Science.gov

Sample records for yachts

  1. Yacht Race Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  2. Total Longitudinal Moment Calculation and Reliability Analysis of Yacht Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Wenzheng; Lin, Shaofen

    In order to check the reliability of the yacht in FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) materials, in this paper, the vertical force and the calculation method of the overall longitudinal bending moment on yacht was analyzed. Specially, this paper focuses on the impact of speed on the still water bending moment on yacht. Then considering the mechanical properties of the cap type stiffeners in composite materials, the ultimate bearing capacity of the yacht has been worked out, finally the reliability of the yacht was calculated with using response surface methodology. The result can be used in yacht design and yacht driving.

  3. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yacht privileges and obligations. 4.94 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94 Yacht privileges and obligations...) A cruising license may be issued to a yacht of a foreign country only if it has been made to appear...

  4. 19 CFR 4.94 - Yacht privileges and obligations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Yacht privileges and obligations. 4.94 Section 4... THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94 Yacht privileges and obligations...) A cruising license may be issued to a yacht of a foreign country only if it has been made to appear...

  5. Yacht-maker's lung: A case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in yacht manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Volkman, Kristen K; Merrick, James G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    We present a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a 46-year-old female working at a yacht manufacturing company. She reported a 2-month history of progressive dyspnea, chest tightness, and daytime, nocturnal, and exertional cough in temporal relationship to work where she was exposed to chemicals involved in the manufacture of yachts. Treatment with systemic antibiotic therapy, inhaled bronchodilators, and inhaled corticosteroids provided minimal relief of symptoms. Spirometry revealed a restrictive defect and a chest x-ray demonstrated a diffuse interstitial pattern. She improved on oral corticosteroids and with avoidance of her work environment had resolution of her symptoms and normalization of her spirometry. Among the various chemicals the patient was exposed to, the most likely causative agents for her symptoms were dimethyl phthalate and styrene. Although the specific chemical or antigen could not be determined, the history and objective findings are consistent with occupational hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This represents a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis related to the manufacture of yachts.

  6. The Sand Yacht Challenge...Inspires Lots of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Robin

    2018-01-01

    In this article, Robin James describes the Sand Yacht Challenge. The race took place on sand between small, wind-powered land yachts made by groups of children from four local schools. The project provided a term of collaborative opportunities at the designing and testing stage, followed by a competition when the students raced them. It was…

  7. View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the yacht club from avila pier, facing west northwest. The main entry is to the right and the more recent deck addition is to the left. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. Porosity in Ocean Racing Yacht Composites: a Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baley, Christophe; Lan, Marine; Davies, Peter; Cartié, Denis

    2015-02-01

    Ocean racing yachts are mainly manufactured from carbon/epoxy composites similar to those used by the aeronautical industry but, with some exceptions such as masts, these structures are not produced in autoclaves. This leads to the presence of higher porosity levels. This paper will first present the different types of porosity found in traditional racing yacht structures. Difficulties in evaluating defect levels will then be discussed and published work characterizing the influence of defects will be reviewed. Current developments to improve racing yacht composite quality such as thin ply technology, out-of-autoclave processing and automated fibre placement will then be described, and their implications for porosity will be discussed.

  9. 75 FR 4783 - Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Federal Consistency Appeal by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour, Inc. AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... days, closure of the decision record in an administrative appeal filed by Villa Marina Yacht Harbour...

  10. 75 FR 23587 - Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Seattle Yacht Club's ``Opening Day'' Marine Parade AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of enforcement..., Portage Cut (Montlake Cut), and Union Bay, WA during the Annual Seattle Yacht Club's ``Opening Day... Special Local Regulation for the annual Seattle Yacht Club's ``Opening Day'' Marine Parade in 33 CFR 100...

  11. 77 FR 73671 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Activities: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale. This is a proposed extension of an information collection... information collection: Title: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale. OMB Number: 1651-0080. Form...

  12. 33 CFR 5.29 - Assignment to duty on a motorboat, yacht, aircraft, or radio station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., yacht, aircraft, or radio station. 5.29 Section 5.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.29 Assignment to duty on a motorboat, yacht, aircraft, or radio station. No member of the Auxiliary shall be placed in charge of a motorboat, yacht...

  13. 33 CFR 5.29 - Assignment to duty on a motorboat, yacht, aircraft, or radio station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., yacht, aircraft, or radio station. 5.29 Section 5.29 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL COAST GUARD AUXILIARY § 5.29 Assignment to duty on a motorboat, yacht, aircraft, or radio station. No member of the Auxiliary shall be placed in charge of a motorboat, yacht...

  14. 77 FR 60133 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... Activities: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... collection requirement concerning Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale. This request for...: Title: Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale. OMB Number: 1651-0080. Form Number: None...

  15. Research on key technology of yacht positioning based on binocular parallax

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Ping; Liu, Zengzhi

    2016-10-01

    Yacht has become a fashionable way for entertainment. However, to obtain the precise location of a yacht docked at a port has become one of the concerns of a yacht manager. To deal with this issue, we adopt a positioning method based on the principle of binocular parallax and background difference in this paper. Binocular parallax uses cameras to get multi-dimensional perspective of the yacht based on geometric principle of imaging. In order to simplify the yacht localization problem, we install LED light indicator as the key point on a yacht. And let it flash at a certain frequency during day time and night time. After getting the distance between the LED and the cameras, locating the yacht is easy. Compared with other traditional positioning methods, this method is simpler and easier to implement. In this paper, we study the yacht positioning method using the LED indicator. Simulation experiment is done for a yacht model in the distance of 3 meters. The experimental result shows that our method is feasible and easy to implement with a small 15% positioning error.

  16. Patterns of illness and injury encountered in amateur ocean yacht racing: an analysis of the British Telecom Round the World Yacht Race 1996–1997

    PubMed Central

    Price, C; Spalding, T; McKenzie, C; Farquharson-Rober..., M

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To quantify the incidence and type of medical problem arising during an amateur circumnavigation yacht race, the BT Global Challenge. Methods: All cases from 14 participating yachts in a confidential medical log completed by an appointed medic were reported. Results: A total of 685 cases were reported, of which 299 (43.6%) were injuries and 386 (56.4%) illnesses. The subtype of injury, illness, and three evacuations at sea are described. Conclusion: Injury and other forms of medical problem are relatively common in an amateur long distance ocean yacht race. Most can be adequately managed at sea, provided that optimal communication, training, and equipment are provided and maintained. PMID:12453842

  17. Patterns of illness and injury encountered in amateur ocean yacht racing: an analysis of the British Telecom Round the World Yacht Race 1996-1997.

    PubMed

    Price, C J S; Spalding, T J W; McKenzie, C

    2002-12-01

    To quantify the incidence and type of medical problem arising during an amateur circumnavigation yacht race, the BT Global Challenge. All cases from 14 participating yachts in a confidential medical log completed by an appointed medic were reported. A total of 685 cases were reported, of which 299 (43.6%) were injuries and 386 (56.4%) illnesses. The subtype of injury, illness, and three evacuations at sea are described. Injury and other forms of medical problem are relatively common in an amateur long distance ocean yacht race. Most can be adequately managed at sea, provided that optimal communication, training, and equipment are provided and maintained.

  18. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... portion of the vessel extending above the waterline. All of these areas are inside the “Lakeside Yacht...

  19. 33 CFR 165.906 - Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH-regulated navigation areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland... Guard District § 165.906 Lakeside Yacht Club in Cleveland Harbor, Cleveland, OH—regulated navigation... portion of the vessel extending above the waterline. All of these areas are inside the “Lakeside Yacht...

  20. System identification and the modeling of sailing yachts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legursky, Katrina

    This research represents an exploration of sailing yacht dynamics with full-scale sailing motion data, physics-based models, and system identification techniques. The goal is to provide a method of obtaining and validating suitable physics-based dynamics models for use in control system design on autonomous sailing platforms, which have the capacity to serve as mobile, long range, high endurance autonomous ocean sensing platforms. The primary contributions of this study to the state-of-the-art are the formulation of a five degree-of-freedom (DOF) linear multi-input multi-output (MIMO) state space model of sailing yacht dynamics, the process for identification of this model from full-scale data, a description of the maneuvers performed during on-water tests, and an analysis method to validate estimated models. The techniques and results described herein can be directly applied to and tested on existing autonomous sailing platforms. A full-scale experiment on a 23ft monohull sailing yacht is developed to collect motion data for physics-based model identification. Measurements include 3 axes of accelerations, velocities, angular rates, and attitude angles in addition to apparent wind speed and direction. The sailing yacht herein is treated as a dynamic system with two control inputs, the rudder angle, deltaR, and the mainsail angle, delta B, which are also measured. Over 20 hours of full scale sailing motion data is collected, representing three sail configurations corresponding to a range of wind speeds: the Full Main and Genoa (abbrev. Genoa) for lower wind speeds, the Full Main and Jib (abbrev. Jib) for mid-range wind speeds, and the Reefed Main and Jib (abbrev. Reef) for the highest wind speeds. The data also covers true wind angles from upwind through a beam reach. A physics-based non-linear model to describe sailing yacht motion is outlined, including descriptions of methods to model the aerodynamics and hydrodynamics of a sailing yacht in surge, sway, roll, and

  1. 19 CFR 4.94a - Large yachts imported for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Large yachts imported for sale. 4.94a Section 4.94a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94a Large yachts imported for sale. (a...

  2. 33 CFR 100.1304 - Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Annual Seattle Yacht Club's âOpening Dayâ Marine Parade. 100.1304 Section 100.1304 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade. (a) Regulated area. All of Portage Bay, with the...

  3. 19 CFR 4.94a - Large yachts imported for sale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Large yachts imported for sale. 4.94a Section 4.94a Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES General § 4.94a Large yachts imported for sale. (a...

  4. 77 FR 38490 - Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-28

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Mentor Harbor Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Mentor, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Erie, Mentor, OH. This safety zone is intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Mentor Harbor Yachting Club fireworks display. This temporary safety zone is necessary to protect...

  5. Simulation of upwind maneuvering of a sailing yacht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, Daniel Hartrick

    A time domain maneuvering simulation of an IACC class yacht suitable for the analysis of unsteady upwind sailing including tacking is presented. The simulation considers motions in six degrees of freedom. The hydrodynamic and aerodynamic loads are calculated primarily with unsteady potential theory supplemented by empirical viscous models. The hydrodynamic model includes the effects of incident waves. Control of the rudder is provided by a simple rate feedback autopilot which is augmented with open loop additions to mimic human steering. The hydrodynamic models are based on the superposition of force components. These components fall into two groups, those which the yacht will experience in calm water, and those due to incident waves. The calm water loads are further divided into zero Froude number, or "double body" maneuvering loads, hydrostatic loads, gravitational loads, free surface radiation loads, and viscous/residual loads. The maneuvering loads are calculated with an unsteady panel code which treats the instantaneous geometry of the yacht below the undisturbed free surface. The free surface radiation loads are calculated via convolution of impulse response functions derived from seakeeping strip theory. The viscous/residual loads are based upon empirical estimates. The aerodynamic model consists primarily of a database of steady state sail coefficients. These coefficients treat the individual contributions to the total sail force of a number of chordwise strips on both the main and jib. Dynamic effects are modeled by using the instantaneous incident wind velocity and direction as the independent variables for the sail load contribution of each strip. The sail coefficient database was calculated numerically with potential methods and simple empirical viscous corrections. Additional aerodynamic load calculations are made to determine the parasitic contributions of the rig and hull. Validation studies compare the steady sailing hydro and aerodynamic loads

  6. Styrene vapor control systems in FRP yacht plants.

    PubMed

    Todd, W F

    1985-01-01

    The production of large (greater than 25-ft) fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) yachts has presented problems of styrene exposure in excess of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level (OSHA PEL) of 100 ppm. Also, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is currently recommending a 10-hour workshift, 40-hour workweek time weighted average (TWA) of 50 ppm for styrene. Meeting this challenge will require a system of engineering, work practice, personal protective equipment, and monitoring control measures. NIOSH has performed a study of the engineering controls in three FRP yacht plants. Work practices and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) were also considered in the evaluation. The three systems evaluated included a dilution system, a local ventilation system, and a push-pull ventilation system. The cost of constructing and operating these systems was not evaluated in this study. Study results indicated that each type of ventilation system can meet the present PEL of 100 ppm styrene; however, it is not certain that these systems can meet a lower PEL of 50 ppm styrene.

  7. Investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubomir, Soukup; Jaroslav, Stigler; Abdellah, Kharicha

    2016-03-01

    The present article deals with investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder. One of the most important aspect for design of yachts are the symmetric conditions of all parts, which are located under water level and concentricity of the ship's screw, rudder and keel relative to the hull. These symmetric and concentricity conditions have a major impact on the resulting dynamic properties of the ships. They have either substantial impact on the overall efficiency of installed engine and ship's screw. As the result of poorly designed above mentioned parts, there can be an unsolicited additional torque on the yacht's rudder and higher consumption of the fuel. Last but not least of these problems leads to poor controllability and discomfort within steering. This article is focused on the investigation of possible causes of the additional torque on the yacht's rudder.

  8. Structural health monitoring of IACC yachts using fiber optic distributed strain sensors: a technical challenge for America's Cup 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro; Kimpara, Isao; Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi

    2000-06-01

    In this study, we developed a health monitoring system using a fiber optic distributed strain sensor for International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts. Most structural components of an IACC yacht consist of an aluminum honeycomb core sandwiched between carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates. In such structures, delamination, skin/core debonding and debonding between adhered members will be result in serious fracture of the structure. We equipped two IACC yachts with fiber optic strain sensors designed to measured the distributed strain using a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR) and to detect any deterioration or damage to the yacht's structures caused by such failures. And based on laboratory test results, we proposed a structural health monitoring technique for IACC yachts that involves analyzing their strain distribution. Some important information about structural conditions of the IACC yachts could be obtained from this system through the periodical strain measurements in the field.

  9. Motion sickness incidence during a round-the-world yacht race.

    PubMed

    Turner, M; Griffin, M J

    1995-09-01

    Motion sickness experiences were obtained from participants in a 9 month, round the world yacht race. Race participants completed questionnaires on their motion sickness experience 1 week prior to the start of the race, during the race, and following the race. Yacht headings, sea states, and wind directions were recorded throughout the race. Illness and the occurrence of vomiting were related to the duration at sea and yacht encounter directions relative to the prevailing wind. Individual crewmember characteristics, the use of anti-motion sickness drugs, activity while at sea, and after-effects of yacht motion were also examined with respect to sickness occurrence. Sickness was greatest among females and younger crewmembers, and among crewmembers who used anti-motion sickness drugs. Sickness varied as a function of drug type and activity while at sea. Crewmembers who reported after-effects of yacht motion also reported greater sickness while at sea. The primary determinants of motion sickness were the duration of time spent at sea and yacht encounter direction to the prevailing wind.

  10. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... Customs Bond Conditions § 113.75 Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at....C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  11. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  12. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  13. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... Customs Bond Conditions § 113.75 Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at....C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  14. Thermoregulatory demands of elite professional America's Cup yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Neville, V; Gant, N; Folland, J P

    2010-06-01

    America's Cup yacht racing predominantly occurs during the summer months under hot and humid conditions, with athletes exposed to the environment for prolonged periods, and yet the thermoregulatory responses to competitive sailing are largely unappreciated. This study aimed to assess the thermoregulatory responses to elite professional big-boat yacht racing, according to crew position and upwind and downwind sailing. Intestinal (T(core)) and skin temperature, fluid balance and regional sweat compositions were measured in two America's Cup crews (n=32) during 100 min of racing. The environmental conditions were as follows: 32 degrees C, 52% RH and 5 m/s wind speed. Subjective race intensity was moderate. Bowmen recorded the greatest elevation in the heart rate (184 +/- 10 beats/min) and T(core) (39.2 degrees C, P<0.01). Both heart rate and T(core) were higher during downwind sailing (P<0.001). Regional skin temperatures were significantly different according to site (P=0.05), with tibia being the lowest (33.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C). The mean sweat loss during racing was 1.34 +/- 0.58 L/h (range: 0.44-2.40 L/h), with bowmen experiencing the greatest loss of sweat (3.7 +/- 0.9% of body mass). The mean fluid intake was highly correlated to sweat loss (r=0.74, P<0.001), with 72 +/- 41% of sweat losses replaced. The mean sodium concentration of sweat was 27.2 +/- 9.2 mmol/L (range: 12.0-43.5 mmol/L) and the total NaCl loss during sailing was 3.8 +/- 2.4 g (range 0.7-10.0 g). America's Cup sailing is a demanding sport that presents considerable challenges to thermoregulation, fluid and electrolyte balance. Certain crew roles (bowmen) present an increased risk of developing exertional heat illness, and for the majority of crew downwind sailing results in greater thermal strain than upwind sailing - which may have implications for clothing selection and boat design.

  15. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  16. Constitutional Law--State Action--Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club: Preventing Discrimination by Private Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Michael W.

    1976-01-01

    Although the Supreme Court has refrained from answering whether the membership policies of private clubs can be attacked on state action grounds, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals held in the affirmative in Golden v. Biscayne Bay Yacht Club. It ruled that leasing publicly owned bay bottom land to a yacht club constituted sufficient state…

  17. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone adjacent to airport on... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone...

  18. The leading-edge vortex of yacht sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo-Galeana, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2017-11-01

    We experimentally show, for the first time, that a stable Leading-Edge Vortex (LEV) can be formed on an asymmetric spinnaker, which is a high-lift sail used by yachts to sail downwind. We tested a 3D printed rigid sail in a water flume at a chord-based Reynolds number of ca. 104. We found that on the leeward side of the sail (the suction side), the flow separates at the leading edge reattaching further downstream and forming a stable LEV. The LEV grows in diameter from the root to the tip of the sail, where it merges with the tip vortex. We detected the LEV using the γ criterion, and we verified its stability over time. The lift contribution provided by the LEV was computed solving a complex potential model of each sail section. This analysis indicated that the LEV provides a substantial contribution to the total sail's lift. These findings suggest that the maximum lift of low-aspect-ratio wings with a sharp leading edge, such as spinnakers, can be enhanced by promoting a stable LEV. This work was funded by the Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT).

