Science.gov

Sample records for yachts

  1. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  2. Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen

    In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.

  3. View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of yacht club and avila pier, facing west. The San Luis Bay Club is visible on the hill in the background. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  4. View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing south from Front Street. Harbor storage building and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing east. The new deck and the avila pier are on the right and the harbor storage and restrooms are on the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  6. View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west northwest. The main entry is to the right and the more recent deck addition is to the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  7. View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club facing north. The beach is in the foreground, the pier to the right. The painted octagonal window is above the deck. Avila's Front Street is at the rear of the building. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... arrive at and depart from ports in such foreign country and to cruise in the waters of such ports without... waters in which the yacht will cruise, and a statement of the probable time it will remain in such waters..., to arrive and depart from the United States and to cruise in specified waters of the United...

  9. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom and the Dependencies: the Anguilla Islands, the Isle of Man, the... shall set forth the owner's name and address and identify the vessel by flag, rig, name, and such other... period of ____ from ____(Date) the ____(Flag) ____ (Rig) yacht ____(Name) belonging to ________ of...

  10. Research on key technology of yacht positioning based on binocular parallax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Yacht has become a fashionable way for entertainment. However, to obtain the precise location of a yacht docked at a port has become one of the concerns of a yacht manager. To deal with this issue, we adopt a positioning method based on the principle of binocular parallax and background difference in this paper. Binocular parallax uses cameras to get multi-dimensional perspective of the yacht based on geometric principle of imaging. In order to simplify the yacht localization problem, we install LED light indicator as the key point on a yacht. And let it flash at a certain frequency during day time and night time. After getting the distance between the LED and the cameras, locating the yacht is easy. Compared with other traditional positioning methods, this method is simpler and easier to implement. In this paper, we study the yacht positioning method using the LED indicator. Simulation experiment is done for a yacht model in the distance of 3 meters. The experimental result shows that our method is feasible and easy to implement with a small 15% positioning error.

  11. Patterns of illness and injury encountered in amateur ocean yacht racing: an analysis of the British Telecom Round the World Yacht Race 1996–1997

    PubMed Central

    Price, C; Spalding, T; McKenzie, C; Farquharson-Rober..., M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the incidence and type of medical problem arising during an amateur circumnavigation yacht race, the BT Global Challenge. Methods: All cases from 14 participating yachts in a confidential medical log completed by an appointed medic were reported. Results: A total of 685 cases were reported, of which 299 (43.6%) were injuries and 386 (56.4%) illnesses. The subtype of injury, illness, and three evacuations at sea are described. Conclusion: Injury and other forms of medical problem are relatively common in an amateur long distance ocean yacht race. Most can be adequately managed at sea, provided that optimal communication, training, and equipment are provided and maintained. PMID:12453842

  12. System identification and the modeling of sailing yachts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legursky, Katrina

    This research represents an exploration of sailing yacht dynamics with full-scale sailing motion data, physics-based models, and system identification techniques. The goal is to provide a method of obtaining and validating suitable physics-based dynamics models for use in control system design on autonomous sailing platforms, which have the capacity to serve as mobile, long range, high endurance autonomous ocean sensing platforms. The primary contributions of this study to the state-of-the-art are the formulation of a five degree-of-freedom (DOF) linear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state space model of sailing yacht dynamics, the process for identification of this model from full-scale data, a description of the maneuvers performed during on-water tests, and an analysis method to validate estimated models. The techniques and results described herein can be directly applied to and tested on existing autonomous sailing platforms. A full-scale experiment on a 23ft monohull sailing yacht is developed to collect motion data for physics-based model identification. Measurements include 3 axes of accelerations, velocities, angular rates, and attitude angles in addition to apparent wind speed and direction. The sailing yacht herein is treated as a dynamic system with two control inputs, the rudder angle, deltaR, and the mainsail angle, delta B, which are also measured. Over 20 hours of full scale sailing motion data is collected, representing three sail configurations corresponding to a range of wind speeds: the Full Main and Genoa (abbrev. Genoa) for lower wind speeds, the Full Main and Jib (abbrev. Jib) for mid-range wind speeds, and the Reefed Main and Jib (abbrev. Reef) for the highest wind speeds. The data also covers true wind angles from upwind through a beam reach. A physics-based non-linear model to describe sailing yacht motion is outlined, including descriptions of methods to model the aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of a sailing yacht in surge, sway, roll, and

  13. 33 CFR 100.1304 - Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade. (a) Regulated area. All of Portage Bay, with the... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Annual Seattle Yacht Club's âOpening Dayâ Marine Parade. 100.1304 Section 100.1304 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST...

  14. 78 FR 34582 - Safety Zone; Rochester Yacht Club Fireworks, Genesee River, Rochester, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Rochester Yacht Club Fireworks, Genesee... restrict vessels from a portion of the Genesee River during the Rochester Yacht Club fireworks display... with a fireworks display. DATES: This rule will be effective between 9:30 p.m. until 11:00 p.m. on...

  15. 75 FR 4783 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour... record in an administrative appeal filed by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc. (Villa Marina). DATES: The...

  16. Investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubomir, Soukup; Jaroslav, Stigler; Abdellah, Kharicha

    2016-03-01

    The present article deals with investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder. One of the most important aspect for design of yachts are the symmetric conditions of all parts, which are located under water level and concentricity of the ship's screw, rudder and keel relative to the hull. These symmetric and concentricity conditions have a major impact on the resulting dynamic properties of the ships. They have either substantial impact on the overall efficiency of installed engine and ship's screw. As the result of poorly designed above mentioned parts, there can be an unsolicited additional torque on the yacht's rudder and higher consumption of the fuel. Last but not least of these problems leads to poor controllability and discomfort within steering. This article is focused on the investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder.

  17. Thermoregulatory demands of elite professional America's Cup yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Neville, V; Gant, N; Folland, J P

    2010-06-01

    America's Cup yacht racing predominantly occurs during the summer months under hot and humid conditions, with athletes exposed to the environment for prolonged periods, and yet the thermoregulatory responses to competitive sailing are largely unappreciated. This study aimed to assess the thermoregulatory responses to elite professional big-boat yacht racing, according to crew position and upwind and downwind sailing. Intestinal (T(core)) and skin temperature, fluid balance and regional sweat compositions were measured in two America's Cup crews (n=32) during 100 min of racing. The environmental conditions were as follows: 32 degrees C, 52% RH and 5 m/s wind speed. Subjective race intensity was moderate. Bowmen recorded the greatest elevation in the heart rate (184 +/- 10 beats/min) and T(core) (39.2 degrees C, P<0.01). Both heart rate and T(core) were higher during downwind sailing (P<0.001). Regional skin temperatures were significantly different according to site (P=0.05), with tibia being the lowest (33.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C). The mean sweat loss during racing was 1.34 +/- 0.58 L/h (range: 0.44-2.40 L/h), with bowmen experiencing the greatest loss of sweat (3.7 +/- 0.9% of body mass). The mean fluid intake was highly correlated to sweat loss (r=0.74, P<0.001), with 72 +/- 41% of sweat losses replaced. The mean sodium concentration of sweat was 27.2 +/- 9.2 mmol/L (range: 12.0-43.5 mmol/L) and the total NaCl loss during sailing was 3.8 +/- 2.4 g (range 0.7-10.0 g). America's Cup sailing is a demanding sport that presents considerable challenges to thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain crew roles (bowmen) present an increased risk of developing exertional heat illness, and for the majority of crew downwind sailing results in greater thermal strain than upwind sailing - which may have implications for clothing selection and boat design.

  18. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  19. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  20. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  1. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  2. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  3. 76 FR 77125 - Safety Zone; Sausalito Yacht Club's Annual Lighted Boat Parade and Fireworks Display, Sausalito, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Sausalito Yacht Club's Annual Lighted Boat... Francisco Bay near Sausalito, California in support of the Sausalito Yacht Club's Annual Lighted Boat Parade... Annual Lighted Boat Parade and Fireworks Display on December 10, 2011 in the navigable waters of the San...

  4. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  5. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in America's Cup yacht racing

    PubMed Central

    Neville, V J; Molloy, J; Brooks, J H M; Speedy, D B; Atkinson, G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence and severity of injuries and illnesses incurred by a professional America's Cup yacht racing crew during the preparation for and participation in the challenge for the 2003 America's Cup. Methods A prospective study design was used over 74 weeks of sailing and training. All injuries and illnesses sustained by the 35 professional male crew members requiring medical treatment were recorded, including the diagnosis, nature, location, and mechanism of injury. The volume of sailing and training were recorded, and the severity of incidents were determined by the number of days absent from both sailing and training. Results In total, 220 injuries and 119 illnesses were recorded, with an overall incidence of 8.8 incidents/1000 sailing and training hours (injuries, 5.7; illnesses, 3.1). The upper limb was the most commonly injured body segment (40%), followed by the spine and neck (30%). The most common injuries were joint/ligament sprains (27%) and tendinopathies (20%). The incidence of injury was significantly higher in training (8.6) than sailing (2.2). The most common activity or mechanism of injury was non‐specific overuse (24%), followed by impact with boat hardware (15%) and weight training (13%). “Grinders” had the highest overall injury incidence (7.7), and “bowmen” had the highest incidence of sailing injuries (3.2). Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections (40%). Conclusions The data from this study suggest that America's Cup crew members are at a similar risk of injury to athletes in other non‐collision team sports. Prudent allocation of preventive and therapeutic resources, such as comprehensive health and medical care, well designed conditioning and nutritional programmes, and appropriate management of recovery should be adopted by America's Cup teams in order to reduce the risk of injury and illness. PMID:16556783

  6. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... procedures; and related management systems practices) that are developed or adopted by voluntary consensus... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard...

  7. Different strategies for sports injury prevention in an America's Cup yachting crew.

    PubMed

    Hadala, Michal; Barrios, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effectiveness in reducing the number of sport injuries after application of different strategies of preventive physiotherapy during competition periods in an America's Cup yachting crew. A prospective physiotherapy intervention study during competition periods for three seasons was conducted on an America's Cup yachting race crew of 30 professional sailors. In the first two acts (2004), athletes did not receive any preventive physiotherapy. In the two acts celebrated in 2005, preventive intervention (phase 1) consisted of stretching exercises before the yacht race and preventative taping. During the four acts corresponding to the 2006 season, the physiotherapy program was implemented adding articular mobilization before competition, ice baths after competition, and kinesiotaping (phase 2). In the last act and the Louis Vuitton Cup (2007), a recovery program with "core stability" exercises, postcompetition stretching exercises, and 12 h of compressive clothing were added (phase 3). In the preintervention phase (2004), the rate of injured sailors/competition day was 1.66, decreasing to 0.60 in 2007 (phase 3). The number of athletes with more than one injury was significantly reduced from 53% (8 of 15) to 6.5% (2 of 12). In the preintervention period, mastmen, grinders, and bowmen showed a rate of 2.88 injuries per competition day. After phase 3, this group only suffered 0.35 injuries per competition day. The implementation of a program of preventive physiotherapy decreased the risk of injuries suffered during competition by an America's Cup yacht crew.

  8. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  9. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  10. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  11. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  12. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  13. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  14. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  15. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  16. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  17. Recolonization of macrofauna in unpolluted sands placed in a polluted yachting harbour: A field approach using experimental trays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment using trays was conducted at Ceuta's yachting harbour, North Africa, to study the effect in recolonization of placing trays with unpolluted defaunate sediments (fine and gross sands with low contents of organic matter) inside an enclosed yachting harbour characterized by high percentages of silt and clay and high concentrations of organic matter. Sediment recolonization in the trays was mainly undertaken by the species living naturally at the yachting harbour, which recolonized both uncontaminated gross and fine sand trays (such as the crustaceans Corophium runcicorne, Corophium sextonae and Nebalia bipes, the mollusc Parvicardium exiguum and the polychaete Pseudomalacoceros tridentata). However, other species like the polychaetes Cirriformia tentaculata and Platynereis dumerilii, although also abundant in the yachting harbour, were unable to colonize the trays through transport of larvae and/or adults in the water column. The recolonization was very quick, and after the first month, the values of abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness were similar in the experimental trays and in the reference area (yachting harbour). Although the multivariate analysis showed that the species composition differed between the trays and the reference area, there were no significant differences in recolonization of gross and fine sands, indicating that other factors different from the granulometry are modulating the recolonization patterns.

  18. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... point at 41°31′28.00″ N, 81°40′02.60″ W, which point is marked by a fixed flashing yellow light. (2....67″ N, 81°40′19.17″ W, and northwest of the same reference line. (5) Restricted area no. 5. Restricted area no. 5 is the area inside the Lakeside Yacht Club docks which is outside restricted area 4...

  20. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... point at 41°31′28.00″ N, 81°40′02.60″ W, which point is marked by a fixed flashing yellow light. (2....67″ N, 81°40′19.17″ W, and northwest of the same reference line. (5) Restricted area no. 5. Restricted area no. 5 is the area inside the Lakeside Yacht Club docks which is outside restricted area 4...

  1. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... point at 41°31′28.00″ N, 81°40′02.60″ W, which point is marked by a fixed flashing yellow light. (2....67″ N, 81°40′19.17″ W, and northwest of the same reference line. (5) Restricted area no. 5. Restricted area no. 5 is the area inside the Lakeside Yacht Club docks which is outside restricted area 4...

  2. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... a line running 328° T from the intersection of 81°39′58.47″ W and reference line running between... Yacht Club docks which is southwest of a line running 328° T from the intersection of 81°39′58.47″ W and... withdraws approval for operation of an instrument-only approach to runway 24 on the northeast end of Burke...

  3. Example of activities of the MERCATOR-Océan Project : oil spill and yacht race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Greiner, E.; Blanc, F.; Lellouche, J. M.; Nouel, L.

