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Sample records for xiaolong qin shin

  1. Shin Splints 101: Explaining Shin Splints to Young Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newlin, Dana; Smith, Darla S.

    2011-01-01

    Shin splints are a common but often confusing injury. Sources disagree on both the cause of the injury and the anatomical source of the pain. Some blame shin splints on foot pronation, footstrike pattern, or arch height. Regardless of what causes the condition, it affects many runners, beginning in some at a young age. Young runners often have…

  2. The pathology of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Kues, J M

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to critically evaluate experimental evidence describing the pathology associated with shin splints. Shin splints are defined as medial or posteromedial leg pain which is brought about by walking, running, or related activities and which decreases with rest. The evidence indicates that shin splints may be due to pathology of the posteromedial tibial cortex, the periosteum of the posteromedial tibia, or the crural fascia of the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Research is needed to determine if increased pressure in the deep posterior compartment of the leg or pathology of the muscles, tendons, or interosseous membrane of the leg are associated with shin splints. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1990;12(3):115-121.

  3. Imaging quiz: perplexing shin pain.

    PubMed

    McFarland, E G; Kraus, E H

    1997-04-01

    A 19-year-old minor league baseball pitcher from South America felt pain in his left shin while pitching and presented to the trainer right after the game. He had suffered no injury to the shin, but over a period of 6 weeks, the pain became progressively worse. He had considerable nocturnal discomfort, but no fevers or night sweats. Anti-inflammatories, rest, and ice did not reduce the pain. The patient was otherwise healthy, with no other symptoms or notable history.

  4. Shin splints--a literature review.

    PubMed

    Bates, P

    1985-09-01

    "Shin splints" is not a specific diagnosis. It is merely a descriptive term that describes chronic exertional shin pain in an athlete. The evidence seems clear that shin splint pain has many different causes and this reflects the variation in the anatomy. It would be preferable to describe shin splint pain by location and aetiology, for example, lower medial tibial pain due to periostitis or upper lateral tibial pain due to elevated compartment pressure. This would aid communication between physicians and also direct therapy more accurately.

  5. TianQin mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun; Mei, Jianwei; Shao, Chenggang; Wang, Yan; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Zhou, Ze-Bing; Milyukov, Vadim; Sazhin, Michail

    We introduce the mission concept of TianQin, a spaceborne gravitational waves detector. TianQin will be consisted of three drag-free satellites, forming an equilateral-triangle constellation and orbiting Earth with an altitude of about 105 km. The major scientific goal of TianQin is to detect possible gravitational radiation from Hm Cnc (RX J0806.3+1527), a candidate ultracompact white dwarf binary with a putative orbital period of about 321.5 s. Based on current best models of the binary system, we expect SNR ≥10 after 3 month of observation, given that the noise is dominated by 1 pm Hz-1/2 in position noise and 3×10-15 m s-2 Hz-1/2 in residual acceleration. The progress of preliminary study will be presented in the conference.

  6. Factors Associated with Shin Soreness in Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myburgh, Kathryn H.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    To identify factors which cause shin soreness in athletes, 25 injured exercisers and a control group of 25 uninjured exercisers were studied. Methodology and results are presented and analyzed. Differences in calcium intake between the two groups is cited as a key factor in causing shin soreness. (JL)

  7. Shin splints--a review of terminology.

    PubMed

    Batt, M E

    1995-01-01

    This review is intended to improve the understanding of and rationale for the use of the term shin splints. Currently the term is used widely and variably, with little consensus of definition. Broadly, it denotes the occurrence of exertional lower leg pain; more specifically, it refers to an anatomical site of periostitis. The literature reports a multiplicity of descriptions and definitions of shin splints resultant from the complex etiologies and differing perceptions of these conditions. It is proposed that the term shin splint be recognized as generic, rather than diagnostic, and that specific conditions that currently exist under this term be differentiated. The etiology and interaction of these related conditions are considered, and a classification based on the current literature is given of conditions currently termed shin splints, providing a rationale for their clinical presentations, investigative findings, and interactions.

  8. 17-year-old runner with shin pain.

    PubMed

    Flynt, Lesley; Balon, Helena R

    2014-09-01

    Stress injury is a common cause of exercise-induced anterior shin pain. It is important to distinguish between the various causes of stress injury in a timely manner in order to optimize favorable treatment outcomes. Here, we will discuss a case of medial tibial stress syndrome, or shin splints, as one of the causes of shin pain, as well as how to approach shin pain for a successful diagnosis.

  9. An acoustical study of the qin.

    PubMed

    Waltham, Chris; Lan, Yang; Koster, Evert

    2016-04-01

    The qin (guqin, chi'in) is a seven-string zither of ancient lineage that is prominent in Chinese musical culture. The qin's history is intertwined with philosophy and folklore and its construction is replete with symbolism. The qin was associated with the Imperial aristocracy, and it remains an instrument of high culture. The qin is played with strings horizontal, and the soundbox is made in two halves; the front is usually carved out of paulownia and the back is a flat plate of catalpa. There are two sound holes in the back. It appears that no acoustical study of the qin has been published hitherto. This paper describes vibroacoustic measurements on five examples, the analysis of which reveals the qin's basic sound radiation mechanisms. At low frequencies the qin shows beam bending and torsional modes with some coupling to air in the cavity. At higher frequencies the radiation is dominated by a dense spectrum of mixed cavity and wood modes; the cavity modes are described by a one-dimensional transmission matrix model. PMID:27106307

  10. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  11. The effectiveness of shin guards used by football players.

    PubMed

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world's governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker's foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key PointsShin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries.Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces.

  12. The Effectiveness of Shin Guards Used by Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Yasar; Ramazanoglu, Nusret; Camliguney, Asiye Filiz; Saygi, Evrim Karadag; Cotuk, Hasan Birol

    2014-01-01

    In football, injuries from opponent contact occur commonly in the lower extremities. FIFA the world’s governing body for football requires players to wear shin guards. The aim of this study was to compare the protective effectiveness of polypropylene based shin guards with custom-made carbon fiber ones. Three commercial polypropylene shin guards (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) and two custom-made carbon fiber shin guards were examined. The experimental setup had the following parts: 1) A pendulum attached a load cell at the tip (CAS Corp., Korea) and a fixed prosthetic foot equipped with a cleat to simulate an attacker’s foot. 2) An artificial tibia prepared by condensed foam and reinforced by carbon fibers protected with soft clothing. 3) A multifunctional sensor system (Tekscan Corp., F-Socket System, Turkey) to record the impact on the tibia. In the low impact force trials, only 2.79-9.63 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. When comparing for mean force, peak force and impulse, both carbon fiber shin guards performed better than the commercial ones (Adidas Predator™, Adidas UCL™, and Nike Mercurial™) (p = 0.000). Based on these same parameters, the Nike Mercurial™ provided better protection than the Adidas Predator™ and the Adidas UCL™ (p = 0.000). In the high impact force trials, only 5.16-10.90 % of the load was transmitted to the sensors. For peak force and impulse, the carbon fiber shin guards provided better protection than all the others. Carbon fiber shin guards possess protective qualities superior to those of commercial polypropylene shin guards. Key Points Shin guards decrease the risk of serious injuries. Carbon shin guards provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. Commercially available Polypropylene based shin guards do not provide sufficient protection against high impact forces. PMID:24570615

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in stress fractures and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Yoshimitsu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Tohyama, Harukazu; Ito, Hirokazu; Minami, Akio

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether stress fractures and shin splints could be discriminated with MRI in the early phase. Twenty-two athletes, who had pain in the middle or distal part of their leg during or after sports activity, were evaluated with radiographs and MRI scans. Stress fractures were diagnosed when consecutive radiographs showed local periosteal reaction or a fracture line, and shin splints were diagnosed in all the other cases. In all eight patients with stress fractures, an abnormally wide high signal in the localized bone marrow was the most detectable in the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scan. In 11 patients with shin splints, the coronal fat-suppressed MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial posterior surface of the tibia, and in seven patients with shin splints, the MRI scans showed a linear abnormally high signal along the medial bone marrow. No MRI scans of shin splints showed an abnormally wide high signal in the bone marrow as observed on MRI scans of stress fractures. This study showed that fat-suppressed MRI is useful for discrimination between stress fracture and shin splints before radiographs show a detectable periosteal reaction in the tibia.

  14. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  15. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  16. Shin splints: painful to have and to treat.

    PubMed

    Story, Julie; Cymet, Tyler Childs

    2006-01-01

    When people overuse their legs they develop an uncomfortable awareness of these limbs manifested as a dull burning or aching. The cause is often clear to the person with the problem as a result of the often obvious relationship to overdoing an exercise or activity and the pain. "Shin splints" is the lay term; physicians use the term medial tibial stress syndrome. The pathophysiology that leads to this pain is unclear, although there are a number of competing theories. Differential diagnosis includes stress fractures and compartment syndromes. Bone tumors or lipomas can also cause similar pain to shin splints. Diagnosis can be made by history alone in a majority of cases, but if the diagnosis is unclear, an X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Treatment is still mostly supportive and symptom related. Rest is the most important aspect of treatment. Locally applied cold and anti-inflammatory medication have also been felt to be beneficial.

  17. Shin splints and forefoot contact running: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cibulka, M T; Sinacore, D R; Mueller, M J

    1994-08-01

    Many athletes develop shin splints after athletic activity. The purpose of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with posteromedial tibial pain (shin splints) who habitually ran with a forefoot contact running style. The 20-year-old male patient, who played volleyball and basketball about 7 hours a week, complained of pain in the middle one-third of the posteromedial tibia after an acute but prolonged episode of running. Routine observational analysis and in-shoe pressure analysis of the patient's running style showed that he habitually ran on his toes with an absence of heelstrike (forefoot contact running). After instructing the patient on heel-toe running, he no longer complained of posteromedial tibial bone pain. Several possible reasons are proposed for the reduction of leg pain following cessation of forefoot contact running. This case report proposes forefoot contact running as a possible contributor to posteromedial shin splints and that a change in running style may be the optimal treatment for some patients.

  18. Early Development of Demonstratives in Pre-Qin Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Lin

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation offers a new dynamic account of the evolution of the demonstrative system in pre-Qin Chinese based on a comprehensive linguistic analysis of the phonological, morphological, syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic aspects of demonstratives attested in two corpora of excavated texts, i.e. the oracle-bone inscriptions dated to the late…

  19. Overuse injuries: tendinopathies, stress fractures, compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

    PubMed

    Wilder, Robert P; Sethi, Shikha

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 50% of all sports injuries are secondary to overuse and result from repetitive microtrauma that causes local tissue damage. Injuries are most likely with changes in mode, intensity, or duration of training and can accumulate before symptoms appear. Intrinsic factors contributing to injuries are individual bio-mechanical abnormalities such as malalignments, muscle imbalance, inflexibility, weakness, and instability. Contributing extrinsic (avoidable) factors include poor technique, improper equipment, and improper changes in duration or frequency of activity. Injuries are often related to biomechanical abnormalities removed from the specific injury site, requiring evaluation of the entire kinetic chain. This article discusses common overuse injuries of the lower leg, ankle, and foot: tendinopathies, stress fractures, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and shin splints.

  20. Overuse injuries of the lower extremity: shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes.

    PubMed

    Jones, D C; James, S L

    1987-04-01

    The authors' discussion of overuse injuries of the lower extremity encompasses shin splints, iliotibial band friction syndrome, and exertional compartment syndromes. Etiology, diagnosis, and treatment are considered for each disorder.

  1. Inhalation of Shin-I essential oil enhances lactate clearance in treadmill exercise

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hsuan-Ying; Wang, Ming-Fu; Lin, Jun-Ying; Tsai, Ying-Chieh; Cheng, Fu-Chou

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of Shin-I essential oil inhalation on blood lactate changes in rats subjected to treadmill exercise. Methods : Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into the control or the Shin-I group. Rats were subjected to a treadmill exercise program (15 m/min for 30 min). After exercise, rats were exposed to 200 µL of water or Shin-I essential oil, respectively, using a nebulizer for 180 min during the recovery period. Blood samples were collected every 15 min. Blood glucose and lactate concentrations were determined in a CMA 600 analyzer. Results : The basal glucose and lactate levels were no significantly different between two groups. After exercise, glucose levels were slightly increased to about 110%-120% of the basal level in both groups. Lactate levels of both groups reached to 110%-140% of basal levels during exercise. In the recovery period, lactate levels further increased to 180% of the basal level and were maintained at a plateau in the control group. However, lactate levels gradually decreased to 60%-65% of the basal level in the Shin-I group. Lactate clearance was significantly enhanced after Shin-I essential oil inhalation. Conclusions : Our results provide evidence that Shin-I essential oil inhalation may accelerate recovery after exercise in rats. PMID:25182288

  2. Videodisks Offer a Detailed Portrait of Qin, the First Chinese Emperor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Beverly T.

    1992-01-01

    Project Emperor-I has issued two interactive videodiscs on China's first emperor, Qin Shi Huang Di. The videodiscs contain film footage from the archaeological excavation in China, images of artifacts, interviews with Qin specialists, and the full text of articles about the ancient burial site. Development of the videodiscs for scholars involved…

  3. Cardiovascular Benefits of Acupressure (Jin Shin) Following Stroke

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Kristina L.; Hernández, Theresa D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Acupressure, a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment, uses fingertips, rather than needles, to stimulate acupoints on the skin and has been implicated as a successful treatment for a variety of medical disorders. However, acupressure’s underlying mechanisms remain unclear. One theory is that acupoint stimulation modulates autonomic nervous system activity. Previous studies have suggested that acupressure may positively affect heart rate and blood pressure. The current study investigated the effects of a type of acupressure, Jin Shin, on cardiovascular function in stroke survivors, a population that could especially benefit from a treatment promoting cardiovascular health. The study tested the hypothesis that active acupressure treatments would reduce heart rate and blood pressure (i.e., induce a greater relaxation response) above and beyond that seen during placebo acupressure treatments. Methods A randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind crossover design was utilised, in which 16 participants received 8 weeks of either active or placebo acupressure followed by washout and crossover into the opposite treatment condition. Heart rate and blood pressure measurements were taken throughout treatments. Results Active acupressure treatments were associated with a significantly greater (p = .043, partial η2 =.30) and faster (p = .002, partial η2 = .76) reduction in heart rate compared to that seen during placebo treatments. No treatment effect on blood pressure was found. Conclusions Active acupressure reduced heart rate significantly more than did placebo acupressure during treatments. Although no treatment effect on blood pressure was found, this could be due to 67% of participants taking antihypertensive medications during the study. PMID:20178877

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a leg orthosis versus traditional treatment for soldiers with shin splints: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Ember; Flynn, Timothy; Bean, Michael; Breton, Matthew; Scherer, Matthew; Dreitzler, Gail; Thomas, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    Diagnosis and management strategies for shin splints in active duty military populations closely resemble those in civilian athletic populations. There is a paucity of evidence supporting the use of many of these interventions. The purpose of this study was to present data on the Shin Saver orthosis as a treatment for shin splints in an active duty military population and to review current condition management. Twenty-five subjects diagnosed with shin splints by a U.S. Army physical therapist were randomly assigned to a shin orthosis treatment group or a control group. There was no significant difference between treatment and control groups in days to finish a 0.5-mile run pain free. Visual analog scales for pain at intake versus after 1 week of relative rest revealed no significant improvement in symptoms in either group. Current best-practice guidelines support a treatment program of rest, cryotherapy, and a graduated walk-to-run program.

  5. Notes on breeding sharp-shinned hawks and Cooper’s hawks in Barnwell County, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Vukovich, Mark; Kilgo, John, C.

    2009-07-01

    Abstract - Breeding records of Accipiter striatus (Sharp-shinned Hawks) in the southeastern US are scattered and isolated. We documented a Sharp-shinned Hawk and Accipiter cooperii (Cooper’s Hawk) nest while conducting a telemetry study on Melanerpes erythrocephalus (Red-headed Woodpeckers) in Barnwell County, SC in 2006 and 2007. We report the first known nest of a Sharp-shinned Hawk in Barnwell County, SC and the first report of Sharp-shinned Hawks preying upon Red-headed Woodpeckers. Thirteen of 93 (13.9 %) woodpeckers were killed by accipiters in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Large, contiguous forests managed for Picoides borealis (Red-cockaded Woodpeckers) may be used by breeding Sharp-shinned Hawks. The bright plumage, loud calls, and behavior of Red-headed Woodpeckers, particularly during the nestling stage, may make them conspicuous prey for accipiters.

  6. [Characteristics of Qin Bowei's teaching material of gynecology].

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiao; Zhu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    As the teaching work of gynecology, Qin Bowei's Teaching Material of Gynecology was used in the China Medical College in Shanghai in the Republican period. It is composed of 2 parts, the first part deals with the introduction to the characteristics of female physiology, pathology, principles of treatment based on differential diagnosis and treatment of women's disorders; the 2(nd) part discusses in details the pathogenesis, pathological mechanism, the system of theory-methodology-recipes-medicines. The whole book deals mainly with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) combined with the research results of TCM gynecology by western medical theory of gynecology to make mutual interpretation in a concise structure and clear analysis with uniqueness. It is a rather systematic and essential TCM gynecological teaching material, embodying the author's personal academic idea, with profound influence on the education and compilation of teaching materials of TCM gynecology.

  7. Interstitial pressure measurements in the anterior and posterior compartments in athletes with shin splints.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosia, R D; Zelis, R F; Chuinard, R G; Wilmore, J

    1977-01-01

    We found no basis for increased intercompartmental pressure in either the anterior or posterior compartments as the cause of shin splints. The pain in all 14 of the patients studied was localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibial muscle, and evidence of periostitis in this area was seen in two of our patients, suggesting the possible tearing away of the posterior tibial muscle from its origin. Shin splints is a lay term which has assumed medical diagnostic significance and should be removed from common usage by more accurately localizing the focus of pain.

  8. Erythema ab igne of shins: a kerosene stove-induced prototype in diabetics.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Y; Sabag, T; Zlotogorski, A; Heyman, S N

    2013-01-01

    A patient with erythema ab igne of shins is presented, caused by repeated thermal injury induced by a heating stove placed between the knees. This injury pattern has been repeatedly identified in diabetic patients involved in similar heating practice, underscoring a possible predisposition related to diabetic neuropathy.

  9. The Johnson antishear device and standard shin pad in the isokinetic assessment of the knee.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C K; Chan, K M; Hsu, S Y; Chien, P; Wong, M W; Yuan, Y

    1993-01-01

    Isokinetic training and assessment of the knee joint has been the mainstay of rehabilitation, especially in patients with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. Besides the original shin pad used, the antishear device was introduced by Johnson in 1982. This device has been shown biomechanically to prevent excessive anterior translation of force on the tibia during training. However, there is a need to compare the antishear device and the standard shin pad in the isokinetic assessment. Hence, the major objective of this study is to define, if any, the difference in patient assessment between the new double pad device and the old single shin pad. Ten subjects with no previous history of injury on either knee were tested with the Cybex Isokinetic Dynamometer. There were four men and six women and the mean age was 25.2 years. They were randomized into different test sequences with different shin pads at different speeds. Correlation and paired t tests (P) were performed to find out the correlation and difference between the two devices. There was significant difference in performance assessment between the two devices in knee extension (P < 0.05) but no significant difference in knee flexion (P > 0.05). There was also a high correlation (r > 0.75) between the two devices. It is concluded that because of the significant difference of data generated between the two devices, it is important to select one single device with each patient during a series of testings. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8457814

  10. The specific scintigraphic pattern of "shin splints in the lower leg": concise communication.

    PubMed

    Holder, L E; Michael, R H

    1984-08-01

    The clinical entity, "shin splints," is now being recognized, and more specifically characterized by the findings of exercise-induced pain and tenderness to palpation along the posterior medial border of the tibia. In this prospective study, ten patients with this syndrome were evaluated using three-phase bone scintigrams, and a specific scintigraphic pattern was determined. Radionuclide angiograms and blood-pool images were all normal. On delayed images, tibial lesions involved the posterior cortex, were longitudinally oriented, were long, involving one third of the length of the bone, and often showed varying tracer uptake along that length. Obtaining both lateral and medial views was crucial. The location of activity suggested that this entity is related to the soleus muscle. These scintigraphic findings can be used to differentiate shin splints from stress fractures or other conditions causing pain in the lower leg in athletes.

  11. Analysis on Imai-Shin's LR-AKE Protocol for Wireless Network Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjie; Luo, Wei; Shen, Changxiang

    In 2005 Imai and Shin proposed a leakage-resilient authenticated key exchange protocol(LR-AKE) for wireless network security. For simplicity, the protocol is based on password authentication plus additional secrets to fit wireless environment (e.g., computation constraint). In this paper we show that Imai-Shin’s scheme is vulnerable to both client and server impersonation attacks and needs to be improved to provide strong security for wireless network.

  12. Turn over split fascial flap - a refinement for resurfacing shin defect

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Visweswar; Agrawal, Neeraj K; Chaudhuri, Gaurab R; Barooah, Partha S; SK, Tripathi; Birendra, Rana; Bhattacharya, Siddhartha; Deka, Dhruva J

    2012-01-01

    Moderate size defects of the shin of tibia are frequently encountered following trauma and infection. They may be associated with or without a fracture. Such defects require resurfacing by a flap. Many different types of flaps have been described but most of them proved to be more bulky than desired. Although these procedures cover the defects successfully the results they produce are not aesthetically appropriate. The flap looks bulkier because the native subcutaneous tissue is thin over the shin and distal leg. Hence a search for a vascularized tissue of minimal bulk for suitable resurfacing was initiated. A turnover fascial flap fulfilled the requirement. Such a flap can be made thinner by splitting its distal part into two layers while maintaining a common vascular fascial pedicle with both the layers of the fascia. This allowed a larger surface area to be covered. Such refinement is based on the following parameters (a) fresh cadaveric dissection, (b) demonstration of live microcirculation individually in the superficial and deep layers of the deep fascia and (c) intraoperative flourescein study of the split fascial flap. The technique has been used in 5 cases over the upper and middle third of the shin of tibia. The split fascial flap was turned over and inset in the defect and covered with a split skin graft. The donor site was primarily closed. The functional and aesthetic results were highly satisfactory. The follow up of 18 months proved the durability and usefulness of the flap. PMID:23071906

  13. Flaviata longa, a new species in Flaviata Lu & Qin and new synonymies in Empoasca (Matsumurasca) Anufriev (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Empoascini).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ye; Lu, Si-Han; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2015-10-02

    A new species of genus Flaviata Lu & Qin, Flaviata longa sp. nov. is described from Yunnan (southwest China). An identification key for males of all known species in this genus is provided. Photographs and illustrations of adults and male genitalia of the new species are also given. New synonymies for two species in the leafhopper subgenus Empoasca (Matsumurasca) Anufriev of Empoascini are proposed: E. (M.) southerni Zhang, 2014 = E. (M.) clypealata Qin & Zhang, 2011; E. (M.) qini Zhang, 2014 = E. (M.) quadrialata Qin & Zhang, 2011.

  14. Monitoring organochlorines in blood of sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) migrating through the Great Lakes

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, J.E.; Shutt, L. )

    1993-02-01

    Blood samples from sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) were collected from 1985 to 1989 during the fall migration at Hawk Cliff, Ontario, and during the spring migration at Whitefish Point, Michigan, and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. The study was designed to investigate the potential of using blood samples from birds of prey trapped by banders as a means of estimating the organochlorine exposure of migrant birds on their breeding and wintering grounds. Mean plasma levels averaged over the entire sample were highest for p, p[prime]-DDE, followed by total polychlorinated biphenyls. Mean levels of DDE, mirex, oxychlordane, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, and PCBs increased significantly in hatch-year birds from their first southward migration to their return flight the following spring as second-year birds. Thereafter, mean residue levels of the more persistent chemicals, including DDE, oxychlordane, and PCBs, did not change significantly between seasons in adult age classes. In contrast, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which have a shorter half-time in the body, increased significantly in the blood of all age classes after each winter and decreased significantly after each breeding season. The results were interpreted in terms of the clearance rates of the compounds as well as the diet of the birds on the breeding grounds. The sharp-shinned hawk is a useful indicator species for contaminant-monitoring programs involving birds of prey.

  15. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties.

  16. [The professionalized transformation of medical witchcraft in the Qin-Han Dynasties].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Changhua

    2014-03-01

    By witchcraft, it refers to the activities of imagining and intending to affect or control the object through"supernatural power". Ancient witchcraft was applied extensively in which those applied for medical purpose included sorcery, praying, superstitious art of anti-disaster, and tabooing, were collectively called"medical witchcraft". During the Qin-Han periods, witchcraft was transformed by the theory of Yin-Yang and Five-Phases as a part of technical profession. Among them, the system of demon-ghost witchcraft was replaced by the necromantic ghost system; exorcism and taboo system were infiltrated with the conception of the art of mathematics and technical system; whereas the superstitious art of anti-disaster was replaced by incantation. The remnants of medical witchcraft not yet totally transformed were also applied by the technical professionals of the Qin-Han Dynasties. PMID:24989803

  17. Does Gracilis Tendon Harvest During ACL Reconstruction with a Hamstring Autograft Affect Torque of Muscles Responsible for Shin Rotation?

    PubMed Central

    Królikowska, Aleksandra; Czamara, Andrzej; Kentel, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence indicates that in patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with a combined semitendinosus and gracilis (STGR) graft there are large deficits in the internal rotation strength, which has led some authors to recommend harvest of only ST tendon whenever possible. The purpose of this study was to assess the isometric (IT) and peak torque (PT) of the muscles responsible for shin rotation in patients after ACLR with an ST or with an STGR graft. Material/Methods Twenty patients with an ST graft and 20 patients with a combined STGR graft underwent a 6-month postoperative rehabilitation program after ACLR. At the end of the rehabilitation program, the IT and PT of the muscles responsible for internal (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the shin were measured. The results were compared to the results of a control group. Additionally, to determine the reliability of the dynamometer for clinical research, a test-retest assessment was performed. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the 3 groups of participants. Nevertheless, in the STGR group there was a statistically significant difference between the IT of muscles internally rotating the shin in the involved knee and uninvolved knee at 25° of the internal shin rotation. Conclusions Comparison of IT and PT measurements performed after 24 weeks of postoperative rehabilitation generally showed no differences between patients after ACLR with the use of ST graft and patients who received a combination graft consisting of STGR. Nevertheless, there was an influence of GR harvest on internal shin rotation torque at a deep internal rotation angle. PMID:26190033

  18. The soleus syndrome. A cause of medial tibial stress (shin splints).

    PubMed

    Michael, R H; Holder, L E

    1985-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scans have demonstrated linear uptake along the posterior medial border of the tibia in patients with shin splints. This area was investigated by anatomical dissection (14 human cadavers), electromyographic (EMG) and muscle stimulation studies (10 patients), and open biopsy (1 patient). Histologically, the increased metabolic activity manifested on the radionuclide scan is due to a periostitis with new bone formation. The soleus muscle and its investing fascia are anatomically and biomechanically implicated in the production of these stress changes, particularly when the heel is in the pronated position. The soleus muscle and fascia form a tough "soleus bridge" over the deep compartment which is thought to be important in patients requiring surgical decompression.

  19. [Customs, habits and medical culture in the Qin-Han Periods].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourishes the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. it is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615220

  20. Spindle-E cycling between nuage and cytoplasm is controlled by Qin and PIWI proteins

    PubMed Central

    Andress, Arlise; Bei, Yanxia; Fonslow, Bryan R.; Giri, Ritika; Wu, Yilong; Yates, John R.

    2016-01-01

    Transposable elements (TEs) are silenced in germ cells by a mechanism in which PIWI proteins generate and use PIWI-interacting ribonucleic acid (piRNA) to repress expression of TE genes. piRNA biogenesis occurs by an amplification cycle in microscopic organelles called nuage granules, which are localized to the outer face of the nuclear envelope. One cofactor required for amplification is the helicase Spindle-E (Spn-E). We found that the Spn-E protein physically associates with the Tudor domain protein Qin and the PIWI proteins Aubergine (Aub) and Argonaute3 (Ago3). Spn-E and Qin proteins are mutually dependent for their exit from nuage granules, whereas Spn-E and both Aub and Ago3 are mutually dependent for their entry or retention in nuage. The result is a dynamic cycling of Spn-E and its associated factors in and out of nuage granules. This implies that nuage granules can be considered to be hubs for active, mobile, and transient complexes. We suggest that this is in some way coupled with the execution of the piRNA amplification cycle. PMID:27091448

  1. LOWER EXTREMITY KINEMATICS IN RUNNING ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT A HISTORY OF MEDIAL SHIN PAIN

    PubMed Central

    Reiman, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Medial shin pain (MSP) is a common complaint that may stop an athlete from running. No previous study has identified deficits in pelvic, hip or knee motion as potential contributing factors to MSP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in kinematics during running between uninjured athletes and those with MSP. Secondary analyses investigated differences in limbs between groups and differences between sexes. Methods: This case-control study investigated fourteen runners aged 18–40 years old with a history of unilateral MSP and fourteen runner controls. Three dimensional lower quarter kinematics were captured as runners ran on a treadmill. Specifically, peak hip internal rotation (IR), frontal plane pelvic tilt (PT) excursion, and knee flexion were examined. Results: Groups were similar in age, mass, height, and training mileage. Subjects with a history of MSP demonstrated significantly greater frontal plane PT (P = 0.002, Effect size = 0.55) and peak hip IR (P = 0.004, Effect size = 0.51); and less knee flexion (P = 0.02, Effect size = 0.46) than the control group. No significant difference was found in kinematics of the MSP group during their involved side stance phase as compared to their non-involved side. Conclusions: Runners with MSP displayed greater PT excursion, peak hip IR, and decreased knee flexion while running as compared to a control group. These results should help guide treatment for the running athlete that experiences MSP. Level of Evidence: 3b PMID:22893855

  2. Lauriana Ren & Qin, a new genus of the tribe Tropidocephalini (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Delphacidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Ren, Feng-Juan; Zheng, Li-Fang; Huang, Yi-Xin; Qin, Dao-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    A new delphacid genus and species, Lauriana senticosa Ren & Qin, gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae: Tropidocephalini) is described from Sichuan, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia of the new species are given, and the differences between the new genus and its closely related genera are discussed.

  3. Two new species of Membranacea Qin & Zhang from China (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae, Empoascini)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaofei; Yang, Maofa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of the empoascine leafhopper genus Membranacea Qin & Zhang are reported from China: Membranacea hubeiensis Yu & Yang, sp. n. and Membranacea stenoprocessa Yu & Yang, sp. n.. A key to distinguish all species of the genus is provided. PMID:23653506

  4. Surgical treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splint) by fasciotomy of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg.

    PubMed

    Holen, K J; Engebretsen, L; Grøntvedt, T; Rossvoll, I; Hammer, S; Stoltz, V

    1995-02-01

    From September 1988 to June 1990, 35 athletes were treated for medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splint) by fasciotomy of the superficial posterior compartment of the leg. Thirty-two patients were available for the follow-up, including self-assessment, clinical examination and activity scoring. The mean postoperative observation time was 16 months. Thirteen patients were performing sports at top international or top national level; 19 patients were competing at different lower levels. Twenty-three patients improved, 7 were unchanged and 2 had poor results.

  5. [Present situation of rice fertilization in qin-ba mountainous area of Southern Shaanxi, China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Fen; Tong, Yan-An; Zhao, Zuo-Ping

    2013-11-01

    In order to understand the present situation of rice fertilization and the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input in the Qin-Ba mountainous area of southern Shaanxi, the survey data from 2854 households in 11 counties of this area in the project "soil testing and formulated fertilization in 2006-2009" were analyzed and evaluated, and the countermeasures for the existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were proposed. In the study area, the average rice yield was 7822 kg x hm(-2) per year, and the ratio of the households obtained the medium level yield was up to 50.9%. The input of the total fertilizers N, P2O5, K2O was 169, 68, and 54 kg x hm(-2), and the chemical fertilizer rate was 159, 62, and 45 kg x hm(-2), with the partial factor productivity (PFP) of the N, P2O5, and K2O being 51.52, 135.69, and 158.26 kg x kg(-1), respectively. According to the nutrient fertilization level, the proportion of the households fertilized with rational level of chemical N, P2O5, and K2O occupied 48.0%, 42.4%, and 7.2%, that of the households fertilized with excessive level was 22.6%, 11.2%, and 0.6%, and the proportion of the households fertilized with insufficient level occupied 29.4%, 46.5%, and 92.2%, respectively. The rice yield in the Qin-Ba mountainous area could be increased by 77 thousand tons if the households fertilizing with insufficient level of chemical NPK fertilizers increased the fertilization rate to a rational level. The existing problems in the farmers' nutrient resources input were mainly the coexistence of excessive and insufficient application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers and the insufficient input of potassium fertilizer and organic manure. In the rice fertilization in this area, the focus would be the balanced application of nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers, the increase of the fertilization rates of potassium fertilizer and organic manure, and the increase of top dressing, especially potassium.

  6. QIN. Promise and pitfalls of quantitative imaging in oncology clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Kurland, Brenda F.; Gerstner, Elizabeth R.; Mountz, James M.; Schwartz, Lawrence H.; Ryan, Christopher W.; Graham, Michael M.; Buatti, John M.; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eikman, Edward A.; Kumar, Virendra; Forster, Kenneth M.; Wahl, Richard L.; Lieberman, Frank S.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative imaging using CT, MRI, and PET modalities will play an increasingly important role in the design of oncology trials addressing molecularly targeted, personalized therapies. The advent of molecularly targeted therapies, exemplified by antiangiogenic drugs, creates new complexities in the assessment of response. The Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) addresses the need for imaging modalities which can accurately and reproducibly measure not just change in tumor size, but changes in relevant metabolic parameters, modulation of relevant signaling pathways, drug delivery to tumor, and differentiation of apoptotic cell death from other changes in tumor volume. This article provides an overview of the applications of quantitative imaging to phase 0 through phase 3 oncology trials. We describe the use of a range of quantitative imaging modalities in specific tumor types including malignant gliomas, lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, prostate cancer, and sarcoma. In the concluding section, we discuss potential constraints on clinical trials using quantitative imaging, including complexity of trial conduct, impact on subject recruitment, incremental costs, and institutional barriers. Strategies for overcoming these constraints are presented. PMID:22898682

  7. Effects of Holocene climate change on the historical demography of migrating sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus velox) in North America.

    PubMed

    Hull, Joshua M; Girman, Derek J

    2005-01-01

    DNA sequences of the mitochondrial control region were analysed from 298 individual sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus velox) sampled at 12 different migration study sites across North America. The control region proved to be an appropriate genetic marker for identification of continental-scale population genetic structure and for determining the historical demography of population units. These data suggest that sharp-shinned hawks sampled at migration sites in North America are divided into distinct eastern and western groups. The eastern group appears to have recently expanded in response to the retreat of glacial ice at the end of the last glacial maximum. The western group appears to have been strongly effected by the Holocene Hypsithermal dry period, with molecular evidence indicating the most recent expansion following this mid-Holocene climatic event 7000-5000 years before present.

  8. Selective inhibition by magnosalin and magnoshinin, compounds from 'shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), of adjuvant-induced angiogenesis and granuloma formation in the mouse pouch.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Kobayashi, S; Luo, B; Kimura, I

    1990-01-01

    Inhibitory effects of magnosalin and magnoshinin, compounds from the crude drug 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), on angiogenesis and pouch granuloma formation induced by an adjuvant containing croton oil were investigated. Magnosalin inhibited angiogenesis 2.4-fold (intra-pouch) and 9.7-fold (intraperitoneal) more strongly than granuloma formation. The inhibition of angiogenesis by magnosalin was 5-fold (intra-pouch) and 21-fold (intraperitoneal) weaker than that by hydrocortisone. In contrast, intraperitoneal magnoshinin inhibited granuloma formation 2.5-fold more strongly than angiogenesis. The regression coefficients of anti-angiogenesis vs. the inhibition of granuloma formation were 1.79 for magnosalin, 1.11 for hydrocortisone, and 0.61 for magnoshinin. These results show that the anti-chronic inflammatory effect of 'Shin-i' was caused by selective inhibition of angiogenesis by magnosalin and of granuloma formation by magnoshinin.

  9. "Shin splint" syndrome and tibial stress fracture in the same patient diagnosed by means of (99m)Tc-HMDP SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Justo Serrano; Grande, Maria Luz Domínguez; Torre, Jose Rafael Infante; Madrid, Juan Ignacio Rayo; Barquero, Carmen Durán; Bernardo, Lucía García; Sánchez, Román Sánchez

    2013-04-01

    We show a patient who presented leg pain triggered by intense exercise. The most likely diagnosis was a possible tibial stress fracture or a "shin splint" syndrome (soleus enthesopathy). We performed a bone scintigraphy including SPECT/CT that revealed the presence of the two concomitant pathologies. SPECT/CT identified the hot spot superimposed with bone lesion in the tibial stress fracture and only remodeling activity without evidence of cortical lesions in the enthesopathy processes.

  10. Anti-apoptotic effect of San Huang Shel Shin Tang cyclodextrin complex (SHSSTc) on CCl4 -induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Hsun; Ting, Wei-Jen; Shen, Chia-Yao; Hsu, Hsi-Hsien; Lin, Yueh-Min; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Tsai, Yuhsin; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-06-01

    The metabolic loading is heavier in liver especially when injured or inflammation. San Huang Shel Shin Tang (SHSST) was an old traditional herbal decoction, which composed with Rheum officinale Baill, Scutellaria baicalnsis Geprgi and Coptis chinensis Franch (1:1:2 in weight), can provide a liver protection effects. We used a beta-cyclodextrin (β-CD) drug modification method in reduce of the necessary dose of the SHSST. As the results, the FAS-FADD expressions leaded apoptosis in CCl4 intraperitoneal (IP) injection induced acute liver injury in rats. Silymarin, baicalein, SHSST, and SHSST β-CD complex (SHSSTc) pretreatments protected liver through the decreasing of the expressions of FAS-FADD and downstream caspase-3 and caspase-8. Particularly, SHSSTc (30 mg/kg day) treatment enhanced cell survival pathway activation through the PI3K, Akt and Bad phosphorylation. Compared with SHSST as well as silymarin and baicalein, SHSSTc provided a magnificent liver protection effect, especially in survival pathway activation/TUNEL-apoptotic cell reduction/serum cholesterol level suppression. All these data suggested that β-CD complex modified the SHSST and promoted the bioavailability and liver protection effects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 663-670, 2016.

  11. [The origin and development of special methods of "expiration and inspiration" (Tuna) in pre-Qin and Han dynasties].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-mei; Li, De-xing

    2009-07-01

    Tuna (special methods of expiration and inspiration) was generated in the working life and health activities of the early stage of the human race in ancient times. It developed in the period of the Qin, Han and three kingdoms, developing the theory of bionic expiration and inspiration as well as the breath of the upper pubic region (Dantian); the skill of the Qi conduction school emerged so that the skills of embryonic breath and the upper pubic region breath came into being. The skill of meditation of the Chan sect of the Western Regions was also introduced into the central plains at this time. The skill of counting breath had a profound impact on the skill of embryonic breath of the Taoism elixir school.

  12. Inhibitory effects of anti-rheumatic drugs containing magnosalin, a compound from 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae), on the proliferation of synovial cells in rheumatoid arthritis models.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, S; Kobayashi, H; Matsuno, H; Kimura, I; Kimura, M

    1998-05-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effects of magnosalin, a compound isolated from 'Shin-i' (Flos magnoliae) on proliferation of synovial cells isolated from MRL/1pr and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Magnosalin (2.39-23.9 microM) inhibited 5% fetal bovine serum (FBS)-stimulated [3H]-thymidine incorporation into the synovial cells in the MRL/1pr mice. The effect of magnosalin was greater than that of hydrocortisone, bucillamine and magnoshinin (another compound from 'Shin-i'), but weaker than that of corticosterone. The effects of magnosalin for FBS-induced thymidine incorporation into the cells of the CIA mice and the RA patients were significantly greater than those in the corresponding control mice and osteoarthritis patients. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha increased the incorporation of thymidine into the synovial cells in the C57BL/6J mice to a greater degree than did basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or platelet-derived growth factor BB-homodimer (PDGF-BB). The inhibitory effect of magnosalin on the submaximal action of IL-1alpha was significantly greater than that of bFGF, PDGF-BB or FBS. These results offer evidence that magnosalin suppresses the proliferation of synovial cells in RA models by inhibiting IL-1alpha-stimulated action.

  13. A Fur-like protein PerR regulates two oxidative stress response related operons dpr and metQIN in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal ions are important micronutrients in cellular metabolism, but excess ions that cause toxic reactive oxygen species are harmful to cells. In bacteria, Fur family proteins such as Fur, Zur and PerR manage the iron and zinc uptake and oxidative stress responses, respectively. The single Fur-like protein (annotated as PerR) in Streptococcus suis has been demonstrated to be involved in zinc and iron uptake in previous studies, but the reports on oxidative stress response and gene regulation are limited. Results In the present study, the perR gene deletion mutant ΔperR was constructed in Streptococcus suis serotype 2 strain SC-19, and the mutant strain ΔperR exhibited less sensitivity to H2O2 stress compared to the wild-type. The dpr and metQIN were found to be upregulated in the ΔperR strain compared with SC-19. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the promoters of dpr and metQIN could be bound by the PerR protein. These results suggest that dpr and metQIN are members of the PerR regulon of S. suis. dpr encodes a Dps-like peroxide resistance protein, and the dpr knockout strains (Δdpr and ΔdprΔperR) were highly sensitive to H2O2. MetQIN is a methionine transporter, and the increased utilization of methionine in the ΔperR strain indirectly affected the peroxide resistance. Using a promoter–EGFP gene fusion reporting system, we found that the PerR regulon was induced by H2O2, and the induction was modulated by metal ions. Finally, we found that the pathogenicity of the perR mutant was attenuated and easily cleared by mice. Conclusions These data strongly suggest that the Fur-like protein PerR directly regulates dpr and metQIN and plays a crucial role in oxidative stress response in S. suis. PMID:22646062

  14. Blisters on the Anterior Shin in 3 Research Subjects After a 1-MHz, 1.5-W/cm 2, Continuous Ultrasound Treatment: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Jamie L; Johns, Lennart D; Tom, James A; Ingersoll, Christopher D

    2007-01-01

    Context: Clinicians should consider multiple factors when estimating tissue-heating rates. Objective: To report 3 separate occurrences of blisters during an ultrasound treatment experiment. Background: While we were conducting a research experiment comparing the measurement capabilities of 2 different intramuscular temperature devices, 3 female participants (age = 26.33 ± 3.79 years, height = 169.34 ± 3.89 cm, mass = 63.39 ± 3.81 kg) out of 16 healthy volunteers (7 men: age = 22.83 ± 1.17 years, height = 170.61 ± 7.77 cm, mass = 74.62 ± 19.24 kg; 9 women: age = 24.22 ± 2.73 years, height = 171.88 ± 6.35 cm, mass = 73.99 ± 18.55 kg) developed blisters on the anterior shin after a 1-MHz, 1.5-W/cm 2 continuous ultrasound treatment delivered to the triceps surae muscle. Differential Diagnosis: Allergies; chemical reaction with cleaning agents; sunburn; negative interaction between the temperature measurement instruments and the ultrasound field; the ultrasound transducer not being calibrated properly, producing a nonuniform field and creating a hot spot or heating differently when compared with other ultrasound devices; the smaller anatomy of our female subjects; or a confounding interaction among these factors. Treatment: Participants were given standard minor burn care by a physician. Uniqueness: (1) The development of blisters on the anterior aspect of the shin as a result of an ultrasound treatment to the posterior aspect of the triceps surae muscle and (2) muscle tissue heating rates ranging from 0.19°C to 1.1°C/min, when ultrasound researchers have suggested tissue heating in the range of 0.3°C/min with these settings. Conclusions: These adverse events raise important questions regarding treatment application and potential differences in heating and quality control among different ultrasound devices from different manufacturers. PMID:18060000

  15. A Network Pharmacology Approach to Determine Active Compounds and Action Mechanisms of Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian Decoction for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiying; Zhao, Linhua; Zhang, Bo; Jiang, Yuyu; Wang, Xu; Guo, Yun; Liu, Hongxing; Li, Shao; Tong, Xiaolin

    2014-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herbal formulae can be valuable therapeutic strategies and drug discovery resources. However, the active ingredients and action mechanisms of most TCM formulae remain unclear. Therefore, the identification of potent ingredients and their actions is a major challenge in TCM research. In this study, we used a network pharmacology approach we previously developed to help determine the potential antidiabetic ingredients from the traditional Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction (GGQLD) formula. We predicted the target profiles of all available GGQLD ingredients to infer the active ingredients by clustering the target profile of ingredients with FDA-approved antidiabetic drugs. We also applied network target analysis to evaluate the links between herbal ingredients and pharmacological actions to help explain the action mechanisms of GGQLD. According to the predicted results, we confirmed that a novel antidiabetic ingredient from Puerariae Lobatae radix (Ge-Gen), 4-Hydroxymephenytoin, increased the insulin secretion in RIN-5F cells and improved insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The network pharmacology strategy used here provided a powerful means for identifying bioactive ingredients and mechanisms of action for TCM herbal formulae, including Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian decoction. PMID:24527048

  16. Neutron activation analysis of sources of raw material of Emperor Qin Shi Huang's Terracotta Warriors and Horses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhengyao; Zhao, Weijuan; Li, Guoxia; Xie, Jianzhong; Han, Guohe; Feng, Songlin; Fan, Dongyu; Zhang, Ying; Chai, Zhifang; Li, Rongwu; Zhang, Zhongli; Zhu, Junxiao

    2003-02-01

    There have been selected 83 samples of terracotta warriors and horses of Emperor Qin Shi Huang’s Mausoleum, 20 samples of clays taken from around Qin’s Mausoleum and 2 samples of Yaozhou porcelain bodies. All these samples have been measured by instrument neutron activation analysis (INAA) and as many as 32 kinds of element contents of each sample are measured. The following conclusion has been reached when fuzzy cluster analysis is conducted to element contents of all these samples: (i) The samples are roughly classified into five categories: namely, samples from pits No. 1 and No. 2; samples from pit No. 3; loam layers; the mixture of loam and loess; and Yaozhou porcelain bodies. (ii) The terracotta warriors and horses in pits No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 are relatively independent from one another. The clays from which they were made are not entirely identical. We have found that samples in pit No. 3 are very closely related and their clay sources are comparatively concentrated. Samples in pits No. 1 and No. 2 are less related and their clay sources are comparatively scattered. (iii) The clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made are closely related to the loam layer near Qin’s Mausoleum, particularly to the loam layer of Zaoyuan village and Gaoxing village, but they are not so related to loess layers there, nor to the loam layers of Anhoubao, even less related to Yaozhou porcelain bodies. A rational deduction thus drawn is that the raw material of clays from which the terracotta warriors and horses were made might probably be taken from loam layers around Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, or loam layers near Qin’s Mausoleum whose properties are identical with those of loam layers of Zaoyuan and Gaoxing, rather than loess layers around the above places. Since the raw material of the terracotta warriors and horses was taken from loam near Qin’s Mausoleum, it could be deducted that the kiln sites might be located in around Qin’s Mausoleum.

  17. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T.; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ13C (−8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ15N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ13C (−15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ15N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  18. Tracing the locality of prisoners and workers at the Mausoleum of Qin Shi Huang: First Emperor of China (259-210 BC).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Fuller, Benjamin T; Sun, Weigang; Hu, Songmei; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yaowu; Richards, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The mausoleum complex of the First Emperor of China, Qin Shi Huang (259-210 BC), is one of the most famous and important archaeological sites in China, yet questions remain as to how it was constructed and by whom. Here we present isotopic results of individuals from the Liyi (n = 146) and Shanren sites (n = 14), both associated with the mausoleum complex. Those buried at Liyi represent the local workers/inhabitants of the Qin population, and the δ(13)C (-8.7 ± 1.5%) and δ(15)N (10.3 ± 0.7%) values indicate that they consumed predominately millet and/or domestic animals fed millet. In contrast, the Shanren individuals were prisoners forced to construct the mausoleum (found buried haphazardly in a mass grave and some in iron leg shackles), and their δ(13)C (-15.4 ± 2.9%) and δ(15)N (8.0 ± 0.6%) results indicate a more mixed C3/C4 diet, with possibly less domestic animals and more wild game protein consumed. This pattern of decreased millet consumption is also characteristic of archaeological sites from southern China, and possible evidence the Shanren prisoners originated from this region (possibly the ancient Chu state located in modern day Hubei Province and parts of Hunan and Anhui Provinces). Further, this finding is in agreement with historical sources and is supported by previous ancient DNA evidence that the mausoleum workers had diverse origins, with many genetically related to southern Chinese groups. PMID:27253909

  19. Shin splints - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... pain is gone. Do stretching exercises. Take ibuprofen, naproxen, or aspirin to decrease swelling and to help with pain. Know these medicines have side effects and can cause ulcers and bleeding. Talk to ...

  20. Diverse bone scan abnormalitites in "shin splints".

    PubMed

    Spencer, R P; Levinson, E D; Baldwin, R D; Sziklas, J J; Witek, J T; Rosenberg, R

    1979-12-01

    Four young patients who presented with pain over the anterior compartment of the legs, gave a recent athletic history suggesting stress fractures. Although radiographs were initially normal in all four cases, the bone scintigrams were positive. The individual findings, however, were quite different. In one there was a single focal area of increased radioactivity in each of the tibias; the second patient had uneven uptake of radiotracer and several foci of accumulation in the fibulas; the third showed diffuse linear tibial uptake suggesting periosteal lesions; and the fourth case revealed uptake in the lateral malleolus and in bones of the foot.

  1. Common ocular problems of Shin Tzu dogs.

    PubMed

    Christmas, R E

    1992-06-01

    In recent years the Shih Tzu has become a popular breed of dog. It has a number of serious diseases of the eye which are not being recognized by breeders, owners, and sometimes veterinarians. The purpose of this communication is to assist veterinarians in recognizing and treating, where possible, some of the common ocular problems of this breed, including medial canthal entropion, various trichiasis problems, dermoids, third eyelid gland prolapse, chronic keratitis and corneal ulcers, progressive retinal atrophy, vitreal syneresis, and retinal detachment. Because most of the problems are inherited or of suspected genetic origin, breeders should receive genetic counselling from their veterinarian.

  2. Cryptococcal cellulitis on the shin of an immunosuppressed patient.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Tian Hao; Rodriguez, Paola G; Behan, James W; Declerck, Brittney; Kim, Gene H

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a common fungus found throughout the environment that causes opportunistic disease in immunocompromised individuals. Infection of humans with C neoformans usually manifests as lung disease through inhalation of spores or meningoencephalitis by involvement of the central nervous system. Rarely, dissemination in the form of cutaneous lesions can occur in individuals with long term immunosuppression. We present a patient with C. neoformans manifesting as cellulitis with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis treated with corticosteroids. Because of the mortality associated with disseminated cryptococcosis, early identification, especially of atypical cutaneous presentations is critical from a dermatological perspective. PMID:27617599

  3. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  4. [Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size of vascular plants in Xiaolong- shan Reserve of Qinling Mountain: a test of Rapoport' s rule].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Gong, Da-Jie; Sun, Cheng-Xiang; Li, Xiao-Jun; Li, Wan-Jiang

    2014-09-01

    Altitudinal patterns of species richness and species range size and their underlying mechanisms have long been a key topic in biogeography and biodiversity research. Rapoport's rule stated that the species richness gradually declined with the increasing altitude, while the species ranges became larger. Using altitude-distribution database from Xiaolongshan Reverse, this study explored the altitudinal patterns of vascular plant species richness and species range in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve, and examined the relationships between species richness and their distributional middle points in altitudinal bands for different fauna, taxonomic units and growth forms and tested the Rapoport's rule by using Stevens' method, Pagel's method, mid-point method and cross-species method. The results showed that the species richness of vascular plants except small-range species showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude in Qinling Xiaolongshan Reserve and the highest proportion of small-range species was found at the lower altitudinal bands and at the higher altitudinal bands. Due to different assemblages and examining methods, the relationships between species distributing range sizes and the altitudes were different. Increasing taxonomic units was easier to support Rapoport's rule, which was related to niche differences that the different taxonomic units occupied. The mean species range size of angiosperms showed a unimodal pattern along the altitude, while those of the gymnosperms and pteridophytes were unclearly regular. The mean species range size of the climbers was wider with the increasing altitude, while that of the shrubs which could adapt to different environmental situations was not sensitive to the change of altitude. Pagel's method was easier to support the Rapoport's rule, and then was Steven's method. On the contrary, due to the mid-domain effect, the results of the test by using the mid-point method showed that the mean species range size varied in a unimodal pattern along the altitude, which didn't support the Rapoport's rule, and because of the scatter-spot impact, the explanatory power of the cross-species method was much lower.

  5. Acceptance of the 2014 Houtermans Award by Liping Qin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Liping

    2015-06-01

    Thank you for the very kind words, Rick. Thank you EAG for the award and Nicolas Dauphas for the nomination. When I look at the list of previous recipients of this award, I saw many familiar names who have made major contributions to the field of geochemistry. I am humbled by this recognition. I would like to take this moment to thank all individuals who have generously helped me along the way. I would not be standing here today without them.

  6. Chronic shin splints. Classification and management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Detmer, D E

    1986-01-01

    A clinical classification and treatment programme has been developed for chronic medial tibial stress syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome has been reported to be either tibial stress fracture or microfracture, tibial periostitis, or distal deep posterior chronic compartment syndrome. Three chronic types exist and may coexist: Type I (tibial microfracture, bone stress reaction or cortical fracture); type II (periostalgia from chronic avulsion of the periosteum at the periosteal-fascial junction); and type III (chronic compartment syndrome syndrome). Type I disease is treated nonoperatively. Operations for resistant types II and III medial tibial stress syndrome were performed in 41 patients. Bilaterality was common (type II, 50% type III, 88%). Seven had coexistent type II/III; one had type I/II. Preoperative symptoms averaged 24 months in type II, 6 months in type III, and 33 months in types II/III. Mean age was 22 years (15 to 51). Resting compartment pressures were normal in type II (mean 12 mm Hg) and elevated in type III and type II/III (mean 23 mm Hg). Type II and type II/III patients received fasciotomy plus periosteal cauterisation. Type III patients had fasciotomy only. All procedures were performed on an outpatient basis using local anaesthesia. Follow up was complete and averaged 6 months (2 to 14 months). Improved performance was as follows: type II, 93%, type III, 100%; type II/III, 86%. Complete cures were as follows: type II, 78%; type III, 75%; and type II/III, 57%. This experience suggests that with precise diagnosis and treatment involving minimal risk and cost the athlete has a reasonable chance of return to full activity.

  7. Shin-splints: common exercise-related syndromes affecting the lower leg.

    PubMed

    Williamson, B L; Arthur, C H C

    2014-01-01

    Lower leg pain is a common complaint of athletically active individuals, often limiting physical activities. As such, the group of lower leg conditions related to athletic pursuits and physical exercise confer considerable operational implications for the military. Whilst acute injuries to the lower limb are commonly encountered and are clearly of significance, this article focuses instead on chronic conditions related to physical activity. These include insults to bone such as stress fractures and medial tibial stress syndrome, and those related to the soft tissues such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome. In this article we will examine the presentation and management of these conditions.

  8. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.

    PubMed

    Meier, J L; Mollet, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome.

  9. Tibiofibular synostosis: an unusual cause of shin splint-like pain.

    PubMed

    Flandry, F; Sanders, R A

    1987-01-01

    Tibiofibular synostosis may be an underlying cause of tibial pain with activity or ankle pain of uncertain origin. The diagnosis may be suspected when symptoms begin and progress months after an injury, when symptoms occur with vigorous activity, and when symptoms are most pronounced during midstance and preswing phases of the gait cycle. Confirmation of the diagnosis is easily made through radiographic examination, which should include the entire leg. Bone scan may show increased tracer uptake. Interference with normal dynamic function of the fibula subjects the synostosis to repetitive stress and ultimate fatigue fracture with resultant pain. Conservative treatment is recommended initially. Surgical excision should be reserved for the athletically active patient whose symptoms are gradually progressing and disabling, and whose synostosis has taken on the appearance of mature cortical bone on radiographs. The principles of tumor biopsy should be adhered to, lest the diagnosis be in error. Finally, meticulous hemostasis and use of bone wax may lessen the possibility of recurrence.

  10. Topographic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  11. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Lindsay, Charles R.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  12. A Toy Clinic Shop: Innovation Management in a Shin-Tai Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jon-Chao; Hwang, Ming-Yueh; Liang, Hwey-Wen; Chang, Hsin-Wu

    2008-01-01

    In Taiwan there is a declining birth rate and a dramatic increase in the elderly population. There is also the trend of using school space that would otherwise be left unused. The experimental project "Toy Clinic Shop in Elementary School" offers an innovative management model for elementary schools to address these developments. The following are…

  13. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  14. An Evidence-Based Case Study of Unilateral Shin Splints: Do Red Flags Function in Paediatric Osteosarcoma?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Physiotherapists use red flags to screen for serious pathology. Paediatric osteosarcoma is a rare disease, occurring predominantly in the area of the knee and shoulder, and it is not always included by physiotherapists on a differential diagnosis list. Traditional red flags do not always correspond to the initial signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma. Physiotherapists should routinely palpate along the length of the bone to detect a potential mass. The detection of a mass or symptoms that do not follow the expected course indicates the need for reassessment and possibly referral for further investigation. PMID:27504036

  15. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  16. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangle 3362, Shin-Dand (415) and Tulak (416) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  17. An Evidence-Based Case Study of Unilateral Shin Splints: Do Red Flags Function in Paediatric Osteosarcoma?

    PubMed

    Rankin, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Physiotherapists use red flags to screen for serious pathology. Paediatric osteosarcoma is a rare disease, occurring predominantly in the area of the knee and shoulder, and it is not always included by physiotherapists on a differential diagnosis list. Traditional red flags do not always correspond to the initial signs and symptoms of osteosarcoma. Physiotherapists should routinely palpate along the length of the bone to detect a potential mass. The detection of a mass or symptoms that do not follow the expected course indicates the need for reassessment and possibly referral for further investigation. PMID:27504036

  18. [The TCM physiological viewpoints in the Pre-Qin dynasty as interpreted from the medical texts from Mawangdui].

    PubMed

    Lin, Po-Hsin; Li, Jian-Min; Lin, Zhao-Geng

    2008-01-01

    There were great developments about the TCM since the last years of Warring States. The physiological viewpoints were focused on vessel (channel), zang-fu viscera and various structures of the body. Although there were divergences between medical texts and contents because of different viewpoints. It promoted medical experiences and knowledge fast and the characteristic faced more appears. Deep and extensive exploration about these physiological programs enabled relevant knowledge correlating one another, and the holistic body concepts of the Chinese medicine takes shape gradually. Because of various kinds of life-related knowledge gradually become enriched and complicated, the experiences turned into notions and theories, the focus of medical research was changed from "from outside to inside" to "from outside inside". At the same time, the originally exploratory process and the knowledge about the human body gradually tended to be the data--modular, systematical knowledge-network, and became more conveniently operated.

  19. Qin, Han, and Huang: Text Reproduction and Literacy in Rural China, A Case for Euclid and Homer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Bruce; Yu, Agnes

    1991-01-01

    Debates the merits of the claim that "symbolic technologies push cognitive growth earlier and longer." The results of an assessment are presented that involved three adult male peasants (two literate, one nonliterate) living in rural China and their ability to recall the text of "The Lonesome Opossum." (25 references) (GLR)

  20. The Potential of GIS as a Management Tool for Avenue Trees Population in Small Communities; a Case Study of Idi-Shin Community, Ibadan, Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olokeogun, O. S.; Akintola, O. O.; Abodunrin, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    This study demonstrates the potentials of Geographic Information System (GIS) as a management tool for avenue trees (Street trees) populations in small communities (using Idi-Ishin community, Ibadan, Nigeria as a case study). GIS is a decision support system which integrate data or set of data from different sources, bringing them under the same referencing system in a computer system. An Ikonos Imagery (1m Spatial Resolution) of the study area was digitized to produce a digital map using ArcGIS 10.1 version. The avenue trees species ≥ 5cm diameter at breast height (DBH) was selected for enumeration. These trees were then measured and tagged. The Height, Girth and Geographic location (X &Y coordinate) of the trees were measured with Haga altimeter, Girthing tape and Hand held Global Positioning System (GPS) respectively. The species and families of the trees enumerated were also identified. Data were analysed for basal area (BA) and volume (V). A total number of 43 avenue trees were assessed in Idi-Ishin Community. Roystonea regia accounted for the majority of the avenue trees (25.58%), followed by Polyanthia longiflora (23.26%), Gliricida seprium (20.93%), Eucalyptus toreliana (13.95%), Delunix regea (6.98%). However Terminalia catapa, Terminalia radii, Azadrachita indica and Newbodia levis had the same abundance of 2.33%. It was also observed that the benefits derived from these avenue trees includes; Carbon sequestration, Beautification, Wind break and shade. A spatial relational database was created for the assessed avenue trees using ArcCatalog of ArcGIS 10.1 version. Based on the findings from the study (which serves as baseline information for the management of the avenue trees in the study area), it was therefore recommended that subsequent assessment should be carried out at 3-5 year interval in other to ensure proper and continuous monitoring and updating of the data.

  1. Mössbauer study of fired Lishan clay and terra-cotta warriors and horses of Qin dynasty (221 B.C.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Guangyong; Li, Shi

    1992-04-01

    The sherds of terra-cotta warriors and horses and Lishan clay were characterized by Mossbauer spectroscopy, XRD, XRF, NAA, thermal and chemical analyses. Lishan clay was testified as the original material of terracotta warriors and horses, the kilning of these warriors and horses was first carried out in an oxidizing atmosphere, and then changed to a predominantly reducing atmosphere. With refiring experiments, the temperatures of Q3 and Q4 samples were determined to be 830±50 and 980±50°C respectively. Transformations of Lishan clay were determined by firing in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The Mossbauer parameters of Lishan clay, which was taken after 2 24h firing, were changing up to 12h.