  19. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in America's Cup yacht racing

    PubMed Central

    Neville, V J; Molloy, J; Brooks, J H M; Speedy, D B; Atkinson, G

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To determine the incidence and severity of injuries and illnesses incurred by a professional America's Cup yacht racing crew during the preparation for and participation in the challenge for the 2003 America's Cup. Methods A prospective study design was used over 74 weeks of sailing and training. All injuries and illnesses sustained by the 35 professional male crew members requiring medical treatment were recorded, including the diagnosis, nature, location, and mechanism of injury. The volume of sailing and training were recorded, and the severity of incidents were determined by the number of days absent from both sailing and training. Results In total, 220 injuries and 119 illnesses were recorded, with an overall incidence of 8.8 incidents/1000 sailing and training hours (injuries, 5.7; illnesses, 3.1). The upper limb was the most commonly injured body segment (40%), followed by the spine and neck (30%). The most common injuries were joint/ligament sprains (27%) and tendinopathies (20%). The incidence of injury was significantly higher in training (8.6) than sailing (2.2). The most common activity or mechanism of injury was non‐specific overuse (24%), followed by impact with boat hardware (15%) and weight training (13%). “Grinders” had the highest overall injury incidence (7.7), and “bowmen” had the highest incidence of sailing injuries (3.2). Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections (40%). Conclusions The data from this study suggest that America's Cup crew members are at a similar risk of injury to athletes in other non‐collision team sports. Prudent allocation of preventive and therapeutic resources, such as comprehensive health and medical care, well designed conditioning and nutritional programmes, and appropriate management of recovery should be adopted by America's Cup teams in order to reduce the risk of injury and illness. PMID:16556783

  20. Epidemiology of injuries and illnesses in America's Cup yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Neville, V J; Molloy, J; Brooks, J H M; Speedy, D B; Atkinson, G

    2006-04-01

    To determine the incidence and severity of injuries and illnesses incurred by a professional America's Cup yacht racing crew during the preparation for and participation in the challenge for the 2003 America's Cup. A prospective study design was used over 74 weeks of sailing and training. All injuries and illnesses sustained by the 35 professional male crew members requiring medical treatment were recorded, including the diagnosis, nature, location, and mechanism of injury. The volume of sailing and training were recorded, and the severity of incidents were determined by the number of days absent from both sailing and training. In total, 220 injuries and 119 illnesses were recorded, with an overall incidence of 8.8 incidents/1000 sailing and training hours (injuries, 5.7; illnesses, 3.1). The upper limb was the most commonly injured body segment (40%), followed by the spine and neck (30%). The most common injuries were joint/ligament sprains (27%) and tendinopathies (20%). The incidence of injury was significantly higher in training (8.6) than sailing (2.2). The most common activity or mechanism of injury was non-specific overuse (24%), followed by impact with boat hardware (15%) and weight training (13%). "Grinders" had the highest overall injury incidence (7.7), and "bowmen" had the highest incidence of sailing injuries (3.2). Most of the illnesses were upper respiratory tract infections (40%). The data from this study suggest that America's Cup crew members are at a similar risk of injury to athletes in other non-collision team sports. Prudent allocation of preventive and therapeutic resources, such as comprehensive health and medical care, well designed conditioning and nutritional programmes, and appropriate management of recovery should be adopted by America's Cup teams in order to reduce the risk of injury and illness.

  1. Different strategies for sports injury prevention in an America's Cup yachting crew.

    PubMed

    Hadala, Michal; Barrios, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    To analyze the effectiveness in reducing the number of sport injuries after application of different strategies of preventive physiotherapy during competition periods in an America's Cup yachting crew. A prospective physiotherapy intervention study during competition periods for three seasons was conducted on an America's Cup yachting race crew of 30 professional sailors. In the first two acts (2004), athletes did not receive any preventive physiotherapy. In the two acts celebrated in 2005, preventive intervention (phase 1) consisted of stretching exercises before the yacht race and preventative taping. During the four acts corresponding to the 2006 season, the physiotherapy program was implemented adding articular mobilization before competition, ice baths after competition, and kinesiotaping (phase 2). In the last act and the Louis Vuitton Cup (2007), a recovery program with "core stability" exercises, postcompetition stretching exercises, and 12 h of compressive clothing were added (phase 3). In the preintervention phase (2004), the rate of injured sailors/competition day was 1.66, decreasing to 0.60 in 2007 (phase 3). The number of athletes with more than one injury was significantly reduced from 53% (8 of 15) to 6.5% (2 of 12). In the preintervention period, mastmen, grinders, and bowmen showed a rate of 2.88 injuries per competition day. After phase 3, this group only suffered 0.35 injuries per competition day. The implementation of a program of preventive physiotherapy decreased the risk of injuries suffered during competition by an America's Cup yacht crew.

  2. 33 CFR 100.1304 - Annual Seattle Yacht Club's “Opening Day” Marine Parade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Annual Seattle Yacht Club's âOpening Dayâ Marine Parade. 100.1304 Section 100.1304 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.1304...

  3. Aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mairs, Christopher M.

    An aerodynamic-structural model of offwind yacht sails was created that is useful in predicting sail forces. Two sails were examined experimentally and computationally at several wind angles to explore a variety of flow regimes. The accuracy of the numerical solutions was measured by comparing to experimental results. The two sails examined were a Code 0 and a reaching asymmetric spinnaker. During experiment, balance, wake, and sail shape data were recorded for both sails in various configurations. Two computational steps were used to evaluate the computational model. First, an aerodynamic flow model that includes viscosity effects was used to examine the experimental flying shapes that were recorded. Second, the aerodynamic model was combined with a nonlinear, structural, finite element analysis (FEA) model. The aerodynamic and structural models were used iteratively to predict final flying shapes of offwind sails, starting with the design shapes. The Code 0 has relatively low camber and is used at small angles of attack. It was examined experimentally and computationally at a single angle of attack in two trim configurations, a baseline and overtrimmed setting. Experimentally, the Code 0 was stable and maintained large flow attachment regions. The digitized flying shapes from experiment were examined in the aerodynamic model. Force area predictions matched experimental results well. When the aerodynamic-structural tool was employed, the predictive capability was slightly worse. The reaching asymmetric spinnaker has higher camber and operates at higher angles of attack than the Code 0. Experimentally and computationally, it was examined at two angles of attack. Like the Code 0, at each wind angle, baseline and overtrimmed settings were examined. Experimentally, sail oscillations and large flow detachment regions were encountered. The computational analysis began by examining the experimental flying shapes in the aerodynamic model. In the baseline setting, the

  4. The influence of a yacht's heeling stability on optimum sail design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneyd, A. D.; Sugimoto, T.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents fundamental results concerning the optimum design of yacht sails and masts. The aerodynamics of a high aspect ratio sail in uniform flow is analysed using lifting line theory to maximise thrust for a given sail area. The novel feature of this work is that thrust is optimised subject to the constraint that the aerodynamic heeling moment generated by the sail is balanced by the righting moment due to hull buoyancy (and the weight of the keel). Initially, the heel angle is therefore unknown, and determined as part of the solution process. Under the assumption of small heel angle, the problem reduces to minimising a quadratic form in the Fourier coefficients for the circulation distribution along the mast, and a simple analytic solution can be derived. It is found that if the mast is too high, the upper section is unused, and as a consequence there is a theoretically ideal mast height for a yacht of given heeling stability. Under the constraints of given sail area and heeling equilibrium it is found that no advantage is to be gained by allowing reverse circulation near the top of the mast. Various implications for yacht performance are discussed.

  5. Recolonization of macrofauna in unpolluted sands placed in a polluted yachting harbour: A field approach using experimental trays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-García, J. M.; García-Gómez, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    A field experiment using trays was conducted at Ceuta's yachting harbour, North Africa, to study the effect in recolonization of placing trays with unpolluted defaunate sediments (fine and gross sands with low contents of organic matter) inside an enclosed yachting harbour characterized by high percentages of silt and clay and high concentrations of organic matter. Sediment recolonization in the trays was mainly undertaken by the species living naturally at the yachting harbour, which recolonized both uncontaminated gross and fine sand trays (such as the crustaceans Corophium runcicorne, Corophium sextonae and Nebalia bipes, the mollusc Parvicardium exiguum and the polychaete Pseudomalacoceros tridentata). However, other species like the polychaetes Cirriformia tentaculata and Platynereis dumerilii, although also abundant in the yachting harbour, were unable to colonize the trays through transport of larvae and/or adults in the water column. The recolonization was very quick, and after the first month, the values of abundance, species richness, diversity and evenness were similar in the experimental trays and in the reference area (yachting harbour). Although the multivariate analysis showed that the species composition differed between the trays and the reference area, there were no significant differences in recolonization of gross and fine sands, indicating that other factors different from the granulometry are modulating the recolonization patterns.

  6. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  7. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  8. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  9. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  10. 19 CFR 113.75 - Bond conditions for deferral of duty on large yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... yachts imported for sale at United States boat shows. 113.75 Section 113.75 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS... United States boat shows. A bond for the deferral of entry completion and duty deposit pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 1484b for a dutiable large yacht imported for sale at a United States boat show must conform to...

  11. 19 CFR Appendix C to Part 113 - Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for Sale at United States Boat Shows C Appendix C to Part 113 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER... Appendix C to Part 113—Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows Bond for Deferral of Duty on Large Yachts Imported for Sale at United States Boat Shows ____, as...

  12. Fluid-structure interaction analysis of deformation of sail of 30-foot yacht

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Sera; Yoo, Jaehoon; Song, Chang Yong

    2013-06-01

    Most yacht sails are made of thin fabric, and they have a cambered shape to generate lift force; however, their shape can be easily deformed by wind pressure. Deformation of the sail shape changes the flow characteristics over the sail, which in turn further deforms the sail shape. Therefore, fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis is applied for the precise evaluation or optimization of the sail design. In this study, fluid flow analyses are performed for the main sail of a 30-foot yacht, and the results are applied to loading conditions for structural analyses. By applying the supporting forces from the rig, such as the mast and boom-end outhaul, as boundary conditions for structural analysis, the deformed sail shape is identified. Both the flow analyses and the structural analyses are iteratively carried out for the deformed sail shape. A comparison of the flow characteristics and surface pressures over the deformed sail shape with those over the initial shape shows that a considerable difference exists between the two and that FSI analysis is suitable for application to sail design.

  13. Numerical simulation of multi-directional random wave transformation in a yacht port

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qiaoling; Dong, Sheng; Zhao, Xizeng; Zhang, Guowei

    2012-09-01

    This paper extends a prediction model for multi-directional random wave transformation based on an energy balance equation by Mase with the consideration of wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection and breaking. This numerical model is improved by 1) introducing Wen's frequency spectrum and Mitsuyasu's directional function, which are more suitable to the coastal area of China; 2) considering energy dissipation caused by bottom friction, which ensures more accurate results for large-scale and shallow water areas; 3) taking into account a non-linear dispersion relation. Predictions using the extended wave model are carried out to study the feasibility of constructing the Ai Hua yacht port in Qingdao, China, with a comparison between two port layouts in design. Wave fields inside the port for different incident wave directions, water levels and return periods are simulated, and then two kinds of parameters are calculated to evaluate the wave conditions for the two layouts. Analyses show that Layout I is better than Layout II. Calculation results also show that the harbor will be calm for different wave directions under the design water level. On the contrary, the wave conditions do not wholly meet the requirements of a yacht port for ship berthing under the extreme water level. For safety consideration, the elevation of the breakwater might need to be properly increased to prevent wave overtopping under such water level. The extended numerical simulation model may provide an effective approach to computing wave heights in a harbor.

  14. Aerodynamics of yacht sails: viscous flow features and surface pressure distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2014-11-01

    The present paper presents the first Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) on a yacht sails. Wind tunnel experiments on a 1:15th model-scale sailing yacht with an asymmetric spinnaker (fore sail) and a mainsails (aft sail) were modelled using several time and grid resolutions. Also the Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations were solved for comparison with DES. The computed forces and surface pressure distributions were compared with those measured with both flexible and rigid sails in the wind tunnel and good agreement was found. For the first time it was possible to recognise the coherent and steady nature of the leading edge vortex that develops on the leeward side of the asymmetric spinnaker and which significantly contributes to the overall drive force. The leading edge vortex increases in diameter from the foot to the head of the sail, where it becomes the tip vortex and convects downstream in the direction of the far field velocity. The tip vortex from the head of the mainsail rolls around the one of the spinnaker. The spanwise twist of the spinnaker leads to a mid-span helicoidal vortex, which has never been reported by previous authors, with an horizontal axis and rotating in the same direction of the tip vortex.

  15. Development of integrated damage detection system for international America's Cup class yacht structures using a fiber optic distributed sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, Shimada; Naruse, Hiroshi; Uzawa, Kyoshi; Murayama, Hideaki; Kageyama, Kazuro

    2000-06-01

    We constructed a new health monitoring system to detect damage using a fiber optic distributed sensor, namely a Brillouin optical time domain reflectometer (BOTDR), and installed it in International America's Cup Class (IACC) yachts, the Japanese entry in America's Cup 2000. IACC yachts are designed to be as fast as possible, so it is essential that they are lightweight and encounter minimum water resistance. Advanced composite sandwich structures, made with carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) skins and a honeycomb core, are used to achieve the lightweight structure. Yacht structure designs push the strength of the materials to their limit and so it is important to detect highly stressed or damaged regions that might cause a catastrophic fracture. The BOTDR measures changes in the Brillouin frequency shift caused by distributed strain along one optical fiber. We undertook two experiments: a pulling test and a four point bending test on a composite beam. The former showed that no slippage occurred between the optical fiber glass and its coating. The latter confirmed that a debonding between the skin and the core of 300 mm length could be found with the BOTDR. Next we examined the effectiveness with which this system can assess the structural integrity of IACC yachts. The results show that our system has the potential for use as a damage detection system for smart structures.

  16. 78 FR 11116 - Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Mamaroneck Beach and Yacht Club Fireworks, Mamaroneck Harbor, Long Island Sound... to establish a temporary safety zone on the navigable waters of Long Island Sound in the vicinity of... from a portion of Long Island Sound before, during, and immediately after the fireworks event. DATES...

  17. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone... the center line of the runway at the south end of the air strip on Northerly Island; thence 183°, 500... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of...

  18. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone... the center line of the runway at the south end of the air strip on Northerly Island; thence 183°, 500... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of...

  19. 33 CFR 334.840 - Waters of Lake Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Michigan south of Northerly Island at entrance to Burnham Park Yacht Harbor, Chicago, Ill.; danger zone... the center line of the runway at the south end of the air strip on Northerly Island; thence 183°, 500... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Waters of Lake Michigan south of...

  20. SailSpy: a vision system for yacht sail shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsson, Olof J.; Power, P. Wayne; Bowman, Chris C.; Palmer, G. Terry; Clist, Roger S.

    1992-11-01

    SailSpy is a real-time vision system which we have developed for automatically measuring sail shapes and masthead rotation on racing yachts. Versions have been used by the New Zealand team in two America's Cup challenges in 1988 and 1992. SailSpy uses four miniature video cameras mounted at the top of the mast to provide views of the headsail and mainsail on either tack. The cameras are connected to the SailSpy computer below deck using lightweight cables mounted inside the mast. Images received from the cameras are automatically analyzed by the SailSpy computer, and sail shape and mast rotation parameters are calculated. The sail shape parameters are calculated by recognizing sail markers (ellipses) that have been attached to the sails, and the mast rotation parameters by recognizing deck markers painted on the deck. This paper describes the SailSpy system and some of the vision algorithms used.

  1. Macrobenthic community response to copper in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Levin, Lisa A; Zirino, Alberto; Delgadillo-Hinojosa, Francisco; Porrachia, Magali; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2011-04-01

    We examined Cu contamination effects on macrobenthic communities and Cu concentration in invertebrates within Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego Bay, California. Results indicate that at some sites, Cu in sediment has exceeded a threshold for "self defense" mechanisms and highlight the potential negative impacts on benthic faunal communities where Cu accumulates and persists in sediments. At sites with elevated Cu levels in sediment, macrobenthic communities were not only less diverse but also their total biomass and body size (individual biomass) were reduced compared to sites with lower Cu. Cu concentration in tissue varied between species and within the same species, reflecting differing abilities to "regulate" their body load. The spatial complexity of Cu effects in a small marina such as SIYB emphasizes that sediment-quality criteria based solely on laboratory experiments should be used with caution, as they do not necessarily reflect the condition at the community and ecosystem levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Copper bioavailability and toxicity to Mytilus galloprovincialis in Shelter Island Yacht Basin, San Diego, CA.

    PubMed

    Bosse, Casey; Rosen, Gunther; Colvin, Marienne; Earley, Patrick; Santore, Robert; Rivera-Duarte, Ignacio

    2014-08-15

    The bioavailability and toxicity of copper (Cu) in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), San Diego, CA, USA, was assessed with simultaneous toxicological, chemical, and modeling approaches. Toxicological measurements included laboratory toxicity testing with Mytilus galloprovincialis (Mediterranean mussel) embryos added to both site water (ambient) and site water spiked with multiple Cu concentrations. Chemical assessment of ambient samples included total and dissolved Cu concentrations, and Cu complexation capacity measurements. Modeling was based on chemical speciation and predictions of bioavailability and toxicity using a marine Biotic Ligand Model (BLM). Cumulatively, these methods assessed the natural buffering capacity of Cu in SIYB during singular wet and dry season sampling events. Overall, the three approaches suggested negligible bioavailability, and isolated observed or predicted toxicity, despite an observed gradient of increasing Cu concentration, both horizontally and vertically within the water body, exceeding current water quality criteria for saltwater. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Case Study: Physical Capacity and Nutritional Status Before and After a Single-Handed Yacht Race.

    PubMed

    Ghiani, Giovanna; Magnani, Sara; Doneddu, Azzurra; Sainas, Gianmarco; Pinna, Virginia; Caboi, Marco; Palazzolo, Girolamo; Tocco, Filippo; Crisafulli, Antonio

    2018-06-12

    During solitary sailing, the sailor is exposed to sleep deprivation and difficulties in consuming regular meals. Sailor weight loss is often reported. In the present case study, we describe changes in the physical capacity and nutritional status of an athlete attempting a single-handed yacht race around the globe. An Italian male ocean racer (Gaetano Mura) asked for our help to reach an optimum level of physical and nutritional preparation. We planned his diet after assessing his anthropometric parameters and body composition, as well as his usual energy intake and nutritional expenditure. The diet consisted of 120 meals stored in sealed plastic bags. Before his departure, GM performed two incremental exercise tests (cycle ergometry and arm crank ergometry) to assess his physical capacity. Cardiac functions were also estimated by Doppler echocardiography. All measures and exercise tests were repeated 10 days after GM finished the race, which lasted 64 days. Anthropometric measures did not change significantly, with the exception of arm fat area and thigh muscle area, which decreased. There were evident increments in maximum oxygen intake and maximum workload during arm cranking after the race. On the contrary, maximum oxygen uptake and maximum workload decreased during cycling. Finally, end-diastolic and stroke volume decreased after the race. It was concluded that nutritional counseling was useful to avoid excessive changes in nutritional status and body composition due to 64 days of solitary navigation. However, a reduction in physical leg capacity and cardiovascular functions secondary to leg disuse were present.