    2003-04-01

    MERCATOR-Ocean is the french group aiming at developing an operational capacity for global ocean analysis and forecasting monitoring, based on near-real-time assimilation of satellite and in situ ocean observations in three-dimensional ocean models. MERCATOR-Ocean is supported by the six major french agencies involved in oceanography : CNES (French Space Agency), CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), IFREMER (French Institute of Research and Exploitation of the Sea), IRD (Research Institute for Development), Météo-France (French Meteorological Agency) and SHOM (Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service) - with a strong engagement of their subsidiaries CERFACS (European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite) in the success of the project. Every week since January 17, 2001, MERCATOR provides the oceanographic community with a set of maps and data about the underlying variables of the ocean, such as velocity, salinity, temperature and sea level anomalies, which describe the ocean in all its dimensions, from instantaneous analysis to 2-week forecasts, from the sea surface to the sea floor. Since november 2002, MERCATOR-Ocean has been involved in two major events. Early november 2002, the project provided skippers of the Route du Rhum transatlantic yacht race with prevision of sea-surface currents. In the mean time, on Tuesday November 19, the oil tanker Prestige sank in the Atlantic off the Portuguese and Spanish coasts. Called upon from the outset, MERCATOR OCEAN began November 20 to provide analyses and forecasts for two weeks in the future for the state of the ocean in the area, both on the surface and at depth, to teams of specialists of the crisis unit coordinated by CEDRE. This talk details these recent activities and draws the main lines of MERCATOR-Ocean actuality and future.

  4. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 88-262-2209, Egg Harbor Yacht, Inc. , Egg Harbor City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Reh, C.M.; Petsonk, E.L.

    1992-04-01

    In response to a request from a group of employees at Egg Harbor Yacht, Inc. (SIC-3732), Egg Harbor, New Jersey, an investigation was made of respiratory complaints. The company manufactured fiberglass reinforced plastic boats, specializing in fishing and sporting yachts. There were approximately 200 hourly workers employed at the site. The hull, deck and some smaller boat parts were fabricated from polyester base resin, gel coat, and split strand glass fiber using hand or spray lay up techniques. The workers complained generally of respiratory symptoms. Over 78% of the measurements taken from the fiberglass molding area showed styrene (100425) concentrations above the NIOSH action level of 25 parts per million (ppm), with the average concentration being 46.8ppm. Of four breathing zone samples for total wood dust taken in the woodworking section, three were above the ACGIH threshold limit value of 1mg/cu m. The authors conclude that a health hazard existed from exposures to styrene and wood dust and recommend exposure monitoring, engineering and administrative controls, personal protection, and medical monitoring as aids to correcting this situation.

  5. Sleep management and the performance of eight sailors in the Tour de France à la voile yacht race.

    PubMed

    Léger, D; Elbaz, M; Raffray, T; Metlaine, A; Bayon, V; Duforez, F

    2008-01-01

    We observed how sailors manage their sleep and alertness before and during competition in a long-haul yacht race. Global performance of the teams was also recorded. We assessed eight sailors aged 21-30 years, split into four teams, who competed in the Tour de France à la Voile 2002 yacht race. Two phases of the race were examined: two legs in both the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sleep length, sleep debt, and sleepiness before competition and on board during the race were assessed using ambulatory polysomnography. Intermediate and final rankings were considered as a reflection of performance. A significant correlation was observed between the sleep debt before competition and the total sleep time on board during the Atlantic legs. The greater the sleep debt, the more sleepy the participants were. During the Mediterranean legs, almost all the sailors were deprived of sleep and slept during the daytime competitions. We observed that the final ranking in the race related to the sleep management strategy of the participants. In extreme competitive conditions, the effect of a good night's sleep before competition on performance is important. The strategy of the winners was to get sufficient sleep before each leg so as to be the most alert and efficient during the race.

  6. Control technology for fiber reinforced plastics industry at AMF Hatteras Yachts, New Bern Division, New Bern, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, W. F.

    1984-05-01

    Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for styrene (100425) at AMF Hatteras Yachts (SIC-3079), New Bern, North Carolina, in September, 1983. Control technology at the facility was inspected. Breathing zone styrene concentrations were 8 to 74 parts per million (ppm), the highest concentrations occurring in the lamination and gel coating departments. Area samples ranged from 1 to 20ppm. The OSHA standard is 100ppm. The hull lamination and assembly areas were ventilated by air make up units and exhaust blowers. Air exhausted through the lamination booths in the small parts work area was considerably less than the supply air from the make up units. The air flow in two of the three lamination booths was considered inadequate. Respirators were available if needed. Industrial hygiene sampling at the facility was supervised by the industrial hygienist.

  7. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cove, Columbia, SC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Information is presented concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water. Included are such items as principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system. Also included are trouble-shooting charts and maintenance schedules.

  8. 77 FR 38490 - Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ... Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716- 843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg... held on Lake Erie near Mentor, OH. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined that fireworks.... C. Discussion of Rule With the aforementioned hazards in mind, the Captain of the Port Buffalo has...

  9. Oceanography and Yacht Racing - A Handful of Competitors, Millions of Spectators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Cresswell, G.; Badcock, K.; Cahill, M.; Rathbone, C.; Turner, P.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter measurements of sea level have proven to be far more accurate, and useful, than was hope for when the missions were designed, especially when data from several instruments are combines. In the regard, the experimental missions (ERS1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) have all been a resounding success. Why then, are there not plans already in place to continue and improve on the recent missions? One reason is surely that end-user uptake of the mission products has not yet convincingly justified the costs of future missions. At CSIRO we sought to maximise the awareness, amongst all marine sectors, that mapping ocean currents with sufficient accuracy and detail for operational use is indeed possible, so that the societal benefits of the system would become clear as quickly as possible. We did this using a well know marketing too - sport.

  10. 77 FR 39402 - Safety Zone; Cleveland Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Rocky River, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ..., Chief of Waterways Management, U.S. Coast Guard Sector Buffalo; telephone 716- 843-9343, email SectorBuffaloMarineSafety@uscg.mil . If you have questions on viewing or submitting material to the docket, call... be held on Lake Erie near Rocky River, OH. The Captain of the Port Buffalo has determined...

  11. Investigation of the Use of Drogues to Improve the Safety of Sailing Yachts and Life Rafts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    several additional m models were added including two different trimaran designs, a catamaran and a proa built to a scale of 1 to 32, and two six man...COMPARISON 9 * *1L co L. 1 -u - T. T; mu L- -. ’ M I. I"- - - - - - t Vti Y.S’ Z’ WAVE FRONT FROM RAMP FIG. 9 POSITION OF BOAT AND DROGUE RELATIVE TO RAMP 𔃺...The mathematical model indicates that the cyclic load for a 32 ft. boat with a 3-1/2 ft. diameter drogue could exceed 1000 lbs. 24 • m

  12. 75 FR 23587 - Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... large number of craft confined within this small body of water, all vessels, both spectator and participants will maintain a ``NO WAKE'' speed. DATES: The regulations in 33 CFR 100.1304 will be enforced from... this small body of water, all vessels, both spectator and participants, will maintain a ``NO...

  13. 76 FR 55261 - Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... pyrotechnics. Unauthorized persons or vessels are prohibited from entering into, transiting through, or... rulemaking process would be completed. Because of the dangers posed by the pyrotechnics used in this... dangers posed by the pyrotechnics used in the fireworks display. Basis and Purpose Hornblower Cruises and...

  14. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  15. 78 FR 11116 - Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ..., Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... Island Sound in the vicinity of Mamaroneck Harbor for a fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is... is intended to restrict all vessels from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during,...

  16. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., navigational equipment, or any other structure. (1) Less than 41 feet. Vessels less than 41 feet in height are... Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower before navigating through the restricted area(s); (2) Navigate promptly... height; and (3) Promptly inform the Burke Lakefront Air Traffic Control Tower after clearing...

  17. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  18. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... duty includes any duties, taxes, fees and charges imposed by law. The principal will exonerate and hold... well as from any loss or damage resulting from fraud or negligence on the part of any officer,...

  19. 78 FR 36426 - Safety Zone; Queen's Cup; Lake Michigan; Milwaukee, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... starting point--an estimated 1.7 nautical miles east of Milwaukee Harbor break wall. South Shore Yacht Club....1. On June 28 2013, the South Shore Yacht Club in Milwaukee Wisconsin will be hosting their...

  20. 19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW OF HULL BRACING IN FORWARD PORT SIDE OF HULL, APPARENTLY ADDED TO PREVENT HOGGING. - Schooner Yacht Coronet, International Yacht Restoration School, Thames Street, Newport, Newport County, RI

  1. 26 CFR 1.274-2 - Disallowance of deductions for certain expenses for entertainment, amusement, recreation, or travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., entertainment include yachts, hunting lodges, fishing camps, swimming pools, tennis courts, bowling alleys... social, athletic, or sporting club or organization, bowling alley, tennis court, or swimming pool, or,...

  2. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... American Legion Fourth of July Add-Fire Fireworks, Inc. Biscayne Bay, approx 400 ft offshore of Legion... Yacht Club Fourth of July Colonial Fireworks Intracoastal Waterway in front of the Fort Lauderdale Yacht Club, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. City of Stuart Fourth of July Creative Fireworks Co. Intracoastal...

  3. 33 CFR 100.801 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during the fourth week in July Oakmont Yacht Club Regatta/Oakmont Yacht Club Allegheny River, Oakmont, PA... The fourth Saturday in July Great Ohio River Swim/Ohio River Way Inc Ohio River, Cincinnati, OH Ohio River mile marker 469.7 to 470.3, Cincinnati, OH. 44 44 The fourth Sunday of July Cincinnati Triathlon...

  4. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... American Legion Fourth of July Add-Fire Fireworks, Inc. Biscayne Bay, approx 400 ft offshore of Legion... Yacht Club Fourth of July Colonial Fireworks Intracoastal Waterway in front of the Fort Lauderdale Yacht Club, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. City of Stuart Fourth of July Creative Fireworks Co. Intracoastal...

  5. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... American Legion Fourth of July Add-Fire Fireworks, Inc. Biscayne Bay, approx 400 ft offshore of Legion... Yacht Club Fourth of July Colonial Fireworks Intracoastal Waterway in front of the Fort Lauderdale Yacht Club, Fort Lauderdale, Florida. City of Stuart Fourth of July Creative Fireworks Co. Intracoastal...

  6. A risk-based predictive tool to prevent accidental introductions of nonindigenous marine species.

    PubMed

    Floerl, Oliver; Inglis, Graeme J; Hayden, Barbara J

    2005-06-01

    Preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species (NIS) is the most efficient way to avoid the costs and impacts of biological invasions. The transport of fouling species on ship hulls is an important vector for the introduction of marine NIS. We use quantitative risk screening techniques to develop a predictive tool of the abundance and variety of organisms being transported by ocean-going yachts. We developed and calibrated an ordinal rank scale of the abundance of fouling assemblages on the hulls of international yacht hulls arriving in New Zealand. Fouling ranks were allocated to 783 international yachts that arrived in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004. Classification tree analysis was used to identify relationships between the fouling ranks and predictor variables that described the maintenance and travel history of the yachts. The fouling ranks provided reliable indications of the actual abundance and variety of fouling assemblages on the yachts and identified most (60%) yachts that had fouling on their hulls. However, classification tree models explained comparatively little of the variation in the distribution of fouling ranks (22.1%), had high misclassification rates (approximately 43%), and low predictive power. In agreement with other studies, the best model selected the age of the toxic antifouling paint on yacht hulls as the principal risk factor for hull fouling. Our study shows that the transport probability of fouling organisms is the result of a complex suite of interacting factors and that large sample sizes will be needed for calibration of robust risk models.

  7. Macroalgal introductions by hull fouling on recreational vessels: seaweeds and sailors.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P; Maggs, Christine A

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  8. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  9. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Fishing boats, yachts, cabin cruisers and other craft utilizing the East Boat Basin on the south side of... audio or other noise producing device including, but not limited to, communications media and...

  10. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Fishing boats, yachts, cabin cruisers and other craft utilizing the East Boat Basin on the south side of... audio or other noise producing device including, but not limited to, communications media and...

  11. 33 CFR 207.20 - Cape Cod Canal, Mass.; use, administration, and navigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Fishing boats, yachts, cabin cruisers and other craft utilizing the East Boat Basin on the south side of... audio or other noise producing device including, but not limited to, communications media and...

  12. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) 46 U.S.C. 103, documented yachts; (7) 33 CFR part 155 oil pollution prevention; and (8) 46 CFR 25.30 fire extinguishers; (9) 33 CFR part 159 marine sanitation devices; (10) 33 CFR part 175 subpart...

  13. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) 46 U.S.C. 103, documented yachts; (7) 33 CFR part 155 oil pollution prevention; and (8) 46 CFR 25.30 fire extinguishers; (9) 33 CFR part 159 marine sanitation devices; (10) 33 CFR part 175 subpart...

  14. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) 46 U.S.C. 103, documented yachts; (7) 33 CFR part 155 oil pollution prevention; and (8) 46 CFR 25.30 fire extinguishers; (9) 33 CFR part 159 marine sanitation devices; (10) 33 CFR part 175 subpart...

  15. 33 CFR 1.08-1 - Applicability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) 46 U.S.C. 103, documented yachts; (7) 33 CFR part 155 oil pollution prevention; and (8) 46 CFR 25.30 fire extinguishers; (9) 33 CFR part 159 marine sanitation devices; (10) 33 CFR part 175 subpart...

  16. 6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ACTIVE PIER OF BAY SHIP AND YACHT COMPANY. COAST GUARD CUTTER SHERMAN AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. Swing and Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; Potter, Ann

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical fundamentals of sideways forces exerted on a cricket ball, an aerofoil, and a yacht, involving the properties of boundary layers and a description of velocity and circulation. (CC)

  18. Swing and Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; Potter, Ann

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical fundamentals of sideways forces exerted on a cricket ball, an aerofoil, and a yacht, involving the properties of boundary layers and a description of velocity and circulation. (CC)

  19. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993...; 133.70; 133.90 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Consolidated...

  20. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993...; 133.70; 133.90 International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), Consolidated...

  1. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  2. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  3. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  4. Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen and restroom additions are behind the rear wall. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  5. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday...

  6. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak Bridge... the Bush River Yacht Club no later than noon on the Friday just preceding the day of opening or, if...

  7. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday...

  8. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bush River. 117.547 Section 117... OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.547 Bush River. The draw of the Amtrak bridge... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday...

  9. 76 FR 4380 - Notice of Permit Applications Received Under the Antarctic Conservation Act of 1978 (Pub. L. 95-541)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ..., or tourist yachts. The collected samples are very useful in the long-term project, ``Aves y Mamiferos... deposited in the RNP collection, which is housed in the Museo Acatushun de Aves y Mamiferos Marinos... y Mamiferos Marinos Australes'' (AMMA) (study of Southern Marine Mammals and Birds) which have...