  2. FuQin Huo NanXing CanYu ErTong ZaoQi Jiao Yu (Father/Male Involvement in Early Childhood Programs). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Brent A.; Rane, Thomas R.

    Given the support for increased involvement of parents in their children's schooling and the positive contribution men can make to children's development, it is important to reach out specifically to fathers or other significant males in parent involvement efforts for pre-kindergarten and early childhood programs. This digest discusses barriers to…

  3. Petrogenesis and tectonic setting of the early Mesozoic Xitian granitic pluton in the middle Qin-Hang Belt, South China: Constraints from zircon U-Pb ages and bulk-rock trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qianhong; Cao, Jingya; Kong, Hua; Shao, Yongjun; Li, Huan; Xi, Xiaoshuang; Deng, Xuantong

    2016-10-01

    The Xitian pluton in southeast Hunan province is one of the early Mesozoic (Indosinian) granitic plutons in the South China Block. It is composed of biotite adamellite with K-feldspar megacrysts, biotite adamellite, and biotite granite that have U-Pb zircon ages of 229.9 ± 1.4 Ma, 223.6 ± 1.3 Ma, and 224.0 ± 1.4 Ma, respectively. The Indosinian granitoids in the Xitian pluton belong to S-type granites, with highly radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.71397-0.71910), negative εNd(t) values ranging from -10.1 to -9.4, and old Nd model ages (1858-1764 Ma). They are enriched in radiogenic Pb isotopes, with (206Pb/204Pb)t ranging from 18.130 to 18.903, (207Pb/204Pb)t from 15.652 to 15.722, and (208Pb/204Pb)t from 38.436 to 39.037, respectively. These features indicate that the granitoidswithin the Xitian pluton were formed from magmas generated by remelting of metapelite and metapsammite of the Paleoproterozoic metamorphic basement at temperatures of ca. 800 °C, with low oxygen fugacity. The Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the rocks from Xitian pluton indicate that the granitic magmas were mixed with less than 10% mantle-derived magmas. We suggest that the Xitian pluton was emplaced in an extensional tectonic setting related to release of compressional stresses within the thickened crust during the early Mesozoic.

  4. A Method of DTM Construction Based on Quadrangular Irregular Networks and Related Error Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Mengjun

    2015-01-01

    A new method of DTM construction based on quadrangular irregular networks (QINs) that considers all the original data points and has a topological matrix is presented. A numerical test and a real-world example are used to comparatively analyse the accuracy of QINs against classical interpolation methods and other DTM representation methods, including SPLINE, KRIGING and triangulated irregular networks (TINs). The numerical test finds that the QIN method is the second-most accurate of the four methods. In the real-world example, DTMs are constructed using QINs and the three classical interpolation methods. The results indicate that the QIN method is the most accurate method tested. The difference in accuracy rank seems to be caused by the locations of the data points sampled. Although the QIN method has drawbacks, it is an alternative method for DTM construction. PMID:25996691

  5. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... drive the power burner and the indoor air circulating blower, the power burner and indoor air... during the heating season, EM, is defined as: EM = (QIN −QP) BOHSS + (8,760−4,600)QP Where: QIN = as... operating mode is defined as: BOHR = XR EM/QIN,R Where: XR = as defined in 11.4.8.7 of ANSI/ASHRAE...

  6. Synthesis, characterization and applications of carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolated bifunctionalized InP/ZnS quantum dots in cellular internalization mediated by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Betty R; Winiarz, Jeffrey G; Moon, Jong-Sik; Lo, Shih-Yen; Huang, Yue-Wern; Aronstam, Robert S; Lee, Han-Jung

    2013-11-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles, also known as quantum dots (QDs), are widely used in biomedical imaging studies and pharmaceutical research. Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are a group of small peptides that are able to traverse cell membrane and deliver a variety of cargoes into living cells. CPPs deliver QDs into cells with minimal nonspecific absorption and toxic effect. In this study, water-soluble, monodisperse, carboxyl-functionalized indium phosphide (InP)/zinc sulfide (ZnS) QDs coated with polyethylene glycol lipids (designated QInP) were synthesized for the first time. The physicochemical properties (optical absorption, fluorescence and charging state) and cellular internalization of QInP and CPP/QInP complexes were characterized. CPPs noncovalently interact with QInP in vitro to form stable CPP/QInP complexes, which can then efficiently deliver QInP into human A549 cells. The introduction of 500nM of CPP/QInP complexes and QInP at concentrations of less than 1μM did not reduce cell viability. These results indicate that carboxylated and polyethylene-glycolylated (PEGylated) bifunctionalized QInP are biocompatible nanoparticles with potential for use in biomedical imaging studies and drug delivery applications. PMID:23792556

  7. Should Colleges Withdraw Students Who Threaten or Attempt Suicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavela, Gary

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the pros and cons of "involuntary withdrawals" in cases of students who are at risk of suicide. A June, 2005, Massachusetts Superior Court summary judgment ruling in the case of "Shin v. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)" concluded that MIT administrators owed a duty of care to suicide victim, Elizabeth Shin, who…

  8. Fractured diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis in an adolescent soccer player.

    PubMed

    Santa Maria, Daniel L; Shaw, Thomas; Allen, Marque; Marin, James

    2015-01-01

    Diaphyseal tibiofibular synostosis is a rare cause of symptomatic shin pain with exertion. In this case, a 14-year-old male soccer player presented with atraumatic right shin pain made worse with running. Computed tomography revealed heterotopic ossification, or synostosis, of the tibial-fibular syndesmosis. The patient's symptoms improved with rest, without the need for operative intervention. PMID:25171880

  9. 75 FR 62564 - In the Matter of: Certain Toner Cartridges and Components Thereof; Notice of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    .... Ink Technologies Printer Supplies, LLC, (d/b/a Ink Technologies LLC), 7600 McEwen Road, Dayton, OH... Superstore), 1880 Century Park East, 200, Los Angeles, CA 90067. Chung Pal Shin (d/b/a Ink Master),...

  10. Bone imaging in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Shikare, S; Samsi, A B; Tilve, G H

    1997-01-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public leads to increase in sports induced injuries including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis and host of musculotendenous maladies. We have studied twenty patients referred from sports clinic for bone scanning to evaluate clinically difficult problems. It showed stress fracture in twelve patients, bilateral shin splint in five patients and normal bone scan in three patients. Present study highlights the utility of bone imaging for the diagnosis of various sports injuries in sports medicine.

  11. [Kinesitherapy in the early postoperative period following intramedullary osteosynthesis of tibial fractures].

    PubMed

    Pavlov, D V; Vorob'ev, A V; Shimbaretskiĭ, A N; Komkova, O V

    2010-01-01

    A program of postoperative kinesitherapy oriented to normalize the muscular force of the shin, reduce the time needed to restore the weight-bearing function of the affected leg, and treat pain syndrome has been developed for the patients presenting with fractures, nonunions, and pseudoarthrosis of the tibia that were treated using intramedullary osteosynthesis. The efficacy of the program was evaluated in terms of restoration of the muscular force in the shin and improvement of microcirculation in the affected region. PMID:21089206

  12. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  13. The Quantitative Imaging Network: NCI's Historical Perspective and Planned Goals

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Laurence P; Nordstrom, Robert J; Zhang, Huiming; Tandon, Pushpa; Zhang, Yantian; Redmond, George; Farahani, Keyvan; Kelloff, Gary; Henderson, Lori; Shankar, Lalitha; Deye, James; Capala, Jacek; Jacobs, Paula

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this editorial is to provide a brief history of National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute (NCI) workshops as related to quantitative imaging within the oncology setting. The editorial will then focus on the recently supported NCI initiatives, including the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative and its organizational structure, including planned research goals and deliverables. The publications in this issue of Translational Oncology come from many of the current members of this QIN research network. PMID:24772201

  14. Protection against aflatoxin-B1-induced liver mutagenesis by Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Johan G; Quiney, Brendan; Walter, Patrick B; Thomas, Cynthia; Hodgson, Kimberley; Murch, Susan J; Saxena, Praveen K

    2005-10-15

    We have measured the inhibition of the mutagenicity of the mycotoxin aflatoxin-B(1) in the liver of the rat by plant material of Scutellaria baicalensis, or Huang-qin. The addition of one percent dried Huang-qin to the feed of the animals reduced the mutant frequency of a subsequent administration of aflatoxin-B1 by approximately 60 and 77%, respectively, for two different batches of the plant material. The addition of Huang-qin also increased the expression of the gene for glutathione S-transferase A5 subunit by 2.5-3.0-fold, and decreased expression of P450 cytochrome 3A2 by 1.8-2.0-fold. The greater increase of the expression of the GST gene may result in the protection shown by Huang-qin. The sensitivity of the hepatic mitochondria to swelling, a measure of the mitochondrial permeability transition, is increased significantly in animals that are on a diet containing Huang-qin. This may lead to increased sensitivity to apoptosis on treatment with toxic compounds. The two batches of Huang-qin material show differences in both chemical composition and preventive potential. This study demonstrates how a combination of generating and analysis of plant varieties together with a mammalian assay for efficacy may improve the search for better plant-based prevention of cancer initiation. PMID:16202794

  15. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E

  16. Massage treatment and medial tibial stress syndrome; A commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, Sarah

    2015-07-01

    As students and practitioners we are taught about the treatment and causative factors of medial shin pain, in particular' shin splints' or the more recent term; medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). During the years there have been many theories, conjecture and misunderstandings about the mechanisms of 'shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome' however the ramifications of these mechanisms on how massage treatment is delivered have not being discussed. The evidence for the treatment of MTSS is largely clinical with little evidence of any treatment being proven to be effective in treating MTSS. The aim of this article is to present a summary of the mechanisms of MTSS and a commentary to provoke thought about the way massage therapy is used in the treatment of MTSS based on these mechanisms.

  17. Anterior compartment syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pearl, A J

    1981-01-01

    The chronic form of the anterior compartment syndrome can be overlooked if the symptoms of leg pain are attributed to shin splints. Herein is presented a case report which I feel represents an acute exacerbation of the chronic form of anterior compartment syndrome in a long-distance runner secondary to bleeding into the extensor digitorum longus muscle. Chronic anterior compartment syndrome can be a disabling injury which may require a fasciotomy, depending upon the severity and duration of the patient's symptoms and the intracompartmental pressures. The lay term "shin splints" should be separated from medical use, and a more reliable assessment of the etiology of the patient's symptoms should be made. The term shin splints should be utilized only for pain localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibialis muscle.

  18. Physical characteristics of a new synthetic fiber mattress in relation to pressure sores.

    PubMed

    Mita, K; Akataki, K; Itoh, K; Yoshida, M; Shinoda, T; Ishida, Y

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to develop a mattress which was made of the new synthetic fibers called 'Shin-Gosen', and to determine its physical characteristics associated with pressure sores such as pressure distribution, temperature and humidity. The Shin-Gosen mattress consisted of three layers of elastic fibers made of polyester multifilaments, which were mediated by four layers of wave-like fabrics made of nylon monofilaments. The physical characteristics of the mattress were compared with (a) the conventional cotton hospital mattress and (b) the SORELESS MAT made of vacuole gel which effectively eliminated compression forces. The Shin-Gosen mattress was found to provide pressure relief effects similar to that of the SORELESS MAT the desired thermal insulation as well as that of the cotton mattress and a higher level of moisture vapor permeability. These excellent features will not only contribute to preventing pressure sores, but will also enable comfortable resting and sleeping. PMID:9444514

  19. Anterior tibial striations.

    PubMed

    Daffner, R H

    1984-09-01

    Radiolucent horizontal striations of the anterior cortex of the tibia were seen in 10 athletes who were evaluated for "shin-splints." There were seven basketball players, two professional dancers, and one hurdler. Each patient's history included vigorous leaping in performance of athletic feats. All the lesions were similar in location and appearance and were accompanied by thickening of the anterior tibial cortex. These striations are considered stress fractures and were not observed in a group of runners who were evaluated for shin-splints.

  20. Phylogenetic lineages in Pseudocercospora

    PubMed Central

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Hunter, G.C.; Wingfield, M.J.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Nakashima, C.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2013-01-01

    morphology, within the same geographic region, frequently differed phylogenetically, indicating that the application of European and American names to Asian taxa, and vice versa, was often not warranted. Taxonomic novelties: New genera - Pallidocercospora Crous, Phaeomycocentrospora Crous, H.D. Shin & U. Braun; New species - Cercospora eucommiae Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Microcyclospora quercina Crous & Verkley, Pseudocercospora ampelopsis Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora cercidicola Crous, U. Braun & C. Nakash., Pseudocercospora crispans G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora crocea Crous, U. Braun, G.C. Hunter & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora haiweiensis Crous & X. Zhou, Pseudocercospora humulicola Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora marginalis G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ocimi-basilici Crous, M.E. Palm & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora plectranthi G.C. Hunter, Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora proteae Crous, Pseudocercospora pseudostigmina-platani Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora pyracanthigena Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora ravenalicola G.C. Hunter & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhamnellae G.C. Hunter, H.D. Shin, U. Braun & Crous, Pseudocercospora rhododendri-indici Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Pseudocercospora tibouchinigena Crous & U. Braun, Pseudocercospora xanthocercidis Crous, U. Braun & A. Wood, Pseudocercosporella koreana Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin; New combinations - Pallidocercospora acaciigena (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora crystallina (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora heimii (Crous) Crous, Pallidocercospora heimioides (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Pallidocercospora holualoana (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidocercospora konae (Crous, Joanne E. Taylor & M.E. Palm) Crous, Pallidoocercospora irregulariramosa (Crous & M.J. Wingf.) Crous & M.J. Wingf., Phaeomycocentrospora cantuariensis (E

  1. Leaf micromorphology and sugar may contribute to differences in drought tolerance for two apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-07-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica L.) are often exposed to severe water stress in the summertime. We determined how levels of nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) changed in the leaves of two cultivars - drought-tolerant 'QinGuan' and drought-sensitive 'NaganoFuji' - when plants were subjected for 10 d to a sudden water deficit. Photosynthetic performance was investigated in terms of gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme activity. Two separate irrigation scenarios were tested with one-year-old plants grafted onto Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. rootstock: 1) water applied to 75% field capacity (FC) (Control, CK) and 2) irrigation withheld to achieve <75% FC ranging from 30 to 75% (Treatment, T). At Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 of the experiment, we recorded net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rates, and intercellular CO2 concentrations. All of those parameters showed decreases in plants from both stress scenarios, although those declines were not as dramatic in 'QinGuan'. The photosynthetic rate reduced primarily because of stomatal closure. In both cultivars, water stress induced the accumulation of NC, especially sorbitol, suggesting that this polyol has a role in osmoregulation. The rise in sorbitol levels was much steeper in 'QinGuan'. Likewise, the interaction between superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities varied between cultivars. In 'QinGuan', the malondialdehyde concentration was much lower and more closely correlated with a high Suc/NC ratio when compared with 'NaganoFuji'. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a drought-resisting apparent structure in 'QinGuan'. Overall, our results from both external and internal examinations demonstrated that 'QinGuan' is more drought-tolerant than 'NaganoFuji'.

  2. Leaf micromorphology and sugar may contribute to differences in drought tolerance for two apple cultivars.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shan; Liang, Dong; Ma, Fengwang

    2014-07-01

    Apple trees (Malus domestica L.) are often exposed to severe water stress in the summertime. We determined how levels of nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) changed in the leaves of two cultivars - drought-tolerant 'QinGuan' and drought-sensitive 'NaganoFuji' - when plants were subjected for 10 d to a sudden water deficit. Photosynthetic performance was investigated in terms of gas exchange and antioxidant enzyme activity. Two separate irrigation scenarios were tested with one-year-old plants grafted onto Malus hupehensis (Pamp.) Rehd. rootstock: 1) water applied to 75% field capacity (FC) (Control, CK) and 2) irrigation withheld to achieve <75% FC ranging from 30 to 75% (Treatment, T). At Days 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, and 10 of the experiment, we recorded net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rates, and intercellular CO2 concentrations. All of those parameters showed decreases in plants from both stress scenarios, although those declines were not as dramatic in 'QinGuan'. The photosynthetic rate reduced primarily because of stomatal closure. In both cultivars, water stress induced the accumulation of NC, especially sorbitol, suggesting that this polyol has a role in osmoregulation. The rise in sorbitol levels was much steeper in 'QinGuan'. Likewise, the interaction between superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities varied between cultivars. In 'QinGuan', the malondialdehyde concentration was much lower and more closely correlated with a high Suc/NC ratio when compared with 'NaganoFuji'. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a drought-resisting apparent structure in 'QinGuan'. Overall, our results from both external and internal examinations demonstrated that 'QinGuan' is more drought-tolerant than 'NaganoFuji'. PMID:24811680

  3. A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication with five-photon entangled state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiu, Xiao-Ming; Dong, Li; Gao, Ya-Jun; Chi, Feng; Ren, Yuan-Peng; Liu, Hui-Wei

    2010-01-01

    A revised controlled deterministic secure quantum communication protocol using five-photon entangled state is proposed. It amends the security loopholes pointed by Qin et al. in [S.J. Qin, Q.Y. Wen, L.M. Meng, F.C. Zhu, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 2656] in the original protocol proposed by Xiu et al. in [X.M. Xiu, L. Dong, Y.J. Gao, F. Chi, Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 333]. The security loopholes are solved by using order rearrangement of transmission photons and two-step security test.

  4. Integration of bacteriophage. lambda. into the cryptic lambdoid prophages of Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Lichens-Park, A. ); Smith, C.L. ); Syvanen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Bacteriophage lambda missing its chromosomal attachment site will integrate into recA{sup +} Escherichia coli K-12 and C at the site of cryptic prophages. The specific regions in which these recombination events occur were identified in both lambda and the bacterial chromosomes. A NotI restriction site on the prophage allowed its physical mapping. This allowed them to identify the locations of Rac, Qin, and Qsr{prime} cryptic prophages on the NotI map of E. coli K-12 and, by analogy, to identify the cryptic prophage in E. coli C as Qin. No new cryptic prophages were detected in E. coli K-12.

  5. True reason for Zipf's law in language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahui, Wang; Menghui, Li; Zengru, Di

    2005-12-01

    Analysis of word frequency have historically used data that included English, French, or other language, data typically described by Zipf's law. Using data on traditional and modern Chinese literatures, we show here that Chinese character frequency stroked Zipf's law based on literature before Qin dynasty; however, it departed from Zipf's law based on literature after Qin dynasty. Combined with data about English dictionaries and Chinese dictionaries, we show that the true reason for Zipf's Law in language is that growth and preferential selection mechanism of word or character in given language.

  6. Recognizing Movement Injuries in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Biff; Marston, Rip

    2001-01-01

    Describes five common youth sport injuries: Little League elbow, swimmer's shoulder, shin splints, Osgood's Schlatters disease, and jumper's knee, also noting their corresponding causes, behavioral symptoms, treatment techniques, and prevention strategies. The information is intended to help teachers identify sports injuries more readily and…

  7. Cultural Translation in Two Directions: The Suzuki Method in Japan and Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehl, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    The Suzuki Method represents a significant contribution by a Japanese, Suzuki Shin'ichi (1898-1998), to the teaching of musical instruments worldwide. Western observers often represent the method as "Japanese," although it could be called "Western" with equal justification. Suzuki left no detailed description of his method. Consequently, it is…

  8. Second Language Acquisition: Cultural, Cognitive, and Clinical Considerations for Counseling Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Ivers, John J., Sr.; Duffey, Thelma

    2013-01-01

    The non-English-speaking population of the United States has increased by 140% since 1980 (Shin & Kominski, 2010). To serve this growing population, it is important that counselors increase their multicultural and multilingual competence. Through the lens of multicultural theory and relational-cultural theory, we analyze potential benefits of…

  9. Estimates of carrying capacity for sea otters in Washington state

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laidre, K.L.; Jameson, R.J.; Jeffries, S.J.; Hobbs, R.C.; Bowlby, C.E.; VanBlaricom, G.R.

    2002-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  10. A 38-year Summary of Raptor Banding at Hawk Ridge, Duluth, Minnesota, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Consistent banding of raptors at Hawk Ridge was initiated in 1972 and has continued for 38 years to the present. A total of 99,505 raptors or 2,619 per year have been banded at Hawk Ridge including 23 different species. The majority of birds banded were Sharp-shinned Hawks (Acci...

  11. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  12. Osgood-Schlatter Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... the shin bone, causing pain. Activities that require running, jumping or going up or down stairs can make the pain worse. Osgood-Schlatter is most common in young athletes who play football, soccer or basketball or are involved in gymnastics and ...

  13. Breeding chronology, molt, and measurements of accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henny, C.J.; Olson, R.A.; Fleming, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    Most northern goshawks completed laying eggs in April, while most Cooper's hawks completed their clutches in May with essentially no overlap. The sharp-shinned hawks laid in late May and June. Juvenile females represented 4% of the northern goshawk breeding population; 22% of the Cooper's hawk breeding population (highest reported for the species) and 60% of the sharp-shinned hawk breeding population, northern goshawks and Cooper's hawks in juvenal plumage generally nested later in the season, but not sharp-shinned hawks. Females of each species began molting first. Primaries were molted from the innermost outward in all species, but rectrix molt sequence was variable. Usually R1 was molted first. Primary molt of the 2 wings was usually synchronous; however, the rectrix molt was not as orderly. Arrested molt was observed in some individuals of all species; it probably has an energy-saving function. Wing chords of adult northern goshawks from Oregon were not different from Wisconsin fall migrants or birds from Alaska; however, rectrices were significantly shorter in Oregon than Wisconsin. Cooper's hawks nesting in Oregon were much smaller than those trapped in Wisconsin. Wing chords and rectrices were significantly shorter for both sexes, and, although weights were not directly comparable, Oregon Cooper's hawks also weighed much less. The limited number of sharp-shinned hawks measured precluded statistical analyses.

  14. 75 FR 52551 - Notice of Receipt of Complaint; Solicitation of Comments Relating to the Public Interest

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... North York, Ontario, Canada; Acecom Inc-San ] Antonio d/b/a inksell.com of San Antonio, TX; Ink Technologies Printer Supplies, LLC d/b/a Ink Technologies LLC of Dayton, OH; Jahwa Electronics Co., Ltd. of...; Chung Pal Shin, d/b/a Ink Master of Cerritos, CA; Nectron International, Inc. of Sugarland, TX;...

  15. The Athletic Foot and Its Import to Performance during Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdan, Richard

    In this paper, problems and conditions of the foot, including flat feet, achilles tendon problems, heel spur syndrome, digital problems, shin splints, and leg stress fractures, are examined. Ways to examine the athlete's foot and leg are described, including the one-foot test and the off weight-bearing examination. (CJ)

  16. Reducing the Risk of ACL Injury in Female Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Rasche, Adrienna; Gaudet, Laura; Jackson, Allen

    2010-01-01

    The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is located behind the kneecap (patella) and connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). Stabilizing the knee joint is the primary responsibility of the ACL. Injuries that affect the ACL are three to five times more common in females than males. This is a result of anatomical, biomechanical,…

  17. A case of lichen amyloidosus accompanied by vesicles and dyschromia.

    PubMed

    Cho, T-H; Lee, M-H

    2008-05-01

    Lichen amyloidosus (LA) is a chronic pruritic skin disorder characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the papillary dermis. The usual features are multiple, discrete hyperkeratotic papules, which may coalesce into plaques that typically occur on the legs, especially the shins. We report a case of LA accompanied by vesicles and dyschromia.

  18. A Strategic and Integrated Labor Market Approach: Essential to Overcome the Crisis and to Assist Structural Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspar, Sigried; Hartwig, Ines; Moench, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Comparing the papers on the Korean and the U.S. situations leads to interesting conclusions. Cho and Shin argue that the recent crisis did not create huge problems in the labor market because Korea was firstly in a fundamentally sound economic situation and secondly took adequate anti-crisis measures, in particular by stabilizing internal demand.…

  19. Climbing out of a Deep Hole: Which Path up?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haveman, Robert; Heinrich, Carolyn; Smeeding, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the authors first discuss the Neumark and Troske piece, and then compare the U.S. context to that in Europe and Korea, as described by the Caspar, Hartwig, and Moench and the Cho and Shin contributions. Although they are in basic agreement with Neumark and Troske on the extent and depth of the current employment situation, they…

  20. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 2002: Numbers 1-25.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Gene V., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document consists of articles 1 through 25 published in the electronic journal Education Policy Analysis Archives for the year 2002: (1) Testing and Diversity in Postsecondary Education: The Case of California (Daniel Koretz, Michael Russell, Chingwei David Shin, Cathy Horn, and Kelly Shasby); (2) State-Mandated Testing and Teachers Beliefs…

  1. Mössbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsia, Yuanfu; Huang, Hongbo

    2003-09-01

    The Mössbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  2. China Mosaic: Multidisciplinary Units for the Middle Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernson, Mary Hammond, Ed.

    These lessons were developed by participants in a 1986 Fulbright Group Project Abroad sponsored by the East Asia Resource Center at the Jackson School of International Studies, University of Washington. The lessons were developed cooperatively and are aimed at the middle school student. Lessons include: (1) "The Qin Dynasty" (Marte Peet); (2)…

  3. Human Symbol Manipulation within an Integrated Cognitive Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John R.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children…

  4. ACL and differentiability of a generalization of quasi-conformal maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salimov, R. R.

    2008-10-01

    It is established that Q-homeomorphisms (in the sense of O. Martio) defined in \\mathbb{R}^n, n\\geq2, are absolutely continuous on lines. Furthermore, they belong to the Sobolev class W_{\\mathrm{loc}}^{1,1} and are differentiable almost everywhere for Q\\in L^{1}_{\\mathrm{loc}}.

  5. Ambarzumyan's theorem for the quasi-periodic boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kıraç, Alp Arslan

    2016-09-01

    We obtain the classical Ambarzumyan's theorem for the Sturm-Liouville operators Lt(q) with qin L1[0,1] and quasi-periodic boundary conditions, tin [0,2π ), when there is not any additional condition on the potential q.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix O to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Vented Home Heating Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... condition. 1.9“Flue gases” means reaction products resulting from the combustion of a fuel with the oxygen... chamber. 1.12“Heat input” (Qin) means the rate of energy supplied in a fuel to a vented heater operating... light and is obtained by multiplying the measured rate of fuel consumption by the measured...

  7. Identifying the Generation Gap in Higher Education: Where Do the Differences Really Lie?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Paula; Qin, Jingjing

    2007-01-01

    The new generation of incoming college students come complete with new technological skills and, seemingly, new expectations for learning. Yet how different are these students from the ones educators have encountered in the past? Under the auspices of Northern Arizona University's e-Learning Center, Paula Garcia and Jingjing Qin investigated the…

  8. [Effects of exotic Larix kaempferi on forest soil quality and bacterial diversity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Cao, Jing; Dong, Mao-Xing; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2008-10-01

    The study on the soil quality and bacterial diversity under 8-30 years old exotic Larix kaempferi, native Pinus tabulaeformis, and secondary deciduous broadleaf forest stands in Xiaolong-shan Mountains of Gansu, Northwest China showed that the soil pH under different forest stands had no distinct variation, but soil moisture content was increased with increasing age of forest stands. Soil organic matter and nitrogen contents were the highest under secondary deciduous forest, followed by under L. kaermpferi, and P. tabulaeformis. However, the soils under different ages of forest stands had no obvious variations in their organic matter and nitrogen contents, suggesting that tree species was the main factor affecting soil quality. Compared with P. tabulaeformis, exotic L. kaempferi could significantly increase soil organic matter and nitrogen contents. PCR-DGGE banding patterns suggested that the soil under secondary deciduous broadleaf forest had the highest bacterial diversity, followed by under L. kaempferi, and P. tabulaeformis. The sequenced DGGE bands were classified into three bacterial groups, i. e., Proteobacteria, Cytophaga - Flavobacterium - Bacteroides, and high G + C content gram-positive type, among which, Proteobacteria occurred most frequently. Further detailed analyses suggested that the soil bacterial compositions under exotic Larix stands were more similar to each other than those under pine and secondary deciduous broadleaf forests. It was concluded that exotic L. kaempferi induced the changes of microbial diversity in the forest soils of this region.

  9. [Low-energy laser therapy in medial tibial stress syndrome].

    PubMed

    Nissen, L R; Astvad, K; Madsen, L

    1994-12-01

    The effect of low-energy laser therapy on shin splints was examined in a randomized study with an unblinded design. Constripts from the Jutland Dragoon regiment with shin splints were given either active laser treatment (40 mW in 60 sec per cm tender tibia edge) or placebo laser. All patients were exempted from normal duty concerning activities like running and march. Forty-nine patients participated in the study, 23 in the laser group and 26 in the control group. From the start the study was designed to be double-blind, but by accident the code was broken towards the end of the study. We found no significant differences between the groups regarding pain visual analog score and readiness to return to active duty after 14 days.

  10. Radiation of anginal pain to the legs.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, M T; Kalogeropoulos, C K; Tzannetis, G C; Vitakis, S K; Xaplanteris, P P; Novas, I A

    1986-02-01

    Pain radiated from the chest to one or both legs (17 cases), or from the legs to the chest (two cases) in 19 patients with angina or acute myocardial infarction. The leg pain was assumed to be related to the angina pectoris when both were of a similar character and occurred together, when the leg pain occurred at rest, and when there were normal peripheral pulses in the leg. Pain was felt in the left leg by 10 patients, the right leg by two patients, and in both legs by seven. Three patients experienced pain in the thigh(s), six in the shin(s), and 10 had pain in both. In six patients the pain extended down to the inner two to four toes. The pain was always felt in front of the legs. This distribution accords with the suggestion that some sensory cardiac nerve fibres occur in the lumbar sympathetic ganglia and that pain is projected into the corresponding dermatomes.

  11. [Transtibial amputation of the lower extremity in patients with ischemic foot contracture].

    PubMed

    Liabakh, A P; Mikhnevych, O E; Dolhopolov, O V

    2014-07-01

    The results of operative treatment of 8 patients was analyzed, in whom the lower extremity amputation on the upper third of the shin was performed for severe stage of the ischemic foot contacture. Operative interventions is expedient to perform in a specialized stationary, were exists possibility of further prosthesis. It is necessary to perform the extremity amputation in a residual period of the foot ischemic contracture, when operations for restoration of the sole sensitivity are nonperspective as well as in presence of severe trophic disorders on the sole and the shin, but without purulent--necrotic signs. Confirmed data of clinic--instrumental investigations for chronic course of the ischemic process constitutes an absolute indication for operation.

  12. Separation of two major chalcones from Angelica keiskei by high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Kil, Yun-Seo; Nam, Joo-Won; Lee, Jun; Seo, Eun Kyoung

    2015-08-01

    Angelica keiskei (Shin-sun cho) is an edible higher plant with the beneficial preventive effects on cancer, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. Two bioactive chalcones of Shin-sun cho, xanthoangelol (1) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2), were separated simultaneously by using high-speed counter-current chromatography with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-EtOAc-MeOH-H2O (9:5:9:4). Only nonconsuming processes, solvent fractionations and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, were conducted as presteps. Xanthoangelol (1, 35.9 mg, 99.9 % purity at 254 and 365 nm) and 4-hydroxyderricin (2, 4.4 mg, 98.7 % purity at 254 nm and 98.8 % purity at 365 nm) were successfully purified from 70 mg of the processed extract from A. keiskei. The structures of two compounds were confirmed by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR analysis.

  13. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    DOE PAGES

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Northern Illinois Univ., Dekalb, IL; Fermi National Accelerator Lab.; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement withmore » simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices« less

  14. Experimental study of multichromatic terahertz wave propagation through planar micro-channels

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Young-Min -Min; Baig, Anisullah; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Barnett, Larry R.; Luhmann, Jr., Neville C.

    2012-04-10

    Previous theoretical and numerical studies [Y. M. Shin and L. R. Barnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 091501 (2008) and Y. M. Shin et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 221504 (2008)] have reported that a planar micro-channel with an asymmetric corrugation array supports strongly confined propagation of broadband THz plasmonic waves. The highly broad spectral response is experimentally demonstrated in the near-THz regime of 0.19-0.265 THz. Signal reflection and transmission tests on the three designed micro-channels including directional couplers resulted in a full-width-half-maximum bandwidth of ~ 50-60GHz with an insertion loss of approximately -5 dB, which is in good agreement with simulation data. As a result, these micro-structures can be utilized for free electron beam and electronic/optic integrated devices

  15. The medial tibial syndrome. The role of surgery.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, A J; Schepsis, A; McArthur, C

    1994-11-01

    Among authors over the past 35 years, medial tibial syndrome, or "shin splints," has been interpreted to mean many different things. We present a review of the literature to attempt to ascribe one definition to this clinical entity, and to clearly define its symptoms, signs, pathophysiology, biomechanics, and treatment. In addition, we describe our results with five patients whose seven affected limbs eventually required surgery for this condition, and we compare them to the results in the literature.

  16. Chronic Exercise-Induced Leg Pain in Active People.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Baxter, D E; Clanton, T O; Sammarco, G J

    1992-01-01

    In brief "Shin splints" is a catchall term for any kind persistent exercise-related lower leg pain with no obvious cause. Such pain can originate from a number of conditions, such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fracture, compartment syndrome, vascular pathology, nerve entrapment, and others. A methodical work-up designed to detect problems in all anatomic structures from bone to skin will narrow the possibilities and lay the basis for appropriate treatment.

  17. Os trigonum syndrome on bone SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianmin; Servaes, Sabah; Zhuang, Hongming

    2014-08-01

    A 16-year-old female athlete presented with increased pain in the distal left lower extremity. A possible stress fracture or shin splint of the left tibia was first considered. A 3-phase bone scintigraphy showed a very small focus of increased activity in the posterior left foot. A diagnosis of os trigonum syndrome was made after SPECT/CT images pinpointed the activity at the left os trigonum.

  18. The predatory behavior of wintering Accipiter hawks: temporal patterns in activity of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Lima, Steven L

    2007-05-01

    Studies focused on how prey trade-off predation and starvation risk are prevalent in behavioral ecology. However, our current understanding of these trade-offs is limited in one key respect: we know little about the behavior of predators. In this study, we provide some of the first detailed information on temporal patterns in the daily hunting behavior of bird-eating Accipiter hawks and relate that to their prey. During the winters of 1999-2004, twenty-one sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and ten Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii) were intensively radio tracked in rural and urban habitats in western Indiana, USA. Cooper's hawks left roost before sunrise and usually returned to roost around sunset, while sharp-shinned hawks left roost at sunrise or later and returned to roost well before sunset. An overall measure of Cooper's-hawk-induced risk (a composite variable of attack rate and activity patterns) generally reflected the timing of prey activity, with peaks occurring around sunrise and sunset. In contrast, risk induced by the smaller sharp-shinned hawk did not strongly reflect the activity of their prey. Specifically, an early morning peak in prey activity did not correspond to a period with intense hawk activity. The lack of early morning hunting by sharp-shinned hawks may reflect the high risk of owl-induced predation experienced by these hawks. The net effect of this intraguild predation may be to "free" small birds from much hawk-induced predation risk prior to sunrise. This realization presents an alternative to energetics as an explanation for the early morning peak in small bird activity during the winter.

  19. Species concepts in Cercospora: spotting the weeds among the roses

    PubMed Central

    Groenewald, J.Z.; Nakashima, C.; Nishikawa, J.; Shin, H.-D.; Park, J.-H.; Jama, A.N.; Groenewald, M.; Braun, U.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    The genus Cercospora contains numerous important plant pathogenic fungi from a diverse range of hosts. Most species of Cercospora are known only from their morphological characters in vivo. Although the genus contains more than 5 000 names, very few cultures and associated DNA sequence data are available. In this study, 360 Cercospora isolates, obtained from 161 host species, 49 host families and 39 countries, were used to compile a molecular phylogeny. Partial sequences were derived from the internal transcribed spacer regions and intervening 5.8S nrRNA, actin, calmodulin, histone H3 and translation elongation factor 1-alpha genes. The resulting phylogenetic clades were evaluated for application of existing species names and five novel species are introduced. Eleven species are epi-, lecto- or neotypified in this study. Although existing species names were available for several clades, it was not always possible to apply North American or European names to African or Asian strains and vice versa. Some species were found to be limited to a specific host genus, whereas others were isolated from a wide host range. No single locus was found to be the ideal DNA barcode gene for the genus, and species identification needs to be based on a combination of gene loci and morphological characters. Additional primers were developed to supplement those previously published for amplification of the loci used in this study. Taxonomic novelties: New species - Cercospora coniogrammes Crous & R.G. Shivas, Cercospora delaireae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora euphorbiae-sieboldianae C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora pileicola C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin, Cercospora vignigena C. Nakash., Crous, U. Braun & H.D. Shin. Typifications: epitypifications - Cercospora alchemillicola U. Braun & C.F. Hill, Cercospora althaeina Sacc., Cercospora armoraciae Sacc., Cercospora corchori Sawada, Cercospora mercurialis Pass., Cercospora olivascens Sacc

  20. The predatory behavior of wintering Accipiter hawks: temporal patterns in activity of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Lima, Steven L

    2007-05-01

    Studies focused on how prey trade-off predation and starvation risk are prevalent in behavioral ecology. However, our current understanding of these trade-offs is limited in one key respect: we know little about the behavior of predators. In this study, we provide some of the first detailed information on temporal patterns in the daily hunting behavior of bird-eating Accipiter hawks and relate that to their prey. During the winters of 1999-2004, twenty-one sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and ten Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii) were intensively radio tracked in rural and urban habitats in western Indiana, USA. Cooper's hawks left roost before sunrise and usually returned to roost around sunset, while sharp-shinned hawks left roost at sunrise or later and returned to roost well before sunset. An overall measure of Cooper's-hawk-induced risk (a composite variable of attack rate and activity patterns) generally reflected the timing of prey activity, with peaks occurring around sunrise and sunset. In contrast, risk induced by the smaller sharp-shinned hawk did not strongly reflect the activity of their prey. Specifically, an early morning peak in prey activity did not correspond to a period with intense hawk activity. The lack of early morning hunting by sharp-shinned hawks may reflect the high risk of owl-induced predation experienced by these hawks. The net effect of this intraguild predation may be to "free" small birds from much hawk-induced predation risk prior to sunrise. This realization presents an alternative to energetics as an explanation for the early morning peak in small bird activity during the winter. PMID:17216210

  1. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. PMID:27630440

  2. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients. PMID:27630440

  3. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  4. Correlation between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and physical function in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gi-Tae; Kim, Mihyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between mobility assessed by the Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and variables associated with physical function in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] One hundred stroke patients (35 males and 65 females; age 58.60 ± 13.91 years) participated in this study. Modified Rivermead Mobility Index, muscle strength (manual muscle test), muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale), range of motion of lower extremity, sensory function (light touch and proprioception tests), and coordination (heel to shin and lower-extremity motor coordination tests) were assessed. [Results] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index was correlated with all the physical function variables assessed, except the degree of knee extension. In addition, stepwise linear regression analysis revealed that coordination (heel to shin test) was the explanatory variable closely associated with mobility in stroke patients. [Conclusion] The Modified Rivermead Mobility Index score was significantly correlated with all the physical function variables. Coordination (heel to shin test) was closely related to mobility function. These results may be useful in developing rehabilitation programs for stroke patients.

  5. Reinstatement of Distantasca Dworakowska (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Empoascini) as a valid genus with new species and new combinations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Fletcher, Murray J; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Distantasca Dworakowska originally established as a genus but more recently has been treated as a subgenus of Empoasca Walsh. Here we reinstate Distantasca as a valid genus and provide a revised diagnosis. New combinations created are Distantasca atika (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca barawa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca bulbosa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latava (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca latibasis (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., Distantasca paraterminalis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca riora (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca rokasa (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca serratipenis (Qin & Zhang), n. comb., Distantasca tiaca (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tna (Dworakowska), n. comb., Distantasca tuberculata (Zhang & Liu), n. comb., all from Empoasca (Distantasca). Distantasca terminalis (Distant) and D. faciata Dworakowska are reinstated from Empoasca (Distantasca). Two new species, Distantasca longihamatilis Zhang & Liu and Distantasca ricina Zhang & Liu spp. nov. are described and illustrated. Empoasca (Empoasca) smithi Fletcher & Donaldson, 1992 is transferred into the genus as Distantasca smithi (Fletcher & Donaldson).

  6. Specialized Initiatives - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    CIP has sponsored a number of programs for specific purposes, using set-aside funds. Among these are Phase 2 N01 ProgramIn-Vivo Cellular & Molecular Imaging Centers (ICMICs) Quantitative Imaging for Evaluation of Responses to Cancer Therapies (QIN) Network for Translational Research (NTR): Optical Imaging in Multimodal Platforms Small Animal Imaging Resource Program (SAIRP) Development of Preclinical Drugs and Enhancers (DCIDE) program.

  7. The restoration of the largest archaelogical discovery--a chemical problem: conservation of the polychromy of the Chinese terracotta army in Lintong.

    PubMed

    Langhals, Heinz; Bathelt, Daniela

    2003-12-01

    The conservation of the polychromy of the terracotta army of the first Chinese emperor Qin Shihuangdi represents a special problem because of the deterioration of the ground layer consisting of organic material. This was triggered due to it having spent more than 2200 years in water-saturated soil. The consolidation of the polychromy was achieved through polymerisation of a specially adapted combination of monomers.

  8. Response to Comment on "Geometric Phase of the Gyromotion for Charged Particles in a Time-dependent Magnetic Field

    SciTech Connect

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2012-08-22

    The reformulation of our analysis on the geometric phase of the gyromotion [J. Liu and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 072505 (2011)] in terms of spatial angles presented in the comment by Brizard and Guillebon is interesting and correct. The subtlety of whether the adiabatic term associated with the long term average of the variation of pitch angle completely disappears after the gyrophase average is related to where valid approximations are applied. But it has no impact on the main conclusions.

  9. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... drive the power burner and the indoor air circulating blower, the power burner and indoor air... average annual energy used during the heating season, EM, is defined as: EM=(QIN−QP) BOHSS+(8,760−4,600)QP...-1993 EM=as defined in section 10.2.1.1 of this appendix QIN,R=as defined in 11.4.8.1.2 of...

  10. Quinault Indian Nation Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project

    SciTech Connect

    Cardenas, Jesus

    2015-03-31

    The overall purposes of the Quinault Indian Nation’s Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project were to: (1) Identify and confirm community and tribal energy needs; (2) Conducting an inventory of sustainable biomass feedstock availability; (3) Development of a biomass energy vision statement with goals and objectives; (4) Identification and assessment of biomass options for both demand-side and supply side that are viable to the Quinault Indian Nation (QIN); and (5) Developing a long-term biomass strategy consistent with the long-term overall energy goals of the QIN. This Comprehensive Biomass Strategic Planning Project is consistent with the QIN’s prior two-year DOE Renewable Energy Study from 2004 through 2006. That study revealed that the most viable options to the QIN’s renewable energy options were biomass and energy efficiency best practices. QIN's Biomass Strategic Planning Project is focused on using forest slash in chipped form as feedstock for fuel pellet manufacturing in support of a tribal biomass heating facility. This biomass heating facility has been engineered and designed to heat existing tribal facilities as well as tribal facilities currently being planned including a new K-12 School.

  11. Intergenerational cultural dissonance in parent-adolescent relationships among Chinese and European Americans.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chunxia; Chao, Ruth K

    2011-03-01

    Generational cultural gaps (assessed as the mismatch between adolescents' ideals and perceptions of the parent-adolescent relationship) were investigated among Chinese youth with immigrant parents and their European American counterparts who have been in the United States for generations and assumingly do not have intergenerational cultural gaps. The authors of the study examined the associations of such generational gaps with adolescents' behavioral problems and whether youth's appreciation of Chinese parent-adolescent relationships (parental devotion, sacrifice, thoughtfulness, and guan) described by the notion of qin would moderate the relationship between discrepancies and youth's adjustment. A total of 634 high school students (M = 15.97 years; 95 and 154 first- and second-generation Chinese American respectively, and 385 European Americans) completed measures of parental warmth, parent-adolescent open communication, qin, and psychological adjustment. The U.S.-born Chinese American adolescents' ideals exceeded perceptions of parents' warmth and open communication to a greater degree than it did for European American adolescents (ps < 0.05). Such discrepancies in parental warmth were related to greater internalizing symptoms for second-generation Chinese American youth than for their European American peers. In addition, for second-generation Chinese, their perceptions of qin, particularly parents' devotion and sacrifice, had stronger moderating effects, diminishing the associations between generational cultural gaps and youth's behavioral problems compared with those of European American and first-generation Chinese youth. Parental thoughtfulness also played a similar beneficial role, but did so for all youth.

  12. Quinault Indian Nation Renewable Energy Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Don Hopps, Institute for Washington's Future; Jesse Nelson, Institute for Washington's Future

    2006-11-28

    The Quinault Indian Nation (Nation) initiated this study on conservation and production of renewable energy because this approach created the opportunity: • To become self-sufficient and gain greater control over the energy the Nation uses; • To generate jobs and businesses for its members; • To better manage, sustain, and protect its resources; • To express the cultural values of the Nation in an important new arena. The Nation has relatively small energy needs. These needs are concentrated at two separate points: the Quinault Beach Resort and Casino (QBRC) and Taholah on the Quinault Indian Reservation (QIR). Except for the town of Queets, energy needs are small and scattered. The needs vary greatly over the season. The small scale, widely dispersed, and variable nature of these needs presents a unique challenge to the Nation. Meeting these needs requires a resource and technology that is flexible, effective, and portable. Conservation is the most cost-effective way to meet any need. It is especially effective in a situation like this where production would leave a high per unit cost. This plan is based on first gaining energy savings through conservation. Major savings are possible through: 1. Upgrading home appliances on the QIR. 2. Weatherizing homes and facilities. 3. Changes in lighting/ventilation in the QBRC pool room. These elements of the plan are already being implemented and promise to save the Nation around a quarter of its present costs. Wood biomass is the best resource available to the QIN for energy production either on-site or for commercial development. It is abundant, flexible and portable. Its harvesting has high job potential and these jobs are a good fit for the present “skill set” of the QIN. This plan focuses on using wood biomass to produce energy and other value-added products. Our study considered various technologies and approaches to using wood for energy. We considered production for both on-site and commercial production

  13. Water Transport in the Micro Porous Layer and Gas Diffusion Layer of a Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, C.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, a recently developed dynamic pore-network model is presented [1]. The model explicitly solves for both water pressure and capillary pressure. A semi-implicit scheme is used in updating water saturation in each pore body, which considerably increases the numerical stability at low capillary number values. Furthermore, a multiple-time-step algorithm is introduced to reduce the computational effort. A number of case studies of water transport in the micro porous layer (MPL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) are conducted. We illustrate the role of MPL in reducing water flooding in the GDL. Also, the dynamic water transport through the MPL-GDL interface is explored in detail. This information is essential to the reduced continua model (RCM), which was developed for multiphase flow through thin porous layers [2, 3]. C.Z. Qin, Water transport in the gas diffusion layer of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell: dynamic pore-network modeling, J Electrochimical. Soci., 162, F1036-F1046, 2015. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: general balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 70, 693-708, 2014. C.Z. Qin and S.M. Hassanizadeh, A new approach to modeling water flooding in a polymer electrolyte fuel cell, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, 40, 3348-3358, 2015.

  14. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    , Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola

  15. Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youting

    Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment Youting Song*, Wanchun Chen, Xiaolong Chen Institute of Physics and Beijing National Lab-oratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing, 100080 P. R. China ytsong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn The progress in ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under micro-gravity environment was reported. (a) A new apparatus used for growth of large size of LiIO3 crystals by the evaporation method has been developed, in which the hydrophobic poly-terafluorothytene micro-filtration (PEFT) film was used to resist the leakage of LiIO3 solution and control the growth rate of LiIO3 crystals along with CaCl2 adsorbent. The pore diameters of PEFT film should be between 0.1-1.0m, and the optimal weight of the adsorbent should be as three times as that of the solvent H2O evaporated. During crystal growth, the solution is re-plenished by a creeping pump to avoid separating the growing crystal from the solution. Using this technique we have obtained good quality LiIO3 crystals in the ground-based experiments. (b) The nucleating experiment of NaClO3 seed-induction was carried out in a ground-based en-vironment, and experimental results showed that seed-induction of NaClO3 played certainly a role of increasing crystal chiral enantiomer excess (cee), which will become the basis of contrast experiment under microgravity environment.

  16. Ocean Circulation Modeling for Aquatic Dispersion of Liquid Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Y.G.; Lee, G.B.; Bang, S.Y.; Choi, S.B.; Lee, S.U.; Yoon, J.H.; Nam, S.Y.; Lee, H.R.

    2006-07-01

    Recently, three-dimensional models have been used for aquatic dispersion of radioactive effluents in relation to nuclear power plant siting based on the Notice No. 2003-12 'Guideline for investigating and assessing hydrological and aquatic characteristics of nuclear facility site' of the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) in Korea. Several nuclear power plants have been under construction or planed, which are Shin-Kori Unit 1 and 2, Shin-Wolsong Unit 1 and 2, and Shin-Ulchin Unit 1 and 2. For assessing the aquatic dispersion of radionuclides released from the above nuclear power plants, it is necessary to know the coastal currents around sites which are affected by circulation of East Sea. In this study, a three dimensional hydrodynamic model for the circulation of the East Sea of Korea has been developed as the first phase, which is based on the RIAMOM (Research Institute of Applied Mechanics' Ocean Model, Kyushu University, Japan). The model uses the primitive equation with hydrostatic approximation, and uses Arakawa-B grid system horizontally and Z coordinate vertically. Model domain is 126.5 deg. E to 142.5 deg. E of east longitude and 33 deg. N and 52 deg. N of the north latitude. The space of the horizontal grid was 1/12 deg. to longitude and latitude direction and vertical level was divided to 20. This model uses Generalized Arakawa Scheme, Slant Advection, and Mode-Splitting Method. The input data were from JODC (Japan Oceanographic Data Center), KNFRDI (Korea National Fisheries Research and Development Institute), and ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts). The modeling results are in fairly good agreement with schematic patterns of the surface circulation in the East Sea/Japan Sea. The local current model and aquatic dispersion model of the coastal region will be developed as the second phase. The oceanic dispersion experiments will be also carried out by using ARGO Drifter around a nuclear power plant site. (authors)

  17. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous micro- circulation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, 0 deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, 0 deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P < 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar-X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  18. Acute Cutaneous Microvascular Flow Responses to Whole-Body Tilting in Humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breit, Gregory A.; Watenpaugh, Donald E.; Ballard, Richard E.; Hargens, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    The transition from upright to head-down tilt (HDT) posture in humans increases blood pressure superior to the heart and decreases pressure inferior to the heart. Consequently, above heart level, myogenic arteriolar tone probably increases with HDT, in opposition to the withdrawal of baroreceptor-mediated sympathetic tone. We hypothesized that due to antagonism between central and local controls, the response of the facial cutaneous microcirculation to acute postural change will be weaker than that in the leg, where these two mechanisms reinforce each other. Cutaneous microvascular flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry simultaneously at the shin and the neck of 7 male and 3 female subjects. Subjects underwent a stepwise tilt protocol from standing control to 54 deg head-up tilt (HUT), 30 deg, 12 deg, O deg, -6 deg (HDT), -12 deg, -6 deg, O deg, 12 deg, 30 deg, 54 deg, and standing, for 30-sec periods with 10-sec transitions between postures. Flows at the shin and the neck increased significantly (P less than 0.05) from standing baseline to 12 deg HUT (252 +/- 55 and 126 +/- 9% (bar X +/- SE) of baseline, respectively). From 12 deg to -12 deg tilt, flows continued to increase at the shin (509 +/- 71% of baseline) but decreased at the neck to baseline levels (100 +/- 15% of baseline). Cutaneous microvascular flow recovered at both sites during the return to standing posture with significant hysteresis. Flow increases from standing to near-supine posture are attributed at both sites to baroreceptor-mediated vasodilation. The great dissimilarity in flow response magnitudes at the two measurement sites may be indicative of central/local regulatory antagonism above heart level and reinforcement below heart level.

  19. Model-independent analysis of quark mass matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, D.; Sarkar, U.

    1989-06-01

    In view of the apparent inconsistency of the Stech, Fritzsch-Stech, and Fritzsch-Shin models and only marginal agreement of the Fritzsch and modified Fritzsch-Stech models with recent data on /ital B//sub /ital d///sup 0/-/bar B/ /sub /ital d///sup 0/ mixing, we analyze the general quark mass matrices for three generations. Phenomenological considerations restrict the range of parameters involved to different sectors. In the present framework, the constraints corresponding to various /ital Ansa/$/ital uml/---/ital tze/ have been discussed.

  20. Radio sociology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, George W., Jr.

    1996-04-01

    A work was conducted, using radio telemetry, to locate a migrating, radio-tagged, sharp-shinned hawk. The hawk was monitored through the noise radiation it created. The hawk was found. During this study, it was found that the concentration of population corresponds with areas of increased noise temperature. Through this study, a bigger study was planned. The study would involved the relationship between a place's radiation signature and its other attributes, such as economic type, population, geographic concentration. The method of radio sociology would be used to track the sources of radio noise.

  1. Atlas of computerized blood flow analysis in bone disease.

    PubMed

    Gandsman, E J; Deutsch, S D; Tyson, I B

    1983-11-01

    The role of computerized blood flow analysis in routine bone scanning is reviewed. Cases illustrating the technique include proven diagnoses of toxic synovitis, Legg-Perthes disease, arthritis, avascular necrosis of the hip, fractures, benign and malignant tumors, Paget's disease, cellulitis, osteomyelitis, and shin splints. Several examples also show the use of the technique in monitoring treatment. The use of quantitative data from the blood flow, bone uptake phase, and static images suggests specific diagnostic patterns for each of the diseases presented in this atlas. Thus, this technique enables increased accuracy in the interpretation of the radionuclide bone scan.

  2. Acute injuries and specific problems in adult athletes.

    PubMed

    Barry, N N; McGuire, J L

    1996-08-01

    Special considerations need to be given to specific groups of adult athletes. The most common problems and needs of female and older athletes are discussed in the first section of this article. The second section reviews the diagnosis and management of certain acute injuries most frequently encountered in adult athletes. The last section discusses the differentiation between tarsal tunnel syndrome and plantar fasciitis, chronic compartmental pressure syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome ("shin splints"), and pelvic stress fractures and osteitis pubis, some commonly encountered difficult diagnoses.

  3. Exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer.

    PubMed

    Cetinus, E; Uzel, M; Bilgiç, E; Karaoguz, A; Herdem, M

    2004-04-01

    Recurrent pain in the lower leg caused by exercise is a common problem in athletes. The main causes are exercise induced compartment syndrome, periostitis of the tibia, stress fracture, venous diseases, obliterative arterial diseases, and shin splints. Exercise induced compartment syndrome is the least common. A recurrent tightening or tense sensation and aching in anatomically defined compartments is pathognomonic. The symptoms are caused by abnormally high pressure in compartments of the leg during and after exercise. In this report, a case of exercise induced compartment syndrome in a professional footballer is described.

  4. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    PubMed

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  5. A plyometric training model used to augment rehabilitation from tibial fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Herring, Kirk M

    2006-05-01

    Shin splints, an exercise-induced form of lower leg pain, is a common complaint among athletes. Considered an overuse injury that compromises the dense and tough fascial attachments of the tibialis posterior and/or tibialis anterior muscles from the tibia, it responds well to a multiphase treatment plan that incorporates plyometric strengthening and conditioning exercises. Plyometrics may be safely introduced as early as the third or functional phase of recovery. A progressive plyometric program that emphasizes a gradual development of eccentric stress loading to the musculoskeletal components of the deep posterior and anterior muscle compartments of the lower leg is described.

  6. Bone Scanning in the Adductor Insertion Avulsion Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Madhuri Shimpi

    2013-01-01

    A thigh splint (adductor insertion avulsion syndrome) is a relatively uncommon diagnosis analogous to shin splints. This article reports a 19-year-old female patient NOT a regular athlete who presented with groin pain. Physical examination was non-specific; magnetic resonance imaging pelvis did not reveal any abnormality. Patient referred for whole body bone scan, especially to locate any abnormality in the spine. This study highlights the role of whole body bone scan in the evaluation of groin pain and importance of evaluation of whole lower extremity. PMID:25126001

  7. [A skin cell segregating control system based on PC].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-zhong; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Hong-bing

    2005-11-01

    A skin cell segregating control system based on PC (personal computer) is presented in this paper. Its front controller is a single-chip microcomputer which enables the manipulation for 6 patients simultaneously, and thus provides a great convenience for clinical treatments for vitiligo. With the use of serial port communication technology, it's possible to monitor and control the front controller in a PC terminal. And the application of computer image acquisition technology realizes the synchronous acquisition of pathologic shin cell images pre/after the operation and a case history. Clinical tests prove its conformity with national standards and the pre-set technological requirements.

  8. Sports nuclear medicine. Bone imaging for lower extremity pain in athletes

    SciTech Connect

    Brill, D.R.

    1983-03-01

    Increased participation in sports by the general public has led to an increase in sports-induced injuries, including stress fractures, shin splints, arthritis, and a host of musculotendinous maladies. Bone scintigraphy with Tc-99m MDP has been used with increasing frequency in detecting stress fractures, but this study can miss certain important conditions and detect other lesions of lesser clinical significance. This paper demonstrates the spectrum of findings on bone scanning in nonacute sports trauma and offers suggestions for the optimal use of Tc-99m MDP for detecting the causes of lower extremity pain in athletes.

  9. Minitrack on data and knowledge base issues in genomics at the 27th Hawaii International Conference on system sciences

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    This report is a summary of the proceedings from the Minitrack on Data and Knowledge Base Issues in Genomics at the 27th Hawaii International Conference on System Science, January 4 - 7, 1994. The minitrack was organized by Dong-Guk Shin (University of Connecticut) and Francois Rechenmann (INRIA, France). Support was jointly provided by the NSF, NIH and DOE. The minitrack included, after rigorous review, ten full papers and four extended abstracts in the following five different research subareas of genome informatics: data modeling and management, sequence analysis, graphical user interface, interoperation in a heterogenous computing environment, and system integration in a knowledge-based approach.

  10. Observations at Kuchinoerabu-jima volcano, southern Kyushu, Japan, by using unmanned helicopter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohminato, T.; Kaneko, T.; Koyama, T.; Watanabe, A.; Kanda, W.; Tameguri, T.; Kazahaya, R.

    2015-12-01

    Kuchinoerabu-jima, volcano is a volcanic island located southern Kyushu, Japan. In 3 August, 2014, a small eruption at active summit crater, Shin-dake, destroyed all the observation stations near the summit. Since then, this volcano was only poorly monitored. After the eruption, entering within 2km from Shin-dake crater was strictly prohibited and thus it was impossible to fix summit stations on site. In April, 2015, we conducted seismic sensor installation by using unmanned helicopter (RMAX-G1 manufactured by Yamaha) so as to reestablish the seismic monitoring network near the summit area. We installed four seismic stations in the summit area. We also conducted various types of near-summit observations including an aero-magnetic measurement over the summit area, taking visual and infra-red images from low altitude, and volcanic gas sampling. We present preliminary results of the near summit observations using unmanned helicopter. The light-weight (5kg) and solar-powered seismic stations were designed exclusively for helicopter installation. They transmit seismic data every 10 minutes by using mobile data communication network. We could install them within 500m from the summit crater on 17, April. On 29 May, Shin-dake crater erupted again and the newly installed seismic stations were all destroyed by this eruption. The seismic stations could transmit data until just before the eruption. These data made us possible to evaluate the change in seismic activity leading up to the eruption. An aero-magnetic survey was conducted on 17 and 18 April. The flight altitude was between 100m and 150m above the ground (i.e a draped magnetic survey) . Path interval is 100m and the total flight path length is 80km. The magnetic intensity data were converted to magnetization of the edifice of Shin-dake. Comparison between the result this time with that obtained in 2001 shows demagnetization near the summit area. Temperature measurement over the summit area detected 368ºC at the

  11. [Application of ultrasonic investigation in estimation of morphofunctional state of muscles in patients with ischemic contracture of foot].

    PubMed

    Liabakh, A P; Vovchenko, H Ia

    2002-03-01

    Results of ultrasonic investigation of the shin and foot muscles were analyzed in 14 patients with an ischemic contracture of foot (ICF). All the patients were operated on, clinical significance of ICF ultrasonic semiotics was estimated. Structural changes were demonstrated by diffuse strengthening of echogeneicity, striateness loss, ischemized muscles thickness reduction, origination of hypoechogenic (of hydrophilic nature) portions in places of necrosis of muscular tissues. Hyperechogeneicity is caused by fibrosis of an ischemized muscles, which during isometric contraction somewhat thickened, their echogeneicity did not change.

