 86% and 2-year loco-regional control was 87%. In cSMG spared patients, the mean cSMG dose was 30.7 Gy. Late grade 2+ xerostomia was significantly reduced in the cSMG spared group compared to those without SMG sparing (6 months: 23% vs. 72%, 12 months: 6% vs. 41%, 24 months: 3% vs. 36%, all p < 0.0007). There were no peri-SMG marginal recurrences in the cSMG-spared cohort. cSMG sparing IMRT did not increase marginal failures in this series of locally advanced oropharyngeal SCC patients. Xerostomia was significantly reduced in cSMG spared patients.

  11. Burning mouth syndrome: a review and update.

    PubMed

    Sun, Andy; Wu, Kai-Ming; Wang, Yi-Ping; Lin, Hung-Pin; Chen, Hsin-Ming; Chiang, Chun-Pin

    2013-10-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by the presence of burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of clinically apparent mucosal alterations. It occurs more commonly in middle-aged and elderly women and often affects the tongue tip and lateral borders, lips, and hard and soft palate. In addition to a burning sensation, the patients with BMS may also complain unremitting oral mucosal pain, dysgeusia, and xerostomia. BMS can be classified into two clinical forms: primary and secondary BMS. The primary BMS is essential or idiopathic, in which the organic local/systemic causes cannot be identified and a neuropathological cause is likely. The diagnosis of primary BMS depends mainly on exclusion of etiological factors. The secondary BMS is caused by local, systemic, and/or psychological factors; thus, its diagnosis depends on identification of the exact causative factor. When local, systemic or psychological factors are present, treatment or elimination of these factors usually results in a significant clinical improvement of BMS symptoms. Vitamin, zinc, or hormone replacement therapy has been found to be effective for reducing the oral burning or pain symptom in some BMS patients with deficiency of the corresponding factor. If patients still have the symptoms after the removal of potential causes, drug therapy should be instituted. Previous randomized controlled clinical trials found that drug therapy with capsaicin, alpha-lipoic acid, clonazepam, and antidepressants may provide relief of oral burning or pain symptom. In addition, psychotherapy and behavioral feedback may also help eliminate the BMS symptoms. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Mouth and Teeth (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Mouth and Teeth KidsHealth / For Parents / Mouth and Teeth What's in ... daily lives. Basic Anatomy of the Mouth and Teeth The entrance to the digestive tract, the mouth ...

  13. Comparative Analysis of Psychological, Hormonal, and Genetic Factors Between Burning Mouth Syndrome and Secondary Oral Burning.

    PubMed

    das Neves de Araújo Lima, Emeline; Barbosa, Natália Guimarães; Dos Santos, Ana Celly Souza; AraújoMouraLemos, Telma Maria; de Souza, Cleber Machado; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; da Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas; de Medeiros, Ana Miryam Costa

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between psychological, hormonal, and genetic factors with the development of burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and secondary oral burning (SOB) in order to provide a better characterization and classification of these conditions. Cross sectional study. Patients with complaints of mouth burning registered at the Oral Diagnostic Service of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte between 2000 and 2013. The sample consisted of 163 subjects divided into a group of patients with BMS (n = 64) and a group of subjects with SOB (n = 99). The following variables were analyzed: passive and stimulated saliva flow, stress levels and phase, depression, anxiety, serum cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels, and the presence of polymorphisms in the interleukin 6 (IL-6) gene. The results showed significant differences in the presence of xerostomia (p = 0.01), hyposalivation at rest (p < 0.001) and symptoms of depression (p = 0.033) between the two groups, which were more prevalent in the BMS group. DHEA levels were lower in the BMS group (p = 0.003) and were sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this condition. Genetic analysis revealed no significant association between the polymorphisms analyzed and the development of BMS. These results suggest a possible role of depression, as well as of reduced DHEA levels, as associated factors for development of BMS. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Pathophysiology of primary burning mouth syndrome with special focus on taste dysfunction: a review.

    PubMed

    Kolkka-Palomaa, M; Jääskeläinen, S K; Laine, M A; Teerijoki-Oksa, T; Sandell, M; Forssell, H

    2015-11-01

    Primary burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is a chronic oral condition characterized by burning pain often accompanied with taste dysfunction and xerostomia. The most compelling evidence concerning BMS pathophysiology comes from studies on the somatosensory system using neurophysiologic or psychophysical methods such as blink reflex, thermal quantitative sensory testing, as well as functional brain imaging. They have provided convincing evidence for neuropathic involvement at several levels of the somatosensory system in BMS pain pathophysiology. The number of taste function studies trying to substantiate the subjective taste disturbances or studies on salivary factors in BMS is much more limited, and most of them suffer from definitional and methodological problems. This review aims to critically evaluate the existing literature on the pathophysiology of BMS, paying special attention to the correctness of case selection and the methodology used in published studies, and to summarize the current state of knowledge. Based on the recognition of several gaps in the current understanding of the pathophysiology of BMS especially as regards taste and pain system interactions, the review ends with future scenarios for research in this area. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Burning mouth syndrome: A review on its diagnostic and therapeutic approach

    PubMed Central

    Aravindhan, R.; Vidyalakshmi, Santhanam; Kumar, Muniapillai Siva; Satheesh, C.; Balasubramanium, A. Murali; Prasad, V. Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS), a chronic and intractable orofacial pain syndrome is characterized by the presence of burning sensation of the oral mucosa in the absence of specific oral lesion. This condition affects chiefly of middle aged and elderly woman with hormonal changes or psychological disorders. In addition to burning sensation, patient with BMS also complains of oral mucosal pain, altered taste sensation, and dry mouth. This condition is probably of multifactorial origin, often idiopathic and its exact etiopathogenesis remains unclear. So far, there is no definitive cure for this condition and most of the treatment approaches, medications remains unsatisfactory. An interdisciplinary and systematic approach is required for better patient management. The purpose of this article is to present a review of epidemiology, clinical presentation, classification, etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and management of BMS. PMID:25210377

  16. Mucoadhesive polymers in the treatment of dry X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Partenhauser, Alexandra; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    Mucoadhesive polymers are an essential tool in the treatment of diseases where dry mucosal surfaces are involved. In this review, we focus on the application of mucoadhesive polymers in the context of dry eye, dry mouth, and dry vagina syndrome, collectively named 'dry X syndrome'. With a prolonged residence time on mucosal membranes, mucoadhesive materials are as targeted treatment option, with the mucosa as an intended site of action. Thus, mucoadhesive polymers are able to ease local irritation or itching, alleviate chewing difficulties, improve tear-film break-up time, and help to restore physiological conditions. Here, we discuss the different classes of mucoadhesive material and their performance in the treatment of dry X syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation and Validation of a Korean Version of the Xerostomia Inventory in Patients with Primary Sjögren's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer; Koh, Jung Hee; Kwok, Seung-Ki; Park, Sung-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to generate and validate a cross-culturally adapted Korean version of the xerostomia inventory (XI), an 11-item questionnaire designed to measure the severity of xerostomia. The original English version of the XI was translated into Korean according to the guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality-of-life measures. Among a prospective cohort of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) in Korea, 194 patients were analyzed. Internal consistency was evaluated by using Cronbach's alpha, and test-retest reliability was obtained by using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analysis. Construct validity was investigated by performing a correlation analysis between XI total score and salivary flow rate (SFR). Cronbach's alpha for internal consistency was 0.868, and the ICC for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.48 to 0.827, with a median value of 0.72. Moderate negative correlations between XI score and stimulated SFR, unstimulated SFR, and differential (stimulated minus unstimulated) SFR were observed (Spearman's rho, ρ = -0.515, -0.447, and -0.482, respectively; P < 0.001). The correlation analysis between the visual analogue scale (VAS) score of overall dryness and SFR indicated a smaller ρ value (-0.235 [P = 0.006], -0.243 [P = 0.002], and -0.252 [P = 0.003], respectively), which supports that XI more accurately reflects the degree of xerostomia in the pSS patients. In conclusion, the Korean version of the XI is a reliable tool to estimate the severity of xerostomia in patients with pSS.

  18. ERK-GluR1 phosphorylation in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neurons is involved in pain associated with dry tongue.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Yuka; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Kubo, Asako; Chen, Jui Yen; Noma, Noboru; Batbold, Dulguun; Imamura, Yoshiki; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Dry mouth is known to cause severe pain in the intraoral structures, and many dry mouth patients have been suffering from intraoral pain. In development of an appropriate treatment, it is crucial to study the mechanisms underlying intraoral pain associated with dry mouth, yet the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. To evaluate the mechanisms underlying pain related to dry mouth, the dry-tongue rat model was developed. Hence, the mechanical or heat nocifensive reflex, the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phosphorylated GluR1-IR immunohistochemistries, and the single neuronal activity were examined in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis of dry-tongue rats. The head-withdrawal reflex threshold to mechanical, but not heat, stimulation of the tongue was significantly decreased on day 7 after tongue drying. The mechanical, but not heat, responses of trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis nociceptive neurons were significantly enhanced in dry-tongue rats compared to sham rats on day 7. The number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-immunoreactive cells was also significantly increased in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis following noxious stimulation of the tongue in dry-tongue rats compared to sham rats on day 7. The decrement of the mechanical head-withdrawal reflex threshold (HWT) was reversed during intracisternal administration of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 inhibitor, PD98059. The trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis neuronal activities and the number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase-immunoreactive cells following noxious mechanical stimulation of dried tongue were also significantly decreased following intracisternal administration of PD98059 compared to vehicle-administrated rats. Increased number of the phosphorylated GluR1-IR cells was observed in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis of dry-tongue rats, and the number of phosphorylated GluR1-IR cells

  19. Assessment of the use of sialogogues in the clinical management of patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Chainani-Wu, Nita; Gorsky, Meir; Mayer, Priscilla; Bostrom, Alan; Epstein, Joel B; Silverman, Sol

    2006-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the clinical efficacy and adverse effects of pilocarpine, bethanechol and cevimeline in patients with xerostomia. In this open-label crossover assessment in 20 patients with xerostomia, a one- to two-week course of each medication with a one-week washout period was prescribed. Side effects, symptoms, whole stimulated and unstimulated saliva were measured. Each sialogogue was found to increase saliva and decrease symptoms. A mixed-effects analysis showed a greater increase in stimulated saliva on bethanechol compared to pilocarpine (0.106, p = 0.0272). Increased sweating was the most common side effect, experienced more frequently with pilocarpine as compared to bethanechol (p = 0.0588) or cevimeline (p = 0.0143). A carryover effect beyond the washout period was seen. Effects on saliva and side effects vary between sialogogues, suggesting a benefit of trials with different sialogogues to determine individual patient preference. The observed carryover effect suggests that intermittent treatment may be an alternative to continuous treatment with sialogogues.

  20. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida counts in subjects with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Torres, Sandra R; Peixoto, Camila Bernardo; Caldas, Daniele Manhães; Silva, Eline Barboza; Akiti, Tiyomi; Nucci, Márcio; de Uzeda, Milton

    2002-02-01

    This study evaluated the relationship between salivary flow and Candida colony counts in the saliva of patients with xerostomia. Sialometry and Candida colony-forming unit (CFU) counts were taken from 112 subjects who reported xerostomia in a questionnaire. Chewing-stimulated whole saliva was collected and streaked in Candida plates and counted in 72 hours. Species identification was accomplished under standard methods. There was a significant inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts (P =.007) when subjects with high colony counts were analyzed (cutoff point of 400 or greater CFU/mL). In addition, the median sialometry of men was significantly greater than that of women (P =.003), even after controlling for confounding variables like underlying disease and medications. Sjögren's syndrome was associated with low salivary flow rate (P =.007). There was no relationship between the median Candida CFU counts and gender or age. There was a high frequency (28%) of mixed colonization. Candida albicans was the most frequent species, followed by C parapsilosis, C tropicalis, and C krusei. In subjects with high Candida CFU counts there was an inverse relationship between salivary flow and Candida CFU counts.

  1. Quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC) guideline validation using quality of life questionnaire datasets for parotid gland constraints to avoid causing xerostomia during head-and-neck radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Fang, Fu-Min

    2013-03-01

    To perform a validation test of the quantitative analysis of normal tissue effects in the clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines against quality of life (QoL) questionnaire datasets collected prospectively from patients with head and neck (HN) cancers, including HN squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). QoL questionnaire datasets from 95 patients with NPC and 142 with HNSCC were analyzed separately. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer H&N35 QoL questionnaire was used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3(+) xerostomia) was defined as moderate to severe xerostomia 3 and 12 months after the completion of RT, and excluded patients with grade 3(+) xerostomia at the baseline. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model was used to describe the incidence of xerostomia. Negative predictive values (NPVs) were used to determine the rate of correctly predicting the lack of complications. NTCP fitted parameters were TD₅₀=37.8 Gy (CI: 29.1-46.9 Gy), m=0.59 (CI: 0.48-0.80) and TD50=43.9 Gy (CI: 33.2-52.8 Gy), m=0.48 (CI: 0.37-0.76) at the 3-month and 12-month time points, respectively. For QUANTEC validation, HN and HNSCC data validation gave similar results at 3 months; at mean doses to the spared parotid of ≤20 and ≤25 Gy, the QoL dataset showed approximately 22% and 28% rates of xerostomia, respectively. At 12 months, the rates of xerostomia were approximately 13% and 19%, respectively. For NPC cases, the dataset showed approximately 0% and 33% (∼67% NPV) rates of xerostomia at 3 months. At 12 months, both rates of xerostomia were approximately 0% (∼100% NPV), which differed significantly from the results for the HNSCC cohort. The QoL datasets validated the QUANTEC guidelines and suggested that the modified QUANTEC 20/20-Gy spared-gland guideline is suitable for clinical use in HNSCC cohorts to effectively avoid xerostomia, and the QUANTEC 25-Gy guideline is

  2. Maturation of the MOUTh Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A.; Kolanowski, Ann M.; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adult with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. PMID:26934969

  3. Xerostomia Quality of Life Scale (XeQoLS) questionnaire: validation of Italian version in head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lastrucci, Luciana; Bertocci, Silvia; Bini, Vittorio; Borghesi, Simona; De Majo, Roberta; Rampini, Andrea; Gennari, Pietro Giovanni; Pernici, Paola

    2018-01-01

    To translate the Xerostomia Quality-of-Life Scale (XeQoLS) into Italian language (XeQoLS-IT). Xerostomia is the most relevant acute and late toxicity in patients with head and neck cancer treated with radiotherapy (RT). Patient-reported outcome (PRO) instruments are subjective report on patient perception of health status. The XeQoLS consists of 15 items and measures the impact of salivary gland dysfunction and xerostomia on the four major domains of oral health-related QoL. The XeQoLS-IT was created through a linguistic validation multi-step process: forward translation (TF), backward translation (TB) and administration of the questionnaire to 35 Italian patients with head and neck cancer. Translation was independently carried out by two radiation oncologists who were Italian native speakers. The two versions were compared and adapted to obtain a reconciled version, version 1 (V1). V1 was translated back into English by an Italian pro skilled in teaching English. After review of discrepancies and choice of the most appropriate wording for clarity and similarity to the original, version 2 (V2) was reached by consensus. To evaluate version 2, patients completed the XeQoLS-IT questionnaire and also underwent a cognitive debriefing. The questionnaire was considered simple by the patients. The clarity of the instructions and the easiness to answer questions had a mean value of 4.5 (± 0.71) on a scale from 1 to 5. A valid multi-step process led to the creation of the final version of the XeQoLS-IT, a suitable instrument for the perception of xerostomia in patients treated with RT.

  4. Dry dock gate stability modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oktoberty; Widiyanto; Sasono, E. J.; Pramono, S.; Wandono, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The development of marine transportation needs in Indonesia increasingly opens national shipyard business opportunities to provide shipbuilding services to the shipbuilding vessels. That emphasizes the stability of prime. The ship's decking door becomes an integral part of the efficient place and the specification of the use of the asset of its operational ease. This study aims to test the stability of Dry Dock gate with the length of 35.4 meters using Maxsurf and Hydromax in analyzing the calculation were in its assessment using interval per 500 mm length so that it can get detail data toward longitudinal and transverse such as studying Ship planning in general. The test result shows dry dock gate meets IMO standard with ballast construction containing 54% and 68% and using fix ballast can produce GMt 1,924 m, tide height 11,357m. The GMt value indicates dry dick gate can be stable and firmly erect at the base of the mouth dry dock. When empty ballast produces GMt 0.996 which means dry dock date is stable, but can easily be torn down. The condition can be used during dry dock gate treatment.

  5. Xerostomia health-related quality of life: NRG oncology RTOG 0537.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gwen; Pugh, Stephanie L; Wong, Raimond K W; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Francis S; Sultanem, Khalil; Hodson, Ian; Krempl, Greg A; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Yeh, Alexander M; Berk, Lawrence

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine change in overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) based on patient data obtained from NRG Oncology RTOG 0537 as measured by the RTOG-modified University of Washington Head and Neck Symptom Score (RM-UWHNSS). A multi-site prospective randomized clinical trial design stratified 137 patients with post-radiation therapy xerostomia according to prior pilocarpine (PC) treatment and time after radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy and randomized patients into two groups. Patients were assigned to acupuncture or PC. Twenty-four sessions of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) were administered over 12 weeks, or oral PC (5 mg) three times daily over the same 12 weeks. The RM-UWHNSS was administered at baseline and at 4, 6, 9, and 15 months after the date of randomization. There were no between-arm differences in change scores on the RM-UWHNSS in the individual items, total score, or factor scores. For statistical modeling, race and time were significant for all outcomes (total and factor scores), while treatment arm was not significant. The ALTENS arm showed greater yet nonsignificant improvement in outcomes compared to the PC arm. Although no significant treatment differences were seen in this trial, patients receiving ALTENS consistently had lower scores, indicating better function, as compared to those receiving PC. Radiation-induced xerostomia improved over time for all patients.

  6. Amphioxus mouth after dorso-ventral inversion.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Takao; Reimer, James D; Morov, Arseniy R; Kuratani, Shigeru; Yasui, Kinya

    2016-01-01

    Deuterostomes (animals with 'secondary mouths') are generally accepted to develop the mouth independently of the blastopore. However, it remains largely unknown whether mouths are homologous among all deuterostome groups. Unlike other bilaterians, in amphioxus the mouth initially opens on the left lateral side. This peculiar morphology has not been fully explained in the evolutionary developmental context. We studied the developmental process of the amphioxus mouth to understand whether amphioxus acquired a new mouth, and if so, how it is related to or differs from mouths in other deuterostomes. The left first somite in amphioxus produces a coelomic vesicle between the epidermis and pharynx that plays a crucial role in the mouth opening. The vesicle develops in association with the amphioxus-specific Hatschek nephridium, and first opens into the pharynx and then into the exterior as a mouth. This asymmetrical development of the anterior-most somites depends on the Nodal-Pitx signaling unit, and the perturbation of laterality-determining Nodal signaling led to the disappearance of the vesicle, producing a symmetric pair of anterior-most somites that resulted in larvae lacking orobranchial structures. The vesicle expressed bmp2/4, as seen in ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canals, and the mouth did not open when Bmp2/4 signaling was blocked. We conclude that the amphioxus mouth, which uniquely involves a mesodermal coelomic vesicle, shares its evolutionary origins with the ambulacrarian coelomic pore-canal. Our observations suggest that there are at least three types of mouths in deuterostomes, and that the new acquisition of chordate mouths was likely related to the dorso-ventral inversion that occurred in the last common ancestor of chordates.

  7. Effects of low-level laser therapy on burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, S; Lopez-Jornet, P

    2017-02-01

    To investigate low-level laser therapy (LLLT) applied to treat burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This prospective, comparative, partially blinded, single-centre, clinical trial of GaAlAs Laser, with 815 nm wavelength, included 44 BMS patients divided randomly into three groups: Group I (n = 16): GaAlAs laser 815 nm wavelength, 1 W output power, continuous emissions, 4 s, 4 J and fluence rate 133·3 J cm -2 ; Group II (n = 16): GaAlAs infrared laser, 815 nm wavelength, 1 W output power, continuous emissions, 6 s, 6 J and fluence rate 200 J cm -2 ; Group III (n = 12) placebo group, sham laser. All groups received a weekly dose for 4 weeks. Pain intensity was recorded using a 10-cm visual analogue scale; patients responded to the oral health impact profile (OHIP-14), xerostomia severity test and the hospital anxiety-depression scale (HAD). These assessments were performed at baseline, 2 and 4 weeks. LLLT decreased pain intensity and improved OHIP-14 scores significantly from baseline to 2 weeks in groups I and II compared with the placebo group. No statistically significant differences were found from 2 to 4 weeks. Overall improvements in visual analogue scale (VAS) scores from baseline to the end of treatment were as follows: Group I 15·7%; Group II 15·6%; Group III placebo 7·3%. LLLT application reduces symptoms slightly in BMS patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. General health influences episodes of xerostomia: a prospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luciana; Kupek, Emil; Peres, Karen G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the associated factors of changes in symptoms of xerostomia (SOX) in adults aged 20-59. A prospective population-based study was conducted in 2009 (n = 1720) and 2012 (n = 1222) in the urban area of Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. Information on SOX was collected in both years together with age, family income, years of schooling, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, changes in the body mass index (BMI; kg/m²), medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of chronic diseases, change in hypertension status and in the use and need for dentures, and number of remaining teeth. Associated factors with changes in SOX were investigated using multinomial logistic regression, considering those who had never reported this symptom as the reference. Prevalence of regular SOX was equal to 3.8% (95% CI: 2.9-5.1) and irregular (one period only) equal to 12.2% (95% CI: 10.2-14.5). Age, smoking habit, medicine use, self-reported diagnosis of depression, and weight gain increased the probability of regular SOX, whereas highest schooling level was associated with lower probability of this symptom. General and psychosocial health influenced the number of episodes of xerostomia symptoms, calling for multidisciplinary actions to prevent common risk behaviors for oral and general diseases. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changing the culture of mouth care: mouth care without a battle.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D; Cohen, Lauren W; Barrick, Ann Louise

    2014-02-01

    Culture change aims to fundamentally improve care provision in a manner consistent with individual preferences. However, few studies of culture change have focused on the quality of daily care, despite the fact that system-wide efforts are important to assure the effectiveness, adoption, and sustainability of person-centered care to meet daily needs. This paper describes a new culture change practice, Mouth Care Without a Battle. The focus on mouth care is predicated on the important association between person-centered support for oral hygiene and quality of life. Mouth Care Without a Battle is a person-centered approach to quality mouth care for persons with cognitive and physical impairment. It was developed by an interdisciplinary team of clinician researchers based on literature review, consultation with experts, environmental scan of existing programs, and testing in nursing homes. Building from the success of Bathing Without a Battle, Mouth Care Without a Battle was evaluated in terms of changed care practices and outcomes, developed into a training program, and packaged for dissemination as a digital video disk (DVD) and website. The development and evaluation of Mouth Care Without a Battle demonstrate attention to the areas necessary to establish the evidence-base for culture change, to ultimately empower and support staff to provide care to achieve quality outcomes. As illustrated in this paper, it is beneficial to build the evidence base for culture change by attending to care processes and outcomes benefiting all residents, ability to implement culture change, and costs of implementation.