  4. America's Cup yacht racing: race analysis and physical characteristics of the athletes.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Calefato, Julian; Pérez-Encinas, Cristina; Rodilla-Sala, Enrique; Rada-Ruiz, Sergio; Dorochenko, Paul; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-07-01

    The America's Cup is the oldest competing trophy in sport, yet little is known of the nature and intensity of racing or the physical characteristics of the athletes. In this study, aspects of the physical demands of America's Cup yacht racing were analysed, including the intensity of exercise and activity pattern of "grinding". Anthropometric data were collected from 92 professional male America's Cup sailors, and fitness data from a top-4 and a lower-7 ranking team during the 32nd America's Cup. Over the 135 races, mean race duration was 82 min (s = 9), with 20 tacks (s = 10) and 8 gybes (s = 3) per race. Grinding bouts were 5.5 s (s = 5.4; range: 2.2-66.3) long, with 143 exercise bouts per race and an exercise-to-rest ratio of 1:6. Mean and peak heart rate was 64% and 92% of maximum for all positions, with bowmen highest (71% and 96%). Grinders were taller, heavier, and stronger than all other positions. Body fat was similar between positions (13%, s = 4). The higher-standard team was stronger and had greater strength endurance, which probably contributed to their quicker manoeuvres. Intensity of exercise was dependent on the similarity of competing boats and the role of the athlete. The short duration and intermittent nature of grinding is indicative of predominantly anaerobic energy provision.

  5. Example of activities of the MERCATOR-Océan Project : oil spill and yacht race

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumazou, V.; Greiner, E.; Blanc, F.; Lellouche, J. M.; Nouel, L.

    2003-04-01

    MERCATOR-Ocean is the french group aiming at developing an operational capacity for global ocean analysis and forecasting monitoring, based on near-real-time assimilation of satellite and in situ ocean observations in three-dimensional ocean models. MERCATOR-Ocean is supported by the six major french agencies involved in oceanography : CNES (French Space Agency), CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research), IFREMER (French Institute of Research and Exploitation of the Sea), IRD (Research Institute for Development), Météo-France (French Meteorological Agency) and SHOM (Navy Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service) - with a strong engagement of their subsidiaries CERFACS (European Center for Research and Advanced Training in Scientific Computation) and CLS (Collecte Localisation Satellite) in the success of the project. Every week since January 17, 2001, MERCATOR provides the oceanographic community with a set of maps and data about the underlying variables of the ocean, such as velocity, salinity, temperature and sea level anomalies, which describe the ocean in all its dimensions, from instantaneous analysis to 2-week forecasts, from the sea surface to the sea floor. Since november 2002, MERCATOR-Ocean has been involved in two major events. Early november 2002, the project provided skippers of the Route du Rhum transatlantic yacht race with prevision of sea-surface currents. In the mean time, on Tuesday November 19, the oil tanker Prestige sank in the Atlantic off the Portuguese and Spanish coasts. Called upon from the outset, MERCATOR OCEAN began November 20 to provide analyses and forecasts for two weeks in the future for the state of the ocean in the area, both on the surface and at depth, to teams of specialists of the crisis unit coordinated by CEDRE. This talk details these recent activities and draws the main lines of MERCATOR-Ocean actuality and future.

  6. Metabolic muscle damage and oxidative stress markers in an America's Cup yachting crew.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Carlos; Hadala, Michal; Almansa, Inmaculada; Bosch-Morell, Francisco; Palanca, José M; Romero, Francisco J

    2011-07-01

    Activities of enzymes involved in muscle damage [creatine kinase (CK) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)] and levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) as a marker of oxidative stress were monitored in the plasma of 27 members of an America's Cup yachting crew. The preventive benefits of allopurinol on muscle damage were also tested. In racing period A, the crew was divided into two groups according to their tasks on board. Blood samples from all 27 sailors were obtained before the start of a 5-day fleet race, after the last race, and after the ten match races. In period B, crew members were divided at random into two groups. One group (13 participants) received 300 mg/day of allopurinol 3 h before racing. The other ten members received placebo. Blood samples were collected just before and after the second round of the Louis Vuitton Cup. All participants showed increased CK and AST activities after the racing period A. The increase in CK activity was highest in sailors involved in strenuous physical work. At the end of period A, plasma MDA levels were higher in all participants as compared with non-participant athletes. In period B, a significant decrease in CK activity, but not in AST, appeared among participants receiving allopurinol. Plasma MDA decreased in sailors treated with allopurinol, but this reduction did not reach statistical significance. America's Cup is a sailing sport with high physical demands, as shown by the increase in muscle-damage markers. Treatment with allopurinol appeared to decrease the levels of muscle damage markers.

  7. Relationship between motion sickness, migraine and menstruation in crew members of a "round the world" yacht race.

    PubMed

    Grunfeld, E; Gresty, M A

    1998-11-15

    The similarities between the symptoms reported by patients with migraine and those experienced by severely motion sick individuals raises the question of whether the two conditions involve common mechanisms. In women, attacks of migraine may follow the menstrual cycle, and anecdote suggests this may also be true of motion sickness. The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a cyclical pattern in the occurrence of migraine/headache and motion sickness among crew members of a "round the world" yacht race. The participants were asked to complete pre- and postrace questionnaires that related to their susceptibility to motion sickness and headache/migraine; additionally, the female subjects were asked for details about their menstrual cycle. During the race the subjects completed a logbook to record the occurrence of motion sickness (using a four-point scale), migraine/headache (including the type of headache), menstruation, medication consumption and duties aboard the yacht. Female sailors were found to be more prone to motion sickness than the males. Motion sickness was also found to be linked to time at sea, and subjects who suffered migraine during the race were also more susceptible to motion sickness. A distinct pattern was found in the occurrence of motion sickness and headache that related to the menstrual cycle, although motion sickness and headache did not generally occur together in most of the subjects. A cyclical pattern was not obvious for the male subjects.

  8. Sleep management and the performance of eight sailors in the Tour de France à la voile yacht race.

    PubMed

    Léger, D; Elbaz, M; Raffray, T; Metlaine, A; Bayon, V; Duforez, F

    2008-01-01

    We observed how sailors manage their sleep and alertness before and during competition in a long-haul yacht race. Global performance of the teams was also recorded. We assessed eight sailors aged 21-30 years, split into four teams, who competed in the Tour de France à la Voile 2002 yacht race. Two phases of the race were examined: two legs in both the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Sleep length, sleep debt, and sleepiness before competition and on board during the race were assessed using ambulatory polysomnography. Intermediate and final rankings were considered as a reflection of performance. A significant correlation was observed between the sleep debt before competition and the total sleep time on board during the Atlantic legs. The greater the sleep debt, the more sleepy the participants were. During the Mediterranean legs, almost all the sailors were deprived of sleep and slept during the daytime competitions. We observed that the final ranking in the race related to the sleep management strategy of the participants. In extreme competitive conditions, the effect of a good night's sleep before competition on performance is important. The strategy of the winners was to get sufficient sleep before each leg so as to be the most alert and efficient during the race.

  9. Imposex and tributyltin contamination as a consequence of the establishment of a marina, and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Bech, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The objective was to investigate how tributyltin (TBT) contamination resulting from the establishment of a new marina and increasing yachting activities at Phuket Island, Thailand affects the area. A minimum of 30 specimen of the mangrove dwelling muricid Chicoreus capucinus were collected at five stations 2 months before and 5, 9, 18 and 33 months after Yacht Haven Marina was constructed. Imposex measured as RPLI and VDSI were significantly correlated to duration of time after construction and distance from the marina. All females developed imposex close to the marina after 18 months, whereas no significant increase occurred at stations more than 2 km from the marina. To evaluate the range of effects of the increasing yachting activities the muricid Thais distinguenda was used as an indicator of imposex at two popular mooring sites for yachts at Phi Phi and Raja Island in Phangna Bay, Thailand. The incidence of imposex was 100% at stations close to the mooring sites. A significant correlation existed between the distance from the sites and the incidence of imposex. The increasing incidence of imposex suggest that TBT contamination is worsening, against global trends, because regulations prohibiting the use of TBT-based paints, do not exist in Thailand.

  10. Control technology for fiber reinforced plastics industry at AMF Hatteras Yachts, New Bern Division, New Bern, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, W. F.

    1984-05-01

    Area and breathing zone samples were analyzed for styrene (100425) at AMF Hatteras Yachts (SIC-3079), New Bern, North Carolina, in September, 1983. Control technology at the facility was inspected. Breathing zone styrene concentrations were 8 to 74 parts per million (ppm), the highest concentrations occurring in the lamination and gel coating departments. Area samples ranged from 1 to 20ppm. The OSHA standard is 100ppm. The hull lamination and assembly areas were ventilated by air make up units and exhaust blowers. Air exhausted through the lamination booths in the small parts work area was considerably less than the supply air from the make up units. The air flow in two of the three lamination booths was considered inadequate. Respirators were available if needed. Industrial hygiene sampling at the facility was supervised by the industrial hygienist.

  11. Effect of fabrication processes on mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites for 49 meter (160 foot) recreational yachts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dave (dea-wook); Hennigan, Daniel John; Beavers, Kevin Daniel

    2010-03-01

    Polymer composite materialsoffer high strength and stiffness to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and total life cost reductions that appeal to the marine industry. The advantages of composite construction have led to their incorporation in U.S. yacht hull structures over 46 meters (150 feet) in length. In order to construct even larger hull structures, higher quality composites with a lower cost production techniques need to be developed. In this study, the effect of composite hull fabrication processes on mechanical properties of glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) composites is presented. Fabrication techniques used in this study are hand lay-up (HL), vacuum infusion (VI), and hybrid (HL+VI) processes. Mechanical property testing includes: tensile, compressive, and ignition loss sample analysis. Results demonstrate that the vacuum pressure implemented during composite fabrication has an effect on mechanical properties. The VI processed GFRP yields improved mechanical properties in tension/compression strengths and tensile modulus. The hybrid GFRP composites, however, failed in a sequential manor, due to dissimilar failure modes in the HL and VI processed sides. Fractography analysis was conducted to validate the mechanical property testing results

  12. Sports injuries in an America's Cup yachting crew: A 4-year epidemiological study covering the 2007 challenge.

    PubMed

    Hadała, Michał; Barrios, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the injuries sustained by an America's Cup crew during eight preparatory competitions of the 32nd America's Cup 2007 and the Louis Vuitton Cup (from October 2004 to June 2007). The anatomical location, type of injury, and mechanism of injury were recorded. The injuries were categorized based on each sailor's position on the boat according to three intensities of physical demands. The injury rates per sailor and per 1000 h of competition were determined. In total, 90 injuries were registered. The overall incidence was 10 injuries per 1000 competition hours. Overuse injuries accounted for 76.6% of all lesions. The most common anatomical location of injuries was the upper limb (36.6%), followed by the upper dorsal and cervical spine (34.4%). Frequency of injury was related to the sailor's position on the boat, being higher in the group with more demanding activities (grinder, bowman, and mastman). Most injuries (67%) were sustained by this group of sailors. The most common injuries in this group were muscle contractures of the quadratus lumborum (11), trapezius (8), and rhomboid (7). There were eight cases of elbow epicondylitis, four cases of tendinopathy of the supraspinous tendon, and three cases of tendinopathy of the biceps brachii. An America's Cup yachting crew is exposed to a high risk of overuse injuries, especially those sailors whose boat position involves high-intensity activity.

  13. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  14. The physical demands of Olympic yacht racing.

    PubMed

    Mackie, H; Sanders, R; Legg, S

    1999-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to quantify the up wards forces of the feet on the hiking strap and the forces in the mainsheet of four Olympic classes of racing dinghies (Europe, Laser. Finn and 470) during realistic on-water sailing in varying wind conditions. The secondary aim of the study was to measure the joint angles adopted by the sailors and boat heel angles. The tertiary aim was to identify events and sailing conditions associated with large or patterned force production. Forces in the hiking strap and mainsheet of four classes of Olympic sailing dinghies were measured on eleven New Zealand sailors during simulated on-water racing in a range of wind conditions. Up-wind hiking strap forces reached an average of 73-87% of predicted maximal voluntary contraction (pred MVC), with peak forces exceeding 100% pred MVC. Mainsheet forces reached 25-35% pred MVC, with peak forces reaching 40-50% pred MVC. Off-wind hiking strap and mainsheet forces were considerably lower than up-wind forces. Ankle and hip joint angles increased and knee joint angles decreased with increasing wind speed during up-wind sailing. Large forces occurred in the hiking strap and mainsheet when boats reached the tops of wave during up-wind sailing in high wind speeds and when a gust of wind hit the boat. During off-wind sailing large forces were observed in the mainsheet when surfing down waves. It is recommended that the intensities and joint angles found in this study be used as a basis for the development of class specific off-water physical conditioning programmes.

  15. [A paraplegic skipper of his own sailing yacht].

    PubMed

    Christians, U

    1985-05-01

    Drawing on personal experience, the author points out that paraplegics too are capable of independent sailing. Physical restrictions relative to on-board mobility, sail manoeuvring and change of sides can be made up for by structural adaptions and special techniques. Certain safety precautions are indispensable. The sailing performance of paraplegics compares with that of ablebodied sailors, and cruising under a paraplegic skipper's responsibility is certainly possible.

  16. A first course in optimum design of yacht sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Takeshi

    1993-03-01

    The optimum sail geometry is analytically obtained for the case of maximizing the thrust under equality and inequality constraints on the lift and the heeling moment. A single mainsail is assumed to be set close-hauled in uniform wind and upright on the flat sea surface. The governing parameters are the mast height and the gap between the sail foot and the sea surface. The lifting line theory is applied to analyze the aerodynamic forces acting on a sail. The design method consists of the variational principle and a feasibility study. Almost triangular sails are found to be optimum. Their advantages are discussed.

  17. Energy expenditure during a single-handed transatlantic yacht race.

    PubMed

    Myers, S D; Leamon, S M; Nevola, V R; Llewellyn, M G L

    2008-04-01

    The popularity of sports that expose people to consecutive days of high-intensity physical activity continues to increase. The ability to adequately nourish the human body to sustain the required level of competitive performance may be a key contributor to success in such events. The energy expenditure of a male competitor in a single-handed, transatlantic race (Transat 2004) was assessed using the doubly-labelled water technique. Mean total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) during the race (13 days) was 14.5 MJ/day with a peak expenditure of 18.6 MJ during the most physically demanding 24-hour period. This mean TDEE was approximately 25% lower than that reported in a previous study (14.5 vs. 19.3 MJ/day) for a 13-day leg of a fully crewed offshore race. The difference in results was probably due to the fact that in the previous study, the crew operated in "watches" (work shifts), affording each crew member greater opportunity to eat, rest and sleep. Effective planning and efficient management of resources is essential to the success of the solo sailor. However, the extent to which maintenance of energy balance underpins competitive success remains to be established. To maintain energy balance during the race, a mean daily energy intake of 14.5 MJ/day was necessary for the subject in this study. However, this mean value for energy intake would have been inadequate to match the peak energy expended during the most physically demanding 24 hours of the race.

  18. Y Is for Yacht Race: A Game of Angles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butzow, John W.

    1986-01-01

    Describes an activity approach for teaching upper elementary school students the concept of angles. In the interdisciplinary activity, students practice reading and drawing angles from 0 to 360 degrees as they simulate the behaviors used to navigate a sailboat. Includes list of equipment needed and procedures used. (JN)

  19. Wind Forecasting for Yacht Racing at the 1991 Pan American Games.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    The U.S. Sailing Team competed successfully at the 1991 Pan American Games despite having no previous experience with the sailing conditions off Havana, Cuba. One of the key factors in the team's success was meteorological support in the form of wind climate analysis; application of sea breeze forecasting typical of the south Florida area, modified by tropical weather systems; and effective preregatta briefing.

  20. Oceanography and Yacht Racing - A Handful of Competitors, Millions of Spectators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, D.; Cresswell, G.; Badcock, K.; Cahill, M.; Rathbone, C.; Turner, P.

    2006-07-01

    Satellite altimeter measurements of sea level have proven to be far more accurate, and useful, than was hope for when the missions were designed, especially when data from several instruments are combines. In the regard, the experimental missions (ERS1 and 2, Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and GFO) have all been a resounding success. Why then, are there not plans already in place to continue and improve on the recent missions? One reason is surely that end-user uptake of the mission products has not yet convincingly justified the costs of future missions. At CSIRO we sought to maximise the awareness, amongst all marine sectors, that mapping ocean currents with sufficient accuracy and detail for operational use is indeed possible, so that the societal benefits of the system would become clear as quickly as possible. We did this using a well know marketing too - sport.

  1. 76 FR 55261 - Safety Zone; Corporate Party on Hornblower Yacht, San Francisco, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... loaded onto a barge at Pier 50 near position 37[deg]46'28'' N, 122[deg]23'06'' W (NAD 83). From 7:45...]46'38.46'' N, 122[deg]23'01.67'' W (NAD 83). The temporary safety zone will extend 100 feet from the... position 37[deg]46'38.46'' N, 122[deg]23'01.67'' W (NAD 83). The fireworks display will occur from 8:45...

  2. 76 FR 37005 - Safety Zone; Fan Pier Yacht Club Fireworks, Boston Harbor, Boston, MA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... fireworks and debris falling into the water that may cause death or serious bodily harm. Establishing a... when the agency for good cause finds that those procedures are ``impracticable, unnecessary, or contrary to the public interest.'' Under 5 U.S.C. 553(b)(B), the Coast Guard finds that good cause exists...

  3. 78 FR 34582 - Safety Zone; Rochester Yacht Club Fireworks, Genesee River, Rochester, NY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... of any grant or loan recipients, and will not raise any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone... through the safety zone when permitted by the Captain of the Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities Under the... entities. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this proposed rule will not have a...

  4. 77 FR 39402 - Safety Zone; Cleveland Yachting Club Fireworks, Lake Erie, Rocky River, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... not raise any novel legal or policy issues. The safety zone created by this rule will be relatively... the Captain of the Port. 2. Impact on Small Entities The Regulatory Flexibility Act of 1980 (RFA), 5 U... on small entities during rulemaking. The Coast Guard certifies under 5 U.S.C. 605(b) that this rule...

  5. Clinical Significance of Serum Ferritin at Diagnosis in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A YACHT Multicenter Retrospective Study.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Takayoshi; Andou, Taiki; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Ito, Satomi; Miyazaki, Takuya; Ishii, Yoshimi; Ogusa, Eriko; Koharazawa, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Kenji; Aoki, Jun; Nakajima, Yuki; Matsumoto, Kenji; Hagihara, Maki; Hashimoto, Chizuko; Taguchi, Jun; Fujimaki, Katsumichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Shin; Kanamori, Heiwa; Nakajima, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    A multicenter retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the clinical significance of serum ferritin at diagnosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The study cohort included 305 patients who were newly diagnosed with AML from 2000 to 2015 and received standard induction chemotherapy. Transplantation was performed in 168 patients. The median ferritin value was 512 ng/mL (range, 8-9475 ng/mL). Ferritin correlated with lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, and blast count, and elevation of ferritin was associated with poor performance status. The median follow-up period was 58 months (range, 4-187 months) among survivors. The high ferritin group (≥ 400 ng/mL) demonstrated inferior event-free survival (EFS) at the 5-year interval (30% vs. 40%; P = .033) compared to the low ferritin group. Multivariate analysis in the high-risk karyotype revealed that high ferritin levels predicted worse EFS (hazard ratio = 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.28-3.33; P = .003). Elevated ferritin at diagnosis may indicate tumor burden in patients with AML and predict worse EFS in the high-risk group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-09-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  7. Installation, operation, and maintenance for the pyramidal optics solar system installed at Yacht Cover, Columbia, South Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Information concerning the installation, operation, and maintenance of the pyramidal Solar System for space heating and domestic hot water is presented. Principles of operation, sequence of installation, and procedures for the operation and maintenance of each subsystem making up the solar system are presented. Troubleshooting charts and maintenance schedules are presented.