  12. 3D Slicer as an Image Computing Platform for the Quantitative Imaging Network

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Andriy; Beichel, Reinhard; Kalpathy-Cramer, Jayashree; Finet, Julien; Fillion-Robin, Jean-Christophe; Pujol, Sonia; Bauer, Christian; Jennings, Dominique; Fennessy, Fiona; Sonka, Milan; Buatti, John; Aylward, Stephen; Miller, James V.; Pieper, Steve; Kikinis, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative analysis has tremendous but mostly unrealized potential in healthcare to support objective and accurate interpretation of the clinical imaging. In 2008, the National Cancer Institute began building the Quantitative Imaging Network (QIN) initiative with the goal of advancing quantitative imaging in the context of personalized therapy and evaluation of treatment response. Computerized analysis is an important component contributing to reproducibility and efficiency of the quantitative imaging techniques. The success of quantitative imaging is contingent on robust analysis methods and software tools to bring these methods from bench to bedside. 3D Slicer is a free open source software application for medical image computing. As a clinical research tool, 3D Slicer is similar to a radiology workstation that supports versatile visualizations but also provides advanced functionality such as automated segmentation and registration for a variety of application domains. Unlike a typical radiology workstation, 3D Slicer is free and is not tied to specific hardware. As a programming platform, 3D Slicer facilitates translation and evaluation of the new quantitative methods by allowing the biomedical researcher to focus on the implementation of the algorithm, and providing abstractions for the common tasks of data communication, visualization and user interface development. Compared to other tools that provide aspects of this functionality, 3D Slicer is fully open source and can be readily extended and redistributed. In addition, 3D Slicer is designed to facilitate the development of new functionality in the form of 3D Slicer extensions. In this paper, we present an overview of 3D Slicer as a platform for prototyping, development and evaluation of image analysis tools for clinical research applications. To illustrate the utility of the platform in the scope of QIN, we discuss several use cases of 3D Slicer by the existing QIN teams, and we elaborate on the future

  13. [Zur-mkhar bLo-gros rGyal-po, A distinguished physician of Tibet].

    PubMed

    Tubden, K; Ben, K

    1994-01-01

    The unity of Qin-Han feudal dynasties improves the development of society, flourished the economy and creates a good environment for friendly communication and fusion of customs among all nationalities, exerting positive and active influence on medicine. Analyses are made on the relation between customs and habits, and medical culture. It is stressed that not all customs are in line with science. Some of them might even be superstitious or anti-scientific. However, in some sense, it is the soil for the advent of medical and health care issues. PMID:11615233

  14. Genome sequence of the aerobic bacterium Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guohong; Liu, Bo; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-12-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%.

  15. Genome Sequence of the Aerobic Bacterium Bacillus sp. Strain FJAT-13831

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guohong; Lin, Naiquan; Tang, Weiqi; Tang, Jianyang; Lin, Yingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Bacillus sp. strain FJAT-13831 was isolated from the no. 1 pit soil of Emperor Qin's Terracotta Warriors in Xi'an City, People's Republic of China. The isolate showed a close relationship to the Bacillus cereus group. The draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. FJAT-13831 was 4,425,198 bp in size and consisted of 5,567 genes (protein-coding sequences [CDS]) with an average length of 782 bp and a G+C value of 36.36%. PMID:23144388

  16. Starling resistor versus compliance. Which explains the zero-flow pressure of a dynamic arterial pressure-flow relation?

    PubMed

    Magder, S

    1990-07-01

    Arterial pressure at zero flow (Pz = 0) that is higher than venous pressure (Pv) in dynamic pressure-flow relations has been explained by the presence of an arteriolar Starling resistor (SR) mechanism (i.e., vascular waterfall) or the discharge of vascular capacitance. To determine which was predominant, I studied in vivo hind limbs of 18 anesthetized dogs in which femoral arteries were cannulated with in-line electromagnetic flow probes to measure inflow (Qin), Pv was controlled, and collateral flow was eliminated with a tourniquet. Pz = 0 was obtained by turning flow to zero. Three tests were applied: 1) Pv was raised in steps with either constant Qin or constant arterial pressure (Pa) to determine the pressure at which upstream vascular characteristics were affected by a change in Pv, 2) the time to reach Pz = 0 was varied to determine compliance effects, and 3) an equation was developed to determine if experimentally derived parameters could explain Pz = 0 without invoking an SR. With constant Qin and a Pz = 0 of 56.9 +/- 11.7 mm Hg (time to Pz = 0, 3 seconds), Pv could be raised by 9.6 +/- 6.2 to 16.3 +/- 6.0 mm Hg before Pa increased, and with constant Pa, Pv could be raised by 6.8 +/- 7.3 to 14.0 +/- 8.0 mm Hg before Qin decreased. With increasing times to reach Pz = 0, Pz = 0 initially dropped precipitously, but then decreased by only a small amount over the next 5-10 seconds even though arterial pressure was much above Pv. This could be explained by an SR mechanism with a critical pressure of 42.3 +/- 11.4 mm Hg and an arterial compliance of 0.0104 +/- 0.0023 ml.mm Hg-1 (n = 6). There was no value for the compliance that described the results when the arterial outflow pressure was Pv. Thus, this study supports the hypothesis that an SR mechanism is present in the vascular system. It is most likely precapillary, and in the resting limb, it has a value of 40-50 mm Hg. However, Pz = 0 in dynamic pressure-flow studies of less than 4 seconds is also greatly

  17. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production.

  18. [A brief history of traditional Chinese medicinal pills].

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Lu, X; Zhu, J P

    2016-05-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine pill, an archaic medicinal preparation form, is a kind of spherical or spherical-like preparation form produced by medicinal powders or extracts mixed with appropriate excipient or other accessories. It was originated in the Pre-Qin Dynasty, developed and enriched from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties. With the improvement of preparing process, honeyed pill, waxed pill, coating pill and wax-coating pill etc. appeared in succession. In modern times, with the progress of pharmaceutical machine, the medicinal pill is innovated constantly, and at present, it becomes the main form of Chinese patent medicine with batch production. PMID:27485865

  19. The Organization of Knowledge Spaces for a Virtual Learning Environment Supported by a Digital Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Terence R.; Agapova, Olga; Freeston, Michael; Ushakov, Alex

    This paper represents the combined work of the whole of the ADEPT Knowledge Organization Team. Other members are: Olha Buchel, Jim Frew, Linda Hill, Richard Mayer, Jian Qin, Laura Smart, and Tim Tierney. The Alexandria Digital Library Project is developing a concept-based learning environment for the sciences. In this paper, we briefly discuss: the rationale for the approach; the structure of the concept model and correlative relationships between concepts; the components and associated services of the concept-based learning environment; and planned and potential applications of the learning environment.

  20. Reply to 'Comment II on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers''

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    2006-07-15

    In the preceding Comment [Jian-Zhong Du, Su-Juan Qin, Qiao-Yan Wen, and Fu-Chen Zhu, Phys. Rev. A 74, 016301 (2006)], it has been shown that in a quantum secret sharing protocol proposed in [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], one of the receivers can cheat by splitting the entanglement of the carrier and intercepting the secret, without being detected. In this reply we show that a simple modification of the protocol prevents the receivers from this kind of cheating.

  1. Intermittent claudication in an athlete--popliteal artery entrapment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taunton, J E; Maxwell, T M

    1982-09-01

    This case study reports a 26 year old female athlete who presented with a history of cramp-like right calf pain. She was limited to a walking distance of only three blocks. She had been referred to the Sports Medicine Clinic with a diagnosis of "shin splints". On examination of the pedal pulses it was found that the right posterior tibial pulse was absent. A diagnosis of popliteal artery entrapment was made which was confirmed by Doppler studies following treadmill walking and femoral arteriograms. Surgery was performed which included resection of the entrapped artery by the plantaris tendon and endarterectomy, plus patch graft angioplasty. The artery had been completely occluded. The patient resumed full activity pain free. This case report emphasizes that all leg pains in athletes are not variants of "shin splints". Popliteal artery entrapment is an uncommon condition that requires early detection. A detailed history and thorough examination of the peripheral pulses is essential to prevent long term sequelae of arterial deficiency.

  2. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and "weekend warrior" athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of "shin splints," one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. "Active" rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness.

  3. Sizing up Septoria

    PubMed Central

    Quaedvlieg, W.; Verkley, G.J.M.; Shin, H.-D.; Barreto, R.W.; Alfenas, A.C.; Swart, W.J.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2013-01-01

    , Verkley & Crous, Xenoseptoria Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous. New species - Acicuseptoria rumicis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Caryophylloseptoria pseudolychnidis Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Coniothyrium sidae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Corynespora leucadendri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria ceratoniae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Cylindroseptoria pistaciae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Kirstenboschia diospyri Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neoseptoria caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Neostagonospora elegiae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Paraphoma dioscoreae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora caricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Parastagonospora poae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Phlyctema vincetoxici Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria tabebuiae-serratifoliae Quaedvlieg, Alfenas & Crous, Polyphialoseptoria terminaliae Quaedvlieg, R.W. Barreto, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria collariana Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Pseudoseptoria obscura Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sclerostagonospora phragmiticola Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria cretae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Septoria glycinicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria oenanthicola Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Septoria pseudonapelli Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Setophoma chromolaenae Quaedvlieg, Verkley, R.W. Barreto & Crous, Setoseptoria phragmitis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina amelanchier Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina pseudovirgaureae Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Sphaerulina viciae Quaedvlieg, H.D. Shin, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora duoseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora perfecta Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora pseudocaricis Quaedvlieg, Verkley, Gardiennet & Crous, Stagonospora pseudovitensis Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Stagonospora uniseptata Quaedvlieg, Verkley & Crous, Vrystaatia aloeicola

  4. Microbial assessment of an upward and downward dehiding technique in a commercial beef processing plant.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Thomas G; Giotis, Efstathios S; McKevitt, Aideen I

    2014-08-01

    Preventing microbial contamination during dehiding is challenging, and skinning methods are of critical importance for the hygienic status of beef carcasses. Two skinning methods are usually employed: upward hide pulling (UHP) and downward hide pulling (DHP). This study has compared the microbiological contamination of carcasses using both systems in a beef processing plant in the process of changing its dehiding method from UHP to DHP. 100 cm(2) areas from eight carcass sites (ham, chuck, rump, bung, flank, brisket, shin and neck) were sampled on 36 skinned carcasses dehided by each technique. Total viable counts (TVCs) and Enterobacteriaceae counts for each site were determined. No significant differences were observed in total (pooled-samples) carcass contamination regardless of the method used. However, significant differences (p<0.05) in TVCs were observed at the flank, shin, brisket and neck. These differences can be attributed to possible deficiencies in the implementation of the HACCP pre-requisite programmes, and are not necessarily associated with the skinning method per se.

  5. Using 3D Simulation of Elastic Wave Propagation in Laplace Domain for Electromagnetic-Seismic Inverse Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, P.; Newman, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    Quantitative imaging of the subsurface objects is essential part of modern geophysical technology important in oil and gas exploration and wide-range engineering applications. A significant advancement in developing a robust, high resolution imaging technology is concerned with using the different geophysical measurements (gravity, EM and seismic) sense the subsurface structure. A joint image of the subsurface geophysical attributes (velocity, electrical conductivity and density) requires the consistent treatment of the different geophysical data (electromagnetic and seismic) due to their differing physical nature - diffusive and attenuated propagation of electromagnetic energy and nonlinear, multiple scattering wave propagation of seismic energy. Recent progress has been reported in the solution of this problem by reducing the complexity of seismic wave field. Works formed by Shin and Cha (2009 and 2008) suggests that low-pass filtering the seismic trace via Laplace-Fourier transformation can be an effective approach for obtaining seismic data that has similar spatial resolution to EM data. The effect of Laplace- Fourier transformation on the low-pass filtered trace changes the modeling of the seismic wave field from multi-wave propagation to diffusion. The key benefit of transformation is that diffusive wave-field inversion works well for both data sets seismic (Shin and Cha, 2008) and electromagnetic (Commer and Newman 2008, Newman et al., 2010). Moreover the different data sets can also be matched for similar and consistent resolution. Finally, the low pass seismic image is also an excellent choice for a starting model when analyzing the entire seismic waveform to recover the high spatial frequency components of the seismic image; its reflectivity (Shin and Cha, 2009). Without a good starting model full waveform seismic imaging and migration can encounter serious difficulties. To produce seismic wave fields consistent for joint imaging in the Laplace

  6. [Using delta34S-SO4(2-) and Delta15N-NO3-, delta18O-NO3- to Trace the Sources of Sulfur and Nitrate in Lihu Lake Undergound Water, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Qiong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Fang; Pan, Mou-cheng; Yu, Shi

    2015-08-01

    To reveal the temporal and spatial variation pattern of groundwater chemistry in Lihu Lake and explore the causes for the change of water quality through analysis of sulfur isotope and nitrogen-oxygen isotope, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and protection of karst water resources. Several groundwater samples, collected from January to December in 2010 and May, October in 2014 were monitored to analyze the chemical composition of conventional water and the characteristics of delta34S-SO4(2-), and delta15N-NO3-. The results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical type of the underground water was HCO3-Ca type and effected by the seasonal precipitation and human activity, the temporal and spatial variation of the main cations was obvious. (2) The sulfur concentration in the underground river was slightly decreased since the operation of the sewage plant, however, the sulfur concentration was still high. The nitrate pollution aggravated in the year 2014 compared to 2010. Impacted by human activity, the concentration of sulfur and nitrate was higher in the upstream Nandan river, Layi cave and the midstream Liangfeng cave, and Gantianba than in the downstream Xiaolong cave. (3) The delta34S-SO4(2-) value ranged from -4.12%o to -0.93%o. It was inferred that the emission of sulfur oxides through burning coal resulted in the rainwater acidification, which input a large amount of SO4(2-) into the underground water in the form of acid rain. (4) The delta15N-N03- value ranged from 0.26%o to 11.58%o, with an average value of 7.61%o, the delta18O-NO3- value ranged from -2.33%o to 21.76%o, with an average value of 9.38%o. In combination of the composition analysis of nitrogen-oxygen isotope of nitrate, it was believed that soil organic nitrogen, manure and sewage were the main sources of nitrate in the groundwater and the main causes for aggravation of nitrate pollution of the underground water. PMID:26592016

  7. PREFACE: Symposium 1: Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Masatomo

    2011-05-01

    Preface to Symposium 1 (Advanced Structure Analysis and Characterization of Ceramic Materials) of the International Congress of Ceramics III, held 14-18 November 2010 in Osaka, Japan Remarkable developments have been made recently in the structural analysis and characterization of inorganic crystalline and amorphous materials, such as x-ray, neutron, synchrotron and electron diffraction, x-ray/neutron scattering, IR/Raman scattering, NMR, XAFS, first-principle calculations, computer simulations, Rietveld analysis, the maximum-entropy method, in situ measurements at high temperatures/pressures and electron/nuclear density analysis. These techniques enable scientists to study not only static and long-range periodic structures but also dynamic and short-/intermediate-range structures. Multi-scale characterization from the electron to micrometer levels is becoming increasingly important as a means of understanding phenomena at the interfaces, grain boundaries and surfaces of ceramic materials. This symposium has discussed the structures and structure/property relationships of various ceramic materials (electro, magnetic and optical ceramics; energy and environment related ceramics; bio-ceramics; ceramics for reliability secure society; traditional ceramics) through 38 oral presentations including 8 invited lectures and 49 posters. Best poster awards were given to six excellent poster presentations (Y-C Chen, Tokyo Institute of Technology; C-Y Chung, Tohoku University; T Stawski, University of Twente; Y Hirano, Nagoya Institute of Technology; B Bittova, Charles University Prague; Y Onodera, Kyoto University). I have enjoyed working with my friends in the ICC3 conference. I would like to express special thanks to other organizers: Professor Scott T Misture, Alfred University, USA, Professor Xiaolong Chen, Institute of Physics, CAS, China, Professor Takashi Ida, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Japan, Professor Isao Tanaka, Kyoto University, Japan. I also acknowledge the

  8. [Using delta34S-SO4(2-) and Delta15N-NO3-, delta18O-NO3- to Trace the Sources of Sulfur and Nitrate in Lihu Lake Undergound Water, Guangxi, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Xiao, Qiong; Liu, Wen; Guo, Fang; Pan, Mou-cheng; Yu, Shi

    2015-08-01

    To reveal the temporal and spatial variation pattern of groundwater chemistry in Lihu Lake and explore the causes for the change of water quality through analysis of sulfur isotope and nitrogen-oxygen isotope, so as to provide scientific basis for reasonable exploitation and protection of karst water resources. Several groundwater samples, collected from January to December in 2010 and May, October in 2014 were monitored to analyze the chemical composition of conventional water and the characteristics of delta34S-SO4(2-), and delta15N-NO3-. The results showed that: (1) The hydrochemical type of the underground water was HCO3-Ca type and effected by the seasonal precipitation and human activity, the temporal and spatial variation of the main cations was obvious. (2) The sulfur concentration in the underground river was slightly decreased since the operation of the sewage plant, however, the sulfur concentration was still high. The nitrate pollution aggravated in the year 2014 compared to 2010. Impacted by human activity, the concentration of sulfur and nitrate was higher in the upstream Nandan river, Layi cave and the midstream Liangfeng cave, and Gantianba than in the downstream Xiaolong cave. (3) The delta34S-SO4(2-) value ranged from -4.12%o to -0.93%o. It was inferred that the emission of sulfur oxides through burning coal resulted in the rainwater acidification, which input a large amount of SO4(2-) into the underground water in the form of acid rain. (4) The delta15N-N03- value ranged from 0.26%o to 11.58%o, with an average value of 7.61%o, the delta18O-NO3- value ranged from -2.33%o to 21.76%o, with an average value of 9.38%o. In combination of the composition analysis of nitrogen-oxygen isotope of nitrate, it was believed that soil organic nitrogen, manure and sewage were the main sources of nitrate in the groundwater and the main causes for aggravation of nitrate pollution of the underground water.

  9. A targeted strategy to analyze untargeted mass spectral data: Rapid chemical profiling of Scutellaria baicalensis using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry and key ion filtering.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Xue; Li, Ru; Song, Wei; Miao, Wen-juan; Liu, Jia; Chen, Hu-biao; Guo, De-an; Ye, Min

    2016-04-01

    Structural identification of natural products by tandem mass spectrometry requires laborious spectral analysis. Herein, we report a targeted post-acquisition data processing strategy, key ion filtering (KIF), to analyze untargeted mass spectral data. This strategy includes four steps: (1) untargeted data acquisition by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/orbitrap-MS); (2) construction of a key ion database according to diagnostic MS/MS fragmentations and conservative substructures of natural compounds; (3) high-resolution key ion filtering of the acquired data to recognize substructures; and (4) structural identification of target compounds by analyzing their MS/MS spectra. The herbal medicine Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) was used to illustrate this strategy. Its extract was separated within 20 min on a C18 column (1.8 μm, 2.1×150 mm) eluted with acetonitrile, methanol, and water containing 0.1% formic acid. The compounds were detected in the (-)-ESI mode, and their MS/MS spectra were recorded in the untargeted manner. Key ions were then filtered from the LC/MS data to recognize flavones, flavanones, O-/C-glycosides, and phenylethanoid glycosides. Finally, a total of 132 compounds were identified from Huang-Qin, and 59 of them were reported for the first time. This study provides an efficient data processing strategy to rapidly profile the chemical constituents of complicated herbal extracts.

  10. Quark number fluctuations at finite temperature and finite chemical potential via the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Xian-yin; Qin, Si-xue; Liu, Yu-xin

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quark number fluctuations up to the fourth order in the matter composed of two light flavor quarks with isospin symmetry and at finite temperature and finite chemical potential using the Dyson-Schwinger equation approach of QCD. In order to solve the quark gap equation, we approximate the dressed quark-gluon vertex with the bare one and adopt both the Maris-Tandy model and the infrared constant (Qin-Chang) model for the dressed gluon propagator. Our results indicate that the second, third, and fourth order fluctuations of net quark number all diverge at the critical endpoint (CEP). Around the CEP, the second order fluctuation possesses obvious pump while the third and fourth order ones exhibit distinct wiggles between positive and negative. For the Maris-Tandy model and the Qin-Chang model, we give the pseudocritical temperature at zero quark chemical potential as Tc=146 MeV and 150 MeV, and locate the CEP at (μEq,TE)=(120,124) MeV and (124,129) MeV, respectively. In addition, our results manifest that the fluctuations are insensitive to the details of the model, but the location of the CEP shifts to low chemical potential and high temperature as the confinement length scale increases.

  11. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinxing; Qin, Hong; Pu, Zuyin; Xie, Lun; Fu, Suiyan

    2011-05-01

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  12. The Contribution of Segmental and Tonal Information in Mandarin Spoken Word Processing.

    PubMed

    Sereno, Joan A; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-06-01

    Two priming experiments examined the separate contribution of lexical tone and segmental information in the processing of spoken words in Mandarin Chinese. Experiment I contrasted four types of prime-target pairs: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), segment-only overlap (ru3-ru4), tone-only overlap (sha4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 48 native Mandarin listeners. Experiment 2 further investigated the minimal segmental overlap needed to trigger priming when tonal information is present. Four prime-target conditions were contrasted: tone-and-segment overlap (ru4-ru4), only onset segment overlap (re4-ru4), only rime overlap (pu4-ru4) and unrelated (qin 1 -ru4) in an auditory lexical decision task with 68 native Mandarin listeners. The results showed significant priming effects when both tonal and segmental information overlapped or, although to a lesser extent, when only segmental information overlapped, with no priming found when only tones matched. Moreover, any partial segmental overlap, even with matching tonal cues, resulted in significant inhibition. These data clearly indicate that lexical tones are processed differently from segments, with syllabic structure playing a critical role. These findings are discussed in terms of the overall architecture of the processing system that emerges in Mandarin lexical access. PMID:26677639

  13. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China's initial political unification and its aftermath.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M; Nicholas, Linda M

    2015-07-28

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000-1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900-221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin-Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  14. Variational symplectic algorithm for guiding center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinxing; Pu Zuyin; Xie Lun; Fu Suiyan; Qin Hong

    2011-05-15

    Charged particle dynamics in magnetosphere has temporal and spatial multiscale; therefore, numerical accuracy over a long integration time is required. A variational symplectic integrator (VSI) [H. Qin and X. Guan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 035006 (2008) and H. Qin, X. Guan, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Plasmas 16, 042510 (2009)] for the guiding-center motion of charged particles in general magnetic field is applied to study the dynamics of charged particles in magnetosphere. Instead of discretizing the differential equations of the guiding-center motion, the action of the guiding-center motion is discretized and minimized to obtain the iteration rules for advancing the dynamics. The VSI conserves exactly a discrete Lagrangian symplectic structure and has better numerical properties over a long integration time, compared with standard integrators, such as the standard and adaptive fourth order Runge-Kutta (RK4) methods. Applying the VSI method to guiding-center dynamics in the inner magnetosphere, we can accurately calculate the particles'orbits for an arbitrary long simulating time with good conservation property. When a time-independent convection and corotation electric field is considered, the VSI method can give the accurate single particle orbit, while the RK4 method gives an incorrect orbit due to its intrinsic error accumulation over a long integrating time.

  15. [King Jung-jo's medical philosophy].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Hyung; Kim, Dal Rae

    2009-12-01

    King Jungjo who introduced the advent of cultural renaissance of Chosun Dynasty as little been known about his work in medicine. With a wide knowledge in medicine, he was the only one among the kings who wrote a book on medicine, called "SueMinMyoJeon". In this paper, his perspective on medicine will be looked into based on "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty", "Seungjeongwon Ilgi", "Hong Je jun Se", "KukGoBoGam", "Ildkrok", "JeJungShinPyun", "SueMinMyoJeon" etc. King Jungo valued empiricism in the field of medicine. He deepened understandings in medicine while taking care of King Youngjo, the late king. And it led him to author "SueMinMyoJeon" himself, and further ordered the publications of "JeJungShinPyun" "MaGuaHeoiTong". These two books were conducted to include empirical cases of folklore remedy. King Jungjo's medical philosophy can be epitomized in filial piety and realization of people-serving politics, which are the essentials of Confucianism. His filial piety towards the late king, Youngjo and his mother is shown in his devotion when taking care of them. Especially the way he examined the differentiation of diseases and corresponding treatments is well described in "The Annals of the Chosun Dynasty". "JeJungShinPyun" was also published and it came handy for folk villagers in times of medical needs. Later this book influenced "BangYakHaepPyun" by Hwang Do Yeon. King Jungjo emphasized pragmatism in spreading medical knowledges, thus removing the theoretical contents that are related to Taoism, especially the ones on alchemy from "DongEuiBoGam", when publishing "SueMinMyoJeon". Even the excerpts from "SoMun" were taken out, if not practical. King Jungjo, however, discussed the importance of healthy regimen and mentioned himself practicing it from the book "IlDeukLok", which seems to be the only book that derailed from the pragmatistic track. King Jungjo put emphasis on consistency between diagnosis and treatment. In diagnosing, Meridian pulse was taken

  16. Gait analysis. Alterations in support phase forces using supportive devices.

    PubMed

    Scranton, P E; Pedegana, L R; Whitesel, J P

    1982-01-01

    This study documents changes in momentary distribution of forces under the foot, comparing barefoot gait to that with heel cups, medial arch supports, and low-dye taping. Cholesterol crystal force plate analysis and a computerized Kistler force platform were used in the study. Low-dye taping or a heel cup significantly diminished the duration of forces under the midfoot, medializing the instant center of forces. A medial arch support shifted the instant center of forces laterally, though it did not diminish the duration of forces under the arch. The relationship between these alterations of force distribution and the treatment of common runner's ailments such as plantar fasciitis, posterior tibial tendinitis, metatarsalgia, and shin splints is much clearer in the light of these results.

  17. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity.

  18. Bone scanning in the adductor insertion avulsion syndrome ("thigh splints").

    PubMed

    Charkes, N D; Siddhivarn, N; Schneck, C D

    1987-12-01

    Shin splints is a defined clinical entity resulting from extreme tension on muscles inserting on the tibia, resulting in periosteal elevation which is detectable by bone scanning. The clinical equivalent in the thigh has been described. We found scintigraphic changes in the femurs of seven short, female, basic trainees at the Fort Dix Army base, most of whom were referred for stress fractures elsewhere in the lower extremities. The scan findings were generally noted in the upper or mid femurs, always involved the anteromedial cortex, and were bilateral in five of the seven subjects. The abnormalities were linear and suggested periosteal elevation, and did not have the typical appearance of stress fracture. Since the findings correspond to the insertion of one or more adductor muscle groups, the descriptive term "adductor insertion avulsion syndrome" or "thigh splints" is proposed for this entity.

  19. Imaging of stress fractures in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Spitz, Damon J; Newberg, Arthur H

    2002-03-01

    Osseous stress fractures and stress reactions represent the effect of abnormal repetitive stress on normal bone. An accurate and thorough clinical history and sequential radiographs often suffice 40 make the diagnosis especially when the fracture occurs in one of the common locations, such as the tibia, metatarsals, or calcaneus. In cases that are atypical in location or clinical presentation the authors rely more on MR imaging, radionuclide bone scanning, and occasionally CT. MR imaging detects early changes of osseous stress injury and allows precise definition of anatomy and extent of injury, and is the preferred modality for evaluating the continuum of osseous manifestations of stress injury. MR imaging is useful in evaluating shin splints, early osseous stress injuries, and overt stress fracture. In the elite athlete prompt diagnosis and early rehabilitation are the goals.

  20. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  1. Athletes attending a sports injury clinic--a review.

    PubMed

    Devereaux, M D; Lachmann, S M

    1983-12-01

    In a prospective study over the two years 1981-1982, there were 1186 separate sporting injuries treated at a Sports Injury Clinic. Just over 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 25 years old, while 80% were male. Football, Rugby, Running, Squash and Rowing contributed over 70% of these injuries. The commonest injuries were to the lower limb and lumbar region. In 43% of knee injuries there was strain of the collateral ligaments, while another 26% had patello-femoral pain. Short distance running was associated with an increase in shin splints, tibial stress fractures and hamstring injuries. Long distance running was associated with an increase in ankle and foot injuries. Sports Injury Clinics can benefit the injured athlete and there appears to be a need for their development in major hospitals.

  2. Impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns: An application of ARCH and GARCH methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Abdullah, Nurul Ain; Abdul Karim, Samsul Ariffin

    2013-04-01

    This paper is focusing on seeing the resilient of precious metals returns in facing the global financial crisis and provides a new guide for the investors before making investment decisions on precious metals. Four types of precious metals returns which are the variables selected in this study. The precious metals are gold, silver, bronze and platinum. All the variables are transferred to natural logarithm (ln). Daily data over the period 2 January 1995 to 30 December 2011 is used. Unit root tests that involve Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests have been employed in determining the stationarity of the variables. Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) and Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (GARCH) methods have been applied in measuring the impact of global financial crisis on precious metals returns. The result shows that investing in platinum is less risky compared to the other precious metals because it is not influence by the crisis period.

  3. [Primary cutaneous Nocardia brasiliensis cellulitis in immunocompetent child].

    PubMed

    Shachor-Meyouhas, Yael; Ravid, Sarit; Suhair, Hanna; Kassis, Imad

    2012-08-01

    Primary cutaneous nocardiosis is an infrequent infection among children, generally affecting immunocompromised hosts. It is caused by Gram positive bacteria, partially alcohol and acid resistant which are saprophytes of the soil, water and organic matter. In most cases the causal agent enters through inhalation, and hematogenous dissemination may occur mainly among the immune compromised patients. Direct cutaneous inoculation is less frequent, especially among children. We report an 8-year old female who lives in an urban house with a small garden, who presented with an ulcer on her right shin accompanied by surrounding cellulitis, pain, swelling and fever. The patient's medical history was unremarkable, with no exposure to animals or travelling, except for rafting on the Jordan River the previous week. Culture from the ulcer grew Nocardia brasiliensis, and she recovered after 8 weeks of therapy with trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. PMID:23350294

  4. Magnetotelluric inversion via reverse time migration algorithm of seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taeyoung . E-mail: tyha@math.snu.ac.kr; Shin, Changsoo . E-mail: css@model.snu.ac.kr

    2007-07-01

    We propose a new algorithm for two-dimensional magnetotelluric (MT) inversion. Our algorithm is an MT inversion based on the steepest descent method, borrowed from the backpropagation technique of seismic inversion or reverse time migration, introduced in the middle 1980s by Lailly and Tarantola. The steepest descent direction can be calculated efficiently by using the symmetry of numerical Green's function derived from a mixed finite element method proposed by Nedelec for Maxwell's equation, without calculating the Jacobian matrix explicitly. We construct three different objective functions by taking the logarithm of the complex apparent resistivity as introduced in the recent waveform inversion algorithm by Shin and Min. These objective functions can be naturally separated into amplitude inversion, phase inversion and simultaneous inversion. We demonstrate our algorithm by showing three inversion results for synthetic data.

  5. A historical analysis of natural gas demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalbec, Nathan Richard

    This thesis analyzes demand in the US energy market for natural gas, oil, and coal over the period of 1918-2013 and examines their price relationship over the period of 2007-2013. Diagnostic tests for time series were used; Augmented Dickey-Fuller, Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin, Johansen cointegration, Granger Causality and weak exogeneity tests. Directed acyclic graphs were used as a complimentary test for endogeneity. Due to the varied results in determining endogeneity, a seemingly unrelated regression model was used which assumes all right hand side variables in the three demand equations were exogenous. A number of factors were significant in determining demand for natural gas including its own price, lagged demand, a number of structural break dummies, and trend, while oil indicate some substitutability with natural gas. An error correction model was used to examine the price relationships. Natural gas price was found not to have a significant cointegrating vector.

  6. Another Piece in the Fibrotic Puzzle: TSLP as a Novel Ligand for Fibrocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Christmann, Romy Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) has emerged as an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of nonallergic diseases, especially in diseases that include fibrosis. It has been shown to be upregulated in both cutaneous and lung fibrotic conditions. Shin et al. report that TSLP may also play a role in the pathogenesis of keloids. The main mechanism of TSLP profibrotic effects is not as yet fully understood, although the data suggest that it involves collagen production through transforming growth factor-β, at least in the case of dermal fibroblasts. The authors also report that TSLP is able to activate fibrocytes, probably by inducing stromal cell-derived factor-1 (also termed CXCL12), one of its main ligands. These findings support the concept that TSLP plays a role in the development of fibrosis, and they should lead to mechanistic studies on TSLP profibrotic signaling. PMID:26802232

  7. Hepatic Fibrinogen Storage Disease in a Patient with Hypofibrinogenemia: Report of a Case with a Missense Mutation of the FGA Gene.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael J; Venick, Robert; Bhuta, Sunita; Li, Xinmin; Wang, Hanlin L

    2015-11-01

    We report a 9-year-old patient with abnormal liver tests found incidentally during routine bloodwork as part of a preoperative evaluation for excision of a benign cyst. A liver biopsy demonstrated hepatocytes to have pale and expanded cytoplasm that contained multiple vague globular eosinophilic inclusions. Electron microscopy showed fingerprint-like structures in the dilated cisternae of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, characteristic of fibrinogen. Whole exome sequencing identified a heterozygous missense mutation at codon 35 of the fibrinogen α (FGA) gene. No mutation was identified in the β or γ chains. His plasma fibrinogen levels were found to be decreased to 85 mg/dL (normal range 215-464). His family history was pertinent for his mother and maternal grandfather with hypofibrinogenemia. He had not had any significant bleeding episodes except for minor bruising over the shins. This case illustrates a rare etiology of storage disease that causes abnormal liver function tests. PMID:26676819

  8. Isolated tuberculosis of the calcaneum in a constitutionally well patient

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Zara; Konan, Sujith; Olivier, André; Briggs, Tim W R

    2014-01-01

    A 66-year-old Caucasian man presented with a 9-month history of a painful left heel with associated soft tissue swelling. Pitting oedema was present to the upper shin. Plain radiograph showed a sclerotic calcaneum with lucent patches and the CT scan revealed bony destruction at the posterosuperior aspect of the calcaneus with a moth-eaten appearance. To obtain a more definitive diagnosis, the patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy, which showed caseating granulomatous inflammation strongly suggestive of Mycobacterium infection. A Ziehl-Neilson stain did not show any microorganisms. Microbiology confirmed the presence of Staphylococcus aureas. A diagnosis of tuberculosis with concomitant Staphylococcus superinfection was made based on the histology and clinical context. The patient was treated with curettage and cementing of the lesion in order to debride the infected tissue and provide structural support to the bone. A 9-month course of quadruple antituberculous therapy was also initiated. PMID:25312889

  9. Hypermobility and injuries in a professional ballet company.

    PubMed Central

    Klemp, P.; Learmonth, I. D.

    1984-01-01

    A study was conducted on members of the Cape Performing Arts Board (CAPAB) professional ballet company to determine the prevalence of hypermobility and to document the injuries sustained over a ten year period. If forward flexion, which is acquired through training, is excluded as a parameter the difference in hypermobility between dancers and controls is not statistically significant. Considering the stresses imposed on the musculoskeletal system, the number of injuries was surprisingly low. Ligamentous injuries about the ankle and knee were both common and accounted for the major morbidity. There were minor differences in the nature and severity of injuries in the male and female dancers. Back injuries, fractures and osteoarthrosis were uncommon and shin splints was not recorded in any of the dancers. Images p143-a p143-b Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:6435713

  10. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  11. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia.

    PubMed

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157-61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  12. Sweet's syndrome associated with cellulitis - a challenging diagnosis*

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Cristina; Santos, Rui; Pereira, Teresa; Brito, Celeste

    2016-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic dermatosis with worldwide distribution that has been associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases, infections, malignancies, drugs, and pregnancy. The disease is idiopathic in up to 50% of patients. A 64-year-old woman, diagnosed with right limb cellulitis (4 days of evolution), was seen at our department, due to persistent cellulitis and progressive appearance of painful nodules and plaques in both shins and the right forearm (2 days of evolution). Taken together, clinical, laboratory and pathological data suggested the diagnosis of Sweet's syndrome, probably secondary to cellulitis of the right inferior limb. We suggest that cellulitis may be associated with Sweet's syndrome, a rare association in the literature. PMID:26982787

  13. Repair of defects and osteosynthesis of long bones in children with osteoclastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, D. V.; Gubina, E. V.; Podorozhnaya, V. T.; Senchenko, E. V.; Sadovoy, M. A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper is aimed at reporting a retrospective analysis covering the period from 2007 to 2015. The study involved 22 patients with benign osteoclastoma (OC), 14 male and 8 female children aged 9 to 19. All patients had monostotic lesions with the following location of pathological foci: humerus—11 patients, femoral bone—7, shin bone— 1, fibular bone—1, and ulnar bone—1. All 22 patients underwent surgery. Surgical treatment included resection of tumor focus within intact tissues (in cases of eccentric foci, bony bridge was preserved in the area of minimum damage, which was treated by electrocoagulation together with the cavity) together with bone grafting and intramedullary reinforcement of the affected bone (which provides stable osteosynthesis, early mobilization, and prevention of functional deficits in most patients). Consolidation was achieved in 100% of the operated patients.

  14. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    : p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical. PMID:22653125

  15. Evolution of gout: "malignant" change over time?

    PubMed

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-10-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses.

  16. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin and its impact on children.

    PubMed

    Herro, Elise; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    : p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin (PTBPFR) is widely used as an adhesive owing to its rapid onset of action, durability, flexibility, and heat resistance. Moreover, because of its tackiness, it is particularly useful as a glue component on both leather and rubber products. Sensitization to this resin has been increasing since the first cases of PTBPFR contact allergy in the late 1950s, and pediatric contact allergy to this resin is a significant problem. p-tert-Butylphenol formaldehyde resin has been reported as a leading cause of shoe-associated dermatitis internationally, as well as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from its use in neoprene wet suits and sports equipment such as shin guards. In summary, patch test screening of both adults and children with PTBPFR is important, given the ubiquitous use of this chemical.

  17. Enabling microscale and nanoscale approaches for bioengineered cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Chan, Vincent; Raman, Ritu; Cvetkovic, Caroline; Bashir, Rashid

    2013-03-26

    In this issue of ACS Nano, Shin et al. present their finding that the addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) in gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) results in improved functionality of bioengineered cardiac tissue. These CNT-GelMA hybrid materials demonstrate cardiac tissue with enhanced electrophysiological performance; improved mechanical integrity; better cell adhesion, viability, uniformity, and organization; increased beating rate and lowered excitation threshold; and protective effects against cardio-inhibitory and cardio-toxic drugs. In this Perspective, we outline recent progress in cardiac tissue engineering and prospects for future development. Bioengineered cardiac tissues can be used to build "heart-on-a-chip" devices for drug safety and efficacy testing, fabricate bioactuators for biointegrated robotics and reverse-engineered life forms, treat abnormal cardiac rhythms, and perhaps one day cure heart disease with tissue and organ transplants.

  18. Important cutaneous manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Trost, L; McDonnell, J

    2005-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has many extraintestinal manifestations. Cutaneous manifestations are usually related to the activity of the bowel disease but may have an independent course. Anyone presenting with IBD should be examined for cutaneous manifestations. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a severe painful ulcerating disease that requires moist wound management and, in the absence of secondary infection, systemic corticosteroids, cyclosporine, or both. Infliximab may also be used. Erythema nodosum is a common cause of tender red nodules of the shins. Management includes leg elevation, NSAIDs, and potassium iodide. Oral manifestations of IBD include aphthous stomatitis, mucosal nodularity (cobblestoning), and pyostomatitis vegetans. Treatment should be directed both at the cutaneous lesions and at the underlying systemic condition. PMID:16143688

  19. Feedback about more accurate versus less accurate trials: differential effects on self-confidence and activation.

    PubMed

    Badami, Rokhsareh; VaezMousavi, Mohammad; Wulf, Gabriele; Namazizadeh, Mahdi

    2012-06-01

    One purpose of the present study was to examine whether self-confidence or anxiety would be differentially affected byfeedback from more accurate rather than less accurate trials. The second purpose was to determine whether arousal variations (activation) would predict performance. On day 1, participants performed a golf putting task under one of two conditions: one group received feedback on the most accurate trials, whereas another group received feedback on the least accurate trials. On day 2, participants completed an anxiety questionnaire and performed a retention test. Shin conductance level, as a measure of arousal, was determined. The results indicated that feedback about more accurate trials resulted in more effective learning as well as increased self-confidence. Also, activation was a predictor of performance. PMID:22808705

  20. Preliminary design of a new device to measure muscle function.

    PubMed

    Lind, Jeffrey; Durfee, William

    2015-08-01

    A description and early results are presented for a novel device to estimate the torque-angle and torque-angular velocity properties of the quadriceps muscle group using electrical stimulation. The device straps to the shin and is moved by the operator while pulses of stimulation are applied to the motor point of the quadriceps. During stimulation, the operator raises and lowers the leg to the desired angle, and also can oscillate the leg to generate a rich velocity profile. The resulting muscle force is measured by a load cell contained in the device. In a preliminary study using 11 healthy subjects, normalized torque-angle and torque-velocity data for the quadriceps were consistent with literature results that used maximum voluntary contraction methods. PMID:26737540

  1. Radio-Frequency Spectroscopy of strongly interacting Fermi gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirotzek, Andre; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Sommer, Ariel; Zwierlein, Martin

    2009-05-01

    Strongly interacting Fermi gases exhibit a rich phase diagram in the BEC-BCS crossover. In recent experiments we have used radio frequency spectroscopy to probe two physically very different regimes: 1.) We have observed Spin-Polarons in a highly imbalanced Fermi mixture. A single spin down atom immersed in a spin up Fermi sea dresses itself with a cloud of majority atoms, thus forming a Spin-Polaron. rf spectroscopy can directly reveal the polaron and allows for an experimental measure of the quasiparticle residue Z and the chemical potential μ of this Fermi liquid. At a critical interaction strength, the transition to two-particle molecular binding is observed. 2.) rf spectroscopy of quasiparticles in a polarized superfluid allowed us to determine the superfluid gap δ and has demonstrated the importance of the Hartree energy U in rf spectra [1]. [1] Andre Schirotzek, Yong-il Shin, Christian H. Schunck and Wolfgang Ketterle, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 140403 (2008)

  2. Evolution of gout: “malignant” change over time?

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Sterling Ellis; Khor, Yiu Ming; Seet, Ju Ee; Sia, David Soon Yiew

    2015-01-01

    Gout is a common entity; yet it is such a great mimicker in its imaging features that it can confuse clinicians and radiologists alike, sometimes leading to unnecessary investigations and treatment. We present a case of a 52 year old male renal transplant patient who presented with a slow growing mass in his left shin. The initial radiograph demonstrated a non-aggressive looking calcified lesion. A fine needle aspiration demonstrated this lesion to be gout deposition. The lesion was unchanged in the following eight years until the patient reported a sudden growth in size. Imaging showed features of an aggressive lesion with disruption of the previous calcification as well as enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging. Surgical excision biopsy was performed in view of the worrisome features on imaging and the histology showed tophaceous gout. Following description of our case, we reviewed the clinical and imaging features of gout and discussed its differential diagnoses. PMID:26629292

  3. Development of ALMA process: Advances maleic anhydride production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoia, S.C.; Komeya, M.; Pedretti, D.; Stanecki, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Shin-Daikyowa Petrochemical Co. (SDPC) has initiated a project to build a 15,000 MTA maleic anhydride plant at Yokkaichi, Japan. For technology, SDPC evaluated many alternatives and elected to utilize the ALMA Process in what will be the first full-scale plant for this new process. Startup is scheduled for late 1988. This paper describes the economic advantages of the ALMA Process and their technical bases which have led to its selection by SDPC. The advantages are in variable costs (primarily feed and energy) for any size plant, and in initial capital as well for plants larger than 10,000 MTA. They are derived from the use of n-butane feed, a fluidized-bed reactor system, and a non-aqueous recovery system.

  4. Research on Vibration Characteristics Between Human Body and Seat, Steering Wheel, and Pedals (effects of Seat Position on Ride Comfort)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    NISHIYAMA, S.; UESUGI, N.; TAKESHIMA, T.; KANO, Y.; TOGII, H.

    2000-09-01

    Experimental results are presented of the vibrational characteristics of the automotive subsystem comprising the human body, seat, steering wheel and pedals. The magnitude of the vibrations transferred to a driver from the seat, steering wheel and pedals have been measured with both sinusoidal and random excitations in the vertical direction at frequencies up to 20 Hz. Measurement points were located on the surface of the head, chest, hip, thigh, shin, upper arm and lower arm. Eleven subjects were used to investigate the effect of some variable factors, such as arm angle, that may affect human dynamic behavior. It was found that arm angle in driving posture has a substantial influence on the dynamic behavior of the human body while driving. Some results are presented in the form of parametric graphs and tables. The results are useful for improving ride comfort, maneuverability and safety.

  5. Hawk migration over White Marsh, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackman, C.D.; Henny, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The average number of hawks observed per hour in autumn migration between 1951-1954 and 1958-1961 at White Marsh, Maryland, was compared. The counts indicated that the status of the ten species observed may be divided into three categories: (1) relatively stable species (red-tailed hawk), (2) declining species (sparrow hawk, red-shouldered hawk, osprey, marsh hawk, and broad-winged hawk), and (3) rapidly declining species (peregrine falcon, Cooper?s hawk, bald eagle, and sharp-shinned hawk). The findings from this study are in agreement with the available literature and the status of the populations appears to be related to the food habits of the species.

  6. Differential expression of alpha-subunits of G-proteins in human neuroblastoma-derived cell clones.

    PubMed

    Klinz, F J; Yu, V C; Sadée, W; Costa, T

    1987-11-16

    The distribution of alpha- and beta-subunits of G-proteins was analyzed in membranes of three cell clones which are derived from the human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y shows a pattern of G-proteins very similar to that of human brain cortex with high levels of Gi alpha and Go alpha but low levels of G40 alpha. The intermediate clone SH-IN contains high levels of Go alpha and Gi alpha and moderate levels of G40 alpha. The non-neuronal clone SH-EP shows high levels of G40 alpha but lacks Go alpha. Differentiation of the neuroblast-like clone SH-SY5Y by retinoic acid or nerve growth factor does not change the amount of Gi alpha or Go alpha in the membrane. PMID:3119368

  7. Solitary intraosseous myofibroma of the tibia in an adult patient: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Shemesh, S.; Kosashvili, Y.; Sidon, E.; Fichman, S.; Cohen, N.; Velkes, S.

    2014-01-01

    Myofibromas are mesenchymal tumors showing myofibroblastic differentiation and found most frequently in the head and neck region. While several cases of myofibromas have been reported in adults, they have not been described in long bones of the appendicular skeleton. We describe an otherwise healthy young woman who presented with a progressive incapacitating pain in her right shin. Imaging studies revealed a well-circumscribed osteolytic lesion with slight marginal sclerosis confined to the proximal tibia metaphysis, without a soft tissue component. Surgical intervention was performed and histological examination identified a myofibroma. This case represents an extremely rare occurrence of an intraosseous myofibroma involving a long bone in an adult patient. Although solitary myofibroma is a rare lesion in the skeletal bones of adults we believe it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a solitary lytic mass in bone, especially if it is associated with pain. PMID:26909302

  8. Comparison of commercial supercapacitors and high-power lithium-ion batteries for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles. I. Initial characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Andrew; Braatz, Paul

    Commercial supercapacitors, also known as ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, from Saft, Maxwell, Panasonic, CCR, Ness, EPCOS, and Power Systems were tested under constant current and constant power discharges to assess their applicability for power-assist applications in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Commercial lithium-ion batteries from Saft and Shin-Kobe were also tested under similar conditions. Internal resistances were measured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), as well as by the " iR drop" method. Self discharge measurements were also recorded. Compared with earlier generations of supercapacitors, the cells showed improved current and power capability. However, their energy densities are still too low to meet goals set by Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) for HEV propulsion. Cells that use acetonitrile as the electrolyte solvent yield better performance, although safety issues need to be addressed. New high-power lithium-ion batteries show high energy densities, with high power capabilities.

  9. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  10. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  11. Cutaneous anthrax in a school teacher.

    PubMed

    Nandi, A K; Kamal, M M; Alam, M A; Rahman, F; Uddin, M J; Baidya, N R; Mostafa, S M

    2014-04-01

    Cutaneous anthrax is an infection of the skin caused by Bacillus anthracis. This is a report of a case of cutaneous anthrax attending outpatients of Mymensingh Medical College Hospital in October, 2010. The infected person was a retired school teacher with a very good body build. He reported to handle cow flesh about 4-5 days ago, developed few painless papules over shin of right leg, which gradually became large bullae and blackish eschar developed over the lesion. Smears from the lesions were investigated which confirmed the causative agent B. anthracis. The patient was treated with oral Ciprofloxacin (500mg) twice daily for seven days which cured the infection as observed on his subsequent follow up visits on 7 and 14 days later. Oral Ciprofloxacin is found effective as recommended by the World Health Organization.

  12. A rare case of concurrent signet-ring carcinoma of breast and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia†

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Kelly; Bae, Esther; Park, Hanna; Hussain, Farabi

    2016-01-01

    Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA) can be an uncommon presentation of an underlying malignancy, most often due to signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). Additionally, pure SRCC in a breast primary-tumor comprises <2% of all breast cancers (Shin SY, Park H, Chae SW, Woo HY. Microangiopathic hemolytic anemia as the first manifestation of metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma of unknown origin: a case report and review of literature. Kor J Lab Med 2011;31:157–61). To the best of our knowledge, the combination of these two entities, pure breast primary SRCC along with MAHA, has not been reported. Here, we present such a rare case. We also evaluate the current literature regarding this and similar disease processes, of which evidence is scarce and further research is needed. PMID:27587305

  13. [Preventive measures against plague and the control of Chinese coolies in colonial Korea].

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngsoo

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to examine the preventive measures taken against the plague in colonial Korea, particularly as applied to the control of Chinese coolies in 1911, soon after the annexation. The Government General of Korea began preventive measures with a train quarantine in Shin'uiju and Incheon in response to the spread of the plague to the Southern Manchuria. Shin' uiju had become urbanized due the development of the transportation network, and the seaport of Incheon was the major hub for traffic with China. Examining the transportation routes for the entry and exit of Chinese to and from Korea makes clear the reason why the Korea Government General initiated preventive measures in mid-January, 1911. The Government General of Korea tried to block the entry of Chinese through the land border crossing with China and through ports of entry, primarily Incheon. During the implementation of the preventive measures, quarantine facilities were built, including a quarantine station and isolation facility in Incheon. It was also needed to investigate the population and residential locations of Chinese in Korea to prevent the spread of plague. A certificate of residence was issued to all Chinese in Korea, which they needed to carry when they travelled. The preventive measures against plague which broke out in Manchuria were removed gradually. However, there was no specific measures against Chinese coolies, those who had migrated from China to work in the spring in Korea. Still the Government General of Korea had doubt about an infection of the respiratory system. As a result, the labor market in colonial Korea underwent changes in this period. The Government General recruited Korean laborers, instead of Chinese coolies whose employment had been planned. This move explains the Government General's strong preventive measures against plague and uncertainty in the route of plague infection, which influenced subsequent regulations on the prohibition of Chinese coolies working on

  14. Epidemiology of Extraarticular Tibia Fractures, Shahid Mohammadi Hospital-Bandar Abbass-Iran 2002, 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saied, A. R.; Karimi Mobarake, M.

    Tibia fractures are among the most common long bone fractures and recognition of their epidemiology helps their better management and prevention. In this cross sectional prospective study, 250 patients with extraarticular tibia fracture, of all age groups, referred to Shahid Mohammadi Hospital, Bandar Abbass were studied. Information about age and sex and the fracture side, localization, open or closed fracture, comminution, associated injuries and the mechanism of the injury were registered. Tibia fractures constituted about 65% of all diaphyseal long bone fractures (the most common) and 70% of all open diaphyseal fractures (the most common). Most of the fractures occurred in young men (90%) and in the middle third of the bone (55%). In more than 75% of the cases injury was limited to the leg, more than 55% the fractures were closed and in more than 65% there was little comminution. About half of fractures occurred on either side and no statistically significant difference was found between the left and right limb with regard to open fracture occurrence and the severity of comminution (p = 0.291 and 0.713, respectively). The most common involved factor in occurrence of the fracture was motorcycle (65%), in contrast to findings of others where it constituted about 30% of the causes. Noting the results and that 58% of tibia fractures are caused by motorcycle accident with the reason being direct trauma to the shin of the driver in the majority of them, it is suggested that the use of a guard or shield get mandatory for protection of the shin of the motorcyclists.

  15. Foot anatomy specialization for postural sensation and control

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Gurfinkel, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropological and biomechanical research suggests that the human foot evolved a unique design for propulsion and support. In theory, the arch and toes must play an important role, however, many postural studies tend to focus on the simple hinge action of the ankle joint. To investigate further the role of foot anatomy and sensorimotor control of posture, we quantified the deformation of the foot arch and studied the effects of local perturbations applied to the toes (TOE) or 1st/2nd metatarsals (MT) while standing. In sitting position, loading and lifting a 10-kg weight on the knee respectively lowered and raised the foot arch between 1 and 1.5 mm. Less than 50% of this change could be accounted for by plantar surface skin compression. During quiet standing, the foot arch probe and shin sway revealed a significant correlation, which shows that as the tibia tilts forward, the foot arch flattens and vice versa. During TOE and MT perturbations (a 2- to 6-mm upward shift of an appropriate part of the foot at 2.5 mm/s), electromyogram (EMG) measures of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius revealed notable changes, and the root-mean-square (RMS) variability of shin sway increased significantly, these increments being greater in the MT condition. The slow return of RMS to baseline level (>30 s) suggested that a very small perturbation changes the surface reference frame, which then takes time to reestablish. These findings show that rather than serving as a rigid base of support, the foot is compliant, in an active state, and sensitive to minute deformations. In conclusion, the architecture and physiology of the foot appear to contribute to the task of bipedal postural control with great sensitivity. PMID:22157121

  16. Inverse problems for the perturbed polyharmonic operator with coefficients in Sobolev spaces with non-positive order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assylbekov, Yernat M.

    2016-10-01

    We show that the knowledge of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann map on the boundary of a bounded open set in {{{R}}}n, n≥slant 3, for the perturbed polyharmonic operator {(-{{Δ }})}m+A\\cdot D+q, m≥slant 2, with 2n\\gt m, A\\in {W}-\\tfrac{m-2{2},\\tfrac{2n}{m}} and q\\in {W}-\\tfrac{m{2},\\tfrac{2n}{m}}, determines the potentials A and q in the set uniquely. The proof is based on a Carleman estimate with linear weights and with a gain of two derivatives and on the property of products of functions in Sobolev spaces.

  17. Physical limits to magnetogenetics.

    PubMed

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. PMID:27529126

  18. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  19. Optimal decay rates of classical solutions for the full compressible MHD equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jincheng; Tao, Qiang; Yao, Zheng-an

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with optimal decay rates for higher-order spatial derivatives of classical solutions to the full compressible MHD equations in three-dimensional whole space. If the initial perturbation is small in {H^3}-norm and bounded in {L^q(qin [1, 6/5 ))}-norm, we apply the Fourier splitting method by Schonbek (Arch Ration Mech Anal 88:209-222, 1985) to establish optimal decay rates for the second-order spatial derivatives of solutions and the third-order spatial derivatives of magnetic field in {L^2}-norm. These results improve the work of Pu and Guo (Z Angew Math Phys 64:519-538, 2013).

  20. Conformational analysis of quinine and its pseudo enantiomer quinidine: a combined jet-cooled spectroscopy and vibrational circular dichroism study.

    PubMed

    Sen, Ananya; Bouchet, Aude; Lepère, Valeria; Le Barbu-Debus, Katia; Scuderi, D; Piuzzi, F; Zehnacker-Rentien, A

    2012-08-16

    Laser-desorbed quinine and quinidine have been studied in the gas phase by combining supersonic expansion with laser spectroscopy, namely, laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI), and IR-UV double resonance experiments. Density funtional theory (DFT) calculations have been done in conjunction with the experimental work. The first electronic transition of quinine and quinidine is of π-π* nature, and the studied molecules weakly fluoresce in the gas phase, in contrast to what was observed in solution (Qin, W. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. C2009, 113, 11790). The two pseudo enantiomers quinine and quinidine show limited differences in the gas phase; their main conformation is of open type as it is in solution. However, vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) experiments in solution show that additional conformers exist in condensed phase for quinidine, which are not observed for quinine. This difference in behavior between the two pseudo enantiomers is discussed.

  1. Global solutions to a chemotaxis model with consumption of chemoattractant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liangchen; Mu, Chunlai; Hu, Xuegang

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to the following chemotaxis system u_t=nabla\\cdot(D(u)nabla u)-nabla\\cdot(S(u)nabla v),quad &xin Ω,quad t>0, v_t=Δ v-uv,quad &xinΩ,quad t>0, under homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions in a smooth bounded domain {Ωsubset {R}^n} ({n≥2}), not necessarily being convex. There are some constants {c_D > 0}, {c_S > 0}, {min{R}} and {qin{R}} such that D(u) ≥ c_D(u+1)^{m-1} quad{and} quad S(u)≤ c_S(u+1)^{q-1}quad for all u≥0. If {q < m+n+2/2n}, it is shown that the model possesses a unique global classical solution which is uniformly bounded; if {q < m/2+n+2/2n}, the global existence of solution is established.

  2. Baicalein protects against the development of angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysms by blocking JNK and p38 MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Chen, Houzao; Yan, Yunfei; Liu, Yue; Zhang, Shuyang; Liu, Depei

    2016-09-01

    An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a permanent, localized dilatation of the abdominal aorta. In western countries, the morbidity of AAA is approximately 8%. Currently, pharmacotherapies for AAA are limited. Here, we demonstrate that baicalein (BAI), the main component of the Chinese traditional drug "Huang Qin", attenuates the incidence and severity of AAA in Apoe (-/-) mice infused with angiotensin II (AngII). Mechanically, BAI treatment decreases AngII-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the aortic wall. Moreover, BAI inhibits inflammatory cell accumulation in the aortas of mice infused with AngII. It also inhibits AngII-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 to maintain elastin content in vivo. In addition, it blocks AngII cascade by downregulating angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) and inhibiting mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Taken together, our findings show that BAI is an effective agent for AAA prevention. PMID:27333787

  3. Simulation Studies of Temperature Anisotropy Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams for IBX Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Startsev, E. A.; Davidson, R. C.; Qin, H.

    2003-10-01

    The Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX) is a proof-of-principal experiment for heavy ion fusion designed to test source-to-target beam physics using a single beam of K^+ ions of duration 0.2 - 1.5 μ s, accelerated to energies 5-10 MeV, and driver-scale normalized perviance in the range 10-5 -10-3. An important physics issue to be addressed by IBX is the effect of longitudinal-transverse coupling on the beam transport and focusibility of the driver. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138, 2002] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability may develop. This paper reports the results of recent simulations of the temperature anisotropy instability using the Beam Equilibrium Stability Transport (BEST) code for IBX parameters.

  4. [Oral diseases recorded in several ancient pulse-taking books unearthed in Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Zhu, L

    2016-03-01

    The earliest known records of oral ulcer, periodontitis and its accompanying lesions were seen in the manuscripts, Bing hou(Syndrome of Disease) and Yin yang mai si hou(Fatal Syndrome of Yin Yang Channels), the ancient pulse-taking books from Mawangdui and Zhangjiashan. In the manuscripts Zu bi shi yi mai jiu jing(11-Channel Moxibustion Classic of Foot and Arm) and Yin yang shi yi mai jiu jing(11-Channel Moxibustion Classic of Yin and Yang), there were the earliest content about mandibular and neck diseases, tongue diseases, tooth diseases and mouth diseases described based on the locations along the channel pathways, and preliminary clinical records of diagnosis and treatment of some oral diseases, reflecting the achievements of stomatology in the pre-Qin period and Oin as well as Han Dynasty. PMID:27255193

  5. Boundary-layer phenomena for the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations of compressible heat-conducting fluids with large data at vanishing shear viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xia; Zhang, Jianwen

    2016-08-01

    This paper concerns the asymptotic behavior of the solution to an initial-boundary value problem of the cylindrically symmetric Navier–Stokes equations with large data for compressible heat-conducting ideal fluids, as the shear viscosity μ goes to zero. A suitable corrector function (the so-called boundary-layer type function) is constructed to eliminate the disparity of boundary values. As by-products, the convergence rates of the derivatives in L 2 are obtained and the boundary-layer thickness (BL-thickness) of the value O≤ft({μα}\\right) with α \\in ≤ft(0,1/2\\right) is shown by an alternative method, compared with the results proved in Jiang and Zhang (2009 SIAM J. Math. Anal. 41 237–68) and Qin et al (2015 Arch. Ration. Mech. Anal. 216 1049–86).

  6. Tails of Polynomials of Random Variables and Stable Limits for Nonconventional Sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kifer, Yuri; Varadhan, S. R. S.

    2016-06-01

    First, we obtain decay rates of probabilities of tails of polynomials in several independent random variables with heavy tails. Then we derive stable limit theorems for sums of the form sum _{Nt≥ n≥ 1}Fbig (X_{q_1(n)},ldots ,X_{q_ℓ (n)}big ) where F is a polynomial, q_i(n) is either n-1+i or ni and X_n,n≥ 0 is a sequence of independent identically distributed random variables with heavy tails. Our results can be viewed as an extension to the heavy tails case of the nonconventional functional central limit theorem from Kifer and Varadhan (Ann Probab 42:649-688, 2014).

  7. Experimental characterization of quantum correlated triple beams generated by cascaded four-wave mixing processes

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhongzhong; Cao, Leiming; Jing, Jietai

    2015-05-25

    Quantum correlations and entanglement shared among multiple modes are fundamental ingredients of most continuous-variable quantum technologies. Recently, a method used to generate multiple quantum correlated beams using cascaded four-wave mixing (FWM) processes was theoretically proposed and experimentally realized by our group [Z. Qin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 023602 (2014)]. Our study of triple-beam quantum correlation paves the way to showing the tripartite entanglement in our system. Our system also promises to find applications in quantum information and precision measurement such as the controlled quantum communications, the generation of multiple quantum correlated images, and the realization of a multiport nonlinear interferometer. For its applications, the degree of quantum correlation is a crucial figure of merit. In this letter, we experimentally study how various parameters, such as the cell temperatures, one-photon, and two-photon detunings, influence the degree of quantum correlation between the triple beams generated from the cascaded two-FWM configuration.

  8. [Primary study on the life of Liu Chun, a famous Ming physician].