  10. A Qualitative Evaluation of Hand Drying Practices among Kenyans

    PubMed Central

    Person, Bobbie; Schilling, Katharine; Owuor, Mercy; Ogange, Lorraine; Quick, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Background Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one’s mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans. Methods and Findings We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand. Conclusions Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza. PMID:24069302

  11. A qualitative evaluation of hand drying practices among Kenyans.

    PubMed

    Person, Bobbie; Schilling, Katharine; Owuor, Mercy; Ogange, Lorraine; Quick, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one's mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans. We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand. Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza.

  12. Effects of combination oral care on oral health, dry mouth and salivary pH of intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jang, Chun Sun; Shin, Yong Soon

    2016-10-01

    Intubated patients are at risk of oral health problems. Although a variety of oral care regimens for intubated patients have been studied, there is a lack of research on the effects of combination oral care that includes tooth brushing, chlorhexidine and cold water. This open-labelled, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of combination oral care on oral health status. Participants aged 20 years and older were recruited on the first day after intubation through convenience sampling in a medical intensive care unit. Random assignment was performed using an internet randomization service. The primary outcome was oral health status. Data were collected during May and June 2013. Participants were randomized to one of two groups (23 intervention and 21 control). The final analysis included 18 patients with combination oral care and 17 in the control group. The intervention group had better oral health (effect size = 1.56), less dry mouth and higher salivary pH than the control group. Any additional burden of providing combination oral care to patients who are mechanically ventilated is worthwhile in terms of clinical outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  13. The effect of cognitive appraisal for stressors on the oral health-related QOL of dry mouth patients.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Hirofumi; Chiba, Itsuo; Sakano, Yuji; Saito, Ichiro; Abiko, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Dry mouth is very common symptom, and psychological factors have an influence on this symptom. Although the influence of emotional factor related to patients with oral dryness has been examined in previous studies, the cognitive factors have not been examined thus far. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive factors on patients with oral dryness. The participants were 106 patients complaining of oral dryness. They were required to complete a questionnaire measuring subjective oral dryness, oral-related QOL, cognition for stressors, and mood state. Correlational analyses revealed that OHIP-14 is significantly related to oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment. These correlations were maintained even after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Using oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment, cluster analysis was done and three clusters (cluster-1, severe oral dryness; cluster-2, positive cognitive style: cluster-3, negative cognitive style) were extracted. The results of ANOVA showed that the group with severe oral dryness (cluster-1) had a significantly higher score on OHIP-14 than the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with positive (cluster-2) and negative (cluster-3) cognitive style. Although the group of patients with positive cognitive style complained of more severe oral dryness than the group with negative cognitive style, no significant difference was observed between these two groups in OHIP-14. These results indicate that cognitive factors would be a useful therapeutic target for the improvement of the oral-related QOL of patients with oral dryness.

  14. Evaluation of salivary oxidate stress biomarkers, nitric oxide and C-reactive protein in patients with oral lichen planus and burning mouth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Aznar-Cayuela, Cristina; Rubio, Camila P; Ceron, José J; López-Jornet, Pia

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate oxidative stress factors and C-reactive protein in the saliva of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and burning mouth syndrome (BMS). This consecutive, cross-sectional study included 20 patients with OLP, 19 with burning mouth syndrome (BMS), and 31 control subjects. The oral cavity of each patient was examined and patients responded to a quality of life questionnaire (OHIP-14) and the xerostomia inventory. The following parameters were measured in whole non-stimulated saliva: trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC); total antioxidant capacity (TAC); cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC); ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP); C-reactive protein (CRP); nitric oxide; nitrates; and nitrites. The OLP group presented statistically significant differences in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (29 600 cps) in comparison with the control group (39 679 cps) (P < 0.05). In the BMS group, ROS was 29 707 cps with significant difference in comparison with the control group (P < 0.05). Significantly higher salivary nitric oxide (145.7 μmol) and nitrite (141.0 μmol) levels were found in OLP patients in comparison with control group (P < 0.05). Increases in nitric oxide and C-reactive protein were found in the saliva of OLP patients in comparison with BMS and control patients. Further studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Factors associated with severe dry eye in primary Sjögren's syndrome diagnosed patients.

    PubMed

    Fernandez Castro, Mónica; Sánchez-Piedra, Carlos; Andreu, Jose Luis; Martínez Taboada, Víctor; Olivé, Alejandro; Rosas, Jose

    2018-06-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of exocrine glands and other organs, resulting in dry eye, dry mouth and extraglandular systemic findings. To explore the association of severe or very severe dry eye with extraocular involvement in patients diagnosed with primary Sjögren's syndrome. SJOGRENSER registry is a multicenter cross-sectional study of pSS patients. For the construction of our main variable, severe/very severe dry eye, we used those variables that represented a degree 3-4 of severity according to the 2007 Dry Eye Workshop classification. First, bivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the effect of each independent variable on severe/very severe dry eye. Secondly, multivariate analysis using regression model was used to establish the independent effect of patient characteristics. Four hundred and thirty-seven patients were included in SJOGRENSER registry; 94% of the patients complained of dry eye and 16% developed corneal ulcer. Schirmer's test was pathological in 92% of the patients; 378 patients presented severe/very severe dry eye. Inflammatory articular involvement was significantly more frequent in patients with severe/very severe dry eye than in those without severe/very severe dry eye (82.5 vs 69.5%, p = 0,028). Inflammatory joint involvement was associated with severe/very severe dry eye in the multivariate analysis, OR 2.079 (95% CI 1.096-3.941). Severe or very severe dry eye is associated with the presence of inflammatory joint involvement in patients with pSS. These results suggest that a directed anamnesis including systemic comorbidities, such as the presence of inflammatory joint involvement or dry mouth in patients with dry eye, would be useful to suspect a pSS.

  16. Phase II Results of RTOG 0537: A Phase II/III Study Comparing Acupuncture-like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Early Radiation-Induced Xerostomia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Raimond K. W.; James, Jennifer L.; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K.; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M.; Berk, Lawrence

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This phase II component of a multi-institutional phase II/III randomized trial assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods Head and neck cancer patients who were 3–24 months from completing radiotherapy ± chemotherapy (RT±C) and experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 ml/min and without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 over 12 weeks) using a Codetron™ unit. The primary objective assessed the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. A patient was considered compliant if 19/24 ALTENS were delivered, with a targeted 85% compliance rate. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and ALTENS effect on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Results Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. Median age was 60 years; 84% were male, 70% completed RT±C for > 12 months and 21% had received prior pilocarpine. All ALTENS sessions were completed in 34 patients, but 9 and 1 completed 20–23 and 19 sessions respectively, representing a 94% total compliance rate. 6-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients; 30 (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean reduction of 35.9% (SD 36.1). Five patients developed grade 1–2 gastrointestinal toxicity and one had grade 1 pain event. Conclusions ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be uniformly delivered in a cooperative multicenter setting and has possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase III component of this study was initiated. PMID:22252927

  17. [Burning sensation in oral cavity--burning mouth syndrome in everyday medical practice].

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Imre

    2012-09-30

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) refers to chronic orofacial pain, unaccompanied by mucosal lesions or other evident clinical signs. It is observed principally in middle-aged patients and postmenopausal women. BMS is characterized by an intense burning or stinging sensation, typically on the tongue or in other areas of the oral mucosa. It can be accompanied by other sensory disorders such as dry mouth or taste alterations. Probably of multifactorial origin, and often idiopathic, with a still unknown etiopathogenesis in which local, systemic and psychological factors are implicated. Currently there is no consensus on the diagnosis and classification of BMS. This study reviews the literature on this syndrome, with special reference to the etiological factors that may be involved and the clinical aspects they present. The diagnostic criteria that should be followed and the therapeutic management are discussed with reference to the most recent studies.

  18. LASSO NTCP predictors for the incidence of xerostomia in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Liou, Ming-Hsiang; Huang, Yu-Jie; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Lee, Hsiao-Yi

    2014-01-01

    To predict the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-reported xerostomia among head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Multivariable normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed by using quality of life questionnaire datasets from 152 patients with HNSCC and 84 patients with NPC. The primary endpoint was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia after IMRT. The numbers of predictive factors for a multivariable logistic regression model were determined using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) with bootstrapping technique. Four predictive models were achieved by LASSO with the smallest number of factors while preserving predictive value with higher AUC performance. For all models, the dosimetric factors for the mean dose given to the contralateral and ipsilateral parotid gland were selected as the most significant predictors. Followed by the different clinical and socio-economic factors being selected, namely age, financial status, T stage, and education for different models were chosen. The predicted incidence of xerostomia for HNSCC and NPC patients can be improved by using multivariable logistic regression models with LASSO technique. The predictive model developed in HNSCC cannot be generalized to NPC cohort treated with IMRT without validation and vice versa. PMID:25163814

  19. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer's test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes.

  20. Patients with burning mouth sensations. A clinical investigation of causative factors in a group of "compete denture wearers" Jordanian population.

    PubMed

    Mukatash-Nimri, Gadeer Elea; Al-Nimri, Marwan A; Al-Jadeed, Omar G; Al-Zobe, Zaid R; Aburumman, Khuzama K; Masarwa, Nader A

    2017-01-01

    To find out the prevalence of "true" burning mouth syndrome and study the association between patients' spontaneous complaints of burning mouth and systemic conditions in a group of middle age and elderly "denture wearers" patients in Jordan. A group of 129 patients (112 female and 17 male) of "complete denture wearers" subjects aged 40 years and over attended prosthetic clinic at King Hussein Medical Hospital complaining from oral burning, with no oral lesion possibly responsible for the burning sensations were selected. Assessment of oral and general status was done based on questioners, detailed history taking, medical records and extra and intraoral examination. The existed complete dentures retention, stability, jaw relationship and the free way space were evaluated. The current blood test and instrumental protocol for examination of patients with burning mouth complains were performed for each patient. Then those studied patients with burning mouth sensations including "true" burning mouth syndrome have been compared to the controls with regard to the presence of local problem, undermined local, systemic or psychological disease. The diagnosis of "true" burning mouth syndrome was established in (2.3%) of the studied population two females and one male. In most patients (58%) more than one site was affected. Significant positive associations were found between local factors (i.e., wearing complete dentures with unsatisfactory retention or jaw relationship, dry mouth or candidasis) and patients suffering from burning mouth sensation. The results also show that some systemic or psychological disorders were significantly more present among patients with burning mouth symptoms when compared to the control group ( p  < 0.05). Spontaneous symptoms of burning mouth without mucosal signs should be considered as a manifestation of undermind pathology and/or distress, and the multi-factorial causes of burning mouth syndrome and sensation need to be referred to the

  1. Dosimetric Predictors of Patient-Reported Xerostomia and Dysphagia With Deintensified Chemoradiation Therapy for HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chera, Bhishamjit S; Fried, David; Price, Alex; Amdur, Robert J; Mendenhall, William; Lu, Chiray; Das, Shiva; Sheets, Nathan; Marks, Lawrence; Mavroidis, Panayiotis

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the association between different dose-volume metrics of the salivary glands and pharyngeal constrictors with patient reported severity of xerostomia/dysphagia in the setting of deintensified chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Forty-five patients were treated on a phase 2 study assessing the efficacy of deintensified CRT for favorable-risk, HPV-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Patients received 60 Gy intensity modulated radiation therapy with concurrent weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m 2 ), and reported the severity of their xerostomia/dysphagia (before and after treatment) using the patient-reported outcome version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) (PRO-CTCAE). Individual patient dosimetric data of the contralateral parotid and submandibular glands and pharyngeal constrictors were correlated with changes in PRO-CTCAE severity. A change in severity (from baseline) of ≥2 was considered clinically meaningful. Associations between dose-volume metrics and patient outcomes were assessed with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and logistic regression model. Six months after CRT, patients reporting <2 change in xerostomia severity (n=14) had an average D mean = 22 ± 9 Gy to the sum of the contralateral glands (parotid + submandibular) compared with the patients reporting ≥2 change (n=21), who had an average D mean = 34 ± 8 Gy. V15 to V55 for the combined contralateral glands showed the strongest association with xerostomia (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.83-0.86). Based on the regression analysis, a 20% risk of toxicity was associated with V15 = 48%, V25 = 30%, and D mean =21 Gy. Six months after CRT, patients reporting <2 change in dysphagia severity (n=26) had an average V55 = 76 ± 13 (%) to the superior pharyngeal constrictor compared with the patients reporting ≥2 change in severity (n=9), who had average V55 = 89 ± 13 (%). V55to V60 had the strongest association with dysphagia (AUC = 0

  2. Development of NTCP models for head and neck cancer patients treated with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for xerostomia and sticky saliva: the role of dosimetric and clinical factors.

    PubMed

    Beetz, Ivo; Schilstra, Cornelis; Burlage, Fred R; Koken, Phil W; Doornaert, Patricia; Bijl, Henk P; Chouvalova, Olga; Leemans, C René; de Bock, Geertruida H; Christianen, Miranda E M C; van der Laan, Bernard F A M; Vissink, Arjan; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M; Langendijk, Johannes A

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this multicentre prospective study was to investigate the significance of the radiation dose in the major and minor salivary glands, and other pre-treatment and treatment factors, with regard to the development of patient-rated xerostomia and sticky saliva among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with primary (chemo-) radiotherapy ((CH)RT). The study population was composed of 167 consecutive HNC patients treated with three-dimensional conformal (3D-CRT) (CH) RT. The primary endpoint was moderate to severe xerostomia (XER6m) as assessed by the EORTC QLQ-H&N35 at 6 months after completing (CH)RT. The secondary endpoint was moderate to severe sticky saliva at 6 months (STIC6m). All organs at risk (OARs) potentially involved in salivary function were delineated on planning-CT, including the parotid, submandibular and sublingual glands and the minor glands in the soft palate, cheeks and lips. Patients with moderate to severe xerostomia or sticky saliva at baseline were excluded. The optimum number of variables for a multivariate logistic regression model was determined using a bootstrapping method. The multivariate analysis showed the mean parotid dose, age and baseline xerostomia (none versus a bit) to be the most important predictors for XER6m. The risk of developing xerostomia increased with age and was higher when minor baseline xerostomia was present in comparison with patients without any xerostomia complaints at baseline. Model performance was good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.82. For STIC6m, the mean submandibular dose, age, the mean sublingual dose and baseline sticky saliva (none versus a bit) were most predictive for sticky saliva. The risk of developing STIC6m increased with age and was higher when minor baseline sticky saliva was present in comparison with patients without any sticky saliva complaints at baseline. Model performance was good with an AUC of 0.84. Dose distributions in the minor salivary glands in patients

  3. The effect of cognitive appraisal for stressors on the oral health-related QOL of dry mouth patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Dry mouth is very common symptom, and psychological factors have an influence on this symptom. Although the influence of emotional factor related to patients with oral dryness has been examined in previous studies, the cognitive factors have not been examined thus far. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of cognitive factors on patients with oral dryness. Methods The participants were 106 patients complaining of oral dryness. They were required to complete a questionnaire measuring subjective oral dryness, oral-related QOL, cognition for stressors, and mood state. Results Correlational analyses revealed that OHIP-14 is significantly related to oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment. These correlations were maintained even after controlling for the influence of depression and anxiety. Using oral dryness, appraisal for effect, appraisal for threat, and commitment, cluster analysis was done and three clusters (cluster-1, severe oral dryness; cluster-2, positive cognitive style: cluster-3, negative cognitive style) were extracted. The results of ANOVA showed that the group with severe oral dryness (cluster-1) had a significantly higher score on OHIP-14 than the other two groups. There was no significant difference between the groups with positive (cluster-2) and negative (cluster-3) cognitive style. Conclusion Although the group of patients with positive cognitive style complained of more severe oral dryness than the group with negative cognitive style, no significant difference was observed between these two groups in OHIP-14. These results indicate that cognitive factors would be a useful therapeutic target for the improvement of the oral-related QOL of patients with oral dryness. PMID:26019720

  4. Submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of postradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fanglong; Weng, Shengxin; Li, Chunjie; Sun, Jun; Li, Longjiang; Gao, Qinghong

    2015-01-01

    Submandibular gland transfer has been widely used to prevent postradiation xerostomia in head-and-neck cancers. However, there are still some controversies. Six databases were searched, data extraction was performed and the risk of bias was assessed by 2 reviewers independently. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager, version 5.2. A total of 7 trials (12 articles) and 369 participants were included. The present clinical evidence suggests that submandibular gland transfer might be highly effective to prevent postradiation xerostomia in head-and-neck cancers without serious adverse events. However, more randomized controlled trials are still needed to confirm this conclusion. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. The effect of xerostomia and hyposalivation on the quality of life of patients with type II diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Molania, Tahereh; Alimohammadi, Mona; Akha, Ozra; Mousavi, Jaber; Razvini, Ramin; Salehi, Maedeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease which can have numerous physical effects for patient. Xerostomia is one of these complications. Compared to healthy people, patients with diabetes mellitus, have a worse quality of life, and complications of diabetes are the main determinants of quality of life in these patients. Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xerostomia and hyposalivation on quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This descriptive-analytical epidemiological study was conducted on 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus referred to the diabetes clinic of Shahid Mostafavi in Sari city from October 2015 to January in 2016. A questionnaire containing personal characteristics and medical situation was completed by each person. Then, the Persian Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14-PER) questionnaire was completed by the patients. Eventually, with the use of chewable paraffin for 1.5 min by the patient, stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) test was performed, and in order to determine hyposalivation, their saliva amount underwent a gravimetric test. Finally, using statistical software SPSS16, the information was statistically analyzed by independent-samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Chi-squared and fisher exact tests. Results The average age of patient was 56.41 years old (43% male and 57% female). Mean SSFR was 0.7 ml/min in patients and xerostomia were confirmed in 112 patients. Difference between age, gender, drug use, years affecting to diabetes and FBS amount in patient with hyposalivation were not statistically meaningful in proportion to patients without it. But difference between HbA1C and SSFR in patients with hyposalivation were statistically meaningful than to patients without it (p=0.03, p=0.001 respectively). The mean patient score to OHIP-14 were obtained as 38.17. The questionnaire score difference in patients with hyposalivation in proportion to patients without it

  6. The effect of xerostomia and hyposalivation on the quality of life of patients with type II diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Molania, Tahereh; Alimohammadi, Mona; Akha, Ozra; Mousavi, Jaber; Razvini, Ramin; Salehi, Maedeh

    2017-11-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease which can have numerous physical effects for patient. Xerostomia is one of these complications. Compared to healthy people, patients with diabetes mellitus, have a worse quality of life, and complications of diabetes are the main determinants of quality of life in these patients. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of xerostomia and hyposalivation on quality of life of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This descriptive-analytical epidemiological study was conducted on 200 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus referred to the diabetes clinic of Shahid Mostafavi in Sari city from October 2015 to January in 2016. A questionnaire containing personal characteristics and medical situation was completed by each person. Then, the Persian Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14-PER) questionnaire was completed by the patients. Eventually, with the use of chewable paraffin for 1.5 min by the patient, stimulated salivary flow rate (SSFR) test was performed, and in order to determine hyposalivation, their saliva amount underwent a gravimetric test. Finally, using statistical software SPSS16, the information was statistically analyzed by independent-samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, Chi-squared and fisher exact tests. The average age of patient was 56.41 years old (43% male and 57% female). Mean SSFR was 0.7 ml/min in patients and xerostomia were confirmed in 112 patients. Difference between age, gender, drug use, years affecting to diabetes and FBS amount in patient with hyposalivation were not statistically meaningful in proportion to patients without it. But difference between HbA1C and SSFR in patients with hyposalivation were statistically meaningful than to patients without it (p=0.03, p=0.001 respectively). The mean patient score to OHIP-14 were obtained as 38.17. The questionnaire score difference in patients with hyposalivation in proportion to patients without it were not statistically meaningful

  7. Sparing the region of the salivary gland containing stem cells preserves saliva production after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Luijk, Peter; Pringle, Sarah; Deasy, Joseph O.; Moiseenko, Vitali V.; Faber, Hette; Hovan, Allan; Baanstra, Mirjam; van der Laan, Hans P.; Kierkels, Roel G. J.; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Witjes, Max J.; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wu, Jonn; Coppes, Robert P.