  8. 76 FR 77125 - Safety Zone; Sausalito Yacht Club's Annual Lighted Boat Parade and Fireworks Display, Sausalito, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ..., pyrotechnics will be loaded onto a barge at Pier 50 near position 37[deg]46'28'' N, 122[deg]23'06'' W (NAD 83... position 37[deg]51'30.92'' N, 122[deg]28'27.97'' W (NAD 83). The temporary safety zone will extend 100 feet... Pier 50 to position 37[deg]51'30.92'' N, 122[deg]28'27.97'' W (NAD 83). The fireworks display is...

  9. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Yacht Club, South Boston. Northerly of a line bearing 96° from the stack of the heating plant of the... Yacht Club property. (b) Dorchester Bay, in vicinity of Savin Hill Yacht Club. Northerly of a line... vicinity of Dorchester Yacht Club. Eastward of a line bearing 21° from the stack located a short distance...

  10. 33 CFR 110.30 - Boston Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Yacht Club, South Boston. Northerly of a line bearing 96° from the stack of the heating plant of the... Yacht Club property. (b) Dorchester Bay, in vicinity of Savin Hill Yacht Club. Northerly of a line... vicinity of Dorchester Yacht Club. Eastward of a line bearing 21° from the stack located a short distance...

  11. 33 CFR 5.01 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... any person who is a member of the Auxiliary. (e) Vessel means a motorboat or yacht. (f) Motorboat... end to end over the deck excluding sheer. (g) Yacht means either (1) any documented or numbered vessel...

  12. 46 CFR 11.456 - Service requirements for limited master of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicants to be employed by organizations such as formal camps, educational institutions, yacht clubs, and... specific activity and the locality of the camp, yacht club or marina. In order to obtain this restricted...

  13. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Park Yacht Club, Winthrop. Southerly of a line bearing 276° from a point on the west side of Pleasant.... [NAD83]. (2) The area is principally for use by yachts and other recreational craft. Temporary floats or...

  14. 46 CFR 11.467 - Endorsement as operators of uninspected passenger vessels of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... such as formal camps, yacht clubs, educational institutions, and marinas. An endorsement issued under this paragraph will be limited to the specific activity and the locality of the camp, yacht club, or...

  15. 33 CFR 5.03 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... operation of motorboats and yachts. (c) Foster a wider knowledge of, and better compliance with, the laws, rules, and regulations governing the operation of motorboats and yachts. (d) Facilitate other operations...

  16. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... and B are special anchorage areas reserved for yachts and other recreational craft. Fore and aft...

  17. 33 CFR 5.03 - Purpose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... operation of motorboats and yachts. (c) Foster a wider knowledge of, and better compliance with, the laws, rules, and regulations governing the operation of motorboats and yachts. (d) Facilitate other operations...

  18. 33 CFR 110.29 - Boston Inner Harbor, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Park Yacht Club, Winthrop. Southerly of a line bearing 276° from a point on the west side of Pleasant.... [NAD83]. (2) The area is principally for use by yachts and other recreational craft. Temporary floats or...

  19. 33 CFR 110.4 - Penobscot Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 20 meters in length. Note to paragraph (a): This area is primarily for use by yachts and other... and B are special anchorage areas reserved for yachts and other recreational craft. Fore and aft...

  20. 76 FR 76927 - Port Access Route Study: The Atlantic Coast From Maine to Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-09

    ..., recreational and charter fishing vessels, yachts, and sailing vessels. III. Questions The Coast Guard requests... yachts? If yes, how far offshore is your typical route? Does your route change seasonally or according to...

  1. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday... notify a representative of the Yacht Club of the times of all openings for the weekend (or extended...

  2. 33 CFR 5.01 - Definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... any person who is a member of the Auxiliary. (e) Vessel means a motorboat or yacht. (f) Motorboat... end to end over the deck excluding sheer. (g) Yacht means either (1) any documented or numbered vessel...

  3. 46 CFR 11.467 - Endorsement as operators of uninspected passenger vessels of less than 100 gross tons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such as formal camps, yacht clubs, educational institutions, and marinas. An endorsement issued under this paragraph will be limited to the specific activity and the locality of the camp, yacht club, or...

  4. 33 CFR 117.547 - Bush River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Superintendent at 301-291-4278 by an authorized representative of the Bush River Yacht Club by noon on the Friday... notify a representative of the Yacht Club of the times of all openings for the weekend (or extended...

  5. Use of Heavy Lift Ships as Modular Casualty Receiving Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    ship. • Combination product tanker and heavy lift ship. • Specialist dock or yacht transport ship. The M.V. Black Marlin, CombiDock, and the...regulations. • Pollution must be disposed of properly as set by various organizations. Pollutants include oil, noxious liquid substances in bulk, sewage ...pictured in Figure 21, is typically used to ship yachts from one location to another, and yacht owners have the option to travel with their yachts

  6. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Midwinter's Coral Reef Yacht Club Biscayne Bay, 2.3 nautical miles offshore from the Coral Bay, Florida; All..., FL. Coral Reef Yacht Club Fourth of July Firepower Displays 700 ft offshore from Vizcaya in Biscayne.... December—4th weekend Orange Bowl Youth Sailing Regatta Coral Reef Yacht Club Southern Biscayne Bay inside...

  7. 33 CFR 100.701 - Special Local Regulations; Marine Events in the Seventh Coast Guard District

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Midwinter's Coral Reef Yacht Club Biscayne Bay, 2.3 nautical miles offshore from the Coral Bay, Florida; All..., FL. Coral Reef Yacht Club Fourth of July Firepower Displays 700 ft offshore from Vizcaya in Biscayne.... December—4th weekend Orange Bowl Youth Sailing Regatta Coral Reef Yacht Club Southern Biscayne Bay inside...

  8. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (Newport Harbor Yacht Club). East of a line bearing 23° from the center of the north end of 8th Street... (Balboa Yacht Club). South of a line parallel to and 150 feet from the south pierhead line off Balboa... Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for pleasure boats and yachts of such sizes and alignments as...

  9. 33 CFR 110.5 - Casco Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... by yachts and other recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or... this section is reserved for yachts and other small recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be... feet wide, the center line of which follows the natural channel. Note: This area is reserved for yachts...

  10. 33 CFR 110.95 - Newport Bay Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (Newport Harbor Yacht Club). East of a line bearing 23° from the center of the north end of 8th Street... (Balboa Yacht Club). South of a line parallel to and 150 feet from the south pierhead line off Balboa... Newport Beach Harbor Ordinance No. 543 for pleasure boats and yachts of such sizes and alignments as...

  11. 75 FR 3455 - Union Electric Company dba Ameren/UE; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... located at the Ozark Yacht Club near mile marker 0.8+0.6 in Jennings Branch Cove on the Lake of the Ozarks... of Request: The licensee requests approval to permit Ozark Yacht Club to construct a new 4-slip boat... for use by patrons of the Ozark Yacht Club. l. Locations of the Application: A copy of the application...

  12. 75 FR 30708 - Safety Zone; Red Bull Air Race, Detroit River, Detroit, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ... each day of its effective period. Additionally, prior to the event, local sailing and yacht clubs will... local sailing and yacht clubs. In the event this temporary safety zone affects shipping, commercial... and yacht clubs will be provided with information by Coast Guard Station Belle Isle on what to expect...

  13. 76 FR 24562 - Requested Administrative Waiver of the Coastwise Trade Laws

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... defray the cost of operating the yacht. The primary use, however, will remain recreational. The potential... clientele willing to pay for the premium offering that the yacht represents. For charter cruises in and about the yacht's home port of Washington, DC, we would expect to have 6-8 passengers. Most trips would...

  14. 33 CFR 110.5 - Casco Bay, Maine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... by yachts and other recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be allowed. Temporary floats or... this section is reserved for yachts and other small recreational craft. Fore and aft moorings will be... feet wide, the center line of which follows the natural channel. Note: This area is reserved for yachts...

  15. 77 FR 27159 - Safety Zone, Temporary Change for Recurring Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ... fireworks. On July 3, 2012, the Tred Avon Yacht Club will sponsor their annual fireworks event. This event... and regulated area for the Tred Avon Yacht Club fireworks event held in Oxford, MD. This regulation... event. The Tred Avon Yacht Club, which is the sponsor for this event, holds this event annually. Except...

  16. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point 2,120 feet South of the intersection of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club... the first described line, passing 100 feet East of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, 440 feet; thence.... Beginning at a point 145 feet North of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, as constructed in...

  17. 33 CFR 110.83 - Chicago Harbor, Ill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Beginning at a point 2,120 feet South of the intersection of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club... the first described line, passing 100 feet East of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, 440 feet; thence.... Beginning at a point 145 feet North of the North line of the Chicago Yacht Club bulkhead, as constructed in...

  18. 40 CFR 1060.810 - What materials does this part reference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., July 26, 2004 1060.105, 1060.240 (d) American Boat and Yacht Council Material. Table 4 to this section lists material from the American Boat and Yacht Council that we have incorporated by reference. The... Yacht Council, 613 Third Street, Suite 10, Annapolis, MD 21403 or http://www.abycinc.org/. Table 4...

  19. 33 CFR 110.60 - Captain of the Port, New York.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... yachts and other recreational craft. A mooring buoy is permitted. (4) Manhattan, Fort Washington Point... special anchorage area is principally for use by yachts and other recreational craft. A temporary float or... shoreline to the point of origin. Note to paragraph (d)(5): The area will be principally for use by yachts...

  20. 33 CFR 110.25 - Salem Sound, Mass.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Neck, Salem, MA. A line extending from the northerly end of the Salem Willows Yacht Club House 360... latitude 42°30′52.6″ N., longitude 70°53′05″ W. The areas will be principally for use by yachts and other...°50′30″ W. Note: The area is principally for use by yachts and other recreational craft. Temporary...

  1. 78 FR 25069 - South Carolina Electric & Gas Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Murray Docks, Inc./Windward Point Yacht Club to use project waters to expand an existing boat dock facility through the addition of an 8-slip floating dock to accommodate a maximum of 12 additional boats. The proposed new structures would be for the private use of members of the Windward Point Yacht Club...

  2. 78 FR 34573 - Special Local Regulations; Safety Zones; Recurring Events in Captain of the Port Long Island...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Yacht Date: July 6, 2013. Club Fireworks. Rain date: July 7, 2013. Time: 8:30 p.m. to 10:00 p.m...). 7.35 Groton Long Point Yacht Date: July 20, 2013. Club Fireworks. Rain date: July 21, 2013. Time: 9...

  3. 46 CFR 26.03-1 - Safety orientation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... this subpart engaged in tender service at yacht clubs and marinas, and vessels being demonstrated for a potential purchaser by a yacht broker, are excluded from the requirements of § 26.03-1 and § 26.03-2. [CGD...

  4. 46 CFR 11.429 - Requirements for a limited master of near-coastal self-propelled vessels of less than 100 GRT.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... self-propelled vessels of less than 100 GRT. (a) An endorsement as limited master for service on near... organizations such as yacht clubs, marinas, formal camps, and educational institutions. An endorsement issued under this section is limited to the specific activity and the locality of the yacht club, marina, or...

  5. 46 CFR 11.456 - Requirements for limited master of Great Lakes and inland self-propelled vessels of less than 100...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... be employed by organizations such as formal camps, educational institutions, yacht clubs, and marinas with reduced service requirements. An endorsement issued under this paragraph is limited to the specific activity and the locality of the camp, yacht club, or marina. To obtain this restricted...

  6. Macroalgal Introductions by Hull Fouling on Recreational Vessels: Seaweeds and Sailors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P.; Maggs, Christine A.

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  7. A risk-based predictive tool to prevent accidental introductions of nonindigenous marine species.

    PubMed

    Floerl, Oliver; Inglis, Graeme J; Hayden, Barbara J

    2005-06-01

    Preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species (NIS) is the most efficient way to avoid the costs and impacts of biological invasions. The transport of fouling species on ship hulls is an important vector for the introduction of marine NIS. We use quantitative risk screening techniques to develop a predictive tool of the abundance and variety of organisms being transported by ocean-going yachts. We developed and calibrated an ordinal rank scale of the abundance of fouling assemblages on the hulls of international yacht hulls arriving in New Zealand. Fouling ranks were allocated to 783 international yachts that arrived in New Zealand between 2002 and 2004. Classification tree analysis was used to identify relationships between the fouling ranks and predictor variables that described the maintenance and travel history of the yachts. The fouling ranks provided reliable indications of the actual abundance and variety of fouling assemblages on the yachts and identified most (60%) yachts that had fouling on their hulls. However, classification tree models explained comparatively little of the variation in the distribution of fouling ranks (22.1%), had high misclassification rates (approximately 43%), and low predictive power. In agreement with other studies, the best model selected the age of the toxic antifouling paint on yacht hulls as the principal risk factor for hull fouling. Our study shows that the transport probability of fouling organisms is the result of a complex suite of interacting factors and that large sample sizes will be needed for calibration of robust risk models.

  8. Macroalgal introductions by hull fouling on recreational vessels: seaweeds and sailors.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Frédéric; Johnson, Mark P; Maggs, Christine A

    2008-10-01

    Macroalgal invasions in coastal areas have been a growing concern during the past decade. The present study aimed to assess the role of hull fouling on recreational yachts as a vector for macroalgal introductions. Questionnaire and hull surveys were carried out in marinas in France and Spain. The questionnaires revealed that the majority of yacht owners are aware of seaweed introductions, usually undertake short range journeys, dry dock their boat at least once a year, and use antifouling paints. The hull survey showed that many in-service yachts were completely free of macroalgae. When present, fouling assemblages consisted mainly of one to two macroalgal species. The most commonly found species was the tolerant green seaweed Ulva flexuosa. Most of the other species found are also cosmopolitan and opportunistic. A few nonnative and potentially invasive Ceramiales (Rhodophyta) were found occasionally on in-service yachts. On the basis of the information gathered during interviews of yacht owners in the surveyed area, these occurrences are likely to be uncommon. However they can pose a significant risk of primary or secondary introductions of alien macroalgal species, especially in the light of the increase in yachting activities. With large numbers of recreational yachts and relatively rare occurrences of nonnative species on hulls, comprehensive screening programs do not seem justified or practical. The risks of transferring nonnative species may, however, be minimized by encouraging the behaviors that prevent fouling on hulls and by taking action against neglected boats before they can act as vectors.

  9. 6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OVERALL VIEW OF THE FRONT AND THE TOWER, LOOKING WEST FROM THE ACTIVE PIER OF BAY SHIP AND YACHT COMPANY. COAST GUARD CUTTER SHERMAN AT RIGHT. - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Crane, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  10. 33 CFR 110.115 - Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; excluding a fairway 225 feet wide, 100 feet from each side of and parallel to the Navy pier. Note: Fore and.... 2106 for yachts and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted by the harbor master. ...

  11. 33 CFR 110.115 - Santa Barbara Harbor, Calif.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; excluding a fairway 225 feet wide, 100 feet from each side of and parallel to the Navy pier. Note: Fore and.... 2106 for yachts and small craft of such size and alignment as permitted by the harbor master. ...

  12. Swing and Lift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Francis; Potter, Ann

    1974-01-01

    Presents theoretical fundamentals of sideways forces exerted on a cricket ball, an aerofoil, and a yacht, involving the properties of boundary layers and a description of velocity and circulation. (CC)

  13. 78 FR 78812 - Notice of Petitions by Firms for Determination of Eligibility to Apply for Trade Adjustment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... recreational Way, Burlington, WA trawlers/yachts. 98233. CPAC Equipment, Inc 2364 Leicester Road, The firm manufactures dry heat Leicester, NY 14481. sterilizers and dental evacuation equipment. S3 Manufacturing, Inc...

  14. 76 FR 4574 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Oakland Inner Harbor Tidal Canal, Oakland/Alameda, CA, Schedule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Chance, Aroma Restaurant, Eskelund Marine, Bocanova, Vortex Marine Construction, British Marine, The Outboard Motor Shop, Waterfront Hotel-Miss Pearl's Restaurant, Encinal Yacht Club, Marina Village Inn, Kincaid's Restaurant, Scott's Seafood Restaurant, Captain Ed Payne Technical Services, Il Pescatore...

  15. Glenn Powell | NREL

    Science.gov Websites

    , bearings Construction, project supervision, steel, timber, plumbing, critical climate control Water and wastewater treatment, storage, pumping Purchasing, budgeting, planning Education Yacht 3 Marine Chief

  16. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993... Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995 UL 19-1992, Lined Fire Hose and Hose Assemblies 132...

  17. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993... Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995 UL 19-1992, Lined Fire Hose and Hose Assemblies 132...

  18. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993... Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995 UL 19-1992, Lined Fire Hose and Hose Assemblies 132...

  19. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416 A-3-1993... Laboratory Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995 UL 19-1992, Lined Fire Hose and Hose Assemblies 132...

  20. 33 CFR 100.801 - Annual Marine Events in the Eighth Coast Guard District.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... so directed by that officer and will be operated at a no wake speed in a manner which will not... in April Dauphin Island Race/Fairhope, Lake Forest, Mobile, and Buccaneer Yacht Clubs Mobile Bay...

  1. 76 FR 66239 - Safety Zones; Fireworks Displays Within the Fifth Coast Guard District

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ..., longitude 076[deg]00'46'' W, located on the shoreline near the Cavalier Golf and Yacht Club, Virginia Beach... Chincoteague Swing Bridge. 8 May--1st Friday, July 4th James River, Newport All waters of the James River...

  2. 75 FR 2141 - Notice of Agreements Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...; Seabourn Cruise Line; SeaDream Yacht Club; Silversea Cruises, Ltd.; Uniworld River Cruises, Inc.; and... Services Ltd. Filing Party: John Longstreth, Esq.; K & L Gates LLP; 1601 K Street NW.; Washington, DC 20006...

  3. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  4. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  5. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  6. 33 CFR 162.40 - Inland waterway from Delaware River to Chesapeake Bay, Del. and Md. (Chesapeake and Delaware Canal).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... avoid damage by suction or wave wash to wharves, landings, riprap protection, or other boats, or injury... suction or wave wash does occur. Owners and operators of yachts, motorboats, rowboats and other craft are...