    PubMed

    Ren, Y; Gu, J; Gong, C

    2000-07-01

    Liu Chun, a famous physician of the Ming dynasty, born in a prestigious family in Wuling (Tai County, Jiangsu Province). He studied medicine from his father Liu Juquan and Mr. Feng Tinggan in his early years. It was said Liu Chun moved to Chang'an (now Xi'an, Shaanxi Province) in 1368 and lived there for about twenty years, then moved to Liangzhou along with the army (Wuwei County, Gansu Province) before 1395 and resided in Ganzhou (Zhangye County, Gansu Province). He wrote many medical books, including Yi jing xiao xue, Yu ji wei yi, Za bing zhi li and Shang han zhi li, all published after his death. His other two books Tai su mai jue and Shou qin yang lao bu yi could not be found. It was inferred that Liu Chun who lived for about seventy years might be born in 1340 and died in 1412. PMID:11624688

  9. [A historical survey of international migration of China population].

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1987-07-01

    Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education.

  10. Hydrodynamic Properties of a Large Tidal Channel on the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Bangladesh, with Implications for Channel Morphology and Sediment Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bain, R. L.; Goodbred, S. L., Jr.; Hale, R. P.; Reed, M. J.; Best, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta hosts a dense network of tidal channels extending inland as far as 100 kilometers from the coast. With semidiurnal tides up to 6.7 meters in amplitude, this setting is ideal for testing hypotheses related to tidal meander morphology, intertidal sediment transport, and channel-platform linkages. We present results from two field surveys in March and September 2015, corresponding to the dry and monsoon seasons, respectively. Comparing acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) data and pressure sensor measurements from the Sibsa River in southwest Bangladesh reveals a phase lag of as much as 1 hour between maximum discharge and mean water level. Variations in this phase lag at different points along the channel allow us to test an existing conceptual model of cuspate tidal meander formation. To address a related but separate question, we observe that the ratio of cumulative discharges Qin/Qout is approximately equal during both spring and neap tides at a strategically-placed ADCP transect south of the study area. In contrast, ADCP data obtained north of the study area shows that Qin/Qout=1.4 during spring tides and 0.85 during neap tides. We examine the degree to which this phenomenon is controlled by the establishment of a hydraulic gradient between the Sibsa and a parallel tidal channel, the Pussur, versus the exchange of water between the channel and the tidal flats during the ebb-flood cycle. These results have implications for identifying loci of sediment erosion and deposition within the network.

  11. Hard-sphere kinetic models for inert and reactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Polewczak, Jacek

    2016-10-19

    I consider stochastic variants of a simple reacting sphere (SRS) kinetic model (Xystris and Dahler 1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 387-401, Qin and Dahler 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 103 725-50, Dahler and Qin 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 8396-404) for dense reacting mixtures. In contrast to the line-of-center models of chemical reactive models, in the SRS kinetic model, the microscopic reversibility (detailed balance) can be easily shown to be satisfied, and thus all mathematical aspects of the model can be fully justified. In the SRS model, the molecules behave as if they were single mass points with two internal states. Collisions may alter the internal states of the molecules, and this occurs when the kinetic energy associated with the reactive motion exceeds the activation energy. Reactive and non-reactive collision events are considered to be hard sphere-like. I consider a four component mixture A, B, A (*), B (*), in which the chemical reactions are of the type [Formula: see text], with A (*) and B (*) being distinct species from A and B. This work extends the joined works with George Stell to the kinetic models of dense inert and reactive mixtures. The idea of introducing smearing-type effect in the collisional process results in a new class of stochastic kinetic models for both inert and reactive mixtures. In this paper the important new mathematical properties of such systems of kinetic equations are proven. The new results for stochastic revised Enskog system for inert mixtures are also provided. PMID:27545341

  12. Hard-sphere kinetic models for inert and reactive mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polewczak, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    I consider stochastic variants of a simple reacting sphere (SRS) kinetic model (Xystris and Dahler 1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 387-401, Qin and Dahler 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 103 725-50, Dahler and Qin 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 8396-404) for dense reacting mixtures. In contrast to the line-of-center models of chemical reactive models, in the SRS kinetic model, the microscopic reversibility (detailed balance) can be easily shown to be satisfied, and thus all mathematical aspects of the model can be fully justified. In the SRS model, the molecules behave as if they were single mass points with two internal states. Collisions may alter the internal states of the molecules, and this occurs when the kinetic energy associated with the reactive motion exceeds the activation energy. Reactive and non-reactive collision events are considered to be hard sphere-like. I consider a four component mixture A, B, A *, B *, in which the chemical reactions are of the type A+B\\rightleftharpoons {{A}\\ast}+{{B}\\ast} , with A * and B * being distinct species from A and B. This work extends the joined works with George Stell to the kinetic models of dense inert and reactive mixtures. The idea of introducing smearing-type effect in the collisional process results in a new class of stochastic kinetic models for both inert and reactive mixtures. In this paper the important new mathematical properties of such systems of kinetic equations are proven. The new results for stochastic revised Enskog system for inert mixtures are also provided.

  13. The roles of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in algebra problem solving: a case of using cognitive modeling to inform neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Danker, Jared F; Anderson, John R

    2007-04-15

    In naturalistic algebra problem solving, the cognitive processes of representation and retrieval are typically confounded, in that transformations of the equations typically require retrieval of mathematical facts. Previous work using cognitive modeling has associated activity in the prefrontal cortex with the retrieval demands of algebra problems and activity in the posterior parietal cortex with the transformational demands of algebra problems, but these regions tend to behave similarly in response to task manipulations (Anderson, J.R., Qin, Y., Sohn, M.-H., Stenger, V.A., Carter, C.S., 2003. An information-processing model of the BOLD response in symbol manipulation tasks. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 10, 241-261; Qin, Y., Carter, C.S., Silk, E.M., Stenger, A., Fissell, K., Goode, A., Anderson, J.R., 2004. The change of brain activation patterns as children learn algebra equation solving. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 5686-5691). With this study we attempt to isolate activity in these two regions by using a multi-step algebra task in which transformation (parietal) is manipulated in the first step and retrieval (prefrontal) is manipulated in the second step. Counter to our initial predictions, both brain regions were differentially active during both steps. We designed two cognitive models, one encompassing our initial assumptions and one in which both processes were engaged during both steps. The first model provided a poor fit to the behavioral and neural data, while the second model fit both well. This simultaneously emphasizes the strong relationship between retrieval and representation in mathematical reasoning and demonstrates that cognitive modeling can serve as a useful tool for understanding task manipulations in neuroimaging experiments. PMID:17355908

  14. [A historical survey of international migration of China population].

    PubMed

    Zhu, G

    1987-07-01

    Chinese migration trends in various periods of China's history are discussed. From the earliest times to the present, migration patterns seem unique to each period: 1) Early period of emigration (Qin-Tang Dynasties): The earliest recorded instance of emigration occurred during the Qin dynasty when a traveler went to what is now the Philippines. In the following dynasties, even though migration was limited to religious men and merchants who went abroad and returned to China, the process of migrating was established. 2) Tang to Ming Dynasties (Self-initiated migration): Tang Dynasty records show the beginnings of Chinese residence abroad in Arabia. Land and sea travel developed further, and majority of emigres left China for political, religious or economic reasons. 3) Post-Ming Dynasty (Forced migration): This is a period beginning with the Opium War, where 2 groups, indentured servants and those who were able to purchase their own fare, emigrated as laborers because of necessity. The population on the coast, which had risen dramatically by the 1900's, was subject to war, official corruption, poverty and disease. Migration reached a peak between 1851-1875 when 1,280,000 Chinese left the country, settling mostly in Southeast Asia. Between 1847-1873, it is estimated that between 22%-64% perished along the way. 4) WWI-1949 (Motivated migration): The consequences of 2 world wars and the Great Depression were cause for another mass migration from China for political and economic reasons. This time, however, emigres were not limited to the very poor; also, a large number of overseas Chinese eventually returned to the mainland. Between 1930-34, 350,000 more Chinese returned than left. 5) Post-1949 (A new era): In the 1950s large numbers of overseas Chinese returned to the mainland. In 1978-82, over 4000 Chinese returned to Guangdong alone. A new phenomenon has appeared: migration tends to be limited to visits to relatives or to travel for pleasure or education. PMID

  15. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  16. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction.

  17. Leaf Morphological Characters Can Be a Factor for Intra-Varietal Preference of Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) among Eggplant Varieties.

    PubMed

    Hasanuzzaman, Abu Tayeb Mohammad; Islam, Md Nazrul; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Chen-Yang; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2016-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) MEAM1, is considered a serious pest of horticultural and many other crops. While eggplant (Solanum melongena) is one of the most favored host plants, the whiteflies exhibit preferences among different varieties. We hypothesized that certain morphological leaf characteristics of different varieties, like leaf trichome density, trichome length, leaf lamina thickness and leaf color, may affect whitefly landing, feeding and oviposition. In this study, we investigated the variation in leaf morphological characters among selected eggplant varieties and evaluated the effect of these leaf characteristics in rendering eggplant varieties either susceptible or resistant to B. tabaci. We evaluated eight eggplant varieties in choice feeding tests, and we found that the varieties JinSheng Zilongchangqie (JSZ) and H149 were the highly preferred varieties with the highest numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. Significantly lower numbers of whitefly adult eggs were found on the resistant variety Tuo Lu Bamu (TLB). The varieties JinGuangbo Luqie (JGL), JinGuangbo Ziquanqie (JGZ), DaYang Ziguanqie (DYZ), QinXing Ziguanqie (QXZ), and QinXing Niuxinqie (QXN) were moderately favored by B. tabaci. Leaf trichome density, trichome length and leaf lamina thickness were positively correlated with numbers of whitefly adults and eggs. B. tabaci was less attracted to the leaves that reflect long and middle wavelength light (higher R and G values) than to the bright green leaves (medium G value), but the short wavelength light (higher B value) had no significant effect on whitefly preference. The degree of hue had a positive effect, and saturation and brightness had a negative effect on whitefly attraction. PMID:27081849

  18. The roles of prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in algebra problem solving: a case of using cognitive modeling to inform neuroimaging data.

    PubMed

    Danker, Jared F; Anderson, John R

    2007-04-15

    In naturalistic algebra problem solving, the cognitive processes of representation and retrieval are typically confounded, in that transformations of the equations typically require retrieval of mathematical facts. Previous work using cognitive modeling has associated activity in the prefrontal cortex with the retrieval demands of algebra problems and activity in the posterior parietal cortex with the transformational demands of algebra problems, but these regions tend to behave similarly in response to task manipulations (Anderson, J.R., Qin, Y., Sohn, M.-H., Stenger, V.A., Carter, C.S., 2003. An information-processing model of the BOLD response in symbol manipulation tasks. Psychon. Bull. Rev. 10, 241-261; Qin, Y., Carter, C.S., Silk, E.M., Stenger, A., Fissell, K., Goode, A., Anderson, J.R., 2004. The change of brain activation patterns as children learn algebra equation solving. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 101, 5686-5691). With this study we attempt to isolate activity in these two regions by using a multi-step algebra task in which transformation (parietal) is manipulated in the first step and retrieval (prefrontal) is manipulated in the second step. Counter to our initial predictions, both brain regions were differentially active during both steps. We designed two cognitive models, one encompassing our initial assumptions and one in which both processes were engaged during both steps. The first model provided a poor fit to the behavioral and neural data, while the second model fit both well. This simultaneously emphasizes the strong relationship between retrieval and representation in mathematical reasoning and demonstrates that cognitive modeling can serve as a useful tool for understanding task manipulations in neuroimaging experiments.

  19. [Preliminary investigation on the materia medica of the Zhuang ethnic group].

    PubMed

    Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui

    2013-09-01

    By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.

  20. Hard-sphere kinetic models for inert and reactive mixtures.

    PubMed

    Polewczak, Jacek

    2016-10-19

    I consider stochastic variants of a simple reacting sphere (SRS) kinetic model (Xystris and Dahler 1978 J. Chem. Phys. 68 387-401, Qin and Dahler 1995 J. Chem. Phys. 103 725-50, Dahler and Qin 2003 J. Chem. Phys. 118 8396-404) for dense reacting mixtures. In contrast to the line-of-center models of chemical reactive models, in the SRS kinetic model, the microscopic reversibility (detailed balance) can be easily shown to be satisfied, and thus all mathematical aspects of the model can be fully justified. In the SRS model, the molecules behave as if they were single mass points with two internal states. Collisions may alter the internal states of the molecules, and this occurs when the kinetic energy associated with the reactive motion exceeds the activation energy. Reactive and non-reactive collision events are considered to be hard sphere-like. I consider a four component mixture A, B, A (*), B (*), in which the chemical reactions are of the type [Formula: see text], with A (*) and B (*) being distinct species from A and B. This work extends the joined works with George Stell to the kinetic models of dense inert and reactive mixtures. The idea of introducing smearing-type effect in the collisional process results in a new class of stochastic kinetic models for both inert and reactive mixtures. In this paper the important new mathematical properties of such systems of kinetic equations are proven. The new results for stochastic revised Enskog system for inert mixtures are also provided.

  1. Seismic activity of the East Sea, Korea offshore earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PARK, E.; Park, S.; Hahm, I.; Kim, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Seismicity in Korea is known to be relatively low compared to China and Japan. But it seems to be more active historically, according to historical documents on earthquake. The magnitudes of historical earthquakes were estimated to be about 4 - 6 by previous studies and there were several events with magnitude over 6. Instrumental earthquakes recorded in 1978 - 2012 seem to be smaller than historical earthquakes, according to the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) catalog. Their magnitudes are smaller than 4 in general. Although epicenters of instrumental earthquakes seem to be randomly distributed on the entire Korean Peninsula, some earthquakes occur intensively in several specific areas in the East Sea and the eastern region of Jeju Island. The areas having intensive seismic activity in the East Sea are offshore regions of Uljin (Region A), Yeongdeok (Region B), and Ulsan (Region C) from north to south. Eleven earthquakes of ML 2.0 - 3.2 occurred in Region A on April 2006. The epicenters were distributed within a radius of about 0.7 km. And the focal depths were in the range of 1.6 - 13.0 km (Kang and Shin, 2006). Kang and Shin (2006) propose that the sequence is closely related to the marginal geometry of the Ulleung Basin and the regional stress regime. Seven events with ML 2.1 - 3.0 occurred between September 12 and October 17 in 2007, and four events with ML 2.3 - 3.5 did between 07 December 2008 and 13 January 2009 in Region B. The relocations of eleven events greatly improved the epicenter locations that fall within an area with a radius of about 4 km. The relocated depths are in a range of 8 km to 14 km. According to Shin et al. (2012), the distribution of epicenters and fault plane solution of the largest earthquake in the sequences implied that the earthquake sequences are closely related to the Hupo fault at the eastern margin of Hupo basin. The sequences have been considered to have swarm seismicity pattern. In this study, we analyzed the

  2. Effects of support unloading on inhibitory processes in motoneurons pools of postural muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigueva, Tatiana; Zakirova, Albina; Tomilovskaya, Elena

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of support unloading on characteristics of shin extensor muscles (m.soleus and m.gastrocnemius lat.) motor units` (MU) activity evoked by electrical stimulation and intensity of spinal inhibitory processes. Conditions of support unloading were reproduced by "dry" immersion (DI), that it seen to be is the most adequate ground simulation model of weightlessness [Shulzhenko E.B. et al, 1976]. The experiments were performed with participation of 10 healthy men of 20-27 years old. The subjects were divided into 2 groups. In the first one (control group) the subjects stayed in DI for 3 days without any other influences; in the second one (experimental group) in the course of DI the mechanical stimulation of soles’ support zones in the regimen of locomotion was applied daily for 20 min at the beginning of each hour for 6 hours per day [Kozlovskaya I.B., 2007]. MUs’ activity of shin muscles (mm. gastrocnemius lat. and soleus) was recorded with needle concentric electrodes during execution of the task of maintaining a small plantar flexion effort (not stronger than 7% of maximal voluntary contraction force). Single electrical pulses 0,1 ms duration were applied to n.tibialis during spontaneous MU activity. The duration of silent period (SP) following H-reflex response and presence of rebound phenomenon - an increase of MU activity at the end of SP, that is usually observed under normal conditions and reflects trace of inhibitory and excitatory processes in motoneurons pools, were analyzed [Person R.S., 1985]. Experiments were performed before, on the 2nd and 3d day of DI and on the 2nd day after its accomplishment. The Wilcoxon nonparametric criteria were used for statistical data analysis. Exposure to the conditions of support unloading was followed by significant decline of SP duration. The mean of SP duration in shin muscles before DI was 227±31,4 ms. On the 2nd and 3rd days of DI in the control group it

  3. News from Online: A Spectrum of Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney Judd, Carolyn

    1999-06-01

    ://acept.la.asu.edu/PiN/act/activities.shtml, plan to spend some time, for it is wonderful. Another link from the About Rainbows tutorial goes to an experiment that is suitable for older students, Circles of Light--The Mathematics of Rainbows at http://www.geom.umn.edu/education/calc-init/rainbow/. Frederick J. Wicklin and Paul Edelman of the University of Minnesota note that this comprehensive lab is based on a module developed by Steven Janke. Go back to About Rainbows to link to a Java applet, allowing you to change the incident angle and color of light striking a water droplet. This great teaching device is from Fu-Kwun Hwang of the National Taiwan Normal University at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava /Rainbow/rainbow.html. And while you are here in this site (choose English or Chinese), look at the more than 30 Java applets created by F.-K. Hwang at http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/index.html. The interactive applet on Shadow/Image and Color is great fun, (http://science.kongju.ac.kr/phys/shin/experiment/ntnujava/shadow /shadow.html). From mixing colors, we can go to Thomas Chasteen's fine work at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/sounds/sound.html for an animation (and movie also) of how to separate colors using a tuneable monochromator ( http://www.shsu.edu/~chemistry/monochromator/mono.gif). This colorful graphic, showing incoming parallel white light, is clipped from that monochromator animation. While you are here at this site at Sam Houston State University, look at the other great animations and movies, including a movie showing solution-phase chemiluminescence at http://www.shsu.edu/~chm_tgc/chemilumdir/movie.html. So now that we have explored the breaking down of light into its component colors, we need to also look at another process--polarizing light. Let's go to Science Media's comprehensive site ( http://www.scimedia.com/index.html#scimedia) to examine polarized light ( http://www.scimedia.com/chem-ed/spec/molec/polarim.htm). Of course, most sunglasses

  4. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk.

    PubMed

    Ballhausen, H; Li, M; Hegemann, N-S; Ganswindt, U; Belka, C

    2015-01-21

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey-Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r(2) = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from

  5. The effective latent heat of aqueous nanofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soochan; Taylor, Robert A.; Dai, Lenore; Prasher, Ravi; Phelan, Patrick E.

    2015-06-01

    Nanoparticle suspensions, popularly termed ‘nanofluids’, have been extensively investigated for their thermal and radiative properties (Eastman et al 1996 Mater. Res. Soc. Proc. 457; Keblinski et al 2005 Mater. Today 8 36-44 Barber et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-13 Thomas and Sobhan 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-21 Taylor et al 2011 Nanoscale Res. Lett. 6 1-11 Fang et al 2013 Nano Lett. 13 1736-42 Otanicar et al 2010 J. Renew. Sustainable Energy 2 03310201-13 Prasher et al 2006 ASME J. Heat Transfer 128 588-95 Shin and Banerjee 2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4 Taylor and Phelan 2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48 Ameen et al 2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44 Lee et al 2014 Appl. Phys. Lett. 104 1-4). Such work has generated great controversy, although it is (arguably) generally accepted today that the presence of nanoparticles rarely leads to useful enhancements in either thermal conductivity or convective heat transfer. On the other hand, there are still examples of unanticipated enhancements to some properties, such as the specific heat of molten salt-based nanofluids reported by Shin and Banerjee (2011 ASME J. Heat Transfer 133 1-4) and the critical heat flux mentioned by Taylor and Phelan (2009 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 52 5339-48). Another largely overlooked example is the reported effect of nanoparticles on the effective latent heat of vaporization (hfg) of aqueous nanofluids, as reported by Ameen et al (2010 Int. J. Thermophys. 31 1131-44). Through molecular dynamics (MD) modeling supplemented with limited experimental data they found that hfg increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration, for Pt nanoparticles (MD) and Al2O3 nanoparticles (experiments). Here, we extend those exploratory experiments in an effort to determine if hfg of aqueous nanofluids can be manipulated, i.e., increased or decreased by the addition of graphite or silver nanoparticles. Our results to date indicate that, yes, hfg can be substantially impacted, by

  6. Positive grid corrosion elongation analysis using CAE with corrosion deformation transformed into thermal phenomenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukaitani, Ichiroh; Hayashi, Koji; Shimoura, Ichiro; Takemasa, Arihiko; Takahashi, Isamu; Tsubakino, Harushige

    software " Solid Works" and computer aided engineering (CAE) software " ANSYS" with corrosion elongation transformed into thermal elongation. We established a current collector corrosion elongation forecast and found that the microstructure controlled the Pb-Ca-Sn alloy; thus newly designed VRLA batteries (MU-series [A. Takemasa, I. Mukaitani, Y. Yoshiyama, K. Fukui, T. Sakamoto, T. Kuwano, M. Fukuda, H. Misaki, K. Uwatari, Shin-Kobe Technical Report 9 (1999) 11] for telecommunication and LL-series [H. Takabayashi, T. Shibahara, Y. Mastuda, K. Fukui, S. Hazui, Y. Matsumura, S. Kondo, Shin-Kobe Tech. Rep. 11 (2001) 35] for electric energy storage) which are lightweight and have long life are introduced here.

  7. In vivo imaging of intraperitoneally disseminated tumors in model mice by using activatable fluorescent small-molecular probes for activity of cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomohiko; Kamiya, Mako; Urano, Yasuteru

    2014-10-15

    It is difficult to completely remove carcinomas in unguided ablative surgery because they cannot be distinguished with the unaided human eye. Therefore, in order to precisely visualize tiny tumors and the borders between cancerous lesions and normal tissues, we have been developing fluorescence probes activatable only in cancer cells. We previously reported the hydroxymethylrhodamine green (HMRG)-based fluorescence probe gGlu-HMRG for γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), which is overexpressed in a variety of cancer cells, and we showed that it enables in vivo rapid detection of human ovarian cancer SHIN-3 nodules with a high tumor-to-background (T/B) fluorescence ratio in model mice. However, cancer cell lines with low GGT expression could hardly be detected with gGlu-HMRG. Here we developed two new HMRG-based fluorescence probes for the cathepsin family of cysteine proteases, including cathepsin B (CatB) and cathepsin L (CatL), which show increased expression and/or activity, secretion, and altered localization in many kinds of cancer cells. The developed probes, Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG and Z-Arg-Arg-HMRG, are colorless and nonfluorescent at the physiological pH of 7.4, but are hydrolyzed to HMRG upon reaction with purified cathepsins, resulting in a more than 200-fold fluorescence increase. These probes could visualize human ovarian cancer cell lines SHIN-3, SK-OV-3, and OVCAR-3, of which the latter two were hardly detectable with gGlu-HMRG. Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG showed higher applicability than Z-Arg-Arg-HMRG for in vivo imaging, and we confirmed that 0.5-mm-sized SK-OV-3 tumor nodules disseminated on the mesentery in a mouse model could be rapidly visualized by Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG, with a T/B fluorescence ratio of 4.2. Further, intraperitoneally disseminated tumor could be visualized in real time in vivo by fluorescence endoscopy after spraying Z-Phe-Arg-HMRG, with a T/B ratio of 3. In conclusion, our HMRG-based activatable probes targeted to cathepsins have expanded the detectable range

  8. Biodiversity and new records of microfungi in the Ruhrarea (north Rhine Westfalia), Germany.

    PubMed

    Ale-Agha, Nosrathollah; Brassmann, Markus; Jensen, Manfred

    2009-01-01

    During our investigations of the microflora in NRW (Duisburg, Düsseldorf and Essen incl. the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden) in 2007 and 2008, we were able to collect and identify about 55 species on trees, bushes and ornamental plants as parasites and saprophytes. Some of these species are new for Germany or have been only rarely found until now. Most of the species belong the Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina and Deuteromycotina for example Arthrocladiella mougeotii (Lév.) Vassilkov. on Lycium barbarum L., Caudospora taleola (Fr.) Starb on Quercus robur L., Colletotrichum coffeanum F. Noak on Coffea arabica L. (new for Germany) Colletotrichum trichellum (Fr.) Duke on Hedera helix L., Erysiphe buhrii U. Braun on Lychnis cf. coronaria (L.) Desr. (Anamorph. Oidium dianthi Jacz.), Erysiphe spec. on Acer opalus Mill (new host), Erysiphe flexuosa (Peck) U. Braun & S. Takam. on Aesculus spec. (new for Europe)), Erysiphe heraclei DC. on Tinguarra montana (Webb ex Christ ) A.Hansen & G.Kunkel, Erysiphe necator Schwein. = Uncinula necator (Schwein.) Burrill on Cissus cf. rhombifolia Vahl. (new for NRW), Erysphe trifolii Grev. on Trigonella caerulea (L.) Ser., Golovinomyces cichoracearum (DC.) V.P.Gelyuta (Oidium spec.) on Argyranthemum pinnatifidum (L.f.) R.T. Lowe (new host), Lobatopedis foliicola P.M. Kirk on Quercus robur L. (new for NRW), Lophodermium juniperinum (Fr.) de Not. on Juniperus communis L., Mamiania coryli De Not. on Corylus avellana L., Marssonina juglandis (Lib.) Magnus on Juglans regia L., Oidium hortensia Jørst on Philadelphus coronarius L., Oidium spec. on Dahlia variabilis (Willd.) Desf. (new for Germany), Oidium longipes Noordeloos & Loerak on Petunia hybrida Vilm., Oidium pedilanthi M. Yen on Pedilanthus titymaloides (L.) Poit, Oidium pedaliacearum H.D. Shin sp. nov. (= Oidium sesami H.D. Shin) on Ibicella lutea (Lindl.) van Eselt. (= Martynia lutea Lindl.), Passalora pastinacae (Sacc.) U. Braun = Pseudocercosporella pastinacae (P. Karst.) U

  9. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballhausen, H.; Li, M.; Hegemann, N.-S.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.

    2015-01-01

    A random walk model for intra-fraction motion has been proposed, where at each step the prostate moves a small amount from its current position in a random direction. Online tracking data from perineal ultrasound is used to validate or reject this model against alternatives. Intra-fraction motion of a prostate was recorded by 4D ultrasound (Elekta Clarity system) during 84 fractions of external beam radiotherapy of six patients. In total, the center of the prostate was tracked for 8 h in intervals of 4 s. Maximum likelihood model parameters were fitted to the data. The null hypothesis of a random walk was tested with the Dickey-Fuller test. The null hypothesis of stationarity was tested by the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. The increase of variance in prostate position over time and the variability in motility between fractions were analyzed. Intra-fraction motion of the prostate was best described as a stochastic process with an auto-correlation coefficient of ρ = 0.92  ±  0.13. The random walk hypothesis (ρ = 1) could not be rejected (p = 0.27). The static noise hypothesis (ρ = 0) was rejected (p < 0.001). The Dickey-Fuller test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 1 in 25% to 32% of cases. On average, the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test rejected the null hypothesis ρ = 0 with a probability of 93% to 96%. The variance in prostate position increased linearly over time (r2 = 0.9  ±  0.1). Variance kept increasing and did not settle at a maximum as would be expected from a stationary process. There was substantial variability in motility between fractions and patients with maximum aberrations from isocenter ranging from 0.5 mm to over 10 mm in one patient alone. In conclusion, evidence strongly suggests that intra-fraction motion of the prostate is a random walk and neither static (like inter-fraction setup errors) nor stationary (like a cyclic motion such as breathing, for example). The prostate tends to drift away from the

  10. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 differentially regulates proliferation, morphology, and extracellular matrix expression by three neural crest-derived neuroblastoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Rogers, S L; Cutts, J L; Gegick, P J; McGuire, P G; Rosenberger, C; Krisinski, S

    1994-04-01

    We reported previously (S. L. Rogers, P. J. Gegick, S. M. Alexander, and P. G. McGuire, Dev. Biol. 151, 191-203, 1992) that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) inhibited proliferation, up-regulated fibronectin synthesis, and suppressed melanogenesis in a population of quail neural crest cells in vitro. Here, we report that cell lines derived from the parent SK-N-SH neuroblastoma line (R. A. Ross, B. A. Spengler, and J. L. Biedler, J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 71, 741-747, 1983) respond differentially to TGF beta 1, and their responses provide further insights into the actions of this growth factor on neural crest subpopulations. The SH-EP cell line exhibits primarily nonneuronal traits and responded to TGF beta 1 with increased thymidine uptake after 6 days of culture, increased expression of fibronectin mRNA and protein, and decreased laminin synthesis. Many SH-EP cells also acquired a dramatically elongated morphology, reminiscent of Schwann cells in culture. Thymidine uptake by the neuronal SY5Y cell line was not substantially altered. Neither fibronectin mRNA nor protein was detectable in either TGF beta 1-treated or untreated cultures, although laminin synthesis was upregulated by the growth factor. In TGF beta 1-treated cultures of the intermediate SH-IN cell line, which has been reported to display both neuronal and nonneuronal characteristics, there was marked flattening of many cells, a steady decrease in thymidine uptake, and increased expression of both fibronectin and laminin. The observed responses of SH-IN cells mimic those observed in primary neural crest cultures and appear to represent similar differentiation toward a mesenchymal phenotype. These results substantiate the idea that closely related but diverging neural crest-derived cell types respond selectively to TGF beta 1 and demonstrate that these SK-N-SH-derived cell lines will be useful in experimental approaches that will allow us to infer mechanisms underlying regulation of neural crest

  11. Initiation of Sprite Streamers from Natural Mesospheric Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, N.; Dwyer, J. R.; Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; McHarg, M. G.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are large, luminous electrical discharges in the upper atmosphere caused by intense cloud-to-ground lightning flashes. They manifest a possible, impulsive coupling mechanism between low atmospheric regions and the upper atmosphere. Their dynamics are governed by filamentary plasma discharges, of tens to hundreds of meter wide, known as streamers. The propagation properties of sprite streamers have been well studied by past work [e.g., Liu, et al., JGR, 114, A00E02, 2009; Liu et al, JGR, 114, A00E03, 2009; Luque and Ebert, Nat. Geosci., 2, 757, 2009; Liu, GRL, 37, L04102, 2010; Luque and Ebert, GRL, 37, L06806, 2010]. However, how sprite streamers are initiated is not well understood. Recent high-speed images show that mesospheric/lower ionospheric structures are frequently involved in initiation of sprite streamers [e.g., Stenbaek-Nielsen et al., Surv. Geophys., 34, 769, 2013; Qin et al., Nat. Comm., 5, 2014]. Although earlier theoretical and numerical studies routinely used strong plasma inhomogeneities to initiate streamers, it is only recently that inhomogeneities are concluded to be required for sprite streamer initiation [e.g., Qin et al., JGR, 116, A06305, 2011; Liu et al., PRL, 109, 025002, 2012; Kosar et al., JGR, 117, A08328, 2012; Kosar et al, GRL, 40, 6282, 2013]. However, the inhomogeneities used in various models are rather ad hoc and often unrealistic. In this talk, we present numerical simulations to show naturally-existing mesospheric structures, such as those produced by gravity waves via instability and breaking [e.g., Fritts and Alexander, Rev. Geophys., 41, 1003, 2003], can initiate sprite streamers under the influence of the measurement-inferred lightning field. Evidence from high-speed video observations supporting this theory is discussed. This mechanism naturally explains many aspects of observed sprite streamer initiation including variability in the delay of sprite initiation, sprites caused by weak lightning, optical signatures of

  12. Sprite Luminosity and Radio Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Evans, A.; Mezentsev, A.; van der Velde, O.; Soula, S.

    2013-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010) with diameters 50-100 m at 60-80 km height (Kanmae et al., 2012). The sprite luminosity coincides in time and space with extremely low frequency electromagnetic radiation <3 kHz in excellent agreement with theory (Cummer and Fullekrug, 2001). This theory is based on current flowing in the body of sprites at 70-80 km height associated with large streamer densities (Pasko et al., 1998). A more detailed study shows specifically that the exponential growth and splitting of streamers at 70-80 km height results in an electron multiplication associated with the acceleration of electrons to a few eV. The accelerated electrons radiate a small amount of electromagnetic energy and the incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the observed electromagnetic radiation (Qin et al., 2012). It has been predicted that this newly recognized physical mechanism might also result in low frequency ( 30-300 kHz) electromagnetic radiation emanating from sprite streamers near 40 km height in the stratosphere, albeit with very small magnetic fields 10^{-17}-10^{-12} T from a single streamer (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this predicted radiation was promptly confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). Specifically, it was found that the sprite luminosity coincides with sudden enhancements of the radio noise. These initial observations are extended here with a more detailed analysis to study the spatial coherence of the radio noise recorded with a novel network of sensitive radio receivers deployed during field work in the summer 2013. This network of radio receivers is used to study the relationship between the radio noise and the sprite luminosity observed with video cameras. The sprite luminosity is inferred from video recordings by use of sophisticated image

  13. Anisotropic Hardy-Lorentz spaces and their applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Yang, DaChun; Yuan, Wen

    2016-09-01

    Let $p\\in(0,1]$, $q\\in(0,\\infty]$ and $A$ be a general expansive matrix on $\\mathbb{R}^n$. The authors introduce the anisotropic Hardy-Lorentz space $H^{p,q}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ associated with $A$ via the non-tangential grand maximal function and then establish its various real-variable characterizations in terms of the atomic or the molecular decompositions, the radial or the non-tangential maximal functions, or the finite atomic decompositions. All these characterizations except the $\\infty$-atomic characterization are new even for the classical isotropic Hardy-Lorentz spaces on $\\mathbb{R}^n$. As applications, the authors first prove that $H^{p,q}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ is an intermediate space between $H^{p_1,q_1}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ and $H^{p_2,q_2}_A(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ with $0q\\in(0,\\infty]$, as well as the boundedness of some Calder\\'{o}n-Zygmund operators from $H_A^{p,q}(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ to $L^{p,\\infty}(\\mathbb{R}^n)$, where $b:=|\\det A|$, $\\lambda_-:=\\min\\{|\\lambda|:\\ \\lambda\\in\\sigma(A)\\}$ and $\\sigma(A)$ denotes the set of all eigenvalues of $A$.

  14. Tectonosedimentary evolution model of an intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin for paleoclimatic research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Wang, Jiuyi; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo; Song, Chunhui; Yan, Maodu; Appel, Erwin; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Fuli; Yang, Yibo; Lu, Yin

    2016-10-01

    Intracontinental flexural (foreland) basin sediments are now frequently used as archives for detailed paleoclimatic and sedimentary environmental reconstruction, fossil and stratigraphic correlation, and tectonic evolution and uplift of basin and orogen. However, sedimentologic characteristics vary considerably in time-space with the evolution of flexural basin, apt to cause misinterpretation of climatic change and stratigraphic correlation. Based on high resolution fossil mammal and magnetostratigraphic constraints and sedimentary facies analysis, here we took the Linxia Basin at the front of the NE Tibetan Plateau as a case to demonstrate and figure out a model how sedimentology and stratigraphy vary temporospatially with the evolution of such flexural basin. The results show that the Linxia Basin is a type intracontinental foreland basin subjected to two phases of flexural deformation exerted by the West Qin Ling (Mts.) and NE Tibetan Plateau to the south. Phase I began latest at the beginning of the Miocene (23.3 Ma), indicated by a balanced fast flexural subsidence and mostly fine sediment infilling giving rise to the early underlying unconformity. It manifests as an obvious sediment wedge with high filling rate, thickening toward mountains and an occurrence of a mountains-parallel big river - shallow lake system along the foredeep, suggesting a less high mountain topography. In the late Phase I, from ~ 13 Ma to 8 Ma, the subsidence and thickening rates began to decrease, accompanied by faults and deformation propagating gradually into the basin, causing gradual basinward migration of the foredeep and its accompanying river-lake system. Since ~ 8 Ma in Phase II, the West Qin Ling and NE Tibetan began to uplift rapidly and thrust/load onto the Linxia Basin, causing strong mountain erosion, thrust-fold belt propagation and basin overfilling. This forced the mountains-parallel river - lake system to turn to the mountains-perpendicular alluvial - braided river

  15. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Lauber, Ph. Guenter, S.; Koenies, A.; Pinches, S.D.

    2007-09-10

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfven physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU Muenchen, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Guenter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfven regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfven

  16. LIGKA: A linear gyrokinetic code for the description of background kinetic and fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauber, Ph.; Günter, S.; Könies, A.; Pinches, S. D.

    2007-09-01

    In a plasma with a population of super-thermal particles generated by heating or fusion processes, kinetic effects can lead to the additional destabilisation of MHD modes or even to additional energetic particle modes. In order to describe these modes, a new linear gyrokinetic MHD code has been developed and tested, LIGKA (linear gyrokinetic shear Alfvén physics) [Ph. Lauber, Linear gyrokinetic description of fast particle effects on the MHD stability in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, TU München, 2003; Ph. Lauber, S. Günter, S.D. Pinches, Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 122501], based on a gyrokinetic model [H. Qin, Gyrokinetic theory and computational methods for electromagnetic perturbations in tokamaks, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. A finite Larmor radius expansion together with the construction of some fluid moments and specification to the shear Alfvén regime results in a self-consistent, electromagnetic, non-perturbative model, that allows not only for growing or damped eigenvalues but also for a change in mode-structure of the magnetic perturbation due to the energetic particles and background kinetic effects. Compared to previous implementations [H. Qin, mentioned above], this model is coded in a more general and comprehensive way. LIGKA uses a Fourier decomposition in the poloidal coordinate and a finite element discretisation in the radial direction. Both analytical and numerical equilibria can be treated. Integration over the unperturbed particle orbits is performed with the drift-kinetic HAGIS code [S.D. Pinches, Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Nottingham, 1996; S.D. Pinches et al., CPC 111 (1998) 131] which accurately describes the particles' trajectories. This allows finite-banana-width effects to be implemented in a rigorous way since the linear formulation of the model allows the exchange of the unperturbed orbit integration and the discretisation of the perturbed potentials in the radial direction. Successful benchmarks for toroidal Alfv

  17. Ionic Liquid-Enhanced Solid State Electrolyte Interface (SEI) for Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Gu, Meng; Chen, Honghao; Meduri, Praveen; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Jiguang; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie

    2013-05-16

    Li-S battery is a complicated system with many challenges existing before its final market penetration. While most of the reported work for Li-S batteries is focused on the cathode design, we demonstrate in this work that the anode consumption accelerated by corrosive polysulfide solution also critically determines the Li-S cell performance. To validate this hypothesis, ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-N-butylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Py14TFSI) has been employed to modify the properties of SEI layer formed on Li metal surface in Li-S batteries. It is found that the IL-enhanced passivation film on the lithium anode surface exhibits much different morphology and chemical compositions, effectively protecting lithium metal from continuous attack by soluble polysulfides. Therefore, both cell impedance and the irreversible consumption of polysulfides on lithium metal are reduced. As a result, the Coulombic efficiency and the cycling stability of Li-S batteries have been greatly improved. After 120 cycles, Li-S battery cycled in the electrolyte containing IL demonstrates a high capacity retention of 94.3% at 0.1 C rate. These results unveil another important failure mechanism for Li-S batteries and shin the light on the new approaches to improve Li-S battery performances.

  18. Hardware Development of Bubble Migration Unit for Space Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Cui, H. L.; Duan, L.; Kang, Q.

    Since Young et al 1959 first investigated on thermocapillary motion of bubbles or drops with their linear YGB model the foundational studies have been made from almost every aspects When a bubble or droplet was introduced into a fluid with temperature gradient the migration of bubble or droplet would be induced by interfacial tension gradient On the earth the movement is driven by the combination of the buoyancy and interfacial tension The interfacial tension driven motion is masked by the gravity The space experiment is an opportunity to eliminate the gravitational effect A space experiments were arranged to study isolated bubble migration and interaction between bubbles on board the Chinese 22nd recovery satellite The space experiments were conducted successfully in the autumn of 2005 This paper presents the Bubble Migration Unit BMU in the space experiment BMU consists of test cell of migration power supply temperature measurement and control system fluid management bubble generation motor service thermo expansion chamber optical diagnostics setup and image record system etc The dimension of the rectangular test cell is 70mm in height and a square cross section of 40 40mm The cell is filled with Shin Etsu 5cS silicon oil as continuous phase The viewing windows were clamped by two aluminum blocks The resistor heating film and Peltier elements were mounted on the blocks to actuate heating and cooling respectively A stable temperature gradient was established between the top and the bottom blocks

  19. Reliability and validity of instrumented soccer equipment.

    PubMed

    Akins, Jonathan S; Heebner, Nicholas R; Lovalekar, Mita; Sell, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90-98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention.

  20. Platelet and growth factor concentrations in activated platelet-rich plasma: a comparison of seven commercial separation systems.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Satoshi; Kakudo, Natsuko; Morimoto, Naoki; Hara, Tomoya; Ogawa, Takeshi; Mitsui, Toshihito; Kusumoto, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is blood plasma that has been enriched with platelets. It holds promise for clinical use in areas such as wound healing and regenerative medicine, including bone regeneration. This study characterized the composition of PRP produced by seven commercially available separation systems (JP200, GLO PRP, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, SELPHYL, MyCells, and Dr. Shin's System THROMBO KIT) to evaluate the platelet, white blood cell, red blood cell, and growth factor concentrations, as well as platelet-derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations. PRP prepared using the Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System and the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit contained the highest platelet concentrations. The mean PDGF-AB concentration of activated PRP was the highest from JP200, followed by the KYOCERA Medical PRP Kit, Magellan Autologous Platelet Separator System, MyCells, and GLO PRP. TGF-β1 and VEGF concentrations varied greatly among individual samples, and there was almost no significant difference among the different systems, unlike for PDGF. The SELPHYL system produced PRP with low concentrations of both platelets and growth factors. Commercial PRP separation systems vary widely, and familiarity with their individual advantages is important to extend their clinical application to a wide variety of conditions.

  1. Isoniazid Induced Cutaneous Leukocytoclastic Vasculitis in Extra Pulmonary Tuberculosis (Pott’s Spine): A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    V, Dharma Rao; Rampure, Dilip; S, Rama Rao

    2014-01-01

    Anti-tuberculosis drugs frequently result in cutaneous adverse reactions but Isoniazid is known to have least toxic potential for cutaneous reactions. We report a rare case of Isoniazid induced cutaneous leucocytoclastic vasculitis. A 64-year-old male was diagnosed to have Pott’s spine with multiple vertebral body involvement (D8-12 vertebrae). Subsequently, he was treated with first line anti-TB drugs i.e., Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide and Ethambutol. On the fourth day of treatment with Anti Tuberculosis Treatment (ATT), the patient developed an erythematosus rash over right upper limb not associated with itching or pain, non-blanchable macules and papules over bilateral shins on lower limbs, petechiae on both forearms and hyper pigmented, scaly rash over right axilla and buttocks. The skin biopsy report was consistent with cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis. Although rare, Isoniazid among anti-tuberculosis drugs should be considered as potential cause of drug-induced cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in the differential diagnosis of erythematosus rash with petechiae. PMID:25302231

  2. [The essay on separation of dispensary from medical practice written by Yukichi Fukuzawa].

    PubMed

    Amano, H; Kawabuchi, M; Tanaka, Y; Saitou, A; Sugihara, M

    1993-01-01

    In November 1891, the union of pharmacists submitted the petitions letter on revision of the Law No. 10 issued on March 15, 1889, because by this law physicians acquired the right to dispense medicine rather than to give prescriptions to their patients. Yukichi Fukuzawa criticized the above mentioned problems and he contributed essays to the famous newspaper, Jiji-shin-pou in december 1891. Principles of his essays were as follows: 1) separation of dispensary from medical practice widely done in western countries were important from scientific viewpoint; 2) however, both physicians and patients had no concept on total medical fee which was consistent with consultation fee and charge for medicines. Thus, patients in Japan have been receiving medicines from physicians customarily over several hundred years; 3)introduction of new system on separation of dispensary from medical practice would cause troubles, because additional payment at the pharmacy should be required other than payment for physicians; 4)he was aware that opportunities to commit sick persons to doctor's care would be decreased especially in case of poor persons. Compared the public opinion to the separation of dispensary from medical practice of present day, there was found no difference on the attitude of Japanese people in these hundred years.

  3. Morphological characteristics, formation and glaciological significance of Rogen moraine in northern Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Andrew G.; Bradwell, Tom

    2008-11-01

    Rogen moraine are enigmatic landforms whose exact origin is still debated. We use NEXTMap digital surface models and aerial photographs to map the distribution of previously unreported fields of Rogen moraine in the vicinity of Loch Shin, northern Scotland. Existing models of formation are tested against detailed morphological Rogen moraine characteristics obtained from the remote sensing data and field observations. Detailed morphometric analyses combined with their geographical setting lead us to postulate a likely mechanism of formation. Rogen moraine appear to have formed in areas where there were strong basal ice-flow velocity gradients. Thrusting by compression, or fracturing by extension of preexisting partially frozen sediment probably occurred in these areas, resulting in Rogen moraine formation. A general down-ice increase in ridge crest spacing suggests that the latter process may have been dominant, and is consistent with the location of Rogen moraine in the lee of topographic obstructions, in areas that experienced overall extensional ice flow. We also suggest that at least one field of Rogen moraine formed where lateral basal ice-flow velocity gradients were strongest — possibly in a subglacial shear margin setting. Given their location, the landforms may be consistent with formation during headward scavenging of the Moray Firth palaeo-ice stream into a shrinking core of cold-based ice.

  4. Characterization of an ultrathick positive photoresist for electroplating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrit, Brad K.; Maxwell, Edward W.; Huynh, Lisa M.; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2004-05-01

    The performance requirements for ultra-thick photoresists are rapidly increasing with the dramatic growth in new lithographic applications that require electroplating processes. Two of the main applications for ultra-thick photoresists are nanotechnology (MEMS) and advanced packaging. Flipchip packaging has become widely adopted to address electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. The growth in the nanotechnology market is driven by a wide range of products, which include accelerometers, ink jet print heads, biomedical sensors and optical switches. Electroplating levels for these applications require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and plating with conventional semiconductor equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. A single coat step to achieve the final photoresist thickness is critical to minimize the number of process steps and cycle time. For this thick layer the sidewall profile, aspect ratio, electroplating durability and subsequent stripability are all important. This study characterized a novel positive photoresist (Shin-Etsu SIPR) for use in a 100 micron thick coat for electroplating on copper. The lithographic performance of the ultra-thick positive photoresist was optimized using a broad band, 1X KARL SUSS MA150 aligner used in the proximity mode. All proximity gaps were hard set at 100 microns. Cross sectional SEM analysis, process linearity, and optimized proximity gaps were used to establish the lithographic capabilities. High aspect ratio structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability. A recommended process flow is described for this photoresist and exposure tool.

  5. Comparisons of tibial accelerations when walking on a wood composite vs. a concrete mezzanine surface.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Mehta, Jay P; Allread, W Gary

    2013-09-01

    Mezzanine surfaces can be made from concrete, bar grate, or composite materials. Anecdotal data indicate that mezzanines in distribution centers made from composite materials, due to their increased compliance, may be a more comfortable working surface. Prior research suggested that a measure of tibial shock, peak tibial acceleration, could potentially discriminate the biomechanical differences between these surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify differences in tibial accelerations as 27 people walked on mezzanines constructed from concrete and a wood composite material. Accelerometers were attached bilaterally to the shins of volunteers, and data were collected as they walked 30.5 m on each surface at their normal walking speed, a faster-than-normal walking speed, and a slower-than-normal walking speed. Peak acceleration values obtained from the leg with the highest values were compared. On average, the peak acceleration values were 5% higher on the concrete mezzanine as compared with the wood composite mezzanine (p = .036). These findings suggest that individuals working on mezzanines in distribution centers constructed from composite surfaces would potentially experience less discomfort associated with long exposure periods on these surfaces.

  6. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations.

  7. Treatment of medial tibial stress syndrome according to the fascial distortion model: a prospective case control study.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Finze, Susanne; Bader, Rainer; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS.

  8. Treatment of Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome according to the Fascial Distortion Model: A Prospective Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Finze, Susanne; Lison, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a common problem among athletes and soldiers. There is no proven theory that could explain the pathophysiology of shin splints. The therapies described so far are time-consuming and involve a high risk of relapse. The method according to the fascial distortion model (FDM) addresses local changes in the area of the lower leg fascia. It is suited to reduce pain and functional impairments associated with this symptom complex by applying targeted manual techniques. 32 patients (male: 30; female: 2) participated in this study. Visual analogue scale (VAS) was used for the quantification of pain. Scores were also given to rate the maximum painless exercise tolerance of the patients. Subsequently treatment of the crural fascia was performed. Patients retested ability of running and jumping. Therapy was continued until full exercise tolerance or painlessness was reached. A significant reduction of the VAS pain score from 5.2 to 1.1 could be achieved (P < 0.001). The impairment of exercise tolerance could be reduced from 7 to 2 points (P < 0.001). The duration of treatment was 6.3 (SD: 4.3) days on average. The FDM therapy is a potential effective method for acute treatment of MTSS. PMID:25379543

  9. Basic principles of nuclear medicine techniques for detection and evaluation of trauma and sports medicine injuries.

    PubMed

    Matin, P

    1988-04-01

    Nuclear medicine skeletal imaging is a very sensitive technique for evaluating bone and muscle abnormalities because it can detect minor changes in metabolism and blood flow. The specificity of bone imaging, however, depends on the ability of the nuclear medicine physician to make a differential diagnosis. To aid in making a specific diagnosis, this article describes the various patterns of abnormality in stress fractures, tibial stress syndrome (shin splints), compartment syndrome, enthesopathy, and traumatic fractures. The characteristic scintigraphic appearance of joint injuries, muscle injuries (rhabdomyolysis), and radionuclide arthrography is discussed and the way the scan patterns change with time in these various disorders is described. A brief summary of the basic anatomy and physiology of bone and muscle in normal and injured tissue is presented and the basic mechanisms which cause the various abnormal scan patterns is postulated. In addition, a staging system for stress fractures is presented to help direct the referring physician toward the proper management of the injured patient. In most cases, nuclear medicine skeletal imaging can be used to differentiate between acute muscle injury, tibial stress syndrome, skeletal injury (periosteal reaction, stress fracture, and traumatic fracture) or an abnormality that is entirely associated with the joint or connective tissue. This differential diagnosis is easier if the nuclear medicine procedure is performed within a few days after the onset of injury.

  10. A pneumatic leg brace for the treatment of tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Whitelaw, G P; Wetzler, M J; Levy, A S; Segal, D; Bissonnette, K

    1991-09-01

    Forty-two competitive athletes with posterior medial pain in the lower one-half of the tibia were evaluated by plain roentgenograms and bone scans. Twenty stress fractures were diagnosed in 17 patients by plain roentgenograms or bone scans or both. The remaining 25 patients were diagnosed as having shin splints. All 42 patients subsequently had a pneumatic leg brace applied to the affected limb or limbs. The 17 patients with stress fractures were able to ambulate without pain and were allowed to resume light training in an average of one week. Their injuries were nontender to palpation. The patients were allowed to resume intensive training at an average of 3.7 weeks postinjury. Patients returned to competition at the preinjury level in an average of 5.3 weeks after application of the brace. The pneumatic leg brace allowed the athletes with tibial stress fractures to begin pain-free ambulation and rehabilitation, thus facilitating the maintenance of their cardiovascular fitness and permitting an early return to competition.

  11. [Injuries in track and field sports].

    PubMed

    Weise, K

    1991-01-01

    Acute injuries in track and field sports are rare compared to team or combatant sports (accident rate 0.4%-1%). Acute lesions are most frequent in the muscular system, followed by ruptures of the larger tendons as well as of the ligaments and capsule of the large joints. More frequent are the so-called chronically recurrent microlesions due to false or excessive strain and "endogeneous injuries." Pain at the insertions of the great tendons belongs to this category, for instance achillodynia, the so-called shin splint at the tibia, and jumper's knee involving the patella tendon. Operative treatment of muscle tears is only considered in cases of bigger extent, i.e. in 1/3 of the whole muscle diameter. Disruptions of the great tendons especially at the leg as well as unstable injuries of the capsular ligaments are an indication for reconstructive surgery. In cases of chronic sports injuries due to recurrent overstrain the noxious agent must be eliminated as a preventive step accompanied by some conservative methods of treatment. Stretching and warming up in combination with step-by-step rehabilitation training are of special importance.

  12. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  13. Anatomical variations within the deep posterior compartment of the leg and important clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Hislop, M; Tierney, P

    2004-09-01

    The management of musculoskeletal conditions makes up a large part of a sports medicine practitioner's practice. A thorough knowledge of anatomy is an essential component of the armament necessary to decipher the large number of potential conditions that may confront these practitioners. To cloud the issue further, anatomical variations may be present, such as supernumerary muscles, thickened fascial bands or variant courses of nerves and blood vessels, which can themselves manifest as acute or chronic conditions that lead to significant morbidity or limitation of activity. There are a number of contentious areas within the literature surrounding the anatomy of the leg, particularly involving the deep posterior compartment. Conditions such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial periostitis (shin splints), peripheral nerve entrapment and tarsal tunnel syndrome may all be affected by subtle anatomical variations. This paper primarily focuses on the deep posterior compartment of the leg and uses the gross dissection of cadaveric specimens to describe definitively the anatomy of the deep posterior compartment. Variant fascial attachments of flexor digitorum longus are documented and potential clinical sequelae such as chronic exertional compartment syndrome and tarsal tunnel syndrome are discussed.

  14. Interpretation and classification of bone scintigraphic findings in stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Zwas, S T; Elkanovitch, R; Frank, G

    1987-04-01

    A new system for classification of stress fractures identified by bone scintigraphy was developed and divided into four grades according to lesion dimension, bone extension, and tracer accumulation. The scintigraphic findings were evaluated for severity of lesions by extent of the visualized bone response, ranging from ill-defined cortical lesions with slightly increased activity (I) to well-defined intramedullary transcortical lesions with intensely increased activity (IV). Bone scintigraphies using [99mTc]MDP were obtained in 310 military recruits suspected of having stress fractures. In 235 patients, 391 stress fractures were diagnosed. Forty percent of the lesions were asymptomatic. Most of the lesions were in the tibiae (72%), and 87% of the patients had one or two lesions, while 13% had three to five lesions. Eighty-five percent of the lesions were classified as mild and showed early and more complete resolution on follow-up studies after treatment as compared to the severe grades. Furthermore, specific scintigraphic patterns have been introduced for distinguishing inflammatory shin-splints from stress fractures, allowing for their appropriate early treatment. Thus, early recognition of mild stress fracture scintigraphic patterns representing the beginning of pathologic bone response to stress enabled a prompt and effective treatment to prevent progression of lesions, protracted disability, and complications.

  15. Tibial periosteal reactions in soldiers. A scintigraphic study of 29 cases of lower leg pain.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M B; Hansen, K; Hølmer, P; Dyrbye, M

    1991-12-01

    Twenty-two soldiers with tibial pain along the posteromedial tibial border (29 painful tibias) entered the study. The tibias were evaluated using radiographs and scintigraphs. Follow-up scintigraphs of 12 tibias were performed. The scintigraphic lesions were classified as Stages 0-V depending on the percentage of bone thickness involved. No attempts were made to differentiate between shin splints and stress fractures. Twenty-four symptomatic lesions and five asymptomatic lesions were found by scintigraphy. Radiographic changes were found in all the lesions classified as Stage III or higher, in some Stage II lesions, but never in Stages 0 and I lesions. Because intense scintigraphic uptake is seen in bone tumors, radiographs are needed to exclude this diagnosis. Radiographs were, however, not as sensitive as scintigraphs for differentiating the periosteal injuries seen in this study. The initial scintigraphs can be used to classify the lesions. Follow-up scintigraphs are not useful because they take months to return to normal. Consequently, the clinical symptoms and the level of pain should be the guidelines for treatment.

  16. Tibial stress reaction in runners. Correlation of clinical symptoms and scintigraphy with a new magnetic resonance imaging grading system.

    PubMed

    Fredericson, M; Bergman, A G; Hoffman, K L; Dillingham, M S

    1995-01-01

    Medial tibial pain in runners has traditionally been diagnosed as either a shin splint syndrome or as a stress fracture. Our work using magnetic resonance imaging suggests that a progression of injury can be identified, starting with periosteal edema, then progressive marrow involvement, and ultimately frank cortical stress fracture. Fourteen runners, with a total of 18 symptomatic legs, were evaluated and, within 10 days, referred for radiographs, a technetium bone scan, and a magnetic resonance imaging scan. In 14 of the 18 symptomatic legs, magnetic resonance imaging findings correlated with an established technetium bone scan grading system and more precisely defined the anatomic location and extent of injury. We identified clinical symptoms, such as pain with daily ambulation and physical examination findings, including localized tibial tenderness and pain with direct or indirect percussion, that correlated with more severe tibial stress injuries. When clinically warranted, we recommend magnetic resonance imaging over bone scan for grading of tibial stress lesions in runners. Magnetic resonance imaging is more accurate in correlating the degree of bone involvement with clinical symptoms, allowing for more accurate recommendations for rehabilitation and return to impact activity. Additional advantages of magnetic resonance imaging include lack of exposure to ionizing radiation and significantly less imaging time than three-phase bone scintigraphy.

  17. The nature and response to therapy of 196 consecutive injuries seen at a runners' clinic.

    PubMed

    Pinshaw, R; Atlas, V; Noakes, T D

    1984-02-25

    We studied a series of 196 running injuries to determine the nature of the common injuries, the type of runners with the different injuries, specific factors causing the most common injuries, and the response of these injuries to correction of the biomechanical abnormalities believed to cause them. The four commonest injuries were 'runner's knee' (peripatellar pain syndrome) (22%), 'shin splints' (posterior tibial stress syndrome) (18%), the iliotibial band friction syndrome (12%), and chronic muscle injuries (11%). Within 8 weeks of following the biomechanically based treatment regimen, between 62% and 77% of the runners with the commonest injuries were completely pain-free and running almost the same training distance as before injury. Only 13% of runners were not helped at all, but most of these had not adhered to the prescribed treatment. The response of the iliotibial band syndrome to treatment was less predictable, however, and some runners who followed the advice faithfully were not helped. These data therefore confirm the importance of biomechanical factors in running injuries and indicate that practitioners involved in the care of injured runners need to know not only how to diagnose the conditions accurately but also which running shoes are appropriate for the different running injuries, how to detect subtle lower limb structural abnormalities, in particular foot abnormalities and leg-length inequalities, and when to prescribe in-shoe orthoses.

  18. Primary, large extra-axial chordoma in proximal tibia: a rare case report with literature review and diagnostic implications.

    PubMed

    Rekhi, Bharat

    2016-03-01

    Primary extra-axial chordomas have been rarely documented, especially in the appendicular bones. Until now, nine such cases, objectively confirmed with positive brachyury immunostaining, have been reported. A 42-year-old male presented with pain in his right tibial tuberosity (shin) of 2-3 years duration without any associated swelling. He denied complaints related to any other lesion elsewhere in his body. Plain radiograph of his lower limbs revealed a large, eccentric, well-defined, lytic lesion containing internal septae with a narrow zone of transition and a sclerotic medullary border in the upper metaphysis of his right tibia, associated with a pathological fracture. There was no other lesion identified in his spine on radiographic imaging. Biopsy sections revealed a tumour composed of polygonal cells with moderate to abundant eosinophilic to vacuolated/'bubbly' cytoplasm (physaliphorous cells) arranged in lobules within a conspicuous myxoid matrix. By immunohistochemistry, tumour cells were diffusely positive for pan cytokeratin (AE1/AE3), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), CK19, S100P, meso (HBME1) and Brachyury/T. Diagnosis of an a primary extra-axial chordoma was finally rendered. Subsequently, the patient underwent bone grafting from his iliac crest. The present case constitutes as the 11th documented case of an extra-axial, intraosseous chordoma and the 10th such case occurring in the appendicular bones. Literature review of similar cases; their diagnostic mimics along with diagnostic and therapeutic implications of such cases are discussed herewith.

  19. [Use of extracorporeal shockwave therapy (ESWT)in sports orthopedics].

    PubMed

    Steinacker, T; Steuer, M

    2001-06-01

    From 11/97 to 10/99 409 patients have been treated with the extracorporal shockwave therapy (ESWT) in the sport orthopaedic ambulance. An ultrasound controlled treatment was applied in the low and middle energy range, using energy densities of 0.09 to 0.36 mJ/mm2. The ESWT came into application as an operation avoiding procedure after exhausting the conventional conservative therapy measures. Among the 409 patients, 65 persons were competitive sportsmen. Besides the established indications for the application of the shock wave therapy, this method also has been applied with specific sport orthopaedic indications like achillodynia, patella-top-syndrome, medial shin-syndrome, morbus Schlatter or tendinosis of the shoulder. The results were collected three months after the application of the ESWT using a standardized questionnaire. The performed examination exhibits that for conservatively treated tendinoses of the competitive sportsmen, similarly good therapy results concerning the application of ESWT can be reached compared with the classical orthopaedic shockwave therapy. Therefore, for the treatment of a tendinosis, a shock wave therapy should always be taken into account to avoid long exercise and competition breaks due to operative interventions.

  20. [The specific features of present-day children's physical development in the estimation of the functional sizes of furniture for pupils].

    PubMed

    Khramtsov, P I; Strokina, A N; Sotnikova, E N; Butareva, I I; Moldovanov, V V

    2009-01-01

    The authors made mass anthropometric surveys in 923 first-to-fourth-form pupils and determined the values of 5 variables for height groups 2, 3, and 4, used to justify the functional sizes of furniture for pupils: the length of a shoulder slope above the seat, that of an elbow slope above the seat, that of a popliteal space slope above the floor, the distance from the chair hack to the popliteal space, and the highest pelvic width. Differences were found in the anthropometric values in the present-day junior pupils and the equals in age of the early 1970s. The present-day children are characterized by changes in body proportions (a decrease in height and an increase in the length of the shin and femur), which should be kept in mind on optimizing the working place of pupils. It is suggested that popliteal space length rather than the currently applied height should be used as a fitting ratio of anthropometric characteristics to the functional sizes of furniture for pupils.