    2016-01-01

    Each year, 500,000 patients are treated with radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, resulting in relatively high survival rates. However, in 40% of patients, quality of life is severely compromised because of radiation-induced impairment of salivary gland function and consequent xerostomia (dry mouth). New radiation treatment technologies enable sparing of parts of the salivary glands. We have determined the parts of the major salivary gland, the parotid gland, that need to be spared to ensure that the gland continues to produce saliva after irradiation treatment. In mice, rats, and humans, we showed that stem and progenitor cells reside in the region of the parotid gland containing the major ducts. We demonstrated in rats that inclusion of the ducts in the radiation field led to loss of regenerative capacity, resulting in long-term gland dysfunction with reduced saliva production. Then we showed in a cohort of patients with head and neck cancer that the radiation dose to the region of the salivary gland containing the stem/progenitor cells predicted the function of the salivary glands one year after radiotherapy. Finally, we showed that this region of the salivary gland could be spared during radiotherapy, thus reducing the risk of post-radiotherapy xerostomia. PMID:26378247

  8. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613

  9. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Raimond K.W., E-mail: wongrai@hhsc.ca; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen

    Purpose and Objectives: This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reductionmore » in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. Results: One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were −0.53 and −0.27 (P=.45) and −0.6 and −0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. Conclusions: The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint—the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR—was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was

  10. Acupuncture-Like Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation Versus Pilocarpine in Treating Radiation-Induced Xerostomia: Results of RTOG 0537 Phase 3 Study.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raimond K W; Deshmukh, Snehal; Wyatt, Gwen; Sagar, Stephen; Singh, Anurag K; Sultanem, Khalil; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc F; Yom, Sue S; Cardinale, Joseph; Yao, Min; Hodson, Ian; Matthiesen, Chance L; Suh, John; Thakrar, Harish; Pugh, Stephanie L; Berk, Lawrence

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the analysis of the RTOG 0537 multicenter randomized study that compared acupuncture-like transcutaneous stimulation (ALTENS) with pilocarpine (PC) for relieving radiation-induced xerostomia. Eligible patients were randomized to twice-weekly 20-minute ALTENS sessions for 24 sessions during 12 weeks or PC (5 mg 3 times daily for 12 weeks). The primary endpoint was the change in the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS) scores from baseline to 9 months from randomization (MFR). Secondary endpoints included basal and citric acid primed whole salivary production (WSP), ratios of positive responders (defined as patients with ≥20% reduction in overall radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden), and the presence of adverse events based on the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3. An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted. One hundred forty-eight patients were randomized. Only 96 patients completed the required XeQOLS and were evaluable at 9 MFR (representing merely 68.6% statistical power). Seventy-six patients were evaluable at 15 MFR. The median change in the overall XeQOLS in ALTENS and PC groups at 9 and 15 MFR were -0.53 and -0.27 (P=.45) and -0.6 and -0.47 (P=.21). The corresponding percentages of positive responders were 81% and 72% (P=.34) and 83% and 63% (P=.04). Changes in WSP were not significantly different between the groups. Grade 3 or less adverse events, mostly consisting of grade 1, developed in 20.8% of patients in the ALTENS group and in 61.6% of the PC group. The observed effect size was smaller than hypothesized, and statistical power was limited because only 96 of the recruited 148 patients were evaluable. The primary endpoint-the change in radiation-induced xerostomia symptom burden at 9 MFR-was not significantly different between the ALTENS and PC groups. There was significantly less toxicity in patients receiving ALTENS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All

  11. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Jason A.; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E.; Collins, Eva-Maria S.

    2016-01-01

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. PMID:26958895

  12. Response of the mesozooplankton community of the St Lucia estuary, South Africa, to a mouth-opening event during an extended drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerling, Hendrik L.; Vivier, Leon; Cyrus, Digby P.

    2010-03-01

    Mesozooplankton samples were collected between March 2005 and November 2008 in St Lucia, the largest estuarine lake system in South Africa. St Lucia experienced an extended period of drought before and during the present study. This drought led to natural closing of the estuary mouth as a result of flood-tide marine sediment deposition in 2002. In March 2007 the mouth was washed open by exceptionally high tidal and wave conditions. This resulted in an influx of a large volume of seawater. The mouth closed again in August 2007. Before opening of the mouth salinities in the Estuary were below 10 and large parts of North Lake dried up while South Lake retained a relatively stable waterbody with salinities between 10 and 30. When the mouth opened seawater flooded the system and salinities changed to about 35. After the mouth had closed again in August 2007 salinities increased in the lakes and decreased in the Estuary. The mesozooplankton community was dominated by copepods during all sampling sessions, especially by the estuarine calanoids Pseudodiaptomus stuhlmanni and Acartia natalensis. Mean mesozooplankton densities were significantly higher in South Lake before the mouth opened in March 2007. While zooplankton density decreased when the mouth opened species richness increased with the influx of coastal marine species, especially in the Estuary. Overall zooplankton densities declined progressively as salinity increased to hypersaline levels after mouth closure. Multivariate analyses supported significant differences between the lakes and the Estuary in terms of mesozooplankton community composition. Taxa mostly responsible for the similarities within and dissimilarity between sections of the system were the copepods P. stuhlmanni and A. natalensis with the meroplankton, crab zoeae and mollusc larvae, also contributing significantly after the mouth-opening event.

  13. Salivary gland function 5 years after radioactive iodine ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer: direct comparison of pre- and postablation scintigraphies and their relation to xerostomia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Shin Young; Kim, Hae Won; Lee, Sang-Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae

    2013-05-01

    Chronic sialadenitis is one of the most frequent chronic complications after radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy for thyroid cancer. To evaluate the long-term effects of RAI ablation on salivary gland function, we investigated scintigraphic changes in salivary glands by direct comparison of two salivary gland scintigraphies (SGSs) taken before and at 5 years after an RAI ablation. SGS was performed just before RAI ablation (pre-SGS) and ∼5 years after RAI ablation (F/U SGS) in 213 subjects who underwent thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer. The uptake score (U score) was graded, and the ejection fraction (EF) was quantified for the parotid and submandibular glands at pre-SGS and F/U SGS. Changes in salivary gland function were graded as mild, moderate, or severe according to the differences in U score and EF between the two SGSs. Xerostomia was assessed and compared with the SGS findings. Worsening of the U score was observed in 182 of 852 salivary glands (total: 21.3%; mild: 4.2%, moderate: 7.4%, severe: 9.7%), and 47.4% of the patients had a worsening U score for at least one of four salivary glands. A decrease in EF was observed in 173 of 852 salivary glands (total: 20.3%; mild: 5.4%, moderate: 6.8%, severe: 8.1%), and 43.7% of the patients experienced a decrease in the EF of at least one of the four salivary glands. Bilateral parotid gland dysfunction was the most commonly observed condition. Thirty-five (16.4%) patients complained of xerostomia at 5 years after RAI ablation. Scintigraphic changes in salivary gland function and xerostomia were more common in patients receiving 5.55 GBq, compared with 3.7 GBq. Xerostomia was more common in patients with submandibular gland dysfunction than those with parotid gland dysfunction (68.8% vs. 33.3%, p<0.05). The number of dysfunctional salivary glands was correlated with xerostomia (p<0.01). About 20% of the salivary glands were dysfunctional on SGS 5 years after a single RAI ablation, especially in patients who

  14. [Ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the infant. Mouth to mouth and nose, or bag-valve-mask? A quasi-experimental study].

    PubMed

    Santos-Folgar, Myriam; Otero-Agra, Martín; Fernández-Méndez, Felipe; Hermo-Gonzalo, María Teresa; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio

    2018-02-08

    It has been observed that health professionals have difficulty performing quality cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). The aim of this study was to compare the quality of ventilations performed by Nursing students on an infant model using different methods (mouth-to-mouth-and-nose or bag-valve-mask). A quasi-experimental cross-sectional study was performed that included 46 second-year Nursing students. Two quantitative 4-minute tests of paediatric CPR were performed: a) mouth-to-mouth-and-nose ventilations, and b) ventilations with bag-valve-mask. A Resusci Baby QCPR Wireless SkillReporter® mannequin from Laerdal was used. The proportion of ventilations with adequate, excessive, and insufficient volume was recorded and analysed, as well as the overall quality of the CPR (ventilations and chest compressions). The students were able to give a higher number of ventilations with adequate volume using the mouth-to-mouth-and-nose method (55±22%) than with the bag-valve-mask (28±16%, P<.001). The overall quality of the CPR was also significantly higher when using the mouth-to-mouth-and-nose method (60±19 vs. 48±16%, P<.001). Mouth-to-mouth-and-nose ventilation method is more efficient than bag-valve-mask ventilations in CPR performed by nursing students with a simulated infant model. Copyright © 2018. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  15. Early detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected cattle using a dry filter air sampling system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious livestock disease of high economic impact. Early detection of FMD virus (FMDV) is fundamental for rapid outbreak control. Air sampling collection has been demonstrated as a useful technique for detection of FMDV RNA in infected animals, related to ...

  16. Temporomandibular disorders in burning mouth syndrome patients: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by absence of any lesions and burning of the oral mucosa associated to a sensation of dry mouth and/or taste alterations. The purpose of our study is to estimate signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in patients with BMS and to investigate for the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. Forty-four BMS patients were enrolled; BMS subtype was established according to the classification of Lamey. After a gnathological evaluation, according to the protocol of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders, patients were classified by RDC/TMD criteria. The data were compared and analyzed using a chi-square test to describe the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. 65.9% the BMS patients showed disorders classified as primary signs and symptoms of TMD according to RDC / TMD criteria, and 72.7% showed parafunctional habits. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p = 0.035) between BMS and TMD. The data suggest that there is a possible relationship not yet well understood between BMS and TMD, may be for neurophatic alterations assumed for BMS that could be also engaged in TMD pathogenesis.

  17. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to doing. Try to get more sleep at night. Rest during the day when you can. Take a few weeks off ... neck - discharge; Head and neck cancer - radiation; Squamous cell cancer - mouth and neck radiation; Mouth and neck ...

  18. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome and Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kosrirukvongs, Panida; Ngowyutagon, Panotsom; Pusuwan, Pawana; Koolvisoot, Ajchara; Nilganuwong, Surasak

    2012-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis has manifestations in various organs including ophthalmic involvement. The present study evaluates prevalence of dry eye and secondary Sjogren's syndrome using salivary scintigraphy which has not been used in previous reports. To evaluate the prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, including clinical characteristics and dry eye, compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome. Descriptive cross sectional study Sixty-one patients with rheumatoid arthritis were recruited at Siriraj Hospital during March 2009-September 2010 and filled in the questionnaires about dry eye for Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) with a history taking of associated diseases, medications, duration of symptoms of dry eyes and dry mouth. The Schirmer I test without anesthesia, tear break-up time, rose bengal staining score, severity of keratitis and salivary scintigraphy were measured and analyzed. Prevalence of secondary Sjogren's syndrome and dry eye were 22.2% (95% CI 15.4 to 30.9) and 46.7% (95% CI 38.0 to 55.6), respectively. Dry eye interpreted from OSDI, Schirmer 1 test, tear break-up time and rose bengal staining was 16.4%, 46.7%, 82% and 3.3% respectively. Fifty-two percent of patients had a history of dry eye and dry mouth with mean duration 27.4 and 29.8 months, respectively. Superficial punctate keratitis and abnormal salivary scintigraphy were found in 58.2% and 77.8%. Duration of rheumatoid arthritis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate were not correlated with secondary Sjogren's syndrome. Dry eye from OSDI with secondary Sjogren's syndrome (33.3%) compared with non-Sjogren's syndrome (9.5%) was significant difference (p = 0.008). Adjusted odds ratio for secondary Sjogren's syndrome in OSDIL score > 25 was 13.8 (95% CI 2.6 to 73.8, p = 0.002) compared to OSDI score < 25. Awareness and detection of dry eye syndrome and secondary Sjogren's syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis was crucial for evaluation of their severity and proper

  19. Dynamics of Mouth Opening in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Carter, Jason A; Hyland, Callen; Steele, Robert E; Collins, Eva-Maria S

    2016-03-08

    Hydra, a simple freshwater animal famous for its regenerative capabilities, must tear a hole through its epithelial tissue each time it opens its mouth. The feeding response of Hydra has been well-characterized physiologically and is regarded as a classical model system for environmental chemical biology. However, due to a lack of in vivo labeling and imaging tools, the biomechanics of mouth opening have remained completely unexplored. We take advantage of the availability of transgenic Hydra lines to perform the first dynamical analysis, to our knowledge, of Hydra mouth opening and test existing hypotheses regarding the underlying cellular mechanisms. Through cell position and shape tracking, we show that mouth opening is accompanied by changes in cell shape, but not cellular rearrangements as previously suggested. Treatment with a muscle relaxant impairs mouth opening, supporting the hypothesis that mouth opening is an active process driven by radial contractile processes (myonemes) in the ectoderm. Furthermore, we find that all events exhibit the same relative rate of opening. Because one individual can open consecutively to different amounts, this suggests that the degree of mouth opening is controlled through neuronal signaling. Finally, from the opening dynamics and independent measurements of the elastic properties of the tissues, we estimate the forces exerted by the myonemes to be on the order of a few nanoNewtons. Our study provides the first dynamical framework, to our knowledge, for understanding the remarkable plasticity of the Hydra mouth and illustrates that Hydra is a powerful system for quantitative biomechanical studies of cell and tissue behaviors in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical observation of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective randomized controlled study of 32 cases

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Methods Using the randomized controlled clinical research method, 65 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly divided into an experimental group consisting of 32 patients and a control group consisting of 33 patients. The submandibular glands were averted to the submental region in 32 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before they received conventional radiotherapy; a lead block was used to shield the submental region during therapy. Prior to radiotherapy, the function of the submandibular glands was assessed using imaging. Submandibular gland function was measured using 99mTc radionuclide scanning at 60 months after radiotherapy. The data in the questionnaire regarding the degree of xerostomia were investigated and saliva secretion was measured at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after radiotherapy. In addition, the 5-year survival rate was calculated. Results After follow-up for 3, 6, and 12 months, the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. The average amount of saliva produced by the experimental and control groups was 1.60 g and 0.68 g, respectively (P < 0.001). After follow-up for 60 months, the uptake and secretion functions of the submandibular glands in the experimental group were found to be significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia was significantly lower than in the control group (15.4% and 76.9%, respectively; P < 0.001). The 5-year survival rates of the experimental group and the control group were 81.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.806). Conclusions After a 5 year follow-up period involving 32

  1. Clinical observation of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a prospective randomized controlled study of 32 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Liu, Folin; Lan, Xiaolin; Yu, Lijiang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Xiuhong; Xiao, Fufu; Li, Shaojin

    2014-02-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of submandibular gland transfer for the prevention of xerostomia after radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Using the randomized controlled clinical research method, 65 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma were randomly divided into an experimental group consisting of 32 patients and a control group consisting of 33 patients. The submandibular glands were averted to the submental region in 32 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma before they received conventional radiotherapy; a lead block was used to shield the submental region during therapy. Prior to radiotherapy, the function of the submandibular glands was assessed using imaging. Submandibular gland function was measured using 99mTc radionuclide scanning at 60 months after radiotherapy. The data in the questionnaire regarding the degree of xerostomia were investigated and saliva secretion was measured at 3, 6, 12, and 60 months after radiotherapy. In addition, the 5-year survival rate was calculated. After follow-up for 3, 6, and 12 months, the incidence of moderate to severe xerostomia was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. The average amount of saliva produced by the experimental and control groups was 1.60 g and 0.68 g, respectively (P<0.001). After follow-up for 60 months, the uptake and secretion functions of the submandibular glands in the experimental group were found to be significantly higher than in the control group (P<0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of moderate or severe xerostomia was significantly lower than in the control group (15.4% and 76.9%, respectively; P<0.001). The 5-year survival rates of the experimental group and the control group were 81.3% and 78.8%, respectively, and there was no significant difference between the two groups (P=0.806). After a 5 year follow-up period involving 32 patients who had their submandibular glands transferred for the prevention of

  2. A randomised crossover comparison of mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation by surf lifeguards in a manikin.

    PubMed

    Adelborg, K; Bjørnshave, K; Mortensen, M B; Espeseth, E; Wolff, A; Løfgren, B

    2014-07-01

    Thirty surf lifeguards (mean (SD) age: 25.1 (4.8) years; 21 male, 9 female) were randomly assigned to perform 2 × 3 min of cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a manikin using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (AMBU LifeKey) and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (Laerdal Pocket Mask). Interruptions in chest compressions, effective ventilation (visible chest rise) ratio, tidal volume and inspiratory time were recorded. Interruptions in chest compressions per cycle were increased with mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 8.6 (1.7) s) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (6.9 (1.2) s, p < 0.0001). The proportion of effective ventilations was less using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (199/242 (82%)) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (239/240 (100%), p = 0.0002). Tidal volume was lower using mouth-to-face-shield ventilation (mean (SD) 0.36 (0.20) l) compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation (0.45 (0.20) l, p = 0.006). No differences in inspiratory times were observed between mouth-to-face-shield ventilation and mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. In conclusion, mouth-to-face-shield ventilation increases interruptions in chest compressions, reduces the proportion of effective ventilations and decreases delivered tidal volumes compared with mouth-to-pocket-mask ventilation. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Dry eye findings worsen with anticholinergic therapy in patients with urge incontinence.

    PubMed

    Ozen Tunay, Zuhal; Ozdemir, Ozdemir; Ergintürk Acar, Damla; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Ersoy, Ebru

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral anticholinergic (OAC) drugs on tear secretion in women with overactive bladder over a 3-month follow-up period. In this prospective study, 108 women with a diagnosis of overactive bladder were evaluated. All patients were examined ophthalmologically at baseline (day 0), and after 1 month (day 30) and 3 months (day 90) of OAC treatment. Tear film break-up time (BUT) and Schirmer 1 test results were recorded. The subjective complaints of the patients including dry mouth, and burning, dryness and foreign body sensation in the eyes, were also recorded. The chi-squared test or the paired sample t test as appropriate, was used for statistical analysis. The mean age of the patients was 51.8 ± 9.2 years (30 - 69 years). The most frequent subjective complaints were dry mouth and dry eyes and both complaints were significant on both day 30 and day 90. Both tear film BUT and Schirmer 1 test results were significantly lower on day 30 and day 90. Dry eye measurement values worsened with prolongation of OAC treatment (p = 0.037 and p = 0.012 for BUT, and p = 0.046 and p = 0.035 for Schirmer 1 test, on day 30 and day 90, respectively). OAC treatment in women with overactive bladder significantly and progressively affects tear secretion.

  4. Normal tissue complication probability model parameter estimation for xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients based on scintigraphy and quality of life assessments

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With advances in modern radiotherapy (RT), many patients with head and neck (HN) cancer can be effectively cured. However, xerostomia is a common complication in patients after RT for HN cancer. The purpose of this study was to use the Lyman–Kutcher–Burman (LKB) model to derive parameters for the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for xerostomia based on scintigraphy assessments and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. We performed validation tests of the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines against prospectively collected QoL and salivary scintigraphic data. Methods Thirty-one patients with HN cancer were enrolled. Salivary excretion factors (SEFs) measured by scintigraphy and QoL data from self-reported questionnaires were used for NTCP modeling to describe the incidence of grade 3+ xerostomia. The NTCP parameters estimated from the QoL and SEF datasets were compared. Model performance was assessed using Pearson’s chi-squared test, Nagelkerke’s R2, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the Hosmer–Lemeshow test. The negative predictive value (NPV) was checked for the rate of correctly predicting the lack of incidence. Pearson’s chi-squared test was used to test the goodness of fit and association. Results Using the LKB NTCP model and assuming n=1, the dose for uniform irradiation of the whole or partial volume of the parotid gland that results in 50% probability of a complication (TD50) and the slope of the dose–response curve (m) were determined from the QoL and SEF datasets, respectively. The NTCP-fitted parameters for local disease were TD50=43.6 Gy and m=0.18 with the SEF data, and TD50=44.1 Gy and m=0.11 with the QoL data. The rate of grade 3+ xerostomia for treatment plans meeting the QUANTEC guidelines was specifically predicted, with a NPV of 100%, using either the QoL or SEF dataset. Conclusions Our study shows the agreement between the NTCP

  5. Normal tissue complication probability model parameter estimation for xerostomia in head and neck cancer patients based on scintigraphy and quality of life assessments.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Wang, Hung-Yu; Hsu, Hsuan-Chih; Chang, PaoShu; Chen, Wen-Cheng

    2012-12-04

    With advances in modern radiotherapy (RT), many patients with head and neck (HN) cancer can be effectively cured. However, xerostomia is a common complication in patients after RT for HN cancer. The purpose of this study was to use the Lyman-Kutcher-Burman (LKB) model to derive parameters for the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) for xerostomia based on scintigraphy assessments and quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. We performed validation tests of the Quantitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) guidelines against prospectively collected QoL and salivary scintigraphic data. Thirty-one patients with HN cancer were enrolled. Salivary excretion factors (SEFs) measured by scintigraphy and QoL data from self-reported questionnaires were used for NTCP modeling to describe the incidence of grade 3+ xerostomia. The NTCP parameters estimated from the QoL and SEF datasets were compared. Model performance was assessed using Pearson's chi-squared test, Nagelkerke's R2, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test. The negative predictive value (NPV) was checked for the rate of correctly predicting the lack of incidence. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to test the goodness of fit and association. Using the LKB NTCP model and assuming n=1, the dose for uniform irradiation of the whole or partial volume of the parotid gland that results in 50% probability of a complication (TD50) and the slope of the dose-response curve (m) were determined from the QoL and SEF datasets, respectively. The NTCP-fitted parameters for local disease were TD50=43.6 Gy and m=0.18 with the SEF data, and TD50=44.1 Gy and m=0.11 with the QoL data. The rate of grade 3+ xerostomia for treatment plans meeting the QUANTEC guidelines was specifically predicted, with a NPV of 100%, using either the QoL or SEF dataset. Our study shows the agreement between the NTCP parameter modeling based on SEF and QoL data, which gave a