  7. Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing the bar. The more recent kitchen and restroom additions are behind the rear wall. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  8. Port and Waterways Safety Assessment Workshop Report, Oahu, Hawaii, 24-25 August 2009

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-25

    are not regulars, such as auxiliary cargo vessels, transient tugs with or without barges, and school ships. Trends: • Large luxury private yachts ...colleges and yacht clubs, from the sailing & power squadron and the CG Auxiliary, as well as, miscellaneous other locations, totaling about 100 per...dispersant is worse for the coral than the oil. • Sewage spills can have worse effects than oil on marine life and this is at least recognized danger

  9. Counterfactual and prefactual conditionals.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth M J; Egan, Suzanne M

    2004-06-01

    We consider reasoning about prefactual possibilities in the future, for example, "if I were to win the lottery next year I would buy a yacht" and counterfactual possibilities, for example, "if I had won the lottery last year, I would have bought a yacht." People may reason about indicative conditionals, for example, "if I won the lottery I bought a yacht" by keeping in mind a few true possibilities, for example, "I won the lottery and I bought a yacht." They understand counterfactuals by keeping in mind two possibilities, the conjecture, "I won the lottery and I bought a yacht" and the presupposed facts, "I did not win the lottery and I did not buy a yacht." We report the results of three experiments on prefactuals that examine what people judge them to imply, the possibilities they judge to be consistent with them, and the inferences they judge to follow from them. The results show that reasoners keep a single possibility in mind to understand a prefactual.

  10. Physical requirements in Olympic sailing.

    PubMed

    Bojsen-Møller, J; Larsson, B; Aagaard, P

    2015-01-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance parameters in Olympic sailing although their relative importance changes between classes. The Olympic format consists of eight yacht types combined into 10 so-called events with total 15 sailors (male and female) in a complete national Olympic delegation. The yachts have different requirements with respect to handling, and moreover, each sailor plays a specific role when sailing. Therefore physical demands remain heterogeneous for Olympic sailors. Previous studies have mainly examined sailors where 'hiking' (the task of leaning over the side of the yacht to increase righting moment) is the primary requirement. Other than the ability to sustain prolonged quasi-isometric contractions, hiking seems to require significant maximal muscle strength especially in knee extensors, hip flexors and abdominal and lower back muscles. Another group of studies has investigated boardsailing and provided evidence to show that windsurfing requires very high aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Although data exist on other types of sailors, the information is limited, and moreover the profile of the Olympic events has changed markedly over the last few years to involve more agile, fast and spectacular yachts. The change of events in Olympic sailing has likely added to physical requirements; however, data on sailors in the modern-type yachts are scarce. The present paper describes the recent developments in Olympic sailing with respect to yacht types, and reviews the existing knowledge on physical requirements in modern Olympic sailing. Finally, recommendations for future research in sailing are given.

  11. 46 CFR 129.120 - Alternative standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or less may meet the following requirements of the American Yacht and Boat Council Projects, where applicable, instead of § 129.340 of this part: (1) E-1, Bonding of Direct Current Systems. (2) E-8, AC Electrical Systems on Boats. (3) E-9, DC Electrical Systems on Boats. (b) An OSV with an electrical...

  12. 75 FR 51097 - Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...: The Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee will meet in New Orleans to discuss... Guard on or before September 9, 2010. ADDRESSES: The Committee will meet at the New Orleans Yacht Club, 403 North Roadway, West End, New Orleans, LA 70124. Send written material and requests to make oral...

  13. 75 FR 20619 - Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ...: The Lower Mississippi River Waterway Safety Advisory Committee will meet in New Orleans to discuss... before April 19, 2010. ADDRESSES: The Committee will meet at the New Orleans Yacht Club, 403 North Roadway, West End, New Orleans, LA 70124. Send written material and requests to make oral presentations to...

  14. MAROB Voluntary Marine Observation Program

    Science.gov Websites

    several ways: 1. By sending in YOTREPs (pronounced Yacht Reps) using Pangolin's YOTREP Offshore Reporter Pangolin Software. For documentation on sending YOTREPS/MAROBs using YOTREP Offshore Reporter CLICK HERE 2 . By sending in YOTREPs via WinLink 2000 Global Radio Network, or Sailmail using their AIRMAIL software

  15. Mediterranean Mare Clausum in the Year 2000? An International-Law Analysis of Peacetime Military Navigational Rights, Past, Present and Future, in the Mediterranean.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-30

    landbased including as much as 1,000 million tons of industrial waste and untreated sewage dumped In the Mediterranean every year. 2 5 3 Another...figure would be significantly higher if transits by naval ships, the cross-strait ferry traffic, fishing boat movements, coastwise trade and yacht

  16. Long Island Sound Dredged Material Containment Feasibility Study. Island/Shoal Screening Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-02-01

    studies are not readily available. Productivity may be affected by the combination of deep water, strong currents and sewage discharges from inhabited...06320. Henry Graver, Yacht Broker Associates of Guilford, 124 Tuttle Point Road, Guilford, CT, 06437. Ward Hadley, Chairman, Clinton Harbor Commission

  17. Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Main interior space facing south toward the ocean. Original scissor trusses and deck roof are visible at the top. Octagonal window with large picture windows face the ocean. - San Luis Yacht Club, Avila Pier, South of Front Street, Avila Beach, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. 46 CFR 169.609 - Exhaust systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exhaust systems. 169.609 Section 169.609 Shipping COAST... Electrical Internal Combustion Engine Installations § 169.609 Exhaust systems. Engine exhaust installations... Yacht Council, Inc. Standard P-1, “Safe Installation of Exhaust Systems for Propulsion and Auxiliary...

  19. 76 FR 25353 - Notice of Agreement Filed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION Notice of Agreement Filed The Commission hereby gives notice of the filing of the following agreement under the Shipping Act of 1984. Interested parties may submit comments...; Seabourn Cruise Line; SeaDream Yacht Club; Silversea Cruises, Ltd.; Uniworld River Cruises, Inc.; and...

  20. 78 FR 7663 - SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... 1625-AA08 SLR; 2013 International Rolex Regatta; St. Thomas Harbor; St. Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands... special local regulations on the waters of St. Thomas Harbor in St. Thomas, U. S. Virgin Islands during... through March 24, 2013, the St. Thomas Yacht Club is sponsoring the 2013 Rolex Regatta, a series of sail...

  1. There's a School in Your Mailbox: A Book on Home Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, G. Howard

    Divided into ten sequential chapters, this book provides a comprehensive consumer guide to home study (correspondence study). Chapters deal with educational alternatives (how to select the best training, pros and cons of home study), what can be learned through home study (yacht designing, gemology, stock market investment, military or job skills…

  2. Are There Separate Neural Systems for Spelling? New Insights into the Role of Rules and Memory in Spelling from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, Elizabeth S.; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2007-01-01

    How do people spell the thousands of words at the tips of their tongues? Are words with "regular" sound-to-letter correspondences (e.g., "blink") spelled using the same neural systems as those with "irregular" correspondences (e.g., "yacht")? By offering novel neuroimaging evidence, we aim to advance contemporary debate about whether people use a…

  3. Standard life.

    PubMed

    Allen, Daniel

    2006-08-16

    Reap reward from your strategic agenda. No, I have no idea what that means either. But it is the slogan for August on my desk calendar beneath a picture of a racing yacht - so I assume it relates to achieving success.

  4. Treating the America's Cup Sailors.

    PubMed

    Miller, C

    1987-01-01

    Some physicians are taking part in efforts to win the America's Cup races, now taking place off the west coast of Australia, near Fremantle. But although 12-Meter yacht racing can be intense, sailors most often need treatment for minor injuries.

  5. Volcanic Island Appears Near Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2006-11-01

    A volcano known as Home Reef is now believed to be the source of a small island that appeared recently in Tonga, accordingto scientists from the Smithsonian Institution's Global Volcanism Program who had initially placed the location of the eruption and resulting island at nearby Metis Shoal. Mariners onboard the yacht Maiken

  6. 77 FR 39174 - Safety Zone, Temporary Change for Recurring Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., Cavalier Golf & Yacht Club Independence Day Fireworks Display, Broad Bay; Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Coast... regulation refers to the fireworks display event that takes place on the navigable waters of Broad Bay in... Independence Day Fireworks Display, Broad Bay; Virginia Beach, Virginia in the Federal Register (76 FR 27156...

  7. 75 FR 40726 - Safety Zones: Annual Events Requiring Safety Zones in the Captain of the Port Buffalo Zone

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... July 5, 2010 from 10 p.m. to 10:30 p.m. 12. Mentor Harbor Yacht Club Fireworks Celebration on Lake Erie, Mentor Harbor, OH in 33 CFR 165.939(a)(19) on July 3, 2010 from 10 p.m. to 10:30 p.m. 13. City of...

  8. 46 CFR 125.180 - Incorporation by reference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) American Yacht and Boat Council, Inc. (AYBC): 3069 Solomon's Island Rd., Edgewater, MD 21037-1416, 410-990..., Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-3995, 919-549-1400, http://www.ul.com: (1) UL 19-1992—Lined Fire Hose and...

  9. 76 FR 21633 - Disestablishing Special Anchorage Area 2; Ashley River, Charleston, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ...-30), U.S. Department of Transportation, West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey... or shapes required by Rule 30 of the Inland Navigation Rules (33 U.S.C. 2030). Ashley River Properties and the Ripley Light Yacht Club submitted a permit application to the Army Corps of Engineers to...

  10. 33 CFR 165.506 - Safety Zones; Fifth Coast Guard District Fireworks Displays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 076°00′46″ W, located on the shoreline near the Cavalier Golf and Yacht Club, Virginia Beach, Virginia..., longitude 075°23′10.7″ W, approximately 900 yards southwest of Chincoteague Swing Bridge. 8 May—1st Friday...

  11. 46 CFR 11.456 - Service requirements for limited master of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service requirements for limited master of Great Lakes... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.456 Service requirements for limited... applicants to be employed by organizations such as formal camps, educational institutions, yacht clubs, and...

  12. 46 CFR 11.456 - Service requirements for limited master of Great Lakes and inland steam or motor vessels of not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service requirements for limited master of Great Lakes... OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.456 Service requirements for limited... applicants to be employed by organizations such as formal camps, educational institutions, yacht clubs, and...

  13. 46 CFR 11.429 - Service requirements for limited master of near coastal steam or motor vessels of not more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Service requirements for limited master of near coastal... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.429 Service requirements for limited master of near coastal... organizations such as yacht clubs, marinas, formal camps and educational institutions. An endorsement issued...

  14. 46 CFR 11.429 - Service requirements for limited master of near coastal steam or motor vessels of not more than...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Service requirements for limited master of near coastal... Professional Requirements for Deck Officers § 11.429 Service requirements for limited master of near coastal... organizations such as yacht clubs, marinas, formal camps and educational institutions. An endorsement issued...

  15. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... degrees 30.9′ W; Lat 33 degrees 57.2′ N, Long 118 degrees 30.1′ W. Coronado 4th of July Demonstration, Fireworks and Rehearsals Sponsor: Citizens Committee Coronado 4th of July Date: 4 July (& 3 days of... to the Shelter Island Yacht Basin. City Of Long Beach 4th Of July Fireworks Sponsor: City of Long...

  16. 33 CFR 100.1101 - Southern California annual marine events.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... degrees 30.9′ W; Lat 33 degrees 57.2′ N, Long 118 degrees 30.1′ W. Coronado 4th of July Demonstration, Fireworks and Rehearsals Sponsor: Citizens Committee Coronado 4th of July Date: 4 July (& 3 days of... to the Shelter Island Yacht Basin. City Of Long Beach 4th Of July Fireworks Sponsor: City of Long...

  17. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (b) Steel hull vessels: (1) Lloyd's Yachts and Small Craft; or (2) ABS Steel Vessel Rules (< 61 Meters)(incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (c) Fiber...

  18. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (b) Steel hull vessels: (1) Lloyd's Yachts and Small Craft; or (2) ABS Steel Vessel Rules (<61 Meters)(incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (c) Fiber...

  19. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply... the vessel. (a) Steel hull vessels: (1) Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Yachts and Small Craft, Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Lloyd's); or (2) Rules for Building and Classing Steel...

  20. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply... the vessel. (a) Steel hull vessels: (1) Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Yachts and Small Craft, Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Lloyd's); or (2) Rules for Building and Classing Steel...

  1. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply... the vessel. (a) Steel hull vessels: (1) Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Yachts and Small Craft, Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Lloyd's); or (2) Rules for Building and Classing Steel...

  2. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (b) Steel hull vessels: (1) Lloyd's Yachts and Small Craft; or (2) ABS Steel Vessel Rules (<61 Meters)(incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (c) Fiber...

  3. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (b) Steel hull vessels: (1) Lloyd's Yachts and Small Craft; or (2) ABS Steel Vessel Rules (< 61 Meters)(incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (c) Fiber...

  4. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply... the vessel. (a) Steel hull vessels: (1) Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Yachts and Small Craft, Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Lloyd's); or (2) Rules for Building and Classing Steel...

  5. 46 CFR 116.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Structure § 116.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this subpart, a vessel must comply... the vessel. (a) Steel hull vessels: (1) Rules and Regulations for the Classification of Yachts and Small Craft, Lloyd's Register of Shipping (Lloyd's); or (2) Rules for Building and Classing Steel...

  6. 46 CFR 177.300 - Structural design.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Hull Structure § 177.300 Structural design. Except as otherwise allowed by this... (incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (b) Steel hull vessels: (1) Lloyd's Yachts and Small Craft; or (2) ABS Steel Vessel Rules (< 61 Meters)(incorporated by reference, see 46 CFR 175.600); (c) Fiber...

  7. 2. VIEW OF BISCAYNE BAY, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOATHOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF BISCAYNE BAY, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOATHOUSE AND YACHT CLUB (NOTE: THE ORIGINAL PRINT FROM WHICH THIS PHOTOCOPY WAS MADE HAD BEEN REVERSED) - Ralph M. Munroe House, Boathouse, 3485 Main Highway (Coconut Grove), Miami, Miami-Dade County, FL

  8. 33 CFR 100.1104 - Southern California annual marine events for the Los Angeles Long Beach Captain of the Port Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... to Ensenada Yacht Race Sponsor Newport Ocean Sailing Association. Event Description Sailing vessel race; open ocean. Date Fourth Friday in April. Location Newport Beach, CA. Regulated Area Starting area only. All waters of the Pacific Ocean near Newport Beach, CA bounded by a line starting 33°35′18″ N...

  9. Comparison of sediments and organisms in identifying sources of biologically available trace metal contamination

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomson, E.A.; Luoma, S.N.; Johansson, C.E.; Cain, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Sediments and an indicator organism (Macoma balthica, a deposit-feeding bivalve) were used to assess the relative importance of secondary sewage, urban runoff, a landfill containing metal-enriched ash wastes and a yacht harbor in contributing to Ag, Cu and Zn enrichment in South San Francisco Bay. Spatial gradients in sediments and organisms showed Cu and Ag enrichment originated from sewage discharge, whereas Zn enrichment originated from both sewage and urban runoff. Elevated concentrations of Cu in the sediments of the yacht harbor resulted from a high abundance of fine particles. The biological availability of Cu, Ag and Zn did not coincide with metal enrichment in sediments. The availability of Cu and Ag was greatest nearest the sewage outfall and greater in winter and spring than in summer. The availability of Zn in urban runoff appeared to be lower than the availability of Zn associated with sewage.

  10. Monitoring and Control of Human Effects on the Water Quality in Special Environment Protection Areas (SEPA), Fethiye-Gocek Measurements in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizmeli, Ahmet; Alp, Emre; Duzgun, Sebnem; Orek, Hasan; Cevdet Yalciner, Ahmet

    2010-05-01

    Fethiye-Göcek region, the unique marine area having numerous calm bays for safe and enjoyable navigation, sailing and yachting is one of those Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Göcek Bay, which has a remarkable tourism potential has became one of the most important destinations of the both Turkish and International blue voyagers. The bays of Göcek are used by significant number of yachts during summer season (May-September). Göcek Bay is the nearest bay having marinas for serving those yachts using the nearby bays. The increase in tourism capacity resulted in increase in economical activities as well as environmental problems. The pollution level of the area is affected by the uncontrolled waste disposals from the yachts, the circulation pattern and ecological characteristics of the area. In a previously conducted study, in order to develop proper management strategies, the number of yachts using Göcek Bay area has been determined. The research project involves the development of state-of-the-art remote sensing tools that will be used in the operational monitoring of the ecosystem and was funded by the Turkish Governmental Agency EPASA and the Middle East Technical University, Ankara. There are two general objectives of the project; (i) the development of an operational environmental surveillance system that makes regular use of optical remote sensing images backed with regularly collected in-situ ground truth data (ii) to characterize the chemical nature of the pollutants through in-situ measurements and design and build a water collection, treatment and discharge system for the domestic and bilge waters of the boats. Seawater samples were collected at 3 locations representing different pollution levels in Göcek Bay. One of the locations is in open sea which represents low pollution level (almost clean water). The concentrations of the measured parameters in seawater are below the limit values indicated in Water Pollution and Control Regulation and

  11. Lake Erie Water Level Study. Appendix F. Environmental Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    were reevaluated with weight being placed on the most recent data. The wetland area in Pennsylvania was limited to that area on and around Presque Isle ...and East Harbor, Sandusky Bay, Northeast Yacht Club, Mentor Harbor, Presque Isle Bay, Port Dover, and Sturgeon Creek. In Lake Ontario the regulation...valued at close to 4 million dollars (Melski 1973), and the winter ice fishery was valued at 1.1 million dollars. Presque Isle Bay (which is on the

  12. Conventional Deterrence and the Falkland Islands Conflict

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    maritime aircraft. In an attempt to save surface ships, the Royal Navy recommended scrapping the HMS Endurance, HMS Britannia , LPDs (amphibious assault...and the royal yacht HMS Britannia .225 The Royal Navy was going to lose two aircraft carriers as well. In addition to scrapping the HMS Hermes, Nott... mines on the Falkland Islands in case of Argentinean aggression. The FCO vetoed this option as it was viewed as too provocative a move.284 The 1981

  13. Security Requirements for Post-Transition Cuba

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    modern circum-Caribbean militaries: control of air- and sea -space against transnational criminals. The military will need a new structure for these...in the yacht , Granma, landing near Playa de Las Colorados in Oriente Province on December 2, 1956. This area of southeastern Cuba had been where...Communist Party of Cuba did 10 not support Fidel until early 1958,14 which irritated him and caused him to distrust the party. By January 1, 1959, the

  14. Oceanology in Denmark

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    plus 19 new "miniaturized" sailing or yachting charts. For Greenland, there are 143 coastal, normal and Loran charts. The Oceanographic Section was...from a marine disaster. The Sound (Oresund) is a sewage outlet for 36 Danish municipalities, and for at least the same number on the Swedish coast. In...normal flushing of pollutants from the Baltic, could substantially change the ecology of the area. Treatment plants for sewage outlets are now being

  15. Proceedings of the American Towing Tank Conference (21st) Held in Washington, DC. on 5-7th August 1986,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    have been lenge of all in the yachting world: the involved has been innovative and produc- recovery of the America’s cup. tive. Much has been achieved...system. This patented device is an Reynolds numbers, and consequently more pro- exciting innovation , with potential applica- nounced viscous flow...yields an integral equation for the pressure which can be converted to a manage - able non-homogeneous integral equation by means of a Fourier transform

  16. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... anchorage ground. An area in Skidaway River beginning at a point on the mean low water line 400 feet south of Brady Boat Works, thence 76°30′, 300 feet to a buoy; thence 152°30′, 900 feet to a buoy; thence 251°00′, 450 feet to the mean low water line at Wymberly Yacht Club dock. (b) The regulations. (1...