  10. 2. VIEW OF BISCAYNE BAY, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOATHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BISCAYNE BAY, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOATHOUSE AND YACHT CLUB (NOTE: THE ORIGINAL PRINT FROM WHICH THIS PHOTOCOPY WAS MADE HAD BEEN REVERSED) - Ralph M. Munroe House, Boathouse, 3485 Main Highway (Coconut Grove), Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  11. 33 CFR 165.1123 - Southern California Annual Firework Events for the San Diego Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...″ W. 2. Fourth of July Fireworks, Mission Bay Sponsor Mission Bay Yacht Club Event Description Fireworks Display. Date One evening; the first week in July. Location Mission Bay, San Diego, CA. Regulated...°14′45″ W. 3. Coronado Glorietta Bay Fourth of July Fireworks Sponsor Coronado, CA. Event Description...

  12. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Racing Association Full Moon Regatta Biscayne Bay Yacht Racing Association Southern Biscayne Bay inside... Harbor, Puerto Rico PT1: La Puntilla Final, Coast Guard Base at posn 18°27′33″ N, 066°07′00″ W, then... Base 4th of July Celebration and Fireworks Patrick Air Force Base All waters within a 500-yard radius...

  13. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Racing Association Full Moon Regatta Biscayne Bay Yacht Racing Association Southern Biscayne Bay inside..., Puerto Rico PT1: La Puntilla Final, Coast Guard Base at posn 18°27′33″ N, 066°07′00″ W, then south to PT2... Base 4th of July Celebration and Fireworks Patrick Air Force Base All waters within a 500-yard radius...

  14. 33 CFR 165.151 - Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety Zones; Long Island Sound... § 165.151 Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays. (a) Safety Zones. The following...) Indian Harbor Yacht Club Fireworks Safety Zone. All waters of Long Island Sound off Greenwich CT,...

  15. 33 CFR 165.151 - Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zones; Long Island Sound... § 165.151 Safety Zones; Long Island Sound annual fireworks displays. (a) Safety Zones. The following...) Indian Harbor Yacht Club Fireworks Safety Zone. All waters of Long Island Sound off Greenwich CT,...

  16. Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor trusses and deck roof are visible at the top. Octagonal window with large picture windows face the ocean. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  17. 26 CFR 1.274-2 - Disallowance of deductions for certain expenses for entertainment, amusement, recreation, or travel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., entertainment include yachts, hunting lodges, fishing camps, swimming pools, tennis courts, bowling alleys... social, athletic, or sporting club or organization, bowling alley, tennis court, or swimming pool, or, (b... swimming pool, baseball diamond, bowling alley, or golf course available to his employees generally....

  18. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chicago Harbor, Ill. 110.83... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.83 Chicago Harbor, Ill. (a) Grant Park North-A. Beginning at a point 2,120 feet South of the intersection of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club...

  19. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin. DATUM: NAD 83. (2) Note to § 110.4(c): An ordinance of the...

  20. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin. DATUM: NAD 83. (2) Note to § 110.4(c): An ordinance of the...

  1. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin. DATUM: NAD 83. (2) Note to § 110.4(c): An ordinance of the...

  2. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin. DATUM: NAD 83. (2) Note to § 110.4(c): An ordinance of the...

  3. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... 068°40′06.0″ W thence back to origin. DATUM: NAD 83. (2) Note to § 110.4(c): An ordinance of the...

  4. Rabies in Ireland: a precarious freedom.

    PubMed

    Costello, J A

    1988-01-01

    The prolonged freedom from rabies enjoyed by Ireland is based on both its island location and the rigid enforcement of national legislation. The yachting tourist and the increased level of shipping activity in ports and harbours are a major threat of disease introduction. Mass media publicity and public awareness are the main safeguards necessary to protect the freedom of our island.

  5. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  6. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  7. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  8. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  9. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Boston Housing Authority in South Boston; easterly of a line bearing 5° from the west shaft of the tunnel... northwestward of the Dorchester Yacht Club; southward of a line bearing 294° from the southerly channel pier of.... Southwesterly of a line bearing 117° from channel light “4”; southeasterly of a line 150 feet from and...

  10. 46 CFR 147.7 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Liquids, May 12, 1981. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc... incorporation by reference in this part are: American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc. (ABYC), 3069 Solomons Island... Laboratories, Inc. (UL), 12 Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995 UL 30—Standard for Metal...

  11. 46 CFR 147.7 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...), (“ABYC H-25-81”), IBR approved for § 147.45. (2) (c) American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (b) American Boat and Yacht Council, Inc... Road, Northbrook, IL 60062, telephone 847-272-8800, www.ul.com. (1) UL 30, Standard for Metal Safety...

  12. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416, 410-990-4460... the Safety of Life at Sea, Consolidated Edition, 1992 (“SOLAS 74/83”), IBR approved for § 126.170. (3) International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, as amended, Consolidated Edition, 2009,...

  13. 75 FR 32449 - Appalachian Power Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and Soliciting Comments...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... Shores Yachting Community, LLC to reconstruct an existing 32-slip dock that was damaged during the winter. The replacement dock would be a covered fixed dock constructed of wood, arranged parallel to the shoreline, and would occupy the same footprint as the existing dock, 505.7 feet long and 48.4 feet wide. The...

  14. View of the main interior space facing east. The main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the main interior space facing east. The main entry is on the left hand side at the rear. The exit to the deck is to the right. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. 75 FR 7590 - North Carolina Waters Along the Entire Length of New Hanover County; Final No Discharge Zone...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...-2540, open 24 hours per day, 7 days per week, 6' draft at mean low tide. (2) Carolina Beach State Park... mean low tide. (3) Federal Point Yacht Club, 910 Basin Road, Carolina Beach, 910- 458-4511, only available to club members, 5' draft at mean low tide. (4) Mona Black Marina, Carolina Beach,...

  16. 75 FR 11922 - Notice of Determinations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ...,893; Goetz Custom Technologies, LLC, Ichiban Yacht Painters, All Clear Carbon Composites, Bristol, RI...., Cenveo/Cadmus Communications, Easton, MD. TA-W-70,762; EcoResin LLC, Forest City, NC. TA-W-70,802; H.S...

  17. 46 CFR 169.629 - Compartments containing gasoline machinery or fuel tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... supply and mechanical exhaust ventilation meeting the requirements of American Boat and Yacht Council Standard H-2.5, “Design and Construction; Ventilation of Boats Using Gasoline. ... SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Machinery and Electrical Ventilation § 169.629 Compartments...

  18. 50 CFR 85.11 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 1992 (16 U.S.C. 1453(1)). The coastal zone consists of coastal waters (including the lands therein and... environmental pollution problem resulting from sewage discharges from vessels and inform them of the location of... concessionaires, whether they are leased or private facilities, on public lands; or (3) Yacht or boating clubs...

  19. Comparison of sediments and organisms in identifying sources of biologically available trace metal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson, E.A.; Luoma, S.N.; Johansson, C.E.; Cain, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sediments and an indicator organism (Macoma balthica, a deposit-feeding bivalve) were used to assess the relative importance of secondary sewage, urban runoff, a landfill containing metal-enriched ash wastes and a yacht harbor in contributing to Ag, Cu and Zn enrichment in South San Francisco Bay. Spatial gradients in sediments and organisms showed Cu and Ag enrichment originated from sewage discharge, whereas Zn enrichment originated from both sewage and urban runoff. Elevated concentrations of Cu in the sediments of the yacht harbor resulted from a high abundance of fine particles. The biological availability of Cu, Ag and Zn did not coincide with metal enrichment in sediments. The availability of Cu and Ag was greatest nearest the sewage outfall and greater in winter and spring than in summer. The availability of Zn in urban runoff appeared to be lower than the availability of Zn associated with sewage.

  20. Monitoring and Control of Human Effects on the Water Quality in Special Environment Protection Areas (SEPA), Fethiye-Gocek Measurements in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizmeli, Ahmet; Alp, Emre; Duzgun, Sebnem; Orek, Hasan; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet

    2010-05-01

    Fethiye-Göcek region, the unique marine area having numerous calm bays for safe and enjoyable navigation, sailing and yachting is one of those Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Göcek Bay, which has a remarkable tourism potential has became one of the most important destinations of the both Turkish and International blue voyagers. The bays of Göcek are used by significant number of yachts during summer season (May-September). Göcek Bay is the nearest bay having marinas for serving those yachts using the nearby bays. The increase in tourism capacity resulted in increase in economical activities as well as environmental problems. The pollution level of the area is affected by the uncontrolled waste disposals from the yachts, the circulation pattern and ecological characteristics of the area. In a previously conducted study, in order to develop proper management strategies, the number of yachts using Göcek Bay area has been determined. The research project involves the development of state-of-the-art remote sensing tools that will be used in the operational monitoring of the ecosystem and was funded by the Turkish Governmental Agency EPASA and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara. There are two general objectives of the project; (i) the development of an operational environmental surveillance system that makes regular use of optical remote sensing images backed with regularly collected in-situ ground truth data (ii) to characterize the chemical nature of the pollutants through in-situ measurements and design and build a water collection, treatment and discharge system for the domestic and bilge waters of the boats. Seawater samples were collected at 3 locations representing different pollution levels in Göcek Bay. One of the locations is in open sea which represents low pollution level (almost clean water). The concentrations of the measured parameters in seawater are below the limit values indicated in Water Pollution and Control Regulation and

  1. Augmented REality Sandtables (ARESs) Impact on Learning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium; 1998 March 14–18; Atlanta (GA). p. 12–19. Darken RP, Peterson B. Spatial orientation, wayfinding, and...ARL-CR-0803 ● JULY 2016 US Army Research Laboratory Augmented REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N... REality Sandtable’s (ARES’s) Impact on Learning by Tarah N Schmidt-Daly, Jennifer M Riley, Kelly S Hale, David Yacht, and Jack Hart Design

  2. Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the first manned Apollo mission relax in a life raft during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico with a full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. Left to right, are Astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, pilot, Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and Edward H. White II (facing camera), senior pilot. In background is the 'Duchess', a yacht owned by La Porte businessman Paul Barkley and provided by him as a press boat for newsmen covering the training.

  3. Development of a lightweight portable optical measurement system for the print-through phenomenon of fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiou, Fang-Jung; Lai, Yao-Zih; Tsai, Min-Long

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volumetric shrinkage of the resin and the induced residual stress during the curing process, the reflection on the gel-coating layer surface will be imperfect if twists and wrinkles exist on the gel-coating surface. This phenomenon is denoted as print-through phenomenon (PTP). Currently, the detection of PTP for most of the yacht industry using the composite materials is performed mainly by visual inspection, and its quality is needed to be quantified to determine their grades. Therefore, there is a need to develop a lightweight portable optical measurement system that can be applied quickly to inspect different levels of PTP for the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) of the yacht body. The measurement system was developed based on the scattering principle of a reflected laser fringe projected on to the workpiece surface. Two indexes, namely the profile peak-valley height and wave-height of the Fast-Fourier Transform based on the centerline of the extracted image profile, were proposed to quantify the PTP of a test specimen. The mean line width of the extracted image was applied to evaluate the surface roughness of the test specimen, based on the scattering theorem. A set of software programmed with Borland C++ Builder language was developed to calculate the proposed indexes and the mean line width. The developed measurement system has been taken to some yacht factories to do the on-site measurements. The measurement results were, in general, consistent with the surface conditions of the polished surfaces.

  4. Riblets for Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    Stars and Stripes racing yacht brought the American's Cup back to the United States. Originating from NASA's drag reduction technology, the boats "secret weapon" was that the hull's underside was coated with riblets. Riblets are small, barely visible grooves on the surface of an airplane intended to reduce skin friction by smoothing the turbulent airflow next to the skin. Grooves are V-shaped with the angle pointing in the direction of the airflow. No deeper than a scratch, they have a pronounced beneficial influence on air turbulence. *No longer commercially available.

  5. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  6. 33 CFR 165.T01-0470 - Safety Zones; Maine Events in Captain of the Port Long Island Sound Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...″ N, 073°01′02.50″ W (NAD 83). 7.9Dolan Family Fourth • Date: July 4, 2011.• Time: 8:30 p.m. to 10:30... 83). 7 July 7.1Sag Harbor Fireworks • Date: July 2, 2011. • Time: 8:30 p.m. to 10:30 p.m. • Location...″ W (NAD 83). 7.2Mason's Island Yacht Club Fireworks • Date: July 2, 2011.• Rain date: July 3, 2011...

  7. Satellite Observations of New Volcanic Island in Tonga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Abrams, Michael J.; Hook, Simon J.; Pieri, David C.

    2007-01-01

    A rising volcanic plume from an unknown source was observed on 9-11 August 2006 in the Vava'u Island group in the northernmost islands of Tonga [Matangi News Online, 2006]. On 12 August, the crew on board the yacht Maiken, sailing west from Vava'u to Fiji, encountered 'a vast, many miles wide, belt of densely packed pumice' floating on the water (F. Fransson personal communication, 2006). Later, the crew sailed south and discovered that the source of the pumice was a newly erupting submarine volcano near Home Reef (18.991 deg S, 174.767 deg W).

  8. Public Use Land Requirements, Tennessee Colony Lake.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-03-30

    Appreciation is extended to Texas A&M University, the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, and notably to Dr. Leslie M. Reid, head of the Recreation and...Point 85 50 135 Wildcat Creek 127 11 238 Roustabout Camp 132 225 357 Bethel 606 128 734 Saline Branch (less Yacht club) 221 86 307 45 TABLE 24 (cont...for conflicting uses or act as natural divisions for three group leases. Bethel (Plate 11) It is suggested that this "iea be preserved in a natural

  9. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Analysis of Wash Water Treatment Efficiency for Copper and Zinc

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-12-15

    Sample Source Location Comments CV3 Hampton Roads Oceanographic Science Ship CV4 Gulf Coast Cruise Ship CV5 Hampton Roads Cruise Ship CV6 Hampton...Roads Private Yacht CV7 West Coast Fishing Vessel 3 of 17 CV8 West Coast Cruise Ship (FWD End) CV9 West Coast Cruise Ship (AFT End) CV10 Gulf Coast Cruise ... Ship CV11 Hampton Roads TBT Painted Plate CV8 and CV9 were also taken from the same dry-dock event. In this case, CV8 was taken from the forward end

  10. Ribbed Swimsuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Langley Research Center's turbulent-drag reduction technology, as applied to airplanes and the winning yacht in America's Cup, finds another application: swimwear. The Strush SR swimsuit features silicon ribbing or "riblets" at the chest and buttocks, reducing friction in the water. Combined with innovations by its manufacturer, Arena North America, the company says the technology makes the suit 10 to 15 percent faster than any other world class swimsuit. The publicity for the Strush SR is handled by Suter Communications, Inc. *Company no longer exists (12/5/96).