  6. Using Multivariate Regression Model with Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) to Predict the Incidence of Xerostomia after Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hung-Yu; Horng, Mong-Fong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Ya-Yu; Fang, Fu-Min; Leung, Stephen Wan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate logistic regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to make valid predictions about the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with IMRT. Methods and Materials Quality of life questionnaire datasets from 206 patients with HNC were analyzed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires were used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3+ xerostomia) was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia at 3 (XER3m) and 12 months (XER12m) after the completion of IMRT. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed. The optimal and suboptimal numbers of prognostic factors for a multivariate logistic regression model were determined using the LASSO with bootstrapping technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the scaled Brier score, Nagelkerke R2, chi-squared test, Omnibus, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the AUC. Results Eight prognostic factors were selected by LASSO for the 3-month time point: Dmean-c, Dmean-i, age, financial status, T stage, AJCC stage, smoking, and education. Nine prognostic factors were selected for the 12-month time point: Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, T stage, baseline xerostomia, alcohol abuse, family history, and node classification. In the selection of the suboptimal number of prognostic factors by LASSO, three suboptimal prognostic factors were fine-tuned by Hosmer-Lemeshow test and AUC, i.e., Dmean-c, Dmean-i, and age for the 3-month time point. Five suboptimal prognostic factors were also selected for the 12-month time point, i.e., Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, and T stage. The overall performance for both time points of the NTCP model in terms of scaled Brier score, Omnibus, and Nagelkerke R2 was satisfactory and corresponded well with the expected values. Conclusions

  7. Using multivariate regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to predict the incidence of Xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsair-Fwu; Chao, Pei-Ju; Ting, Hui-Min; Chang, Liyun; Huang, Yu-Jie; Wu, Jia-Ming; Wang, Hung-Yu; Horng, Mong-Fong; Chang, Chun-Ming; Lan, Jen-Hong; Huang, Ya-Yu; Fang, Fu-Min; Leung, Stephen Wan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a multivariate logistic regression model with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to make valid predictions about the incidence of moderate-to-severe patient-rated xerostomia among head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated with IMRT. Quality of life questionnaire datasets from 206 patients with HNC were analyzed. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-H&N35 and QLQ-C30 questionnaires were used as the endpoint evaluation. The primary endpoint (grade 3(+) xerostomia) was defined as moderate-to-severe xerostomia at 3 (XER3m) and 12 months (XER12m) after the completion of IMRT. Normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) models were developed. The optimal and suboptimal numbers of prognostic factors for a multivariate logistic regression model were determined using the LASSO with bootstrapping technique. Statistical analysis was performed using the scaled Brier score, Nagelkerke R(2), chi-squared test, Omnibus, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, and the AUC. Eight prognostic factors were selected by LASSO for the 3-month time point: Dmean-c, Dmean-i, age, financial status, T stage, AJCC stage, smoking, and education. Nine prognostic factors were selected for the 12-month time point: Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, T stage, baseline xerostomia, alcohol abuse, family history, and node classification. In the selection of the suboptimal number of prognostic factors by LASSO, three suboptimal prognostic factors were fine-tuned by Hosmer-Lemeshow test and AUC, i.e., Dmean-c, Dmean-i, and age for the 3-month time point. Five suboptimal prognostic factors were also selected for the 12-month time point, i.e., Dmean-i, education, Dmean-c, smoking, and T stage. The overall performance for both time points of the NTCP model in terms of scaled Brier score, Omnibus, and Nagelkerke R(2) was satisfactory and corresponded well with the expected values. Multivariate NTCP models with LASSO can be used to

  8. Ethnomedicinal Plants Used by Traditional Healers to Treat Oral Health Problems in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Ashu Agbor, Michael; Naidoo, Sudeshni

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objective of the study was to determine the therapeutic methods used by traditional healers to treat oral diseases in Cameroon. Methods. A total of 200 traditional healers with a mean age of 50.4 ± 14.2 years from all the provinces of Cameroon were studied using questionnaires. Information elicited was the local names of the medicinal plants used for the management of oral problems, their routes of administration, and methods of usage. Identification of live or dried plants or photographs of sample of the plants was done by a taxonomist. Results. The majority of the participants were males urban dwellers aged 41–50 years, 112 (56.0%) practice as herbalists and 56 (28.0%) were trained on medications preservation, 77(56.6%) treat diseases inside or outside the mouth, and 9.0% reported being specialist in oral diseases treatment. Of the 52 plants identified, 48 are used in the management of toothache, sore throat, mouth sores, abscess, broken tooth and jaw, tooth sensitivity, mouth thrush, dental caries, gingivitis, sinusitis, tonsillitis, xerostomia, oral syphilis, oral cancer, TMJ pain, halitosis, and tooth bleaching and 4 plants are used for dental extraction. Roots, leaves, and bark were the parts of plants used and some minerals as adjuncts. Conclusion. The study provides comprehensive information on therapeutic methods employed by traditional healers for the treatment of oral diseases. PMID:26495020

  9. Evaluation of wetting ability of five new saliva substitutes on heat-polymerized acrylic resin for retention of complete dentures in dry mouth patients: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Mohsin, Abdul Habeeb Bin; Reddy, Varalakshmi; Kumar, Praveen; Raj, Jeevan; Babu, Siva Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate & compare the wetting ability of five saliva substitutes & distilled water on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Contact angle of the saliva substitute on denture base can be taken as an indicator of wettability. Good wetting of heat-polymerized acrylic resin is critical for optimum retention of complete dentures. Methods Two hundred & forty samples of heat-polymerized acrylic resin were fabricated using conventional method. 240 samples divided into 6 groups with 40 samples in each group. Advancing & Receding contact angles were measured using Contact Angle Goniometer & DSA4 software analysis. Results Anova test was carried out to test the significance in difference of contact angle values in the six groups. The mean of advancing angle values & mean of receding angle values of all the six groups has shown statistically significant difference between the groups. The mean of angle of hysteresis values of all the six groups are statistically not significant between the groups. A multiple comparison using Bonferroni’s test was carried out to verify the significance of difference between the contact angles in a pair of groups. Statistically significant difference was seen when Aqwet (Group II) was compared to Distilled water (Group I), Wet Mouth (Group III), E-Saliva (Group IV), Biotene (Group V), and Moi-Stir (Group VI). Conclusion The contact angles of five saliva substitutes and distilled water were measured and compared. Group II (AQWET) has the lowest advancing and receding contact angle values and the highest angle of hysteresis on heat-polymerized acrylic resin. Based on contact angle values, Group II (AQWET) has the best wetting ability on heat-cured acrylic resins. The ability of saliva to wet the denture surface is one of the most important properties for complete denture retention in dry mouth cases. PMID:29187918

  10. The effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Nagaiwa, Miho; Gunjigake, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Kazunori

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of mouth breathing on chewing efficiency by evaluating masticatory variables. Ten adult nasal breathers with normal occlusion and no temporomandibular dysfunction were selected. Subjects were instructed to bite the chewing gum on the habitual side. While breathing through the mouth and nose, the glucide elution from the chewing gum, number of chewing strokes, duration of chewing, and electromyography (EMG) activity of the masseter muscle were evaluated as variables of masticatory efficiency. The durations required for the chewing of 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 250 strokes were significantly (P < .05) longer while breathing through the mouth. There was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate (%) for each chewing stroke between nose and mouth breathings. The glucide elution rates for 1- and 3-minute chewing were significantly (P < .05) lower while breathing through the mouth. However, there was no significant difference in the glucide elution rate for 5-minute chewing between nose and mouth breathings. While chewing for 1, 3, and 5 minutes, the chewing stroke and EMG activity of the masseter muscle were significantly (P < .05) lower during mouth breathing. It takes a longer amount of time to complete chewing to obtain higher masticatory efficiency when breathing through the mouth. Therefore, mouth breathing will decrease the masticatory efficiency if the duration of chewing is restricted in everyday life.

  11. Dietary nitrate protects submandibular gland from hyposalivation in ovariectomized rats via suppressing cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yipu; Pang, Baoxing; Hu, Liang; Feng, Xiaoyu; Hu, Lei; Wang, Jingsong; Zhang, Chunmei; Wang, Songlin

    2018-02-26

    Xerostomia, a major oral symptom of menopause, is a subjective feeling of dry mouth associated with oral pain and difficulties in deglutition and speech, which significantly reduces patient's quality of life. Dietary nitrate, which can be converted to nitric oxide, has multiple physiological functions in the body, including antioxidant activity and vasodilatation; however, its protective effect against xerostomia remains poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary nitrate on estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia. We established an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model, which included five groups: sham-operated, OVX, OVX + 0.4 mM nitrate, OVX + 2 mM nitrate, and OVX + 4 mM nitrate (n = 6). After ovariectomy, animals in the nitrate treatment groups received appropriate amounts of sodium nitrate dissolved in distilled water for 3 months. The results showed that nitrate treatment reduced body weight and water intake, and increased serum nitrate and nitrite levels. Furthermore, nitrate uptake increased saliva secretion as evidenced by saliva flow rates and aquaporin 5 expression, and alleviated histological lesions as evidenced by reduction of the fibrotic area and cell atrophy in the salivary glands. Although protective effects of nitrate against estrogen deficiency-induced xerostomia were observed at all doses, treatment with 2 mM nitrate was more effective than that with 0.4 mM and 4 mM nitrate. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and caspase-3 expression analyses showed that nitrate also protected cells from apoptosis, possibly through upregulation of Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) known to inhibit oxidative stress-related apoptosis. Our findings indicate that nitrate could improve functional activity of the salivary glands in OVX rats by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating Cu-Zn SOD expression, suggesting that dietary nitrate may potentially prevent hyposalivation in menopausal

  12. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased (P < 0.001, = 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively), but all other ADC histogram parameters increased (all P < 0.001, except P = 0.006 for standard deviation [SD]). From time point 2 to 3, parotid volume continued to decrease (P = 0.022), and SD, 75th and 90th percentiles continued to increase (P = 0.024, 0.010, and 0.006, respectively). Early change rates of parotid ADCmean, ADCmin, kurtosis, and 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th percentiles (from time point 1 to 2) correlated with late parotid atrophy rate (from time point 1 to 3) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed correlations among parotid volume, time point, and ADC histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADCmax could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 (P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy. PMID:29050274

  13. Apparent diffusion coefficient histogram analysis can evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict late xerostomia degree in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Guo, Tingting; Zheng, Huanhuan; Pan, Xia; Chu, Chen; Dou, Xin; Li, Ming; Liu, Song; Zhu, Lijing; Liu, Baorui; Chen, Weibo; He, Jian; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhengyang; Yang, Xiaofeng

    2017-09-19

    We investigated apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage and predict xerostomia degrees in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving radiotherapy. The imaging of bilateral parotid glands in NPC patients was conducted 2 weeks before radiotherapy (time point 1), one month after radiotherapy (time point 2), and four months after radiotherapy (time point 3). From time point 1 to 2, parotid volume, skewness, and kurtosis decreased ( P < 0.001, = 0.001, and < 0.001, respectively), but all other ADC histogram parameters increased (all P < 0.001, except P = 0.006 for standard deviation [SD]). From time point 2 to 3, parotid volume continued to decrease ( P = 0.022), and SD, 75 th and 90 th percentiles continued to increase ( P = 0.024, 0.010, and 0.006, respectively). Early change rates of parotid ADC mean , ADC min , kurtosis, and 25 th , 50 th , 75 th , 90 th percentiles (from time point 1 to 2) correlated with late parotid atrophy rate (from time point 1 to 3) (all P < 0.05). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed correlations among parotid volume, time point, and ADC histogram parameters. Early mean change rates for bilateral parotid SD and ADC max could predict late xerostomia degrees at seven months after radiotherapy (three months after time point 3) with AUC of 0.781 and 0.818 ( P = 0.014, 0.005, respectively). ADC histogram parameters were reproducible (intraclass correlation coefficient, 0.830 - 0.999). ADC histogram analysis could be used to evaluate radiation-induced parotid damage noninvasively, and predict late xerostomia degrees of NPC patients treated with radiotherapy.

  14. Temporomandibular Disorders in Burning Mouth Syndrome Patients: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Corsalini, Massimo; Di Venere, Daniela; Pettini, Francesco; Lauritano, Dorina; Petruzzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS) is a chronic disease characterized by absence of any lesions and burning of the oral mucosa associated to a sensation of dry mouth and/or taste alterations. The purpose of our study is to estimate signs and symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders (TMD) in patients with BMS and to investigate for the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four BMS patients were enrolled; BMS subtype was established according to the classification of Lamey. After a gnathological evaluation, according to the protocol of the European Academy of Craniomandibular Disorders, patients were classified by RDC/TMD criteria. The data were compared and analyzed using a chi-square test to describe the existence of an association between BMS and TMD. RESULTS: 65.9% the BMS patients showed disorders classified as primary signs and symptoms of TMD according to RDC / TMD criteria, and 72.7% showed parafunctional habits. The chi-square test revealed a statistically significant association (p = 0.035) between BMS and TMD. CONCLUSION: The data suggest that there is a possible relationship not yet well understood between BMS and TMD, may be for neurophatic alterations assumed for BMS that could be also engaged in TMD pathogenesis. PMID:24273452

  15. Mouth and Teeth: How To Keep Them Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Wellness Staying Healthy Healthy Living Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Mouth and Teeth: How to Keep Them Healthy Share Print Taking good care of your mouth and teeth throughout your whole life can help prevent problems ...

  16. The origin of mouth-exhaled ammonia.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-09-01

    It is known that the oral cavity is a production site for mouth-exhaled NH3. However, the mechanism of NH3 production in the oral cavity has been unclear. Since bacterial urease in the oral cavity has been found to produce ammonia from oral fluid urea, we hypothesize that oral fluid urea is the origin of mouth-exhaled NH3. Our results show that under certain conditions a strong correlation exists between oral fluid urea and oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) (rs = 0.77, p < 0.001). We also observe a strong correlation between oral fluid NH3 and mouth-exhaled NH3 (rs = 0.81, p < 0.001). We conclude that three main factors affect the mouth-exhaled NH3 concentration: urea concentration, urease activity and oral fluid pH. Bacterial urease catalyses the hydrolysis of oral fluid urea to ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3). Oral fluid ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3) and pH determine the concentration of oral fluid NH3, which evaporates from oral fluid into gas phase and turns to mouth-exhaled NH3.

  17. TH-E-BRF-09: Gaussian Mixture Model Analysis of Radiation-Induced Parotid-Gland Injury: An Ultrasound Study of Acute and Late Xerostomia in Head-And-Neck Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, T; Yu, D; Beitler, J

    Purpose: Xerostomia (dry mouth), secondary to parotid-gland injury, is a distressing side-effect in head-and-neck radiotherapy (RT). This study's purpose is to develop a novel ultrasound technique to quantitatively evaluate post-RT parotid-gland injury. Methods: Recent ultrasound studies have shown that healthy parotid glands exhibit homogeneous echotexture, whereas post-RT parotid glands are often heterogeneous, with multiple hypoechoic (inflammation) or hyperechoic (fibrosis) regions. We propose to use a Gaussian mixture model to analyze the ultrasonic echo-histogram of the parotid glands. An IRB-approved clinical study was conducted: (1) control-group: 13 healthy-volunteers, served as the control; (2) acutetoxicity group − 20 patients (mean age: 62.5more » ± 8.9 years, follow-up: 2.0±0.8 months); and (3) late-toxicity group − 18 patients (mean age: 60.7 ± 7.3 years, follow-up: 20.1±10.4 months). All patients experienced RTOG grade 1 or 2 salivary-gland toxicity. Each participant underwent an ultrasound scan (10 MHz) of the bilateral parotid glands. An echo-intensity histogram was derived for each parotid and a Gaussian mixture model was used to fit the histogram using expectation maximization (EM) algorithm. The quality of the fitting was evaluated with the R-squared value. Results: (1) Controlgroup: all parotid glands fitted well with one Gaussian component, with a mean intensity of 79.8±4.9 (R-squared>0.96). (2) Acute-toxicity group: 37 of the 40 post-RT parotid glands fitted well with two Gaussian components, with a mean intensity of 42.9±7.4, 73.3±12.2 (R-squared>0.95). (3) Latetoxicity group: 32 of the 36 post-RT parotid fitted well with 3 Gaussian components, with mean intensities of 49.7±7.6, 77.2±8.7, and 118.6±11.8 (R-squared>0.98). Conclusion: RT-associated parotid-gland injury is common in head-and-neck RT, but challenging to assess. This work has demonstrated that the Gaussian mixture model of the echo-histogram could quantify acute

  18. Salivary Secretory Disorders, Inducing Drugs, and Clinical Management

    PubMed Central

    Miranda-Rius, Jaume; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Farré, Magí

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salivary secretory disorders can be the result of a wide range of factors. Their prevalence and negative effects on the patient's quality of life oblige the clinician to confront the issue. Aim: To review the salivary secretory disorders, inducing drugs and their clinical management. Methods: In this article, a literature search of these dysfunctions was conducted with the assistance of a research librarian in the MEDLINE/PubMed Database. Results: Xerostomia, or dry mouth syndrome, can be caused by medication, systemic diseases such as Sjögren's Syndrome, glandular pathologies, and radiotherapy of the head and neck. Treatment of dry mouth is aimed at both minimizing its symptoms and preventing oral complications with the employment of sialogogues and topical acting substances. Sialorrhea and drooling, are mainly due to medication or neurological systemic disease. There are various therapeutic, pharmacologic, and surgical alternatives for its management. The pharmacology of most of the substances employed for the treatment of salivary disorders is well-known. Nevertheless, in some cases a significant improvement in salivary function has not been observed after their administration. Conclusion: At present, there are numerous frequently prescribed drugs whose unwanted effects include some kind of salivary disorder. In addition, the differing pathologic mechanisms, and the great variety of existing treatments hinder the clinical management of these patients. The authors have designed an algorithm to facilitate the decision making process when physicians, oral surgeons, or dentists face these salivary dysfunctions. PMID:26516310

  19. Multi-atlas-based segmentation of the parotid glands of MR images in patients following head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Guanghui; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wu, Ning; Xu, Zhijian; Zhao, Hongfu; Wang, Yuefeng; Liu, Tian

    2013-02-01

    Xerostomia (dry mouth), resulting from radiation damage to the parotid glands, is one of the most common and distressing side effects of head-and-neck cancer radiotherapy. Recent MRI studies have demonstrated that the volume reduction of parotid glands is an important indicator for radiation damage and xerostomia. In the clinic, parotid-volume evaluation is exclusively based on physicians' manual contours. However, manual contouring is time-consuming and prone to inter-observer and intra-observer variability. Here, we report a fully automated multi-atlas-based registration method for parotid-gland delineation in 3D head-and-neck MR images. The multi-atlas segmentation utilizes a hybrid deformable image registration to map the target subject to multiple patients' images, applies the transformation to the corresponding segmented parotid glands, and subsequently uses the multiple patient-specific pairs (head-and-neck MR image and transformed parotid-gland mask) to train support vector machine (SVM) to reach consensus to segment the parotid gland of the target subject. This segmentation algorithm was tested with head-and-neck MRIs of 5 patients following radiotherapy for the nasopharyngeal cancer. The average parotid-gland volume overlapped 85% between the automatic segmentations and the physicians' manual contours. In conclusion, we have demonstrated the feasibility of an automatic multi-atlas based segmentation algorithm to segment parotid glands in head-and-neck MR images.

  20. Anthropogenic Impacts on Coastal Processes at Guadiaro River Mouth (Cádiz, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diez, J. Javier

    2014-05-01

    The mouth of Guadiaro river (Cadiz, south of Spain) opens to the Alboran basin of the Mediterranean Sea, between the Spanish and North African coasts, next to the Strait of Gibraltar, where the Spanish coastal orientation is NNE-SSW, so that the stretch is mainly affected by eastern ("Levantes") wind and wave action. The river sources are in Grazalema Sierra (Cádiz), western Penibetic ridge, and although the Spanish Mediterranean facade is climatically dry and supports a very irregular rainfall regime, rains in that "Sierra" are among the highest and homogeneous in Spain throughout the year, much more than in the rest of the ridge. Maybe that is why the Guadiaro estuary has remained functional until preset years while all other river mouths estuaries were filled to become deltas along the eighteenth century (Diez, 1996). As most of Spanish rivers, the Guadiaro had suffered a major regulatory process and an upstream transfer has been recently implemented from its basin to the Atlantic through Guadalete river basin, therefore the mouth flow is becoming reduced, especially in its peaks. The closure of its mouth, favoured by the reduced flow of the river in a low tide basin sea, has been studied several times in the last decades (Muñoz et al, 2010), mainly because the spit closing it grows in the NNE direction when alongshore transport occurs mainly, and almost permanently, in the opposite direction. This paper is mainly based on most of those documents, whose researches have used numerical models such as SMC and MIKE 21, obtaining relevant results on the refraction but not diffraction. Two successive main structural actions that can have modified coastal processes were introduced in the environment of the mouth: a couple of jetties (1973), one of which was soon removed (1975), and the marina and harbour of Sotogrande (whose breakwater was built in 1986 and extended 1n 1994)). The influence of these elements is not well reflected in the numerical models. In this

  1. Hedgehog activity controls opening of the primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Tabler, Jacqueline M.; Bolger, Trióna G.; Wallingford, John; Liu, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    To feed or breathe, the oral opening must connect with the gut. The foregut and oral tissues converge at the primary mouth, forming the buccopharyngeal membrane (BPM), a bilayer epithelium. Failure to form the opening between gut and mouth has significant ramifications, and many craniofacial disorders have been associated with defects in this process. Oral perforation is characterized by dissolution of the BPM, but little is known about this process. In humans, failure to form a continuous mouth opening is associated with mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) pathway members; however, the role of Hh in primary mouth development is untested. Here, we show, using Xenopus, that Hh signaling is necessary and sufficient to initiate mouth formation, and that Hh activation is required in a dose-dependent fashion to determine the size of the mouth. This activity lies upstream of the previously demonstrated role for Wnt signal inhibition in oral perforation. We then turn to mouse mutants to establish that SHH and Gli3 are indeed necessary for mammalian mouth development. Our data suggest that Hh-mediated BPM persistence may underlie oral defects in human craniofacial syndromes. PMID:25300580

  2. Trench mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... fever. Good oral hygiene is vital to the treatment of trench mouth. Brush and floss your teeth thoroughly at least twice a day, or after each meal and at bedtime, if possible. Salt-water rinses (one half teaspoon or 3 grams of ...