  17. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... anchorage ground. An area in Skidaway River beginning at a point on the mean low water line 400 feet south of Brady Boat Works, thence 76°30′, 300 feet to a buoy; thence 152°30′, 900 feet to a buoy; thence 251°00′, 450 feet to the mean low water line at Wymberly Yacht Club dock. (b) The regulations. (1...

  18. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... anchorage ground. An area in Skidaway River beginning at a point on the mean low water line 400 feet south of Brady Boat Works, thence 76°30′, 300 feet to a buoy; thence 152°30′, 900 feet to a buoy; thence 251°00′, 450 feet to the mean low water line at Wymberly Yacht Club dock. (b) The regulations. (1...

  19. 33 CFR 110.179 - Skidaway River, Isle of Hope, Ga.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... anchorage ground. An area in Skidaway River beginning at a point on the mean low water line 400 feet south of Brady Boat Works, thence 76°30′, 300 feet to a buoy; thence 152°30′, 900 feet to a buoy; thence 251°00′, 450 feet to the mean low water line at Wymberly Yacht Club dock. (b) The regulations. (1...

  20. Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime crew for the first manned Apollo mission relax in a life raft during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico with a full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. Left to right, are Astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, pilot, Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and Edward H. White II (facing camera), senior pilot. In background is the 'Duchess', a yacht owned by La Porte businessman Paul Barkley and provided by him as a press boat for newsmen covering the training.

  1. Distribution and Fate of Tributyltin in the United States Marine Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Tributyltin ( TBT ) has been measured in water in 12 of 15 harbors studied during U.S. Navy baseline surveys. The highest concentrations of TBT (some...no detectable (5 ng dm-3) TBT . TBT monitoring studies with increased detection limits (l ng dm-3) have documented a high degree of TBT variability...associated with tide, season and intermittent point source discharges. Although yacht harbors were shown to be the principal TBT source in most regions

  2. Piracy off the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-27

    issued a warning strongly advising all U.S. registered yachts and sailing vessels against passage in the Gulf of Aden, Arabian Sea, Somali Basin ...between Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia , which are credited with having drastically reduced the instance of piracy in Southeast Asia since 2005...in November 2008. Media reports suggested Somali pirates received a $4 million ransom in December 2009 to release the Chinese bulk coal carrier MV

  3. 75 FR 12233 - New York State Prohibition of Discharges of Vessel Sewage; Receipt of Petition and Tentative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Hours of Operation: 7 a.m.-9 p.m. Facility Fee: $5.00 Vessel Size: 50' Disposal/Treatment: Holding Tank...' Disposal/Treatment: Holding Tank Name: Chazy Yacht Club Inc Phone Number: 518-298-2866 Lat/Long: 44.934336... p.m. Facility Fee: $ 5.00 Vessel Size: 50' Disposal/Treatment: Holding Tank Name: Gilbert Brook...

  4. 75 FR 38926 - Safety Zones; Marine Events Within the Captain of the Port Sector Long Island Sound Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... approximate position 41[deg]04'39.11'' N, 072[deg]22'01.07'' W (NAD 83). Mason's Island Yacht Club Date: July... Fisher's Island Sound, Noank, CT in approximate position 41[deg]19'31.00'' N, 071[deg]57'48.00'' W (NAD....00'' N, 073[deg]22'40.00'' W (NAD 83). City of Long Beach Fireworks. Date: July 9, 2010. Rain date...

  5. Male characteristics on female mud snails caused by antifouling bottom paints.

    PubMed

    Smith, B S

    1981-02-01

    This study continues an investigation of an anatomical abnormality, named 'imposex', which consists of a superimposition of male characteristics on to a functionally normal female reproductive anatomy of the dioecious snail Nassarius obsoletus Say. Imposex is prevalent in natural populations living near yacht basins and rarely found distant from them. In the current study caged snails were transferred between a yacht basin and a distant 'clean' locality where the natural population of snails was normal. Imposex was induced in some normal snails kept at the marina and suppressed, but not lost in abnormal snails kept at the clean locality. A similar positive result was obtained in the laboratory by exposing normal snails to organotin-containing antifouling paints and abnormal snails to clean sea water. Results were negative in parallel tests of various marina-associated materials which did not contain organotin. The laboratory studies have thus identified a causative factor for the anatomical abnormalities common near yacht basins in the natural environment. They also provide a rare, if not unique, example of a chemical agent which causes the appearance of superfluous anatomical features in an animal.

  6. Nickel, vanadium, and lead as indicators of sediment contamination of marina, refinery, and shipyard areas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Thayane Lúcia; Wallner-Kersanach, Mônica; Costa, Luiza Dy Fonseca; Costa, Daniel Pereira; Baisch, Paulo Roberto Martins

    2018-01-01

    Metallic elements found in the aquatic environment may originate in areas where petroleum is refined and vessels are maintained and repaired. This study aims to assess contamination caused by nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and vanadium (V) in sediment of the Lagoa dos Patos estuary (RS, Brazil) and to evaluate them as indicators of areas under the influence of petroleum products and antifouling paints. Surface sediments were collected in summer and in winter in areas of marinas, shipyards, refinery, and a control station. High Pb and V concentrations in shipyards and at the Yacht Club showed that some organisms may be affected by toxicity. High Pb results of the index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) were found at the Yacht Club and shipyards. Al, Ni, and V had similar distribution in the sediment in both seasons. Ni and V had high relation in winter at the Yacht Club and at the Santos Shipyard, thus suggesting that these elements come mainly from petroleum products. The same happened to the relations between Pb and V, as well as Pb and Ni at the Santos Shipyard. These elements are employed as useful tools as indicators to identify places with moderate to high localized anthropogenic inputs of petroleum derivatives and antifouling paints.

  7. Development of a lightweight portable optical measurement system for the print-through phenomenon of fiber-reinforced plastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiou, Fang-Jung; Lai, Yao-Zih; Tsai, Min-Long

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volumetric shrinkage of the resin and the induced residual stress during the curing process, the reflection on the gel-coating layer surface will be imperfect if twists and wrinkles exist on the gel-coating surface. This phenomenon is denoted as print-through phenomenon (PTP). Currently, the detection of PTP for most of the yacht industry using the composite materials is performed mainly by visual inspection, and its quality is needed to be quantified to determine their grades. Therefore, there is a need to develop a lightweight portable optical measurement system that can be applied quickly to inspect different levels of PTP for the fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) of the yacht body. The measurement system was developed based on the scattering principle of a reflected laser fringe projected on to the workpiece surface. Two indexes, namely the profile peak-valley height and wave-height of the Fast-Fourier Transform based on the centerline of the extracted image profile, were proposed to quantify the PTP of a test specimen. The mean line width of the extracted image was applied to evaluate the surface roughness of the test specimen, based on the scattering theorem. A set of software programmed with Borland C++ Builder language was developed to calculate the proposed indexes and the mean line width. The developed measurement system has been taken to some yacht factories to do the on-site measurements. The measurement results were, in general, consistent with the surface conditions of the polished surfaces.

  8. Field Experiences with Floating Breakwaters in the Eastern United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    Island Yacht Club Ocean Avenue Cranston, RI 02905 Coweset Marina 100 Folly l.anding Warwick, RI 02886 John Dicke rson Apponiaug I la rho r ’a r ITn; 21...tire breakwater Wave suppre-ssion 20. AWNrACT r e(theu a en m s if neo and Identyf by block nutmbo) In the past 10 years, the use of floating breakwat...ers A; t’mpo r ;ll’N1 lt .1 structures has become increasingly widespread in the United St:ites ’I, In inilt’\\ pensive means for suppressing waves

  9. On wings and keels (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slooff, J. W.

    1985-05-01

    The physical mechanisms governing the hydrodynamics of sailing yacht keels and the parameters that, through these mechanisms, determine keel performance are discussed. It is concluded that due to the presence of the free water surface optimum keel shapes differ from optimum shapes for aircraft wings. Utilizing computational fluid dynamics analysis and optimization it is found that the performance of conventional keels can be improved significantly by reducing taper or even applying inverse taper (upside-down keel) and that decisive improvements in performance can be realized through keels with winglets.

  10. Satellite Observations of New Volcanic Island in Tonga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Abrams, Michael J.; Hook, Simon J.; Pieri, David C.

    2007-01-01

    A rising volcanic plume from an unknown source was observed on 9-11 August 2006 in the Vava'u Island group in the northernmost islands of Tonga [Matangi News Online, 2006]. On 12 August, the crew on board the yacht Maiken, sailing west from Vava'u to Fiji, encountered ``a vast, many miles wide, belt of densely packed pumice'' floating on the water (F. Fransson personal communication, 2006). Later, the crew sailed south and discovered that the source of the pumice was a newly erupting submarine volcano near Home Reef (18.991°S, 174.767°W) (Figure 1a).

  11. A new species of Diadumene (Actiniaria: Diadumenidae) from the subtropical coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Beneti, Julia S; Stampar, Sérgio N; Maronna, Maximiliano M; Morandini, André Carrara; Silveira, Fábio Lang Da

    2015-09-24

    Diadumene paranaensis n. sp., collected from the Yacht Club of Paranaguá (Paranaguá Bay, Paraná State, southern Brazil), is described as a new species of sea anemone, based on external and internal morphology, cnidome, and molecular data for 16S/CO3 mitochondrial DNA. This species is partially similar to D. cincta due to the presence of macrobasic p-amastigophores in the tentacles, but is distinguished by the cinclides arranged in longitudinal rows and microbasic p-amastigophores in the acontia.

  12. Effect of Bonder at Skin/Core Interface on the Mechanical Performances of Sandwich Structures Used in Marine Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsellino, C.; Calabrese, L.; di Bella, G.

    2007-11-01

    The present work is aimed to extend the knowledge of mechanical properties of sandwich structures used for marine applications focusing on the possibility to increase the performances of such structures by adding a bonder at the skin/core interface. Therefore, three sandwich structures that are utilised in different structural components of a yacht were realised by manual lay-up. The mechanical characterisation was performed by flatwise compressive, edgewise compressive and three point flexural tests. The tests execution has allowed both to determine the mechanical performances and to understand the fracture mechanisms that take place when the bonder is added in the stacking sequence of the samples.

  13. Satellite Observations of New Volcanic Island in Tonga

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Abrams, Michael J.; Hook, Simon J.; Pieri, David C.

    2007-01-01

    A rising volcanic plume from an unknown source was observed on 9-11 August 2006 in the Vava'u Island group in the northernmost islands of Tonga [Matangi News Online, 2006]. On 12 August, the crew on board the yacht Maiken, sailing west from Vava'u to Fiji, encountered 'a vast, many miles wide, belt of densely packed pumice' floating on the water (F. Fransson personal communication, 2006). Later, the crew sailed south and discovered that the source of the pumice was a newly erupting submarine volcano near Home Reef (18.991 deg S, 174.767 deg W).

  14. The Argos contribution to the demonstration of the effectiveness of a satellite-based search and rescue system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rolland, R.

    The use of the CNES/NASA/NOAA Argos environmental-research instrumentation on the Tiros-N series of satellites as a search and rescue location-finding system for trans-Atlantic yacht races during 1979-1982 is described. The transmission beacons, satellite equipment, data-processing center, and data distribution facilities of Argos are characterized and illustrated; the nine race rescue operations in which Argos was involved are listed and discussed; and the deficiencies of Argos are shown to be fully corrected in the 406-MHz location system developed for Sarsat.

  15. Deep vein thrombosis following prolonged kneeling: a case report.

    PubMed

    van Beeck, J Looringh; Versfeld, K; Ehrlich, R

    2014-06-01

    This report describes a fibreglass mould maker in the yacht building industry who developed a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) after 6 weeks of working in a kneeling position. We propose that his prolonged kneeling combined with constrictive knee pad straps caused vascular compression, precipitating his DVT. A hypercoagulability diathesis was suspected but not confirmed. Operator and employer education, modified work practices and strapless knee pads are suggested as possible preventive measures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Riblets for Stars and Stripes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1987-01-01

    Stars and Stripes racing yacht brought the American's Cup back to the United States. Originating from NASA's drag reduction technology, the boats "secret weapon" was that the hull's underside was coated with riblets. Riblets are small, barely visible grooves on the surface of an airplane intended to reduce skin friction by smoothing the turbulent airflow next to the skin. Grooves are V-shaped with the angle pointing in the direction of the airflow. No deeper than a scratch, they have a pronounced beneficial influence on air turbulence. *No longer commercially available.

  17. Lead: Aspects of its ecology and environmental toxicity. [physiological effects of lead compound contamination of environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of lead toxicity in the Hawaiian environment was conducted. It was determined that lead enters the environment as an industrial contaminant resulting from the combustion of leaded gasoline. The amount of lead absorbed by the plants in various parts of the Hawaiian Islands is reported. The disposition of lead in the sediments of canals and yacht basins was investigated. The methods for conducting the surveys of lead content are described. Possible consequences of continued environmental pollution by burning leaded gasoline are discussed.

  18. Ribbed Swimsuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Langley Research Center's turbulent-drag reduction technology, as applied to airplanes and the winning yacht in America's Cup, finds another application: swimwear. The Strush SR swimsuit features silicon ribbing or "riblets" at the chest and buttocks, reducing friction in the water. Combined with innovations by its manufacturer, Arena North America, the company says the technology makes the suit 10 to 15 percent faster than any other world class swimsuit. The publicity for the Strush SR is handled by Suter Communications, Inc. *Company no longer exists (12/5/96).

  19. JPRS Report, Latin America, Reference Aid. Cuba: Cuban Government Proceedings Against Arnaldo Ochoa Sanchez and Other Officials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-25

    citizen gave me musical equipment. When he gave me the equipment, I reported this and asked what I should do with the equipment. I was told to receive...been approved for us. We were going to purchase a yacht to sell to the INTUR [National Institute of Tourism ] which was also a way to cover-up these...Ochoa] In tourism . We were going to invest money in tourism activities. That is why we talked with CUBA- NACAN [expansion unknown; a Cuban enterprise to

  20. Potential sources of bacteriological pollution for two bays with marinas in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Christine Ann; Moonesar, Indar

    2005-05-01

    Welcome Bay and Chaguaramas Bay in the northwest peninsula of Trinidad contain large marinas and smaller sections of bathing beaches. Bacteriological surveys were conducted at both bays to assess water quality and to determine potential sources of pollution. These surveys were conducted during the wet season of 1996 and the dry season of 1997. Eleven sample stations were established at Welcome Bay and 12 at Chaguaramas Bay. Freshwater samples were collected from rivers and drains within the survey area. Marine water samples were collected from marinas, bathing beaches and inshore and outer areas at both bays. Five water samples were collected from each sampling station during the wet season of 1996 and six during the dry season of 1997. The membrane filter technique was used to determine faecal coliform and Escherichia coli levels in all samples. There was a seasonal effect on water quality, with significantly higher faecal coliform levels in the wet season, when water quality was not in compliance with international standards. This represents a potential health risk in bathing areas. Water quality was better at the outer area of both bays. Water quality at the inner bay areas was most likely adversely affected by land-based sources of pollution identified in this study. These sources include three drains and two rivers, which discharged into the bays. Yachts were apparently not a source of sewage pollution: there was no significant relationship between yacht number and faecal coliform levels.

  1. Sail Plan Configuration Optimization for a Modern Clipper Ship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerritsen, Margot; Doyle, Tyler; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Moin, Parviz

    2002-11-01

    We investigate the use of gradient-based and evolutionary algorithms for sail shape optimization. We present preliminary results for the optimization of sheeting angles for the rig of the future three-masted clipper yacht Maltese Falcon. This yacht will be equipped with square-rigged masts made up of yards of circular arc cross sections. This design is especially attractive for megayachts because it provides a large sail area while maintaining aerodynamic and structural efficiency. The rig remains almost rigid in a large range of wind conditions and therefore a simple geometrical model can be constructed without accounting for the true flying shape. The sheeting angle optimization studies are performed using both gradient-based cost function minimization and evolutionary algorithms. The fluid flow is modeled by the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the Spallart-Allmaras turbulence model. Unstructured non-conforming grids are used to increase robustness and computational efficiency. The optimization process is automated by integrating the system components (geometry construction, grid generation, flow solver, force calculator, optimization). We compare the optimization results to those done previously by user-controlled parametric studies using simple cost functions and user intuition. We also investigate the effectiveness of various cost functions in the optimization (driving force maximization, ratio of driving force to heeling force maximization).

  2. Approximation, abstraction and decomposition in search and optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellman, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss four different areas of my research. One portion of my research has focused on automatic synthesis of search control heuristics for constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). I have developed techniques for automatically synthesizing two types of heuristics for CSPs: Filtering functions are used to remove portions of a search space from consideration. Another portion of my research is focused on automatic synthesis of hierarchic algorithms for solving constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs). I have developed a technique for constructing hierarchic problem solvers based on numeric interval algebra. Another portion of my research is focused on automatic decomposition of design optimization problems. We are using the design of racing yacht hulls as a testbed domain for this research. Decomposition is especially important in the design of complex physical shapes such as yacht hulls. Another portion of my research is focused on intelligent model selection in design optimization. The model selection problem results from the difficulty of using exact models to analyze the performance of candidate designs.

  3. Observed Marine Debris in the Pacific Ocean 00e2?? Victoria to Maui 2012

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Location and descriptions of marine debris observed by the Sailing Vessel (S/V) Family Affair yacht during the Victoria, British Columbia to Maui, Hawaii Yacht Race in July 2012. These observations are organized according to the following map layers: Family Affairs Observations, Fleet Debris Levels, Return Vessels Special Reports, Roll Call Debris Data-Race, Special Report Debris-Race, Vessel Specific Observations, and Return Vessel Specific Levels Observations.The March, 2011 tsunami that affected northern Japan washed enormous amounts of debris out to sea. While most of this debris sank quickly out at sea, much remains on the surface and by ocean current and wind is working its way across the Pacific Ocean. In early days, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) could track the debris slick by satellite, but by early 2012, the debris had become too dispersed to track. News stories have reported containers with motorcycles on Haida Gwaii, whole fishing boats in Alaska, and sections of concrete dock in Oregon. Recent reports are about the struggles of local governments to deal with cleaning up and disposing of flotsam washing up on local beaches.

  4. Study on process design of partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting vertical ship lift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shen; Xiaofeng, Xu; Lu, Zhang; Bing, Zhu; Fei, Li

    2017-11-01

    The hub ship lift in Panjin is the first navigation structure in China for the link between the inland and open seas, which adopts a novel partially-balanced, hydraulically lifting ship lift; it can meet such requirements as fast and sharp water level change in open sea, large draft of a yacht, and launching of a ship reception chamber; its balancing weight system can effectively reduce the load of the primary lifting cylinder, and optimize the force distribution of the ship reception chamber. The paper provides an introduction to main equipment, basic principles, main features and system composition of a ship lift. The unique power system and balancing system of the completed ship lift has offered some experience for the construction of the tourism-type ship lifts with a lower lifting height.