  1. Nest site characteristics of three coexisting Accipiter hawks in northeastern Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, K.R.; Henny, C.J.

    1983-01-01

    Habitat data were evaluated at 34 Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis), 31 Cooper's Hawk (A. cooperii), and 15 Sharp-shinned Hawk (A. striatus) nest sites in coniferous forests of northeastern Oregon. Crown volume profiles indicate a strong similarity in vegetative structure at nest sites of cooperii and striatus; both commonly nest in younger successional stands than gentilis. Habitat separation of nest sites among the three species was illustrated using a stepwise discriminant analysis; 88% of all gentilis sites were correctly classified. Interspecific overlap in nest site habitat was further demonstrated using a canonical analysis of habitat variables. Nest site habitat space of gentilis is distinct and is less variable in structure than that of the other species. Cooperii preferred nesting sites with norhern aspects, whereas striatus and gentilis showed no preference. The use of mistletoe (Arceuthobium sp.) growth by cooperii for nest platforms (64% of all nests) may explain its preference for Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) as a nesting tree. Douglas fir is most commonly parasitized by mistletoe.

  2. Erythema nodosum caused by ascariasis and Chlamydophila pneumoniae pulmonary infection--a case report.

    PubMed

    Bergler-Czop, Beata; Lis-Swiety, Anna; Kamińska-Winciorek, Grazyna; Brzezińska-Wcisło, Ligia

    2009-12-01

    Erythema nodosum belongs to a group of relatively common hypodermal inflammations. It occurs mainly among women, particularly young women. The etiology of the disease is not clear. Most frequently, changes appear on the surface of the frontal part of the shins. Initially, red nodules change in color to dark brown and then to yellow and green. There is neither dissolution nor cicatrization of the exanthema. Regression is frequent. We present a case of erythema nodosum caused by Ascaris lumbricoides infection as well as by an early Chlamydophila pneumoniae infection, whose etiology has rarely been described in the literature. We were not able to confirm which factor was responsible for the occurrence of the skin changes as treatment of both infections was effective and all skin changes later disappeared completely. Particular attention should be paid to the fact that precise diagnosis of a patient and the search for etiologic factors, even rare ones, are crucial to obtain good results with treatment of erythema nodosum. PMID:19780821

  3. Preliminary Study on Rock Avalanche in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Wen, Y.; Hsieh, M.

    2012-12-01

    Rock avalanche is a kind of rapid (average >100 km/h) granule flow caused by crushing and pulverization of rock materials during catastrophic rock slide. Literature researches show that rock avalanches typically occur on steep, high-relief slopes underlain by hard rocks, and have volumes >10,000,000 m3. Rock avalanches also are characterized by long runout distances, which are 5 to 10 times the total fall heights. Some cases can run up the opposing valley wall. Rock avalanches generally occurred in active mountains (e.g., New Zealand) and were triggered by earthquakes or rainfall (snowmelt), but with exceptions. There were few rock avalanches in historical time in Taiwan. This could reflect: (1) intrinsic instability of hillslopes due to weak rock, frequent earthquakes/heavy rains, which resulted in landslides of high frequency/low magnitude; (2) limited runout space along deeply incised river-valley systems, which increased the likelihood of rock-slope failures to transform to debris flows. However, there are ancient rock-avalanche records, found at Shou-shan coast (SW Taiwan) and Shin-she, Chang-pin, Tu-lan along Hua-tung coast (E Taiwan), which is likely to have undergone coseismic uplift. These places, with steep slopes, underlain by hard rock, and free for materials to run, are most prone to rock avalanches in the future.

  4. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results. PMID:25669546

  5. Genetic diversity of Theileria orientalis in tick vectors detected in Hokkaido and Okinawa, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Naoaki; Sivakumar, Thillaiampalam; Ota, Naomi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Nakamura, Yukio; Yamashina, Hidenari; Matsui, Shirou; Fukumoto, Natsuko; Hata, Hiroshi; Kondo, Seiji; Oshiro, Mamoru; Zakimi, Satoshi; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Kojima, Naoya; Matsumoto, Kotaro; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the possible tick vectors that can transmit Theileria orientalis in eastern Hokkaido, Japan. Questing ticks collected from three different districts, Taiki, Otofuke, and Shin-Hidaka, of Hokkaido included Ixodes persulcatus, Haemaphysalis megaspinosa, Haemaphysalis douglasi, and Ixodes ovatus, while all the ticks collected from Yonaguni island of Okinawa were identified as Haemaphysalis longicornis. When the ticks were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T. orientalis, the parasite was commonly detected among all tick species. Genotype-specific PCR assays revealed that all tick species in Hokkaido were predominantly detected with type 2, while ticks collected from Okinawa (H. longicornis) were predominantly detected with type 1. Consistent with the genetic diversity of T. orientalis in ticks, genotyping PCR assays from cattle grazed in the same Hokkaido sampling locations identified type 2 as the most prevalent genotype. This study provides the first identification of I. persulcatus, H. megaspinosa, H. douglasi, and I. ovatus as possible tick vectors of T. orientalis, and finds that the variety of vectors apparently capable of transmitting T. orientalis is wider in Japan than expected. The authors suggest that tick control strategies should be modified in Hokkaido based on the seasonal activities of ticks identified in the present study.

  6. Mask patterning for the 22nm node using a proton multi-beam projection pattern generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butschke, Joerg; Irmscher, Mathias; Sailer, Holger; Nedelmann, Lorenz; Pritschow, Marcus; Loeschner, Hans; Platzgummer, Elmar

    2008-10-01

    Decreasing throughput of high-end pattern generators and insufficient line edge roughness (LER) of chemically amplified resists (CAR) might become limitations for future mask making. An alternative could be the introduction of less sensitive resists, linked to a turning away from today's electron beam pattern generators. Moderate exposure doses of around 25μC/cm2 could be achieved for non-CAR materials like HSQ by the use of 10keV protons. Targeting optimized absorber performance, Shin-Etsu has developed an Opaque-molybdenum-over-glass (OMOG) material, designed for 32mn mask technology and beyond. This hard mask concept allows using thin resist layers, as required by an ion beam exposure. Goal of this work was to assess a HSQ based non-CAR process using a multiple ion beam pattern generator including subsequent transfer into the absorber by dry etch processes. Proton exposures have been done on the IMS Nanofabrication proof of concept tool which is designed for 40,000 programmable ion beams. For comparison, an electron based reference process has been set up in parallel to the proton multi-beam approach. Hard mask opening and subsequent absorber etching have been accomplished in a state of the art mask etcher. Assessment of the process flow has been done in terms of feature profile, LER and resolution capability.

  7. [Microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum (a clinical case)].

    PubMed

    Men'shikova, E D; Titova, G P; Kartavenko, V I; Sokolov, V A; Shabanov, A K; Men'shikov, D D

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy of gram-stained impression smears is used for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms in the wound. The shin tissues of patient P. with suspected gas gangrene of lower extremity soft tissues were microscopically found to have gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that were morphologically similar to C. bifermentans that were identified as C. septicum on cultural diagnosis. The pathogenic C. septicum strain spores were likely to be formed in the macroorganism upon exposure of the pathogen to a patient's defense factors and to a package of therapeutic measures. Microbiological data should be used only in combination with clinical and instrumental findings and the results of other laboratory studies when the optimal technology is chosen to treat gas infection. By keeping in mind that there may be clostridial gangrene in the patients and the experience of clinicians and bacteriologists may be insufficient in diagnosing this pathology, it is necessary to strengthen the training of physicians in the diagnosis of this pathology. PMID:20886724

  8. Association between Medication Adherence and Duration of Outpatient Treatment in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kikuyama, Hiroki; Ohta, Munehiro; Kanazawa, Tetsufumi; Okamura, Takehiko; Yoneda, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective Medication adherence is important in the treatment of schizophrenia, and critical periods during treatment may be associated with relapse. However, the relationship between adherence and duration of outpatient treatment (DOT) remains unclear. The authors aimed to clarify the relationship between adherence and DOT at a psychiatric hospital in Japan. Methods For outpatients with schizophrenia who regularly visit Shin-Abuyama hospital, the authors conducted a single questionnaire survey (five questions covering gender, age, DOT, medication shortages, and residual medication) over one month period. Participants were divided into two groups whether DOT were from more than one year to within five years or not. Mantel-Haenszel analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed on the data regarding the medication adherence. Results Effective answers were received for 328 patients. The residual medication rate was significantly higher among those receiving outpatient treatment from more than one year to within five years than five years than those receiving outpatient treatment for more than five years or less than one year (p=0.016). Conclusion This survey suggests that there are critical periods during which patients are most prone to poor adherence. Because poor adherence increases the risk of relapse, specific measures must be taken to improve adherence during these periods. PMID:27482242

  9. Low-end mass function of the Quintuplet cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.

    2016-08-01

    The Quintuplet and Arches clusters, which were formed in the harsh environment of the Galactic Centre (GC) a few million years ago, have been excellent targets for studying the effects of a star-forming environment on the initial mass function (IMF). In order to estimate the shape of the low-end IMF of the Arches cluster, Shin & Kim devised a novel photometric method that utilizes pixel intensity histograms (PIHs) of the observed images. Here, we apply the PIH method to the Quintuplet cluster and estimate the shape of its low-end IMF below the magnitude of completeness limit as set by conventional photometry. We found that the low-end IMF of the Quintuplet is consistent with that found for the Arches cluster-Kroupa MF, with a significant number of low-mass stars below 1 M⊙. We conclude that the most likely IMFs of the Quintuplet and the Arches clusters are not too different from the IMFs found in the Galactic disc. We also find that the observed PIHs and stellar number density profiles of both clusters are best reproduced when the clusters are assumed to be at three-dimensional distances of approximately 100 pc from the GC.

  10. [Microbiological diagnosis of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium septicum (a clinical case)].

    PubMed

    Men'shikova, E D; Titova, G P; Kartavenko, V I; Sokolov, V A; Shabanov, A K; Men'shikov, D D

    2010-08-01

    Microscopy of gram-stained impression smears is used for the rapid diagnosis of microorganisms in the wound. The shin tissues of patient P. with suspected gas gangrene of lower extremity soft tissues were microscopically found to have gram-positive spore-forming bacteria that were morphologically similar to C. bifermentans that were identified as C. septicum on cultural diagnosis. The pathogenic C. septicum strain spores were likely to be formed in the macroorganism upon exposure of the pathogen to a patient's defense factors and to a package of therapeutic measures. Microbiological data should be used only in combination with clinical and instrumental findings and the results of other laboratory studies when the optimal technology is chosen to treat gas infection. By keeping in mind that there may be clostridial gangrene in the patients and the experience of clinicians and bacteriologists may be insufficient in diagnosing this pathology, it is necessary to strengthen the training of physicians in the diagnosis of this pathology.

  11. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Liu, Hui-Ju; Wen, Che-Sheng; Hsu, Chung-Hua; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ER α protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ER α protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  12. Stress fractures: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak S; Roth, Matt; Kapil, Neha

    2011-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in athletes and military recruits. These injuries occur more commonly in lower extremities than in upper extremities. Stress fractures should be considered in patients who present with tenderness or edema after a recent increase in activity or repeated activity with limited rest. The differential diagnosis varies based on location, but commonly includes tendinopathy, compartment syndrome, and nerve or artery entrapment syndrome. Medial tibial stress syndrome (shin splints) can be distinguished from tibial stress fractures by diffuse tenderness along the length of the posteromedial tibial shaft and a lack of edema. When stress fracture is suspected, plain radiography should be obtained initially and, if negative, may be repeated after two to three weeks for greater accuracy. If an urgent diagnosis is needed, triple-phase bone scintigraphy or magnetic resonance imaging should be considered. Both modalities have a similar sensitivity, but magnetic resonance imaging has greater specificity. Treatment of stress fractures consists of activity modification, including the use of nonweight-bearing crutches if needed for pain relief. Analgesics are appropriate to relieve pain, and pneumatic bracing can be used to facilitate healing. After the pain is resolved and the examination shows improvement, patients may gradually increase their level of activity. Surgical consultation may be appropriate for patients with stress fractures in high-risk locations, nonunion, or recurrent stress fractures. Prevention of stress fractures has been studied in military personnel, but more research is needed in other populations. PMID:21888126

  13. Direct and indirect effects of petroleum production activities on the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) as a surrogate for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus).

    PubMed

    Weir, Scott M; Knox, Ami; Talent, Larry G; Anderson, Todd A; Salice, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    The dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) is a habitat specialist of conservation concern limited to shin oak sand dune systems of New Mexico and Texas (USA). Because much of the dunes sagebrush lizard's habitat occurs in areas of high oil and gas production, there may be direct and indirect effects of these activities. The congeneric Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) was used as a surrogate species to determine direct effects of 2 contaminants associated with oil and gas drilling activities in the Permian Basin (NM and TX, USA): herbicide formulations (Krovar and Quest) and hydrogen sulfide gas (H2S). Lizards were exposed to 2 concentrations of H2 S (30 ppm or 90 ppm) and herbicide formulations (1× or 2× label application rate) representing high-end exposure scenarios. Sublethal behavioral endpoints were evaluated, including sprint speed and time to prey detection and capture. Neither H2S nor herbicide formulations caused significant behavioral effects compared to controls. To understand potential indirect effects of oil and gas drilling on the prey base, terrestrial invertebrate biomass and order diversity were quantified at impacted sites to compare with nonimpacted sites. A significant decrease in biomass was found at impacted sites, but no significant effects on diversity. The results suggest little risk from direct toxic effects, but the potential for indirect effects should be further explored. PMID:26456391

  14. Gravity Currents Propagating Up a Slope in a Uniform Ambient and a Two-Layer Stratified Ambient Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marleau, Larissa; Flynn, Morris; Sutherland, Bruce

    2014-11-01

    Bottom propagating gravity currents resulting from full- and partial-depth lock-release experiments are investigated as they propagate up a slope within a uniform and a two-layer stratified ambient. For the former case we adapt the theory of Shin et al. (J. Fluid Mech., 521, 2004) and derive a relationship for the deceleration of the front as a function of the slope angle and gravity current density. Experimental results show that the shape of the gravity current is self-similar as it decelerates over relatively steep slopes. The evolution of a gravity current in a two-layer ambient is complicated by the excitation of and interaction with a solitary wave. If the initial gravity current speed is subcritical to the wave speed, the current eventually stops abruptly while the wave continues at constant speed. If supercritical, turbulence at the current head is suppressed as it approaches the interface at the leading edge of the wave and the is re-established as the head becomes in direct contact with the upper layer.

  15. Air conditioner operation behaviour based on students' skin temperature in a classroom.

    PubMed

    Song, Gook-Sup; Lim, Jae-Han; Ahn, Tae-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    A total of 25 college students participated in a study to determine when they would use an air conditioner during a lecture in a university classroom. The ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured 75 cm above the floor every minute. Skin temperatures were measured every minute at seven points, according to the recommendation of Hardy and Dubois. The average clothing insulation value (CLO) of subjects was 0.53 ± 0.07 CLO. The mean air velocity in the classroom was 0.13 ± 0.028 m/s. When the subjects turned the air conditioner both on and off, the average ambient temperatures, relative humidity and mean skin temperatures were 27.4 and 23.7 °C (p = 0.000), 40.9 and 40.0% (p = 0.528) and 32.7 and 32.2 °C (p = 0.024), respectively. When the status of the air conditioner was changed, the differences of skin temperatures in core body parts (head, abdomen and thigh) were not statistically significant. However, in the extremities (mid-lower arm, hand, shin and instep), the differences were statistically significant. Subjects preferred a fluctuating environment to a constant temperature condition. We found that a changing environment does not affect classroom study. PMID:21665190

  16. Palmoplantar Keratoderma as a Variant of Lichen Planus.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Virendra N; Aggarwal, Ashok; Syed, Nazim Hussain; Rasool, Farhan; Verma, Prashant; Sharma, Sonal

    2016-01-01

    A 52-year-old air conditioner mechanic presented with progressively itchy grayish white eruptions affecting the skin and mucous membranes, including his palms and soles for the past 2 months. The inner aspects of the palms and weight-bearing areas of the soles were the initial sites of presentation, resulting in a diffuse thickness of the palms and soles, which inhibited his everyday activity. The eruptions were asymptomatic but conspicuous. There was marked presence of multiple erythematous to grayish white (violaceous) flat-topped polygonal papules of varying sizes, with a few coalescing to form plaques. The papules varied in size from 5 mm to 4 cm and had prominent adherent scales on top when examined after smearing with mineral oil. Koebnerization was seen over the shin. The lesions were found on the wrists, forearms, ankles, legs, and thighs. There was a yellow to brown thick symmetric hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, including the medial and lateral aspect of the fingers and toes, sparing the dorsal surfaces of the hands and feet (Figure 1). In addition, the medial arch and weight-bearing region of both soles were involved. The nails showed subungual hyperkeratosis, nail plate discoloration, and paronychia of the toes and fingers. Hyperkeratosis and scaly plaques were also identified in the web spaces (Figure 2). The buccal mucosa showed symmetrical white plaques with a lacy white pattern. PMID:27072734

  17. Monitoring of the volcanic plume based on the post-fit phase residual of PPP analysis and SNR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Yusaku; Iguchi, Masato

    2016-04-01

    A volcanic explosion is one of the largest energy-release phenomena on earth. For example, vulcanian eruptions usually eject large amounts of rock mass, tephra, and volcanic ash. Ash fall from such events can seriously affect the structural integrity of buildings, in addition to disrupting land and air traffic. Therefore, the monitoring and prediction of ash fall is very important. In this study, using data from a dense GNSS network, we investigated the spatiotemporal development of the volcanic plume ejected by the vulcanian eruption in Sakurajima, southwestern Japan on July 24, 2012. We extracted the post-fit phase residuals (PPR) of ionosphere-free linear combinations for each satellite based on the precise point positioning approach. Temporal and spatial PPR anomalies clearly detected the movement of the volcanic plume. The maximum height of the crossing points of anomalous PPR paths was determined to be approximately 4000 m. We then compared the PPR with the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) anomalies. Only the path passing just above the crater showed significant change in the SNR value, suggesting that the volcanic ash and the water vapor within the volcanic plume became separated after reaching a high altitude because of ash fall during the plume's lateral movement. In the presentation, we will introduce the eruption in Shin-dake (Kuchinoerabu island, southwestern Japan) on May 29, 2015 based on the SNR data.

  18. Characterization of an ultra-thick positive photoresist for electroplating applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott S.

    2003-06-01

    The performance requirements for ultra-thick photoresists have increased rapidly with the dramatic growth in new lithographic applications that require electroplating processes. Two of the main applications for ultra-thick photoresists are nanotechnology (MEMS) and advanced packaging. Flipchip packaging has become widely adopted to address electrical device performance and chip form factor considerations. The growth in the nanotechnology market is driven by a wide range of products, which include accelerometers, ink jet print heads, biomedical sensors and optical switches. Electroplating levels for these applications require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and plating with conventional semiconductor equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. A single coat step to achieve the final photoresist thickness is critical to minimize the number of process steps and cycle time. The sidewall profile, aspect ratio, electroplating durability and subsequent stripability are all important. This study characterized a novel positive photosensitive chemically amplified photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR) for the use in a 65μm thick electroplating level on copper. The lithographic performance of the ultra-thick positive photoresist was optimized using a broad band, low numerical aperture, 1x stepper to control critical dimensions (CD), sidewall angles and aspect ratios. Cross sectional SEM analysis, contrast curves, process linearity, and process latitude plots were used to establish the lithographic capabilities. High aspect ratio structures were then electroplated using the optimized photoresist process to demonstrate photoresist durability and stripability. A recommended process flow is described for this photoresist and stepper.

  19. Incidence and Risk Factors of Rachitic Genu Varus in Preschool Children in a Paediatric Health Institute in Egypt as One of the Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bishay, Sherif N.G.; El-Sherbini, Mostafa H. A.; Azzam, Amre A.; Lotfy, Ashraf A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rachitic genu varus is one of the common conditions among the Egyptian children, despite the shinning sun of Egypt all the year. Purpose: The aim of the study was to estimate the incidence of rachitic genu varus among the Egyptian children, and to assess the risk factors contributing to it. Patients and Methods: This prospective study recruited a total of 250 consecutive children, being 130 males and 120 females, with rachitic bow legs or genu varus, between 2 - 4 years of age, together with 250 controls of the same age group, out of a total number of 1900 children with other types of rickets, and other children's orthopaedic diseases, who presented to the National Institute of Neuromotor System in Egypt between September 2014 to September 2015. The cases and the controls were subjected to clinical, laboratory biochemical, and plain radiographic examinations. Their parents were subjected to epidemiological, maternal, and nutritional questionnaires. Results: The calculations revealed high incidence (13.1%) of rachitic genu varus. The risk factors were low socioeconomic status, insufficient family income, poor housing conditions, lack of exposure to sunlight due to cultural practices, sole breast feeding, and inadequate supplementation of vitamin D to the children and the pregnant women. The p value was <0.05. Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency rachitic genu varus is a multifactorial condition in Egypt. Raising the standard of living, level of education, housings, and dietary supplementation of vitamin D to the pregnant women and infants are the solution. PMID:27583060

  20. Screening to Identify Commonly Used Chinese Herbs That Affect ERBB2 and ESR1 Gene Expression Using the Human Breast Cancer MCF-7 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chun-Ju; Wu, Jing-Chong; Wen, Che-Sheng; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Chen, Wei-Shone; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Aim. Our aim the was to screen the commonly used Chinese herbs in order to detect changes in ERBB2 and ESR1 gene expression using MCF-7 cells. Methods. Using the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line, cell cytotoxicity and proliferation were evaluated by MTT and trypan blue exclusion assays, respectively. A luciferase reporter assay was established by transient transfecting MCF-7 cells with plasmids containing either the ERBB2 or the ESR1 promoter region linked to the luciferase gene. Chinese herbal extracts were used to treat the cells at 24 h after transfection, followed by measurement of their luciferase activity. The screening results were verified by Western blotting to measure HER2 and ERα protein expression. Results. At concentrations that induced little cytotoxicity, thirteen single herbal extracts and five compound recipes were found to increase either ERBB2 or ESR1 luciferase activity. By Western blotting, Si-Wu-Tang, Kuan-Shin-Yin, and Suan-Tsao-Ren-Tang were found to increase either HER2 or ERα protein expression. In addition, Ligusticum chuanxiong was shown to have a great effect on ERBB2 gene expression and synergistically with estrogen to stimulate MCF-7 cell growth. Conclusion. Our results provide important information that should affect clinical treatment strategies among breast cancer patients who are receiving hormonal or targeted therapies. PMID:24987437

  1. A report of five cases of self-mutilation for the purpose of insurance fraud.

    PubMed

    Hedjazi, Arya; Hoseinzadeh, Amin; Zarenezhad, Mohammad; Hassanzadeh, Razieh; Mahmoudi, Danesh; Ghadipasha, Masoud

    2013-08-01

    Self-mutilation means direct and deliberate destruction of one's own body tissue without intending suicide. Some of the forensic referrals are the fraudulent persons who wish to obtain insurance benefits by simulating self-induced harms as injuries due to accidents. In this article we report five cases of self-mutilation for the purpose of obtaining insurance payments. These cases were interesting because of the following reasons: (1) Fracture of the tibia bone for the purpose of obtaining insurance payments is extremely rare. To our knowledge, the specialised literature does not present a similar case study as we described here. (2) In the cases we describe here, nobody had prior history of social and psychiatric problems and violence. In addition, on examination, no sign of previous scars was found in the whole body skin. (3) Self-mutilation injuries are often painless, parallel and delicate lines which are most frequently in the upper limb opposite to the dominant hand and in the areas that can be easily reached. In one of our cases, self-mutilation of the leg shin and the dominant hand were on the same side of the body. (4) In our study, all of the cases had high school education and were from small counties. Four patients were within the age range of 20-30 years, living in a populous family (six-member family) and of middle socioeconomic status. These results are consistent with previously available data for self-mutilation in Iran.

  2. Block copolymers confined in a nanopore: Pathfinding in a curving and frustrating flatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevink, G. J. A.; Zvelindovsky, A. V.

    2008-02-01

    We have studied structure formation in a confined block copolymer melt by means of dynamic density functional theory. The confinement is two dimensional, and the confined geometry is that of a cylindrical nanopore. Although the results of this study are general, our coarse-grained molecular model is inspired by an experimental lamella-forming polysterene-polybutadiene diblock copolymer system [K. Shin et al., Science 306, 76 (2004)], in which an exotic toroidal structure was observed upon confinement in alumina nanopores. Our computational study shows that a zoo of exotic structures can be formed, although the majority, including the catenoid, helix, and double helix that were also found in Monte Carlo nanopore studies, are metastable states. We introduce a general classification scheme and consider the role of kinetics and elongational pressure on stability and formation pathway of both equilibrium and metastable structures in detail. We find that helicity and threefold connections mediate structural transitions on a larger scale. Moreover, by matching the remaining parameter in our mesoscopic method, the Flory-Huggins parameter χ, to the experimental system, we obtain a structure that resembles the experimental toroidal structure in great detail. Here, the most important factor seems to be the roughness of the pore, i.e., small variations of the pore radius on a scale that is larger than the characteristic size in the system.

  3. Comparisons of tibial accelerations when walking on a wood composite vs. a concrete mezzanine surface.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Steven A; Mehta, Jay P; Allread, W Gary

    2013-09-01

    Mezzanine surfaces can be made from concrete, bar grate, or composite materials. Anecdotal data indicate that mezzanines in distribution centers made from composite materials, due to their increased compliance, may be a more comfortable working surface. Prior research suggested that a measure of tibial shock, peak tibial acceleration, could potentially discriminate the biomechanical differences between these surfaces. The objective of this study was to quantify differences in tibial accelerations as 27 people walked on mezzanines constructed from concrete and a wood composite material. Accelerometers were attached bilaterally to the shins of volunteers, and data were collected as they walked 30.5 m on each surface at their normal walking speed, a faster-than-normal walking speed, and a slower-than-normal walking speed. Peak acceleration values obtained from the leg with the highest values were compared. On average, the peak acceleration values were 5% higher on the concrete mezzanine as compared with the wood composite mezzanine (p = .036). These findings suggest that individuals working on mezzanines in distribution centers constructed from composite surfaces would potentially experience less discomfort associated with long exposure periods on these surfaces. PMID:23601691

  4. Low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model for unsteady turbulent boundary-layer flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Sixin; Lakshminarayana, Budugur; Barnett, Mark

    1993-01-01

    An assessment of the near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions used in low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon models suggests that they are not suitable for the near-wall region of unsteady turbulent boundary layers, where the flow is characterized by rapid changes in phase. An improved low-Reynolds-number k-epsilon model is developed in this paper. The near-wall and low-Reynolds-number functions in this model are formulated as functions of the local turbulent Reynolds numbers instead of the inner variable y(+). The present model also has the correct asymptotic behavior in the near-wall region. The turbulence model has been incorporated in an unsteady boundary-layer code and validated for unsteady turbulent boundary layers with and without adverse pressure gradients. The predictions agree well with the experimental data and the theoretical analysis. For the cases tested, the present model correctly predicts the unsteady near-wall flow and the unsteady shin friction at various frequencies.

  5. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5{sup ′}-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C–C and C–O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  6. Determining the Stationarity Distance via a Reversible Stochastic Process

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, Marios

    2016-01-01

    The problem of controlling stationarity involves an important aspect of forecasting, in which a time series is analyzed in terms of levels or differences. In the literature, non-parametric stationary tests, such as the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) tests, have been shown to be very important; however, they are affected by problems with the reliability of lag and sample size selection. To date, no theoretical criterion has been proposed for the lag-length selection for tests of the null hypothesis of stationarity. Their use should be avoided, even for the purpose of so-called ‘confirmation’. The aim of this study is to introduce a new method that measures the distance by obtaining each numerical series from its own time-reversed series. This distance is based on a novel stationary ergodic process, in which the stationary series has reversible symmetric features, and is calculated using the Dynamic Time-warping (DTW) algorithm in a self-correlation procedure. Furthermore, to establish a stronger statistical foundation for this method, the F-test is used as a statistical control and is a suggestion for future statistical research on resolving the problem of a sample of limited size being introduced. Finally, as described in the theoretical and experimental documentation, this distance indicates the degree of non-stationarity of the times series. PMID:27764103

  7. A generalized conditional heteroscedastic model for temperature downscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, R.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a method for deriving the time varying second order moment, or heteroscedasticity, of local daily temperature and its association to large Coupled Canadian General Circulation Models predictors. This is carried out by applying a multivariate generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (MGARCH) approach to construct the conditional variance-covariance structure between General Circulation Models (GCMs) predictors and maximum and minimum temperature time series during 1980-2000. Two MGARCH specifications namely diagonal VECH and dynamic conditional correlation (DCC) are applied and 25 GCM predictors were selected for a bivariate temperature heteroscedastic modeling. It is observed that the conditional covariance between predictors and temperature is not very strong and mostly depends on the interaction between the random process governing temporal variation of predictors and predictants. The DCC model reveals a time varying conditional correlation between GCM predictors and temperature time series. No remarkable increasing or decreasing change is observed for correlation coefficients between GCM predictors and observed temperature during 1980-2000 while weak winter-summer seasonality is clear for both conditional covariance and correlation. Furthermore, the stationarity and nonlinearity Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin (KPSS) and Brock-Dechert-Scheinkman (BDS) tests showed that GCM predictors, temperature and their conditional correlation time series are nonlinear but stationary during 1980-2000 according to BDS and KPSS test results. However, the degree of nonlinearity of temperature time series is higher than most of the GCM predictors.

  8. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2014-01-28

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5(')-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  9. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of carbohydrates and nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Joong-Won; Bernstein, Elliot R.

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrates (2-deoxyribose, ribose, and xylose) and nucleotides (adenosine-, cytidine-, guanosine-, and uridine-5'-monophosphate) are generated in the gas phase, and ionized with vacuum ultraviolet photons (VUV, 118.2 nm). The observed time of flight mass spectra of the carbohydrate fragmentation are similar to those observed [J.-W. Shin, F. Dong, M. Grisham, J. J. Rocca, and E. R. Bernstein, Chem. Phys. Lett. 506, 161 (2011)] for 46.9 nm photon ionization, but with more intensity in higher mass fragment ions. The tendency of carbohydrate ions to fragment extensively following ionization seemingly suggests that nucleic acids might undergo radiation damage as a result of carbohydrate, rather than nucleobase fragmentation. VUV photoionization of nucleotides (monophosphate-carbohydrate-nucleobase), however, shows that the carbohydrate-nucleobase bond is the primary fragmentation site for these species. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the removed carbohydrate electrons by the 118.2 nm photons are associated with endocyclic C-C and C-O ring centered orbitals: loss of electron density in the ring bonds of the nascent ion can thus account for the observed fragmentation patterns following carbohydrate ionization. DFT calculations also indicate that electrons removed from nucleotides under these same conditions are associated with orbitals involved with the nucleobase-saccharide linkage electron density. The calculations give a general mechanism and explanation of the experimental results.

  10. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking. PMID:25570638

  11. The kinetics of cooked meat haemoprotein formation in meat and model systems.

    PubMed

    Geileskey, A; King, R D; Corte, D; Pinto, P; Ledward, D A

    1998-03-01

    The rate of cooked meat haemoprotein formation (measured as the rate of loss of myoglobin solubility) was found, at least initially, to obey first order kinetics in meat, aqueous muscle extracts and mixtures of myoglobin and bovine serum albumin. In meat at 60 °C the rate was dependent on the species, (the pigment was formed significantly faster in lamb m. longissimus dorsi than in beef m. longissimus dorsi) and anatomical location (cooked meat haemoprotein was formed in beef m. 1. dorsi about twice as rapidly as in both beef shin and chuck (shoulder) muscle of similar pH). The rate of formation was similar in aqueous muscle extracts to that found in meat and in these systems increased with decreasing pH. The activation energies for all beef systems studied were similar and typical of those associated with protein denaturation (~300 KJ mol(-1)); however, that from lamb appeared to be lower (~200 KJ mol(-1)). The problems of using colour as an index of temperature reached, either for microbial safety (E. Coli 0157:H7 destruction) or quality are discussed in the light of these results. PMID:22063067

  12. Sensitive β-galactosidase-targeting fluorescence probe for visualizing small peritoneal metastatic tumours in vivo.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Daisuke; Sakabe, Masayo; Kamiya, Mako; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Hiratake, Jun; Ogawa, Mikako; Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Choyke, Peter L; Nagano, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Hisataka; Urano, Yasuteru

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence-guided diagnostics is one of the most promising approaches for facile detection of cancer in situ. Here we focus on β-galactosidase, which is overexpressed in primary ovarian cancers, as a molecular target for visualizing peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers. As existing fluorescence probes are unsuitable, we have designed membrane-permeable HMRef-βGal, in which the optimized intramolecular spirocyclic function affords >1,400-fold fluorescence enhancement on activation. We confirm that HMRef-βGal sensitively detects intracellular β-galactosidase activity in several ovarian cancer lines. In vivo, this probe visualizes metastases as small as <1 mm in diameter in seven mouse models of disseminated human peritoneal ovarian cancer (SHIN3, SKOV3, OVK18, OVCAR3, OVCAR4, OVCAR5 and OVCAR8). Because of its high brightness, real-time detection of metastases with the naked eye is possible. Endoscopic fluorescence detection of metastases is also demonstrated. The results clearly indicate preclinical potential value of the probe for fluorescence-guided diagnosis of peritoneal metastases from ovarian cancers.

  13. The skin landscape in diabetes mellitus. Focus on dermocosmetic management

    PubMed Central

    Piérard, Gérald E; Seité, Sophie; Hermanns-Lê, Trinh; Delvenne, Philippe; Scheen, André; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine

    2013-01-01

    Background Some relationships are established between diabetes mellitus (DM) and a series of cutaneous disorders. Specific dermatoses are markers for undiagnosed DM. Other disorders represent supervening complications in an already treated DM patient. Objective To review the information about dermocosmetic care products and their appropriate use in the management and prevention of dermatoses related to DM. Method The peer-reviewed literature and empiric findings are covered. Owing to the limited clinical evidence available for the use of dermocosmetics, a review of the routine practices and common therapies in DM-related dermatoses was conducted. Results Some DM-related dermatoses (acanthosis nigricans, pigmented purpuric dermatosis) are markers of macrovascular complications. The same disorders and some others (xerosis, Dupuytren’s disease) have been found to be more frequently associated with microangiopathy. Other skin diseases (alopecia areata, vitiligo) were found to be markers of autoimmunity, particularly in type 1 DM. Unsurprisingly, using dermocosmetics and appropriate skin care has shown objective improvements of some DM-related dermatoses, such effects improve the quality of life. The most common skin manifestations of DM fall along continuum between “dry skin,” xerosis, and acquired ichthyosis, occurring predominately on the shins and feet. Dermocosmetic products improve the feeling of well-being for DM patients. PMID:23696712

  14. Partially irreversible paresis of the deep peroneal nerve caused by osteocartilaginous exostosis of the fibula without affecting the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Dysfunction of the lower limb's muscles can cause severe impairment and immobilisation of the patient. As one of the leg's major motor and sensory nerves, the deep peroneal nerve (synonym: deep fibular nerve) plays a very important role in muscle innervation in the lower extremities. We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who suffered from a brace-like exostosis 6-cm underneath her left fibular head causing a partially irreversible paresis of her deep peroneal nerve. This nerve damage resulted in complete atrophy of her extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus muscle, and in painful sensory disturbance at her left shin and first web space. The tibialis anterior muscle stayed intact because its motor branch left the deep peroneal nerve proximal to the nerve lesion. Diagnosis was first verified 6 years after the onset of symptoms by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of her complete left lower leg. Subsequently, the patient was operated on in our clinic, where a neurolysis was performed and the 4-cm-long osteocartilaginous exostosis was removed. Paralysis was already irreversible but sensibility returned completely after neurolysis. The presented case shows that an osteocartilaginous exostosis can be the cause for partial deep peroneal nerve paresis. If this disorder is diagnosed at an early stage, nerve damage is reversible. Typical for an exostosis is its first appearance during the juvenile growth phase.

  15. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of walking.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Luke M; Rouse, Elliott J; Herr, Hugh M

    2014-01-01

    We developed an autonomous powered leg exoskeleton capable of providing large amounts of positive mechanical power to the wearer during powered plantarflexion phase of walking. The autonomous exoskeleton consisted of a winch actuator fasted to the shin which pulled on fiberglass struts attached to a boot. The fiberglass struts formed a rigid extension of the foot when the proximal end of the strut was pulled in forward by the winch actuator. This lightweight, geometric transmission allowed the electric winch actuator to efficiently produce biological levels of power at the ankle joint. The exoskeleton was powered and controlled by lithium polymer batteries and motor controller worn around the waist. Preliminary testing on two subjects walking at 1.4 m/s resulted in the exoskeleton reducing the metabolic cost of walking by 6-11% as compared to not wearing the device. The exoskeleton provided a peak mechanical power of over 180 W at each ankle (mean standard ± deviation) and an average positive mechanical power of 27 ± 1 W total to both ankles, while electrically using 75-89 W of electricity. The batteries (800 g) used in this experiment are estimated to be capable of providing this level of assistance for up to 7 km of walking.

  16. "Smart" Ag Nanostructures for Plasmon-Enhanced Spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao-Yu; Meng, Meng; Huang, Sheng-Chao; Li, Lei; Huang, Shao-Rong; Chen, Shu; Meng, Ling-Yan; Panneerselvam, Rajapandiyan; Zhang, San-Jun; Ren, Bin; Yang, Zhi-Lin; Li, Jian-Feng; Tian, Zhong-Qun

    2015-11-01

    Silver is an ideal candidate for surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based applications because of its great optical cross-section in the visible region. However, the uses of Ag in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies have been limited due to their interference via direct contact with analytes, the poor chemical stability, and the Ag(+) release phenomenon. Herein, we report a facile chemical method to prepare shell-isolated Ag nanoparticle/tip. The as-prepared nanostructures exhibit an excellent chemical stability and plasmonic property in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies for more than one year. It also features an alternative plasmon-mediated photocatalysis pathway by smartly blocking "hot" electrons. Astonishingly, the shell-isolated Ag nanoparticles (Ag SHINs), as "smart plasmonic dusts", reveal a ∼1000-fold ensemble enhancement of rhodamine isothiocyanate (RITC) on a quartz substrate in surface-enhanced fluorescence. The presented "smart" Ag nanostructures offer a unique way for the promotion of ultrahigh sensitivity and reliability in plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies.

  17. The Rogers focusing heliostat experimental program at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, W. E.; Borton, D. N.; Rice, M. P.

    1980-12-01

    A research effort to develop a solar collector package designed specifically with the needs and solar resources of the Northeast in mind is described. The heliostat is a concentrating solar collector which is 30 feet high, 34 feet wide and has 864 square feet of mirror concentrator. Electric controls move the structure so it tracks the path of the Sun as it rises and sets and moves across the sky. When the Sun is not shinning, the mirrors turn down, shielding them from the dirt, ice and snow. However, when it rains the mirrors turn up for cleaning, helping to keep them in peak operating condition. The heliostat's design incorporates a concentrating capability which takes the diffuse energy of the Sun and focuses it, creating temperatures of more than 3,600 F and producing enough steam as a result to displace 70 kW of electricity at peak operation. The unit tested in this demonstration was used for space heating, and domestic hot water as well as to fire an absorption air conditioner.

  18. Automatic Clock and Time Signal System of the Astronomical Agency in East Asia Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Sam

    2009-09-01

    We analysed the old automatic clock and time signal system that was used by the national astronomical agency in East Asian Area. Jagyeongnu is a kind of water clock that was operated by the flowing water in Joseon Dynasty. Seowoongwan managed the water clock so as to keep the standard time system in the dynasty from the 16th year (1434) of King Sejong's reign. In 1438 the Okru that was invented in the period. Such kind of clock system already was used in China, which was Shui yun i hsiang t'ai (?) in 1092. During the period Joseon Dynasty, China and Japan had been kept the time system that one day is divided into 12 shin (?2?) or 100 gak (?). However detailed part of the system had a little difference among the three countries. Though the whole system of water clock in Joseon had manufactured on the basis of Chinese, it had been gradually developed by own method and idea. In this study we show the historical records of the standard time keeping system in East Asian history. And then we can inform materials on the structure and functional devises for the purpose of new restoration models about the automatic clock and time system.

  19. The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.

    PubMed

    Anstead, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.

  20. Conference Committees: Conference Committees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-09-01

    International Programm Committee (IPC) Harald Ade NCSU Sadao Aoki University Tsukuba David Attwood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory/CXRO Christian David Paul Scherrer Institut Peter Fischer Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Adam Hitchcock McMaster University Chris Jacobsen SUNY, Stony Brook Denis Joyeux Lab Charles Fabry de l'Institut d'Optique Yasushi Kagoshima University of Hyogo Hiroshi Kihara Kansai Medical University Janos Kirz SUNY Stony Brook Maya Kiskinova ELETTRA Ian McNulty Argonne National Lab/APS Alan Michette Kings College London Graeme Morrison Kings College London Keith Nugent University of Melbourne Zhu Peiping BSRF Institute of High Energy Physics Francois Polack Soleil Christoph Quitmann Paul Scherrer Institut Günther Schmahl University Göttingen Gerd Schneider Bessy Hyun-Joon Shin Pohang Accelerator Lab Jean Susini ESRF Mau-Tsu Tang NSRRC Tony Warwick Lawrence Berkeley Lab/ALS Local Organizing Committee Christoph Quitmann Chair, Scientific Program Charlotte Heer Secretary Christian David Scientific Program Frithjof Nolting Scientific Program Franz Pfeiffer Scientific Program Marco Stampanoni Scientific Program Robert Rudolph Sponsoring, Financials Alfred Waser Industry Exhibition Robert Keller Public Relation Markus Knecht Computing and WWW Annick Cavedon Proceedings and Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Margrit Eichler Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Kathy Eikenberry Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program Marlies Locher Excursions and Accompanying Persons Program

  1. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)–type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  2. [EFFICIENCY OF COCARNIT IN COMPLEX THERAPY OF PATIENTS WITH SYSTEM DISEASES OF CONNECTING FABRIC WITH DEFEAT OF MYOCARDIUM AND DISPLAYS OF CARDIAC INSUFFICIENCY].

    PubMed

    Kuryata, A; Lysunec, T; Noda, O

    2015-01-01

    In clinical trial included 41 patient with clinic-instrumental dates, which said about myocardium dysfunction and system diseases of connecting fabric and displays of CCI I-III of functional class (FC). Including of complex metabolic drug Cocarnit in standard therapy of systemdiseases of connecting fabric was instrumental in more expressed clinical improvement of patientsclinical dates in 15 days of supervision: a weakness diminished on 66.67%, shortbreathing at the insignificant physical loading--on 23.81%, at the ordinary physical loading--on 47.62%, at the megascopic physical loading--on 19.05%, pain in area of heart--on 42.85%, there are interruptions in-process heart--on 28.57%, oedematousness of shins--on 57.14%, sense of numbness, burning, sensitiveness to cold of extremities--on 57.14%. Quantity of patients with III FC diminished on 5 (23.81%), in a control group--on 2 (10%). It implementation of test with the 6-minute walking more expressed increase of the overcame distance is set for the patients of basicgroup--on 15.46% as compared to a control group--on 7.01%. Cocarnit patients estimatedpositively; side effects with subsequent abolition of drug, were not. Laboratory indexes (AlAT, AsAT, bilirubin, kreatinine, haemoglobin) at the end of trial did not change considerably, that confirmed good bearableness of drug. PMID:27491167

  3. A new crossover sine model based on trigonometric model and its application to the crossover lattice equation of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yongjin; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2008-12-01

    In this study, a new crossover sine model (CSM) n was developed from a trigonometric model [M. E. Fisher, S. Zinn, and P. J. Upton, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14533 (1999)]. The trigonometric model is a parametric formulation model that is used to represent the thermodynamic variables near a critical point. Although there are other crossover models based on this trigonometric model, such as the CSM and the analytical sine model, which is an analytic formulation of the CSM, the new sine model (NSM) employs a different approach from these two models in terms of the connections between the parametric variables of the trigonometric model and thermodynamic variables. In order to test the performance of the NSM, the crossover lattice equation of state [M. S. Shin, Y. Lee, and H. Kim, J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 174 (2008)] was applied using the NSM for correlations of various pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The results showed that over a wide range of states, the crossover lattice fluid (xLF)/NSM yields the saturated properties of pure fluids and the phase behavior of binary mixtures more accurately than the original lattice equation of state. Moreover, a comparison with the crossover lattice equation of state using the CSM (xLF/CSM) showed that the new model presents good correlation results that are comparable to the xLF/CSM.

  4. A new crossover sine model based on trigonometric model and its application to the crossover lattice equation of state.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongjin; Shin, Moon Sam; Kim, Hwayong

    2008-12-21

    In this study, a new crossover sine model (CSM) n was developed from a trigonometric model [M. E. Fisher, S. Zinn, and P. J. Upton, Phys. Rev. B 59, 14533 (1999)]. The trigonometric model is a parametric formulation model that is used to represent the thermodynamic variables near a critical point. Although there are other crossover models based on this trigonometric model, such as the CSM and the analytical sine model, which is an analytic formulation of the CSM, the new sine model (NSM) employs a different approach from these two models in terms of the connections between the parametric variables of the trigonometric model and thermodynamic variables. In order to test the performance of the NSM, the crossover lattice equation of state [M. S. Shin, Y. Lee, and H. Kim, J. Chem. Thermodyn. 40, 174 (2008)] was applied using the NSM for correlations of various pure fluids and fluid mixtures. The results showed that over a wide range of states, the crossover lattice fluid (xLF)/NSM yields the saturated properties of pure fluids and the phase behavior of binary mixtures more accurately than the original lattice equation of state. Moreover, a comparison with the crossover lattice equation of state using the CSM (xLF/CSM) showed that the new model presents good correlation results that are comparable to the xLF/CSM.

  5. SHADE: A Shape-Memory-Activated Device Promoting Ankle Dorsiflexion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.; Rossini, M.; Magoni, L.; Pirovano, S.; Villa, E.; Besseghini, S.; Molteni, F.

    2009-08-01

    Acute post-stroke rehabilitation protocols include passive mobilization as a means to prevent contractures. A device (SHADE) that provides repetitive passive motion to a flaccid ankle by using shape memory alloy actuators could be of great help in providing this treatment. A suitable actuator was designed as a cartridge of approximately 150 × 20 × 15 mm, containing 2.5 m of 0.25 mm diameter NiTi wire. This actuator was activated by Joule’s effect employing a 7 s current input at 0.7 A, which provided 10 N through 76 mm displacement. Cooling and reset by natural convection took 30 s. A prototype of SHADE was assembled with two thermoplastic shells hinged together at the ankle and strapped on the shin and foot. Two actuators were fixed on the upper shell while an inextensible thread connected each NiTi wire to the foot shell. The passive ankle motion (passive range of motion, PROM) generated by SHADE was evaluated optoelectronically on three flaccid patients (58 ± 5 years old); acceptability was assessed by a questionnaire presented to further three flaccid patients (44 ± 11.5 years old) who used SHADE for 5 days, 30 min a day. SHADE was well accepted by all patients, produced good PROM, and caused no pain. The results prove that suitable limb mobilization can be produced by SMA actuators.

  6. Recent trends in counts of migrant hawks from northeastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Titus, K.; Fuller, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    Using simple regression, pooled-sites route-regression, and nonparametric rank-trend analyses, we evaluated trends in counts of hawks migrating past 6 eastern hawk lookouts from 1972 to 1987. The indexing variable was the total count for a season. Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus), merlin (F. columbarius), osprey (Pandion haliaetus), and Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) counts increased using route-regression and nonparametric methods (P 0.10). We found no consistent trends (P > 0.10) in counts of sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), northern goshawks (A. gentilis) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), red-tailed hawks (B. jamaicensis), rough-legged hawsk (B. lagopus), and American kestrels (F. sparverius). Broad-winged hawk (B. platypterus) counts declined (P < 0.05) based on the route-regression method. Empirical comparisons of our results with those for well-studied species such as the peregrine falcon, bald eagle, and osprey indicated agreement with nesting surveys. We suggest that counts of migrant hawks are a useful and economical method for detecting long-term trends in species across regions, particularly for species that otherwise cannot be easily surveyed.

  7. [Severe disseminated constrictive polyserositis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis].

    PubMed

    Blagova, O V; Tsaregorodtsev, D A; Nedostup, A V; Maevskaia, I V; Petukhova, N V; Troitskaia, M P; Shadaniia, Ia R

    2010-01-01

    Constrictive polyserositis (pleuritis, pericarditis) is a syndrome within the underlying disease (tuberculosis, periodic disease, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, asbestos, silicosis, uremia, some genetic diseases), a complication due to chest surgery or radiation or drug therapy, is occasionally idiopathic (fibrosing mediastinitis). There are frequently great difficulties in making its nosological diagnosis. The paper describes a patient in whom the onset of disease was exudative pleurisy with the signs of constriction, arthralgias; pleural punctures provided serous exudates with 80% lymphocytes. A year later there was ascitis and shin and foot edemas, which concurrent with hepatomegaly and cholestasis was regarded as cryptogenic liver cirrhosis. The signs of constrictive pericarditis were further revealed. The disease was complicated by the development of pulmonary artery thromboembolism (PATE) (which required the use of warfarin) and hemorrhagic vasculitis. Therapy with metipred in combination with isoniazid yielded a slight effect. The diagnoses of tuberculosis, liver cirrhosis, and autoimmune hepatitis, systemic vasculitis were consecutively rejected; the diagnosis of rheumatoid polyarthritis with systemic manifestations was made, by taking into account persistent arthalgias with the minimum signs of arthritis, noticeably increased C-reactive protein, rheumatoid factor, and cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (CCPA); plasmapheresis, therapy with metipred and methotrexate, and subtotal pericardectomy were performed. Constrictive polyserositis concurrent with PATE, hemorrhagic vasculitis (probably, drug-induced one), and hepatic lesion has been first described in a CCPA-positive patient with rheumatoid arthritis in the presence of moderate true arthritis (during steroid therapy).

  8. Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873): His work as a medical missionary and influence on the practice of medicine and knowledge of anatomy in China and Japan.

    PubMed

    Bosmia, Anand N; Patel, Toral R; Watanabe, Koichi; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2014-03-01

    Benjamin Hobson was a British missionary and physician who lived in China for twenty years. He founded multiple hospitals in Southern China and used his knowledge of Western medicine to educate Chinese doctors. He wrote several medical textbooks in Chinese of which the first was the A New Theory of the Body (1851). The illustrations from his book were renditions and originals from William Cheselden's Anatomical Tables (1730) and Osteographia (1733).The Japanese version of Hobson's work appeared in Japan during the bakumatsu period (1853-1867), when Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy and began opening itself to the West. During this time, many books from Europe were translated into Chinese to then find their way into Japan. The Chinese anatomy textbook by Hobson (Quanti Xinlun) was instrumental in introducing Western anatomic knowledge to the Chinese and thereby catalyzing a significant change in the practice of medicine in China. A Japanese translation (Zen Tai Shin Ron) of this text published in the 19th century is reviewed.

  9. Effects of Spaceflight and Hindlimb Suspension on the Posture and Gait of Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Corcoran, M.; Daunton, N. G.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1994-01-01

    Instability of posture and gait in astronauts following spaceflight (SF) is thought to result from muscle atrophy and from changes in sensory-motor integration in the CNS (central nervous system) that occur during adaptation to microgravity (micro-G). Individuals are thought to have developed, during SF, adaptive changes for the processing of proprioceptive, vestibular and visual sensory inputs with reduced weighting of gravity-based signals and increased weighting of visual and tactile cues. This sensory-motor rearrangement in the CNS apparently occurs to optimize neuromuscular system function for effective movement and postural control in micro-G. However, these adaptive changes are inappropriate for the 1 g environment and lead to disruptions in posture and gait on return to Earth. Few reports are available on the effects of SF on the motor behavior of animals. Rats studied following 18.5 - 19.5 days of SF in the COSMOS program were described as being ..'inert, apathetic, slow'.. and generally unstable. The hindlimbs of these rats were ..'thrust out from the body with fingers pulled apart and the shin unnaturally pronated'. On the 6th postflight day motor behavior was described as similar to that observed in preflight observations. Improved understanding of the mechanisms leading to these changes can be obtained in animal models through detailed analysis of neural and molecular mechanisms related to gait. To begin this process the posture and gait of rats were examined following exposure to either SF or hindlimb suspension (HLS), and during recovery from these conditions.

  10. Vibrational energy transfer in CO2-C2H2n + 2 (n=0, 1, 2) mixtures from 220 to 300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzanares I., Carlos; Pinzon, Hernando; Fumero, Juan; Gonzalez, Carlos; Sanchez, Eugenio

    1983-05-01

    Time resolved laser induced infrared fluorescence studies have been performed to obtain the rate constants of energy transfer of CO2 (ν3) in mixtures with C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6 at temperatures between 220 and 300 K. A pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser light has been used to directly excite the CO2 molecules at low temperatures. The CO2 self-relaxation was measured and the results are in agreement with previous measurements. The rate constants for the transfer of energy in the CO2-C2H2 system show normal temperature behavior, (rate constant increases as the temperature increases) associated with large energy defect and caused by short-range repulsive forces. The rate constants for the systems CO2-C2H4 and CO2-C2H6 show an inverse temperature effect, (rate constant increases as the temperature decreases) associated with near resonant energy exchange and long-range attractive forces between the molecules. The observed behavior with temperature for the three systems is explained using a Morse potential which includes repulsive and attractive terms to describe the interaction between the molecules and a probability expression formulated by H. K. Shin, to calculate the energy transfer probabilities of some important reactions considered for each system.

  11. PhoR/PhoP two component regulatory system affects biocontrol capability of Bacillus subtilis NCD-2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qinggang; Li, Shezeng; Lu, Xiuyun; Li, Baoqing; Ma, Ping

    2010-04-01

    The Bacillus subtilis strain NCD-2 is an important biocontrol agent against cotton verticillium wilt and cotton sore shin in the field, which are caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn, respectively. A mutant of strain NCD-2, designated M216, with decreased antagonism to V. dahliae and R. solani, was selected by mini-Tn10 mutagenesis and in vitro virulence screening. The inserted gene in the mutant was cloned and identified as the phoR gene, which encodes a sensor kinase in the PhoP/PhoR two-component system. Compared to the wild-type strain, the APase activities of the mutant was decreased significantly when cultured in low phosphate medium, but no obvious difference was observed when cultured in high phosphate medium. The mutant also grew more slowly on organic phosphate agar and lost its phosphatidylcholine-solubilizing ability. The suppression of cotton seedling damping-off in vivo and colonization of the rhizosphere of cotton also decreased in the mutant strain when compared with the wild type strain. All of these characteristics could be partially restored by complementation of the phoR gene in the M216 mutant.

  12. Collaborating on global priorities: science education for everyone—any time and everywhere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Building on the key ideas from Dana Zeidler's paper I expand the conversation from the standpoint that the challenges facing humanity and the capacity of Earth to support life suggest that changes in human lifestyles are a priority. Accordingly, there is an urgent need to educate all humans about some of the science-related grand challenges, such as global warming and wellness. The key is to enact programs that have relevance to all citizens, irrespective of: age, location, language proficiency, economic resources, religion, gender, sexual preference, and level of prior education. Since significant changes are needed in human lifestyles the current emphasis on preK-12 science education needs to be expanded to cover all humans and the places in which education occurs should be everywhere. I explore the use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science and thereby transform science education in ways that better relate to priorities of wellness and harmony in the ecosystems that sustain life on Earth. I illustrate the potential of multilogicality in a context of complementary medicine, using three frameworks: Jin Shin Jyutsu, an ancient system of medicine; a diet to reduce inflammation; and iridology. Use of a multilogical framework to conceptualize science provides opportunities for science education to focus on education for literate citizenry (birth-death) and responsible action, connect to the massive challenges of the present, and select content that has high relevance to sustainability, wellness, and well-being at local, national, and global levels.

  13. Abstracts from the First Annual Scholarly Day

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Medical Education at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas hosted its first annual Scholarly Day to showcase the research efforts of medical students, residents, and fellows. Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, vice president for academic research integration for Baylor Scott and White Health Central Texas, shared the plenary session, “Building a Culture of Research at Academic Medical Centers: Impact on Medical Education and Recommended Practices.” Stuart Black, MD, John Fordtran, MD, Ronald C. Jones, MD, Michael A. Ramsay, MD, William C. Roberts, MD, and Hania Wehbe-Janek, PhD, served as judges of the posters and the oral presentations. Winners in each category were as follows: best fellow poster, “Diet pattern and cardiovascular disease among women with type 2 diabetes mellitus,” by Hyun Joon Shin, MD; best resident poster, “Oral squamous cell carcinoma: current concepts in imaging, staging, and fibular osteocutaneous free-flap reconstruction,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD; best medical student poster, “Neuromyelitis optica,” by Elizabeth Coffee; and best oral presentation, “Transarterial chemoembolization with smaller beads: midterm clinical outcomes,” by R. Evans Heithaus, MD. Overall, participants in the inaugural event presented more than 40 posters and six oral presentations. This article reprints a selection of the abstracts. PMID:26130877

  14. Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Catherine M; Stuart, Lauren; Skupsky, Hadas; Lee, Yun-Sun; Tsuchiya, Arline; Cassarino, David S

    2015-12-01

    Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive hematologic malignancy primarily found in adults, often carrying a poor prognosis. There are only 33 reported pediatric cases of BPDCN in the literature. Although standard treatment is not yet established for children, current literature recommends the use of high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-type chemotherapy. Recent studies, however, have explored the benefits of combining chemotherapy with stem-cell transplantation. Here, the authors present 2 cases of pediatric BPDCN treated with different modalities. The first case is a 13-year-old girl who presented with a 3-month history of an initially asymptomatic firm nodule on her left shin. The second case is a 15-year-old boy who presented with a 4-month history of an enlarging subcutaneous nodule on the lower leg. Immunohistochemical staining of both patients was positive for markers consistent with BPDCN. The latter patient received ALL-type therapy alone, whereas the former received ALL-type chemotherapy and stem-cell transplantation. Since initial treatment, both patients remain disease-free. These cases contribute to the limited number of pediatric BPDCN cases, thus helping to advance our knowledge toward an optimal treatment protocol for clinical remission. PMID:26588336

  15. Reliability and validity of instrumented soccer equipment.

    PubMed

    Akins, Jonathan S; Heebner, Nicholas R; Lovalekar, Mita; Sell, Timothy C

    2015-06-01

    Ankle ligament sprains are the most common injury in soccer. The high rate of these injuries demonstrates a need for novel data collection methodologies. Therefore, soccer shoes and shin guards were instrumented with inertial sensors to measure ankle joint kinematics in the field. The purpose of this study was to assess test-retest reliability and concurrent criterion validity of a kinematic assessment using the instrumented soccer equipment. Twelve soccer athletes performed athletic maneuvers in the laboratory and field during 2 sessions. In the laboratory, ankle joint kinematics were simultaneously measured with the instrumented equipment and a conventional motion analysis system. Reliability was assessed using ICC and validity was assessed using correlation coefficients and RMSE. While our design criteria of good test-retest reliability was not supported (ICC > .80), sagittal plane ICCs were mostly fair to good and similar to motion analysis results; and sagittal plane data were valid (r = .90-98; RMSE < 5°). Frontal and transverse plane data were not valid (r < .562; RMSE > 3°). Our results indicate that the instrumented soccer equipment can be used to measure sagittal plane ankle joint kinematics. Biomechanical studies support the utility of sagittal plane measures for lower extremity injury prevention. PMID:25734398

  16. Athletes' leg pains.

    PubMed Central

    Orava, S.; Puranen, J.

    1979-01-01

    The frequency and nature of exertion pains of the leg in athletes were studied in 2,750 cases of overuse injuries treated at the Sports Clinic of the Deaconess Institute of Oulu, Finland, during the years 1972-1977. 465 cases of exertion pain (18%) were located in the shin. The medial tibial syndrome was the most common overuse injury among these athletes, comprising 9.5% of all exertion injuries and 60% of the leg exertion pains. Together with stress fracture of the tibia, the second most common exertion pain of the leg, it accounted for 75% of the total leg pains. There are certain difficulties in differentiating between the medial tibial syndrome and stress fracture of the tibia. They both occur at the same site with similar symptoms. Radiological examination and isotope scanning are needed. The medial tibial syndrome is an overuse injury at the medial tibial border caused by running exercises. The pain is elicited by exertional ischaemia. The pathogenesis is explained by increased pressure in the fascial compartment of the deep flexor muscles due to prolonged exercise. Similar chronic ischaemic pains from exercise are also found in other fascial compartments of the leg, especially in the anterior compartment. The only treatment needed for stress fractures is rest from training. Fascial compartment pains also usually subside. If chronic fascial syndromes prevent training, fasciotomy is recommended as a reliable method to restore the athlete to normal training without pains. PMID:486888

  17. [Jogging--stress-induced damage of the musculoskeletal system].

    PubMed

    Nitzschke, E; Leonhardt, R

    1991-03-01

    During a period of 8 months 121 male and 99 female joggers were interviewed by a standardised questionnaire in respect of their running behaviour and problems caused by jogging. Only such runners were included who had jogged regularly on at least 2 days, regarding women on at least one day per week for at least 30 minutes during the last 2 years. Additionally a detailed orthopaedic examination was carried out in the ambulance of the Orthopaedic University clinic. The overwhelming majority of male and female joggers had a secondary education and practised easy physical activities. Only 4 per cent of the interviewed persons worked physically hard. In connection with jogging, 67 male and 44 female joggers developed signs at the locomotor system. Among the major problems with regard to running were Achilles tendinitis, calf muscle strain, shin splints and complaints referring to foot deformities. Injuries were seen only rarely. Jogging on forest grounds and cinder paths is less strenuous compared to asphalt tracks or tartan paths. Training errors were among the main causes of complaints occurring during running. Traumatic or posttraumatic influences as well as incorrect footwear were of secondary importance regarding the occurrence of complaints.