  3. Xerostomia after Radiotherapy for Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer: Increasing Salivary Flow with Tasteless Sugar-free Chewing Gum.

    PubMed

    Kaae, Julie Killerup; Stenfeldt, Lone; Eriksen, Jesper Grau

    2016-01-01

    Radiation-induced xerostomia is a frequent late side effect after treatment for oral and oropharyngeal cancers. This may induce swallowing difficulties, compromised oral well-being, reduced nutrition intake, or speech deficiencies. Consequently, quality of life is often impaired for these patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility to mechanically stimulate residual saliva function by using tasteless and sugar-free chewing gum. It was hypothesized that tasteless and sugar-free chewing gum could immediately increase salivary flow and potentially improve oral well-being when used on a regular basis. From October to December 2014, 31 consecutive patients treated with primary radiotherapy (RT) and concomitant cisplatin (in locally advanced cases) for oral or oropharyngeal cancer consented to participate. All patients had finalized RT 2-8 months prior to participation and suffered from xerostomia. Samples of unstimulated and chewing gum-stimulated saliva were obtained at the entry into the study (Visit 1). For 2 weeks, patients used chewing gum on a regular basis whereupon saliva measurements were repeated to verify the changes (Visit 2). An abbreviated EORTC H&N35 questionnaire was completed for both visits. A small control group consisting of young and healthy individuals also tested the chewing gum. Twenty patients completed the study and an increase in saliva flow was observed for 14 patients. Before and after intervention with chewing gum, an increase in mean saliva output was seen between unstimulated and stimulated saliva for both Visit 1 and 2 (p = 0.008 and p = 0.05, respectively). No change in saliva output was seen in the control group. The chewing gum was able to stimulate saliva output that was seen at the beginning and at the end of the intervention. No improvement in baseline saliva was seen. Relevant changes in subjective measures of xerostomia were seen after 2 weeks of chewing the gum.

  4. Associations between xerostomia, histopathological alterations, and autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands in men in late midlife.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Christiane Elisabeth; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard; Reibel, Jesper; Lauritzen, Martin; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Osler, Merete; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2014-09-01

    One aim of the present study was to investigate whether symptoms of oral dryness (xerostomia) during daytime, assessed in a study group of middle-aged male positive and negative outliers in cognition scores, were associated with age-related degenerative changes in human labial salivary glands and with quantitative measures of the glandular autonomic innervation. Another aim was to study the relation between the autonomic innervation and loss of secretory acinar cells in these glands. Labial salivary gland biopsies were taken from the lower lip from 190 men, born in 1953 and members of the Danish Metropolit birth cohort, who were examined for age-related changes in cognitive function and dental health as part of the Copenhagen University Center for Healthy Aging clinical neuroscience project. The glands were routinely processed and semi-quantitatively analyzed for inflammation, acinar atrophy, fibrosis, and adipocyte infiltration. Sections of labial salivary gland tissue were stained with the panneuronal marker PGP 9.5. In a subsample of 51 participants, the autonomic innervation of the glands was analyzed quantitatively by use of stereology. Labial salivary gland tissue samples from 33% of all participants displayed moderate to severe acinar atrophy and fibrosis (31%). Xerostomia was not significantly associated with structural changes of labial salivary glands, but in the subsample it was inversely related to the total nerve length in the glandular connective tissue. Acinar atrophy and fibrosis were negatively correlated with the parenchymal innervation and positively related to diffuse inflammation. The results from the present study indicate that aspects of the autonomic innervation of labial salivary glands may play a role in the occurrence of xerostomia which in the present study group was not significantly associated with degenerative changes in these glands. The findings further indicate that the integrity of labial salivary gland acini is related to the

  5. Management of radiotherapy-induced salivary hypofunction and consequent xerostomia in patients with oral or head and neck cancer: meta-analysis and literature review.

    PubMed

    Lovelace, Tiffany L; Fox, Nyssa F; Sood, Amit J; Nguyen, Shaun A; Day, Terry A

    2014-05-01

    To analyze the efficacy of various treatment options for radiation-induced hyposalivation in patients with head and neck cancer. A literature review and meta-analysis was performed on all appropriate literature identified via MEDLINE/PubMed. Fourteen articles were identified that met inclusion criteria for review, and 8 articles qualified for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The available literature addressed both objective and subjective responses of hyposalivation, xerostomia, or both to cholinergic agonists (such as pilocarpine and cevimeline), salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. This analysis indicated that cholinergic agonists were more effective in treating radiation-induced hyposalivation compared with salivary substitutes, hyperbaric oxygen, and acupuncture. However, other treatment modalities, such as salivary substitutes and hyperbaric oxygen, were also found to subjectively improve patients' perception of xerostomia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mouth Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... or radiation patients, bone marrow or stem cell recipients, or patients with weak immune systems should also consider having regular oral screenings by a physician. The first sign of oral cancer is a mouth sore that does not heal. What kind of screenings are performed? ...

  7. Development and evolution of the vertebrate primary mouth

    PubMed Central

    Soukup, Vladimír; Horácek, Ivan; Cerny, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The vertebrate oral region represents a key interface between outer and inner environments, and its structural and functional design is among the limiting factors for survival of its owners. Both formation of the respective oral opening (primary mouth) and establishment of the food-processing apparatus (secondary mouth) require interplay between several embryonic tissues and complex embryonic rearrangements. Although many aspects of the secondary mouth formation, including development of the jaws, teeth or taste buds, are known in considerable detail, general knowledge about primary mouth formation is regrettably low. In this paper, primary mouth formation is reviewed from a comparative point of view in order to reveal its underestimated morphogenetic diversity among, and also within, particular vertebrate clades. In general, three main developmental modes were identified. The most common is characterized by primary mouth formation via a deeply invaginated ectodermal stomodeum and subsequent rupture of the bilaminar oral membrane. However, in salamander, lungfish and also in some frog species, the mouth develops alternatively via stomodeal collar formation contributed both by the ecto- and endoderm. In ray-finned fishes, on the other hand, the mouth forms via an ectoderm wedge and later horizontal detachment of the initially compressed oral epithelia with probably a mixed germ-layer derivation. A very intriguing situation can be seen in agnathan fishes: whereas lampreys develop their primary mouth in a manner similar to the most common gnathostome pattern, hagfishes seem to undergo a unique oropharyngeal morphogenesis when compared with other vertebrates. In discussing the early formative embryonic correlates of primary mouth formation likely to be responsible for evolutionary–developmental modifications of this area, we stress an essential role of four factors: first, positioning and amount of yolk tissue; closely related to, second, endoderm formation during

  8. Pilocarpine disposition and salivary flow responses following intravenous administration to dogs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, M L; Tanzer, J M; Kramer, P A

    1992-08-01

    Oral doses of pilocarpine increase salivary flow rates in patients afflicted with xerostomia (dry mouth). This study examined the pharmacokinetics of and a pharmacodynamic response (salivation) to intravenous pilocarpine nitrate administration in dogs. Disposition was linear over a dose range of 225-600 micrograms/kg; plasma concentrations were 10-120 micrograms/L. Elimination was rapid and generally biphasic, with a terminal elimination half-life of approximately 1.3 hr. The systemic clearance of pilocarpine was high (2.22 +/- 0.49 L/kg/hr) and its steady-state volume of distribution (2.30 +/- 0.64 L/kg) was comparable to that of many other basic drugs. All doses of pilocarpine induced measurable submaxillary and parotid salivary flow rates which could be maintained constant over time. Cumulative submaxillary saliva flow was linearly related to total pilocarpine dose. Plasma pilocarpine concentration was linearly related to both steady-state and postinfusion submaxillary salivary flow rates.

  9. Phase 2 results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Study 0537: a phase 2/3 study comparing acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation versus pilocarpine in treating early radiation-induced xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raimond K W; James, Jennifer L; Sagar, Stephen; Wyatt, Gwen; Nguyen-Tân, Phuc Felix; Singh, Anurag K; Lukaszczyk, Barbara; Cardinale, Francis; Yeh, Alexander M; Berk, Lawrence

    2012-09-01

    In this phase 2 component of a multi-institutional, phase 2/3, randomized trial, the authors assessed the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of acupuncture-like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (ALTENS) in reducing radiation-induced xerostomia. Patients with cancer of the head and neck who were 3 to 24 months from completing radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy (RT ± C) and who were experiencing xerostomia symptoms with basal whole saliva production ≥0.1 mL per minute and were without recurrence were eligible. Patients received twice weekly ALTENS sessions (24 sessions over 12 weeks) using a proprietary electrical stimulation unit. The primary study objective was to assess the feasibility of ALTENS treatment. Patients were considered compliant if 19 of 24 ALTENS sessions were delivered, and the targeted compliance rate was 85%. Secondary objectives measured treatment-related toxicities and the effect of ALTENS on overall radiation-induced xerostomia burden using the University of Michigan Xerostomia-Related Quality of Life Scale (XeQOLS). Of 48 accrued patients, 47 were evaluable. The median age was 60 years, 84% of patients were men, 70% completed RT ± C for >12 months, and 21% had previously received pilocarpine. Thirty-four patients completed all 24 ALTENS sessions, 9 patients completed 20 to 23 sessions, and 1 patient completed 19 sessions, representing a 94% total compliance rate. Six-month XeQOLS scores were available for 35 patients and indicated that 30 patients (86%) achieved a positive treatment response with a mean ± standard deviation reduction of 35.9% ± 36.1%. Five patients developed grade 1 or 2 gastrointestinal toxicity, and 1 had a grade 1 pain event. The current results indicated that ALTENS treatment for radiation-induced xerostomia can be delivered uniformly in a cooperative, multicenter setting and produces possible beneficial treatment response. Given these results, the phase 3 component of this study was initiated

  10. Effectiveness of an oral health educational program on community-dwelling older people with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Yuki; Yoshida, Naomi; Kono, Yoko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Yoshida, Hideyo; Mataki, Shiro; Sugimoto, Kumiko

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes in oral health and function through an oral health educational program for the independent older people with xerostomia. Community-dwelling older people with xerostomia aged over 65 years who participated in a preliminary comprehensive health survey in 2011 were recruited for the educational program. A total of 47 participants were randomly assigned into two groups, the intervention group (n = 26) and the control group (n = 21). The intervention group attended a 90-min oral health education program every 2 weeks for 3 months. The program consisted of oral hygiene instruction, facial and tongue muscle exercise, and salivary gland massage. The control group was provided only general information about oral health. The assessments of oral function, such as oral diadochokinesis of articulation, swallowing, taste threshold and salivary flow rate, were carried out before and after 3 months with or without intervention. A total of 38 participants (21 of intervention group and 17 of control group) completed the study protocol. In the intervention group, resting salivation significantly improved after the program. The second and third cumulated Repetitive Saliva Swallowing Test times significantly improved in the intervention group. The threshold for bitterness significantly lowered in the intervention group, whereas the sour threshold significantly heightened in the control group after 3 months (P < 0.05). The present study suggests that the educational program targeting oral function improvement is effective among the independent older population. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. CT image biomarkers to improve patient-specific prediction of radiation-induced xerostomia and sticky saliva.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Lisanne V; Brouwer, Charlotte L; van der Schaaf, Arjen; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Beukinga, Roelof J; Langendijk, Johannes A; Sijtsema, Nanna M; Steenbakkers, Roel J H M

    2017-02-01

    Current models for the prediction of late patient-rated moderate-to-severe xerostomia (XER 12m ) and sticky saliva (STIC 12m ) after radiotherapy are based on dose-volume parameters and baseline xerostomia (XER base ) or sticky saliva (STIC base ) scores. The purpose is to improve prediction of XER 12m and STIC 12m with patient-specific characteristics, based on CT image biomarkers (IBMs). Planning CT-scans and patient-rated outcome measures were prospectively collected for 249 head and neck cancer patients treated with definitive radiotherapy with or without systemic treatment. The potential IBMs represent geometric, CT intensity and textural characteristics of the parotid and submandibular glands. Lasso regularisation was used to create multivariable logistic regression models, which were internally validated by bootstrapping. The prediction of XER 12m could be improved significantly by adding the IBM "Short Run Emphasis" (SRE), which quantifies heterogeneity of parotid tissue, to a model with mean contra-lateral parotid gland dose and XER base . For STIC 12m , the IBM maximum CT intensity of the submandibular gland was selected in addition to STIC base and mean dose to submandibular glands. Prediction of XER 12m and STIC 12m was improved by including IBMs representing heterogeneity and density of the salivary glands, respectively. These IBMs could guide additional research to the patient-specific response of healthy tissue to radiation dose. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Burning mouth syndrome: the role of contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Marino, R; Capaccio, P; Pignataro, L; Spadari, F

    2009-05-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a burning sensation or stinging disorder affecting the oral mucosa in the absence of any clinical signs or mucosal lesions. Some studies have suggested that burning mouth syndrome could be caused by the metals used in dental prostheses, as well as by acrylate monomers, additives and flavouring agents, although others have not found any aetiologic role for hypersensitivity to dental materials. To evaluate the extent and severity of adverse reactions to dental materials in a group of patients with burning mouth syndrome, and investigate the possible role of contact allergy in its pathogenesis. We prospectively studied 124 consecutive patients with burning mouth syndrome (108 males; mean age 57 years, range 41-83), all of whom underwent allergen patch testing between 2004 and 2007. Sixteen patients (13%) showed positive patch test reactions and were classified as having burning mouth syndrome type 3 or secondary burning mouth syndrome (Lamey's and Scala's classifications). Although we did not find any significant association between the patients and positive patch test reactions, it would be advisable to include hypersensitivity to dental components when evaluating patients experiencing intermittent oral burning without any clinical signs.

  13. Rapid Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia Using Transnasal High Flow Dry Air

    PubMed Central

    Chava, Raghuram; Raghavan, Madhavan Srinivas; Halperin, Henry; Maqbool, Farhan; Geocadin, Romergryko; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Rosen, Benjamin A.

    2017-01-01

    Early induction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA); however, currently no reliable methods exist to initiate cooling. We investigated the effect of high flow transnasal dry air on brain and body temperatures in adult porcine animals. Adult porcine animals (n = 23) under general anesthesia were subject to high flow of transnasal dry air. Mouth was kept open to create a unidirectional airflow, in through the nostrils and out through the mouth. Brain, internal jugular, and aortic temperatures were recorded. The effect of varying airflow rate and the air humidity (0% or 100%) on the temperature profiles were recorded. The degree of brain cooling was measured as the differential temperature from baseline. A 10-minute exposure of high flow dry air caused rapid cooling of brain and gradual cooling of the jugular and the aortic temperatures in all animals. The degree of brain cooling was flow dependent and significantly higher at higher airflow rates (0.8°C ± 0.3°C, 1.03°C ± 0.6°C, and 1.3°C ± 0.7°C for 20, 40, and 80 L, respectively, p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Air temperature had minimal effect on the brain cooling over 10 minutes with similar decrease in temperature at 4°C and 30°C. At a constant flow rate (40 LPM) and temperature, the degree of cooling over 10 minutes during dry air exposure was significantly higher compared to humid air (100% saturation) (1.22°C ± 0.35°C vs. 0.21°C ± 0.12°C, p < 0.001). High flow transnasal dry air causes flow dependent cooling of the brain and the core temperatures in intubated porcine animals. The mechanism of cooling appears to be evaporation of nasal mucus as cooling is mitigated by humidifying the air. This mechanism may be exploited to initiate TH in CA. PMID:27635468

  14. Rapid Induction of Therapeutic Hypothermia Using Transnasal High Flow Dry Air.

    PubMed

    Chava, Raghuram; Zviman, Menekhem; Raghavan, Madhavan Srinivas; Halperin, Henry; Maqbool, Farhan; Geocadin, Romergryko; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Rosen, Benjamin A; Tandri, Harikrishna

    2017-03-01

    Early induction of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is recommended in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (CA); however, currently no reliable methods exist to initiate cooling. We investigated the effect of high flow transnasal dry air on brain and body temperatures in adult porcine animals. Adult porcine animals (n = 23) under general anesthesia were subject to high flow of transnasal dry air. Mouth was kept open to create a unidirectional airflow, in through the nostrils and out through the mouth. Brain, internal jugular, and aortic temperatures were recorded. The effect of varying airflow rate and the air humidity (0% or 100%) on the temperature profiles were recorded. The degree of brain cooling was measured as the differential temperature from baseline. A 10-minute exposure of high flow dry air caused rapid cooling of brain and gradual cooling of the jugular and the aortic temperatures in all animals. The degree of brain cooling was flow dependent and significantly higher at higher airflow rates (0.8°C ± 0.3°C, 1.03°C ± 0.6°C, and 1.3°C ± 0.7°C for 20, 40, and 80 L, respectively, p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Air temperature had minimal effect on the brain cooling over 10 minutes with similar decrease in temperature at 4°C and 30°C. At a constant flow rate (40 LPM) and temperature, the degree of cooling over 10 minutes during dry air exposure was significantly higher compared to humid air (100% saturation) (1.22°C ± 0.35°C vs. 0.21°C ± 0.12°C, p < 0.001). High flow transnasal dry air causes flow dependent cooling of the brain and the core temperatures in intubated porcine animals. The mechanism of cooling appears to be evaporation of nasal mucus as cooling is mitigated by humidifying the air. This mechanism may be exploited to initiate TH in CA.

  15. Therapeutic effect of cevimeline on dry eye in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: a randomized, double-blind clinical study.

    PubMed

    Ono, Masasfumi; Takamura, Etsuko; Shinozaki, Kazumi; Tsumura, Tomoko; Hamano, Takashi; Yagi, Yukiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2004-07-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by salivary and lacrimal glandular destruction leading to symptoms of dry mouth and dry eye. Dryness can also occur in the absence of glandular destruction. Patients with SS have autoantibodies that bind to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in the exocrine glands. Recently, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, cevimeline, has been approved for use against symptoms of dry mouth in patients with SS. In this study, the efficacy of cevimeline in improving symptoms of dry eye was examined. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-center clinical study. Sixty patients were randomly assigned to three groups-placebo; cevimeline, 20 mg three times daily; or cevimeline, 30 mg three times daily-and received treatment for 4 weeks. Patients were evaluated before treatment, at week 2, at the end of treatment, and at the end of a 2- to 4-week follow-up period. Compared with the placebo, statistically significant differences were seen with cevimeline, 20 mg three times daily, in subjective symptoms, tear dynamics, condition of the corneoconjunctival epithelium, and global improvement rating. No difference was found among the three groups regarding the safe use of the drug. These results indicate that cevimeline, 20 mg three times daily, is safe and effective in improving symptoms of dry eye in patients with SS. Additional studies, with larger patient populations, are needed to further assess the effectiveness of cevimeline for dry eye.

  16. Recovery of viral RNA and infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus from positive lateral-flow devices.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Veronica L; Bankowski, Bartlomiej M; Armson, Bryony; Di Nardo, Antonello; Valdazo-Gonzalez, Begoña; Reid, Scott M; Barnett, Paul V; Wadsworth, Jemma; Ferris, Nigel P; Mioulet, Valérie; King, Donald P

    2014-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is an economically important, highly contagious picornavirus that affects both wild and domesticated cloven hooved animals. In developing countries, the effective laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is often hindered by inadequate sample preservation due to difficulties in the transportation and storage of clinical material. These factors can compromise the ability to detect and characterise FMD virus in countries where the disease is endemic. Furthermore, the high cost of sending infectious virus material and the biosecurity risk it presents emphasises the need for a thermo-stable, non-infectious mode of transporting diagnostic samples. This paper investigates the potential of using FMDV lateral-flow devices (LFDs) for dry transportation of clinical samples for subsequent nucleic acid amplification, sequencing and recovery of infectious virus by electroporation. FMDV positive samples (epithelial suspensions and cell culture isolates) representing four FMDV serotypes were applied to antigen LFDs: after which it was possible to recover viral RNA that could be detected using real-time RT-PCR. Using this nucleic acid, it was also possible to recover VP1 sequences and also successfully utilise protocols for amplification of complete FMD virus genomes. It was not possible to recover infectious FMDV directly from the LFDs, however following electroporation into BHK-21 cells and subsequent cell passage, infectious virus could be recovered. Therefore, these results support the use of the antigen LFD for the dry, non-hazardous transportation of samples from FMD endemic countries to international reference laboratories.

  17. Oral Disease Profiles in Chronic Graft versus Host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fassil, H.; Mays, J.W.; Edwards, D.; Baird, K.; Steinberg, S.M.; Cowen, E.W.; Naik, H.; Datiles, M.; Stratton, P.; Gress, R.E.; Pavletic, S.Z.