  5. Smooth Sailing for Weather Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Through a cooperative venture with NASA's Stennis Space Center, WorldWinds, Inc., developed a unique weather and wave vector map using space-based radar satellite information and traditional weather observations. Called WorldWinds, the product provides accurate, near real-time, high-resolution weather forecasts. It was developed for commercial and scientific users. In addition to weather forecasting, the product's applications include maritime and terrestrial transportation, aviation operations, precision farming, offshore oil and gas operations, and coastal hazard response support. Target commercial markets include the operational maritime and aviation communities, oil and gas providers, and recreational yachting interests. Science applications include global long-term prediction and climate change, land-cover and land-use change, and natural hazard issues. Commercial airlines have expressed interest in the product, as it can provide forecasts over remote areas. WorldWinds, Inc., is currently providing its product to commercial weather outlets.

  6. Parametric design and gridding through relational geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Letcher, John S., Jr.; Shook, D. Michael

    1995-01-01

    Relational Geometric Synthesis (RGS) is a new logical framework for building up precise definitions of complex geometric models from points, curves, surfaces and solids. RGS achieves unprecedented design flexibility by supporting a rich variety of useful curve and surface entities. During the design process, many qualitative and quantitative relationships between elementary objects may be captured and retained in a data structure equivalent to a directed graph, such that they can be utilized for automatically updating the complete model geometry following changes in the shape or location of an underlying object. Capture of relationships enables many new possibilities for parametric variations and optimization. Examples are given of panelization applications for submarines, sailing yachts, offshore structures, and propellers.

  7. On load paths and load bearing topology from finite element analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, D.; Reidsema, C.; Lee, M.

    2010-06-01

    Load paths can be mapped from vector plots of 'pointing stress vectors'. They define a path along which a component of load remains constant as it traverses the solution domain. In this paper the theory for the paths is first defined. Properties of the plots that enable a designer to interpret the structural behavior from the contours are then identified. Because stress is a second order tensor defined on an orthogonal set of axes, the vector plots define separate paths for load transfer in each direction of the set of axes. An algorithm is therefore presented that combines the vectors to define a topology to carry the loads. The algorithm is shown to straighten the paths reducing bending moments and removing stress concentration. Application to a bolted joint, a racing car body and a yacht hull demonstrate the usefulness of the plots.

  8. Advanced materials and techniques for fibre-optic sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Philip J.

    2014-06-01

    Fibre-optic monitoring systems came of age in about 1999 upon the emergence of the world's first significant commercialising company - a spin-out from the UK's collaborative MAST project. By using embedded fibre-optic technology, the MAST project successfully measured transient strain within high-performance composite yacht masts. Since then, applications have extended from smart composites into civil engineering, energy, military, aerospace, medicine and other sectors. Fibre-optic sensors come in various forms, and may be subject to embedment, retrofitting, and remote interrogation. The unique challenges presented by each implementation require careful scrutiny before widespread adoption can take place. Accordingly, various aspects of design and reliability are discussed spanning a range of representative technologies that include resonant microsilicon structures, MEMS, Bragg gratings, advanced forms of spectroscopy, and modern trends in nanotechnology. Keywords: Fibre-optic sensors, fibre Bragg gratings, MEMS, MOEMS, nanotechnology, plasmon.

  9. The effect of a temporary period of relaxed licensing laws on the alcohol consumption of young male drinkers.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, K L; Harrison-Stewart, A J

    1992-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of a temporary period of increased alcohol availability on the alcohol consumption of young, male Western Australian drinkers. The 778 men, aged between 18 and 28 years, were interviewed in Fremantle (experimental area) and Mt Lawley (control area) approximately 1 month before and 6 months after extensions to trading hours were granted to licensed premises during the America's Cup yacht races. The "after" survey failed to reveal any increases in alcohol consumption as a consequence of the temporary extensions to the trading hours. Although most respondents were in favor of the extended trading, a minority actually used licensed premises during the extended hours. Frequent use of extended hours was associated with higher levels of alcohol consumption. The majority of respondents believed that the extended licensing hours would lead to increased alcohol-related problems.

  10. Terrestrial laser scanning used to detect asymmetries in boat hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; López-Alvarez, Francisco; Ordóñez, Celestino; Menéndez, Agustín; Bernardo-Sánchez, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    We describe a methodology for identifying asymmetries in boat hull sections reconstructed from point clouds captured using a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). A surface was first fit to the point cloud using a nonparametric regression method that permitted the construction of a continuous smooth surface. Asymmetries in cross-sections of the surface were identified using a bootstrap resampling technique that took into account uncertainty in the coordinates of the scanned points. Each reconstructed section was analyzed to check, for a given level of significance, that it was within the confidence interval for the theoretical symmetrical section. The method was applied to the study of asymmetries in a medium-sized yacht. Identified were differences of up to 5 cm between the real and theoretical sections in some parts of the hull.

  11. Culturally Sensitive Education Can Decrease Hispanic Workers' Risk of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marks, Steven

    2016-04-08

    Metabolic syndrome is a continuing problem in the United States, and the Hispanic population is at increased risk of developing complications from this disease process. Many of the workers at a South Jersey yacht-building company are Hispanic, and a culturally sensitive education program was implemented to improve their overall health. Program assessments included the Latino Dietary Behavior Questionnaire (LDBQ), anthropomorphic measurements, and laboratory studies both pre and post intervention. The intervention included a Spanish-language lecture on metabolic syndrome and healthy nutrition, followed by an interactive culturally appropriate cooking demonstration for the participants and their significant others. Program participants showed reductions in body mass index, blood pressure, lipid levels, and hemoglobin A1c, and more knowledge of healthy nutrition as measured by the LDBQ. This finding supports culturally sensitive education programs to improve the health of Hispanic populations. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Control Theory based Shape Design for the Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, G.; Martinelli, L.

    2003-12-01

    A design method for shape optimization in incompressible turbulent viscous flow has been developed and validated for inverse design. The gradient information is determined using a control theory based algorithm. With such an approach, the cost of computing the gradient is negligible. An additional adjoint system must be solved which requires the cost of a single steady state flow solution. Thus, this method has an enormous advantage over traditional finite-difference based algorithms. The method of artificial compressibility is utilized to solve both the flow and adjoint systems. An algebraic turbulence model is used to compute the eddy viscosity. The method is validated using several inverse wing design test cases. In each case, the program must modify the shape of the initial wing such that its pressure distribution matches that of the target wing. Results are shown for the inversion of both finite thickness wings as well as zero thickness wings which can be considered a model of yacht sails.

  13. Acceleration and Transport of Particles in Collisionless Plasmas: Wakes due to the Interaction with Moving Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarjov, Maxim G.

    2001-06-01

    A method is developed that allows the numerical and analytical description of the effects of ambient magnetic field on the time-dependent 3D structures of space plasma flows due to bodies in motion through a plasma. Some of these effects have been observed in space and ionosphere as stratified, flute and yacht sail like structures of plasma disturbances, jets, wakes and clouds. The method can be used for the simulations of Solar Wind flow taking into account the magnetic field effects and the interactions with the Interstellar Medium. These problems are of practical interest in fluid mechanics, space sciences, astrophysics, in turbulence theory. They also have some fundamental interest in their own right, as they enable one to concentrate on the effects of the ambient electric and magnetic fields.

  14. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in recreational marina sediments of San Diego Bay, southern California.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Vales, Melissa; Mendoza, Guillermo; Hoh, Eunha; Levin, Lisa A

    2018-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations were determined in surface sediments from three recreational marinas in San Diego Bay, California. Total PCB concentrations ranged from 23 to 153, 31-294, and 151-1387ngg -1 for Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB), Harbor Island West (HW) and Harbor Island East (HE), respectively. PCB concentrations were significantly higher in HE and PCB group composition differed relative to HW and SIYB, which were not significantly different from each other in concentration or group composition. In marina sediments there was a predominance (82-85%) of heavier molecular weight PCBs with homologous groups (6CL-7CL) comprising 59% of the total. In HE 75% of the sites exceeded the effect range median (ERM), and toxicity equivalence (TEQ dioxin-like PCBs) values were higher relative to those of HW and SIYB, suggesting a potential ecotoxicological risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Deaths from electricity.

    PubMed

    Brokenshire, B; Cairns, F J; Koelmeyer, T D; Smeeton, W M; Tie, A B

    1984-03-14

    This paper reviews the circumstances of 95 fatalities from electrical injuries. Eighty-nine were accidental, four were suicides and two occurred during autoerotic electrical stimulation. Forty-nine of the accidental fatalities occurred at work, Twenty-eight in the home and twelve in the course of outside recreational activities. In many accidents the circumstances were distressingly similar and included: (1) Contact with overhead distribution lines by a length of conductor such as a yacht mast or crane. (2) Faulty wiring or electrical repairs performed by unqualified people. (3) Badly deteriorated cords, plugs and occasionally appliances. (4) Failure to use isolating transformers when indicated. Deaths involving children are a particular cause of concern. Nine fatalites involved children under the age of five years who contacted inadequately protected wires.

  16. Occupational styrene exposure for twelve product categories in the reinforced-plastics industry.

    PubMed

    Lemasters, G K; Carson, A; Samuels, S J

    1985-08-01

    Approximately 1500 occupational styrene exposure values from 28 reinforced-plastic manufacturers were collected retrospectively from companies and state and federal agencies. This report describes the major types of manufacturing processes within the reinforced-plastics industry and reports on the availability, collection and analysis of historical exposure information. Average exposure to styrene in most open-mold companies (24-82 ppm) was generally 2-3 times the exposure in press-mold companies (11-26 ppm). Manufacturers of smaller boats had mean styrene exposures of 82 ppm as compared to 37 ppm for yacht companies. There was considerable overlap in styrene exposure among job titles classified as directly exposed within open- and press-mold processing.

  17. Stick-to-it riblets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demeis, Richard

    1988-01-01

    The development and advantages of riblet tape are described with particular reference to its application to the Stars and Stripes racing yacht. Research on aircraft is then touched on, with particular attention given to the test flight of a T-33 with one smooth and one grooved plastic film section on its wings in 1985; and the NASA-Langley test of a Learjet with films of two different groove depths (0.003 and 0.0013 in.). It is projected that the expected overall drag reduction would be 3-4 percent for an airliner at 35,000-40,000 ft at Mach 0.75 using riblets about 0.002 in. deep and across on areas with a constant flow angle.

  18. Joseph Needham, CH, FRS, FBA., b. 9 December 1900; d. 24 April 1995. A Sailor's Tribute and a Memoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, D. W.

    Sailors, indeed anyone interested in the development of sailing craft, will be for ever indebted to Joseph Needham. Today they will find with ease literature that describes the origins, characteristics, and development of sailing craft in the various regions of the world; the inter-relationships between natural products, and native hull stuctures and forms, sails' fabrics, shapes, and performance. They can learn, too, that the closestowing anchor, the water-tight bulkhead, the balanced rudder (and other features of the modern efficiency-conscious ship constructor) have all been adapted from the millenniaold, so-long-despised by Westerners, Chinese junk, just as has, late in this twentieth century, the stiffened sail of the modern high-performance yacht.

  19. A Case of Delayed Flare-up Allergic Dermatitis Caused by Jellyfish Sting.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuaki; Mabuchi, Tomotaka; Kawai, Mayu; Ota, Tami; Ikoma, Norihiro; Ozawa, Akira; Horita, Takushi

    2014-09-20

    A 7-year-old boy, taking lessons at a yacht school at Enoshima in Kanagawa prefecture in Japan, recognized a linear eruption on his left lower leg during practice in August 2012. As it gradually enlarged, he visited a local medical clinic. The eruption initially improved with topical treatment but exacerbated in October of the same year. Although topical treatment was started again, there was minimal improvement, so the patient visited our hospital in December. At his first visit, he had a hard linear nodule on his left lower leg, and papules with excoriation were scattered over the lower limbs. Considering eczema, topical steroid treatment and occlusive dressing technique were started but the nodule remained. Based on the clinical course, clinical features, and laboratory findings, the lesion was considered to be delayed flare-up allergic dermatitis caused by a jellyfish sting [1].

  20. Yachters in Korea suffer considerable injuries

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Do-Woong; Jee, Yong-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Although there is a limited amount of data regarding injuries incurred from yachting, identifying important trends can assist clinicians and yachters in the successful evaluation, treatment, and rehabilitation of injuries. Similar to other research studies related to sailing, the majority of injuries consist of orthopedic problems, with the highest rate of injury occurring in the lower legs and trunk. The most prevalent causes of injury were due to ‘over-action,’ followed by ‘insufficient practice,’ and lastly, ‘insufficient skill’ according to the responses among yachters. Gaining a better understanding of the causes of injury and the affected sites of injury will assist in developing a fitness training program for injury prevention and creating a rehabilitation program to ensure optimal conditions and safety for yachters. PMID:27419119

  1. Integrated wetland management: an analysis with group model building based on system dynamics model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin; Chang, Yang-Chi; Chen, Kung-Chen

    2014-12-15

    The wetland system possesses diverse functions such as preserving water sources, mediating flooding, providing habitats for wildlife and stabilizing coastlines. Nonetheless, rapid economic growth and the increasing population have significantly deteriorated the wetland environment. To secure the sustainability of the wetland, it is essential to introduce integrated and systematic management. This paper examines the resource management of the Jiading Wetland by applying group model building (GMB) and system dynamics (SD). We systematically identify local stakeholders' mental model regarding the impact brought by the yacht industry, and further establish a SD model to simulate the dynamic wetland environment. The GMB process improves the stakeholders' understanding about the interaction between the wetland environment and management policies. Differences between the stakeholders' perceptions and the behaviors shown by the SD model also suggest that our analysis would facilitate the stakeholders to broaden their horizons and achieve consensus on the wetland resource management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sea transport of animal and vegetable oils and its environmental consequences.

    PubMed

    Bucas, Gwenaelle; Saliot, Alain

    2002-12-01

    The increasing production-and therefore sea traffic--of vegetable oils has regularly led to spillages during the past 40 years. The accident of Allegra, on October,lst, 1997, in the English Channel gave rise to a spillage of 900 tonnes of palm nut oil. The drift of this solid vegetable oil was followed by aerial observations. Samples of oil were collected in order to analyse its chemical evolution. This study, associated with several bibliographic cases of pollution by non-petroleum oils, shows that drifting oils can mix with floating material to sink or form a crust. They can also be oxidized or disperse and/or be degraded by bacteria. They may also polymerise. The coating properties of vegetable oils act as crude oils to affect sea life, tourism and yachting. As a result, it is necessary to quickly collect the oil after a spillage, using usual equipment (booms and pumps).

  3. Commercialisation of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells - opportunities and forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziurdzia, B.; Magonski, Z.; Jankowski, H.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents the analysis of commercialisation possibilities of the SOFC stack designed at AGH. The paper reminds the final design of the stack, presented earlier at IMAPS- Poland conferences, its recent modifications and measurements. The stack consists of planar double-sided ceramic fuel cells which characterize by the special anode construction with embedded fuel channels. The stack features by a simple construction without metallic interconnectors and frames, lowered thermal capacity and quick start-up time. Predictions for the possible applications of the stack include portable generators for luxurious caravans, yachts, ships at berth. The SOFC stack operating as clean, quiet and efficient power source could replace on-board diesel generators. Market forecasts shows that there is also some room on a market for the SOFC stack as a standalone generator in rural areas far away from the grid. The paper presents also the survey of SOFC market in Europe USA, Australia and other countries.

  4. Dreaming in the desert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-11-01

    Saudi Arabia's bold new co-educational research university deserves to succeed Imagine you want to build, from scratch, a brand new, world-beating university dedicated to science and technology in less than two years. What would you need for the job? Well, a big pot of cash would be essential - an endowment of 10bn, let's say. You would need money for lab equipment - about 1.5bn over five years will do nicely - and a visionary leader who can attract talented staff from around the world. They would have to be tempted by fat salaries, given houses to live in and offered goodies like, say, a yachting marina, private golf course and bowling alley. Throw in free satellite TV in every house, install WiFi Internet access across the campus and, oh, invite 3000 people to a spectacular opening ceremony so the world knows that you mean business.

  5. The Science and technology Behind Galileo - Europes GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saaj, C.; Underwood, C. I.; Noakes, C.; Park, D. W. G.; Moore, T.

    Over recent years, the public has become increasingly aware of the existence of global satellite positioning systems, such as the American Global Positioning System (GPS), for which the generic term is Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). This is primarily due to high-profile use in various military conflicts, the acceptance of the technology by the leisure market (hill walking, yachting, etc) and the rapid development of mass-market applications (such as in-vehicle navigation). However, the public is still largely unaware of how GNSS is currently being utilized by researchers across a wide range of scientific applications. The aim of this paper is to provide answers to public's basic questions on GNSS and thereby raise public awareness on the science and technology behind the nascent Galileo project; a European initiative to design, build and deploy a global satellite positioning system similar to the GPS.

  6. Piracy on the high seas-threats to travelers' health.

    PubMed

    Nikolić, Nebojša; Missoni, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Piracy has been threatening international sea trade and creating risk for crews and passengers worldwide. The problem is largely confined to the Somalia coast, West Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia. The targets are merchant ships, cruising yachts, and passenger ships with several thousand people on board. Such attacks can result in loss of lives, short- and long-term health problems, and can further be complicated by the consequences of hostage situations on shore. The purpose of this article is to present the problem of piracy, its relevance to the field of travel medicine, and help travel medicine practitioners to deal with its specifics before, during, and after attack. Comprehensive literature research was done and published data from 2002 until 2012 from the International Chamber of Commerce specialized division-International Maritime Bureau (IMB)-on 3,806 attacks and 7,635 incidents involving human victims are analyzed. Available occupational health data in merchant marine and epidemiological data acquired on board cruise ships were used to estimate the health risks. From 2002 until 2012, 3,806 ships were attacked including 82 yachts and 13 passenger ships. A number of reported piracy attacks worldwide continued to threaten security and lives on sea. In 2012, 297 incidents of piracy and armed robbery were reported, a total of 585 crew members were taken hostage, 26 kidnapped, and 6 killed as a direct result of the incident.(1) CONCLUSION: The risk of being injured or killed by pirates on board cruise ships is actually very low. Piracy on the world's seas is in decline and remains a reasonably localized issue. While this improvement is a result of continued efforts of international naval forces, that protection is only partial and fails to suppress piracy completely. Piracy still presents significant threat to international travel, and future involvement of travel medicine practitioners in providing advice to travelers to piracy regions or victims of

  7. Treatment of industrial exhaust gases by a dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hołub, Marcin; Jõgi, Indrek; Sikk, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in industrial exhaust gases were treated by a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operated with two different mobile power supplies. Together with the plasma source various gas diagnostics were used, namely fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, flame ionization detector (FID) and GC-MS. The analysis revealed that some exhaust gases consist of a rather complex mixture of hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds and also vary in pollutants concentration and flow rate. Thus, analysis of removal efficiencies and byproduct concentrations is more demanding than under laboratory conditions. This contribution presents the experimental apparatus used under the harsh conditions of industrial exhaust systems as well as the mobile power source used. Selected results obtained in a shale oil processing plant, a polymer concrete production facility and a yacht hull factory are discussed. In the case of total volatile organic compounds in oil processing units, up to 60% were removed at input energy of 21-37 J/L when the concentrations were below 500 mg/m3. In the yacht hull factory up to 74% of styrene and methanol were removed at specific input energies around 300 J/L. In the polymer concrete production site 195 ppm of styrene were decomposed with the consumption of 1.8 kJ/L. These results demonstrate the feasibility of plasma assisted methods for treatment of VOCs in the investigated production processes but additional analysis is needed to improve the energy efficiency. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  8. Extraction and Refinement Strategy for detection of autism in 18-month-olds: a guarantee of higher sensitivity and specificity in the process of mass screening.