  11. St. Vincent and the Grenadines.

    PubMed

    Mills, A P

    2001-12-01

    Saint Vincent and the Grenadines conjures up images of a yachting haven and a quiet tourists' paradise. The conflicting demands of a growing population, a middle-income economy dominated by fishing, plantation agriculture and tourism, and environmental and social concerns, all contribute to marine stress on the limited, precious, but internationally important resources. While the vision exists to manage effectively coastal and offshore resources, the institutional, financial and social capital to achieve that vision is limited. Development of the fledgling partnerships between local communities, national governmental structures and the international research, government and donor organisations seems the best hope to conserve the environment and coastal livelihoods of the islands.

  12. Composites in armor.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Paul J

    2006-11-17

    Composite materials are traditionally regarded as materials that can save energy in large structures associated with transport. They are used to produce lightweight structures for fuel-efficient aircraft such as the new Boeing 787 Dreamliner; lightweight cars from Lotus, Ferrari and TVR; and high-speed trains, speedboats, and racing yachts. Now, however, some of the most interesting applications of composites are those where the materials are used to save lives and protect property by absorbing the energy of projectiles, impacts, and crashes.

  13. Observed Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean 00e2?? Victoria to Maui 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race in July 2012. These observations are organized according to the following map layers: Family Affairs Observations, Fleet Debris Levels, Return Vessels Special Reports, Roll Call Debris Data-Race, Special Report Debris-Race, Vessel Specific Observations, and Return Vessel Specific Levels Observations.The March, 2011 tsunami that affected northern Japan washed enormous amounts of debris out to sea. While most of this debris sank quickly out at sea, much remains on the surface and by ocean current and wind is working its way across the Pacific Ocean. In early days, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) could track the debris slick by satellite, but by early 2012, the debris had become too dispersed to track. News stories have reported containers with motorcycles on Haida Gwaii, whole fishing boats in Alaska, and sections of concrete dock in Oregon. Recent reports are about the struggles of local governments to deal with cleaning up and disposing of flotsam washing up on local beaches.

  14. Approximation, abstraction and decomposition in search and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss four different areas of my research. One portion of my research has focused on automatic synthesis of search control heuristics for constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). I have developed techniques for automatically synthesizing two types of heuristics for CSPs: Filtering functions are used to remove portions of a search space from consideration. Another portion of my research is focused on automatic synthesis of hierarchic algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). I have developed a technique for constructing hierarchic problem solvers based on numeric interval algebra. Another portion of my research is focused on automatic decomposition of design optimization problems. We are using the design of racing yacht hulls as a testbed domain for this research. Decomposition is especially important in the design of complex physical shapes such as yacht hulls. Another portion of my research is focused on intelligent model selection in design optimization. The model selection problem results from the difficulty of using exact models to analyze the performance of candidate designs.

  15. Dreaming in the desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Saudi Arabia's bold new co-educational research university deserves to succeed Imagine you want to build, from scratch, a brand new, world-beating university dedicated to science and technology in less than two years. What would you need for the job? Well, a big pot of cash would be essential - an endowment of 10bn, let's say. You would need money for lab equipment - about 1.5bn over five years will do nicely - and a visionary leader who can attract talented staff from around the world. They would have to be tempted by fat salaries, given houses to live in and offered goodies like, say, a yachting marina, private golf course and bowling alley. Throw in free satellite TV in every house, install WiFi Internet access across the campus and, oh, invite 3000 people to a spectacular opening ceremony so the world knows that you mean business.

  16. Terrestrial laser scanning used to detect asymmetries in boat hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; López-Alvarez, Francisco; Ordóñez, Celestino; Menéndez, Agustín; Bernardo-Sánchez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying asymmetries in boat hull sections reconstructed from point clouds captured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A surface was first fit to the point cloud using a nonparametric regression method that permitted the construction of a continuous smooth surface. Asymmetries in cross-sections of the surface were identified using a bootstrap resampling technique that took into account uncertainty in the coordinates of the scanned points. Each reconstructed section was analyzed to check, for a given level of significance, that it was within the confidence interval for the theoretical symmetrical section. The method was applied to the study of asymmetries in a medium-sized yacht. Identified were differences of up to 5 cm between the real and theoretical sections in some parts of the hull.

  17. Yachters in Korea suffer considerable injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a limited amount of data regarding injuries incurred from yachting, identifying important trends can assist clinicians and yachters in the successful evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries. Similar to other research studies related to sailing, the majority of injuries consist of orthopedic problems, with the highest rate of injury occurring in the lower legs and trunk. The most prevalent causes of injury were due to ‘over-action,’ followed by ‘insufficient practice,’ and lastly, ‘insufficient skill’ according to the responses among yachters. Gaining a better understanding of the causes of injury and the affected sites of injury will assist in developing a fitness training program for injury prevention and creating a rehabilitation program to ensure optimal conditions and safety for yachters. PMID:27419119

  18. Joseph Needham, CH, FRS, FBA., b. 9 December 1900; d. 24 April 1995. A Sailor's Tribute and a Memoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, D. W.

    Sailors, indeed anyone interested in the development of sailing craft, will be for ever indebted to Joseph Needham. Today they will find with ease literature that describes the origins, characteristics, and development of sailing craft in the various regions of the world; the inter-relationships between natural products, and native hull stuctures and forms, sails' fabrics, shapes, and performance. They can learn, too, that the closestowing anchor, the water-tight bulkhead, the balanced rudder (and other features of the modern efficiency-conscious ship constructor) have all been adapted from the millenniaold, so-long-despised by Westerners, Chinese junk, just as has, late in this twentieth century, the stiffened sail of the modern high-performance yacht.

  19. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  20. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps).

  1. Commercialisation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - opportunities and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurdzia, B.; Magonski, Z.; Jankowski, H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of commercialisation possibilities of the SOFC stack designed at AGH. The paper reminds the final design of the stack, presented earlier at IMAPS- Poland conferences, its recent modifications and measurements. The stack consists of planar double-sided ceramic fuel cells which characterize by the special anode construction with embedded fuel channels. The stack features by a simple construction without metallic interconnectors and frames, lowered thermal capacity and quick start-up time. Predictions for the possible applications of the stack include portable generators for luxurious caravans, yachts, ships at berth. The SOFC stack operating as clean, quiet and efficient power source could replace on-board diesel generators. Market forecasts shows that there is also some room on a market for the SOFC stack as a standalone generator in rural areas far away from the grid. The paper presents also the survey of SOFC market in Europe USA, Australia and other countries.

  2. On load paths and load bearing topology from finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, D.; Reidsema, C.; Lee, M.

    2010-06-01

    Load paths can be mapped from vector plots of 'pointing stress vectors'. They define a path along which a component of load remains constant as it traverses the solution domain. In this paper the theory for the paths is first defined. Properties of the plots that enable a designer to interpret the structural behavior from the contours are then identified. Because stress is a second order tensor defined on an orthogonal set of axes, the vector plots define separate paths for load transfer in each direction of the set of axes. An algorithm is therefore presented that combines the vectors to define a topology to carry the loads. The algorithm is shown to straighten the paths reducing bending moments and removing stress concentration. Application to a bolted joint, a racing car body and a yacht hull demonstrate the usefulness of the plots.

  3. Ultrastructural observations on the marine fouling diatom Amphora

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, G. F.; Chamberlain, A. H. L.; Jones, E. B. G.

    1980-06-01

    Ecological and Scanning electron microscope (S. E. M.) studies indicated that the diatom Amphora was an important constituent in the initial colonization of test panels coated with a copper antifouling composition. Amphora was also found as the dominant fouling diatom species on paint samples from “in-service” supertankers and yachts. Associated with the diatom was copious amounts of mucilaginous material, which often encapsulated the cells. Histochemical analysis of the mucilage indicates that it is predominantly polysaccharide in nature. Using the Transmission electron microscope (T. E. M.) and electron microscope cytochemistry the intracellular origin of the adhesive was investigated. T. E. M. and S. E. M. observations of acid-cleaned-cells indicate that the mucilage may be secreted through specialized regions of the frustule. Material isolated from antifouling panels was compared with laboratory cultured Amphora spp. for copper resistance and internal accumulation using TEMSCAN — X ray analytical equipment.

  4. Integrated wetland management: an analysis with group model building based on system dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin; Chang, Yang-Chi; Chen, Kung-Chen

    2014-12-15

    The wetland system possesses diverse functions such as preserving water sources, mediating flooding, providing habitats for wildlife and stabilizing coastlines. Nonetheless, rapid economic growth and the increasing population have significantly deteriorated the wetland environment. To secure the sustainability of the wetland, it is essential to introduce integrated and systematic management. This paper examines the resource management of the Jiading Wetland by applying group model building (GMB) and system dynamics (SD). We systematically identify local stakeholders' mental model regarding the impact brought by the yacht industry, and further establish a SD model to simulate the dynamic wetland environment. The GMB process improves the stakeholders' understanding about the interaction between the wetland environment and management policies. Differences between the stakeholders' perceptions and the behaviors shown by the SD model also suggest that our analysis would facilitate the stakeholders to broaden their horizons and achieve consensus on the wetland resource management.

  5. The Volvo Ocean Adventure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boxall, S. R.; Flechter, S.; Byfield, Y.

    2003-04-01

    The Volvo Ocean Adventure is a web-based international programme for schools and young scientists in the 10-16 age range which was established in June 2001 (www.volvooceanadventure.org). Using the Volvo Ocean Race as its focus it made use of environmental data colletced from the yachts in the round the World race to introduce the public to a wide range of marine environmental topics including pollution, global climate change and fisheries. As well as web-based activities for the class room a variety of "road" shows were established with the race along with an international competition to encourage active participation by young people. The Adventure involved input from over 50 scientists form around the World with the first phase finishing in September 2002. The successes and lessons learned will be presented by the science co-ordinators of the project.

  6. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  7. The Marinfosec study: Use of ERS-1 for cruise and sailing boats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komp, K.-U.

    A study within the ERS-1 framework, Marinfosec (improvement of nautical information for yachting, touristic cruising and tourisitic marine security), is presented. Actual and reliable information on wave direction and height could increase marine security in many fields, especially for cruise and sailing boats. ERS-1 data from SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and AMI (Active Microwave Instrument) recordings will provide all weather data on wave direction and length, wave height and wind vectors. A broad range of applications of those data would be welcomed if presented right in time in a simple form. The objective is to provide actual wave maps distributed by weather fax. The demand structure and marketing potentials are studied, potentials of acceptance are evaluated, a model for later real time data processing and distribution is designed, future satellite configuration and the terms for a practical test phase are defined.

  8. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  9. Fuel cell power systems for remote applications. Phase 1 final report and business plan

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The goal of the Fuel Cell Power Systems for Remote Applications project is to commercialize a 0.1--5 kW integrated fuel cell power system (FCPS). The project targets high value niche markets, including natural gas and oil pipelines, off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Phase 1 includes the market research, technical and financial analysis of the fuel cell power system, technical and financial requirements to establish manufacturing capability, the business plan, and teaming arrangements. Phase 1 also includes project planning, scope of work, and budgets for Phases 2--4. The project is a cooperative effort of Teledyne Brown Engineering--Energy Systems, Schatz Energy Research Center, Hydrogen Burner Technology, and the City of Palm Desert. Phases 2 through 4 are designed to utilize the results of Phase 1, to further the commercial potential of the fuel cell power system. Phase 2 focuses on research and development of the reformer and fuel cell and is divided into three related, but potentially separate tasks. Budgets and timelines for Phase 2 can be found in section 4 of this report. Phase 2 includes: Task A--Develop a reformate tolerant fuel cell stack and 5 kW reformer; Task B--Assemble and deliver a fuel cell that operates on pure hydrogen to the University of Alaska or another site in Alaska; Task C--Provide support and training to the University of Alaska in the setting up and operating a fuel cell test lab. The Phase 1 research examined the market for power systems for off-grid homes, yachts, telecommunication stations and recreational vehicles. Also included in this report are summaries of the previously conducted market reports that examined power needs for remote locations along natural gas and oil pipelines. A list of highlights from the research can be found in the executive summary of the business plan.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Lawrence Kar Chung; Wilkins, Steven; McGlashan, Niall; Urban, Bernhard; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this developing technology considering its current high cost. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining a SOFC-GT system and an absorption heat pump (AHP) in a trigeneration system to drive the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical base-load systems. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the system, with various configurations and cooling loads. Measurement of actual yacht performance data forms the basis of this system simulation. It is found that for the optimum configuration using a double effect absorption chiller in Ship 1, the net electric power increases by 47% relative to the electrical power available for a conventional SOFC-GT-HVAC system. This is due to more air cooled to a lower temperature by absorption cooling; hence less electrical cooling by the conventional HVAC unit is required. The overall efficiency is 12.1% for the conventional system, 34.9% for the system with BROAD single effect absorption chiller, 43.2% for the system with double effect absorption chiller. This shows that the overall efficiency of a trigeneration system is far higher when waste heat recovery happens. The desiccant wheel hardly reduces moisture from the outdoor air due to a relative low mass flow rate of fuel cell exhaust available to dehumidify a very large mass flow rate of HVAC air, Hence, desiccant wheel is not recommended for this application.

  11. Shedding light on the Global Ocean microbiome with algorithms and data collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, F.; Ostrowski, M.; Chénard, C.; Acerbi, E.; Paulsen, I.; Jensen, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Global Oceans, the marine microbiome plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, but surveying marine microbial communities requires ship time for sample collection, economically constraining the number of samples collected. An integrative understanding of the microbiome's activity and performance requires the collection of high-density data, both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. We have overcome this bottleneck by crowdsourcing the data collection to vessels of opportunity, including bluewater sailing yachts. Sailors know the oceans, and experience first-hand the declines in ocean productivity and the effects of pollution and climate change. Moreover, simply the ability to sample a microbial community during anomalous or inclement weather conditions is a major advance in sampling strategy. Our approach inherently incorporates the benefit of outreach and participation of people in scientific research, gaining positive media attention for sailors, scientists and concerned citizens alike. We have tested the basic methods during a 2013 Indian Ocean Concept Cruise, from Cape Town to Singapore, performing experimental work and reaching sampling locations inaccessible to traditional Oceanographic Vessels. At the same time we developed a small, yacht-adapted automated sampling device that takes a variety of biological and chemical measurements. In 2015 our first beta-cruisers sampled the Pacific Ocean in the first ever citizen-oceanography transect at high and low latitudes in both hemispheres. The collected samples were characterized with next-gen sequencing technology and analysed with a combination of novel algorithmic approaches. With big data management, machine learning algorithms and agent-based models we show that it is possible to deconvolute the complexity of the Ocean Microbiome for the scientific management of fisheries, marine protected areas and preservation of the oceans and seas for generations to come.