    2015-01-01

    At least half of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, have oral manifestations: mucosal lesions, salivary dysfunction, and limited mouth-opening. cGVHD may manifest in a single organ or affect multiple organ systems, including the mouth, eyes, and the skin. The interrelationship of the 3 oral manifestations of cGVHD with each other and with the specific manifestations of extraoral cGVHD has not been studied. In this analysis, we explored, in a large group of patients with cGVHD, the potential associations between: (1) oral mucosal disease and erythematous skin disease, (2) salivary gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland dysfunction, and (3) limited mouth-opening and sclerotic skin cGVHD. Study participants, enrolled in a cGVHD Natural History Protocol (NCT00331968, n = 212), underwent an oral examination evaluating: (1) mucosal cGVHD [NIH Oral Mucosal Score (OMS)], (2) salivary dysfunction (saliva flow and xerostomia), and (3) maximum mouth-opening measurement. Parameters for dysfunction (OMS > 2, saliva flow ≤ 1 mL/5 min, mouth-opening ≤ 35 mm) were analyzed for association with skin cGVHD involvement (erythema and sclerosis, skin symptoms), lacrimal dysfunction (Schirmer’s tear test, xerophthalmia), Lee cGVHD Symptom Scores, and NIH organ scores. Oral mucosal disease (31% prevalence) was associated with skin erythema (P < 0.001); salivary dysfunction (11% prevalence) was associated with lacrimal dysfunction (P = 0.010) and xerostomia with xerophthalmia (r = 0.32, P = 0.001); and limited mouth-opening (17% prevalence) was associated with skin sclerosis (P = 0.008) and skin symptoms (P = 0.001). There was no association found among these 3 oral cGVHD manifestations. This analysis supports the understanding of oral cGVHD as 3 distinct diseases: mucosal lesions, salivary gland dysfunction, and mouth sclerosis. Clear classification of oral c

  18. Oral disease profiles in chronic graft versus host disease.

    PubMed

    Bassim, C W; Fassil, H; Mays, J W; Edwards, D; Baird, K; Steinberg, S M; Cowen, E W; Naik, H; Datiles, M; Stratton, P; Gress, R E; Pavletic, S Z

    2015-04-01

    At least half of patients with chronic graft-versus-host-disease (cGVHD), the leading cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after allogeneic stem cell transplantation, have oral manifestations: mucosal lesions, salivary dysfunction, and limited mouth-opening. cGVHD may manifest in a single organ or affect multiple organ systems, including the mouth, eyes, and the skin. The interrelationship of the 3 oral manifestations of cGVHD with each other and with the specific manifestations of extraoral cGVHD has not been studied. In this analysis, we explored, in a large group of patients with cGVHD, the potential associations between: (1) oral mucosal disease and erythematous skin disease, (2) salivary gland dysfunction and lacrimal gland dysfunction, and (3) limited mouth-opening and sclerotic skin cGVHD. Study participants, enrolled in a cGVHD Natural History Protocol (NCT00331968, n = 212), underwent an oral examination evaluating: (1) mucosal cGVHD [NIH Oral Mucosal Score (OMS)], (2) salivary dysfunction (saliva flow and xerostomia), and (3) maximum mouth-opening measurement. Parameters for dysfunction (OMS > 2, saliva flow ≤ 1 mL/5 min, mouth-opening ≤ 35 mm) were analyzed for association with skin cGVHD involvement (erythema and sclerosis, skin symptoms), lacrimal dysfunction (Schirmer's tear test, xerophthalmia), Lee cGVHD Symptom Scores, and NIH organ scores. Oral mucosal disease (31% prevalence) was associated with skin erythema (P < 0.001); salivary dysfunction (11% prevalence) was associated with lacrimal dysfunction (P = 0.010) and xerostomia with xerophthalmia (r = 0.32, P = 0.001); and limited mouth-opening (17% prevalence) was associated with skin sclerosis (P = 0.008) and skin symptoms (P = 0.001). There was no association found among these 3 oral cGVHD manifestations. This analysis supports the understanding of oral cGVHD as 3 distinct diseases: mucosal lesions, salivary gland dysfunction, and mouth sclerosis. Clear classification of oral c

  19. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children may be more likely than adults to be exposed to pesticides following a residential application as a result of hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children less ...

  20. FREQUENCY OF MOUTHING BEHAVIOR IN YOUNG CHILDREN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Young children, as compared to adults, are more likely to be exposed after a pesticide application due to potential hand- and object-to-mouth contacts in contaminated areas. However, relatively few studies have specifically evaluated mouthing behavior in children <60 months of...

  1. [Burning mouth caused by denture material].

    PubMed

    Feilzer, A J

    2009-09-01

    A 60-year-old man with an edentulous maxilla was referred by his dentist to an allergy clinic with complaints of burning mouth and bad taste. In the majority of cases, it is hard or impossible to detect the cause of burning mouth. In this case, ultimately the complaint could be solved by eliminating exposure to possible allergenic components of denture base resins.

  2. Small-Scale Production of High-Density Dry Ice: A Variant Combination of Two Classic Demonstrations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowers, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    Easily recoverable, thumb-sized pieces of high-density dry ice are conveniently produced by deposition of carbon dioxide within a test tube submerged in liquid nitrogen. A carbon dioxide-filled balloon sealed over the mouth of the test tube serves as a gas reservoir, and further permits a dramatic demonstration of both the gas-to-solid phase…

  3. Mouth cancer in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Giagkou, E; Christodoulou, D K; Katsanos, K H

    2016-05-01

    Mouth cancer is a major health problem. Multiple risk factors for developing mouth cancer have been studied and include history of tobacco and alcohol abuse, age over 40, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, human papilloma virus infection (HPV), nutritional deficiencies, chronic irritation, and existence or oral potentially malignant lesions such as leukoplakia and lichen planus. An important risk factor for mouth cancer is chronic immunosuppression and has been extensively reported after solid organ transplantation as well as HIV-infected patients. Diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is not yet considered as a risk factor for oral cancer development. However, a significant number of patients with IBD are receiving immunosuppressants and biological therapies which could represent potential oral oncogenic factors either by direct oncogenic effect or by continuous immunosuppression favoring carcinogenesis, especially in patients with HPV(+) IBD. Education on modifiable risk behaviors in patients with IBD is the cornerstone of prevention of mouth cancer. Oral screening should be performed for all patients with IBD, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or a biologic. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development of prenatal lateralization: evidence from fetal mouth movements.

    PubMed

    Reissland, N; Francis, B; Aydin, E; Mason, J; Exley, K

    2014-05-28

    Human lateralized behaviors relate to the asymmetric development of the brain. Research of the prenatal origins of laterality is equivocal with some studies suggesting that fetuses exhibit lateralized behavior and other not finding such laterality. Given that by around 22weeks of gestation the left cerebral hemisphere compared to the right is significantly larger in both male and female fetuses we expected that the right side of the fetal face would show more movement with increased gestation. This longitudinal study investigated whether fetuses from 24 to 36weeks of gestation showed increasing lateralized behaviors during mouth opening and whether lateralized mouth movements are related to fetal age, gender and maternal self-reported prenatal stress. Following ethical approval, fifteen healthy fetuses (8 girls) of primagravid mothers were scanned four times from 24 to 36-gestation. Two types of mouth opening movements - upper lip raiser and mouth stretch - were coded in 60 scans for 10min. We modeled the proportion of right mouth opening for each fetal scan using a generalized linear mixed model, which takes account of the repeated measures design. There was a significant increase in the proportion of lateralized mouth openings over the period increasing by 11% for each week of gestational age (LRT change in deviance=10.92, 1df; p<0.001). No gender differences were found nor was there any effect of maternally reported stress on fetal lateralized mouth movements. There was also evidence of left lateralization preference in mouth movement, although no evidence of changes in lateralization bias over time. This longitudinal study provides important new insights into the development of lateralized mouth movements from 24 to 36 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Postsurgical Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Voice of Patients With Laryngeal Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jieli; Lv, Kexing; Li, Kaichun; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Yihui; Li, Xiaoling; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Aiyun; Wang, Zhangfeng; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to analyze the postsurgical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and quality of voice (QOV) of patients with laryngeal carcinoma with an expectation of improving the treatment and HRQOL of these patients. Based on the collection of information of patients with laryngeal carcinoma regarding clinical characteristics (age, TNM stage, with or without laryngeal preservation and/or neck dissection, with or without postoperative irradiation and/or chemotherapy, etc.), QOV using Voice Handicap Index (VIH) scale and HRQOL using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTCQLQ-H&N35 scales, the differences of postsurgical HRQOL related to their clinical characteristics were analyzed using univariate nonparametric tests, the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were analyzed using regression analyses (generalized linear models) and the correlation between QOV and HRQOL analyzed using spearman correlation analysis. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study, on whom the use of EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and VHI scales revealed that: the differences of HRQOL were significant among patients with different ages, TNM stages, and treatment modalities; the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth; and QOV was significantly correlated with HRQOL. For the patients with laryngeal carcinoma included in our study, the quality of life after open surgeries were impacted by many factors predominated by pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth. It is suggested that doctors in China do more efforts on the patients' postoperative pain and xerostomia management and speech rehabilitation with the hope of improving the patients' quality of life.

  6. Promising Gene Therapeutics for Salivary Gland Radiotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    More than 0.5 million new cases of head and neck cancer are diagnosed worldwide each year, and approximately 75% of them are treated with radiation alone or in combination with other cancer treatments. A majority of patients treated with radiotherapy develop significant oral off-target effects because of the unavoidable irradiation of normal tissues. Salivary glands that lie within treatment fields are often irreparably damaged and a decline in function manifests as dry mouth or xerostomia. Limited ability of the salivary glands to regenerate lost acinar cells makes radiation-induced loss of function a chronic problem that affects the quality of life of the patients well beyond the completion of radiotherapy. The restoration of saliva production after irradiation has been a daunting challenge, and this review provides an overview of promising gene therapeutics that either improve the gland’s ability to survive radiation insult, or alternately, restore fluid flow after radiation. The salient features and shortcomings of each approach are discussed. PMID:28286865

  7. Prevalence of Dry Eye in Uyghur and Han Ethnic Groups in Western China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Jin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Guang-Hui; Wang, Jun-Liang; Gu, Zhen-Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To describe and compare the prevalence and characteristics of dry eye among Han and Uyghur persons living in Kashi, the most inland city of China. A total of 1015 residents of Kashi participated in this 2013 cross-sectional study. To evaluate clinical characteristics, each subject completed (1) a dry-eye questionnaire detailing symptoms of dry eye, (2) Schirmer's I-test (SIT), (3) tear-film break-up time (BUT) test, and fluorescein staining of the cornea. Dry eye was defined as the existence of dry eye symptoms and at least two positive clinical signs. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The prevalence and risk factors of dry eye were evaluated using a multivariate model. Overall, 282 (27.8%) of the 1015 participants were diagnosed with dry eye (95% confidence interval (CI): range, 25.5-30.1). The prevalence of dry eye among Han persons (37.9 %) (95% CI: range, 35.8-40.0) was higher than that among Uyghurs (21.8%) (95% CI: 19.6-24.0) (p < 0.05). The prevalence of dry eye was 25.6% (95% CI: range, 23.3-27.8) among men and 28.7% (95% CI: 26.5-30.9) among women (p > 0.05). Risk factors for dry eye included ethnicity, age, occupation, arthritis, and dry mouth. Our study revealed a higher prevalence of dry eye among Han than Uyghur persons in Kashi. Dry eye was significantly associated with environment and ethnicity.

  8. Mouth-watering words: Articulatory inductions of eating-like mouth movements increase perceived food palatability.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Boecker, Lea

    2016-04-01

    We explored the impact of consonantal articulation direction of names for foods on expected palatability for these foods (total N = 256). Dishes (Experiments 1-2) and food items (Experiment 3) were labeled with names whose consonants either wandered from the front to the back of the mouth (inward, e.g., PASOKI) or from the back to the front of the mouth (outward; e.g., KASOPI). Because inward (outward) wandering consonant sequences trigger eating-like (expectoration-like) mouth movements, dishes and foods were rated higher in palatability when they bore an inward compared to an outward wandering name. This effect occurred already under silent reading and for hungry and satiated participants alike. As a boundary condition, this articulation effect did occur when also additional visual information on the product was given (Experiment 3), but vanished when this visual information was too vivid and rich in competing palatability cues (Experiment 2). Future marketing can exploit this effect by increasing the appeal of food products by using inward wandering brand names, that is, names that start with the lips and end in the throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3 and vitamin B12 in the treatment of Sjogren's syndrome in a vegetarian with stomatitis, glossodynia, xerostomia, and elevated antinuclear antibodies: Case report
.

    PubMed

    Cuny, Clemens; Vaerst, Barbara; Gabrielpillai, Jennis; Tahtali, Aykut; Balster, Sven; Lissner, Reinhard; Woodcock, Barry G

    2018-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome, involving sicca symptoms with xerostomia, stomatitis, and considerable pain is a difficult-to-treat autoimmune disease where the treatment options are limited and, as in the case of methotrexate, have a low therapeutic index. This case report concerns a male patient, aged 75 years and vegetarian, with Sjogren's syndrome subsequently confirmed by salivary gland biopsy. Serum antinuclear antibodies (ANA) were elevated (1 : 320). Low serum vitamin B12 and iron levels could be improved after 20 days using vitamin B12 and iron oral supplements. Despite symptomatic treatment, xerostomia, glossitis, and glossodynia were still present, at times marked, after 12 months when the ANA titer was unchanged. Following treatment with an anti-inflammatory polyvalent immunoglobulin formulation (Lactobin®N, 7 g daily), a bovine colostrum concentrate given orally in combination with oral vitamin D3 (2,000 IU daily), sicca symptoms and xerostomia progressively decreased and at day 750 were confined to occasional and minor glossitis of the upper lip. This case report demonstrates the satisfactory control of Sjogren's syndrome using oral polyvalent immunoglobulins with vitamin D3. In contrast to treatment options involving antimalarial drugs and methotrexate, there are no safety issues in patients tolerant to milk products.
.

  10. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Tsou, Ming-Chien; Özkaynak, Halûk; Beamer, Paloma; Dang, Winston; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng; Jiang, Chuen-Bin; Chien, Ling-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Young children’s mouthing activities thought to be among the most important exposure pathways. Unfortunately, mouthing activity studies have only been conducted in a few countries. In the current study, we used videotaping and computer-based translating method to obtain mouthing activity data for 66 children aged 7 to 35 months old in Taiwan. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies were 8.91 and 11.39 contacts h−1, respectively. The median indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth hourly contact durations were 0.34 and 0.46 min h−1, respectively. The indoor object-to-mouth activities were significantly and negatively correlated with age. Children aged 12 to <24 months in the current study had lower indoor hand-to-mouth and object-to-mouth frequencies than children of same age group in the United States. We also found that indoor mouthing duration with pacifier was significantly and negatively correlated with indoor mouthing duration with other non-dietary objects. The results of the current study indicate that the mouthing behaviors might be different between different countries or populations with different ethnic or lifestyle characteristics. We conclude that using hand-to-mouth frequency values from the current literature may not be most reliable for estimating non-dietary exposures of young children living in Taiwan or even in other similar Asian countries. PMID:25027450

  11. Novel mouth-exercising device for oral submucous fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Patil, Pravinkumar G; Patil, Smita P

    2012-10-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting in progressive juxtaepithelial fibrosis of the oral soft tissues and can cause increasing difficulty in mastication, swallowing, speaking, and mouth opening. The treatment of severe trismus requires a combination of surgical release and physiotherapy. Often physiotherapy alone can modify tissue remodeling in OSMF to increase oral opening. This article describes the fabrication and use of a new mouth-exercising device that helps the patient to squeeze/stretch the cheek mucosa to increase elasticity. The device can be used as a sole treatment modality or can be used in association with pharmacological and surgical treatment modalities for OSMF. Improvement in mouth opening was observed in four OSMF patients treated with a mouth-exercising device for 6 months as a sole treatment modality. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Analysis of in situ proliferative activity in oral gingival epithelium in patients with xerostomia.

    PubMed

    Celenligil-Nazliel, Haviye; Palali, Ali; Ayhan, Ayşe; Ruacan, Sevket

    2003-02-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease characterized by xerostomia and keratoconjunctivitis sicca. The relationship between xero-stomia and proliferative activity in human gingival epithelium is not known. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Nuclear PCNA immunoreactivity is found in the proliferative compartment of normal tissues. The aims of this study were to evaluate PCNA expression in oral gingival epithelium of healthy and inflamed gingiva obtained from patients with Sjögren's syndrome, and to compare the results to age- and gender-matched subjects with normal salivary function. Eighteen Sjögren's syndrome patients and 28 controls (14 with chronic periodontitis and 14 with no clinical evidence of periodontal disease) were included in the study. Biopsies were obtained from both inflamed and healthy gingiva. The expression of PCNA was evaluated in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded gingival samples using an immunoperoxidase technique and PC10 monoclonal antibody to PCNA. PCNA expression was observed both in the basal and suprabasal layers, and was found to be more prominent in the suprabasal layers. Proliferative index (PI) in inflamed gingiva was significantly lower in the Sjögren's syndrome group. However, no significant difference was observed between the study and control groups with respect to PI in healthy gingiva. In both groups, PI was found to be increased due to inflammation. Our data indicate that proliferative activity is observed in the suprabasal layers and, less frequently, in the basal layer. Inflammation caused increased proliferative activity. However, this positive effect of inflammation on epithelial cell proliferation decreased significantly with a lack of saliva. Therefore, it appears that saliva-derived biological mediators may also contribute to increased proliferative activity observed during inflammation.

  13. Parotid-sparing intensity modulated versus conventional radiotherapy in head and neck cancer (PARSPORT): a phase 3 multicentre randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Nutting, Christopher M; Morden, James P; Harrington, Kevin J; Urbano, Teresa Guerrero; Bhide, Shreerang A; Clark, Catharine; Miles, Elizabeth A; Miah, Aisha B; Newbold, Kate; Tanay, MaryAnne; Adab, Fawzi; Jefferies, Sarah J; Scrase, Christopher; Yap, Beng K; A'Hern, Roger P; Sydenham, Mark A; Emson, Marie; Hall, Emma

    2011-01-01

    that differed significantly between the treatment groups was fatigue, which was more prevalent in the IMRT group (18 [41%; 99% CI 23–61] of 44 patients given conventional radiotherapy vs 35 [74%; 55–89] of 47 given IMRT, p=0·0015). At 24 months, grade 2 or worse xerostomia was significantly less common with IMRT than with conventional radiotherapy (20 [83%; 95% CI 63–95] of 24 patients given conventional radiotherapy vs nine [29%; 14–48] of 31 given IMRT; p<0·0001). At 12 and 24 months, significant benefits were seen in recovery of saliva secretion with IMRT compared with conventional radiotherapy, as were clinically significant improvements in dry-mouth-specific and global quality of life scores. At 24 months, no significant differences were seen between randomised groups in non-xerostomia late toxicities, locoregional control, or overall survival. Interpretation Sparing the parotid glands with IMRT significantly reduces the incidence of xerostomia and leads to recovery of saliva secretion and improvements in associated quality of life, and thus strongly supports a role for IMRT in squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Funding Cancer Research UK (CRUK/03/005). PMID:21236730

  14. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate.

  15. Platelet rich fibrin combined with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft for the treatment of human intrabony periodontal defects: a randomized split mouth clinical trail.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashish; Gupta, Narinder Dev; Jain, Avikal

    2016-01-01

    Polypeptide growth factors of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) have the potential to regenerate periodontal tissues. Osteoinductive property of demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) has been successfully utilized in periodontal regeneration. The aim of the present randomized, split mouth, clinical trial was to determine the additive effects of PRF with a DFDBA in the treatment of human intrabony periodontal defects. Sixty interproximal infrabony defects in 30 healthy, non-smoker patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis were randomly assigned to PRF/DFDBA group or the DFDBA/saline. Clinical [pocket depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and gingival recession (REC)] and radiographic (bone fill, defect resolution and alveolar crest resorption) measurements were made at baseline and at a 12-month evaluation. Compared with baseline, 12-month results indicated that both treatment modalities resulted in significant changes in all clinical and radiographic parameters. However, the PRP/DFDBA group exhibited statistically significantly greater changes compared with the DFDBA/saline group in PD (4.15 ± 0.84 vs 3.60 ± 0.51 mm), CAL (3.73 ± 0.74 vs 2.61 ± 0.68 mm), REC (0.47 ± 0.56 vs 1.00 ± 0.61 mm), bone fill (3.50 ± 0.67 vs 2.49 ± 0.64 mm) and defect resolution (3.73 ± 0.63 vs 2.75 ± 0.57 mm). Observations indicate that a combination of PRF and DFDBA is more effective than DFDBA with saline for the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects.

  16. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior.

    PubMed

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.

  17. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both. PMID:28790950

  18. Hand-foot-mouth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000965.htm Hand-foot-mouth disease To use the sharing features ... Duplication for commercial use must be authorized in writing by ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  19. Surfing for mouth guards: assessing quality of online information.