  18. Prediction of the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage from meteorological data.

    PubMed

    Nakaguchi, Hiroshi; Matsuno, Akira; Teraoka, Akira

    2008-03-01

    We analyzed the relationship between the incidence of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and various meteorological data (daily atmospheric air pressure, air temperature, precipitation, humidity, presence of typhoons, occurrence of the rainy season, wind velocity, and wind direction) for patients at Teraoka Memorial Hospital in Shin-ichi Town, Japan, from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2003. All data were analyzed by contingency table analysis and multivariate regression analysis. From January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003, we identified high-risk ICH days as those days for which the preceding 3 days mean recorded air pressure of 1,015 hPa or more and then conducted a statistical comparison of the incidence of ICH on high-risk ICH days with that on the other days. Our subjects were 164 patients with ICH. The relative risk of high-risk ICH days is 1.46 (Fisher's exact test, p=0.04). Mann-Whitney's U-tests indicate ICH tends to occur on days with lower maximum air temperature. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that 3 incidences influence the occurrence of intracerebral hemorrhage (p<0.01 each): (1) days associated with 4-day periods of mean air pressure in excess of 1,015 hPa; (2) days during which a typhoon was approaching; and (3) days with west or southwest wind . Detailed examination of meteorological data indicates a relationship with the incident rate of ICH.

  19. Prevalence of encysted apicomplexans in muscles of raptors.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Blagburn, B L

    1999-01-28

    An acid-pepsin digestion technique was used to examine portions of breast muscle and heart from raptors for encysted protozoans. Apicomplexan zoites were present in 52 (45.6%) of the 114 samples examined: 11 of 12 (91.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 20 of 34 (58.8%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), two of seven (28.6%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), three of four (75%) sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), one (100%) Mississippi kites (Ictinia misisippiensis), one of two (50%) American kestrels (Falco sparverius), one bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), one of two (50%) golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), one of three (33%) turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), two of three (66.7%) black vultures (Coragyps atratus), three of six (50%) great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus), five of 15 (33.3%) barred owls (Strix varia), and one of 12 (8.3%) screech owls (Asio otus). Encysted protozoans were not observed in digests of tissues from three broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), four ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), and five barn owls (Tyto alba). Apicomplexan cysts resembling Sarcocystis species were observed in tissue sections of muscles from 28 (37.8%) of 74 raptors. PMID:9950339

  20. Prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in raptors from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, D S; Smith, P C; Hoerr, F J; Blagburn, B L

    1993-12-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of encysted Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds. We examined the hearts and breast muscles from 101 raptors for encysted T. gondii. All of the raptors had been submitted for necropsy to the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, Auburn, Alabama. Tissues were digested in acid-pepsin solution and inoculated into groups of 3-5 laboratory mice. Toxoplasma gondii was isolated from 27 of 101 (26.7%) raptors: 8 of 12 (66.7%) red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus), 13 of 27 (41.1%) red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), 1 of 4 (25%) Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperi), 1 of 5 (20%) great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), 4 of 15 (26.7%) barred owls (Strix varia), and 1 of 3 (33.3%) kestrels (Falco sparverius). Toxoplasma gondii was not isolated from 3 broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), 3 sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus), 6 barn owls (Tyto alba), 9 screech owls (Asio otus), a Mississippi kite (Ictinia misisippiensis), 2 golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos), a bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 4 ospreys (Pandion haliaetus), 4 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), or 2 black vultures (Coragyps atratus). No significant difference (P > 0.05) in prevalence was detected based on sex using chi-square analysis. Chi-square analysis of the data demonstrated that adult raptors had encysted stages of T. gondii significantly (P < 0.05) more often than did immature raptors. PMID:8277379

  1. Characteristics, determinants, and spatial variations of ambient fungal levels in the subtropical Taipei metropolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hua; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Rao, Carol Y.; Lee, Chung-Te; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Chiu, Yueh-Hsiu; Chao, H. Jasmine

    This study was conducted to investigate the temporal and spatial distributions, compositions, and determinants of ambient aeroallergens in Taipei, Taiwan, a subtropical metropolis. We monitored ambient culturable fungi in Shin-Jhuang City, an urban area, and Shi-Men Township, a rural area, in Taipei metropolis from 2003 to 2004. We collected ambient fungi in the last week of every month during the study period, using duplicate Burkard portable samplers and Malt Extract Agar. The median concentration of total fungi was 1339 colony-forming units m -3 of air over the study period. The most prevalent fungi were non-sporulating fungi, Cladosporium, Penicillium, Curvularia and Aspergillus at both sites. Airborne fungal concentrations and diversity of fungal species were generally higher in urban than in rural areas. Most fungal taxa had significant seasonal variations, with higher levels in summer. Multivariate analyses showed that the levels of ambient fungi were associated positively with temperature, but negatively with ozone and several other air pollutants. Relative humidity also had a significant non-linear relationship with ambient fungal levels. We concluded that the concentrations and the compositions of ambient fungi are diverse in urban and rural areas in the subtropical region. High ambient fungal levels were related to an urban environment and environmental conditions of high temperature and low ozone levels.

  2. Personal Trainer Demographics, Current Practice Trends and Common Trainee Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Waryasz, Gregory R.; Daniels, Alan H.; Gil, Joseph A.; Suric, Vladimir; Eberson, Craig P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness. PMID:27761219

  3. Multicentric Osteoid Osteoma Presenting a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Gayle, Robert B; Berkey, Bryan D

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a relatively common benign tumor that was a diagnostic dilemma because of its atypical appearance in multiple imaging modalities. Our patient was a 22-year-old man who presented with complaint of three months of shin pain with running. The radiographically demonstrated sclerotic lesion in his right tibia initially was thought most likely to be a stress fracture, but on further evaluation, it had features that suggested a subacute osteomyelitis or Brodie's abscess with focal sequestra. It was in fact, biopsy proven to be an osteoid osteoma with multiple, closely adjacent nidi. Its elongate, multicentric, "string of beads" arrangement as well as its intramedullary location is uncommon and it was larger than normally expected. Because of the unusual presentation and appearance of this lesion it caused a diagnostic dilemma. This lesion was evaluated with a full spectrum of modalities including radiographs, CT, MRI, Technetium 99m-MDP bone scan and Indium-111 white blood cell scan. After biopsy achieved a definite diagnosis, this tumor was successfully treated with radiofrequency ablation of all nidi in one session.

  4. The effect of partial-fat substitutions with encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Derek F; Resconi, Virginia C; Smyth, Thomas J; Botinestean, Cristina; Lefranc, Célio; Kerry, Joseph P; Hamill, Ruth M

    2015-09-01

    The effects of fat substitution (≤ 15%) with commercial encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils on the technological and eating quality of beef burgers over storage [modified atmosphere packs (80% O2:20% CO2); constantly illuminated retail display at 4 °C; for 15 days] were studied using design of experiment (DOE). Burger formulations comprised beef shin (59.5%), salt (0.5%), vitamin E (0.015%) combined with varying levels of beef-fat/fish oils depending on the treatment. Increasing amounts of encapsulated and unencapsulated fish oils in burgers increased polyunsaturated fatty acid content (P < 0.001). Storage decreased (P < 0.001) a* values, which was in agreement with oxymyoglobin data. Vitamin E inclusion in burgers resulted in higher (P < 0.01) oxymyoglobin values. TBARS values increased (P < 0.001) over storage as expected. Fat substitution with unencapsulated oils increased cook loss (P < 0.001) and decreased hardness (P < 0.05) compared to other treatments. Optimisation predicted a burger formulation with 7.8% substitution in beef-fat with encapsulated fish oil. Panellists scored the optimised burger formulation (P < 0.05) lower than controls for overall acceptability. PMID:25965966

  5. tOWL: a temporal Web Ontology Language.

    PubMed

    Milea, Viorel; Frasincar, Flavius; Kaymak, Uzay

    2012-02-01

    Through its interoperability and reasoning capabilities, the Semantic Web opens a realm of possibilities for developing intelligent systems on the Web. The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is the most expressive standard language for modeling ontologies, the cornerstone of the Semantic Web. However, up until now, no standard way of expressing time and time-dependent information in OWL has been provided. In this paper, we present a temporal extension of the very expressive fragment SHIN(D) of the OWL Description Logic language, resulting in the temporal OWL language. Through a layered approach, we introduce three extensions: 1) concrete domains, which allow the representation of restrictions using concrete domain binary predicates; 2) temporal representation , which introduces time points, relations between time points, intervals, and Allen's 13 interval relations into the language; and 3) timeslices/fluents, which implement a perdurantist view on individuals and allow for the representation of complex temporal aspects, such as process state transitions. We illustrate the expressiveness of the newly introduced language by using an example from the financial domain.

  6. Foot types and lower limb injuries in elite netball players.

    PubMed

    Hopper, D; Bryant, A; Elliott, B

    1994-07-01

    In assessing the foot types and lower limb injuries of elite netball players, the following summary seems warranted. Ninety percent of elite female netball players had symmetrical foot types for both feet and these players had experienced at least one lower limb injury. Only 7.6% players (N = 16) of the 204 players surveyed had never sustained a lower limb injury during their netball careers. Regardless of foot type, the injury history of these elite netball players presented with a total number of 449 injuries that occurred to both ankle joints (36%), one ankle joint (16%), both knee joints (6%), one knee joint (13%), shin soreness (18%), and retropatellar pain problems (11%). On further inspection, 55% of players experienced one to two lower limb injuries throughout their netball careers. Injured players showed that players with the pronating foot types with rearfoot abnormalities (57%) were the most commonly injured and that compensated rearfoot varus foot type presented the most lower limb injuries for all body sites.

  7. A comparison of the injuries sustained by female basketball and netball players.

    PubMed

    McKay, G D; Payne, W R; Goldie, P A; Oakes, B W; Stanley, J J

    1996-03-01

    A prospective and reliable method of injury surveillance was implemented to document a comprehensive injury profile in female basketball and netball. The study further aimed to compare the injury profiles of the two sports. Trained observers viewed basketball and netball games, noting the occurrence of injuries. Injuries were confirmed by questioning all players on site after the game. Injured players completed a questionnaire and the progress of their injury was monitored by telephone interview. A total of 16,162 player participations were observed; 6,972 for basketball and 9,190 for netball. Comparable injury rates were observed for female basketball and netball players; 18.22 and 17.30 injuries per 1,000 participations, respectively. The ankle, hand and knee were the body parts injured most frequently in both sports, whilst head and neck injuries were prevalent in basketball only. Netball players sustained severe injuries at a rate 3.3 times that of female basketball players. The major and severe injuries occurred at an average of one injury in 625 games in female basketball and one in 250 games in netball. The ankle, knee and calf/shin were the body parts most frequently involved in the more serious injuries.

  8. Basin Hopping Graph: a computational framework to characterize RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: RNA folding is a complicated kinetic process. The minimum free energy structure provides only a static view of the most stable conformational state of the system. It is insufficient to give detailed insights into the dynamic behavior of RNAs. A sufficiently sophisticated analysis of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results: We introduce the Basin Hopping Graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect basins when the direct transitions between them are ‘energetically favorable’. Edge weights endcode the corresponding saddle heights and thus measure the difficulties of these favorable transitions. BHGs can be approximated accurately and efficiently for RNA molecules well beyond the length range accessible to enumerative algorithms. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24648041

  9. Physical limits to magnetogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17210.001 PMID:27529126

  10. Two-Dimensional Boron-Nitride Layers as Flexoelectric Nanogenerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, I.; Bratkovsky, A.; Ranjan, V.

    2009-03-01

    The direct conversion of ambient motion into electrical energy, especially at nanoscale, is fundamental and technological challenge. Boron-Nitride non-centrosymmetric monolayers are piezoelectrics that can sustain much larger structural and produce very large (a few Volts) voltage drop across flexed nanostrips. We show, with the use of ab-initio calculations, the existence of giant nonlinear flexoelectric effect in BN 2D strips. The induced polarization is quadratic in amplitude of atomic displacements A, yet the dipole moment per unit cell is about four times larger compared to PbZrTiO3 [1]. The resulting voltage drop across the BN nanostrip is set by bandgap in material Eg/q˜5 Volts and nearly independent of the strip width. The large voltage produced by this inert bio-compatible material may find a variety of applications and, in particular, as nanogenerators and sensors powered by an ambient motion or agitation. Prior alternatives, like ZnO, GaN and CdS, are leaky, generate much smaller voltage, and impractical [2]. [1] I.Naumov, A.Bratkovsky, V.Ranjan, arXiv:0810.1775 (2008). [2] Y. Qin, X. Wang, Z.L. Wang, Nature 451, 809 (2008); M.A. Schubert et al, Appl. Phys. Lett. 316, 122904 (2008)

  11. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests.

  12. Computer processing of Landsat and spot images for the morpho-structural analysis of the Wei He Graben (Shaanxi-China). Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binelli-Chahine, M.; Vergely, P.; Masson, Ph.

    The Cenozoic Wei He Graben is the most southern of the northern China rift system. It is a half-graben, which southern limit are the ESE-WNW main boundary faults of the Qin Ling Shan Mountains. They correspond to the main eastward-trending faults of the Tibet northern border. A first geological, structural and morphological approach was conducted, based on Landsat multispectral data (MSS, 1:500,000 colour composite images). A geological photo-interpretation and the plotting of important faults (plurikilometric) show the geometry and the general structural pattern of the rift. The morphogical study accounts for vertical movements of large areas but major fault kinematics remains unknown. In order to specify the fault kinematics, a more accurate morpho-structural analysis was conducted, based on SPOT image processing and interpretation. The preliminary results show that during the Recent Quaternary up to Present, no important strike-slip fault movements (more than 20 m) exist along the Wei He Graben faults as suggested by the pull-apart graben model. In return, the vertical component movements (subsidence) prevail and this agrees with field data.

  13. Computer processing of Landsat and SPOT images for the morpho-structural analysis of the Wei He Graben (Shaanxi-China) - Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binelli-Chahine, M.; Vergely, P.; Masson, Ph.

    1990-10-01

    The Cenozoic Wei He Graben is the most southern of the northern China rift system. It is a half-graben, which southern limit are the ESE-WNW main boundary faults of the Qin Ling Shan mountains. They correspond to the main eastward-trending faults of the Tibet northern border. A first geological, structural and morphological approach was conducted, based on Landsat multi-spectral data (MSS, 1:500,000 color composite images). A geological photo-interpretation and the plotting of important faults (plurikilometric) show the geometry and the general structural pattern of the rift. The morphological study accounts for vertical movements of large areas but major fault kinematics remains unknown. In order to specify the fault kinematics, a more accurate morpho-structural analysis was conducted, based on SPOT image processing and interpretation. The preliminary results show that during the Recent Quaternary up to Present, no important strike-slip fault movements (more than 20 m) exist along the Wei He Graben faults as suggested by the pull-apart graben model. In return, the vertical component movements (subsidence) prevail and this agrees with field data.

  14. Rapid LC-MS drug metabolite profiling using microsomal enzyme bioreactors in a parallel processing format.

    PubMed

    Bajrami, Besnik; Zhao, Linlin; Schenkman, John B; Rusling, James F

    2009-12-15

    Silica nanoparticle bioreactors featuring thin films of enzymes and polyions were utilized in a novel high-throughput 96-well plate format for drug metabolism profiling. The utility of the approach was illustrated by investigating the metabolism of the drugs diclofenac (DCF), troglitazone (TGZ), and raloxifene, for which we observed known metabolic oxidation and bioconjugation pathways and turnover rates. A broad range of enzymes was included by utilizing human liver (HLM), rat liver (RLM) and bicistronic human-cyt P450 3A4 (bicis.-3A4) microsomes as enzyme sources. This parallel approach significantly shortens sample preparation steps compared to an earlier manual processing with nanoparticle bioreactors, allowing a range of significant enzyme reactions to be processed simultaneously. Enzyme turnover rates using the microsomal bioreactors were 2-3 fold larger compared to using conventional microsomal dispersions, most likely because of better accessibility of the enzymes. Ketoconazole (KET) and quinidine (QIN), substrates specific to cyt P450 3A enzymes, were used to demonstrate applicability to establish potentially toxic drug-drug interactions involving enzyme inhibition and acceleration. PMID:19904994

  15. [Elementary exploration of the origin and development of marine Chinese materia medica].

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua-Shi; Fu, Xian-Jun; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Wang, Chang-Yun; Wang, Yu; Jiang, Deng-Zhao

    2009-05-01

    According to archaeological discoveries, humans began to make use of marine natural resources early in the Palaeolithic era. In the Spring and Autumn period and Warring States period, they began to use marine life as medicines and also had simple cognitions on their efficacy and processing. In the Qin and Han dynasties, people further deepened the understanding of the marine Chinese materia medica and created prescriptions making use of marine drugs. In the Tang and Song period, the number of marine Chinese materia medica species and corresponding prescriptions apparently increased. The cognitions of the property, flavor, efficacy as well as the compatible principle of marine Chinese materia medica was further deepened and the scope of their treatment also significantly expanded. In the Ming and Qing dynasties, the cognition of the marine Chinese materia medica was mainly the conclusions of the previous experience. After the founding of the People's Republic of China (PRC), with the development of science and technologies, the ability of exploiting and utilizing the marine Chinese materia medica by people dramatically increased, and the species of marine Chinese materia medica reached more than one thousand. However, the development of marine Chinese materia medica is confronted with new problems; although the number of species of marine Chinese materia medica increased, the understanding of their property and flavor is obviously lagging behind, which seriously affects the clinical application of marine Chinese materia medica.

  16. Energy extraction and particle acceleration around a rotating black hole in quintessence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oteev, Tursinbay; Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2016-08-01

    We study motion and collision of particles in the gravitational field of rotating black hole immersed in quintessential dark energy characterized with the quintessential parameter ωqin(-1;-1/3) governing the equation of state of the dark energy, and the dimensionless quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We focus on the acceleration of particles due to collisional processes and show how the center of mass energy depends on the quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. We also make comparison of the obtained results to the collisional energetics of quintessential static black holes demonstrating the crucial role of the rotation parameter a in the particle acceleration. Finally we study the dependence of the maximal value of the efficiency of energy extraction through Penrose process for rotating black hole with quintessential field parameter tilde{c}. It is found that quintessence field decreases the energy extraction efficiency through Penrose process and when the parameter tilde{c} vanishes one can get the standard value of the efficiency coefficient for the Kerr black hole as η˜ 21 %.

  17. Study on the temporal and spatial distribution and changes of land surface temperature in winter in Urumqi, Xinjiang

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shifeng; Pei, Huan; Liu, Zhihui; Zhao, Qiudong; Sun, Zhiqun

    2008-12-01

    The Urumqi City which located at the foot of the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang, has a special basin-type topographic feature, with the long, cold and serious air pollution winter. With the rapid process of urbanization and development in the recent years, whether has the effect of Urban Heat Island(UHI) has been widespread concerned these years. Land Surface Temperature (LST) in urban regions is an important influencing factor and indicator of the Urban Heat Island (UHI). Urumqi City was taken to be the typical study area in this paper, MODIS data in December of every year from 2000 to 2007 were chosen to take the LST retriving with the Split Window Algorithm (Qin, Mao, etc.), which is a mature algorithm, with higher precision and simple method, and the average absolute error of LST retriving products were +/- 1.2 °C, according to the analysis of the temporal and spatial distribution and changes of LST, the following conclusions had been made: From the Monthly Compositon LST of Urumqi in December from 2000 to 2007, Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect of Urumqi City in winter is not obvious and there is no disciplinary changes of LST and no visible changes in temporal and spatial distribution of LST, in despite of eruptible development of urbanization.

  18. Imperial expansion, public investment, and the long path of history: China’s initial political unification and its aftermath

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Hui; Feinman, Gary M.; Nicholas, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    The Neolithic (ca. 8000–1900 B.C.) underpinnings of early Chinese civilization had diverse geographic and cultural foundations in distinct traditions, ways of life, subsistence regimes, and modes of leadership. The subsequent Bronze Age (ca. 1900–221 B.C.) was characterized by increasing political consolidation, expansion, and heightened interaction, culminating in an era of a smaller number of warring states. During the third century B.C., the Qin Dynasty first politically unified this fractious landscape, across an area that covers much of what is now China, and rapidly instituted a series of infrastructural investments and other unifying measures, many of which were maintained and amplified during the subsequent Han Dynasty. Here, we examine this historical sequence at both the national and macroscale and more deeply for a small region on the coast of the Shandong Province, where we have conducted several decades of archaeological research. At both scales, we examine apparent shifts in the governance of local diversity and some of the implications both during Qin–Han times and for the longer durée. PMID:25775557

  19. Quantifying the inversion accuracy of simplified physical models for the nighttime OI 135.6 nm emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianqi; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Makela, Jonathan J.

    2016-06-01

    A comprehensive statistical analysis is performed to investigate the effects of plasma and neutral density variability on the OI 135.6 nm emission in the nighttime ionosphere. Typical and extreme cases obtained from climatological models are incorporated into a radiative transfer model recently developed by Qin et al. (2015) to systematically quantify the production and loss of the nighttime 135.6 nm emission, as well as to understand their dependence on the ionospheric and thermospheric conditions. It is shown that mutual neutralization can contribute ˜8%-40% of the 135.6 nm emission. Radiative transfer effects due to scattering and absorption reduce the peak brightness measured from a satellite platform in the limb direction by ˜0.3% to 22%. The reduction is more significant for a larger observing zenith angle, typically by ˜45% for lines of sight that go through altitudes below ˜150 km. Furthermore, inversion results show that ignoring radiative transfer effects lead to a maximum ˜12% underestimation of the NmF2, while ignoring mutual neutralization leads to a maximum ˜30% overestimation of the NmF2. In the presence of measurement noise, the estimation accuracy decreases with a decreasing signal-to-noise ratio, and the errors introduced by simplified physical models lead to a significant bias in the inversion results.

  20. Human symbol manipulation within an integrated cognitive architecture.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R

    2005-05-01

    This article describes the Adaptive Control of Thought-Rational (ACT-R) cognitive architecture (Anderson et al., 2004; Anderson & Lebiere, 1998) and its detailed application to the learning of algebraic symbol manipulation. The theory is applied to modeling the data from a study by Qin, Anderson, Silk, Stenger, & Carter (2004) in which children learn to solve linear equations and perfect their skills over a 6-day period. Functional MRI data show that: (a) a motor region tracks the output of equation solutions, (b) a prefrontal region tracks the retrieval of declarative information, (c) a parietal region tracks the transformation of mental representations of the equation, (d) an anterior cingulate region tracks the setting of goal information to control the information flow, and (e) a caudate region tracks the firing of productions in the ACT-R model. The article concludes with an architectural comparison of the competence children display in this task and the competence that monkeys have shown in tasks that require manipulations of sequences of elements.

  1. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-07-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP-DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP-DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP-DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  2. Interaction forces between nanoparticles in Lennard-Jones (L-J) solvents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Indrajit; Mukherjee, Ashim K.

    2014-03-01

    Molecular simulations, such as Monte Carlo (MC) and molecular dynamics (MD) have been recently used for understanding the forces between colloidal nanoparticles that determine the dispersion and stability of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein we review the current status of research in the area of nanoparticles immersed in L-J solvents. The first study by Shinto et al. used large smooth spheres to depict nanoparticles in L-J and soft sphere solvents. The nanoparticles were held fixed at a particular interparticle distance and only the solvents were allowed to equilibrate. Both Van-der-waals and solvation forces were computed at different but fixed interparticle separation. Later Qin and Fitchthorn improved on this model by considering the nanoparticles as collection of molecules, thus taking into the account the effect of surface roughness of nanoparticles. Although the inter particle distance was fixed, the rotation of such nanoparticles with respect to each other was also investigated. Recently, in keeping with the experimental situation, we modified this model by allowing the nanoparticles to move and rotate freely. Solvophilic, neutral and solvophobic interactions between the solvent atoms and those that make up the nanoparticles were modelled. While neutral and solvophobic nanoparticles coalesce even at intermediate distances, solvophilic nanoparticles are more stable in solution due to the formation of a solvent shield.

  3. The Analgesic and Antineuroinflammatory Effect of Baicalein in Cancer-Induced Bone Pain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shan; Chen, Yu; Wang, Zhi-Fu; Mao-Ying, Qi-Liang; Mi, Wen-Li; Jiang, Jian-Wei; Wu, Gen-Cheng; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is a severe type of chronic pain. It is imperative to explore safe and effective analgesic drugs for CIBP treatment. Baicalein (BE), isolated from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (or Huang Qin), has been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. In this study, we examined the effect of BE on CIBP and the mechanism of this effect. Intrathecal and oral administration of BE at different doses could alleviate the mechanical allodynia in CIBP rats. Intrathecal 100 μg BE could inhibit the production of IL-6 and TNF-α in the spinal cord of CIBP rats. Moreover, intrathecal 100 μg BE could effectively inhibit the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in CIBP rats. The analgesic effect of BE may be associated with the inhibition of the expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and through the activation of p-p38 and p-JNK MAPK signals in the spinal cord. These findings suggest that BE is a promising novel analgesic agent for CIBP. PMID:26649065

  4. [Textual research on Chen Ye and his Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes) of the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuedan; Zhang, Ruqing; Chen, Dexing

    2014-01-01

    Chen Ye, an official of the Southern Song Dynasty, also known as Chen Rihua as his styled name, was born in Changle, Fuzhou in the reign of Shaoxing, and died during the reign of Duanping. He had been consecutively in the positions of Jiang shi lang (Court Gentleman for Ceremonial Service), Zhi zhou (Prefect) of Lingding, the Ti xing (Judicial Commissioner) of Guangdong, the Zong ling (Overseer-general) of Sichuan, Shan ding (Reviser), Shu lin and other positions in Tongzhou, Yuanzhou. His works included 1 volume of Gu ling xian sheng nian pu (Mr. Guling's Chronological Biography), 1 volume of Tan xie (On Humor), 1 volume of Shi hua (Poetry), 8 volumes of Jin yuan li shu (Jin Yuan's Smart Technique), 3 volumes of Yi jian zhi lei bian (Classified Compilation of Yijian's Annals), (Zeng guang) Suo sui lu (Augmented Records of Trivial Matters), 5 volumes of Jia cang jing yan fang (Family-preserved Empirical Recipes). He also compiled the 8-volume Yin jiang zhi (Yinjiang's Annals), published the 2-volume Jia cang ji yao fang (Collected Essential Recipes from Family Preservation), and other proses and poetry. Jia cang jing yan fang was a formulary compiled by Chen Ye, which was lost. Altogether 74 of its recipes were cited in Fu ren da quan liang fang (Complete Effective Prescriptions for Women's Diseases), Shou qin yang lao shu (A Book for Pursuing Seniors' Longevity and Healthcare), Pu ji fang (Prescriptions for Universal Relief) and Yong le da dian (Yongle Encyclopedia). PMID:24774895

  5. Plant host associations of Penthaleus species and Halotydeus destructor (Acari: Penthaleidae) and implications for integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Umina, Paul A; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2004-01-01

    Integrated pest management programs seek to minimise reliance on pesticides and provide effective long-term control of pests. Cultural control strategies, such as crop rotations, trap and border crops, and weed management, require a thorough understanding of pest host associations. This paper examines the effects of different plant hosts on the persistence and reproduction of blue oat mites, Penthaleus spp., and the redlegged earth mite, Halotydeus destructor (Tucker), which are major agricultural pests in southern Australia. Field and shade-house experiments were conducted testing several crop and plant types. All species survived and reproduced from one mite season to the next when confined to pasture. Canola and a common weed, 'bristly ox-tongue', were suitable hosts for H. destructor and Penthaleus falcatus (Qin and Halliday), whereas Penthaleus sp. x and Penthaleus major (Dugés) failed to persist on these plants. A mixture of wheat and oats sustained P. sp. x and H. destructor, but not P. falcatus or P. major. Lentils were generally a poor host plant for all mite species. These findings show that earth mite species differ in their ability to persist on different plant types, highlighting the importance of distinguishing mite species before implementing control strategies. Results are discussed with respect to cultural control options for the management of these winter pests. PMID:15285134

  6. Further Development of the FFT-based Method for Atomistic Modeling of Protein Folding and Binding under Crowding: Optimization of Accuracy and Speed.

    PubMed

    Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2014-07-01

    Recently, we (Qin, S.; Zhou, H. X. J. Chem. Theory Comput.2013, 9, 4633-4643) developed the FFT-based method for Modeling Atomistic Proteins-crowder interactions, henceforth FMAP. Given its potential wide use for calculating effects of crowding on protein folding and binding free energies, here we aimed to optimize the accuracy and speed of FMAP. FMAP is based on expressing protein-crowder interactions as correlation functions and evaluating the latter via fast Fourier transform (FFT). The numerical accuracy of FFT improves as the grid spacing for discretizing space is reduced, but at increasing computational cost. We sought to speed up FMAP calculations by using a relatively coarse grid spacing of 0.6 Å and then correcting for discretization errors. This strategy was tested for different types of interactions (hard-core repulsion, nonpolar attraction, and electrostatic interaction) and over a wide range of protein-crowder systems. We were able to correct for the numerical errors on hard-core repulsion and nonpolar attraction by an 8% inflation of atomic hard-core radii and on electrostatic interaction by a 5% inflation of the magnitudes of protein atomic charges. The corrected results have higher accuracy and enjoy a speedup of more than 100-fold over those obtained using a fine grid spacing of 0.15 Å. With this optimization of accuracy and speed, FMAP may become a practical tool for realistic modeling of protein folding and binding in cell-like environments.

  7. Regulatory interrelations among topographic molecules CBF1, CBF2 and EphA3 in the developing chick retina.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, M; Mai, A; Pollerberg, G E; Noda, M

    1999-10-01

    It has been shown that topographic expression of two winged-helix transcription factors, CBF1/c-qin and CBF2, and a receptor tyrosine kinase EphA3 (Mek4/Cek4) play important roles in establishing the topographic retinotectal projection map along the rostrocaudal axis. The interrelationship among these topographic molecules in the chick retina was studied during development. The topographic expression of CBF1 and CBF2 preluded the graded expression of EphA3, but their precise expression profiles did not exactly fit together. However, interestingly, CBF1 and CBF2 were properly expressed, together with EphA3, in immortalized cell lines derived from the quail retina, which maintained position-specific characteristics. The expression of another topographic molecule SOHo-1, the sensory organ homeobox-1 transcription factor, was separate from EphA3 expression. Ectopic expression of CBF1 using in ovo electroporation repressed the expression of CBF2, and misexpression of CBF2 influenced the graded localization of EphA3 in the retina, albeit imperfectly. Taken together, it is suggested that retinal cells first begin to express CBF1 or CBF2 according to their topographic positions, generate cellular descendants in which the expression of CBF1 and CBF2 is maintained cell-autonomously, and then establish the nasotemporal gradient of EphA3 under the control of CBF2, although indirect.

  8. Empirical Likelihood-Based ANOVA for Trimmed Means

    PubMed Central

    Velina, Mara; Valeinis, Janis; Greco, Luca; Luta, George

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce an alternative to Yuen’s test for the comparison of several population trimmed means. This nonparametric ANOVA type test is based on the empirical likelihood (EL) approach and extends the results for one population trimmed mean from Qin and Tsao (2002). The results of our simulation study indicate that for skewed distributions, with and without variance heterogeneity, Yuen’s test performs better than the new EL ANOVA test for trimmed means with respect to control over the probability of a type I error. This finding is in contrast with our simulation results for the comparison of means, where the EL ANOVA test for means performs better than Welch’s heteroscedastic F test. The analysis of a real data example illustrates the use of Yuen’s test and the new EL ANOVA test for trimmed means for different trimming levels. Based on the results of our study, we recommend the use of Yuen’s test for situations involving the comparison of population trimmed means between groups of interest. PMID:27690063

  9. [Study on rules of acupoints selection for vertigo in ancient acupuncture].

    PubMed

    Zhan, Qiana; Chen, Hua-De

    2014-04-01

    The characteristics of selection and matching acupoint and application rules of meridians in ancient acupuncture literature for vertigo were explored. The data were collected from literature regarding acupuncture for vertigo from the pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty and then database was established. Frequency statistics method and comparison of support degree were applied to analyze and explore application rules of acupoints and meridians, while association rules in data mining was used to extract combinations of acupoints. As a result, for treatment of vertigo, according to frequency of use and support degree, generally the most selected acupoints, in turn, were Fengchi (GB 20), Shangxing (GV 23), Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41), Zulinqi (GB 41) and Shenting (GV 24), etc.; the most methods for matching acupoint were combination of adjacent acupoints, combination of same-meridian acupoints, combination of the superior-inferior acupoints, combination of yang-meridian and yang-meridian acupoints and combination of child-mother meridians acupoints; the most selected meridians were bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, gallbladder meridian of foot-shaoyang and governor vessel. Compared between the ancient and modern literature, it was found out that the ancient and modern clinic has same points in selection of acupoint-meridian and matching acupoints methods. However, the use of Yanggu (SI 5), Jiexi (ST 41) and Feiyang (BL 58) as well as combination of child-mother meridians acupoints were less seen in modern clinic, which could provide new reference.

  10. Distributions, possible sources and biological risk of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments of Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyin; Wang, Yinghui; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiang; Zhang, Ruijie; Guo, Songjun; Huang, Wenyu; Zhang, Gan

    2013-11-15

    Thirty-five surface sediment samples collected from Beibu Gulf and its tributary rivers, China were analyzed for DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes. Total concentrations of DDTs, HCHs and chlordanes in sediments ranged from 0.59 to 126 ng g(-)(1), ND to 2.65 ng g(-)(1) and 0.27 to 3.41 ng g(-)(1) based on dry weight (dw), respectively. Concentrations of DDTs were higher than those reported in the sediments from other regions of the world, while concentrations of HCHs and chlordanes were relatively low. High concentrations of DDTs were observed in the harbor region and aquaculture bases and high concentrations of HCHs were found in the Qin River Estuary. The ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDTs reflected a mixed input of weathered and fresh DDTs. The predominant β-HCH indicated that HCHs in the study area mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. The residues of DDTs would pose adverse biological effects on the study area.

  11. Superfluid density through 2D superconductor junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Hyoungdo; Shih, Chih-Kang

    As S. Qin et al. reported, two monolayer (2 ML) lead film on a silicon (111) substrate has one of two different atomic structures on the silicon substrate: the unstrained 1x1 and the psedumorphically strained √3x √3 (i.e. the same lattice constant as the Si √3x √3 lattice). Most interestingly, although these two different regions show the same quantum well state features, they have different Tc's (5 K and 4 K). These two different regions of 2 ML film naturally form superconductor-superconductor (SS or SS') junctions along silicon step edges. Physical connection of the junction is only 1 ML thickness because of the step height difference of substrate. We will present this study of SS (or SS') junction system using scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and in-situ double-coil mutual inductance measurement. The transition of superconducting gaps across either SS or SS' junctions should show how to locally affect each other. Double coil measurement show a global Tc close to the lower Tc region with sizable superfluid density. We will discuss the phase rigidity and its relationship to the superfluid density in this ultra-thin Pb film that is only 2 ML thick.

  12. The formation of the study of Shushu and its development in the Middle Ages: a tentative study of a field of scientific study peculiar to East Asia.

    PubMed

    Tokimasa, Takeda

    2008-03-01

    Natural science in East Asia formed a unique field of study called the study of shushu, which consisted of various fields of natural science and divinations derived from the Yijing [Chinese characters: see text]. Though the study of shushu is a field peculiar to East Asia where people want to evaluate the essence of the scientific culture of East Asia properly, it seems indispensable to grasp its structure and historical development. In this paper, the process of transformation of fangshu [Chinese characters: see text] in the pre-Qin period into shushu caused by the great thought revolution occurring in the period of Han period and its development in the Middle Ages are discussed. In particular, the origin of the theory of yinyang [Chinese characters: see text] and the five phases that is the theoretical basis of the study of shushu is studied using materials excavated recently in China. Using the texts preserved in Japan seen in the Wuxing Dayi [Chinese characters: see text] and the Ishinpŏ [Chinese characters: see text] the development of the theory of yinyang and five phases in the Middle Ages and its theoretical characteristics are discussed. PMID:19044000

  13. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation.

  14. The highs and lows of cloud radiative feedback: Comparing observational data and CMIP5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenney, A.; Randall, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds play a complex role in the climate system, and remain one of the more difficult aspects of the future climate to predict. Over subtropical eastern ocean basins, particularly next to California, Peru, and Southwest Africa, low marine stratocumulus clouds (MSC) help to reduce the amount of solar radiation that reaches the surface by reflecting incident sunlight. The climate feedback associated with these clouds is thought to be positive. This project looks at CMIP5 models and compares them to observational data from CERES and ERA-Interim to try and find observational evidence and model agreement for low, marine stratocumulus cloud feedback. Although current evidence suggests that the low cloud feedback is positive (IPCC, 2014), an analysis of the simulated relationship between July lower tropospheric stability (LTS) and shortwave cloud forcing in MSC regions suggests that this feedback is not due to changes in LTS. IPCC, 2013: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp.

  15. Genus delineation of Chlamydiales by analysis of the percentage of conserved proteins justifies the reunifying of the genera Chlamydia and Chlamydophila into one single genus Chlamydia.

    PubMed

    Pannekoek, Yvonne; Qi-Long, Qin; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; van der Ende, Arie

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have aimed to set up boundaries for the classification and definition of prokaryotic genus and species classification; however, studies that focused on genus-level genomic differences for existing taxonomy systems are limited. Recently, a novel method was described for prokaryotic genus delineation using the percentage of conserved proteins (POCP) between two strains to estimate their evolutionary and phenotypic distance (Qin et al. A proposed genus boundary for the prokaryotes based on genomic insights. J Bacteriol 2014; 196: :2210-5). Here, we extended the POCP analysis of the order Chlamydiales and pairwise compared all currently recognized species and candidate species of the family Chlamydiaceae as well as some species from other families. Using the taxonomy advised by the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes, subcommittee on the taxonomy of the Chlamydiae, POCP analysis revealed that all pairwise comparisons of species from different families resulted in values lower than 50%, the proposed threshold for genus boundary. In contrast, all interspecies pairwise comparisons of species from the single genus within the family Chlamydiaceae resulted in POCP values higher than 70%. We conclude that the recommended genus classification of the family Chlamydiaceae is rational and that POCP analyses can provide a robust genomic index for the taxonomy of members of the order Chlamydiales in terms of genus demarcation. PMID:27440809

  16. Slicing and Binding by Ago3 or Aub Trigger Piwi-bound piRNA Production by Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Han, Bo W.; Tipping, Cindy; Ge, Daniel Tianfang; Zhang, Zhao; Weng, Zhiping; Zamore, Phillip D.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In Drosophila ovarian germ cells, PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) direct Aubergine and Argonaute3 to cleave transposon transcripts and instruct Piwi to repress transposon transcription, thereby safeguarding the germline genome. Here, we report that RNA cleavage by Argonaute3 initiates production of most Piwi-bound piRNAs. We find that the cardinal function of Argonaute3, whose piRNA guides predominantly correspond to sense transposon sequences, is to produce antisense piRNAs that direct transcriptional silencing by Piwi, rather than to make piRNAs that guide post-transcriptional silencing by Aubergine. We also find that the Tudor domain protein Qin prevents Aubergine’s cleavage products from becoming Piwi-bound piRNAs, ensuring that antisense piRNAs guide Piwi. Although Argonaute3 slicing is required to efficiently trigger phased piRNA production, an alternative, slicing-independent pathway suffices to generate Piwi-bound piRNAs that repress transcription of a subset of transposon families. This alternative pathway may help flies silence newly acquired transposons for which they lack extensively complementary piRNAs. PMID:26340424

  17. Large solar energetic particle event that occurred on 2012 March 7 and its VDA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Liu-Guan; Cao, Xin-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Wei; Le, Gui-Ming

    2016-08-01

    On 2012 March 7, the STEREO Ahead and Behind spacecraft, along with near-Earth spacecraft (e.g. SOHO, Wind) situated between the two STEREO spacecraft, observed an extremely large global solar energetic particle (SEP) event in Solar Cycle 24. Two successive coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been detected close in time. From the multi-point in-situ observations, it can be found that this SEP event was caused by the first CME, but the second one was not involved. Using velocity dispersion analysis (VDA), we find that for a well magnetically connected point, the energetic protons and electrons are released nearly at the same time. The path lengths to STEREO-B (STB) for protons and electrons have a distinct difference and deviate remarkably from the nominal Parker spiral path length, which is likely due to the presence of interplanetary magnetic structures situated between the source and STB. Also, the VDA method seems to only obtain reasonable results at well-connected locations and the inferred release times of energetic particles in different energy channels are similar. We suggest that good-connection is crucial for obtaining both an accurate release time and path length simultaneously, agreeing with the modeling result of Wang & Qin (2015).

  18. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-01-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4′-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4′-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4′-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4′-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid–specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4′-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  19. Neural Signatures of Controlled and Automatic Retrieval Processes in Memory-based Decision-making.

    PubMed

    Khader, Patrick H; Pachur, Thorsten; Weber, Lilian A E; Jost, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Decision-making often requires retrieval from memory. Drawing on the neural ACT-R theory [Anderson, J. R., Fincham, J. M., Qin, Y., & Stocco, A. A central circuit of the mind. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 136-143, 2008] and other neural models of memory, we delineated the neural signatures of two fundamental retrieval aspects during decision-making: automatic and controlled activation of memory representations. To disentangle these processes, we combined a paradigm developed to examine neural correlates of selective and sequential memory retrieval in decision-making with a manipulation of associative fan (i.e., the decision options were associated with one, two, or three attributes). The results show that both the automatic activation of all attributes associated with a decision option and the controlled sequential retrieval of specific attributes can be traced in material-specific brain areas. Moreover, the two facets of memory retrieval were associated with distinct activation patterns within the frontoparietal network: The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to reflect increasing retrieval effort during both automatic and controlled activation of attributes. In contrast, the superior parietal cortex only responded to controlled retrieval, arguably reflecting the sequential updating of attribute information in working memory. This dissociation in activation pattern is consistent with ACT-R and constitutes an important step toward a neural model of the retrieval dynamics involved in memory-based decision-making.

  20. Comparison of the effects of two models for perpendicular diffusion on cosmic-ray latitudinal gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnie, J.; Burger, R. A.; Parhi, S.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Bieber, J. W.

    We compare the effects of two different models for perpendicular diffusion on the latitudinal gradients of galactic cosmic ray protons during solar minimum conditions. These two models correspond to the newly developed non-linear guiding center theory [Matthaeus, W.H., Qin, G., Bieber, J.W., Zank, G.P. Nonlinear collisionless perpendicular diffusion of charged particles. Astrophys. J. Lett., 590 (1), L53 L56, 2003] and the theory based on a velocity correlation function approach [Bieber, J.W., Matthaeus, W.H. Perpendicular diffusion and drift at intermediate cosmic-ray energies. Astrophys. J., 485 (2) 655 659, 1997]. In this ab initio study a steady-state two-dimensional numerical modulation model is used which incorporates a state-of-the-art turbulence model. We show that the non-linear guiding center theory predicts a mean free path that has a rigidity dependence that better accounts for the latitudinal gradients measured by Ulysses during its first fast latitude scan in 1994/1995.

  1. A specialized flavone biosynthetic pathway has evolved in the medicinal plant, Scutellaria baicalensis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Gang; Hill, Lionel; Weng, Jing-Ke; Chen, Xiao-Ya; Xue, Hongwei; Martin, Cathie

    2016-04-01

    Wogonin and baicalein are bioactive flavones in the popular Chinese herbal remedy Huang-Qin (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi). These specialized flavones lack a 4'-hydroxyl group on the B ring (4'-deoxyflavones) and induce apoptosis in a wide spectrum of human tumor cells in vitro and inhibit tumor growth in vivo in different mouse tumor models. Root-specific flavones (RSFs) from Scutellaria have a variety of reported additional beneficial effects including antioxidant and antiviral properties. We describe the characterization of a new pathway for the synthesis of these compounds, in which pinocembrin (a 4'-deoxyflavanone) serves as a key intermediate. Although two genes encoding flavone synthase II (FNSII) are expressed in the roots of S. baicalensis, FNSII-1 has broad specificity for flavanones as substrates, whereas FNSII-2 is specific for pinocembrin. FNSII-2 is responsible for the synthesis of 4'-deoxyRSFs, such as chrysin and wogonin, wogonoside, baicalein, and baicalin, which are synthesized from chrysin. A gene encoding a cinnamic acid-specific coenzyme A ligase (SbCLL-7), which is highly expressed in roots, is required for the synthesis of RSFs by FNSII-2, as demonstrated by gene silencing. A specific isoform of chalcone synthase (SbCHS-2) that is highly expressed in roots producing RSFs is also required for the synthesis of chrysin. Our studies reveal a recently evolved pathway for biosynthesis of specific, bioactive 4'-deoxyflavones in the roots of S. baicalensis. PMID:27152350

  2. Enabling quantitative optical imaging for in-die-capable critical dimension targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, B. M.; Henn, M.-A.; Sohn, M. Y.; Zhou, H.; Silver, R. M.

    2016-03-01

    Dimensional scaling trends will eventually bring semiconductor critical dimensions (CDs) down to only a few atoms in width. New optical techniques are required to address the measurement and variability for these CDs using sufficiently small in-die metrology targets. Recently, Qin et al. [Light Sci Appl, 5, e16038 (2016)] demonstrated quantitative modelbased measurements of finite sets of lines with features as small as 16 nm using 450 nm wavelength light. This paper uses simulation studies, augmented with experiments at 193 nm wavelength, to adapt and optimize the finite sets of features that work as in-die-capable metrology targets with minimal increases in parametric uncertainty. A finite element based solver for time-harmonic Maxwell's equations yields two- and three-dimensional simulations of the electromagnetic scattering for optimizing the design of such targets as functions of reduced line lengths, fewer number of lines, fewer focal positions, smaller critical dimensions, and shorter illumination wavelength. Metrology targets that exceeded performance requirements are as short as 3 μm for 193 nm light, feature as few as eight lines, and are extensible to sub-10 nm CDs. Target areas measured at 193 nm can be fifteen times smaller in area than current state-of-the-art scatterometry targets described in the literature. This new methodology is demonstrated to be a promising alternative for optical model-based in-die CD metrology.

  3. Selected trace metals (As, Cd and Hg) distribution and contamination in the coastal wetland sediment of the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Gan, Huayang; Lin, Jinqin; Liang, Kai; Xia, Zhen

    2013-01-15

    Contamination with As, Cd and Hg, their spatial and temporal distribution are reported from the coastal wetland sediments of the northern Beibu Gulf, South China Sea. The content of As, Cd, Hg and TOC in surface sediments is 8.1±5.8 μg g⁻¹, 0.08±0.14μg g⁻¹, 0.034±0.028 μg g⁻¹ and 0.45±0.39%, respectively. The mean sedimentation rates are 0.93-1.37 cm year⁻¹ during 1920s to 2008 determined by ²¹⁰Pb and ¹³⁷Cs dating in three cores. The vertical profiles of As, Cd and Hg content in the cores retrieved from Qin and Nanliu River estuaries show increasing trends during 1985-2008 due to anthropogenic impact caused by local economic development. Locally the surface sediments have potential ecological risk of As to benthos according to the NOAA sediment quality guidelines.

  4. Characterization of DicB by partially masking its potent inhibitory activity of cell division

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shaoyuan; Pei, Hairun; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wei, Qiang; Zhu, Jia; Zheng, Jimin; Jia, Zongchao

    2016-01-01

    DicB, a protein encoded by the Kim (Qin) prophage in Escherichia coli, inhibits cell division through interaction with MinC. Thus far, characterization of DicB has been severely hampered owing to its potent activity which ceases cell division and leads to cell death. In this work, through fusing maltose-binding protein to the N-terminus of DicB (MBP–DicB), we successfully expressed and purified recombinant DicB that enabled in vitro analysis for the first time. More importantly, taking advantage of the reduced inhibitory activity of MBP–DicB, we were able to study its effects on cell growth and morphology. Inhibition of cell growth by MBP–DicB was systematically evaluated using various DicB constructs, and their corresponding effects on cell morphology were also investigated. Our results revealed that the N-terminal segment of DicB plays an essential functional role, in contrast to its C-terminal tail. The N-terminus of DicB is of critical importance as even the first amino acid (following the initial Met) could not be removed, although it could be mutated. This study provides the first glimpse of the molecular determinants underlying DicB's function. PMID:27466443

  5. Genetic associations between daily BW gain and live fleshiness of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Bonfatti, V; Albera, A; Carnier, P

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate genetic relationships between beef traits of station-tested young bulls and carcass and meat quality traits (MQ) of commercial intact males in Piemontese cattle. Phenotypes for daily gain (DG) and live fleshiness traits (width at withers: WW; shoulder muscularity: SM; loin width: LW; loin thickness: LT; thigh muscularity: TM; thigh profile: TP) and thinness of the shin bone (BT) were available for 3,109 and 2,183 performance-tested young bulls, respectively. Carcass daily gain (CDG), carcass conformation (SEUS), pH at 24 h (pH24h) and 8 d after slaughter (pH8d), lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle (HA), saturation index (SI), drip loss (DL), cooking loss (CL), and shear force (SF) were assessed for 1,208 commercial intact males. (Co) variance components were estimated in a set of twelve 9-traits analyses using REML and linear animal models including all performance-test traits and 1 carcass or MQ trait at a time. Heritabilities ± SE of beef traits ranged from 0.26 ± 0.03 (LW) to 0.47 ± 0.01 (DG), whereas those of carcass traits and MQ from 0.06 ± 0.03 (CL) to 0.63 ± 0.04 (HA). The genetic correlation (rg) between DG and CDG was 0.75 ± 0.10, indicating that DG, as measured at the test station, is a good indicator of the carcass gain achieved by commercial animals under farms conditions. Daily BW gain of station-tested bulls correlated positively with color traits (from 0.11 ± 0.12 to 0.54 ± 0.09), ph8d (rg ± SE = 0.31 ± 0.11), DL (rg ± SE = 0.29 ± 0.17), and CL (rg ± SE = 0.27 ± 0.18). Live fleshiness of station-tested bulls exhibited genetic correlations with MQ of commercial animals that were positive for L* and b* (from 0.13 ± 0.08 to 0.65 ± 0.14) and negative for pH (from -0.27 ± 0.15 to -0.57 ± 0.11), CL (from -0.16 ± 0.23 to -0.43 ± 0.22), and SF (TM: rg ± SE = -0.31 ± 0.15; TP: rg ± SE = -0.41 ± 0.17). The thinness of the shin bone correlated unfavorably with CDG (rg ± SE

  6. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-01

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid ``omics''-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation.Although tissue staining

  7. Characterization of 100 micron thick positive photoresist on 300-mm wafers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Warren W.; Nguyen, Ha-Ai; Capsuto, Elliott; Abreau, Kelly

    2005-05-01

    The widespread adoption of advanced packaging techniques is driven by device performance and chip form factor considerations. Flip chip packaging is currently growing at a thirty percent compound annual rate and it is expected that in the near future over sixty percent of all 300 mm wafers will be bumped. To ensure optimal productivity and cost of ownership it is imperative to provide lithographic equipment and materials that are optimized for these applications. Due to the constantly shrinking bump pitch, it is critical to show excellent CD uniformity across the entire 300 mm wafer surface for feature sizes as small as 70 microns. Flip chip packaging as well as Nanotechnology (MEMS) applications frequently use one or more very thick photoresist layers for electroplating applications. The plating levels require a photosensitive polymer material capable of coating, exposing and electroplating with conventional equipment and standard ancillary process chemicals. Additionally the process times for coating, baking, exposure and development must be considered since these impacts the overall cost of ownership of the lithography cell. For thick photoresist layers the sidewall profile, plating resistance and postplating stripability are important characteristics. This study will characterize a novel single coat, positive tone photoresist (ShinEtsu SIPR 7120-20) used in electroplating levels up to 100 μm thick on 300 mm wafers exposed with the Ultratech Spectrum 300e2 stepper and coated and developed with a Steag Hamatech Modutrack system. Process capability is determined by analyzing photoresist film thickness uniformity and critical dimension (CD) control across the wafer. Basic photoresist characterization techniques such as cross sectional SEM analysis are used to establish lithographic capabilities. This study shows excellent adhesion to copper with no surface treatment and no photoresist popping during exposure or post exposure bake (PEB). High aspect ratio, lead

  8. [The Activation of Interlimb Interactions Increase the Motor Output in Legs in Healthy Subjects under the Conditions of Arm and Leg Unloading].

    PubMed

    Selionov, V A; Solopova, I A; Zhvansky, D S

    2016-01-01

    We studied the effect of arm movements and movements of separate arm joints on the electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of voluntary and vibration-triggered stepping-like leg movements under the conditions of horizontal support of upper and lower limbs. The horizontal support of arms provided a significantly increase in the rate of activation of locomotor automatism by non-invasive impact on tonic sensory inputs. The addition of active arm movements during involuntary rhytmic stepping-like leg movements led to an increase in EMG activity of hip muscles and was accompanied by an increase in the amplitude of hip and shin movements. Passive arm movements had the same effect on induced leg movements. The movement of the shoulder joints led to an increase in the activity of hip muscles and an increase in the amplitude of movements of the knee and hip joints. At the same time, the movement of forearms. and wrists had similar facilitating effect on electrophysiological and kinematic characteristics of rhytmic stepping-like movements, but influenced the distal segments of legs to a greater extent. Under the conditions of sub-threshold vibration of leg muscles, voluntary arm movements led to the activation of involuntary rhytmic stepping movements. During voluntary leg movements, the addition of arm movements had a significantly smaller impact on the parameters of rhytmic stepping than during involuntary leg movements. Thus, the simultaneous movements of upper and lower limbs are an effective method of activation of neural networks connecting the rhythm generators of arms and legs. Under the conditions of arm and leg unloading, the interactions between the cervical and lumbosacral segments of the spinal cord seem to play the major role in the impact of arm movements on the patterns of leg movements. The described methods of activation of interlimb interactions can be used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients and patients with spinal cord injuries

  9. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-01

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to ΔkTARGET. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f =∑i (ΔkF A-Δki ) ] , and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to ΔkTARGET as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  10. Stress fracture in military recruits: gender differences in muscle and bone susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Shaffer, R A; Betsinger, K; Trone, D W; Brodine, S K

    2000-09-01

    A total of 693 female U.S. Marine Corps recruits were studied with anthropometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the midthigh and distal third of the lower leg prior to a 12 week physical training program. In this group, 37 incident stress fracture cases were radiologically confirmed. Female data were compared with male data from an earlier study of 626 Marine recruits extended with additional cases for a total of 38 stress fracture cases. Using DXA data, bone structural geometry and cortical dimensions were derived at scan locations and muscle cross-sectional area was computed at the midthigh. Measurements were compared within gender between pooled fracture cases and controls after excluding subjects diagnosed with shin splints. In both genders, fracture cases were less physically fit, and had smaller thigh muscles compared with controls. After correction for height and weight, section moduli (Z) and bone strength indices (Z/bone length) of the femur and tibia were significantly smaller in fracture cases of both genders, but patterns differed. Female cases had thinner cortices and lower areal bone mineral density (BMD), whereas male cases had externally narrower bones but similar cortical thicknesses and areal BMDs compared with controls. In both genders, differences in fitness, muscle, and bone parameters suggest poor skeletal adaptation in fracture cases due to inadequate physical conditioning prior to training. To determine whether bone and muscle strength parameters differed between genders, all data were pooled and adjusted for height and weight. In both the tibia and femur, men had significantly larger section moduli and bone strength indices than women, although women had higher tibia but lower femur areal BMDs. Female bones, on average, were narrower and had thinner cortices (not significant in the femur, p = 0.07). Unlike the bone geometry differences, thigh muscle cross-sectional areas were virtually identical to those of the men

  11. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry derived structural geometry for stress fracture prediction in male U.S. Marine Corps recruits.

    PubMed

    Beck, T J; Ruff, C B; Mourtada, F A; Shaffer, R A; Maxwell-Williams, K; Kao, G L; Sartoris, D J; Brodine, S

    1996-05-01

    A total of 626 U.S. male Marine Corps recruits underwent anthropometric measurements and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans of the femoral midshaft and the distal third of the tibia prior to a 12 week physical training program. Conventionally obtained frontal plane DXA scan data were used to measure the bone mineral density (BMD) as well as to derive the cross-sectional area, moment of inertia, section modulus, and bone width in the femur, tibia, and fibula. During training, 23 recruits (3.7%) presented with a total of 27 radiologically confirmed stress fractures in various locations in the lower extremity. After excluding 16 cases of shin splints, periostitis, and other stress reactions that did not meet fracture definition criteria, we compared anthropometric and bone structural geometry measurements between fracture cases and the remaining 587 normals. There was no significant difference in age (p = 0.8), femur length (p = 0.2), pelvic width (p = 0.08), and knee width at the femoral condyles (p = 0.06), but fracture cases were shorter (p = 0.01), lighter (p = 0.0006), and smaller in most anthropometric girth dimensions (p < 0.04). Fracture case bone cross-sectional areas (p < 0.001), moments of inertia (p < 0.001), section moduli (p < 0.001), and widths (p < 0.001) as well as BMD (p < 0.03) were significantly smaller in the tibia and femur. After correcting for body weight differences, the tibia cross-sectional area (p = 0.03), section modulus (p = 0.05), and width (p = 0.03) remained significantly smaller in fracture subjects. We conclude that both small body weight and small diaphyseal dimensions relative to body weight are factors predisposing to the development of stress fractures in this population. These results suggest that bone structural geometry measurements derived from DXA data may provide a simple noninvasive methodology for assessing the risk of stress fracture.

  12. High-resolution axial MR imaging of tibial stress injuries

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the relative involvement of tibial stress injuries using high-resolution axial MR imaging and the correlation with MR and radiographic images. Methods A total of 33 patients with exercise-induced tibial pain were evaluated. All patients underwent radiograph and high-resolution axial MR imaging. Radiographs were taken at initial presentation and 4 weeks later. High-resolution MR axial images were obtained using a microscopy surface coil with 60 × 60 mm field of view on a 1.5T MR unit. All images were evaluated for abnormal signals of the periosteum, cortex and bone marrow. Results Nineteen patients showed no periosteal reaction at initial and follow-up radiographs. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and partially abnormal signals in the bone marrow. In 7 patients, periosteal reaction was not seen at initial radiograph, but was detected at follow-up radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue and entire bone marrow. Abnormal signals in the cortex were found in 6 patients. The remaining 7 showed periosteal reactions at initial radiograph. MR imaging showed abnormal signals in the periosteal tissue in 6 patients. Abnormal signals were seen in the partial and entire bone marrow in 4 and 3 patients, respectively. Conclusions Bone marrow abnormalities in high-resolution axial MR imaging were related to periosteal reactions at follow-up radiograph. Bone marrow abnormalities might predict later periosteal reactions, suggesting shin splints or stress fractures. High-resolution axial MR imaging is useful in early discrimination of tibial stress injuries. PMID:22574840

  13. Support afferentation in the posture and locomotion control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoriev, Anatoly; Tomilovskaya, Elena; Kozlovskaya, Inesa

    Mechanisms of support afferentation contribution in posture and locomotion control, which were uncertain up to now, became the point of intensive studies recently. This became possible since the space flights era started which created the conditions for simulated microgravity experiments under conditions of dry immersion and bedrest. The results of neurophysiological studies performed under the conditions of supportlessness have shown that decline or elimination of support loads is followed by deep and fast developing alterations in postural tonic system, including development of postural muscle atonia, changes of recruitment order of motoneurons innervating the shin muscles, spinal hyperreflexia development etc. (Kozlovskaya I.B. et al., 1987). It has been also shown that application of artificial support stimulation in the regimen of natural locomotion under these conditions decreases significantly or even eliminates the development of mentioned changes. The results of these studies laid down the basis for a new hypothesis on the trigger role of support afferentation in postural tonic system and its role in organization and control of postural synergies (Grigoriev A.I. et al., 2004). According to this hypothesis the muscle reception is considered to be the leading afferent input in the control of locomotion. However the data of recent studies pointed out strongly to the participation of support afferentation in definition of cognitive strategies and motor programs of locomotor movements (Chernikova L.A. et al., 2013) and, consequently, in the processes of their initiation (Gerasimenko Yu.P. et al., 2012). The cortical locomotor reflex composes apparently the basis of these processes. The receptive field of this reflex is located in the support zones of the soles and the central part is located in the posterior parietal areas (IPL) of brain cortex. The study is supported by RFBR grant N 13-04-12091 OFI-m.

  14. Factors affecting breeding season survival of Red-Headed Woodpeckers in South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Kilgo, John, C.; Vukovich, Mark

    2011-11-18

    Red-headed woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus) populations have declined in the United States and Canada over the past 40 years. However, few demographic studies have been published on the species and none have addressed adult survival. During 2006-2007, we estimated survival probabilities of 80 radio-tagged red-headed woodpeckers during the breeding season in mature loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) forests in South Carolina. We used known-fate models in Program MARK to estimate survival within and between years and to evaluate the effects of foliar cover (number of available cover patches), snag density treatment (high density vs. low density), and sex and age of woodpeckers. Weekly survival probabilities followed a quadratic time trend, being lowest during mid-summer, which coincided with the late nestling and fledgling period. Avian predation, particularly by Cooper's (Accipiter cooperii) and sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus), accounted for 85% of all mortalities. Our best-supported model estimated an 18-week breeding season survival probability of 0.72 (95% CI = 0.54-0.85) and indicated that the number of cover patches interacted with sex of woodpeckers to affect survival; females with few available cover patches had a lower probability of survival than either males or females with more cover patches. At the median number of cover patches available (n = 6), breeding season survival of females was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.54-0.94) and of males was 0.60 (95% CI = 0.42-0.76). The number of cover patches available to woodpeckers appeared in all 3 of our top models predicting weekly survival, providing further evidence that woodpecker survival was positively associated with availability of cover. Woodpecker survival was not associated with snag density. Our results suggest that protection of {ge}0.7 cover patches per ha during vegetation control activities in mature pine forests will benefit survival of this Partners In Flight Watch List species.