  12. Mood profile of an America's Cup team: relationship with muscle damage and injuries.

    PubMed

    Hadala, Michal; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Baños, Rosa; Barrios, Carlos

    2010-07-01

    To describe the mood profile of an America's Cup sailing team during competition and to evaluate the influence of previous injuries occurrence and intensity of physical work on the boat upon mood state. Relationships between mood domains and metabolic markers of muscle damage were also investigated. A descriptive study was conducted on an America's Cup yachting race crew comprising 21 male sailors (mean +/- SD; age = 27.6 +/- 8.5 yr, weight = 89.3 +/- 24.9 kg, BMI = 26.5 +/- 6.9 kg x m(-2)). All measurements were collected during the Louis Vuitton Cup 2007 in Valencia, Spain. The POMS test and creatine kinase (CK) serum activity were measured and correlated. Sailors were grouped according to their presence or absence of previous musculoskeletal injuries (MI) and the intensity of physical work related to boat position: high intensity (HI) and low intensity (LI). According to normative data, pre- and postracing POMS scores were constantly high with prominent anger (24.2 +/- 9 before and 24.9 +/- 10.1 after the race) and depression (22.7 +/- 8.9 before and 20.6 +/- 7.3 after the race). The HI group displayed unchanged anger scores but showed significant differences compared with the LI group (z = -2.07, P = 0.038, mu2 = 0.22) at the end of the competition. The occurrence of a previous injury did not correlate with any interference with mood. Only the fatigue domain before racing had a significant negative correlation with CK levels (r = -0.509, P < 0.05). The emotional profile of this America's Cup yachting crew showed stable mood scores with high values in anger and depression compared with normative data. Mood was dependent on physical work intensity related to boat position but not on injury occurrence. Enzyme markers of muscle damage had no bearing on most POMS domains, except for fatigue before racing.

  13. Floating Classroom Outreach as an Introduction to Ocean Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, M.

    2016-02-01

    Many children and young adults living within only one hour of the coast never have the opportunity to explore a beach or go out on a boat because of financial challenges or lack of transportation.These types of experiences are the spark that helped many ocean scientists become fascinated with the ocean and later pursue a career related to the ocean. This presentation will discuss a variety of outreach projects and the efficacy of each. Projects vary in age, complexity and cost. These projects include a Beach Clean-Up open to students and their families at a community college organized by a campus volunteer group with a focus on social issues, a Marine Biology and Physical Oceanography class joint floating classroom trip open to college students to introduce non-STEM students to marine science in an exciting setting, and an education outreach trip for 8-12 years old children from the Boys and Girls Club in Newport, RI in collaboration with The International SeaKeepers Society, a non-profit that facilitates ocean research and education by working closely with the yachting community. Emphasis on environmental education in the U.S. has grown considerably over recent years, and the development of unique and innovative approaches to hands-on marine science education are needed to excite students to explore the marine environment and care about environmental stewardship.

  14. THE GENERAL ECOLOGY AND GROWTH OF A SOLITARY ASCIDIAN, CORELLA WILLMERIANA.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Gretchen

    1968-10-01

    1. A one-year field study of the ecology of the solitary ascidian Corella willmeriana Herdman was conducted between April, 1966, and April, 1967, at the Bremerton Yacht Club, Bremerton, Washington, where two polyvinyl chloride frames containing glass plates were examined at monthly intervals. 2. The results indicate that Corella is a primary colonizer, preferring to settle on clean surfaces. Growth is rapid during the summer, when sexual maturity, corresponding to a size of 12 mm., may be attained in three months and life span is approximately five months. Individuals grow at a slower rate and live longer during the winter; the life span then is seven or eight months. 3. Very young specimens of Corella are frequently overgrown during the winter by the colonial ascidian Diplosoma macdonaldi. The causes of death of adult Corella are not completely known, although a small percentage of them are eaten by the polyclad flatworm Eurylepta leoparda. A luxuriant spring growth of filamentous diatoms may cause death of adult Corella by smothering them.

  15. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  16. Control of styrene vapor in a large fiberglass boat manufacturing operation.

    PubMed

    Todd, W F; Shulman, S A

    1984-12-01

    An evaluation of a control system for worker protection from styrene vapor was performed at a manufacturer of large fiberglass reinforced plastic yachts. The manufacturing operations included five tiltable boat hull mold stations. Each station had a floor air slot located beneath the mold which was exhausting about 17 000 CFM. The building had an overall ventilation rate of 10-15 air changes per hour. An attempt was made to improve the performance of this control system by blowing air into the hull mold and by blocking air flow from the back of the mold to induce greater flow from the front of the mold. Consecutive short term breathing zone samples were collected in an effort to show the effect of different job tasks and work modes on exposures. ANOVA was performed to determine levels of significance of several variables. A significant exposure difference was found between right and left tilts of the 46-foot hull mold. The TWA styrene exposure values for the 3-day period of the 4 hull lamination workers were low, ranging from 17 ppm to 25 ppm, and demonstrating that styrene levels can be effectively controlled by means of strategically located high volume exhaust vents for the process studied.

  17. Littoral processes: US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point, San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Ecker, R.M.; Whelan, G.

    1983-10-01

    The US Coast Guard Station, Fort Point is located three-quarters of a nautical mile southeast of the Golden Gate Strait, the entrance to San Francisco Bay. The existing storm wave conditions at Fort Point Station pier make it extremely dangerous for the SAR crews to get on and off the Motor Life Boats at times requiring the vessels to be moored at the San Francisco Yacht Harbor about 1.5 miles east of the Fort Point Station. To mitigate these harsh working conditions the US Coast Guard is considering the feasibility of constructing suitable all-weather moorings for the three Motor Life Boats at the Fort Point Station to enable unimpeded SAR operations, to provide safe working conditions for Coast Guard small boat crews, and to improve small boat maintenance conditions at Fort Point Station. The purpose of this report is to identify, analyze and evaluate physical environmental factors that could affect all-weather moorings siting, configuration and entrance location, as well as potential post construction alterations to littoral conditions and processes. This report includes a description of the site, description of pertinent littoral processes, evaluation of how these processes could affect construction of all-weather moorings, and discussion of design considerations, as well as mitigation measures to minimize potential adverse effects to the physical environment. 19 references, 27 figures, 26 tables.

  18. Spatial association of marine dockage with land-borne infestations of invasive termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes) in urban south Florida.

    PubMed

    Hochmair, Hartwig H; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2010-08-01

    Marine vessels have been implicated in the anthropogenic dispersal of invasive termites for the past 500 yr. It has long been suspected that two invasive termites, the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), were introduced to and dispersed throughout South Florida by sailboats and yachts. We compared the distances between 190 terrestrial point records for Formosan subterranean termite, 177 records for C. gestroi, and random locations with the nearest marine dockage by using spatial analysis. Results show that the median distance to nearest docks associated with C. gestroi is significantly smaller than for the random points. Results also reveal that the median distance to nearest docks associated with Formosan subterranean termite is significantly smaller than for the random points. These results support the hypothesis that C. gestroi and Formosan subterranean termite are significantly closer to potential infested boat locations, i.e., marine docks, than random points in these urban areas. The results of our study suggest yet another source of aggregation in the context of exotic species, namely, hubs for pleasure boating.

  19. Plasma vitrification and re-use of non-combustible fiber reinforced plastic, gill net and waste glass.

    PubMed

    Chu, J P; Chen, Y T; Mahalingam, T; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, T W

    2006-12-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite material has widespread use in general tank, special chemical tank and body of yacht, etc. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume reduction of non-combustible FRP by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag with specific procedures. In this study, we have employed three main wastes such as, FRP, gill net and waste glass. The thermal molten process was applied to treat vitrified slag at high temperatures whereas in the post-heat treatment vitrified slags were mixed with specific additive and ground into powder form and then heat treated at high temperatures. With a two-stage heat treatment, the treated sample was generated into four crystalline phases, cristobalite, albite, anorthite and wollastonite. Fine and relatively high dense structures with desirable properties were obtained for samples treated by the two-stage heating treatment. Good physical and mechanical properties were achieved after heat treatment, and this study reveals that our results could be comparable with the commercial products.

  20. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system. PMID:26481089

  1. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-10-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  2. The Role of Tourism and Recreation in the Spread of Non-Native Species: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy G; Rocliffe, Steve; Haddaway, Neal R; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Managing the pathways by which non-native species are introduced and spread is considered the most effective way of preventing species invasions. Tourism and outdoor recreation involve the frequent congregation of people, vehicles and vessels from geographically diverse areas. They are therefore perceived to be major pathways for the movement of non-native species, and ones that will become increasingly important with the continued growth of these sectors. However, a global assessment of the relationship between tourism activities and the introduction of non-native species-particularly in freshwater and marine environments-is lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of tourism and outdoor recreation on non-native species in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments. Our results provide quantitative evidence that the abundance and richness of non-native species are significantly higher in sites where tourist activities take place than in control sites. The pattern was consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments; across a variety of vectors (e.g. horses, hikers, yachts); and across a range of taxonomic groups. These results highlight the need for widespread biosecurity interventions to prevent the inadvertent introduction of invasive non-native species (INNS) as the tourism and outdoor recreation sectors grow.

  3. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  4. Powering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company (STC) developed the RG-350 convertor using components from separate Goddard Space Center and U.S. Army Natick SBIR contracts. Based on the RG-350, STC commercialized a product line of Stirling cycle generator sets, known as RemoteGen(TM), with power levels ranging from 10We to 3kWe. Under SBIR agreements with Glenn Research Center, the company refined and extended the capabilities of the RemoteGen convertors. They can provide power in remote locations by efficiently producing electricity from multiple-fuel sources, such as propane, alcohol, gasoline, diesel, coal, solar energy, or wood pellets. Utilizing any fuel source that can create heat, RemoteGen enables the choice of the most appropriate fuel source available. The engines operate without friction, wear, or maintenance. These abilities pave the way for self-powered appliances, such as refrigerators and furnaces. Numerous applications for RemoteGen include quiet, pollution-free generators for RVs and yachts, power for cell phone towers remote from the grid, and off-grid residential power variously using propane, ethanol, and solid biomass fuels. One utility and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are evaluating a solar dish concentrator version with excellent potential for powering remote irrigation pumps.

  5. Development of the primary bacterial microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling release coatings in temperate and tropical environments in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Childs, Samantha; Eason Hubbard, Maeve R; Carey, Janet M; Burgman, Mark A; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The role played by bacteria during the pioneering stages of colonisation on marine coatings was investigated over three distinct seasons in both tropical and temperate environments. Novel methods were developed to facilitate the study of the adhered bacterial population on the test coatings in their native, hydrated state. The approach eliminated destructive sample preparation techniques, including sample dehydration and/or removal from the substratum surface prior to analysis. Bacterial colonisation during initial biofilm formation was evaluated on two antifouling paints, Intersmooth 360 and Super Yacht 800, and a fouling release coating, Intersleek 700. Bacterial colonisation was quantified on all three coating surfaces. Intersleek 700 displayed the quickest colonisation by bacteria, resulting in major modification of the substratum surface within 2-4 days following immersion in the ocean. Whilst fouling accumulated more quickly on Intersleek 700, by 16 days all three coatings were fouled significantly. Bacterial fouling was correlated to both location and season, with fouling occurring at a more rapid rate at the Cairns location, as well as during the summer months, when higher water temperatures were recorded. Successful colonisation of all coatings by bacteria soon after immersion modifies the characteristics of the surfaces at the hull/water interface, and subsequent settlement by higher biofouling organisms must be moderated by these modified surfaces.

  6. Investigations of active interrogation techniques to detect special nuclear material in maritime environments: Standoff interrogation of small- and medium-sized cargo ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Thomas M.; Patton, Bruce W.; Grogan, Brandon R.; Henkel, James J.; Murphy, Brian D.; Johnson, Jeffrey O.; Mihalczo, John T.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, several active interrogation (AI) sources are evaluated to determine their usefulness in detecting the presence of special nuclear material (SNM) in fishing trawlers, small cargo transport ships, and luxury yachts at large standoff distances from the AI source and detector. This evaluation is performed via computational analysis applying Monte Carlo methods with advanced variance reduction techniques. The goal is to determine the AI source strength required to detect the presence of SNM. The general conclusion of this study is that AI is not reliable when SNM is heavily shielded and not tightly coupled geometrically with the source and detector, to the point that AI should not be considered a via interrogation option in these scenarios. More specifically, when SNM is shielded by hydrogenous material large AI source strengths are required if detection is based on neutrons, which is not surprising. However, if the SNM is shielded by high-Z material the required AI source strengths are not significantly different if detection is based on neutrons or photons, which is somewhat surprising. Furthermore, some of the required AI source strengths that were calculated are very large. These results coupled with the realities of two ships moving independently at sea and other assumptions made during this analysis make the use of standoff AI in the maritime environment impractical.

  7. Large-area thermographic inspection of GRP composite marine vessel hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Thomas S.; Berger, Harold; Weaver, Elizabeth

    1993-04-01

    Every year there is an increase in the number of Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) composite vessels the Coast Guard inspects. A fast, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique is needed to facilitate these inspections. The technique must be suitable for use in field environments. Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the Coast Guard R&D Center, Industrial Quality, Inc. has performed a feasibility study evaluating the use of infrared thermography for such applications. The study demonstrated the ability of infrared thermography to detect hidden flaws through a variety of laminates and sandwich panel core materials. Empirical results matched well with analytical results of the sensitivity of the technique to various sizes of discontinuities at different depths. Following the successful SBIR program results, the Coast Guard R&D Center asked IQI to do a survey of the Steam Yacht Medea. The Medea had been repaired by a unique system of laying foam core and fiberglass over the ship's original steel-clad hull. The hybrid steel/foam core/GRP hull provided an additional structural configuration for the infrared thermography inspection equipment to handle.