    PubMed

    Magunacelaya, Macarena B; Glendor, Ulf

    2011-10-01

    The Internet is an easily accessible and commonly used source of health-related information, but evaluations of the quality of this information within the dental trauma field are still lacking. The aims of this study are (i) to present the most current scientific knowledge regarding mouth guards used in sport activities, (ii) to suggest a scoring system to evaluate the quality of information pertaining to mouth guard protection related to World Wide Web sites and (iii) to employ this scoring system when seeking reliable mouth guard-related websites. First, an Internet search using the keywords 'athletic injuries/prevention and control' and 'mouth protector' or 'mouth guards' in English was performed on PubMed, Cochrane, SvedMed+ and Web of Science to identify scientific knowledge about mouth guards. Second, an Internet search using the keywords 'consumer health information Internet', 'Internet information public health' and 'web usage-seeking behaviour' was performed on PubMed and Web of Science to obtain scientific articles seeking to evaluate the quality of health information on the Web. Based on the articles found in the second search, two scoring systems were selected. Then, an Internet search using the keywords 'mouth protector', 'mouth guards' and 'gum shields' in English was performed on the search engines Google, MSN and Yahoo. The websites selected were evaluated for reliability and accuracy. Of the 223 websites retrieved, 39 were designated valid and evaluated. Nine sites scored 22 or higher. The mean total score of the 39 websites was 14.2. Fourteen websites scored higher than the mean total score, and 25 websites scored less. The highest total score, presented by a Public Institution Web site (Health Canada), was 31 from a maximum possible score of 34, and the lowest score was 0. This study shows that there is a high amount of information about mouth guards on the Internet but that the quality of this information varies. It should be the responsibility

  20. Design of spray dried insulin microparticles to bypass deposition in the extrathoracic region and maximize total lung dose.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Rao, Nagaraja; Weers, Jeffry G; Huang, Daniel; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-25

    Inhaled drugs all too often deliver only a fraction of the emitted dose to the target lung site due to deposition in the extrathoracic region (i.e., mouth and throat), which can lead to increased variation in lung exposure, and in some instances increases in local and systemic side effects. For aerosol medications, improved targeting to the lungs may be achieved by tailoring the micromeritic properties of the particles (e.g., size, density, rugosity) to minimize deposition in the mouth-throat and maximize the total lung dose. This study evaluated a co-solvent spray drying approach to modulate particle morphology and dose delivery characteristics of engineered powder formulations of insulin microparticles. The binary co-solvent system studied included water as the primary solvent mixed with an organic co-solvent, e.g., ethanol. Factors such as the relative rate of evaporation of each component of a binary co-solvent mixture, and insulin solubility in each component were considered in selecting feedstock compositions. A water-ethanol co-solvent mixture with a composition range considered suitable for modulating particle shell formation during drying was selected for experimental investigation. An Alberta Idealized Throat model was used to evaluate the in vitro total lung dose of a series of spray dried insulin formulations engineered with different bulk powder properties and delivered with two prototype inhalers that fluidize and disperse powder using different principles. The in vitro total lung dose of insulin microparticles was improved and favored for powders with low bulk density and small primary particle size, with reduction of deposition in the extrathoracic region. The results demonstrated that a total lung dose >95% of the delivered dose can be achieved with engineered particles, indicating a high degree of lung targeting, almost completely bypassing deposition in the mouth-throat. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18-33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to February 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 12 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: anaesthetics (local), antidepressants, benzodiazepines (topical clonazepam), benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), dietary supplements, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. PMID:19450321

  2. Persuasive Aid: Looking the Gift Horse in the Mouth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-14

    9% E-I c I The National War College National Defense University Persuasive AId. Looklng the Gift Horse In the Mouth A paper submitted In...14 SEP 1998 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 14-09-1998 to 14-09-1998 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Persuasive Aid. Looking the Gift Horse in the Mouth...Interest). The adage goes that one should “never look a gift horse In the mouth.” Yet that IS exactly what many aid recipients are doing - questioning

  3. WE-AB-207B-08: Exploring and Refining the QUANTEC Guideline to Reduce Severe Hyposalivation Following IMRT for Head and Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Thor, M; Oh, J; Deasy, J

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of the QUANTEC guideline to prevent xerostomia after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) with respect to follow-up time. In addition, we explored alternative guidelines to further reduce xerostomia. Methods: The QUANTEC guideline suggests a mean dose to the contralateral (Dmeancontra) parotid<20 Gy, or Dmeancontra and Dmean to the ipsilateral parotid (Dmeanipsi)<25 Gy. Stimulated whole mouth saliva flow measurements (WMSFM) were conducted at a median of 11 (3–24) months for 63 patients treated with IMRT for HNC to a median dose of 70 Gy in 2006–2015.more » Severe hyposalivation/xerostomia was defined as WMSFM ≤25% post- relative to pre-RT. Patients were stratified into a <6m (xerostomia: 27% (n=15)), and a 6–24m (xerostomia: 19% (n=10)) follow-up group. Dose-response modeling was performed using logistic regression including Dmeancontra, or Dmeancontra and Dmeanipsi. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) was used to assess discriminative ability, and the agreement between the estimated and observed rate of xerostomia was given by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (Rs), and related p-values. Results: Of the non-xerostomia patients, 65% (<6m) and 56% (6–24m) fulfilled Dmeancontra<20 Gy. The estimated and observed rate of xerostomia agreed at <6m (AUC=0.78; Rs=0.46; p=0.001), and was 28% at Dmeancontra=20 Gy. A smaller number of non-xerostomia patients fulfilled the two-gland guideline (33% (<6m) and 26% (6–24m)), but the AUC was higher than using Dmeancontra only (<6m: AUC=0.90; Rs=0.63; p<0.0001; 6–24m: AUC=0.84; Rs=0.25; p=0.08), and the following amendment of the two-gland guideline was suggested: (0.17*Dmeancontra+0.11*Dmeanipsi-8.13)<-1.60 (<6m), and (0.05*Dmeancontra+0.02*Dmeanipsi-3.10)<-1.60 (6–24m). Conclusion: The QUANTEC guideline is effective to prevent xerostomia <6m post-RT, but its usefulness is

  4. Classification of postural profiles among mouth-breathing children by learning vector quantization.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F; Sousa, F S; Hummel, A D; Falcão, A E J; Yi, L C; Ortolani, C F; Sigulem, D; Pisa, I T

    2011-01-01

    Mouth breathing is a chronic syndrome that may bring about postural changes. Finding characteristic patterns of changes occurring in the complex musculoskeletal system of mouth-breathing children has been a challenge. Learning vector quantization (LVQ) is an artificial neural network model that can be applied for this purpose. The aim of the present study was to apply LVQ to determine the characteristic postural profiles shown by mouth-breathing children, in order to further understand abnormal posture among mouth breathers. Postural training data on 52 children (30 mouth breathers and 22 nose breathers) and postural validation data on 32 children (22 mouth breathers and 10 nose breathers) were used. The performance of LVQ and other classification models was compared in relation to self-organizing maps, back-propagation applied to multilayer perceptrons, Bayesian networks, naive Bayes, J48 decision trees, k, and k-nearest-neighbor classifiers. Classifier accuracy was assessed by means of leave-one-out cross-validation, area under ROC curve (AUC), and inter-rater agreement (Kappa statistics). By using the LVQ model, five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children could be determined. LVQ showed satisfactory results for mouth-breathing and nose-breathing classification: sensitivity and specificity rates of 0.90 and 0.95, respectively, when using the training dataset, and 0.95 and 0.90, respectively, when using the validation dataset. The five postural profiles for mouth-breathing children suggested by LVQ were incorporated into application software for classifying the severity of mouth breathers' abnormal posture.

  5. Association between oral habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Grippaudo, C; Paolantonio, E G; Antonini, G; Saulle, R; La Torre, G; Deli, R

    2016-10-01

    The ratio of bad habits, mouth breathing and malocclusion is an important issue in view of prevention and early treatment of disorders of the craniofacial growth. While bad habits can interfere with the position of the teeth and normal pattern of skeletal growth, on the other hand obstruction of the upper airway, resulting in mouth breathing, changes the pattern of craniofacial growth causing malocclusion. Our crosssectional study, carried out on 3017 children using the ROMA index, was developed to verify if there was a significant correlation between bad habits/mouth breathing and malocclusion. The results showed that an increase in the degree of the index increases the prevalence of bad habits and mouth breathing, meaning that these factors are associated with more severe malocclusions. Moreover, we found a significant association of bad habits with increased overjet and openbite, while no association was found with crossbite. Additionally, we found that mouth breathing is closely related to increased overjet, reduced overjet, anterior or posterior crossbite, openbite and displacement of contact points. Therefore, it is necessary to intervene early on these aetiological factors of malocclusion to prevent its development or worsening and, if already developed, correct it by early orthodontic treatment to promote eugnatic skeletal growth. © Copyright by Società Italiana di Otorinolaringologia e Chirurgia Cervico-Facciale, Rome, Italy.

  6. Split-mouth design in Paediatric Dentistry clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Pozos-Guillén, A; Chavarría-Bolaños, D; Garrocho-Rangel, A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article was to describe the essential concepts of the split-mouth design, its underlying assumptions, advantages, limitations, statistical considerations, and possible applications in Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation. In Paediatric Dentistry clinical investigation, and as part of randomised controlled trials, the split-mouth design is commonly used. The design is characterised by subdividing the child's dentition into halves (right and left), where two different treatment modalities are assigned to one side randomly, in order to allow further outcome evaluation. Each participant acts as their own control by making within- patient rather than between-patient comparisons, thus diminishing inter-subject variability and increasing study accuracy and power. However, the main problem with this design comprises the potential contamination of the treatment effect from one side to the other, or the "carry-across effect"; likewise, this design is not indicated when the oral disease to be treated is not symmetrically distributed (e.g. severity) in the mouth of children. Thus, in spite of its advantages, the split-mouth design can only be applied in a limited number of strictly selected cases. In order to obtain valid and reliable data from split mouth design studies, it is necessary to evaluate the risk of carry-across effect as well as to carefully analise and select adequate inclusion criteria, sample-size calculation and method of statistical analysis.

  7. Chemotherapy and Your Mouth

    MedlinePlus

    ... moist. • Drink a lot of water. • Suck ice chips. • Use sugarless gum or sugar-free hard candy. • ... Stay Away From • Sharp, crunchy foods, like taco chips, that could scrape or cut your mouth. • Foods ...

  8. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  9. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    PubMed Central

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organized signal, and provides a brief description of the linguistic organization of sign languages. Focusing on the subcategory of iconic gestures, the paper shows that signers create iconic gestures with the mouth, an articulator that acts symbiotically with the hands to complement the linguistic description of objects and events. A new distinction between the mimetic replica and the iconic symbol accounts for the nature and distribution of iconic mouth gestures and distinguishes them from mimetic uses of the mouth. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth is a salient feature of human language, regardless of whether the primary linguistic modality is oral or manual. Speakers gesture with their hands, and signers gesture with their mouths. PMID:20445832

  10. Burning mouth syndrome: a discussion of a complex pathology.

    PubMed

    Zur, Eyal

    2012-01-01

    Burning mouth syndrome is a complex pathology for which there is very little information about the etiology and pathogenesis. This lack of knowledge leaves patients with suboptimal treatments. This article discusses the existing scientific evidence about this disease. Since topical oral use of clonazepam have been shown to be effective and safe to treat some patients suffering with burning mouth syndrome, formulations including clonazepam are included with this article. Compounding topical preparations of clonazepam offers opportunities for compounding pharmacists to be more involved in improving the quality of life of burning mouth syndrome patients.

  11. Analysis of novel Sjogren's syndrome autoantibodies in patients with dry eyes.

    PubMed

    Everett, Sandra; Vishwanath, Sahana; Cavero, Vanessa; Shen, Long; Suresh, Lakshmanan; Malyavantham, Kishore; Lincoff-Cohen, Norah; Ambrus, Julian L

    2017-03-07

    Dry eye is a common problem in Ophthalmology and may occur for many reasons including Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Recent studies have identified autoantibodies, anti-salivary gland protein 1 (SP1), anti-carbonic anhydrase 6 (CA6) and anti-parotid secretory protein (PSP), which occur early in the course of SS. The current studies were designed to evaluate how many patients with idiopathic dry eye and no evidence of systemic diseases from a dry eye practice have these autoantibodies. Patients from a dry eye clinic and normal controls were assessed by Schirmer's test for tear flow. Sera were assessed for autoantibodies using ELISA assays. Statistics was performed with Prism 7 software and student's unpaired t test. In this study 60% of the dry eye patients expressed one of these autoantibodies. Only 30% expressed one of the autoantibodies associated with long-standing SS, which are included in the diagnostic criteria for SS, anti-Ro and anti-La. Patients with disease for less than 2 years and mild dry eyes did not express anti-Ro or anti-La, while 25% expressed anti-SP1. Similar observations, with smaller numbers, were made when patients had not only dry eye but also dry mouth. Antibodies to SP1, CA6 and PSP occur in some patients with idiopathic dry eyes. Further studies will be needed to determine how many of these patients go on to develop systemic manifestations of SS. Testing for these autoantibodies may allow early recognition of patients with SS. This will lead to improved management of the patients and the development of new strategies to maintain normal lacrimal and salivary gland function in patients with SS.

  12. Sensing the effects of mouth breathing by using 3-tesla MRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chan-A.; Kang, Chang-Ki

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the effects of mouth breathing and typical nasal breathing on brain function by using blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The study had two parts: the first test was a simple contrast between mouth and nasal breathing, and the second test involved combined breathing modes, e.g., mouth inspiration and nasal expiration. Eleven healthy participants performed the combined breathing task while undergoing 3T fMRI. In the group-level analysis, contrast images acquired by using an individual participantlevel analysis were processed using the one-sample t test. We also conducted a region-of-interest analysis comparing signal intensity changes between the breathing modes; the region was selected using an automated anatomical labeling map. The results demonstrated that the BOLD signal in the hippocampus and brainstem was significantly decreased in mouth breathing relative to nasal breathing. On the other hand, both the precentral and postcentral gyri showed activation that was more significant in mouth breathing compared to nasal breathing. This study suggests that the BOLD activity patterns between mouth and nasal breathing may be induced differently, especially in the hippocampus, which could provide clues to explain the effects on brain cognitive function due to mouth breathing.

  13. Oral toxicity management in head and neck cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and radiation: Xerostomia and trismus (Part 2). Literature review and consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Buglione, Michela; Cavagnini, Roberta; Di Rosario, Federico; Maddalo, Marta; Vassalli, Lucia; Grisanti, Salvatore; Salgarello, Stefano; Orlandi, Ester; Bossi, Paolo; Majorana, Alessandra; Gastaldi, Giorgio; Berruti, Alfredo; Trippa, Fabio; Nicolai, Pietro; Barasch, Andrei; Russi, Elvio G; Raber-Durlacher, Judith; Murphy, Barbara; Magrini, Stefano M

    2016-06-01

    Radiotherapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or surgery is a well-known radical treatment for head and neck cancer patients. Nevertheless acute side effects (such as moist desquamation, skin erythema, loss of taste, mucositis etc.) and in particular late toxicities (osteoradionecrosis, xerostomia, trismus, radiation caries etc.) are often debilitating and underestimated. A multidisciplinary group of head and neck cancer specialists from Italy met in Milan with the aim of reaching a consensus on a clinical definition and management of these toxicities. The Delphi Appropriateness method was used for this consensus and external experts evaluated the conclusions. The paper contains 20 clusters of statements about the clinical definition and management of stomatological issues that reached consensus, and offers a review of the literature about these topics. The review was split into two parts: the first part dealt with dental pathologies and osteo-radionecrosis (10 clusters of statements), whereas this second part deals with trismus and xerostomia (10 clusters of statements). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  14. Antiseptic mouth rinses: an update on comparative effectiveness, risks and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Osso, Diane; Kanani, Nehal

    2013-02-01

    Antiseptic mouth rinses are widely recommended and marketed to improve oral health. This article summarizes current studies on the comparative effectiveness of selected antiseptic mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily exposure, including salivary flow rate, oral cancer and wear of composite restorations. Electronic database searches were conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to identify articles comparing the effectiveness of 4 commercially marketed antiseptic mouth rinses differing in active ingredients (0.12% chlorhexidine gluconate, essential oils (menthol, thymol and eucalyptol) and methyl salicylate, 0.7% cetylpyridinium chloride and 20% aloe vera gel) for controlling plaque and gingivitis. Criteria for inclusion included controlled clinical trials and systematic reviews appearing in English language publications evaluating the comparative effectiveness of the mouth rinses in controlling plaque and gingivitis, as well as risks associated with daily usage. The majority of studies have shown mouth rinses containing chlorhexidine gluconate or essential oils and methyl salicylate provide clinically significant anti-gingivitis and anti-plaque benefits. Cetylpyridinium chloride has been found to provide only limited clinical benefits compared to inactive control mouth rinse. Inadequate evidence is available to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of aloe vera gel. Chlorhexidine, essential oils and cetylpyridinium have been found to be safe. However, limited data are available on the effects of the mouth rinse on wear patterns of dental restorations. Studies reviewed reported no significant difference in salivary flow rate related to alcohol based mouth rinse. Research supports the effectiveness of antiseptic mouth rinses in reducing plaque and gingivitis as an adjunct to home care. Insufficient evidence is available to support the claim that oral antiseptics can reduce the risk of developing periodontitis or the

  15. [Cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate (Saligren capsule 30 mg): a review of its pharmacological profiles and clinical potential in xerostomia].

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Akira

    2002-10-01

    Cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate is a muscarinic receptor agonist with a chemical structure of a quinuclidine. Intraduodenal administration of cevimeline hydrochloride hydrate dose-dependently increased salivary secretion in normal mice and rats, two strains of autoimmune disease mice, and X-irradiated rats. The clinical efficacy of the cevimeline hydrochlide hydrate at 30 mg t.i.d. during 4 weeks has been demonstrated in double blind comparative study with placebo. In addition, its treatments in 52 weeks have increased salivary flow and improved subjective and objective symptoms of patients with xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome.

  16. Survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cheese.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, J H

    1976-09-01

    Persistence of foot-and-mouth disease virus during the manufacture of Cheddar, Mozzarella, Camembert cheese prepared from milk of cows experimentally infected with the virus was studied. Cheese samples were made on a laboratory scale with commercial lactic acid starter cultures and the microbial protease MARZYME as a coagulant. Milk was heated at different temperatures for different intervals before it was made into cheese. Food-and-mouth disease virus survived the acidic conditions of Cheddar and Camembert cheese processing but not that of Mozzarella. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived processing but not curing for 30 days in Cheddar cheese preparaed from heated milk. However, the virus survived curing for 60 days but not for 120 days in cheese (pH 5) prepared from unheated milk. Foot-and-mouth disease virus survived in Camembert cheese (pH 5) for 21 days at 2 C but not for 35 days.

  17. Mouthing of Soil Contaminated Objects is Associated with Environmental Enteropathy in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomohiko; Perin, Jamie; Oldja, Lauren; Biswas, Shwapon; Sack, R Bradley; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Haque, Rashidul; Bhuiyan, Nurul Amin; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Akter, Mahmuda; Talukder, Kaisar A; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Faruque, Abu G; George, Christine Marie

    2017-06-01

    To characterise childhood mouthing behaviours and to investigate the association between object-to-mouth and food-to-mouth contacts, diarrhoea prevalence and environmental enteropathy. A prospective cohort study was conducted of 216 children ≤30 months of age in rural Bangladesh. Mouthing contacts with soil and food and objects with visible soil were assessed by 5-h structured observation. Stool was analysed for four faecal markers of intestinal inflammation: alpha-1-antitrypsin, myeloperoxidase, neopterin and calprotectin. Overall 82% of children were observed mouthing soil, objects with visible soil, or food with visible soil during the structured observation period. Sixty two percent of children were observed mouthing objects with visible soil, 63% were observed mouthing food with visible soil, and 18% were observed mouthing soil only. Children observed mouthing objects with visible soil had significantly elevated faecal calprotectin concentrations (206.81 μg/g, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.27, 407.36). There was also a marginally significant association between Escherichia coli counts in soil from a child's play space and the prevalence rate of diarrhoea (diarrhoea prevalence ratio: 2.03, 95% CI 0.97, 4.25). These findings provide further evidence to support the hypothesis that childhood mouthing behaviour in environments with faecal contamination can lead to environmental enteropathy in susceptible paediatric populations. Furthermore, these findings suggest that young children mouthing objects with soil, which occurred more frequently than soil directly (60% vs. 18%), was an important exposure route to faecal pathogens and a risk factor for environmental enteropathy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Burning mouth syndrome: Evaluation of clinical and laboratory findings.

    PubMed

    Halac, Gulistan; Tekturk, Pinar; Eroglu, Saliha; Cikrikcioglu, Mehmet Ali; Cimendur, Ozlem; Kilic, Elif; Asil, Talip

    2016-07-30

    Burning mouth syndrome is a chronic and persistent painful condition characterized by burning sensation in the oral mucosa. We investigated the etiological factors of patients presented with the history of burning in the mouth who admitted our outpatient clinics over the 8-years period and who had no underlying identifiable local factors. We also tried to determine their demographic and clinical characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the association between burning mouth and psychiatric disorders such as depression and anxiety, chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM) and other laboratory studies in patients complaining of solely burning in the mouth. The study included patients with the history of burning in mouth who presented in our outpatient clinic between 2005 and 2012. They were evaluated by a neurologist, a psychiatrist, an internist, and a dentist. Complete blood counts, biochemical analysis and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed for all patients. A total of 26 (22 (84%) females, 4 (15%) males; mean age 55.9 years) patients were enrolled in this study. Five (19.2%) of the patients had depression, 2 (7.7%) had anxiety disorder, 2 (7.7%) had diabetes mellitus, 8 (30%) had B12 vitamin deficiency, 3 (11.5%) had decreased ferritin levels in blood, and 1 (3.8%) had folic acid deficiency. Cranial MRI of all patients were normal. Nine patients (34.6%) had no etiological causes. A multidisciplinary approach in the management of burning mouth and establishment of common criteria for the diagnosis would provide insight into the underlying pathophysiological mechanism.

  19. Burning mouth syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Burning mouth syndrome mainly affects women, particularly after the menopause, when its prevalence may be 18% to 33%. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of selected treatments for burning mouth syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to January 2015 (BMJ Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview). Results At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 70 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 45 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 25 studies and the further review of 20 full publications. Of the 20 full articles evaluated, one systematic review and nine RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for five PICO combinations. Conclusions In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for six interventions based on information about the effectiveness and safety of alphalipoic acid, benzodiazepines, benzydamine hydrochloride, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and tricyclic antidepressants. PMID:26745781

  20. SciTech Connect

    Chambers, Mark S.; Posner, Marshall; Jones, Christopher Uwe

    Purpose: To study the efficacy and safety of cevimeline in two double-blind trials (Studies 003 and 004) enrolling patients with head and neck cancer in whom xerostomia developed after radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Subjects were randomly assigned to receive cevimeline, 30 mg three times daily, or placebo for 12 weeks, with the possibility of dose escalation to 45 mg three times daily at 6 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the patient's final global evaluation of oral dryness; change in unstimulated salivary flow was a secondary endpoint. Results: Five hundred seventy subjects (284 in Study 003 and 286 in Studymore » 004) were randomized. Significantly more cevimeline-treated subjects than placebo recipients (47.4% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.0162) in Study 003 reported improvement in dry mouth in the final global evaluation of oral dryness. No significant difference between groups in the final global evaluation was seen in Study 004, in which a high placebo response rate of 47.6% was observed. In both studies, cevimeline-treated subjects had significantly greater increases in the objective measure of unstimulated salivary flow than placebo recipients (p 0.0093 [Study 003] and p = 0.0215 [Study 004]), whereas no significant differences in stimulated salivary flow were observed. The most frequent adverse event was increased sweating. Conclusion: Cevimeline was well tolerated by patients with xerostomia after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer, and oral administration of 30-45 mg of cevimeline three times daily increased unstimulated salivary flow.« less

  1. The Unstimulated Salivary Flow Rate in a Jordanian Healthy Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Sawair, Faleh A.; Ryalat, Soukaina; Shayyab, Mohammad; Saku, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    Background Early diagnosis of xerostomia is very important for oral health. The purpose of this study was to determine the unstimulated whole salivary flow rates (UWSFR) in a Jordanian Arab population aged 15 years and older. The effect of age, gender, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol consumption, and dental conditions, on UWSFR was also investigated. Methods The study was conducted on 244 subjects, 110 males and 134 females, with an average age of 33 ± 15.5 years. They were healthy, unmedicated, and with no history of dry mouth. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected during five minutes, and UWSFRs (ml/min) were determined. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate regression analysis. Results The mean UWSFR was 0.46 ± 0.25 ml/min (range: 0.10-1.6 ml/min). Eighteen patients (7.4%) had UWSFR between < 0.20 ml/min. In univariate analysis, UWSFR was significantly affected by age, BMI, number of missing and restored teeth, and DMFT score. Regression analysis revealed that only age and number of missing teeth were of significance in explaining the variability of the UWSFR. Conclusions We established basic standard values of UWSFR to be used in the evaluation of Jordanian patients with complaints of xerostomia and to be compared to data reported in other studies. UWSFR 0.1 ml/min could be considered the cut-off value that distinguishes normal from abnormal salivary function in this healthy unmedicated population. Keywords Whole saliva flow rate; Unstimulated; Jordan PMID:22461872

  2. Modified surgical treatment of intermittent open-mouth mandibular locking in a cat.

    PubMed

    Lobprise, H B; Wiggs, R B

    1992-03-01

    Intermittent open-mouth locking related to disorders of the temporomandibular joint are not uncommon. As a result of joint laxity, the mandible shifts to one side. The coronoid process then becomes locked lateral to the zygomatic arch. These patients present with the mouth opened and an inability to close the mouth. This article describes a case of intermittent open-mouth mandibular locking in a cat and a modified surgical treatment combining zygomatic arch and coronoid process reduction.