  15. Ionospheric disturbances by volcanic eruptions by GNSS-TEC: Comparison between Vulcanian and Plinian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Y.; Heki, K.; Takeo, A.; Cahyadi, M. N.; Aditiya, A.

    2014-12-01

    Acoustic waves from volcanic eruptions are often observed as infrasound in near fields. Part of them propagate upward and disturb the ionosphere, and can be observed in Total Electron Content (TEC) data derived by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In the past, Heki (2006 GRL) detected ionospheric disturbances by the 2004 explosion of the Asama Volcano, central Japan, and Dautermann et al. (2009 JGR) studied the 2003 eruption of the Soufriere Hills volcano in Montserrat, West Indies. Here we present new examples, and try to characterize such disturbances. We first show TEC disturbances by the 2014 February Plinian eruption (VEI 4) of the Kelud volcano, East Java, Indonesia (Figure), observed with a regional GNSS network.The 2014 Kelud eruption broke a lava dome made by 2007 eruption and created a new creator. Significant disturbances were detected with four GPS and two GLONASS satellites, and the wavelet analyses showed that harmonic oscillations started at ~16:25 UT and continued nearly one hour. The frequency of the oscillation was ~3.8 mHz, which coincides with the atmospheric fundamental mode. We also confirmed concentric wavefronts, moving outward by ~0.8m/sec (stronger signals on the northern side). These features are similar to the 2003 Soufriere Hills case, although the signals in the present Kelud case is much clearer. Next, we compare them with ionospheric disturbances by Vulcanian explosions that occurred recently in Japan, i.e. the 2004 Asama case and the 2009 Sakurajima, and the 2011 Shin-moedake eruptions. They are characterized with one-time N-shaped disturbances possibly excited by the compression of the air above the vents. On the other hand, data from nearby seismometers suggested that atmospheric oscillations of various frequencies were excited by this continuous Plinian eruption. Part of such oscillations would have grown large due to atmospheric resonance.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  17. Genetic algorithm for the inverse problem in synthesis of fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaar, Johannes; Risvik, Knut M.

    1998-06-01

    A new method for synthesis of fiber gratings with advanced characteristic is proposed. The method is based on an optimizing genetic algorithm, and facilitates the task of weighting the different requirements to the filter spectrum. A classical problem in applied physics and engineering fields is the inverse problem. An example of such a problem is to determine a fiber grating index modulation profile corresponding to a given reflection spectrum. This is not a trivial problem, and a variety of synthesis algorithms has been proposed. For weak gratings, the synthesis problem of fiber gratings reduces to an inverse Fourier transform of the reflection coefficient. This is known as the first-order Born approximation, and applies only for gratings for which the reflectivity is small. Another solution to this problem was found by Song and Shin, who solved the coupled Gel'fand- Levitan-Marchenko (GLM) integral equations that appear in the inverse scattering theory of quantum mechanics. Their method is exact, but is restricted to reflection coefficients that can be expressed as a rational function. An iterative solution to the GLM equations was found by Peral et. al., yielding smoother coupling coefficients that the exact method. The algorithm is converging relatively fast, and gives satisfying results even for high reflectivity gratings. However, when specifying ideal, unachievable filter responses, it is desirable to have a weighting mechanisms, which makes it easier to weight the different requirements. For example, when synthesizing an optical bandpass filter, one may be interested in weighting linear phase more than sharp peaks. because the dispersion may be a more critical parameter. The iterative GLM method does not support such a mechanism in a satisfactory way.

  18. A Self-Administered Method of Acute Pressure Block of Sciatic Nerves for Short-Term Relief of Dental Pain: A Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Wanghong; Wang, Ye; Hu, Jiao; Chen, Qiu; Yu, Juncai; Wu, Bin; Huang, Rong; Gao, Jie; He, Jiman

    2014-01-01

    Objectives While stimulation of the peripheral nerves increases the pain threshold, chronic pressure stimulation of the sciatic nerve is associated with sciatica. We recently found that acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve inhibits pain. Therefore, we propose that, the pain pathology-causing pressure is chronic, not acute. Here, we report a novel self-administered method: acute pressure block of the sciatic nerves is applied by the patients themselves for short-term relief of pain from dental diseases. Design This was a randomized, single-blind study. Setting Hospital patients. Patients Patients aged 16–60 years with acute pulpitis, acute apical periodontitis, or pericoronitis of the third molar of the mandible experiencing pain ≥3 on the 11-point numerical pain rating scale. Interventions Three-minute pressure to sciatic nerves was applied by using the hands (hand pressure method) or by having the patients squat to force the thigh and shin as tightly as possible on the sandwiched sciatic nerve bundles (self-administered method). Outcomes The primary efficacy variable was the mean difference in pain scores from the baseline. Results One hundred seventy-two dental patients were randomized. The self-administered method produced significant relief from pain associated with dental diseases (P ≤ 0.001). The analgesic effect of the self-administered method was similar to that of the hand pressure method. Conclusions The self-administered method is easy to learn and can be applied at any time for pain relief. We believe that patients will benefit from this method. PMID:24400593

  19. Physical resist models and their calibration: their readiness for accurate EUV lithography simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klostermann, U. K.; Mülders, T.; Schmöller, T.; Lorusso, G. F.; Hendrickx, E.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss the performance of EUV resist models in terms of predictive accuracy, and we assess the readiness of the corresponding model calibration methodology. The study is done on an extensive OPC data set collected at IMEC for the ShinEtsu resist SEVR-59 on the ASML EUV Alpha Demo Tool (ADT), with the data set including more than thousand CD values. We address practical aspects such as the speed of calibration and selection of calibration patterns. The model is calibrated on 12 process window data series varying in pattern width (32, 36, 40 nm), orientation (H, V) and pitch (dense, isolated). The minimum measured feature size at nominal process condition is a 32 nm CD at a dense pitch of 64 nm. Mask metrology is applied to verify and eventually correct nominal width of the drawn CD. Cross-sectional SEM information is included in the calibration to tune the simulated resist loss and sidewall angle. The achieved calibration RMS is ~ 1.0 nm. We show what elements are important to obtain a well calibrated model. We discuss the impact of 3D mask effects on the Bossung tilt. We demonstrate that a correct representation of the flare level during the calibration is important to achieve a high predictability at various flare conditions. Although the model calibration is performed on a limited subset of the measurement data (one dimensional structures only), its accuracy is validated based on a large number of OPC patterns (at nominal dose and focus conditions) not included in the calibration; validation RMS results as small as 1 nm can be reached. Furthermore, we study the model's extendibility to two-dimensional end of line (EOL) structures. Finally, we correlate the experimentally observed fingerprint of the CD uniformity to a model, where EUV tool specific signatures are taken into account.

  20. Electrostatic Interaction of Long DNA Molecules with Solid State Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bingquan; Samuilov, Vladimir; Sokolov, Jonathan; Rafailovich, Miriam; Chu, Ben

    2004-03-01

    At low buffer concentration the electric charge of DNA molecules creates a strong electrostatic interaction and, as a result, a number of phenomena, such as the electro-hydrodynamic instability, partial adsorption at the buffer-semiconductor interface and stretching of DNA with the electric field. Long DNA molecules at the silicon substrate?buffer solution interface are very interesting objects for the electrical transport [1,2] and the mechanical properties, like entropic elasticity, studies. The system (DNA-substrate-electric field in the buffer solution) is very complicated. Due to the strong electrostatic interaction of DNA with the substrate, the image charge is generated, and the physical adsorption takes place. We have studied the S. Pombe genomic DNA of the order of 5 Mbp. Within a surface DNA is entropically partially recoiled due to electrostatic adsorption at a few points. While varying the direction of the low electric field the direction of the electroosmotic flow is changing and stretching the parts of DNA between the adsorption points. If the electric field is high enough, DNA is de-trapped and forms a compact coil. This behavior could be considered as an inverse mechanism of entropy trapping due to confined constrictions. In the case of the surface, DNA is recoiled and trapped in the stretched configuration in the deep energetic barrier by Si surface due to the strong electrostatic interaction. If the energy of the field is enough to overcome the barrier, DNA is detached. The Si surface could be considered as an analog of the entropic recoiling nanostructure. [1]. N. Pernodet, V. Samuilov, K. Shin, J. Sokolov, M.H. Rafailovich, D. Gersappe, B. Chu. DNA Electrophoresis on a Flat Surface, Physical Review Letters, 85 (2000) 5651-5654. [2] Y.-S. Seo, V.A. Samuilov, J. Sokolov, M. Rafailovich, B. Tinland, J. Kim, B. Chu. DNA separation at a liquid-solid interface, Electrophoresis, 23 (2002) 2618-2625.

  1. Cortical Thinning and Altered Cortico-Cortical Structural Covariance of the Default Mode Network in Patients with Persistent Insomnia Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hosung; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Joo, Eunyeon; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Recent studies have suggested that structural abnormalities in insomnia may be linked with alterations in the default-mode network (DMN). This study compared cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia (PI) and good sleepers (GS). Methods: The current study used a clinical subsample from the longitudinal community-based Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia symptoms (PIS; n = 57) were compared to good sleepers (GS; n = 40). All participants underwent MRI acquisition. Based on literature review, we selected cortical regions corresponding to the DMN. A seed-based structural covariance analysis measured cortical thickness correlation between each seed region of the DMN and other cortical areas. Association of cortical thickness and covariance with sleep quality and neuropsychological assessments were further assessed. Results: Compared to GS, cortical thinning was found in PIS in the anterior cingulate cortex, precentral cortex, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased structural connectivity between anterior and posterior regions of the DMN was observed in the PIS group. Decreased structural covariance within the DMN was associated with higher PSQI scores. Cortical thinning in the lateral frontal lobe was related to poor performance in executive function in PIS. Conclusion: Disrupted structural covariance network in PIS might reflect malfunctioning of antero-posterior disconnection of the DMN during the wake to sleep transition that is commonly found during normal sleep. The observed structural network alteration may further implicate commonly observed sustained sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment in insomnia. Citation: Suh S, Kim H, Dang-Vu TT, Joo E, Shin C. Cortical thinning and altered cortico-cortical structural covariance of the default mode network in patients with

  2. Near infrared fluorescence-guided real-time endoscopic detection of peritoneal ovarian cancer nodules using intravenously injected indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Kosaka, Nobuyuki; Mitsunaga, Makoto; Longmire, Michelle R; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2011-10-01

    Near infrared fluorescence-guidance can be used for the detection of small cancer metastases and can aid in the endoscopic management of cancer. Indocyanine green (ICG) is a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved fluorescence agent. Through non-specific interactions with serum proteins, ICG achieves enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effects. Yet, ICG demonstrates rapid clearance from the circulation. Therefore, ICG may be an ideal contrast agent for real-time fluorescence imaging of tumors. To evaluate the usefulness of real-time dual fluorescence and white light endoscopic optical imaging to detect tumor implants using the contrast agent ICG, fluorescence-guided laparoscopic procedures were performed in mouse models of peritoneally disseminated ovarian cancers. Animals were administered intravenous ICG or a control contrast agent, IR800-conjugated to albumin. The ability to detect small ovarian cancer implants was then compared. Using the dual view microendoscope, ICG clearly enabled visualization of peritoneal ovarian cancer metastatic nodules derived from SHIN3 and OVCAR5 cells at 6 and 24 hr after injection with significantly higher tumor-to-background ratio than the control agent, IR800-albumin (p < 0.001). In conclusion, ICG has the desirable properties of having both EPR effects and rapid clearance for the real-time endoscopic detection of tiny ovarian cancer peritoneal implants compared to a control macromolecular agent with theoretically better EPR effects but longer circulatory retention. Given that ICG is already FDA-approved and has a long track record of human use, this method could be easily translated to the clinic as a robust tool for fluorescence-guided endoscopic procedures for the management and treatment of cancer.

  3. Endosymbiotic Mycobacterium chelonae in a Vermamoeba vermiformis strain isolated from the nasal mucosa of an HIV patient in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Vílchez, Alfonso Martín; Mena, Rosmery; Zuñiga, Johanna; Cermeño, Pablo; Martín-Navarro, Carmen Ma; González, Ana C; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Reyes-Batlle, María; Piñero, José E; Valladares, Basilio; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob

    2014-11-01

    In March 2010, a 35 year-old HIV/AIDS female patient was admitted to hospital to start treatment with Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) since during a routine control a dramatic decrease in the CD4(+) levels was detected. At this stage, a nasal swab from each nostril was collected from the patient to include it in the samples for the case study mentioned above. Moreover, it is important to mention that the patient was diagnosed in 2009 with invasive pneumococcal disease, acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis and pulmonary tuberculosis. The collected nasal swabs from both nostrils were positive for Vermamoeba vermiformis species which was identified using morphological and PCR/DNA sequencing approaches. Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) homology and phylogenetic analysis confirmed the amoebic strain to belong to V.vermiformis species. Molecular identification of the Mycobacterium strain was carried out using a bacterial universal primer pair for the 16S rDNA gene at the genus level and the rpoB gene was amplified and sequenced as previously described to identify the Mycobacterium species (Shin et al., 2008; Sheen et al., 2013). Homology and phylogenetic analyses of the rpoB gene confirmed the species as Mycobacterium chelonae. In parallel, collected swabs were tested by PCR and were positive for the presence of V.vermiformis and M.chelonae. This work describes the identification of an emerging bacterial pathogen,M.chelonae from a Free-Living Amoebae (FLA) strain belonging to the species V.vermiformis that colonized the nasal cavities of an HIV/AIDS patient, previously diagnosed with TB. Awareness within clinicians and public health professionals should be raised, as pathogenic agents such as M.chelonae may be using FLA to propagate and survive in the environment.

  4. The genus Cladosporium

    PubMed Central

    Bensch, K.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    dianellae (Sawada & Katsuki) U. Braun, comb. nov., Zasmidium lythri (Westend.) U. Braun & H.D. Shin, comb. nov., Zasmidium wikstroemiae (Petch) U. Braun, comb. nov. PMID:22815589

  5. Allergic contact dermatitis in children: which factors are relevant? (review of the literature).

    PubMed

    de Waard-van der Spek, Flora B; Andersen, Klaus E; Darsow, Ulf; Mortz, Charlotte G; Orton, David; Worm, Margitta; Muraro, Antonella; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Grimalt, Ramon; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Rudzeviciene, Odilija; Flohr, Carsten; Halken, Susanne; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Borrego, Luis M; Oranje, Arnold P

    2013-06-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) in children is increasing. Sensitization to contact allergens can start in early infancy. The epidermal barrier is crucial for the development of sensitization and elicitation of ACD. Factors that may influence the onset of sensitization in children are atopic dermatitis, skin barrier defects and intense or repetitive contact with allergens. Topical treatment of ACD is associated with cutaneous sensitization, although the prevalence is not high. ACD because of haptens in shoes or shin guards should be considered in cases of persistent foot eruptions or sharply defined dermatitis on the lower legs. Clinical polymorphism of contact dermatitis to clothing may cause difficulties in diagnosing textile dermatitis. Toys are another potentially source of hapten exposure in children, especially from toy-cosmetic products such as perfumes, lipstick and eye shadow. The most frequent contact allergens in children are metals, fragrances, preservatives, neomycin, rubber chemicals and more recently also colourings. It is very important to remember that ACD in young children is not rare, and should always be considered when children with recalcitrant eczema are encountered. Children should be patch-tested with a selection of allergens having the highest proportion of positive, relevant patch test reactions. The allergen exposure pattern differs between age groups and adolescents may also be exposed to occupational allergens. The purpose of this review is to alert the paediatrician and dermatologist of the frequency of ACD in young children and of the importance of performing patch tests in every case of chronic recurrent or therapy-resistant eczema in children. PMID:23373713

  6. [Memoirs on Chlorodyne and Shinyaku].

    PubMed

    Ohashi, K

    1999-01-01

    Dr. J. Collins Browne, a British army surgeon in India, invented a secret remedy for cholera-infected patients in the fifth decade of the 19th century. After his resignation from the army, the formula was given to a pharmacist in London for the purpose of manufacture and marketing as a patented medicine named Chlorodyne. Chlorodyne was well-accepted as paregoric for several decades. The formula of Chlorodyne was adopted in the 3rd Revision of the British Pharmacopoeia (1885) as "Compound Tincture of Chloroform and Morphine." In 1906, the 3rd Revision of Japanese Pharmacopoeia listed "Compound Tincture and Morphine" according to the formula of the 4th Revision of British Pharmacopoeia (1898). References written in 1870 and 1873 recorded the importation of Chlorodyne to Japan. In 1871, Dr. Jyun Matsumoto, Chief Military Surgeon Major General advised the manufacturers of traditional medicines to produce patented medicines to spread in western countries. Preparations of formula seeming to resemble Chlorodyne was named "Shinyaku" and were marketed from 1872. The name Shinyaku represented a medicine of marvellous efficacy, because the word split, Shin and Yaku, means "divine or almighty" and "medicine," respectively. Although the orginal formula of Shinyaku was not preserved, modifications of the formula were made to meet legal restrictions over the change of time. Needless to say, Morphine hydrochloride, Diluted hydrocyanic acid and tincture of Indian hemp were replaced with other ingredients to assure safety and lately Chloroform deleted from the formula as well. Shinyaku enjoyed good sales for a long time owing to its efficacy of restorative and refrigerant. PMID:11624349

  7. Evolution of low flows in Czechia revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvinka, O.

    2015-06-01

    Although a nationwide study focusing on the evolution of low flows in Czechia was conducted in the past, a need for the revision of the results has arisen. By means of the trend analysis, which specifically considers the presence of significant serial correlation at the first lag, the former study highlighted areas where 7-day low flows increase or decrease. However, taking into account only the lag-one autoregressive process might still have led to the detection of so-called pseudo-trends because, besides short-term persistence, also long-term persistence may adversely influence the variance of the test statistic when the independence among data is required. Therefore, one should carefully investigate the presence of persistence in time series. Before the trend analysis itself, the authors' previous studies aimed at the discrimination between short memory processes and long memory processes employing jointly the Phillips-Perron test and the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Shin test. This analysis was accompanied by the Hurst exponent estimation. Here, the subsequent identification of trends is carried out using three modifications of the Mann-Kendall test that allow different kinds of persistence. These include the Bayley-Hammersley-Matalas-Langbein-Lettenmaier equivalent sample size approach, the trend-free pre-whitening approach and a block bootstrap with automatic selection of the block length, which was applied for the first time in hydrology. The general results are similar to those presented in the former study on trends. Nevertheless, the divergent minimum discharges evolution in the western part of Czechia is now much clear. Moreover, no significant increasing trend in series incorporating Julian days was found.

  8. Cutaneous hyalohyphomycosis due to Parengyodontium album gen. et comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Jasper F W; Pong, Wai-Mei; Chen, Jonathan H K; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Cheung, Mei; Lai, Christopher K C; Tsang, Dominic N C; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2016-10-01

    "Engyodontium album" is an environmental saprobic mould and an emerging opportunistic pathogen able to cause both superficial and systemic infections. In this study, we isolated a mould from the skin lesion biopsy specimen of the right shin in a patient who received renal transplantation for end-stage renal failure with prednisolone, tacrolimus, and azathioprine immunosuppressant therapy. Histology of the skin biopsy showed mild squamous hyperplasia and neutrophilic infiltrate in the epidermis, active chronic inflammation in the dermis, and fat necrosis in the subcutis, with numerous fungal elements within the serum crusts. On Sabouraud glucose agar, the fungus grew as white, cobweb-like, floccose colonies. Microscopically, conidiogenous cells were arranged in whorls of one to seven at wide angles, with zigzag-shaped terminal fertile regions and smooth, hyaline, oval, apiculate conidia. DNA sequencing showed the mould isolate belonged to "E. album" but matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) failed to identify the isolate. Phylogenetic analyses based on the internal transcribed spacer region, 28S nuclear ribosomal DNA, and β-tubulin gene and MALDI-TOF MS coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis showed that "E. album" is distantly related to other Engyodontium species and should be transferred to a novel genus within the family Cordycipitaceae, for which the name Parengyodontium album gen. et comb. nov. is proposed. Three potential cryptic species within this species complex were also revealed. Antifungal susceptibility testing showed posaconazole and voriconazole had high activities against all clinical P. album isolates and may be better drug options for treating P. album infections.

  9. List of participants at SIDE IV meeting, Tokyo, 27 November--1 December 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    Mark J Ablowitz, Vsevolod Adler, Mark Alber, Said Belmehdi, Marco Boiti, Claude Brezinski, R Bullough, Y M Chiang, Theodore Chihara, Peter A Clarkson, Robert Conte, Adam Doliwa, Vladimir Dorodnitsyn, Mitsuaki Eguchi, Claire Gilson, Basil Grammaticos, Valeri Gromak, Rod Halburd, Koji Hasegawa, Jarmo Hietarinta, Ryogo Hirota, Xing Biao Hu, M Idzumi, J Inoguchi, Hiroya Ishikara, Mourad Ismail, Shin Isojima, Kenichi Ito, Yoshiaki Itoh, Masashi Iwasaki, Klara Janglajew, Michio Jimbo, Nalini Joshi, Kenji Kajiwara, Saburo Kakei, Masaru Kamata, Satoshi Kamei, Rinat Kashaev, Shingo Kawai, Taeko Kimijima, K Kimura, Anatol Kirillov, Koichi Kondo, Boris Konopelchenko, Martin Kruskal, Atsuo Kuniba, Wataru Kunishima, Franklin Lambert, Serguei Leble, Decio Levi, Shigeru Maeda, Manuel Manas, Ken-Ichi Maruno, Tetsu Masuda, J Matsukidaira, Atsushi Matsumiya, Shigeki Matsutani, Yukitaka Minesaki, Mikio Murata, Micheline Musette, Atsushi Nagai, Katsuya Nakagawa, Atsushi Nakamula, Akira Nakamura, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Frank Nijhoff, J J C Nimmo, Katsuhiro Nishinari, Michitomo Nishizawa, A Nobe, Masatoshi Noumi, Yaeko Ohsaki, Yasuhiro Ohta, Kazuo Okamoto, Alexandre Orlov, Naoki Osada, Flora Pempinelli, Spiro Pyrlis, Reinout Quispel, Orlando Ragnisco, Alfred Ramani, Jean-Pierre Ramis, Andreas Ruffing, Simon Ruijsenaars, Satoru Saito, Noriko Saitoh, Hidetaka Sakai, Paulo Santini, Narimasa Sasa, Ryu Sasaki, Yoshikatsu Sasaki, Junkichi Satsuma, Sergei Sergeev, Nobuhiko Shinzawa, Evgueni Sklyanin, Juris Suris, Norio Suzuki, Yukiko Tagami, Katsuaki Takahashi, Daisuke Takahashi, Tomoyuki Takenawa, Yoshiro Takeyama, K M Tamizhmani, T Tamizhmani, Kouichi Toda, Morikatsu Toda, Tetsuji Tokihiro, Takayuki Tsuchida, Yohei Tsuchiya, Teruhisa Tsuda, Satoru Tsujimoto, Walter Van Assche, Claude Viallet, Luc Vinet, Shinsuke Watanabe, Yoshihida Watanabe, Ralph Willox, Pavel Winternitz, Yasuhiko Yamada, Yuji Yamada, Jin Yoneda, Haruo Yoshida, Katsuhiko Yoshida, Daisuke Yoshihara, Fumitaka Yura, J

  10. SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobue, Shinichi; Shinohara, Iku; Yamamoto, Yukio; Okada, Tatsuaki; Okumura, Hayato

    SELENE (KAGUYA) PDAP experiment Shin-ichi Sobue, Yukio Yamamoto, Hayato Okumura, Tatsuaki Okada and Iku Shinohara SELENE (whose Japanese Nickname is 'KAGUYA' from Japanese old story) is the most sophisticated lunar exploration mission in the post-Apollo Era. SELENE consists of the main orbiter and two small satellites - the Relay satellite 'OKINA' and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA'. The main orbiter will observe the distribution of the elements and minerals on the surface, the surface and sub-surface structure, the gravity field, the remnant of the magnetic field and the environment of energetic particles and plasma of the Moon. The Relay satellite 'OKINA' will relay the Doppler ranging signal between the Main Orbiter and the ground station for the world's first direct measurement of he gravity field in the farside of the Moon. The differential VLBI Radio-Sources on board the Relay satellite "OKINA" and the VRAD satellite 'OUNA' are used to determine the gravity field of the Moon most precisely. SELENE data will be used for studying 'lunar origin and evolution' and "exploration" of the Moon and will be archived and distributed in PDS-like format with the descriptions of data format and technical information. This PDS-like format is slightly different from catalog for search and order in catalog DB (some keyword (attribute) and value definition are different). Thus, to establish the catalog interoperability function with PDS/NASA and PSA/ESA by using PDAP, it is necessary to develop PDS label (keyword and value) mapping software to translate SELENE PDS like label extracted from SELENE product to PDS compatible PDS-label and archive such the label information to our prototype catalog database We also implemented the retrieving prototype system to access that prototype catalog database. Those systems were finished to implement by the end of this March. This paper describes the result of this prototype development and evaluation report. In addition, this paper shows some

  11. Fluorescence-lifetime molecular imaging can detect invisible peritoneal ovarian tumors in bloody ascites

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Takahito; Sano, Kohei; Sato, Kazuhide; Watanabe, Rira; Harada, Toshiko; Hanaoka, Hirofumi; Choyke, Peter L; Kobayashi, Hisataka

    2014-01-01

    Blood contamination, such as bloody ascites or hemorrhages during surgery, is a potential hazard for clinical application of fluorescence imaging. In order to overcome this problem, we investigate if fluorescence-lifetime imaging helps to overcome this problem. Samples were prepared at concentrations ranging 0.3–2.4 μm and mixed with 0–10% of blood. Fluorescence intensities and lifetimes of samples were measured using a time-domain fluorescence imager. Ovarian cancer SHIN3 cells overexpressing the D-galactose receptor were injected into the peritoneal cavity 2.5 weeks before the experiments. Galactosyl serum albumin-rhodamine green (GSA-RhodG), which bound to the D-galactose receptor and was internalized thereafter, was administered intraperitoneally to peritoneal ovarian cancer-bearing mice with various degrees of bloody ascites. In vitro study showed a linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and probe concentration (r2 > 0.99), whereas the fluorescence lifetime was consistent (range, 3.33 ± 0.15–3.75 ± 0.04 ns). By adding 10% of blood to samples, fluorescence intensities decreased to <1%, while fluorescence lifetimes were consistent. In vivo fluorescence lifetime of GSA-RhodG stained tumors was longer than the autofluorescence lifetime (threshold, 2.87 ns). Tumor lesions under hemorrhagic peritonitis were not depicted using fluorescence intensity imaging; however, fluorescence-lifetime imaging clearly detected tumor lesions by prolonged lifetimes. In conclusion, fluorescence-lifetime imaging with GSA-RhodG depicted ovarian cancer lesions, which were invisible in intensity images, in hemorrhagic ascites. PMID:24479901

  12. Effects of acetyl-DL-leucine in patients with cerebellar ataxia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Strupp, Michael; Teufel, Julian; Habs, Maximilian; Feuerecker, Regina; Muth, Carolin; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Klopstock, Thomas; Feil, Katharina

    2013-10-01

    No existing medication has yet been shown to convincingly improve cerebellar ataxia. Therefore, the identification of new drugs for its symptomatic treatment is desirable. The objective of this case series was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of cerebellar ataxia with the amino acid acetyl-DL-leucine (Tanganil). Thirteen patients (eight males, median age 51 years) with degenerative cerebellar ataxia of different etiologies (SCA1/2, ADCA, AOA, SAOA) were treated with acetyl-DL-leucine (5 g/day) without titration for 1 week. Motor function was evaluated by changes in the Scale for the Rating and Assessment of Ataxia (SARA) and in the Spinocerebellar Ataxia Functional Index (SCAFI) during treatment compared to a baseline examination. Quality of life (EuroQol-5D-3L) and side effects were also assessed. Mean total SARA decreased remarkably (p = 0.002) from a baseline of 16.1 ± 7.1 to 12.8 ± 6.8 (mean ± SD) on medication. There were also significant improvements in sub-scores for gait (p = 0.022), speech (p = 0.007), finger-chase (p = 0.042), nose-finger-test (p = 0.035), rapid-alternating-movements (p = 0.002) and heel-to-shin (p = 0.018). Furthermore, patients showed better performance in the SCAFI consisting of the 8-m-walking-time (8 MW, p = 0.003), 9-Hole-Peg-Test of the dominant hand (9HPTD, p = 0.011) and the PATA rate (p = 0.005). Quality of life increased during treatment (p = 0.003). No side effects were reported. In conclusion, acetyl-DL-leucine significantly improved ataxic symptoms without side effects and therefore showed a good risk-benefit profile. These findings need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled trials.

  13. Teleseismic waveform analysis of deep-focus earthquake for the preliminary estimation of crustal structure of the northern part of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, H.; Shin, J.

    2010-12-01

    Crustal structures in the several areas of the northern part of Korea are estimated using the long-period teleseismic depth phase pP and the Moho underside-reflected phase pMP generated by deep-focus earthquakes. The analysis of waveform is performed through comparison of recordings and synthetics of these phases computed using a hybrid reflectivity method, WKBJ approximation for propagation in the vertically inhomogeneous mantle and the computation of Haskell propagator matrix in the layered crust and upper mantle. The pMP phase is a precursor to the surface reflection pP phase and its amplitude is relatively small. The analysis of vertical component of P, pP, and pMP provides the estimation of structure of the source side. The deep-focus earthquakes occurred at the border area of North Korea, China, and Russia are adequate for this study. The seismograms recorded at the GSN stations in Southeast Asia provide clear identification of pMP and pP phases. The preliminary analysis employs deep-focus (580 km) earthquake of magnitude 6.3 Mb of which epicenter is located at the border region between east Russia and northeast China. Seismograms after 0.01 - 0.2 Hz bandpass filtering clearly exhibit pMP and pP phases recorded on four GSN stations (BTDF, PSI, COCO, and DGAR). Shin and Baag (2000) suggested approximate crustal thickness of the region between northern Korea and northeastern China. The crustal thickness appears to be varied from 25 to 35 km that is compatible with the preliminary analysis.

  14. Super-resolution restoration applied to the characterisation of dynamic surface changes on the Martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2016-10-01

    Higher spatial resolution imaging data is always desirable to the international community of planetary scientists interested in improving understanding of surface formation processes. We have previously developed a novel Super-resolution restoration (SRR) technique using Gotcha sub-pixel matching [Shin & Muller, PR, 2012], orthorectification, segmentation, and 4th order PDE-TV, called GPT SRR [Tao & Muller, PSS, 2016]. This technique is able to restore 5cm-12.5cm near rover scale images (Navcam at a range of ≥5m) from multi-angle repeat-pass 25cm resolution MRO HiRISE images [Tao & Muller, ISPRS, 2016].We have successfully applied the GPT-SRR to the MER and MSL missions (http://www.progisweb.eu), as well as the alleged site of the Beagle-2 spacecraft (https://www.flickr.com/photos/uclnews/albums/72157667609698345). In this work, we further apply GPT-SRR on areas with known dynamic changes, including Recurring Slope Lineae (RSL), Gullies, and Polar Dune Flows. We restore static surface and meanwhile track the dynamic features to characterise the "change", including directions and speed of the changes. We also demonstrate that such repeat images can be used to image the MER-A rover stuck in the sands.AcknowledgementsThe research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under iMars grant agreement no. 607379 as well as partial funding from the STFC "MSSL Consolidated Grant" ST/K000977/1.

  15. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely. PMID:26492351

  16. 1994 Northern Goshawk inventory on portions of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM

    SciTech Connect

    Sinton, D.T.; Kennedy, P.L.

    1995-01-01

    Northern goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) (hereafter referred to as goshawk) are large forest dwelling hawks. They are the largest species of the Accipiter genus which also includes sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and the Cooper`s hawk (A. cooperii). Goshawks are holarctic in distribution and nest in coniferous, deciduous, and mixed species forests. In the southwest they primarily nest in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa), mixed species, and spruce-fir forests. Goshawks may be declining in population and reproduction in the southwestern United States. In 1982 the USDA-Forest Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}sensitive species{close_quotes} and in 1992 the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service listed the goshawk as a {open_quotes}Category 2 species{close_quotes} in accordance with the Endangered Species Act. Reasons for the possible decline in goshawk populations include timber harvesting resulting in the loss of nesting habitat, toxic chemicals, and the effects of drought, fire, and disease. Thus, there is a need to determine their population status and assess impacts of management activities in potential goshawk habitat. Goshawk inventory was conducted during the 1993 nesting season with no adult goshawk responses detected within the LANL survey area. As noted by Sinton and Kennedy, these results may be interpreted in several ways: (1) no goshawk territory(ies) occur in the inventoried area; (2) goshawk territory(ies) exist but have failed prior to the survey and thus were not detected; or (3) territory(ies) exist and were successful but the goshawks did not respond to tapes or their responses were undetected by the observer. For those reasons, a goshawk inventory was conducted in 1994. This report summarizes the results of this inventory.

  17. Preface: International Reference Ionosphere - Progress in Ionospheric Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilitza Dieter; Reinisch, Bodo

    2010-01-01

    The international reference ionosphere (lRI) is the internationally recommended empirical model for the specification of ionospheric parameters supported by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) and the International Union of Radio Science (URSI) and recognized by the International Standardization Organization (ISO). IRI is being continually improved by a team of international experts as new data become available and better models are being developed. This issue chronicles the latest phase of model updates as reported during two IRI-related meetings. The first was a special session during the Scientific Assembly of the Committee of Space Research (COSPAR) in Montreal, Canada in July 2008 and the second was an IRI Task Force Activity at the US Air Force Academy in Colorado Springs in May 2009. This work led to several improvements and additions of the model which will be included in the next version, IRI-201O. The issue is divided into three sections focusing on the improvements made in the topside ionosphere, the F-peak, and the lower ionosphere, respectively. This issue would not have been possible without the reviewing efforts of many individuals. Each paper was reviewed by two referees. We thankfully acknowledge the contribution to this issue made by the following reviewers: Jacob Adeniyi, David Altadill, Eduardo Araujo, Feza Arikan, Dieter Bilitza, Jilijana Cander, Bela Fejer, Tamara Gulyaeva, Manuel Hermindez-Pajares, Ivan Kutiev, John MacDougal, Leo McNamara, Bruno Nava, Olivier Obrou, Elijah Oyeyemi, Vadym Paznukhov, Bodo Reinisch, John Retterer, Phil Richards, Gary Sales, J.H. Sastri, Ludger Scherliess, Iwona Stanislavska, Stamir Stankov, Shin-Yi Su, Manlian Zhang, Y ongliang Zhang, and Irina Zakharenkova. We are grateful to Peggy Ann Shea for her final review and guidance as the editor-in-chief for special issues of Advances in Space Research. We thank the authors for their timely submission and their quick response to the reviewer comments and humbly

  18. Effect of high-speed treadmill training with a body weight support system in a sport acceleration program with female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A Wayne; Eastman, Carie S; Feland, Jeffery Brent; Mitchell, Ulrike H; Mortensen, Bartley Brett; Eggett, Dennis

    2013-06-01

    Maximum running speed and acceleration are essential components in many sports. The identification of specific training protocols to maximize sprint speed would be useful knowledge for coaches and players. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a high-speed treadmill (HST) with the use of a body weight support (BWS) system in a 6-week sport acceleration program (SAP) on female soccer athlete's 40-yard sprint time and maximal isometric knee flexor and extensor strength. Two treatment groups and one control group were created. Both treatment groups participated in a 12-session SAP. The first treatment group (n = 12) used a BWS system while running on a HST; the second group (n = 12) used a standard treadmill (ST) with no BWS system. The participants of the control group (n = 8), NT, did not participate in a sports acceleration program and did not alter their exercise routines outside of the study. An analysis of covariance was performed using baseline measures as the covariate. The 40-yard sprint times for both treatment groups were shown to improve significantly compared with the control group (p < 0.001). Isometric knee flexor strength showed a greater increase in the ST group (p = 0.026) than in the other 2 groups, whereas knee extensor strengths did not show significant differences between treatment groups and control group (p > 0.05). Participants in the ST group had a much higher rate (66%) of shin splints and foot pain throughout the study than those in the HST (8%) and NT (0%) groups. These results can help high school coaches and athletes determine the optimal treadmill training regime.

  19. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure.

  20. Arsenic methylation capacity and developmental delay in preschool children in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ru-Lan; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Huang, Shiau-Rung; Lin, Ming-I; Mu, Shu-Chi; Chung, Chi-Jung; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-07-01

    Environmental exposure to lead or mercury can cause neurodevelopmental damage. Arsenic is another neurotoxicant that can affect intellectual function in children. This study was designed to explore the difference of arsenic methylation capacity indices between with and without developmental delay in preschool children. We also aimed to identify whether blood levels of lead or mercury modify the effect of arsenic methylation capacity indices. A cross sectional study was conducted from August 2010 to March 2012. All participants recruited from the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Teaching Hospital. In all, 63 children with developmental delay and 35 children without developmental delay were recruited. Urinary arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V)) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V)) were measured with a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. Lead and mercury levels of red blood cells were measured by inductively coupled mass spectrometry. All participants underwent developmental assessments to confirm developmental delays, including evaluations of gross motor, fine motor, speech-language, cognition, social, and emotional domains. Urinary total arsenic and MMA(V) percentage were significantly positively associated and DMA(V) percentage was negatively associated with the risk of developmental delay in a dose-dependent manner after adjustment for blood lead or mercury levels and other risk factors. A multivariate regression analysis indicated that blood lead level and arsenic methylation capacity each independently contributed to the risk of developmental delay. This is the first study to show that arsenic methylation capacity is associated with developmental delay, even without obvious environmental arsenic exposure. PMID:24698386

  1. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  2. Resistance of Capnocytophaga canimorsus to Killing by Human Complement and Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hwain; Mally, Manuela; Meyer, Salome; Fiechter, Chantal; Paroz, Cécile; Zaehringer, Ulrich; Cornelis, Guy R.

    2009-01-01

    Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterium of the canine oral flora known since 1976 to cause rare but severe septicemia and peripheral gangrene in patients that have been in contact with a dog. It was recently shown that these bacteria do not elicit an inflammatory response (H. Shin, M. Mally, M. Kuhn, C. Paroz, and G. R. Cornelis, J. Infect. Dis. 195:375-386, 2007). Here, we analyze their sensitivity to the innate immune system. Bacteria from the archetype strain Cc5 were highly resistant to killing by complement. There was little membrane attack complex (MAC) deposition in spite of C3b deposition. Cc5 bacteria were as resistant to phagocytosis by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) as Yersinia enterocolitica MRS40, endowed with an antiphagocytic type III secretion system. We isolated Y1C12, a transposon mutant that is hypersensitive to killing by complement via the antibody-dependent classical pathway. The mutation inactivated a putative glycosyltransferase gene, suggesting that the Y1C12 mutant was affected at the level of a capsular polysaccharide or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure. Cc5 appeared to have several polysaccharidic structures, one being altered in Y1C12. The structure missing in Y1C12 could be purified by classical LPS purification procedures and labeled by tritiated palmitate, indicating that it is more likely to be an LPS structure than a capsule. Y1C12 bacteria were also more sensitive to phagocytosis by PMNs than wild-type bacteria. In conclusion, a polysaccharide structure, likely an LPS, protects C. canimorsus from deposition of the complement MAC and from efficient phagocytosis by PMNs. PMID:19307219

  3. Pursuing shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) for concomitant detection of breast lesions and microcalcifications.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chao; Shao, Wanting; Paidi, Santosh Kumar; Han, Bing; Fu, Tong; Wu, Di; Bi, Lirong; Xu, Weiqing; Fan, Zhimin; Barman, Ishan

    2015-10-28

    Although tissue staining followed by morphologic identification remains the gold standard for diagnosis of most cancers, such determinations relying solely on morphology are often hampered by inter- and intra-observer variability. Vibrational spectroscopic techniques, in contrast, offer objective markers for diagnoses and can afford disease detection prior to alterations in cellular and extracellular architecture by furnishing a rapid "omics"-like view of the biochemical status of the probed specimen. Here, we report a classification approach to concomitantly detect microcalcification status and local pathological state in breast tissue, featuring a combination of vibrational spectroscopy that focuses on the tumor and its microenvironment, and multivariate data analysis of spectral markers reflecting molecular expression. We employ the unprecedented sensitivity and exquisite molecular specificity offered by Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) to probe the presence of calcified deposits and distinguish between normal breast tissues, fibroadenoma, atypical ductal hyperplasia, ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). By correlating the spectra with the corresponding histologic assessment, we developed partial least squares-discriminant analysis derived decision algorithm that provides excellent diagnostic power in the fresh frozen sections (overall accuracy of 99.4% and 93.6% using SHINs for breast lesions with and without microcalcifications, respectively). The performance of this decision algorithm is competitive with or supersedes that of analogous algorithms employing spontaneous Raman spectroscopy while enabling facile detection due to the considerably higher intensity of SHINERS. Our results pave the way for rapid tissue spectral pathology measurements using SHINERS that can offer a novel stain-free route to accurate and economical diagnoses without human interpretation. PMID:26415633

  4. An RSA-Based Leakage-Resilient Authenticated Key Exchange Protocol Secure against Replacement Attacks, and Its Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Seonghan; Kobara, Kazukuni; Imai, Hideki

    Secure channels can be realized by an authenticated key exchange (AKE) protocol that generates authenticated session keys between the involving parties. In [32], Shin et al., proposed a new kind of AKE (RSA-AKE) protocol whose goal is to provide high efficiency and security against leakage of stored secrets as much as possible. Let us consider more powerful attacks where an adversary completely controls the communications and the stored secrets (the latter is denoted by “replacement” attacks). In this paper, we first show that the RSA-AKE protocol [32] is no longer secure against such an adversary. The main contributions of this paper are as follows: (1) we propose an RSA-based leakage-resilient AKE (RSA-AKE2) protocol that is secure against active attacks as well as replacement attacks; (2) we prove that the RSA-AKE2 protocol is secure against replacement attacks based on the number theory results; (3) we show that it is provably secure in the random oracle model, by showing the reduction to the RSA one-wayness, under an extended model that covers active attacks and replacement attacks; (4) in terms of efficiency, the RSA-AKE2 protocol is comparable to [32] in the sense that the client needs to compute only one modular multiplication with pre-computation; and (5) we also discuss about extensions of the RSA-AKE2 protocol for several security properties (i.e., synchronization of stored secrets, privacy of client and solution to server compromise-impersonation attacks).

  5. Probabilistic Exposure Assessment for Applicators during Treatment of the Fungicide Kresoxim-methyl on an Apple Orchard by a Speed Sprayer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhye; Moon, Joon-Kwan; Choi, Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic exposure and risk assessment of kresoxim-methyl were conducted for agricultural applicators during preparation of spray suspension and application with a speed sprayer on an apple orchard. The preparation and application of 1000 L of spray suspension were repeated 30 times. Several exposure matrices, including patches, cotton gloves, socks, masks, and XAD-2 resin, were used to measure the potential exposure for workers. The analytical methods were fully validated to guarantee the precision and accuracy of analysis. The exposure amount on hands for mixer/loader was 0.7 mg [95% confidence interval (CI) from 0.02 to 2.4], taking 0.0005% (95% CI from 1.2 × 10(-5) to 0.001) of total prepared active ingredient. During application of kresoxim-methyl, the amount of dermal exposure was 17.5 mg (95% CI from 9.3 to 28.9), corresponding to 0.010% (95% CI from 0.006 to 0.017) of total applied active ingredient. The major exposure parts of the body were thighs and shins, with correlation coefficients of 0.53 and 0.43, respectively. The inhalation exposure during application were estimated as 6.8 ng (95% CI from 0.4 to 17.0), being 0.04% (95% CI from 0.004 to 0.06) of the dermal exposure. The calculated absorbable quantities of exposures for mixer/loader and applicator were 2.1 × 10(-4) mg/day (95% CI from 5.0 × 10(-6) to 7.2 × 10(-4)) and 2.3 mg/day (95% CI from 1.2 to 3.8), respectively. For risk assessment, the margin of safety of all working activities was much higher than 1, indicating that the possibility of risk to kresoxim-methyl was unlikely.

  6. Waveform Inversion of Synthetic Ocean Models in the Laplace Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosado, H.; Blacic, T. M.; Jun, H.; Shin, C.

    2014-12-01

    In seismic oceanography, the processed images show where small temperature changes (as little as 0.03°C) occur, although they do not give absolute temperatures. To get a 2-D temperature map, the data must be inverted for sound speed, which is then converted to temperature using equations of state. Full waveform inversion requires a starting model that is iteratively updated until the residuals converge. Global search algorithms such as Genetic Algorithm do not require a starting model close to the true model, but are computationally exhausting. Local search inversion is less expensive, but requires a reasonably accurate starting model. Unfortunately, most marine seismic data has little associated hydrographic data and so it is difficult to create starting models close enough to the true model for convergence throughout the target area. In addition, the band-limited nature of seismic data makes it inherently challenging to extract the long wavelength sound speed trend directly from seismic data. Laplace domain inversion (LDI) developed by Changsoo Shin and colleagues requires only a rudimentary starting model to produce smooth background sound speed models without requiring prior information about the medium. It works by transforming input data to the Laplace domain, and then examining the zero frequency component of the damped wavefield to extract a smooth sound speed model - basically, removing higher frequency fluctuations to expose background trends. This ability to use frequencies below those effectively propagated by the seismic source is what enables LDI to produce the smooth background trend from the data. We applied LDI to five synthetic data sets based on simplified models of oceanographic features. Using LDI, we were able to recover smoothed versions of our synthetic models, showing the viability of the method for creating sound speed profiles suitable for use as starting models for other methods of inversion that output more detailed models.

  7. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  8. Hypertrophic lichen planus versus prurigo nodularis: a dermoscopic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S.; Beergouder, Savitha L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypertrophic lichen planus (HLP) classically involves shin and ankles and is characterized by hyperkeratotic plaques and nodules. Prurigo nodularis (PN) is a chronic neurodermatitis that presents with intensely pruritic nodules. Histopathology of HLP and PN demonstrate epidermal hyperplasia, hypergranulosis, and compact hyperkeratosis. The dermis shows vertically arranged collagen fibers and an increased number of fibroblasts and capillaries in both conditions. Moreover, basal cell degeneration is confined to the tips of rete ridges, and band-like infiltration is conspicuously absent in HLP. Therefore, both conditions mimic each other clinically, which makes diagnosis difficult. Hence, there is a need for a diagnostic technique to differentiate both conditions. Objective: To evaluate dermoscopic patterns in HLP and PN and to study these patterns histopathologically. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at S. Nijalingappa Medical College in Bagalkot. It was an observational case series study. Ethical clearance and informed consent was obtained. A Dermlite 3 dermoscope (3Gen, San Juan Capistrano, CA, USA) attached to a Sony Cyber Shot camera DSC-W800 (Sony Electronics Inc., San Diego, California, USA) was employed. Histopathology was done to confirm the diagnosis. Results: There were 10 patients each with HLP and PN. HLP was seen in 8 males and 2 females. PN was observed in 7 females and 3 males. Dermoscopy of HLP demonstrated pearly white areas and peripheral striations (100%), gray-blue globules (60%), comedo-like openings (30%), red dots (40%), red globules (10%), brownish-black globules (30%), and yellowish structures (90%). In PN, red dots (70%), red globules (60%), and pearly white areas with peripheral striations (100%) were observed under dermoscopy. Conclusion: Both HLP and PN demonstrated specific dermoscopic patterns which can be demonstrated on histopathologic findings. The authors propose that these patterns are hallmarks of each

  9. Observations and numerical simulations of downslope flow separation at a valley inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Lukas; Serafin, Stefano; Grubišić, Vanda

    2016-04-01

    Severe turbulence downwind of a mountain ridge is often associated with large-amplitude gravity waves that are excited as the air flows over the ridge. Mountain waves can exert an adverse pressure-gradient force on the boundary layer and make it detach from the ground, leading to the formation of atmospheric rotors. However, in a more complex topographic setting, with a second mountain ridge downstream of the first and a valley in between, thermally and dynamically forced processes in the valley (e.g., cold pools or along-valley flow channelling) may be equally important for flow separation. Observations supporting this idea were made during the Terrain-induced Rotor Experiment in Owens Valley (California, USA) in the nighttime hours of 16 April 2006. In that case, an inversion was present in the valley and resultant buoyancy forces appear to have contributed significantly to flow separation well above the valley floor. In an attempt to understand better the thermal and dynamic forces determining this case, numerical simulations with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model are run in a nested-domain configuration. The innermost model domain exhibits a horizontal grid spacing of 400 m and a vertical spacing of ~25 m at the ground and spans the southern portion of the Sierra Nevada. The sensitivity of model results (e.g. the valley inversion strength) to the chosen boundary-layer parameterization (e.g., Bougeault-Lacarrère, Mellor-Yamada-Janjic, or Shin-Hong 'scale-aware' PBL schemes) is studied. In a next step, the evaluation of the terms in the momentum equations along the trajectories of separated air parcels will help elucidate the relative importance of pressure-gradient forces and buoyancy forces for flow separation.

  10. Changes of contour of the spine caused by load carrying.

    PubMed

    Vacheron, J J; Poumarat, G; Chandezon, R; Vanneuville, G

    1999-01-01

    The development of new leisure activities such as walking has spread the use of the backpack as a means of carrying loads. The aim of this work was to present a way of defining the movements imposed on the trunk by this type of load carrying. A 20 kg load situated at the thoracic level (T9) of the trunk, was placed in a backpack (2.5 kg). The 12 subjects were average mountain guides of Auvergne region, intermediate level and complete beginners. External markers were glued to the projecting contours of the spinous processes of the C7, T7, T12, L3 and S1 vertebrae, the shin and the external occipital tuberosity (EOT). Using a Vicon 140 3-D system we measured the effective mobility of the different spinal segments in the sagittal plane during one step. For every subject, we noticed a significant decrease of the effective inter-segmental mobility (EISM) between S1-L3-T12 (p < .01) while backpacking a 22.5 kg load. A decrease of EISM also appeared at the next level between L3-T12-T7 (p < .05). An increase of the EISM between T7-C7-EOT was noted (p < .05). We supposed that strength loss of the back muscles and/or angular oscillations of the trunk could be a common cause of symptoms during backpacking. The subjects using this type of load carrying have to adopt an adequate position of the lumbar, dorsal and cervical vertebrae. PMID:10399210

  11. The humeroscapular bone of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) and other raptors.

    PubMed

    Smith, B J; Smith, S A

    1992-03-01

    A small, separate, bony density dorsal to the shoulder joint is radiographically visible in several species of large hawks and owls. Gross dissection and histological examination show the bone to lie on the deep surface of the major deltoid muscle in intimate association with the dorsal coracohumeral ligament of the shoulder joint. The tendon of the supracoracoideus muscle passes immediately cranial to the humeroscapular bone. Two ligaments distinct from the shoulder joint capsule attach the humeroscapular bone to the proximal humerus: one passes to the proximal edge of the pectoral crest of the humerus, and the other passes to the ventral tubercle of the humerus. The bone was described as the humeroscapular bone in reference to a similar fibrocartilaginous structure possessed by some birds. The humeroscapular bone is present in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), the screech owl (Otus asio), the barred owl (Strix varia), the red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicencis), the Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii), and the sharp-shinned hawk (Accipiter striatus). The bone is absent in the barn owl (Tyto alba), the osprey (Pandion haliaetus), the golden eagle (Aquila chysaetos), and the turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), though some of these species possessed a similar fibrocartilaginous structure. Whether the humeroscapular structure develops as bone or cartilage in a given species may be related to other morphological features of the wing, and/or to characteristics of the predatory behavior of the species. Clinicians and anatomists dealing with birds of prey must be aware of the presence of the humeroscapular bone to avoid misinterpreting it as a fracture fragment. PMID:1585989

  12. Pathology and epidemiology of natural West Nile viral infection of raptors in Georgia.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Angela E; Mead, Daniel G; Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W

    2007-04-01

    Carcasses from 346 raptors found between August 2001 and December 2004 were tested for West Nile virus (WNV) using virus isolation and immunohistochemistry; 40 were positive for WNV by one or both methods. Of these 40 birds, 35 had histologic lesions compatible with WNV infection, one had lesions possibly attributable to WNV, and four had no histologic evidence of WNV. The most common histologic lesions associated with WNV infection were myocardial inflammation, necrosis, and fibrosis; skeletal muscle degeneration, inflammation, and fibrosis; and lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis. Other lesions included hepatitis, lymphoid depletion in spleen and bursa, splenic and hepatic hemosiderosis, pancreatitis, and ganglioneuritis. Gross lesions included calvarial and leptomeningeal hemorrhage, myocardial pallor, and splenomegaly. Red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) (10/56), sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) (8/40), and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) (10/103) were most commonly affected. Also affected were red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) (2/43), an osprey (Pandion haliaetus) (1/5), barred owls (Strix varia) (4/27), a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) (1/18), and eastern screech owls (Megascops asio) (4/42). Although birds were examined throughout the year, positive cases occurred only during the summer and late fall (June-December). Yearly WNV mortality rates ranged from 7-15% over the four years of the study. This study indicates trends in infection rates of WNV in raptorial species over a significant time period and supports the available information regarding pathology of WNV infection in Strigiformes and Falconiformes. Although many species tested were positive for WNV infection, severity of lesions varied among species. PMID:17495305

  13. In vivo tibia lead measurements as an index of cumulative exposure in occupationally exposed subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Somervaille, L J; Chettle, D R; Scott, M C; Tennant, D R; McKiernan, M J; Skilbeck, A; Trethowan, W N

    1988-01-01

    In vivo tibia lead measurements of 20 non-occupationally exposed and 190 occupationally exposed people drawn from three factories were made using a non-invasive x ray fluorescence technique in which characteristic x rays from lead are excited by gamma rays from a cadmium-109 source. The maximum skin dose to a small region of the shin was 0.45 mSv. The relation between tibia lead and blood lead was weak in workers from one factory (r = 0.11, p greater than 0.6) and among the non-occupationally exposed subjects (r = 0.07, p greater than 0.7); however, a stronger relation was observed in the other two factories (r = 0.45, p less than 0.0001 and r = 0.53, p less than 0.0001). Correlation coefficients between tibia lead and duration of employment were consistently higher at all three factories respectively (r = 0.86, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.61, p less than 0.0001; r = 0.80, p less than 0.0001). A strong relation was observed between tibia lead and a simple, time integrated, blood lead index among workers from the two factories from which blood lead histories were available. The regression equation from two groups of workers (n = 88, 79) did not significantly differ despite different exposure conditions. The correlation coefficient for the combined data set (n = 167) was 0.84 (p less than 0.0001). This shows clearly that tibia lead, measured in vivo by x-ray fluorescence, provides a good indicator of long term exposure to lead as assessed by a cumulative blood lead index. Images PMID:3348993

  14. GIS habitat analysis for lesser prairie-chickens in southeastern New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kristine; Neville, Teri B; Neville, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Background We conducted Geographic Information System (GIS) habitat analyses for lesser prairie-chicken (LPCH, Tympanuchus pallidicinctus) conservation planning. The 876,799 ha study area included most of the occupied habitat for the LPCH in New Mexico. The objectives were to identify and quantify: 1. suitable LPCH habitat in New Mexico, 2. conversion of native habitats, 3. potential for habitat restoration, and 4. unsuitable habitat available for oil and gas activities. Results We found 16% of suitable habitat (6% of the study area) distributed in 13 patches of at least 3,200 ha and 11% of suitable habitat (4% of the study area) distributed in four patches over 7,238 ha. The area converted from native vegetation types comprised 17% of the study area. Ninety-five percent of agricultural conversion occurred on private lands in the northeastern corner of the study area. Most known herbicide-related conversions (82%) occurred in rangelands in the western part of the study area, on lands managed primarily by the US Bureau of Land Management (BLM). We identified 88,190 ha (10% of the study area) of habitats with reasonable restoration potential. Sixty-two percent of the primary population area (PPA) contained occupied, suitable, or potentially suitable habitat, leaving 38% that could be considered for oil and gas development. Conclusion Although suitable LPCH habitat appears at first glance to be abundant in southeastern New Mexico, only a fraction of apparently suitable vegetation types constitute quality habitat. However, we identified habitat patches that could be restored through mesquite control or shin-oak reintroduction. The analysis also identified areas of unsuitable habitat with low restoration potential that could be targeted for oil and gas exploration, in lieu of occupied, high-quality habitats. Used in combination with GIS analysis and current LPCH population data, the habitat map represents a powerful conservation and management tool. PMID:17144922

  15. Trace-Element Diffusion Coefficients in Olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandler, C.; O'Neill, H. S.

    2006-12-01

    We have undertaken chemical diffusion experiments at 1300°C to determine both crystal/melt partition coefficients and diffusion coefficients for a wide range of trace elements in forsteritic olivine. Experiments were conducted at 1 atm under controlled fO2 for up to 25 days using synthetic melts made to a composition in equilibrium with olivine for major elements, and doped with selected trace elements. The melt was put into a 5 mm diameter cylindrical hole in gem quality San Carlos olivine crystals drilled paralell to the a axis. Diffusion profiles were obtained both for trace elements that were added to the starting material and diffuse into the olivine, and also for several trace elements present at natural abundances in the olivine that diffuse out. The profiles were measured across sections perpendicular to crystal/melt boundary at a variety of crystallographic orientations (confirmed by EBSD) by laser-ablation ICP-MS. A thin laser slit oriented parallel to the crystal/melt interface was traversed from the melt through the crystal. Element concentrations were fitted to the diffusion equation to obtain both diffusion coefficients and concentrations at the crystal/melt interface, and hence partition coefficients. Calculated diffusivities for many trace elements (Ca, REE, Y, Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Co, Mn, Na, Li, Be, Ti) are relatively fast (D = 10-16 to 10^{-13 m2/s at 1300°C). The diffusion of Li in olivine (approx. D = 10^{-15} m2/s) is only slightly slower than REEs and similar to divalent cations, in good agreement with inferences from zoning profiles in natural olivine [1]. This rate is considerably slower than for plagioclase and clinopyroxene [2], a result which has important implications for interpreting Li isotopic data from mantle-derived rocks. The fastest diffusing trace element we observe is Be. Applying our diffusion and partition coefficients to the model of Qin et al. [3], we calculate that the REEs of olivine-hosted melt inclusions in the mantle will

  16. Leukocyte labeling with isonitrile complexes of Tc-99m

    SciTech Connect

    Van den Abbeele, A.D.; Solorzano, C.; Jones, A.G.; Beardsley, D.S.; Treves, S.; Davison, A.

    1985-05-01

    Leukocyte labelling with Tc-99m may result in a useful method for the detection and localization of active inflammatory processes in patients, particularly in the pediatric population. Previous studies qin this laboratory have shown that hexakis(alkylisonitrile)technetium(I) complexes readily label V79 lung fibroblasts in vitro, and this work is now being extended to isolated human white blood cells (WBC). Two lipophilic water-soluble technetium cations, the t-butyl (Tc-99m(TBI)) and cyclohexyl (Tc-99m(CHI)) analogs, were prepared essentially ligand-free at no-carrier-added levels in aqueous media and introduced in 10% propylene glycol/90% normal saline solution to WBC at room temperature. The cells were isolated from whole blood via sedimentation, centrifugation, and hypotonic hemolysis of the red blood cells. The labeling yield was studied as a function of incubation time (10-45 min), amount of activity (0.35-8.0 mCi), and total WBC (2.5 x 10/sup 7/-1.3 x 10/sup 8/). After 10 min incubation using 10/sup 8/ cells, the initial uptake of Tc-99m(TBI) was 40%, of which 50% remained bound after one saline wash. By contrast, the labeling efficiency with Tc-99m(CHI) was 85%, with 90% of the label still bound after washing. The labeling yield was unrelated to activity levels of incubation time, but was proportional to the number of WBC present. The entire process could be complemented in approximately one hour. The labeling yields with Tc-99m-(CHI) are comparable to those now obtained with the clinically available In-111 oxine.