  8. Altimeter Data for Operational Use in the Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan; Antczak, Thomas; Leben, Robert; Born, George; Barth, Suzanne; Cheney, Robert; Foley, David; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Jacobs, Gregg; Shay, Nick

    1999-01-01

    TOPEX/Poseidon has been collecting altimeter data continuously since October 1992. Altimeter data have been used to produce maps of sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed. This information is of proven use to mariners as well as to the scientific community. Uses of the data include commercial and recreational vessel routing, ocean acoustics, input to geographic information systems developed for the fishing industry, identification of marine mammal habitats, fisheries management, and monitoring ocean debris. As with sea surface temperature data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2 are in the process of being introduced to the marine world for operational maritime use. It is anticipated that over the next few years companies that specialize in producing custom products for shipping agencies, fisheries and yacht race competitors will be incorporating altimeter data into their products. The data are also being incorporated into weather and climate forecasts by operational agencies both in the US and Europe. This paper will discuss these products, their uses, operational demonstrations and means of accessing the data.

  9. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ostrowski, L.J.; Pernisz, U.C.; Fraas, L.M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of {open_quote}{open_quote}moving down the learning curve,{close_quote}{close_quote} growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  11. Sleep restriction and degraded reaction-time performance in Figaro solo sailing races.

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Aron, Christophe; McCauley, Peter; Jacolot, Laure; Theunynck, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In solo offshore sailing races like those of the Solitaire du Figaro, sleep must be obtained in multiple short bouts to maintain competitive performance and safety. Little is known about the amount of sleep restriction experienced at sea and the effects that fatigue from sleep loss have on sailors' performance. Therefore, we assessed sleep in sailors of yachts in the Figaro 2 Beneteau class during races and compared response times on a serial simple reaction-time test before and after races. Twelve men (professional sailors) recorded their sleep and measured their response times during one of the three single-handed races of 150, 300 and 350 nautical miles (nominally 24-50 h in duration). Total estimated sleep duration at sea indicated considerable sleep insufficiency. Response times were slower after races than before. The results suggest that professional sailors incur severe sleep loss and demonstrate marked performance impairment when competing in one- to two-day solo sailing races. Competitive performance could be improved by actively managing sleep during solo offshore sailing races.

  12. An optical tracker for the maritime environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachoo, Asheer K.; le Roux, Francois; Nicolls, Fred

    2011-06-01

    Optical (visual) tracking is an important research area in computer vision with a wide range of useful and critical applications in defence and industry. The tracking of targets that pose a threat or potential threat to a country's assets and resources is a critical component in defence and security. In order to complement radar sensing applications, an optical tracker provides additional functions such as target detection, target identification and intent detection at the visual level. A tracker for the maritime environment is an optical system that performs the automatic tracking of an above water target. Ideally, a track of the target is required for as long as is possible. Some examples of targets include boats, yachts, ships, jet-skis and aircraft. A number of factors mitigate the performance of such a system - change in target appearance, target occlusions, platform vibration and scintillation in the atmosphere are some common examples. We present the implementation of a firstgeneration system that is robust to platform vibration, target appearance changes and short-term occlusions. The optical tracker is developed using a particle filter and an appearance model that is updated online. The system achieves real-time tracking through the use of non-specialized computer hardware. Promising results are presented for a number of real-world videos captured during field trials.

  13. Macrofaunal recolonization of copper-contaminated sediments in San Diego Bay.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Porrachia, Magali; Stransky, Chris; Levin, Lisa A

    2015-12-30

    Effects of Cu-loading on macrofaunal recolonization were examined in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (San Diego Bay, California). Sediments with high and low Cu levels were defaunated and Cu-spiked, translocated, and then placed back into the environment. These demonstrated that the alteration observed in benthic communities associated with Cu contamination occurs during initial recolonization. After a 3-month exposure to sediments with varying Cu levels, two primary colonizing communities were identified: (1) a "mouth assemblage" resembling adjacent background fauna associated with low-Cu levels that was more diverse and predominantly dominated by surface- and subsurface-deposit feeders, burrowers, and tube builders, and (2) a "head assemblage" resembling adjacent background fauna associated with high-Cu concentrations, with few dominant species and an increasing importance of carnivores and mobile epifauna. Cu loading can cause reduced biodiversity and lower structural complexity that may last several months if high concentrations persist, with a direct effect on community functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z.; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Haas, Andreas F.; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E.; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Lee, Clarence C.; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines. PMID:25177534

  15. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M; Grzymski, Joseph J; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K; Neches, Russell Y; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T; Lauro, Federico M

    2015-10-20

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  16. Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.

  17. Comparison of distance metrics for use within a marine recreational vessel reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegler, Kevin H.; Coleman, David J.; Pelot, Ronald P.; Zhang, Yun

    2003-12-01

    Rescuing operators of small recreational vessels is a constant resource drain on the limited operating budget of the Canadian Coast Guard. As a result, a new and innovative application of small target surveillance techniques is being developed at the Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, UNB, Canada. This work is being done in support of the development of a strategic decision making tool based on risk modeling to be used to predict where in Canadian waters marine incidents are most likely to occur in support of best resource allocation. Previous research in the use of hyperspectral imaging for search and rescue, resulted in the development of fast, nonparametric "spatio-spectral" template subpixel object detection algorithm. The results of this work are being adapted and enhanced for use with the new, commercially available spaceborne high-resolution optical imagery. Investigations are being made regarding the utility of the Minkowski distance metrics for use in small target detection within a multispectral imagery environment. Further, research is being performed on the employment of the Mahalanobis distance metric to enhance the "spatio-spectral" template by exploiting the variance/covariance information surrounding a potential target. The detection results for the two target vessels were excellent using the Manhattan and Euclidean distance. The best results were had using the Manhattan distance metric with a 5x5 kernel with all 16 yachts detected, no false negatives, and six false positives.

  18. Comparison of distance metrics for use within a marine recreational vessel reconnaissance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegler, Kevin H.; Coleman, David J.; Pelot, Ronald P.; Zhang, Yun

    2004-01-01

    Rescuing operators of small recreational vessels is a constant resource drain on the limited operating budget of the Canadian Coast Guard. As a result, a new and innovative application of small target surveillance techniques is being developed at the Department of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, UNB, Canada. This work is being done in support of the development of a strategic decision making tool based on risk modeling to be used to predict where in Canadian waters marine incidents are most likely to occur in support of best resource allocation. Previous research in the use of hyperspectral imaging for search and rescue, resulted in the development of fast, nonparametric "spatio-spectral" template subpixel object detection algorithm. The results of this work are being adapted and enhanced for use with the new, commercially available spaceborne high-resolution optical imagery. Investigations are being made regarding the utility of the Minkowski distance metrics for use in small target detection within a multispectral imagery environment. Further, research is being performed on the employment of the Mahalanobis distance metric to enhance the "spatio-spectral" template by exploiting the variance/covariance information surrounding a potential target. The detection results for the two target vessels were excellent using the Manhattan and Euclidean distance. The best results were had using the Manhattan distance metric with a 5x5 kernel with all 16 yachts detected, no false negatives, and six false positives.

  19. On the leading edge vortex of thin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2016-11-01

    On thin wings, the sharp leading edge triggers laminar separation followed by reattachment, forming a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV). This flow feature is of paramount importance because, if periodically shed, it leads to large amplitude load fluctuations, while if stably attached to the wing, it can provide lift augmentation. We found that on asymmetric-spinnaker-type yacht sails, the LEV can be stable despite the relatively low sweep (30°). This finding, which was recently predicted numerically by Viola et al., has been confirmed through current flume tests on a 1:115th model scale sail. Forces were measured and Particle Image Velocimetry was performed on four horizontal sail sections at a Reynolds number of 1.7x104. Vortex detection revealed that the LEV becomes progressively larger and more stable towards the highest sections, where its axis has a smaller angle with respect to the freestream velocity. Mapping the sail section on a rotating cylinder through a Joukowski transformation, we quantified the lift augmentation provided by the LEV on each sail section. These results open up new sail design strategies based on the manipulation of the LEV and can be applicable to the wings of unmanned aerial vehicles and underwater vehicles. Project funded by Conacyt.

  20. Degradation of tributyltin in San Diego Bay, California, waters

    SciTech Connect

    Seligman, P.F.; Valkirs, A.O.; Lee, R.F.

    1986-12-01

    Several experiments were carried out to determine the degradation rate of tributyltin (TBT) in microcosms containing harbor water. Unlabeled or /sup 14/C-labeled tributyltin was added to water samples collected from two stations in San Diego Bay, CA. Degradation rates were determined by calculating the rate of loss of the added parent TBT compound. Calculated half-lives in water collected from a yacht harbor (ambient concentration was 0.5 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 6 and 7 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. Half-lives from a clean-water site (< 0.03 ..mu..g of TBT/L) were 9 and 19 days for light and dark treatments, respectively. The principal degradation product in all experiments was dibutyltin with lesser amounts of monobutyltin. Complete mineralization, measured by the formation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, proceeded slowly with a half-life of 50-75 days. Tributyltin at high concentrations (744 ..mu..g/L) was not degraded in sunlight, indicating that photolysis was not taking place and that biological degradation was the primary degradative process for TBT at low ambient concentrations.

  1. Surreptitious surgery on Long Island Sound: The oral cancer surgeries of President Grover Cleveland.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William

    2010-01-01

    Grover Cleveland rose from being the mayor of Buffalo to the governor of New York to the president of the United States. At the start of Cleveland's second term as president, the nation was involved in a severe financial crisis, the extent of which was not known by the general public. President Cleveland was to make a strong appeal to Congress in the coming months to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. He thought this would set the nation on the road to fiscal recovery. However, his vice president, Adlai Stevenson, strongly opposed repeal of the Sherman Act. Prior to scheduling his appearance before Congress, President Cleveland noticed a rough spot on his palate. A biopsy confirmed that it was cancer, and it was determined that surgery was needed. Cleveland and his advisors thought the nation would be thrown into a panic if the President's health did not remain a secret. A surgical team, which included a dentist, performed the surgery in secrecy while traveling aboard a yacht. A prosthetic obturator was fabricated by a New York prosthodontist to close the surgical defect. Cleveland recovered well, made a forceful speech before Congress, had the Sherman Act repealed and lived without a recurrence of his oral cancer for the rest of his life. The public remained unaware, for the most part, of the gravity of President Cleveland's health for decades.

  2. The Role of Tourism and Recreation in the Spread of Non-Native Species: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lucy G.; Rocliffe, Steve; Haddaway, Neal R.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Managing the pathways by which non-native species are introduced and spread is considered the most effective way of preventing species invasions. Tourism and outdoor recreation involve the frequent congregation of people, vehicles and vessels from geographically diverse areas. They are therefore perceived to be major pathways for the movement of non-native species, and ones that will become increasingly important with the continued growth of these sectors. However, a global assessment of the relationship between tourism activities and the introduction of non-native species–particularly in freshwater and marine environments–is lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of tourism and outdoor recreation on non-native species in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments. Our results provide quantitative evidence that the abundance and richness of non-native species are significantly higher in sites where tourist activities take place than in control sites. The pattern was consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments; across a variety of vectors (e.g. horses, hikers, yachts); and across a range of taxonomic groups. These results highlight the need for widespread biosecurity interventions to prevent the inadvertent introduction of invasive non-native species (INNS) as the tourism and outdoor recreation sectors grow. PMID:26485300

  3. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  4. Thermophotovoltaic energy conversion: Technology and market potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostrowski, Leon J.; Pernisz, Udo C.; Fraas, Lewis M.

    1996-02-01

    This report contains material displayed on poster panels during the Conference. The purpose of the contribution was to present a summary of the business overview of thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity and its market potential. The market analysis has shown that the TPV market, while currently still in an early nucleation phase, is evolving into a range of small niche markets out of which larger-size opportunities can emerge. Early commercial applications on yachts and recreational vehicles which require a quiet and emission-free compact electrical generator fit the current TPV technology and economics. Follow-on residential applications are attractive since they can combine generation of electricity with space and hot water heating in a co-generation system. Development of future markets in transportation, both private and communal or industrial, will be driven by legislation requiring emission-free vehicles, and by a reduction in TPV systems cost. As a result of ``moving down the learning curve,'' growing power and consumer markets are predicted to come into reach of TPV systems, a development favored by high overall energy conversion efficiency due to high radiation energy density and to high electric conversion efficiency available with photovoltaic cells.

  5. History and classification of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; de Weck, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis as the maximal variant of an acute systemic hypersensitivity reaction can involve several organ systems, particularly the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. The severity of anaphylactic reaction is variable and can be classified into severity grades I-IV. Some reactions are fatal. Most frequent elicitors of anaphylaxis are foods in childhood, later insect stings and drugs. The phenomenon itself has been described in ancient medical literature, but was actually recognized and named at the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Richet and Paul Portier. In the course of experiments starting on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco and continued in the laboratory in Paris, they tried to immunize dogs with extracts of Physalia species in an attempt to develop an antitoxin to the venom of the Portuguese man-of-war. While Charles Richet believed that anaphylaxis was a 'lack of protection', it has become clear that an exaggerated immune reaction, especially involving immunoglobulin E antibodies, is the underlying pathomechanism in allergic anaphylaxis besides immune complex reactions. Non-immunologically mediated reactions leading to similar clinical symptomatology have been called 'anaphylactoid' or 'pseudo-allergic'--especially by Paul Kallos--and are now called 'non-immune anaphylaxis' according to a consensus of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). The distinction of different pathophysiological processes is important since non-immune anaphylaxis cannot be detected by skin test or in vitro allergy diagnostic procedures. History and provocation tests are crucial. The intensity of the reaction is not only influenced by the degree of sensitization but also by concomitant other factors as age, simultaneous exposure to other allergens, underlying infection, physical exercise or psychological stress or concomitant medication (e.g. beta-blockers, NSAIDs); this phenomenon has been called augmentation or summation

  6. The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand--including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Spencer-Jones, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The status of the vesiculariid ctenostome genus Amathia in New Zealand has been evaluated on the basis of all known material, including historic specimens in museums and those newly collected during formal surveillance of ports, harbours and vessels for possible alien species. Eight species are recognised, four of them new to science. Amathia gracei n. sp. and Amathia zealandica n. sp. are the only apparently endemic species. Amathia chimonidesi n. sp. appears to be a previously unrecognised alien species and is known only from shipping harbours and/or yacht marinas and some nearby beaches. Amathia similis n. sp. has been known in the Auckland area since the 1960s but was confused with A. distans Busk. Amathia bicornis (Tenison-Woods), A. biseriata Krauss, A. lamourouxi Chimonides and A. wilsoni Kirkpatrick are Australasian species that occur naturally on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Of this latter group, A. bicornis was discovered only at a single locality on the southwest coast of North Island in 1983 on a fucoid seaweed and it may be relatively re-cently self-introduced. A specimen of A. lendigera (Linnaeus) in the Museum of New Zealand, purportedly from Napier, is considered to be based on a misunderstanding or a labelling error and does not represent a failed alien introduction. The Amathia-like vesiculariid Bowerbankia citrina (Hincks) sensu lato is newly recorded for New Zealand. Keys are provided to the amathiiform (i.e. Amathia and Amathia-like) Ctenostomata of New Zealand and to the worldwide species of Amathia and Bowerbankia with zooid clusters spiralled on stoloniform axes.