  3. Detecting internet search activity for mouth cancer in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Murray, G; O'Rourke, C; Hogan, J; Fenton, J E

    2016-02-01

    Mouth Cancer Awareness Day in Ireland was launched in September 2010 by survivors of the disease to promote public awareness of suspicious signs of oral cancer and to provide free dental examinations. To find out whether its introduction had increased public interest in the disease, we used Google Trends to find out how often users in Ireland had searched for "oral cancer" and "mouth cancer" across all Google domains between January 2005 and December 2013. The number of internet searches for these cancers has increased significantly (p <0.001) and has peaked each September since the awareness day was launched in 2010. More people searched for "mouth cancer" than for "oral cancer". These findings may have valuable clinical implications, as an increase in public awareness of mouth cancer could result in earlier presentation and better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cystic mass of the floor of the mouth

    PubMed Central

    Lucena-Rivero, Elizabeth-Daniela; Brunet-Garcia, Laia; Faubel-Serra, Marta

    2018-01-01

    Background Epidermoid and dermoid cysts in the oral cavity are relatively uncommon lesions of developmental origin. They often remain asymptomatic for years until they grow enough to interfere with speech, deglutition and less often with breathing which can pose a critical risk to the airway and require immediate surgery. Case description A case of an epidermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth affecting a 37-year-old man is presented; this lesion was surgically enucleated with an intraoral approach. Patient did well postoperatively and there was no evidence of recurrence up to 2 years of follow up. Clinical implications Floor of the mouth is a challenging site for the diagnosis of a broad variety of lesions which the surgeon should be aware. Depending on the anatomical relation to the muscles of the floor of the mouth dermoid cysts are classified as supramylohyoid or inframylohyoid, and they will both have different clinical and radiological features. This article also includes literature review about the etiopathological, clinical, radiological and histological features, the differential diagnosis and its treatment. Key words:Epidermoid cyst, dermoid cyst, floor of mouth. PMID:29721231

  5. Grounding Abstractness: Abstract Concepts and the Activation of the Mouth

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, Anna M.; Zarcone, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    One key issue for theories of cognition is how abstract concepts, such as freedom, are represented. According to the WAT (Words As social Tools) proposal, abstract concepts activate both sensorimotor and linguistic/social information, and their acquisition modality involves the linguistic experience more than the acquisition of concrete concepts. We report an experiment in which participants were presented with abstract and concrete definitions followed by concrete and abstract target-words. When the definition and the word matched, participants were required to press a key, either with the hand or with the mouth. Response times and accuracy were recorded. As predicted, we found that abstract definitions and abstract words yielded slower responses and more errors compared to concrete definitions and concrete words. More crucially, there was an interaction between the target-words and the effector used to respond (hand, mouth). While responses with the mouth were overall slower, the advantage of the hand over the mouth responses was more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts. The results are in keeping with grounded and embodied theories of cognition and support the WAT proposal, according to which abstract concepts evoke linguistic-social information, hence activate the mouth. The mechanisms underlying the mouth activation with abstract concepts (re-enactment of acquisition experience, or re-explanation of the word meaning, possibly through inner talk) are discussed. To our knowledge this is the first behavioral study demonstrating with real words that the advantage of the hand over the mouth is more marked with concrete than with abstract concepts, likely because of the activation of linguistic information with abstract concepts. PMID:27777563

  6. Foot-and-mouth disease

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. An outbreak of FMD can have a significant economic impact because of the restrictions on international trade of susceptible animals and their products with FMD-free countries. In this chapter we discuss vario...

  7. Prevalence of malocclusion among mouth breathing children: do expectations meet reality?

    PubMed

    Souki, Bernardo Q; Pimenta, Giovana B; Souki, Marcelo Q; Franco, Leticia P; Becker, Helena M G; Pinto, Jorge A

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to report epidemiological data on the prevalence of malocclusion among a group of children, consecutively admitted at a referral mouth breathing otorhinolaryngological (ENT) center. We assessed the association between the severity of the obstruction by adenoids/tonsils hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis and the prevalence of class II malocclusion, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite. Cross-sectional, descriptive study, carried out at an Outpatient Clinic for Mouth-Breathers. Dental inter-arch relationship and nasal obstructive variables were diagnosed and the appropriate cross-tabulations were done. Four hundred and one patients were included. Mean age was 6 years and 6 months (S.D.: 2 years and 7 months), ranging from 2 to 12 years. All subjects were evaluated by otorhinolaryngologists to confirm mouth breathing. Adenoid/tonsil obstruction was detected in 71.8% of this sample, regardless of the presence of rhinitis. Allergic rhinitis alone was found in 18.7% of the children. Non-obstructive mouth breathing was diagnosed in 9.5% of this sample. Posterior crossbite was detected in almost 30% of the children during primary and mixed dentitions and 48% in permanent dentition. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were highly prevalent. More than 50% of the mouth breathing children carried a normal inter-arch relationship in the sagital, transversal and vertical planes. Univariate analysis showed no significant association between the type of the obstruction (adenoids/tonsils obstructive hyperplasia or the presence of allergic rhinitis) and malocclusions (class II, anterior open bite and posterior crossbite). The prevalence of posterior crossbite is higher in mouth breathing children than in the general population. During mixed and permanent dentitions, anterior open bite and class II malocclusion were more likely to be present in mouth breathers. Although more children showed

  8. The Relationship Between Sociodemographic Characteristics and Clinical Features in Burning Mouth Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Daniela; Celentano, Antonio; Ruoppo, Elvira; Cucciniello, Claudia; Pecoraro, Giuseppe; Aria, Massimo; Mignogna, Michele D

    2015-11-01

    To compare sociodemographic and clinical characteristics in patients with burning mouth syndrome (BMS) and their relationship with pain. Cross-sectional clinical study. University-Hospital. 75 BMS patients were enrolled. The study was conducted between September 2011 and March 2012 at the "Federico II" University of Naples. Demographic characteristics and clinical information including age, sex, educational level, marital status, job status, age at disease onset, oral symptoms, and triggers were collected via questionnaire interviews. To assess pain intensity the visual analogue scale (VAS) was administered. Descriptive statistics were collected, and Pearson Chi-square tests, Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric tests and the Spearman bivariate correlation were performed. The mean age was 61.17 (±11.75, female/male ratio = 3:1). The mean age at disease onset was 56.75 (±12.01). A low educational level (8.57 ± 4.95) and 80% of unemployment were found. Job status and age at disease onset correlated with the VAS scale (P = 0.019 and P = 0.015, respectively). Tongue morphology changes, taste disturbances, and intraoral foreign body sensation have a significant dependence on gender (P = 0.049, 0.001, and 0.045, respectively); intraoral foreign body sensation has a significant dependence on marital status (P = 0.033); taste disturbances have a significant dependence on job status. (P = 0.049); xerostomia has a significant dependence on age (P = 0.039); and tongue color changes and a bitter taste have a significant dependence on educational level (P = 0.040 and 0.022, respectively). Marital status and educational level have a significant dependence on the triggers (P = 0.036 and 0.049, respectively). The prevalence of BMS is higher in women, and in married, unemployed, and less highly educated patients. Burning is the most frequent symptom while stressful life events are the most frequent trigger reported. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Coos, booms, and hoots: The evolution of closed-mouth vocal behavior in birds.

    PubMed

    Riede, Tobias; Eliason, Chad M; Miller, Edward H; Goller, Franz; Clarke, Julia A

    2016-08-01

    Most birds vocalize with an open beak, but vocalization with a closed beak into an inflating cavity occurs in territorial or courtship displays in disparate species throughout birds. Closed-mouth vocalizations generate resonance conditions that favor low-frequency sounds. By contrast, open-mouth vocalizations cover a wider frequency range. Here we describe closed-mouth vocalizations of birds from functional and morphological perspectives and assess the distribution of closed-mouth vocalizations in birds and related outgroups. Ancestral-state optimizations of body size and vocal behavior indicate that closed-mouth vocalizations are unlikely to be ancestral in birds and have evolved independently at least 16 times within Aves, predominantly in large-bodied lineages. Closed-mouth vocalizations are rare in the small-bodied passerines. In light of these results and body size trends in nonavian dinosaurs, we suggest that the capacity for closed-mouth vocalization was present in at least some extinct nonavian dinosaurs. As in birds, this behavior may have been limited to sexually selected vocal displays, and hence would have co-occurred with open-mouthed vocalizations. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Grasp with hand and mouth: a kinematic study on healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gentilucci, M; Benuzzi, F; Gangitano, M; Grimaldi, S

    2001-10-01

    Neurons involved in grasp preparation with hand and mouth were previously recorded in the premotor cortex of monkey. The aim of the present kinematic study was to determine whether a unique planning underlies the act of grasping with hand and mouth in humans as well. In a set of four experiments, healthy subjects reached and grasped with the hand an object of different size while opening the mouth (experiments 1 and 3), or extending the other forearm (experiment 4), or the fingers of the other hand (experiment 5). In a subsequent set of three experiments, subjects grasped an object of different size with the mouth, while opening the fingers of the right hand (experiments 6-8). The initial kinematics of mouth and finger opening, but not of forearm extension, was affected by the size of the grasped object congruently with the size effect on initial grasp kinematics. This effect was due neither to visual presentation of the object, without the successive grasp motor act (experiment 2) nor to synchronism between finger and mouth opening (experiments 3, 7, and 8). In experiment 9 subjects grasped with the right hand an object of different size while pronouncing a syllable printed on the target. Mouth opening and sound production were affected by the grasped object size. The results of the present study are discussed according to the notion that in an action each motor act is prepared before the beginning of the motor sequence. Double grasp preparation can be used for successive motor acts on the same object as, for example, grasping food with the hand and ingesting it after bringing it to the mouth. We speculate that the circuits involved in double grasp preparation might have been the neural substrate where hand motor patterns used as primitive communication signs were transferred to mouth articulation system. This is in accordance with the hypothesis that Broca's area derives phylogenetically from the monkey premotor area where hand movements are controlled.

  11. Management of dental complications in a child with rhabdomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Golnaz; Unkel, John H; Reed, James A

    2012-01-01

    Radiotherapy treatment options can cause adverse dental sequelae, including xerostomia, dental radiation caries, abnormal tooth development, and osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can be used prophylactically or therapeutically to treat or reduce the risk of ORN. The purpose of this paper was to describe a case involving a 5-year-old male with rhabdomyosarcoma of the left temporal fossa and a history of radiation therapy who presented with gross radiation caries and xerostomia. Full-mouth extractions of all primary teeth were performed under general anesthesia, with the patient receiving HBO therapy before and after the surgery. The child was monitored postoperatively, and healing occurred with minimal post-operative complications. Based on his results, it can be concluded that hyperbaric oxygen therapy is an effective supplement to consider when treating children who have undergone radiation therapy and require dental care.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Sjögren syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the mouth. In most people with Sjögren syndrome , dry eyes and dry mouth are the primary features of ... or systemic lupus erythematosus , later develop the dry eyes and dry mouth characteristic of Sjögren syndrome . Other autoimmune disorders can also develop after the ...

  13. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology.

    PubMed

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces.

  14. Implicit Processing of the Eyes and Mouth: Evidence from Human Electrophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Pesciarelli, Francesca; Leo, Irene; Sarlo, Michela

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the time course of implicit processing of distinct facial features and the associate event-related potential (ERP) components. To this end, we used a masked priming paradigm to investigate implicit processing of the eyes and mouth in upright and inverted faces, using a prime duration of 33 ms. Two types of prime-target pairs were used: 1. congruent (e.g., open eyes only in both prime and target or open mouth only in both prime and target); 2. incongruent (e.g., open mouth only in prime and open eyes only in target or open eyes only in prime and open mouth only in target). The identity of the faces changed between prime and target. Participants pressed a button when the target face had the eyes open and another button when the target face had the mouth open. The behavioral results showed faster RTs for the eyes in upright faces than the eyes in inverted faces, the mouth in upright and inverted faces. Moreover they also revealed a congruent priming effect for the mouth in upright faces. The ERP findings showed a face orientation effect across all ERP components studied (P1, N1, N170, P2, N2, P3) starting at about 80 ms, and a congruency/priming effect on late components (P2, N2, P3), starting at about 150 ms. Crucially, the results showed that the orientation effect was driven by the eye region (N170, P2) and that the congruency effect started earlier (P2) for the eyes than for the mouth (N2). These findings mark the time course of the processing of internal facial features and provide further evidence that the eyes are automatically processed and that they are very salient facial features that strongly affect the amplitude, latency, and distribution of neural responses to faces. PMID:26790153

  15. Mouth opening in patients irradiated for head and neck cancer: a prospective repeated measures study.

    PubMed

    Kamstra, J I; Dijkstra, P U; van Leeuwen, M; Roodenburg, J L N; Langendijk, J A

    2015-05-01

    Aims of this prospective cohort study were (1) to analyze the course of mouth opening up to 48months post-radiotherapy (RT), (2) to assess risk factors predicting decrease in mouth opening, and (3) to develop a multivariable prediction model for change in mouth opening in a large sample of patients irradiated for head and neck cancer. Mouth opening was measured prior to RT (baseline) and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 48months post-RT. The primary outcome variable was mouth opening. Potential risk factors were entered into a linear mixed model analysis (manual backward-stepwise elimination) to create a multivariable prediction model. The interaction terms between time and risk factors that were significantly related to mouth opening were explored. The study population consisted of 641 patients: 70.4% male, mean age at baseline 62.3years (sd 12.5). Primary tumors were predominantly located in the oro- and nasopharynx (25.3%) and oral cavity (20.6%). Mean mouth opening at baseline was 38.7mm (sd 10.8). Six months post-RT, mean mouth opening was smallest, 36.7mm (sd 10.0). In the linear mixed model analysis, mouth opening was statistically predicted by the location of the tumor, natural logarithm of time post-RT in months (Ln (months)), gender, baseline mouth opening, and baseline age. All main effects interacted with Ln (months). The mean mouth opening decreased slightly over time. Mouth opening was predicted by tumor location, time, gender, baseline mouth opening, and age. The model can be used to predict mouth opening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A caffeine-maltodextrin mouth rinse counters mental fatigue.

    PubMed

    Van Cutsem, Jeroen; De Pauw, Kevin; Marcora, Samuele; Meeusen, Romain; Roelands, Bart

    2018-04-01

    Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity that has negative implications on many aspects in daily life. Caffeine and carbohydrate ingestion have been shown to be able to reduce these negative effects of mental fatigue. Intake of these substances might however be less desirable in some situations (e.g., restricted caloric intake, Ramadan). Rinsing caffeine or glucose within the mouth has already been shown to improve exercise performance. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effect of frequent caffeine-maltodextrin (CAF-MALT) mouth rinsing on mental fatigue induced by a prolonged cognitive task. Ten males (age 23 ± 2 years, physical activity 7.3 ± 4.3 h/week, low CAF users) performed two trials. Participants first completed a Flanker task (3 min), then performed a 90-min mentally fatiguing task (Stroop task), followed by another Flanker task. Before the start and after each 12.5% of the Stroop task (eight blocks), subjects received a CAF-MALT mouth rinse (MR: 0.3 g/25 ml CAF: 1.6g/25 ml MALT) or placebo (PLAC: 25 ml artificial saliva). Self-reported mental fatigue was lower in MR (p = 0.017) compared to PLAC. Normalized accuracy (accuracy first block = 100%) was higher in the last block of the Stroop in MR (p = 0.032) compared to PLAC. P2 amplitude in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) decreased over time only in PLAC (p = 0.017). Frequent mouth rinsing during a prolonged and demanding cognitive task reduces mental fatigue compared to mouth rinsing with artificial saliva.

  17. Burning Mouth Syndrome: A Review of the Etiopathologic Factors and Management.

    PubMed

    Vellappally, Sajith

    2016-02-01

    Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by pain in the mouth with or with no inflammatory signs and no specific lesions. Synonyms found in literature include glossodynia, oral dysesthesia, glossopyrosis, glossalgia, stomatopyrosis, and stomatodynia. Burning mouth syndrome generally presents as a triad: Mouth pain, alteration in taste, and altered salivation, in the absence of visible mucosal lesions in the mouth. The syndrome generally manifests spontaneously, and the discomfort is typically of a continuous nature but increases in intensity during evening and at night. The etiopathogenesis seems to be complex and in a large number of patients probably involves interactions among local, systemic, and/or psychogenic factors. The differential diagnosis requires the exclusion of oral mucosal lesions or blood test alterations that can produce burning mouth sensation. Management is always based on the etiological agents involved. If burning persists after local or systemic conditions are treated, then treatment is aimed at controlling neuropathic symptoms. Treatment of BMS is still unsatisfactory, and there is no definitive cure. As a result, a multidisciplinary approach is required to bring the condition under better control. The aim of this review was to discuss several aspects of BMS, update current knowledge, and provide guidelines for patient management.

  18. Hydrogen cyanide in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Metsälä, M; Vaittinen, O; Halonen, L

    2014-06-01

    Mouth-exhaled hydrogen cyanide (HCN) concentrations have previously been reported to originate from the oral cavity. However, a direct correlation between the HCN concentration in oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath has not been explicitly shown. In this study, we set up a new methodology to simultaneously measure HCN in the headspace of oral fluid and in mouth-exhaled breath. Our results show that there is a statistically significant correlation between stimulated oral fluid HCN and mouth-exhaled HCN (rs = 0.76, p < 0.001). This confirms that oral fluid is the main contributor to mouth-exhaled HCN. Furthermore, we observe that after the application of an oral disinfectant, both the stimulated oral fluid and mouth-exhaled HCN concentrations decrease. This implies that HCN production in the oral cavity is related to the bacterial and/or enzymatic activity.

  19. Impact of Salivary Gland Dosimetry on Post-IMRT Recovery of Saliva Output and Xerostomia Grade for Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Treated With or Without Contralateral Submandibular Gland Sparing: A Longitudinal Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhonghe; Yan Chao; Zhang Zhiyuan

    Purpose: To observe the recovery of saliva output and effect on xerostomia grade after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with or without contralateral submandibular gland (cSMG) sparing and to assess the impact of salivary gland dosimetry on this recovery among patients with head-and-neck cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and May 2008, 52 patients with head-and-neck cancer received definitive (n = 5 patients) and postoperative (n = 47 patients) IMRT at our institution, with at least one parotid gland spared. Of these patients, 26 patients with a low risk of recurrence in the cSMG region underwent IMRT and had their cSMGsmore » spared (cSMG-sparing group). The remaining 26 high-risk patients had no cSMGs spared (cSMG-unspared group). Xerostomia grades and salivary flow rates were monitored at five time points (before IMRT and at 2, 6, 12, and 18 months after IMRT). Results: Average mean doses and mean volumes receiving 30 Gy (V30) of the cSMGs were lower in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group (mean dose, 20.4 Gy vs. 57.4 Gy; mean V30, 14.7% vs. 99.8%, respectively). Xerostomia grades at 2 and 6 months post-IMRT were also significantly lower among patients in the cSMG-sparing group than in the cSMG-unspared group, but differences were not significant at 12 and 18 months after IMRT. Patients in the cSMG-sparing group had significantly better mean unstimulated salivary flow rates at each time point post- IMRT as well as better mean stimulated salivary flow rates at 2 months post-IMRT. Conclusions: Recovery of saliva output and grade of xerostomia post-IMRT in patients whose cSMGs were spared were much better than in patients whose cSMGs were not spared. The influence of the mean doses to the cSMG and parotid gland on the recovery of saliva output was equivalent to that of the mean V30 to the glands.« less

  20. Oral involvement in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Multidisciplinary care by dentists and rheumatologists.

    PubMed

    López-Pintor, Rosa María; Fernández Castro, Mónica; Hernández, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Primary Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that causes destruction of lacrimal and salivary glands. The most common and earliest symptoms are oral and ocular dryness. Dry mouth makes talking difficult, tasting and chewing properly, impairing quality of life of these patients. The most common oral signs and symptoms are hyposialia with or without xerostomia, tooth decay, fungal infections, traumatic oral lesions, dysphagia, dysgeusia, and inflammation of salivary glands. There are different therapeutic strategies, depending on the severity of each case, and the increase in the amount of saliva, to reduce the number of cavities and oral infections. It is particularly important to establish a close relationship between the dentist and the rheumatologist in order to make an early and correct diagnosis, promoting appropriate dietary and hygiene measures,