  17. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually. PMID:25993834

  18. Removal of SOST or blocking its product sclerostin rescues defects in the periodontitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Yinshi; Han, Xianglong; Ho, Sunita P.; Harris, Stephen E.; Cao, Zhengguo; Economides, Aris N.; Qin, Chunlin; Ke, Huazhu; Liu, Min; Feng, Jian Q.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding periodontal ligament (PDL) biology and developing an effective treatment for bone and PDL damage due to periodontitis have been long-standing aims in dental medicine. Here, we first demonstrated by cell lineage tracing and mineral double-labeling approaches that murine PDL progenitor cells display a 2- and 3-fold higher mineral deposition rate than the periosteum and endosteum at the age of 4 weeks, respectively. We next proved that the pathologic changes in osteocytes (Ocys; changes from a spindle shape to round shape with a >50% reduction in the dendrite number/length, and an increase in SOST) are the key pathologic factors responsible for bone and PDL damage in periostin-null mice (a periodontitis animal model) using a newly developed 3-dimensional FITC-Imaris technique. Importantly, we proved that deleting the Sost gene (a potent inhibitor of WNT signaling) or blocking sclerostin function by using the mAb in this periodontitis model significantly restores bone and PDL defects (n = 4–5; P < 0.05). Together, identification of the key contribution of the PDL in normal alveolar bone formation, the pathologic changes of the Ocys in periodontitis bone loss, and the novel link between sclerostin and Wnt signaling in the PDL will aid future drug development in the treatment of patients with periodontitis.—Ren, Y., Han, X., Ho, S. P., Harris, S. E., Cao, Z., Economides, A. N., Qin, C., Ke, H., Liu, M., Feng, J. Q. Removal of SOST or blocking its product sclerostin rescues defects in the periodontitis mouse model. PMID:25757567

  19. Low Frequency Electromagnetic Background Radiation From Electron Acceleration Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Mezentsev, Andrew; Soula, Serge; van der Velde, Oscar; Farges, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    It was recently proposed that the acceleration of electrons during the growth and branching of streamers above thunderclouds initiated by intense lightning discharges could result in detectable low frequency electromagnetic radiation from several tens of kHz up to several hundreds of kHz (Qin et al., GRL, 2012). The intensity of the predicted radiation scales with the streamer density which is particularly large during spectacular sprite occurrences such as jellyfish sprites and/or dancing sprites. Dancing sprites are up to one second long sequences of consecutive sprites or sprite groups which are typically separated by some hundreds of milliseconds and which tend to follow the spatial development of large scale intracloud lightning discharges. A particularly spectacular series of 10 dancing sprite events over a Mediterranean mesoscale convective system was recorded with a low light video camera in south-eastern France during the early morning hours of August 31, 2012. Each dancing sprite event was composed of ~3-4 consecutive sprites or groups of sprites. All of these sprite occurrences were associated with a sudden enhancement ~2 uV/m/Hz-1/2 of the low frequency electromagnetic background radiation as measured with a radio receiver in south-west England. It is estimated that ~1000 streamers at a height of ~40 km are necessary to epxlain the observed electric field strengths. These sudden enhancements are superimposed on a more continuous low frequency electromagnetic background radiation which accompanies each dancing sprite event. It is speculated that this low frequency 'radio glow' results from filamentary streamers near the cloud top as a result of the large scale electrostatic charging of the thundercloud and that it may be used as an indicator for sprite occurrences in future studies.

  20. The principal indecomposable modules of the dilute Temperley-Lieb algebra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belletête, Jonathan; Saint-Aubin, Yvan

    2014-11-01

    The Temperley-Lieb algebra {TL}n(β ) can be defined as the set of rectangular diagrams with n points on each of their vertical sides, with all points joined pairwise by non-intersecting strings. The multiplication is then the concatenation of diagrams. The dilute Temperley-Lieb algebra {dTL}n(β ) has a similar diagrammatic definition where, now, points on the sides may remain free of strings. Like {TL}n, the dilute {dTL}n depends on a parameter β in {C}, often given as β = q + q-1 for some qin {C}^×. In statistical physics, the algebra plays a central role in the study of dilute loop models. The paper is devoted to the construction of its principal indecomposable modules. Basic definitions and properties are first given: the dimension of {dTL}n, its break up into even and odd subalgebras and its filtration through n + 1 ideals. The standard modules {S}_{n,k} are then introduced and their behaviour under restriction and induction is described. A bilinear form, the Gram product, is used to identify their (unique) maximal submodule {R}_{n,k} which is then shown to be irreducible or trivial. It is then noted that {dTL}n is a cellular algebra. This fact allows for the identification of complete sets of non-isomorphic irreducible modules and projective indecomposable ones. The structure of {dTL}n as a left module over itself is then given for all values of the parameter q, that is, for both q generic and a root of unity.

  1. Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment: An overview of the IPCC SREX report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seneviratne, S. I.; Nicholls, N.; Easterling, D.; Goodess, C. M.; Kanae, S.; Kossin, J.; Luo, Y.; Marengo, J.; McInnes, K.; Rahimi, M.; Reichstein, M.; Sorteberg, A.; Vera, C.; Zhang, X.

    2012-04-01

    In April 2009, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) decided to prepare a new special report with involvement of the UN International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (ISDR) on the topic "Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation" (SREX, http://ipcc-wg2.gov/SREX/). This special report reviews the scientific literature on past and projected changes in weather and climate extremes, and the relevance of such changes to disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation. The SREX Summary for Policymakers was approved at an IPCC Plenary session on November 14-18, 2011, and the full report is planned for release in February 2012. This presentation will provide an overview on the structure and contents of the SREX, focusing on Chapter 3: "Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment" [1]. It will in particular present the main findings of the chapter, including differences between the SREX's conclusions and those of the IPCC Fourth Assessment of 2007, and the implications of this new assessment for disaster risk reduction. Finally, aspects relevant to impacts on the biogeochemical cycles will also be addressed. [1] Seneviratne, S.I., N. Nicholls, D. Easterling, C.M. Goodess, S. Kanae, J. Kossin, Y. Luo, J. Marengo, K. McInnes, M. Rahimi, M. Reichstein, A. Sorteberg, C. Vera, and X. Zhang, 2012: Changes in climate extremes and their impacts on the natural physical environment. In: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation [Field, C. B., Barros, V., Stocker, T.F., Qin, D., Dokken, D., Ebi, K.L., Mastrandrea, M. D., Mach, K. J., Plattner, G.-K., Allen, S. K., Tignor, M. and P. M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA

  2. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they

  3. The stat3/socs3a pathway is a key regulator of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. [corrected].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jin; Wang, Dongmei; Renaud, Gabriel; Wolfsberg, Tyra G; Wilson, Alexander F; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-08-01

    All nonmammalian vertebrates studied can regenerate inner ear mechanosensory receptors (i.e., hair cells) (Corwin and Cotanche, 1988; Lombarte et al., 1993; Baird et al., 1996), but mammals possess only a very limited capacity for regeneration after birth (Roberson and Rubel, 1994). As a result, mammals experience permanent deficiencies in hearing and balance once their inner ear hair cells are lost. The mechanisms of hair cell regeneration are poorly understood. Because the inner ear sensory epithelium is highly conserved in all vertebrates (Fritzsch et al., 2007), we chose to study hair cell regeneration mechanism in adult zebrafish, hoping the results would be transferrable to inducing hair cell regeneration in mammals. We defined the comprehensive network of genes involved in hair cell regeneration in the inner ear of adult zebrafish with the powerful transcriptional profiling technique digital gene expression, which leverages the power of next-generation sequencing ('t Hoen et al., 2008). We also identified a key pathway, stat3/socs3, and demonstrated its role in promoting hair cell regeneration through stem cell activation, cell division, and differentiation. In addition, transient pharmacological inhibition of stat3 signaling accelerated hair cell regeneration without overproducing cells. Taking other published datasets into account (Sano et al., 1999; Schebesta et al., 2006; Dierssen et al., 2008; Riehle et al., 2008; Zhu et al., 2008; Qin et al., 2009), we propose that the stat3/socs3 pathway is a key response in all tissue regeneration and thus an important therapeutic target for a broad application in tissue repair and injury healing. PMID:22855815

  4. An example of a digital synthesis approach to DSP design: The AGS transverse damper

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.A.; Smith, G.; Wong, V.

    1997-07-01

    Using Verilog HDL and Synopsys, the digital signal processing of the AGS Transverse Damper was designed and fitted to an Altera Flex l0k FPGA. Using a control point specification style in the high level description greatly simplified the design by placing the burden of specifying the controller on the digital synthesizer. The basic design and low level simulation are presented as well as the design methodology. The purpose of the AGS Transverse Damper is to control instabilities and injection errors that may arise in high intensity proton beams being accelerated in the AGS. The system block diagram for the DSP is shown in Figure 1. The inputs to the system come from a normalization unit. This normalization unit takes two signals as input, a sum of beam position signal plates, and a difference from the plates. The output of the normalization unit is the difference divided by the sum. This Quotient is sent to the first ALU (as Qin[11..0]). Taking differences between position measurements the system acts as a notch filter. The Second ALU computes a running sum of the output of the first ALU. This then acts to remove any offsets in the Quotient (and thus this part acts as a high pass filter - removing any baseline components to the signal). The depth of the first FIFO (between adder and subtract units) basically determines the low pass behaviour. The multiplier serves the purpose of overall loop gain for the system (the complete system is a real-time feedback system). The FIFO on the output is used to provide the correct amount of delay for the system.

  5. Pseudoknots in RNA folding landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kucharík, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo L.; Stadler, Peter F.; Qin, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: The function of an RNA molecule is not only linked to its native structure, which is usually taken to be the ground state of its folding landscape, but also in many cases crucially depends on the details of the folding pathways such as stable folding intermediates or the timing of the folding process itself. To model and understand these processes, it is necessary to go beyond ground state structures. The study of rugged RNA folding landscapes holds the key to answer these questions. Efficient coarse-graining methods are required to reduce the intractably vast energy landscapes into condensed representations such as barrier trees or basin hopping graphs (BHG) that convey an approximate but comprehensive picture of the folding kinetics. So far, exact and heuristic coarse-graining methods have been mostly restricted to the pseudoknot-free secondary structures. Pseudoknots, which are common motifs and have been repeatedly hypothesized to play an important role in guiding folding trajectories, were usually excluded. Results: We generalize the BHG framework to include pseudoknotted RNA structures and systematically study the differences in predicted folding behavior depending on whether pseudoknotted structures are allowed to occur as folding intermediates or not. We observe that RNAs with pseudoknotted ground state structures tend to have more pseudoknotted folding intermediates than RNAs with pseudoknot-free ground state structures. The occurrence and influence of pseudoknotted intermediates on the folding pathway, however, appear to depend very strongly on the individual RNAs so that no general rule can be inferred. Availability and implementation: The algorithms described here are implemented in C++ as standalone programs. Its source code and Supplemental material can be freely downloaded from http://www.tbi.univie.ac.at/bhg.html. Contact: qin@bioinf.uni-leipzig.de Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID

  6. SHP2 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting preosteoclast fusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Mohan, Aron; Moore, Douglas C.; Lin, Liangjun; Zhou, Frank Li; Cao, Jay; Wu, Qian; Qin, Yi-Xian; Reginato, Anthony M.; Ehrlich, Michael G.; Yang, Wentian

    2015-01-01

    Genes that regulate osteoclast (OC) development and function in both physiologic and disease conditions remain incompletely understood. Shp2 (the Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 2), a ubiquitously expressed cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase, is implicated in regulating M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)–evoked signaling; its role in osteoclastogenesis and bone homeostasis, however, remains unknown. Using a tissue-specific gene knockout approach, we inactivated Shp2 expression in murine OCs. Shp2 mutant mice are phenotypically osteopetrotic, featuring a marked increase of bone volume (BV)/total volume (TV) (+42.8%), trabeculae number (Tb.N) (+84.1%), structure model index (+119%), and a decrease of trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (−34.1%) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (−41.0%). Biochemical analyses demonstrate that Shp2 is required for RANKL-induced formation of giant multinucleated OCs by up-regulating the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (Nfatc1), a master transcription factor that is indispensable for terminal OC differentiation. Shp2 deletion, however, has minimal effect on M-CSF–dependent survival and proliferation of OC precursors. Instead, its deficiency aborts the fusion of OC precursors and formation of multinucleated OCs and decreases bone matrix resorption. Moreover, pharmacological intervention of Shp2 is sufficient to prevent preosteoclast fusion in vitro. These findings uncover a novel mechanism through which Shp2 regulates osteoclastogenesis by promoting preosteoclast fusion. Shp2 or its signaling partners could potentially serve as pharmacological targets to regulate the population of OCs locally and/or systematically, and thus treat OC-related diseases, such as periprosthetic osteolysis and osteoporosis.—Zhou, Y., Mohan, A., Moore, D. C., Lin, L., Zhou, F. L., Cao, J., Wu, Q., Qin, Y.–X., Reginato, A. M., Ehrlich, M. G., Yang, W. SHP2

  7. [Using Raman spectrum analysis to research corrosive productions occurring in alloy of ancient bronze wares].

    PubMed

    Jia, La-jiang; Jin, Pu-jun

    2015-01-01

    The present paper analyzes the interior rust that occurred in bronze alloy sample from 24 pieces of Early Qin bronze wares. Firstly, samples were processed by grinding, polishing and ultrasonic cleaning-to make a mirror surface. Then, a confocal micro-Raman spectrometer was employed to carry out spectroscopic study on the inclusions in samples. The conclusion indicated that corrosive phases are PbCO3 , PbO and Cu2O, which are common rusting production on bronze alloy. The light-colored circular or massive irregular areas in metallographic structure of samples are proved as Cu2O, showing that bronze wares are not only easy to be covered with red Cu2O rusting layer, but also their alloy is easy to be eroded by atomic oxygen. In other words, the rust Cu2O takes place in both the interior and exterior parts of the bronze alloy. In addition, Raman spectrum analysis shows that the dark grey materials are lead corrosive products--PbCO3 and PbO, showing the corroding process of lead element as Pb -->PbO-->PbCO3. In the texture of cast state of bronze alloy, lead is usually distributed as independent particles between the different alloy phases. The lead particles in bronze alloy would have oxidation reaction and generate PbO when buried in the soil, and then have chemical reaction with CO3(2-) dissolved in the underground water to generate PbCO3, which is a rather stable lead corrosive production. A conclusion can be drawn that the external corrosive factors (water, dissolved oxygen and carbonate, etc) can enter the bronze ware interior through the passageway between different phases and make the alloy to corrode gradually.

  8. An anti-sepsis monomer, 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF), identified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi neutralizes lipopolysaccharide in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jianfeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Zheng, Xinchun; Lu, Yongling; Liu, Xin; Yang, Dong; Li, Bin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2008-12-10

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a known trigger in the pathogenesis of sepsis, lipid A being the toxic component. One of several adjuvant therapeutic approaches for severe sepsis is currently focusing on the neutralization of LPS. In order to obtain the components from traditional Chinese herbs that can neutralize the endotoxin, aqueous extractions of twelve herbs were tested using affinity biosensor technology. From twelve herbs, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang Qin) found to possess high lipid A-binding abilities, and was selected in subsequent experiments. After subjected to macroporous adsorptive resins and HPLC, we obtained 2',5,6',7-tetrahydroxyflavanonol (THF) from S. baicalensis Georgi under the direction of neutralization of LPS and reducing proinflammatory cytokines. In vitro, THF directly bound to LPS and neutralized its activity. THF not only down-regulated TNF-alpha mRNA expression but also decreased TNF-alpha and IL-6 release from RAW264.7 cells induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. THF-mediated inhibition on proinflammatory cytokine release is probably associated with downregulation of LPS-induced TLR4 mRNA augmentation. In vivo, THF could significantly protect mice against a lethal challenge with heat-killed E. coli 35218 (E. coli 35218) in a dose-dependent manner, and decreased the plasma LPS level in endotoxemia mice. These findings provide compelling evidence that THF may be an important potential drug for sepsis treatment. Considering the inhibitory effects of THF on LPS-induced cytokine release are unlikely due to its nonspecific cellular toxicity, THF should be considered as a safe putative candidate for development as a drug for sepsis treatment. PMID:18755299

  9. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions. PMID:24175515

  10. Pharmacokinetic modeling of P-glycoprotein function at the rat and human blood–brain barriers studied with (R)-[11C]verapamil positron emission tomography

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the influence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar on the pharmacokinetics of P-gp substrate radiotracer (R)-[11C]verapamil in plasma and brain of rats and humans by means of positron emission tomography (PET). Methods Data obtained from a preclinical and clinical study, in which paired (R)-[11C]verapamil PET scans were performed before, during, and after tariquidar administration, were analyzed using nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Administration of tariquidar was included as a covariate on the influx and efflux parameters (Qin and Qout) in order to investigate if tariquidar increased influx or decreased outflux of radiotracer across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Additionally, the influence of pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE) was tested on all model parameters, and the brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (VT-NLME) was calculated. Results Our model indicated that tariquidar enhances brain uptake of (R)-[11C]verapamil by decreasing Qout. The reduction in Qout in rats during and immediately after tariquidar administration (sevenfold) was more pronounced than in the second PET scan acquired 2 h after tariquidar administration (fivefold). The effect of tariquidar on Qout in humans was apparent during and immediately after tariquidar administration (twofold reduction in Qout) but was negligible in the second PET scan. SE was found to influence the pharmacological volume of distribution of the central brain compartment Vbr1. Tariquidar treatment lead to an increase in VT-NLME, and pilocarpine-induced SE lead to increased (R)-[11C]verapamil distribution to the peripheral brain compartment. Conclusions Using NLME modeling, we were able to provide mechanistic insight into the effects of tariquidar and SE on (R)-[11C]verapamil transport across the BBB in control and 48 h post SE rats as well as in humans. PMID:23072492

  11. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method.

  12. The Use of DNA Barcoding on Recently Diverged Species in the Genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Yan, Hai-Fei; Ge, Xue-Jun

    2016-01-01

    DNA barcoding of plants poses particular challenges, especially in differentiating, recently diverged taxa. The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) is a species-rich plant group which rapidly radiated in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in China. In this study, we tested the core plant barcode (rbcL + matK) and three promising complementary barcodes (trnH-psbA, ITS and ITS2) in 30 Gentiana species across 6 sections using three methods (the genetic distance-based method, Best Close Match and tree-based method). rbcL had the highest PCR efficiency and sequencing success (100%), while the lowest sequence recoverability was from ITS (68.35%). The presence of indels and inversions in trnH-psbA in Gentiana led to difficulties in sequence alignment. When using a single region for analysis, ITS exhibited the highest discriminatory power (60%-74.42%). Of the combinations, matK + ITS provided the highest discrimination success (71.43%-88.24%) and is recommended as the DNA barcode for the genus Gentiana. DNA barcoding proved effective in assigning most species to sections, though it performed poorly in some closely related species in sect. Cruciata because of hybridization events. Our analysis suggests that the status of G. pseudosquarrosa needs to be studied further. The utility of DNA barcoding was also verified in authenticating ‘Qin-Jiao’ Gentiana medicinal plants (G. macrophylla, G. crassicaulis, G. straminea, and G. dahurica), which can help ensure safe and correct usage of these well-known Chinese traditional medicinal herbs. PMID:27050315

  13. Study on the Main Components Interaction from Flos Lonicerae and Fructus Forsythiae and Their Dissolution In Vitro and Intestinal Absorption in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wei; Tan, Xiaobin; Shan, Jinjun; Wang, Shouchuan; Yin, Ailing; Cai, Baochang; Di, Liuqing

    2014-01-01

    The Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple is the basic components of Chinese herbal preparations (Shuang-Huang-Lian tablet, Yin-Qiao-Jie-Du tablet and Fufang Qin-Lan oral liquid), and its pharmacological effects were significantly higher than that in Flos Lonicerae or Fructus Forsythiae, but the reasons remained unknown. In the present study, pattern recognition analysis (hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA)) combined with UHPLC-ESI/LTQ-Orbitrap MS system were performed to study the chemical constitution difference between co-decoction and mixed decoction in the term of chemistry. Besides, the pharmacokinetics in vivo and intestinal absorption in vitro combined with pattern recognition analysis were used to reveal the discrepancy between herb couple and single herbs in the view of biology. The observation from the chemical view in vitro showed that there was significant difference in quantity between co-decoction and mixed decoction by HCA, and the exposure level of isoforsythoside and 3, 5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in co-decoction, higher than that in mixed decoction, directly resulted in the discrepancy between co-decoction and mixed decoction using both PCA and HCA. The observation from the pharmacokinetics displayed that the exposure level in vivo of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A, higher than that in single herbs, was the main factor contributing to the difference by both PCA and HCA, interestingly consistent with the results obtained from Caco-2 cells in vitro, which indicated that it was because of intestinal absorption improvement of neochlorogenic acid, 3, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid, isoforsythoside and forsythoside A that resulted in a better efficacy of herb couple than that of single herbs from the perspective of biology. The results above illustrated that caffeic acid derivatives in Flos Lonicerae-Fructus Forsythiae herb couple could be considered as chemical

  14. Nonlinear delta(f) Simulations of Collective Effects in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Qin

    2003-01-21

    A nonlinear delta(f) particle simulation method based on the Vlasov-Maxwell equations has been recently developed to study collective processes in high-intensity beams, where space-charge and magnetic self-field effects play a critical role in determining the nonlinear beam dynamics. Implemented in the Beam Equilibrium, Stability and Transport (BEST) code [H. Qin, R.C. Davidson, and W.W. Lee, Physical Review -- Special Topics on Accelerator and Beams 3 (2000) 084401; 3 (2000) 109901.], the nonlinear delta(f) method provides a low-noise and self-consistent tool for simulating collective interactions and nonlinear dynamics of high-intensity beams in modern and next-generation accelerators and storage rings, such as the Spallation Neutron Source and heavy ion fusion drivers. A wide range of linear eigenmodes of high-intensity charged-particle beams can be systematically studied using the BEST code. Simulation results for the electron-proton two-stream instability in the Proton Storage Ring experiment [R. Macek, et al., in Proc. of the Particle Accelerator Conference, Chicago, 2001 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2001), Vol. 1, p. 688.] at the Los Alamos National Laboratory agree well with experimental observations. Large-scale parallel simulations have also been carried out for the ion-electron two-stream instability in the very-high-intensity heavy ion beams envisioned for heavy ion fusion applications. In both cases, the simulation results indicate that the dominant two-stream instability has a dipole-mode (hose-like) structure and can be stabilized by a modest axial momentum spread of the beam particles.

  15. Electromagnetic Weibel Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams with Large Energy Anisotropy

    SciTech Connect

    Edward A. Startsev; Ronald C. Davidson

    2003-10-20

    In plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, collective instabilities may develop if there is sufficient coupling between the transverse and longitudinal degrees of freedom. Our previous numerical and theoretical studies of intense charged particle beams with large temperature anisotropy [E. A. Startsev, R. C. Davidson and H. Qin, PRSTAB, 6, 084401 (2003); Phys. Plasmas 9, 3138 (2002)] demonstrated that a fast, electrostatic, Harris-like instability develops, and saturates nonlinearly, for sufficiently large temperature anisotropy (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b} >> 1). The total distribution function after saturation, however, is still far from equipartitioned. In this paper the linearized Vlasov-Maxwell equations are used to investigate detailed properties of the transverse electromagnetic Weibel-type instability for a long charge bunch propagating through a cylindrical pipe of radius r{sub w}. The kinetic stability analysis is carried out for azimuthally symmetric perturbations about a two-temperature thermal equilibrium distribution in the smooth-focusing approximation. The most unstable modes are identified, and their eigenfrequencies, radial mode structure and instability thresholds are determined. The stability analysis shows that, although there is free energy available to drive the electromagnetic Weibel instability, the finite transverse geometry of the charged particle beam introduces a large threshold value for the temperature anisotropy ((T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Weibel} >> (T{sub {perpendicular}b}/T{sub {parallel}b}){sup Harris}) below which the instability is absent. Hence, unlike the case of an electrically neutral plasma, the Weibel instability is not expected to play as significant a role in the process of energy isotropization of intense unneutralized charged particle beams as the electrostatic Harris-type instability.

  16. [Analysis on characteristics of meridians and acupoints of acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient based on data mining].

    PubMed

    Su, Zhi-Wei; Ren, Yu-Lan; Zhou, Si-Yuan; Qin, Hai-Zhi; Chen, Da-Shuai; Liu, Ting; Li, Ying

    2013-10-01

    The data in literature of acupuncture and moxibustion on treatment of diarrhea from pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty was collected to establish prescription database and characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea were analyzed with data mining technology. Totally 235 papers were collected and 76 acupoints were involved with 439 times of selection. The number and times of special acupoints were 72.37% (55/76) and 76.99% (338/439), respectively, which was more seen in front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint. The acupoints were distributed among 11 meridians. Moxibustion was applied in 53 papers while combination of acupuncture and moxibustion was used in 1 literature. As a result, acupuncture and moxibustion for diarrhea in ancient pay much attention on acupoint in back and abdomen, in which Tianshu (ST 25), Shen-que (CV 8), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Dachangshu (BL 25) were the most frequently used. The compatibility of front-mu acupoint and back-shu acupoint was very common. Selection of special acupoint was dominant. Besides crossing points that has the most intersection of meridian qi in the back and abdomen, acupoints below the elbow and knee joints, such as five-shu points, source point, luo-connecting point, eight confluence point and lower he-sea point were also taken into account. As for compatibility of special acupoints, the supportive degree between back-shu acupoint and confluence points or front-mu acupoint was the highest; the selections of meridians mainly were Bladder Meridian, Conception Vessel and Spleen Meridian; and application of moxibustion was highly valued. In conclusion, it is feasible to apply data mining technology to the clinical literature research of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, which can provide evidence for summary of the traditional classical theory.

  17. Exploration of the relationship between geographical environment and human diseases in ancient China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine, created in the Warring States period (475 to 221 BC) described a phenomenon whereby the eastern, western, northern, southern, and central regions were liable to different diseases. It brought forward the principle of treatment in accordance with local conditions. Lv's Spring and Autumn Annals, Huai Nan Tzu (Huainanzi), and the Regiment of Health (Yangshenglun) in the Qin, Han, Wei, Jin, and Southern and Northern Dynasties all describe regional diseases such as goiter (endemic goiter) and yellowish teeth (dental fluorosis) as being caused by geologic and climatic factors. Zhang (miasma), first mentioned in the Han Dynasty, was considered related to the summer heat and dampness particular to the geographical environment of the south. Zhang was further associated with malaria in the Jin Dynasty. General Treatise on the Etiology and Symptomology of Diseases (Zhubingyuanhou Lun), in the Sui Dynasty, held that as a type of poisonous gas, Zhang was the predisposing cause of malaria, seasonal disease, and barbiers, among other conditions. General Guide (Zhinan Zonglun), in the Southern Song Dynasty, regarded Zhang malaria as a separate disease. Healthy Prescription in the Southern Wuling District (Lingnan Weisheng Fang), in the late Song and early Yuan Dynasties, explicitly put forward the concepts of cold Zhang, hot Zhang, and lockjaw Zhang. Guidelines for Treatment of Zhang Malaria (Zhangnue Zhinan), in the Ming Dynasty, maintained that cold Zhang was equivalent to malaria, while hot Zhang and lockjaw Zhang were equivalent to cold damage, the latter of which can be treated by prescriptions for cold damage. Records on Zhang gas and Zhang disease decreased during the Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  18. ABCG2: the molecular mechanisms of urate secretion and gout

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The human propensity for high levels of serum uric acid (SUA) is a trait that has defied explanation. Is it beneficial? Is it pathogenic? Its role in the human diseases like gout and kidney stones was discovered over a century ago [Richette P, Bardin T. Lancet 375: 318–328, 2010; Rivard C, Thomas J, Lanaspa MA, Johnson RJ. Rheumatology (Oxford) 52: 421–426, 2013], but today emerging new genetic and epidemiological techniques have revived an age-old debate over whether high uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) independently increase risk for diseases like hypertension and chronic kidney disease [Feig DI. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) 14: 346–352, 2012; Feig DI, Madero M, Jalal DI, Sanchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ. J Pediatr 162: 896–902, 2013; Feig DI, Soletsky B, Johnson RJ. JAMA 300: 924–932, 2008; Wang J, Qin T, Chen J, Li Y, Wang L, Huang H, Li J. PLoS One 9: e114259, 2014; Zhu P, Liu Y, Han L, Xu G, Ran JM. PLoS One 9: e100801, 2014]. Part of the mystery of the role uric acid plays in human health stems from our lack of understanding of how humans regulate uric acid homeostasis, an understanding that could shed light on the historic role of uric acid in human adaptation and its present role in human pathogenesis. This review will highlight the recent work to identify the first important human uric acid secretory transporter, ABCG2, and the identification of a common causal ABCG2 variant, Q141K, for hyperuricemia and gout. PMID:26136557

  19. Locating Radio Noise from Sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullekrug, M.; Mezentsev, A.; Watson, R.; Gaffet, S.; Astin, I.; Evans, A.

    2014-12-01

    Sprites are composed of individual streamer discharges (e.g., Pasko, 2010) which split into exponentially growing streamer tips (McHarg et al., 2010). The acceleration of the electrons to a few eV results in the radiation of a small amount of electromagnetic energy. The incoherent superposition of many streamers causes the low frequency radio noise from sprites near ~40 km height (Qin et al., 2012). The presence of this theoretically predicted radiation was recently confirmed by low frequency radio noise measurements during dancing sprites with a very sensitive radio receiver (Fullekrug et al., 2013). To locate the radio noise from sprites in the sky, an interferometric network of low frequency radio receivers was developed (Mezentsev and Fullekrug, JGR, 2013). The key parameter for the interferometric signal processing is the frequency dependent wave propagation velocity of the radio waves within the Earth's atmosphere. This wave propagation velocity is determined by the wave number vector which needs to be inferred from the measurements. Here we adapt and subsequently apply array analyses which have been developed for seismic and infrasound arrays to determine the horizontal wave number vectors of ~20-24 kHz radio waves measured with an array of ten radio receivers distributed over an area of ~1 km × 1 km. It is found that the horizontal slowness of ~20-24 kHz radio waves ranges from ~2.7 ns/m to ~4.1 ns/m depending on the arrival azimuth of the radio wave. For comparison, an electromagnetic wave in vacuum has a slowness of ~3.34 ns/m. A larger slowness indicates an apparent velocity which is smaller than the speed of light and a smaller slowness indicates that the radio wave arrives at the array from an elevation angle. The observed variability of the observed slowness almost certainly results from the distance dependent superposition of the transverse electric and magnetic TEn and TMn radio wave propagation modes.

  20. Phosphorylation of β-catenin by PKA promotes ATP-induced proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Taurin, Sebastien; Sandbo, Nathan; Yau, Douglas M.; Sethakorn, Nan; Dulin, Nickolai O.

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular ATP stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) through activation of G protein-coupled P2Y purinergic receptors. We have previously shown that ATP stimulates a transient activation of protein kinase A (PKA), which, together with the established mitogenic signaling of purinergic receptors, promotes proliferation of VSMC (Hogarth DK, Sandbo N, Taurin S, Kolenko V, Miano JM, Dulin NO. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 287: C449–C456, 2004). We also have shown that PKA can phosphorylate β-catenin at two novel sites (Ser552 and Ser675) in vitro and in overexpression cell models (Taurin S, Sandbo N, Qin Y, Browning D, Dulin NO. J Biol Chem 281: 9971–9976, 2006). β-Catenin promotes cell proliferation by activation of a family of T-cell factor (TCF) transcription factors, which drive the transcription of genes implicated in cell cycle progression including cyclin D1. In the present study, using the phosphospecific antibodies against phospho-Ser552 or phospho-Ser675 sites of β-catenin, we show that ATP can stimulate PKA-dependent phosphorylation of endogenous β-catenin at both of these sites without affecting its expression levels in VSMC. This translates to a PKA-dependent stimulation of TCF transcriptional activity through an increased association of phosphorylated (by PKA) β-catenin with TCF-4. Using the PKA inhibitor PKI or dominant negative TCF-4 mutant, we show that ATP-induced cyclin D1 promoter activation, cyclin D1 protein expression, and proliferation of VSMC are all dependent on PKA and TCF activities. In conclusion, we show a novel mode of regulation of endogenous β-catenin through its phosphorylation by PKA, and we demonstrate the importance of this mechanism for ATP-induced proliferation of VSMC. PMID:18353896

  1. The response of the inductively coupled argon plasma to solvent plasma load: spatially resolved maps of electron density obtained from the intensity of one argon line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weir, D. G. J.; Blades, M. W.

    1994-12-01

    A survey of spatially resolved electron number density ( ne) in the tail cone of the inductively coupled argon plasma (ICAP) is presented: all of the results of the survey have been radially inverted by numerical, asymmetric Abel inversion. The survey extends over the entire volume of the plasma beyond the exit of the ICAP torch; It extends over distances of z = 5-25 mm downstream from the induction coil, and over radial distances of ± 8 mm from the discharge axis. The survey also explores a range of inner argon flow rates ( QIN), solvent plasma load ( Qspl) and r.f. power: moreover, it explores loading by water, methanol and chloroform. Throughout the survey, ne was determined from the intensity of one, optically thin argon line, by a method which assumes that the atomic state distribution function (ASDF) for argon lies close to local thermal equilibrium (LTE). The validity of this assumption is reviewed. Also examined are the discrepancies between ne from this method and ne from Stark broadening measurements. With the error taken into account, the results of the survey reveal how time averaged values of ne in the ICAP respond over an extensive, previously unexplored range of experimental parameters. Moreover, the spatial information lends insight into how the thermal conditions and the transport of energy respond. Overall, the response may be described in terms of energy consumption along the axial channel and thermal pinch within the induction region. The predominating effect depends on the solvent plasma load, the solvent composition, the robustness of the discharge, and the distribution of solvent material over the argon stream.

  2. Self-assembled epoxy-modified polymer coating on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) microchip for EOF inhibition and biopolymers separation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dapeng; Qin, Jianhua; Lin, Bingcheng

    2007-11-01

    A straightforward approach to generate a stable and protein-resistant poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) surface using self-assembled hydrophilic polymers is demonstrated in this work. Epoxy-modified polymers were directly adsorbed from aqueous solution onto plasma oxidized PDMS based on H-bond interaction, and epoxies of polymer and silanols on oxidized PDMS surface were crosslinked by heating at 110 degrees C. The coating process could be completed within half hour. Poly(dimethylacrylamide-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (PDMA-co-GMA), poly(vinyl pyrrolidone)-g-glycidyl methacrylate (PVP-g-GMA) and poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-glycidyl methacrylate (PVA-g-GMA) (D. P. Wu, B. X. Zhao, Z. P. Dai, J. H. Qin and B. C. Lin, Lab Chip, 2006, 6, 942) were employed as examples here. Unlike PDMA, PVP, and PVA themselves, these epoxy-modified hydrophilic polymers could be directly used as static surface coatings on oxidized PDMS, and inhibited electroosmotic flow (EOF) within pH 3-11. It was also found that hard baking of PDMS at 150 degrees C for 24 hours before surface coating could greatly retard surface hydrophobicity recovery after oxygen plasma exposure, which strengthened epoxy-modified polymer coatings on oxidized PDMS surface, and resulted in EOF less than 0.2 x 10(-4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) (pH 9.0) within two weeks. On epoxy-modified polymer coated PDMS microchips, basic proteins, peptides and DNA fragments could be separated satisfactorily, in which more than 2 x 10(4) plates per 2 cm and less than 3% RSD (>8 runs) for migration time were obtained for lysozyme. PMID:17960276

  3. [Summary of 2004 Chinese National Conference on oral and maxillofacial vascular anomalies].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jia-Wei; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zheng, Cang-Shang; Zhou, Qi

    2004-08-01

    Congenital vascular anomalies have been the subject of much controversy and confusion over the years, many remain to be investigated and resolved. Authorized by the Managing Director Board of Chinese Stomatological Association (CSA), 2004 Chinese National Conference on Oral and Maxillofacial Vascular Anomalies was successfully held on July 15 to 18, 2004 in Shenzhen Grand Hotel. The conference was sponsored by Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (CSOMS), and undertaken by the Second People's Hospital of Shenzhen city. Professor ZHANG Zhen-kang, president of CSA, Professor QIU Wei-liu, president of CSOMS and academician of Chinese Academy of Engineers, and Professor LIU Bao-lin, vice president of CSOMS were present and made important speech at the meeting. More than 120 delegates nationwide attended this conference. Through a 3-day of oral presentation and discussion, the terminology, classification, treatment selection and outcome measurement of oral and maxillofacial hemangioma and vascular malformations were concerted among the delegates. Hemangiomas and vascular malformations have been recognized as distinct diseases that exhibit unique properties and behavior that demand an appropriately tailored treatment plan. The classification of Waner and Suen was adopted and different treatment modalities were reviewed and advocated for different lesions. Delegates were most interested in intralesional injection of Pingyangmycin for venous malformations, Krypton laser photodynamic therapy of venular malformations, Nd:YAG laser therapy for deep head and neck venous malformations after surgical exposure of the lesions, as well as "double" embolization of large venous malformations reported by Professor QIN Zhong-ping. The conference witnessed the foundation of the Division of Vascular Anomalies, Chinese Society of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. PMID:15349690

  4. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method. PMID:20384144

  5. The efficacy of statins in preventing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Z.; Liu, H.; Li, D.; Xie, X.; Qin, T.; Ma, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The primary purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine whether statin usage could reduce the risk of glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models. Methods A systematic literature search up to May 2015 was carried out using the PubMed, Ovid, EBM reviews, ISI Web of Science, EBSCO, CBM, CNKI databases with the term and boolean operators: statins and osteonecrosis in all fields. Risk ratio (RR), as the risk estimate of specific outcome, was calculated along with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The methodological quality of individual studies was assessed using a quantitative tool based on the updated Stroke Therapy Academic Industry Roundtable (STAIR) recommendations. Results A total of 11 eligible studies were included according to predetermined criteria. The pooled data demonstrated that animals with statin usage, either alone or combined with other treatments, were at a decreased risk of developing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis (RR = 2.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.71 to 2.50). Moreover, subgroup analysis revealed that compared with statins alone, statins combined with other treatments significantly decreased the risk of osteonecrosis (RR = 1.23, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.47). However, we could find no significant risk difference for different gender, or for different time points. Conclusions The present study suggests that statins combined with other treatments are efficient in preventing the development of glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animals. These results might shed light on clinical practice when glucocorticoids are prescribed, and could be further investigated in high-quality clinical trials. Cite this article: Z. Yang, H. Liu, D. Li, X. Xie, T. Qin, J. Ma, P. Kang. The efficacy of statins in preventing glucocorticoid-related osteonecrosis in animal models: A meta-analysis. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:393–402. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.59.2000500. PMID:27660333

  6. [Effects of irrigation quota on moisture and salt redistribution in apple orchard soil in arid region].

    PubMed

    Guo, Quan-En; Wang, Yi-Quan; Nan, Li-Li; Cao, Shi-Yu

    2013-07-01

    Taking the salinized apple orchard soil in Qin'an County of Gansu Province, Northwest China as test object, a field experiment was conducted to study the effects of different irrigation quota (0, 900, 1800, 2700, and 3600 m3 x hm(-2)) on the redistribution of moisture and salt in 0-100 cm soil profile on the 10, 20, and 30 d during apple florescence stage. With the increase of irrigation quota, the leached depth of Na+ increased and its hysteretic effect of redistribution was more obvious, "the zero flux plane" of Ca2+ disappeared gradually, the scope of "the zero flux plane" of Mg2+ increased gradually, the leaching-migration mode of Cl- changed from "fluctuation" to "straight-line" and the evaporation-migration changed from "fluctuation" to "ladder", the redistribution pattern of SO4(2-) showed "point", and the position of redistribution and accumulation of HCO3- shifted gradually from the bottom to upper layer in soil profile. In the middle of the soil profile with deeper groundwater table, there existed a "zero flux plane" of salt, which shifted gradually from the upper layer to the bottom during the redistribution of moisture in soil profile, embodying the characteristics of moisture depletion in upland soils. When the irrigation quota was between 2700 and 3600 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation was helpful to the leaching of salt and water-soluble Na+ in the 0-100 cm soil profile. However, when the irrigation quota was < 1800 m3 x hm(-2), irrigation accelerated the salt accumulation in surface soil. Therefore, from the viewpoints of salt leaching and water-saving, an irrigation quota of 1800-2700 m3 x hm(-2) in spring would be more appropriate for the salinized apple orchard soil in arid regions.

  7. An Introduction to the Major NSFC Program 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, G.; Zhang, G.; Wang, Y.; Huang, B.; Dong, Y.; Li, S.; Xiao, W.

    2013-12-01

    Pangea is the youngest supercontinent in Earth's history and its main body formed about 250 million years ago. As supported by voluminous evidence from reliable geological, paleomagnetic and paleontological data, configurations of major continental blocks in Pangea have been widely accepted. However, controversy has long surrounded the reconstructions of East Asian blocks in Pangea. So far, most Pangea reconstructions assume that continental blocks in East Asia had never become parts of Pangea before its breakup. In these reconstruction models, configurations of East Asian blocks in Pangea were mainly based on geological and paleomagnetic data before the 1990's but did not fully consider recent data produced by Chinese researchers about collisional mountain belts between continental blocks in East Asia. To precisely reconstruct the East Asian blocks in Pangea, the Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) recently set up a Major NSFC Program entitled 'Reconstruction of East Asian Blocks in Pangea'. On the basis of summarizing and integrating previous data, this major program will carry out detailed field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological, paleomagnetic and paleontonological investigations on key segments of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, Central China Orogenic Belt and Paleo-Tethys Belt, which assembled major continental blocks in East Asia, in order to determine the timing and processes of opening and closuring of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, Proto-Tethyan Ocean (Qin-Qi-Kun Ocean) and Paleo-Tethyan Ocean. The program will not only answer where, when and how continental blocks in East Asia were assembled and whether or not they had become parts of Pangea before the breakup of the supercontinent, but will also improve and develop the theory of plate tectonics. Acknowledgements: NSFC (41190070, 41190075)

  8. Properties of relatively long streamers initiated from an isolated hydrometeor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Feng; Liu, Ningyu; Rassoul, Hamid K.

    2016-06-01

    This paper reports a modeling study on the dynamics of relatively long streamers initiated from an isolated hydrometeor in subbreakdown (0.5Ek) and overbreakdown (1.5Ek) electric fields, respectively, where Ek is the conventional breakdown threshold field. The modeling results indicate that at 0.5Ek field, the streamer shows a generally exponential growth feature, but its channel characteristics such as radius, electron density, and current density exhibit colocated fluctuations. On the other hand, at 1.5Ek field, the streamer shows faster exponential growth, and no fluctuations of those parameters are observed. The exponential growth property allows one to use the modeling results to predict the characteristics of longer streamers, as well as to quantify the thunderstorm electrical conditions including the high-field region size and potential difference in order to accelerate the streamer to the high speed of fast positive breakdown that was observed recently in lightning initiation. At 0.5Ek, a potential difference of ˜0.3-1.8 MV is required to accelerate the streamer to the high speed of 1-5 × 107 m/s, while at 1.5Ek, ˜0.07-0.4 MV is required. The exponentially growing streamer current produces an exponentially increasing magnetic field, leading to electromagnetic (EM) field radiation. It is found that the growth rate of the magnetic field (1/τBϕ) radiated by a streamer can be obtained by a simple relation 1/τBϕ˜3/τ, where 1/τ is the growth rate of the streamer. Combining our modeling results with the Fourier analysis reported by Qin et al. (2012), we find that streamers at thundercloud altitudes radiate in the high frequency and very high frequency range of the EM spectrum.

  9. Characteristics of peripheral refractive errors of myopic and non-myopic Chinese eyes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang; Sankaridurg, Padmaja; Donovan, Les; Lin, Zhi; Li, Li; Martinez, Aldo; Holden, Brien; Ge, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Interest in peripheral refractive errors has increased as it was hypothesized that peripheral hypermetropia might provide a stimulus for axial elongation (Smith et al., 2005), this study was to determine relative peripheral refractive errors (RPRE) of the eyes of a group of Chinese children and adults. Central and peripheral (20 degrees , 30 degrees , 40 degrees at nasal, temporal, superior and inferior meridians of retina) refractive errors were obtained from cyclopleged eyes of 40 children and 42 adults with a Shin-Nippon auto-refractor. Only right eyes were considered. Central spherical equivalent (M) was used to classify the eyes as Moderate Myopia (MM, -3.00 < M < or = -6.00D), Low Myopia (LM, -0.50 < or = M < or = -3.00D), Emmetropia (E, -0.50

  10. Effects of open burning of rice straw on concentrations of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kang-Shin; Wang, Hsin-Kai; Peng, Yen-Ping; Wang, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Chia-Hsiu; Lai, Chia-Hsiang

    2008-10-01

    The sizes and concentrations of 21 atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured at Jhu-Shan (a rural site) and Sin-Gang (a town site) in central Taiwan in October and December 2005. Air samples were collected using semi-volatile sampling trains (PS-1 sampler) over 16 days for rice-straw burning and nonburning periods. These samples were then analyzed using a gas chromatograph with a flame-ionization detector (GC/FID). Particle-size distributions in the particulate phase show a bimode, peaking at 0.32-0.56 microm and 3.2-5.6 microm at the two sites during the nonburning period. During the burning period, peaks also appeared at 0.32-0.56 microm and 3.2-5.6 microm at Jhu-Shan, with the accumulation mode (particle size between 0.1 and 3.2 microm) accounting for approximately 74.1% of total particle mass. The peaks at 0.18-0.32 microm and 1.8-3.2 microm at Shin-Gang had an accumulation mode accounting for approximately 70.1% of total particle mass. The mass median diameter (MMD) of 3.99-4.35 microm in the particulate phase suggested that rice-straw burning generated increased numbers of coarse particles. The concentrations of total PAHs (sum of 21 gases + particles) at the Jhu-Shan site (Sin-Gang site) were 522.9 +/- 111.4 ng/ml (572.0 +/- 91.0 ng/ml) and 330.1 +/- 17.0 ng/ml (or 427.5 +/- 108.0 ng/ml) during burning and nonburning periods, respectively, accounting for a roughly 58% (or 34%) increase in the concentrations of total PAHs due to rice-straw burning. On average, low-weight PAHs (about 87.0%) represent the largest proportion of total PAHs, followed by medium-weight PAHs (7.1%), and high-weight PAHs (5.9%). Combustion-related PAHs during burning periods were 1.54-2.57 times higher than those during nonburning periods. The results of principal component analysis (PCA)/absolute principal component scores (APCS) suggest that the primary pollution sources at the two sites are similar and include vehicle exhaust, coal/wood combustion, incense

  11. Current-dependent block of rabbit sino-atrial node I(f) channels by ivabradine.

    PubMed

    Bucchi, Annalisa; Baruscotti, Mirko; DiFrancesco, Dario

    2002-07-01

    "Funny" (f-) channels have a key role in generation of spontaneous activity of pacemaker cells and mediate autonomic control of cardiac rate; f-channels and the related neuronal h-channels are composed of hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel subunits. We have investigated the block of f-channels of rabbit cardiac sino-atrial node cells by ivabradine, a novel heart rate-reducing agent. Ivabradine is an open-channel blocker; however, block is exerted preferentially when channels deactivate on depolarization, and is relieved by long hyperpolarizing steps. These features give rise to use-dependent behavior. In this, the action of ivabradine on f-channels is similar to that reported of other rate-reducing agents such as UL-FS49 and ZD7288. However, other features of ivabradine-induced block are peculiar and do not comply with the hypothesis that the voltage-dependence of block is entirely attributable to either the sensitivity of ivabradine-charged molecules to the electrical field in the channel pore, or to differential affinity to different channel states, as has been proposed for UL-FS49 (DiFrancesco, D. 1994. Pflugers Arch. 427:64-70) and ZD7288 (Shin, S.K., B.S. Rotheberg, and G. Yellen. 2001. J. Gen. Physiol. 117:91-101), respectively. Experiments where current flows through channels is modified without changing membrane voltage reveal that the ivabradine block depends on the current driving force, rather than voltage alone, a feature typical of block induced in inwardly rectifying K(+) channels by intracellular cations. Bound drug molecules do not detach from the binding site in the absence of inward current through channels, even if channels are open and the drug is therefore not "trapped" by closed gates. Our data suggest that permeation through f-channel pores occurs according to a multiion, single-file mechanism, and that block/unblock by ivabradine is coupled to ionic flow. The use-dependence resulting from specific features of

  12. An Integrated Risk Function for Estimating the Global Burden of Disease Attributable to Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pope, C. Arden; Ezzati, Majid; Olives, Casey; Lim, Stephen S.; Mehta, Sumi; Shin, Hwashin H.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hubbell, Bryan; Brauer, Michael; Anderson, H. Ross; Smith, Kirk R.; Balmes, John R.; Bruce, Nigel G.; Kan, Haidong; Laden, Francine; Prüss-Ustün, Annette; Turner, Michelle C.; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Cohen, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: Estimating the burden of disease attributable to long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in ambient air requires knowledge of both the shape and magnitude of the relative risk (RR) function. However, adequate direct evidence to identify the shape of the mortality RR functions at the high ambient concentrations observed in many places in the world is lacking. Objective: We developed RR functions over the entire global exposure range for causes of mortality in adults: ischemic heart disease (IHD), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and lung cancer (LC). We also developed RR functions for the incidence of acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) that can be used to estimate mortality and lost-years of healthy life in children < 5 years of age. Methods: We fit an integrated exposure–response (IER) model by integrating available RR information from studies of ambient air pollution (AAP), second hand tobacco smoke, household solid cooking fuel, and active smoking (AS). AS exposures were converted to estimated annual PM2.5 exposure equivalents using inhaled doses of particle mass. We derived population attributable fractions (PAFs) for every country based on estimated worldwide ambient PM2.5 concentrations. Results: The IER model was a superior predictor of RR compared with seven other forms previously used in burden assessments. The percent PAF attributable to AAP exposure varied among countries from 2 to 41 for IHD, 1 to 43 for stroke, < 1 to 21 for COPD, < 1 to 25 for LC, and < 1 to 38 for ALRI. Conclusions: We developed a fine particulate mass–based RR model that covered the global range of exposure by integrating RR information from different combustion types that generate emissions of particulate matter. The model can be updated as new RR information becomes available. Citation: Burnett RT, Pope CA III, Ezzati M, Olives C, Lim SS, Mehta S, Shin HH, Singh G, Hubbell B, Brauer M, Anderson HR

  13. On the Utility of a Modest Physics-Based High-Resolution WRF Ensemble for Hurricane Prediction: Hurricane Ivan as an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, J. S.; Bower, K. A.; Kumar, S. S.; Kucera, P. A.; Askelson, M. A.

    2005-05-01

    The remarkable 2004 Atlantic hurricane season featured six "major" hurricanes (according to the Saffir-Simpson (SS) intensity scale), four of which directly impacted the state of Florida (Charley, Frances, Ivan, Jeanne) within a six-week period. Of these, Hurricane Ivan distinguished itself with impressive statistics in terms of lifespan (22 days), maximum intensity (SS category 5), damage (est. 13 billion dollars) and U.S. deaths (26). A variety of tools are currently available to forecasters at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Tropical Prediction Center (TPC), including several deterministic and statistical models as well as the Florida State University superensemble (e.g., Shin and Krishnamurti, 2003a,b). Often a blend of solutions from the various packages is utilized, though in other cases the TPC forecasters will follow the solution from a preferred model based on recent performance for the tropical cyclone of interest. Given that the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) continue to move towards an operational environment where a relatively modest ensemble (roughly 6 members), constructed from within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) framework, will figure prominently in the near future (DiMego 2004), a timely question to ask is whether the performance of such an ensemble for tropical systems will add value to the tool box now available to TPC forecasters. While a fully robust answer to this question demands a period of extensive testing under operational conditions, individual case studies can provide significant insights into some aspects of the expected performance of such a modeling system. Therefore, in this presentation we will present early results and limited performance metrics for such a case study, focusing on the 30-hour period beginning with Hurricane Ivan's entrance into the Gulf of Mexico. We note that while our 7-member ensemble consists entirely of WRF model members, in line with

  14. The effect of an emollient with benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic on the improvement of epidermal skin function

    PubMed Central

    Bednarski, Igor A.; Lesiak, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complications of diabetes can damage internal organs and the skin. Diabetic skin, irritated and dry, is susceptible to skin infections. However little is known about influence of emollients on biophysical changes in skin during diabetes. Aim To evaluate clinical skin changes after application of emollients with benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic and to assess changes in biophysical parameters of the skin before and 4 weeks after daily application of an emollient. Material and methods We recruited 50 patients with diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) or type 2 (DM2). All participants applied emollients on their left forearms and left shins for 4 weeks. The biophysical properties: pH, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), hydration of the stratum corneum and sebum content were measured and compared to those before enrollment to the study, after 1 h, 1 week and 4 weeks after application of an emollient. Results After 4 weeks of treatment, there was an increase in skin hydration (40.61 ±19.03 vs. 48.83 ±15.51), pH (5.11 ±0.56 to 5.27 ±0.48) and sebum content (22.16 ±8.67 to 63.99 ±25.41) and a decrease in TEWL (12.54 ±5.6 vs. 9.85 ±5.69 g/m2/h) on forearms (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). On lower legs, significant changes in skin hydration (37.21 ±14.01 vs. 43.95 ±12.67), pH (5.04 ±0.57 to 5.31 ±0.49), sebum content (25.82 ±10.46 to 72.63 ±31.23) and TEWL (8.87 ±4.05 vs. 7.39 ±3.22 g/m2/h) were observed (p < 0.05 for all comparisons). Conclusions Our study provides an insight into changes in diabetic skin after application of an emollient. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the emollient containing benfothiamine and Biolin prebiotic and its influence on biophysical parameters of epidermis. PMID:27512359

  15. The biomechanics of soccer: a review.

    PubMed

    Lees, A; Nolan, L

    1998-04-01

    This review considers the biomechanical factors that are relevant to success in the game of soccer. Three broad areas are covered: (1) the technical performance of soccer skills; (2) the equipment used in playing the game; and (3) the causative mechanisms of specific soccer injuries. Kicking is the most widely studied soccer skill. Although there are many types of kick, the variant most widely reported in the literature is the maximum velocity instep kick of a stationary ball. In contrast, several other skills, such as throwing-in and goalkeeping, have received little attention; some, for example passing and trapping the ball, tackling, falling behaviour, jumping, running, sprinting, starting, stopping and changing direction, have not been the subject of any detailed biomechanical investigation. The items of equipment reviewed are boots, the ball, artificial and natural turf surfaces and shin guards. Little of the research conducted by equipment manufacturers is in the public domain; this part of the review therefore concentrates on the mechanical responses of equipment, player-equipment interaction, and the effects of equipment on player performance and protection. Although the equipment has mechanical characteristics that can be reasonably well quantified, the player-equipment interaction is more difficult to establish; this makes its efficacy for performance or protection difficult to predict. Some soccer injuries may be attributable to the equipment used. The soccer boot has a poor protective capability, but careful design can have a minor influence on reducing the severity of ankle inversion injuries. Performance requirements limit the scope for reducing these injuries; alternative methods for providing ankle stability are necessary. Artificial surfaces result in injury profiles different from those on natural turf pitches. There is a tendency for fewer serious injuries, but more minor injuries, on artificial turf than on natural turf pitches. Players adapt to

  16. Methane-related microbial processes and metabolic stratification in a terrestrial mud volcano, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, T.; Lin, L.; Wang, P.; Chu, P.; Wu, J.

    2009-12-01

    Mud volcanoes are distinct geological features with fluid, sediment and hydrocarbon-enriched gas mixtures emitted from deep sedimentary environments. Without microbial attenuation in the water column, methane emission to atmosphere from terrestrial mud volcanoes constitutes a significant proportion to the global methane inventory. Microorganisms mediating methane transformation would be particularly enriched in such environments. Their activity, distribution, and diversity involved remain not well-constrained. At Shin-Yan-Ny-Hu Mud Volcanoes (SYNHMV) of southwestern Taiwan, we performed series of measurements and analyses on the pore water and eruptive water samples using geochemical and molecular approaches, in order to determine microbial processes and community assemblages responsible for methane transformation. Geochemical measurements indicated that sulfate depletion was companied with methane increase as the depth increased. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) more depleted in 13C was observed at the depth of sulfate-methane transition zone (SMT, at ~12cm depth) than at other depth intervals. These characteristics of methane, sulfate, and DIC isotope profiles and the presence of ANME-1 sequences showed a high similarity with those of marine sediments, indicating the existence of active anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). From bottom to top, the increasing δ13C values of methane with the greatest value occurring in the eruptive surface water suggests methanogenesis and/or methane oxidation over the entire depth range. The contribution of microbial methane could be supported by molecular data of which methanogen-related archaea distributed throughout the entire depths, and the community structures were characterized by Methanosarcinales dominating at shallow depths and Methanomicrobiales dominating in deep sediments. The affinities and activities to substrate addition for methanogenesis appeared to be depth-dependent. Bacterial sequences affiliated with methane

  17. Discovery of Weyl fermion semimetal and topological Fermi arc quasiparticles in TaAs, NbAs, NbP, TaP and related materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, M. Zahid

    .online (2014)). This work is in collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, Ilya Belopolski, Nasser Alidoust, Madhab Neupane, Chenglong Zhang, Raman Sankar, Shin-Ming Huang, Chi-Cheng Lee, Guoqing Chang, BaoKai Wang, Guang Bian, Hao Zheng, Daniel S. Sanchez, Fangcheng Chou, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia, Titus Neupert. This work is supported by GBMF and U.S. DOE. In collaboration with Su-Yang Xu, I. Belopolski, N. Alidoust, M. Neupane, C. Zhang, R. Sankar, S.-M. Huang, C.-C. Lee, G. Chang, B. Wang, G. Bian, H. Zheng, D. Sanchez, F.-C. Chou, T. Neupert, Hsin Lin, Shuang Jia. Work supported by GBMF(Moore) & DOE.

  18. Automated science target selection for future Mars rovers: A machine vision approach for the future ESA ExoMars 2018 rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yu; Muller, Jan-Peter

    2013-04-01

    The ESA ExoMars 2018 rover is planned to perform autonomous science target selection (ASTS) using the approaches described in [1]. However, the approaches shown to date have focused on coarse features rather than the identification of specific geomorphological units. These higher-level "geoobjects" can later be employed to perform intelligent reasoning or machine learning. In this work, we show the next stage in the ASTS through examples displaying the identification of bedding planes (not just linear features in rock-face images) and the identification and discrimination of rocks in a rock-strewn landscape (not just rocks). We initially detect the layers and rocks in 2D processing via morphological gradient detection [1] and graph cuts based segmentation [2] respectively. To take this further requires the retrieval of 3D point clouds and the combined processing of point clouds and images for reasoning about the scene. An example is the differentiation of rocks in rover images. This will depend on knowledge of range and range-order of features. We show demonstrations of these "geo-objects" using MER and MSL (released through the PDS) as well as data collected within the EU-PRoViScout project (http://proviscout.eu). An initial assessment will be performed of the automated "geo-objects" using the OpenSource StereoViewer developed within the EU-PRoViSG project (http://provisg.eu) which is released in sourceforge. In future, additional 3D measurement tools will be developed within the EU-FP7 PRoViDE2 project, which started on 1.1.13. References: [1] M. Woods, A. Shaw, D. Barnes, D. Price, D. Long, D. Pullan, (2009) "Autonomous Science for an ExoMars Rover-Like Mission", Journal of Field Robotics Special Issue: Special Issue on Space Robotics, Part II, Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 358-390. [2] J. Shi, J. Malik, (2000) "Normalized Cuts and Image Segmentation", IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, Volume 22. [3] D. Shin, and J.-P. Muller (2009

  19. Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system related gene polymorphisms and urinary total arsenic is related to chronic kidney disease

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wei-Jen; Huang, Ya-Li; Shiue, Horng-Sheng; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Lin, Ying-Chin; Han, Bor-Cheng; Hsueh, Yu-Mei

    2014-09-01

    A recent study demonstrated that an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was associated with high urinary total arsenic levels. However, whether genomic instability is related to CKD remains unclear. An association between CKD and genetic polymorphisms of regulation enzymes of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), and aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) has not been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between arsenic, genetic polymorphisms of RAAS enzymes and CKD. A total of 233 patients and 449 age- and gender-matched controls were recruited from the Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and the Shin Kong Wu Ho-Su Memorial Hospital. Concentrations of urinary arsenic were determined by a high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator, and atomic absorption spectrometry. Polymorphisms of ACE(I/D), AGT(A[− 20]C), (T174M), (M235T), AT1R(A1166C) and CYP11B2(C[− 344]T) were examined by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Subjects carrying the CYP11B2 TT genotype had a higher odds ratio (OR), 1.39 (0.96–2.01), of CKD; while those with the AGT(A[− 20]C) CC genotype had an inverse OR of CKD (0.20 (0.05–0.81)), and a high-risk genotype was defined as A/A + A/C for AGT(A[− 20C]) and T/T for CYP11B2(C[− 344]T). The trend test showed a higher OR for CKD in patients who had either high urinary total arsenic levels or carried the high-risk genotype, or both, compared to patients with low urinary total arsenic levels, who carried the low-risk genotype, and could also be affected by the hypertension or diabetes status. - Highlights: • AGT(− 20 C) and CYP11B2(− 344 T) genotypes were significantly associated with CKD. • Combined effect of high-risk genotypes and high urinary total arsenic on OR of CKD. • Combined

  20. Subsurface structure around Omi basin using borehole database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitada, N.; Ito, H.; Takemura, K.; Mitamura, M.

    2015-12-01

    Kansai Geo-informatics Network (KG-NET) is organized as a new system of management of GI-base in 2005. This organization collects the geotechnical and geological information of borehole data more than 60,000 data. GI-base is the database system of the KG-NET and platform to use these borehole data. Kansai Geo-informatics Research Committee (KG-R) is tried to explain the geotechnical properties and geological environment using borehole database in Kansai area. In 2014, KG-R established the 'Shin-Kansai Jiban Omi plain', and explain the subsurface geology and characteristics of geotechnical properties. In this study we introduce this result and consider the sedimental environment and characteristics in this area. Omi Basin is located in the central part of Shiga Prefecture which includes the largest lake in Japan called Lake Biwa. About 15,000 borehole data are corrected to consider the subsurface properties. The outline of topographical and geological characteristics of the basin is divided into west side and east side. The west side area is typical reverse fault called Biwako-Seigan fault zone along the lakefront. From Biwako-Seigan fault, the Omi basin is tilting down from east to west. Otherwise, the east areas distribute lowland and hilly area comparatively. The sedimentary facies are also complicate and difficult to be generally evaluated. So the discussion has been focused about mainly the eastern and western part of Lake Biwa. The widely dispersed volcanic ash named Aira-Tn (AT) deposited before 26,000-29,000 years ago (Machida and Arai, 2003), is sometimes interbedded the humic layers in the low level ground area. However, because most of the sediments are comprised by thick sand and gravels whose deposit age could not be investigated, it is difficult to widely identify the boundary of strata. Three types of basement rocks are distributed mainly (granite, sediment rock, rhyolite), and characteristics of deposit are difference of each backland basement rock