  7. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  8. Relationship between lysosomal membrane destabilization and chemical body burden in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Galveston Bay, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Wade, Terry L; Sericano, Jose L

    2002-06-01

    Lysosomal destabilization was measured by using hemocytes of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected along a chemical concentration gradient in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Results of the lysosomal response were compared to concentrations of organic compounds and trace elements in oyster tissue. Concentrations (on a dry-wt basis) ranged from 288 to 2,390 ng/g for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 38 to 877 ng Sn/g for tri-n-butyltin (TBT), 60 to 562 ng/g for polyclorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 7 to 71 ng/g for total DDT. Trace element concentrations (on a dry-wt basis) ranged from 1.1 to 4.0 microg/g for Cd, 105 to 229 microg/g for Cu, 212 to 868 microg/g for Al, and 1,200 to 8,180 microg/g for Zn. The percentage of destabilized lysosomes ranged from 34 to 81%. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between lysosomal destabilization and body burden of organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs, TBT, and chlorinated pesticides). No significant correlation was found between metal concentrations and lysosomal destabilization. Based on lysosomal destabilization, the study sites in Galveston Bay can be placed in one of three groups: healthy (Hanna Reef and Confederate Bay), moderately damaged (Offats Bayou and Todd's Dump), and highly damaged (Yacht Club and Ship Channel). Lysosomal destabilization that is consistent with toxic chemical body burdens supports previous observations that lysosomal membranes are damaged by toxic chemicals and indicates that this method can serve as an early screening tool to assess overall ecosystem health by using oysters.

  9. New generation of space capabilities resulting from US/RF cooperative efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Thomas; Misnik, Victor; Sinelshchikov, Valery; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Khatulev, Valery; Carpenter, Jack; Watson, John; Chvanov, Dmitry; Privalsky, Victor

    2006-09-01

    Previous successful international cooperative efforts offer a wealth of experience in dealing with highly sensitive issues, but cooperative remote sensing for monitoring and understanding the global environmental is in the national interest of all countries. Cooperation between international partners is paramount, particularly with the Russian Federation, due to its technological maturity and strategic political and geographical position in the world. Based on experience gained over a decade of collaborative space research efforts, continued cooperation provides an achievable goal as well as understanding the fabric of our coexistence. Past cooperative space research efforts demonstrate the ability of the US and Russian Federation to develop a framework for cooperation, working together on a complex, state-of-the-art joint satellite program. These efforts consisted of teams of scientists and engineers who overcame numerous cultural, linguistic, engineering approaches and different political environments. Among these major achievements are: (1) field measurement activities with US satellites MSTI and MSX and the Russian RESURS-1 satellite, as well as the joint experimental use of the US FISTA aircraft; (2) successful joint Science, Conceptual and Preliminary Design Reviews; (3) joint publications of scientific research technical papers, (4) Russian investment in development, demonstration and operation of the Monitor-E spacecraft (Yacht satellite bus), (5) successful demonstration of the conversion of the SS-19 into a satellite launch system, and (6) negotiation of contractual and technical assistant agreements. This paper discusses a new generation of science and space capabilities available to the Remote Sensing community. Specific topics include: joint requirements definition process and work allocation for hardware and responsibility for software development; the function, description and status of Russian contributions in providing space component prototypes

  10. Population genetics features for persistent, but transient, Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) congregations in a central Californian marina.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Arzu; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2016-08-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a globally distributed, invasive ascidian that has colonized the Californian coasts of the USA during the mid-late 1940s and has, since the late 1980s, spread north to Washington. This study analyzes the population genetic characteristics of transient populations residing at the Elkhorn Yacht-Club (EYC), in central California (seven sessions, 1996-2008), which suffered periodic catastrophes caused by episodic fresh-water floods and a single sampling session (in the year 2001) of five West-Coast populations using the mtDNA COI gene and five microsatellite markers. EYC microsatellite results were further compared with the closely situated but persistent population of the Santa Cruz Harbor (SCH) to understand the impact on EYC population regeneration processes after the 2005-flood catastrophe. All microsatellites were highly polymorphic, revealing a large number of unique alleles at different sampling dates. Whereas pairwise θ did not reveal significant differences between the EYC time-series samplings, the overall θ was significant, as it was between all the 2001 West Coast populations. The most likely cluster number was 3 for the EYC samples whereas two K values were obtained (2 and 5) for the 2001 samples. Tajima's D and Fu's/Fs tests did not reject the null hypothesis for COI neutral evolution, except for in the EYC-2000, 2007 and two 2001 samplings. The wide geographical range of the analyses has indicated that following the EYC 2005-flood catastrophe, newcomers could have originated from neighboring populations, from deep-water colonies that may have escaped the 2005 low salinity event, or less expectedly, from far away West-Coast populations, while revealing that the SCH population is the most probable source for the EYC population.

  11. Development of the initial diatom microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling-release surfaces in temperate and tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Campbell, Ewan; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the slime layers that form on artificial surfaces in marine environments. In this article, the role played by diatoms during the pioneering stages of colonization of three marine antifouling (AF) coatings, viz Intersmooth 360, Super Yacht 800 and a fouling-release (FR) coating Intersleek 700, was investigated. The study was conducted over three distinct seasons in two very different marine environments in Australia, ie temperate Williamstown, Victoria and tropical Cairns, Queensland. Diatom fouling occurred more rapidly on the FR coating Intersleek 700, compared to both biocidal AF paints. However, colonization by diatoms on all three coatings was generally slow during the 16-day study. Benthic diatoms do not subsist by floating around in the water column, rather they only gain the opportunity to colonize new surfaces when they either voluntarily release or are displaced from their benthic habitat, thereafter entering the water column where the opportunity to adhere to a new surface presents itself. However, once settled, fouling diatoms grow exponentially from the site of attachment, spreading out until they populate large areas of the surface. This mode of surface colonization correlates more with an 'infection' type, epidemiology model, a mechanism that accounts for the colonization of significant regions of the coating surface from a single fouling diatom cell, forming 'clonal patches'. This is in comparison to the bacterial colonization of the surface, which exhibits far more rapid recruitment and growth of cells on the substratum surface. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fouling diatoms may be characterized more by their ability to adhere and grow on surfaces already modified by bacterial biofilms, rather than on their strength of adhesion. Cell morphology and the ability to avoid shear may also be an important factor.

  12. Bioavailability and Environmental Regulation - Integrating a Fate & Effects Model with a Biotic Ligand Model for Copper in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, I.; Chadwick, B.; Rosen, G.; Wang, P. F.; Paquin, P.; Santore, R.; Ryan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the bioavailability of metals in the aquatic environment is important for defining appropriate regulatory constraints. A failure to recognize the importance of bioavailability factors on metal toxicity can result in criteria that are over- or under-protective. USEPA addresses the tendency of the national Water Quality Criterion (WQC) for regulation of copper in marine waters to underestimate the natural attenuation of copper toxicity in harbors by the application of site-specific Water Quality Standards (WQS). Which provides the level of protection intended by the WQC, and establishes realistic regulatory objectives. However, development of site-specific WQS involves a long-term effort, and does not account for temporal variation. The toxicity model seawater-Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) was developed and integrated with the existing Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in 3 Dimensions (CH3D) transport & fate model to create an efficient tool for development of site-specific WQS in harbors. The integrated model was demonstrated at a harbor-wide scale in San Diego Bay and Pearl Harbor, and accounted for the natural physical, chemical, biological and toxicological characteristics of the harbor to achieve more scientifically based compliance. In both harbors the spatial and temporal distributions of copper species, toxic effects, and Water Effect Ratio predicted by the integrated model are comparable to previous data. The model was further demonstrated in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB) marina in San Diego Bay. The integrated model agreed with toxicological and chemical approaches by indicating negligible bioavailability as well as no toxicity; but for a single event, even though an increasing gradient in Cu was observed both horizontally and vertically, with concentrations that reached levels well above current regulatory thresholds. These results support the incorporation by USEPA of the seawater-BLM in a full-strength seawater criterion.

  13. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 22 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-02

    ISS022-E-005403 (2 Dec. 2009) --- Giens Peninsula, France is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 22 crew member on the International Space Station. This detailed image depicts the Giens Peninsula located along the Mediterranean coastline of France. The peninsula is part of the Cote d?Azur, also known as the French Riviera, the coastal region bounded by the Rhone River to the west, to the north by the Rhone Alps, and the east by the Italian border. The peninsula itself, extended out southwards from the city of Hyeres to the resort community of Giens, is formed from two tombolos. A tombolo is a ridge of beach material (typically sand) built by wave action that connects an island to the mainland. Tombolos, like many coastal features, typically change dramatically over geologic time due to fluctuating sediment supply, coastal currents, sea levels and storm events. The tombolos of the Giens Peninsula have been modified by human activities including sand dune removal, construction of roadways, and replacement of the original sand by other materials. The long-term survival of these tombolos will be determined by the effects of these changes on the natural coastal processes, with potential sea level rise presenting an additional threat. In addition to Giens, three other urban areas are visible in this image; Carqueiranne, Hyeres, and La Londe-les-Maures. The urban areas are recognizable by both light pink rooftops and grey street grids. These contrast with green to brown vegetated areas including agricultural fields (between Hyeres and La Londe-les-Maures, top center) and dark green vegetated hillslopes (between Hyeres and Carqueiranne, top left). Small white dots and streaks in the Mediterranean Sea are actually yachts and other pleasure craft.

  14. Multi-seasonal barnacle (Balanus improvisus) protection achieved by trace amounts of a macrocyclic lactone (ivermectin) included in rosin-based coatings.

    PubMed

    Pinori, Emiliano; Berglin, Mattias; Brive, Lena M; Hulander, Mats; Dahlström, Mia; Elwing, Hans

    2011-10-01

    Rosin-based coatings loaded with 0.1% (w/v) ivermectin were found to be effective in preventing colonization by barnacles (Balanus improvisus) both on test panels as well as on yachts for at least two fouling seasons. The leaching rate of ivermectin was determined by mass-spectroscopy (LC/MS-MS) to be 0.7 ng cm(-2) day(-1). This low leaching rate, as deduced from the Higuchi model, is a result of the low loading, low water solubility, high affinity to the matrix and high molar volume of the model biocide. Comparison of ivermectin and control areas of panels immersed in the field showed undisturbed colonisation of barnacles after immersion for 35 days. After 73 days the mean barnacle base plate area on the controls was 13 mm(2), while on the ivermectin coating it was 3 mm(2). After 388 days, no barnacles were observed on the ivermectin coating while the barnacles on the control coating had reached a mean of 60 mm(2). In another series of coated panels, ivermectin was dissolved in a cosolvent mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol formal prior to the addition to the paint base. This method further improved the anti-barnacle performance of the coatings. An increased release rate (3 ng cm(-2) day(-1)) and dispersion of ivermectin, determined by fluorescence microscopy, and decreased hardness of the coatings were the consequences of the cosolvent mixture in the paint. The antifouling mechanism of macrocyclic lactones, such as avermectins, needs to be clarified in further studies. Beside chronic intoxication as ivermectin is slowly released from the paint film even contact intoxication occurring inside the coatings, triggered by penetration of the coating by barnacles, is a possible explanation for the mode of action and this is under investigation.

  15. Indicators of sailing performance in youth dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Margot; Boone, Jan; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Bourgois, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine indicators of sailing performance in 2 (age) groups of youth sailors by investigating the anthropometric, physical and motor coordination differences and factors discriminating between elite and non-elite male optimist sailors and young dynamic hikers. Anthropometric measurements from 23 optimist sailors (mean ± SD age = 12.3 ± 1.4 years) and 24 dynamic youth hikers (i.e. Laser 4.7, Laser radial and Europe sailors <18 years who have to sail the boat in a very dynamic manner, due to a high sailor to yacht weight ratio) (mean ± SD age = 16.5 ± 1.6 years) were conducted. They performed a physical fitness test battery (EUROFIT), motor coordination test battery (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder) and the Bucket test. Both groups of sailors were divided into two subgroups (i.e. elites and non-elites) based on sailing expertise. The significant differences, taking biological maturation into account and factors discriminating between elite and non-elite optimist sailors and dynamic hikers were explored by means of multivariate analysis of covariance and discriminant analysis, respectively. The main results indicated that 100.0% of elite optimist sailors and 88.9% of elite dynamic hikers could be correctly classified by means of two motor coordination tests (i.e. side step and side jump) and Bucket test, respectively. As such, strength- and speed-oriented motor coordination and isometric knee-extension strength endurance can be identified as indicators of sailing performance in young optimist and dynamic youth sailors, respectively. Therefore, we emphasise the importance of motor coordination skill training in optimist sailors (<15 years) and maximum strength training later on (>15 years) in order to increase their isometric knee-extension strength endurance.

  16. Constraining calving front processes on W Greenland outlet glaciers using inertial-corrected laser scanning & swath-bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Hubbard, A.; Neale, M.; Woodward, J.; Box, J. E.; Nick, F.

    2010-12-01

    Calving and submarine melt account for the majority of loss from the Antarctic and over 50% of that from the Greenland Ice Sheet. These ice-ocean processes are highly efficient mass-loss mechanisms, providing a rapid link between terrestrial ice (storage) and the oceanic sink (sea level/freshwater flux) which renders the ocean-outlet-ice sheet system potentially highly non-linear. Despite this, the controls on tidewater processes are poorly understood and a process based description of them is lacking from the present generation of coupled ice sheet models. We present details from an innovative study where two survey techniques are integrated to enable the construction of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the aerial and submarine ice front of calving outlet glaciers. A 2km range terrestrial laser scanner was combined with a 416KHz swath-interferometric system and corrected via an inertial motion unit stabilized by RTK GPS and gyro-compass data. The system was mounted aboard a heavy displacement (20,000kg) yacht in addition to a light displacement (100kg) semi-autonomous boat and used to image the aerial and submarine calving fronts of two large outlet glaciers in W Greenland. Six daily surveys, each 2.5km long were repeated across Lille Glacier during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were observed and captured from on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse sequences. A curtain of CTD and velocity casts were also conducted to constrain the fresh and oceanic mass and energy fluxes within the fjord. The residual of successive DTMs yield the spatial pattern of frontal change enabling the processes of aerial and submarine calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. These observed frontal changes are tentatively related to local dynamic, atmospheric and oceanographic processes that drive them. A partial survey of Store Glacier (~7km calving front & W Greenland 2nd largest outlet after Jakobshavn Isbrae

  17. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  18. Experimental trials on the feasibility of offshore seed production of the mussel Mytilus edulis in the German Bight: installation, technical requirements and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Bela Hieronymus

    2007-06-01

    This study summarizes the activities and findings during a 2 year investigation on the grow-out of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and the technical requirements to withstand harsh weather conditions at an offshore location. The experimental sites were two different test areas, each 5 ha in size, 12-15 m in depth, in the vicinity of the offshore lighthouse “Roter Sand” located 15-17 nautical miles northwest of the city of Bremerhaven (Germany). Two versions of submerged longline systems were deployed: a conventional polypropylene longline in 2002 as well as a steel hawser longline in 2003, both featuring different versions of buoyancy modes. The spat collectors and grow-out ropes were suspended perpendicular from the horizontal longline for several months beginning in March of each respective year. The test sites were visited and sampled on a monthly basis using research vessels. Larval abundances in the surrounding water column reached numbers of up to 1,467 individuals m-3. Post-larval settlement success varied through the entire experimental period, ranging from 29 to 796 individuals of spat per meter of collector. Settled mussels reached a shell length of up to 28 mm 6 months after settlement. Based on the growth rates observed for the seed, it is projected that mussels would reach market size (50 mm) in 12-15 months post settlement, and at the observed densities, each meter of collector rope could yield 10.9 kg of harvestable mussels. The polypropylene line resisted storm conditions with wind waves of up to 6.4 m and current velocities of 1.52 m s-1 and was retrieved in autumn of 2002. In contrast, the steel hawser-based line did not withstand the harsh weather conditions. The steel-based line consisted of six twisted strands that were untwisted by the strong currents and turbulences and consequently the individual strands were torn. Additionally, the line was accidentally cut by a yacht in July 2003. The biological study revealed that the tested location

  19. Anthropogenic chemical cues can alter the swimming behaviour of juvenile stages of a temperate fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Cotgrove, Lucy; Smee, Sarah Louise; Simón-Otegui, David; Hinz, Hilmar; Grau, Amalia; Palmer, Miquel; Catalán, Ignacio A

    2017-04-01

    Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress. Studies on early stages of fishes have observed responses to coastal chemical cues for the selection or avoidance of habitats. However, the potential interferences of human impacts on these signals are largely unknown. A choice chamber was used to determine water type preference and behaviour in naïve settled juvenile gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), a temperate species of commercial interest. Fish were tested individually for behavioural changes with respect to water types from potential beneficial habitats, such as seawater with extract of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, anthropogenically influenced habitats such as water extracted from a commercial and recreational harbour and seawater mixed with sunscreen at concentrations observed in coastal waters. Using a Bayesian approach, we investigated a) water type preference; b) mean speed; and c) variance in the movement (as an indicator of burst swimming activity, or "sprint" behaviour) as behavioural descriptors with respect to water type. Fish spent similar percentage of time in treatment and control water types. However, movement descriptors showed that fish in sunscreen water moved slower (98.43% probability of being slower) and performed fewer sprints (90.1% probability of having less burst in speed) compared to control water. Less evident increases in sprints were observed in harbour

  20. Some notes on an early nineteenth century manuscript medical receipt book.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W A

    2003-06-01

    There are 97 remedies listed, including 11 veterinary ones. These numbers include several that are duplicates. The commonest types of medicament are salves or ointments, of which there are ten, but these ten do not include ointments for specific complaints such as haemorrhoids or scurvy. The most frequently found cures are for the itch (10), rheumatism (5), gravel (4), pain (4), and piles (3), all the others having only one or two entries. They were intended to treat 39 human complaints and 9 animal ones. In addition there were formulae for killing lice, making rat poison, and preparing damson wine! The number of different medicaments that were used in the recipes was relatively small, but more than were to be found in the smaller sizes of domestic medicine cabinet. In 1820 Reece's Traveller's Dispensary that was flat and would fit in the pocket of a carriage, only contained ten drugs plus court plaster, lint, scales and weights with a book of directions and cost L3.10s.0d. (L3.50). The Lady's Dispensary which contained twenty medicines, including two pills, with some dispensing equipment and a book of directions cost L5.10s.0d. (L5.50). In all, he listed twenty different cabinets and a sea medicine chest ranging in price from L3.10s.0d. to L32.10s.0d. They included ones suitable for the family, country clergymen, and travellers on the continent and in the tropics. In 1862 Savory and Moore stocked a range of sixty-seven different medicine chests and cases in rosewood, mahogany, walnut, boxwood and leather that were fitted with 'modern appliances and conveniences adapted for the requirements of families, clergymen, officers, owners of yachts, and travellers.' Unfortunately no prices are quoted. I think that we can safely assume that the treatment received at the hands of Evan Jones was likely to be rather rough and ready when compared to the ministrations of a physician, surgeon, clergyman or local 'Lady Bountiful', but, nevertheless, must have been of great value

  1. Assessment of seismic hazards along the northern Gulf of Aqaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abueladas, Abdel-Rahman Aqel

    Aqaba and Elat are very important port and recreation cities for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Israel, respectively. The two cities are the most susceptible to damage from a destructive future earthquake because they are located over the tectonically active Dead Sea transform fault (DST) that is the source of most of the major historical earthquakes in the region. The largest twentieth century earthquake on the DST, the magnitude Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake of November 22, 1995, caused damage to structures in both cities. The integration of geological, geophysical, and earthquake engineering studies will help to assess the seismic hazards by determining the location and slip potential of active faults and by mapping areas of high liquefaction susceptibility. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a high resolution shallow geophysical tool was used to map the shallow active faults in Aqaba, Taba Sabkha area, and Elat. The GPR data revealed the onshore continuation of the Evrona, West Aqaba, Aqaba fault zones, and several transverse faults. The integration of offshore and onshore data confirm the extension of these faults along both sides of the Gulf of Aqaba. A 3D model of GPR data at one site in Aqaba indicates that the NW-trending transverse faults right laterally offset older than NE-trending faults. The most hazardous fault is the Evrona fault which extends north to the Tabs Sabkha. A geographic information system (GIS) database of the seismic hazard was created in order to facilitate the analyzing, manipulation, and updating of the input parameters. Liquefaction potential maps were created for the region based on analysis of borehole data. The liquefaction map shows high and moderate liquefaction susceptibility zones along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. In Aqaba several hotels are located within a high and moderate liquefaction zones. The Yacht Club, Aqaba, Ayla archaeological site, and a part of commercial area are also situated in a risk area. A part

  2. Quantification of MTE in surface sediments of Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France): A preliminary approach for determination of sources and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Joselyn; Goubert, Evelyne; Labeyrie, Laurent; Coynel, Alexandra; Menier, David

    2014-05-01

    The Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France) has an intense coastal activity: farming, industry, urban habitation run-off, yachting and transportation. In the past centuries, tin mining industry was also developed. These different factors may introduce metal trace elements (MTE) into the marine environment at toxic concentration levels. This pollution can particularly affect the oyster production, widely developed in the area. Monitoring MTE in surface sediments at high spatial resolution has been programmed to assess pollutants and their sources in two of the major Morbihan coastal systems concerned with oyster farming, and where available information on MTE impact and sediment quality is limited: the Bay of Quiberon, partly protected from the open ocean by the Quiberon Peninsula and several islands, mostly sandy (coarse to fine, with a significant shelly fraction), with water depths shallower that 25 m, and the Gulf of Morbihan, a shallow depth (less than 5 m, apart from the two paleoriver beds), semi-enclosed, estuarine system with very coarse sand to fine mud, mostly distributed by a strong tidal current system. Fifty two surface sediment samples were collected in April 2013 to characterize the MTE spatial distribution through the salinity and pollution gradients, from the small local rivers and harbor areas to the open marine environments. Analyses cover sedimentological and biogeochemical properties (particulate organic carbon using a LECO-CS-230; MTE using ICP-MS or DMA for Hg). Statistical analyses help to discriminate within the spatial variability the natural (e.g. grain-size effect) and anthropogenic factors. MTE concentrations were also compared to local geochemical background as measured at the bottom of three sediment cores collected in representative sites, for calculating the enrichment index of each MTE and evaluating the degree of sediment contamination. The initial interpretation of the results would indicate a clear distinction between the

  3. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  4. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    the type or style of slope failure. Seabright Beach extends 0.9 km from San Lorenzo Point on the west to the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor on the east. The cliffs at Seabright Beach are completely protected from wave attack by a wide beach. The protective beach is a relatively recent feature that formed after the emplacement of the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor jetty in 1963-1964. Prior to the completion of the jetty, the cliffs at Seabright Beach were subject to daily wave attack. The data in this study are post-jetty construction; therefore, the sea cliff failures and cliff retreat are the result of nonmarine processes (rainfall, groundwater and seismic shaking). The 8 to 15 m high cliffs at Seabright Beach are composed of the Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation, which is overlain by unconsolidated Pleistocene terrace deposits. The relative thickness of these units varies along the length of the cliff. At the west end of Seabright Beach, including San Lorenzo Point, nearly the entire cliff section is composed of Purisima Formation and is capped by less than 2 m of terrace deposits. In this exposure, the Purisima Formation is a moderately weathered, moderately indurated massive sandstone. The height of the cliffs and the thickness of the Purisima Formation decrease to the east. In the cliffs immediately adjacent to the harbor, the entire exposure is composed of terrace deposits. Toe-slope debris and wind-blown sand form a nearly continuous fan along the cliff base that obscure the lower portion of the cliff. This study documents the impacts of earthquakes and large storms to the sea cliffs in the Seabright Beach section. The first event is the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a M7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage to the area stretching from Santa Cruz to the San Francisco Bay. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 km inland from the coast. Extensive block and debris falls, induced by the seismic shaking, occ

  5. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    Kyiv of specialized yachts with photorecorder, implemented by assistant professor G.N. Dashkiev. That's why we build big plans in this direction with the creation of several specialized yachts, which can be used in Kiev, Odessa, Nikolaev, where there is an astronomical observatory and meteor patrols. A large comet showers have to capture still far enough in space because they are deadly to of life on Earth. 3.4. Special AAO TAMS our services. Traditional Astronomical observatories (AO Kiev University. Shevchenko, MAO NASU, etc.) in need of of specialized aerial astronomical observatories (AAO) TAMS services based on of use drones, quadrocopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reliable PGAU [ 4, 6]. This is another important area for scientific and technical development services in TAMS "Churyumov Unified Network". 4. The International Academic Senate (IAS) and its role in the coordination of terrestrial services and networks, mobile, airborne and orbital space monitoring. Chief Scientific Secretary of the IAS Dashkiev GN not just passionate about photo-shoot on all kinds of dangerous intrusion into the sky over our cities, as has already been a great experience and significant progress in our common cause. Therefore, we hope not only to support the leadership of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences, Security Service of Ukraine, the Emergencies Ministry, but also in the constructive and mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries

  6. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

  7. Marine Science and Education in one Word: "planeetzee.org"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seys, J.; Copejans, E.; Ameije, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a major challenge to bring science and technology to the public at large and more particular to young people. This is even more true for marine sciences, due to the very nature of the study field and the fact that the underwater world is difficult to experience and communicate. Therefore it is not surprising that in Europe there are only few examples of marine educational projects that try to go beyond the ‘observe and describe' approach. In 2004 SHE Consultancy, the Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ and DAB Vloot developed a first Belgian e-learning programme dedicated to oceans and seas, with the support of the Flemish government ("Action plan Science Communication"). This programme ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw' (www.expeditiezeeleeuw.be), ran from 2005 till 2007 and challenged some 3000 Flemish students of 16-18 years old all over Flanders to find creative solutions for 10 major marine issues at the Belgian coast. The class that could convince the jury to have discovered the most creative and intelligent solutions, wan a one-week scientific expedition at sea on board the vessel Zeeleeuw. As a successor to ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw', a new e-learning project on marine science was developed in 2007: ‘Planeet Zee' i.e. ‘Planet Ocean' (www.planeetzee.org; info via info@planeetzee.org + demo-site in English available at www.planetocean.eu). The new marine and coastal e-learning project is presented as a virtual sailing trip on the Atlantic Ocean. It follows the adventures of two youngsters "borrowing" the yacht of their father and getting into trouble on the open ocean. On this journey they face 21 problems (eg. out of food, drinking water or fuel, fear for whales, Bermuda triangle, tsunami's etc… ), each of them introduced by a short movie clip. When they realize they can not solve the problem, they ask for radio help and - what a surprise! - get interesting answers from the Zeeleeuw research vessel and its 21 marine scientists on board, that appears to be in the

  8. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  9. PREFACE: Electrostatics 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, James

    2015-10-01

    presentation related to their work. Chilworth Technology and Infolytica both took advantage of this opportunity. David Firth from Chilworth Technology delivered some case studies related to process safety and Chris Emson from Infolytica compared the different types of modelling software used in industry and academia. For two days of the conference, an exhibition was held for delegates to meet and discuss their work with interested companies. Sessions on Modelling and Simulation and on Measurement and Instrumentation were included. Recent successful IOP meetings on Electrospinning and Electrospray prove that this is an important topic, and were the subject of a session in the conference, including an invited talk by Dr Horst von Recum on Electrospun materials for affinity based drug delivery. The conference finished with a session on Environmental and Space Applications. The Southampton Yacht Club provided a fitting venue for the conference dinner on the Wednesday evening. Meal times, and conference dinners in particular, are always a great opportunity to meet with other workers in related fields, and there were many conversations started in question and answer sessions that continued over a plate of food. Within the conference dinner, prizes were awarded for the best student work. Ladislav Konopka's talk in the modelling and simulation session discussed how different particle sizes can be shown to transfer charge in a modelled system. Matthias Perez's poster presented early work on the use of a small-scale wind turbine to generate wind power. The discussions both within the lecture theatre and the ongoing discussions that occur over coffee and tea in between sessions are often a place where new ideas are shared. In fact, the presentation submitted by Dr Atsushi Ohsawa, Charge neutralisation from the side surface of an insulating plate, acknowledged an inspiration from a question raised at a previous Electrostatics conference in Budapest in 2013. In these proceedings the