    PubMed

    Honda, Hideo; Shimizu, Yasuo; Nitto, Yukari; Imai, Miho; Ozawa, Takeshi; Iwasa, Mitsuaki; Shiga, Keiko; Hira, Tomoko

    2009-08-01

    For early detection of autism, it is difficult to maintain an efficient level of sensitivity and specificity based on observational data from a single screening. The Extraction and Refinement (E&R) Strategy utilizes a public children's health surveillance program to produce maximum efficacy in early detection of autism. In the extraction stage, all cases at risk of childhood problems, including developmental abnormality, are identified; in the refinement stage, cases without problems are excluded, leaving only cases with conclusive diagnoses. The city of Yokohama, Japan, conducts a routine child health surveillance program for children at 18 months in which specialized public health nurses administer YACHT-18 (Young Autism and other developmental disorders CHeckup Tool), a screening instrument to identify children at risk for developmental disorders. Children who screen positive undergo further observation, and those without disorders are subsequently excluded. To study the efficacy of early detection procedures for developmental disorders, including autism, 2,814 children born in 1988, examined at 18 months of age, and not already receiving treatment for diseases or disorders were selected. In the extraction stage, 402 (14.3%) children were identified for follow-up. In the refinement stage, 19 (.7%) of these were referred to the Yokohama Rehabilitation Center and diagnosed with developmental disorders. The extraction stage produced four false negatives, bringing total diagnoses of developmental disorders to 23 (.8%) - including 5 with autistic disorder and 9 with pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified (PDDNOS). Sensitivity was 60% for autistic disorder and 82.6% for developmental disorders. Specificity for developmental disorders rose to 100% with the E&R Strategy. Picture cards used in YACHT-18 provided a finer screen that excluded some false positive cases. An extraction and refinement methodology utilizing child health surveillance programs

  9. Shedding light on the Global Ocean microbiome with algorithms and data collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lauro, F.; Ostrowski, M.; Chénard, C.; Acerbi, E.; Paulsen, I.; Jensen, R.

    2016-02-01

    In the Global Oceans, the marine microbiome plays a critical role in biogeochemical cycling of nutrients, but surveying marine microbial communities requires ship time for sample collection, economically constraining the number of samples collected. An integrative understanding of the microbiome's activity and performance requires the collection of high-density data, both temporally and spatially in a cost-effective way. We have overcome this bottleneck by crowdsourcing the data collection to vessels of opportunity, including bluewater sailing yachts. Sailors know the oceans, and experience first-hand the declines in ocean productivity and the effects of pollution and climate change. Moreover, simply the ability to sample a microbial community during anomalous or inclement weather conditions is a major advance in sampling strategy. Our approach inherently incorporates the benefit of outreach and participation of people in scientific research, gaining positive media attention for sailors, scientists and concerned citizens alike. We have tested the basic methods during a 2013 Indian Ocean Concept Cruise, from Cape Town to Singapore, performing experimental work and reaching sampling locations inaccessible to traditional Oceanographic Vessels. At the same time we developed a small, yacht-adapted automated sampling device that takes a variety of biological and chemical measurements. In 2015 our first beta-cruisers sampled the Pacific Ocean in the first ever citizen-oceanography transect at high and low latitudes in both hemispheres. The collected samples were characterized with next-gen sequencing technology and analysed with a combination of novel algorithmic approaches. With big data management, machine learning algorithms and agent-based models we show that it is possible to deconvolute the complexity of the Ocean Microbiome for the scientific management of fisheries, marine protected areas and preservation of the oceans and seas for generations to come.

  10. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tse, Lawrence Kar Chung; Wilkins, Steven; McGlashan, Niall; Urban, Bernhard; Martinez-Botas, Ricardo

    2011-03-01

    Shipping contributes 4.5% to global CO2 emissions and is not covered by the Kyoto Agreement. One method of reducing CO2 emissions on land is combined cooling heating and power (CCHP) or trigeneration, with typical combined thermal efficiencies of over 80%. Large luxury yachts are seen as an ideal entry point to the off-shore market for this developing technology considering its current high cost. This paper investigates the feasibility of combining a SOFC-GT system and an absorption heat pump (AHP) in a trigeneration system to drive the heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) and electrical base-load systems. A thermodynamic model is used to simulate the system, with various configurations and cooling loads. Measurement of actual yacht performance data forms the basis of this system simulation. It is found that for the optimum configuration using a double effect absorption chiller in Ship 1, the net electric power increases by 47% relative to the electrical power available for a conventional SOFC-GT-HVAC system. This is due to more air cooled to a lower temperature by absorption cooling; hence less electrical cooling by the conventional HVAC unit is required. The overall efficiency is 12.1% for the conventional system, 34.9% for the system with BROAD single effect absorption chiller, 43.2% for the system with double effect absorption chiller. This shows that the overall efficiency of a trigeneration system is far higher when waste heat recovery happens. The desiccant wheel hardly reduces moisture from the outdoor air due to a relative low mass flow rate of fuel cell exhaust available to dehumidify a very large mass flow rate of HVAC air, Hence, desiccant wheel is not recommended for this application.

  11. Case study of a female ocean racer: prerace preparation and nutritional intake during the Vendée Globe 2008.

    PubMed

    Fearnley, Deborah; Sutton, Louise; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; King, Roderick; Cooke, Carlton

    2012-06-01

    The Vendée Globe is a solo round-the-world sailing race without stopovers or assistance, a physically demanding challenge for which appropriate nutrition should maintain energy balance and ensure optimum performance. This is an account of prerace nutritional preparation with a professional and experienced female racer and assessment of daily nutritional intake (NI) during the race using a multimethod approach. A daily energy intake (EI) of 15.1 MJ/day was recommended for the race and negotiated down by the racer to 12.7 MJ/day, with carbohydrate and fluid intake goals of 480 g/day and 3,020 ml/day, respectively. Throughout the 99-day voyage, daily NI was recorded using electronic food diaries and inventories piloted during training races. NI was assessed and a postrace interview and questionnaire were used to evaluate the intervention. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were assessed pre- (37 days) and postrace (11 days) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and body mass was measured before the racer stepped on the yacht and immediately postrace. Mean EI was 9.2 MJ/day (2.4-14.3 MJ/day), representing a negative energy balance of 3.5 MJ/day under the negotiated EI goal, evidenced by a 7.9-kg loss of body mass (FM -7.5 kg, FFM -0.4 kg) during the voyage, with consequent underconsumption of carbohydrate by ~130 g/day. According to the postrace yacht food inventory, self-reported EI was underreported by 7%. This intervention demonstrates the practicality of the NI approach and assessment, but the racer's nutrition strategy can be further improved to facilitate meeting more optimal NI goals for performance and health. It also shows that evaluation of NI is possible in this environment over prolonged periods, which can provide important information for optimizing nutritional strategies for ocean racing.

  12. Thermographic inspection of marine composite structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Thomas S.; Lindgren, Eric A.

    1994-03-01

    The marine industry is now facing the problems that were faced by the aircraft industry 20 to 25 years ago: glass-fiber-composite structures do not lend themselves to traditional methods of interrogation. Both the material response and the failure modes of composites are different from traditional materials. Infrared thermographic techniques were investigated for application to composite hull structures and found to be very effective in locating and identifying damage to both solid laminate and sandwich panel construction. The thermographic techniques have been applied to cruising as well as racing yachts with good results. Indicated damage has matched well with the damage discovered during repair operations. More recently, the thermographic techniques have been applied to much thicker solid laminate hull construction used in a new U.S. Navy mine hunter, the MHC-51, U.S.S. Osprey. Thermographic investigations were performed on large test panels used to evaluate different material systems for this vessel and on the vessel itself to provide a baseline thermal characterization. Later this year, shock trials will be performed on the U.S.S. Osprey. Additional thermographic studies are planned following the shock trials.

  13. Plasma vitrification and re-use of non-combustible fiber reinforced plastic, gill net and waste glass.

    PubMed

    Chu, J P; Chen, Y T; Mahalingam, T; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, T W

    2006-12-01

    Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) composite material has widespread use in general tank, special chemical tank and body of yacht, etc. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume reduction of non-combustible FRP by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag with specific procedures. In this study, we have employed three main wastes such as, FRP, gill net and waste glass. The thermal molten process was applied to treat vitrified slag at high temperatures whereas in the post-heat treatment vitrified slags were mixed with specific additive and ground into powder form and then heat treated at high temperatures. With a two-stage heat treatment, the treated sample was generated into four crystalline phases, cristobalite, albite, anorthite and wollastonite. Fine and relatively high dense structures with desirable properties were obtained for samples treated by the two-stage heating treatment. Good physical and mechanical properties were achieved after heat treatment, and this study reveals that our results could be comparable with the commercial products.

  14. Powering the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Stirling Technology Company (STC) developed the RG-350 convertor using components from separate Goddard Space Center and U.S. Army Natick SBIR contracts. Based on the RG-350, STC commercialized a product line of Stirling cycle generator sets, known as RemoteGen(TM), with power levels ranging from 10We to 3kWe. Under SBIR agreements with Glenn Research Center, the company refined and extended the capabilities of the RemoteGen convertors. They can provide power in remote locations by efficiently producing electricity from multiple-fuel sources, such as propane, alcohol, gasoline, diesel, coal, solar energy, or wood pellets. Utilizing any fuel source that can create heat, RemoteGen enables the choice of the most appropriate fuel source available. The engines operate without friction, wear, or maintenance. These abilities pave the way for self-powered appliances, such as refrigerators and furnaces. Numerous applications for RemoteGen include quiet, pollution-free generators for RVs and yachts, power for cell phone towers remote from the grid, and off-grid residential power variously using propane, ethanol, and solid biomass fuels. One utility and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are evaluating a solar dish concentrator version with excellent potential for powering remote irrigation pumps.

  15. Altimeter Data for Operational Use in the Marine Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digby, Susan; Antczak, Thomas; Leben, Robert; Born, George; Barth, Suzanne; Cheney, Robert; Foley, David; Goni, Gustavo Jorge; Jacobs, Gregg; Shay, Nick

    1999-01-01

    TOPEX/Poseidon has been collecting altimeter data continuously since October 1992. Altimeter data have been used to produce maps of sea surface height, geostrophic velocity, significant wave height, and wind speed. This information is of proven use to mariners as well as to the scientific community. Uses of the data include commercial and recreational vessel routing, ocean acoustics, input to geographic information systems developed for the fishing industry, identification of marine mammal habitats, fisheries management, and monitoring ocean debris. As with sea surface temperature data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the late 1980s and early 1990s, altimeter data from TOPEX/Poseidon and ERS-1 and -2 are in the process of being introduced to the marine world for operational maritime use. It is anticipated that over the next few years companies that specialize in producing custom products for shipping agencies, fisheries and yacht race competitors will be incorporating altimeter data into their products. The data are also being incorporated into weather and climate forecasts by operational agencies both in the US and Europe. This paper will discuss these products, their uses, operational demonstrations and means of accessing the data.

  16. Contested Waterlines: The Wave-Line Theory and Shipbuilding in the Nineteenth Century.

    PubMed

    Ferreiro, Larrie D; Pollara, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Ship hydrodynamics in the nineteenth century was dominated by John Scott Russell's wave-line theory. Russell, a prominent British shipbuilder and scientist, argued that wavemaking was the primary source of resistance for ships, and that by designing ships according to trigonometric curves and proportions (the wave line) this resistance could effectively be eliminated. From the 1840s to the 1880s, shipbuilders such as John Willis Griffiths, Donald McKay and George Steers designed their clipper ships (like Sea Witch and Flying Cloud) and yachts (America) with wave-line hulls, while authors like Jules Verne referenced Russell's theory. The wave line slowly faded after William Froude developed his laws of ship resistance. The article examines how Russell's theory became accepted by technical experts and the wider public to become the most widely known ship hydrodynamic theory of the 1800s-a reminder of how a persuasive idea can take hold of an entire profession, and even the public, for a long time.

  17. A possible role of actin in the mechanical control of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, S C

    1989-01-01

    Sail-sheet Cultures (SSC) are those in which the cells are i) grown within the meshes of inert grids ii) exposed to nutrients from most sides iii) attached to one another only at the edges like sail of a yacht (hence, the name 'sail-sheet') and iv) have the advantage of three-dimensional structure similar to an in vivo situation. We grew fibroblasts from chicken heart explants as SSC and studied the effect of mechanical stretching on the F-actin content of these cells. This study was designed to investigate the hypothesis that the effect of tension on the cell cycle may be channeled through the microfilaments. Data from this preliminary study suggested that short-term mechanical stretching of sail-sheets, using low frequency tension (1.0 Hz), diminishes F-actin. Thus, it may be possible to relate the decrease in the F-actin content of these cells to the slowing down of their locomotory activity, possible rounding up, and division. This study might contribute to the understanding of the mechanical control of the cell cycle and be of relevance in the phenomena such as healing of wounds and control of the cell division in tumors.

  18. Structural health monitoring using smart optical fiber sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Heddwyn; Everall, Lorna A.; Gallon, Andrew M.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the potential of a smart monitoring system, incorporating optical fiber sensing techniques, to provide important structural information to designers and users alike. This technology has application in all areas including aerospace, civil, maritime and automotive engineering. In order to demonstrate the capability of the sensing system it has been installed in a 35 m free-standing carbon fiber yacht mast, where a complete optical network of strain and temperature sensors were embedded into a composite mast and boom during lay-up. The system was able to monitor the behavior of the composite rig through a range of handling conditions and the resulting strain information could be used by engineers to improve the structural design process. The optical strain sensor system comprises of three main components: the sensor network, the opto-electronic data acquisition unit (OFSSS) and the external PC which acts as a data log and display. Embedded fiber optic sensors have wide ranging application for structural load monitoring. Due to their small size, optical fiber sensors can be readily embedded into composite materials. Other advantages include their immediate multiplexing capability and immunity to electromagnetic interference. The capability of this system has been demonstrated within the maritime environment, but can be adapted for any application.

  19. Effects of vertical wall and tetrapod weights on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters under irregular wave conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Kil; Dodaran, Asgar Ahadpour; Han, Chong Soo; Shahmirzadi, Mohammad Ebrahim Meshkati

    2014-12-01

    Rubble mound breakwaters protect the coastal line against severe erosion caused by wave action. This study examined the performance of different sizes and properties (i.e. height of vertical wall and tetrapod size) of rubble mound breakwaters on reducing the overtopping discharge. The physical model used in this study was derived based on an actual rubble mound in Busan Yacht Harbor. This research attempts to fill the gap in practical knowledge on the combined effect of the armor roughness and vertical wall on wave overtopping in rubble mound breakwaters. The main governing parameters used in this study were the vertical wall height, variation of the tetrapod weights, initial water level elevation, and the volume of overtopping under constant wave properties. The experimental results showed that the roughness factor differed according to the tetrapod size. Furthermore, the overtopping discharge with no vertical wall was similar to that with relatively short vertical walls ( 1 γv = 1). Therefore, the experimental results highlight the importance of the height of the vertical wall in reducing overtopping discharge. Moreover, a large tetrapod size may allow coastal engineers to choose a shorter vertical wall to save cost, while obtaining better performance.

  20. On the leading edge vortex of thin wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arredondo, Abel; Viola, Ignazio Maria

    2016-11-01

    On thin wings, the sharp leading edge triggers laminar separation followed by reattachment, forming a Leading Edge Vortex (LEV). This flow feature is of paramount importance because, if periodically shed, it leads to large amplitude load fluctuations, while if stably attached to the wing, it can provide lift augmentation. We found that on asymmetric-spinnaker-type yacht sails, the LEV can be stable despite the relatively low sweep (30°). This finding, which was recently predicted numerically by Viola et al., has been confirmed through current flume tests on a 1:115th model scale sail. Forces were measured and Particle Image Velocimetry was performed on four horizontal sail sections at a Reynolds number of 1.7x104. Vortex detection revealed that the LEV becomes progressively larger and more stable towards the highest sections, where its axis has a smaller angle with respect to the freestream velocity. Mapping the sail section on a rotating cylinder through a Joukowski transformation, we quantified the lift augmentation provided by the LEV on each sail section. These results open up new sail design strategies based on the manipulation of the LEV and can be applicable to the wings of unmanned aerial vehicles and underwater vehicles. Project funded by Conacyt.

  1. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A; Haas, Andreas F; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E; Harkins, Timothy T; Lee, Clarence C; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A; Smith, Jennifer E; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J A; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines.

  2. Assessment of a demonstration project to supply near real-time sea ice information to end users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackford, C.; Howes, Sally; Whitelaw, Alan S.; Laxon, S.; Mantripp, D.

    1994-12-01

    Sea ice maps are required by a diverse range of users for scientific research and operational activities. Satellite remote sensing provides opportunities for monitoring and producing sea ice maps at a range of scales, in near real time. During March 1994 ESYS Limited and the University College London Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL) operated a sea ice demonstration project to supply near real time sea ice maps in the southern ocean. The sea ice information was derived from a number of data sources: DMSP SSM/I data; ERS-1 SAR and Radar Altimeter fast delivery data; NOAA AVHRR data; and PoSAT-1 imagery. The maps were supplied to three users, two involved in yacht races in the southern ocean and a ship on an oceanographic research cruise in the waters of the Princess Elizabeth Trough region of Antarctica. The demonstration was successful, supplying the users with sea ice information which they had previously not received and combining data from various sources to produce sea ice maps. The demonstration also developed operational skills within ESYS and enabled the transfer of knowledge from MSSL to ESYS.

  3. The menstrual cycle and susceptibility to coriolis-induced sickness.

    PubMed

    Cheung, B; Heskin, R; Hofer, K; Gagnon, M

    2001-01-01

    Survey studies on motion sickness susceptibility suggest that females tend to report greater severity in illness and higher incidence of vomiting than males. Menstruation is said to be a contributing factor. A recent study suggested that females were least susceptible to seasickness during ovulation in a "round the world" yacht race. Sixteen subjects (18-36 years old) were exposed to Coriolis cross-coupling stimulation in the laboratory. They were tested once during permenstruation (Day 1-5), ovulation (Day 12-15) and premenstruation (Day 24-28), based on a normalized 28-day cycle, in a randomised design. Physiological measurements of motion sickness included forearm and calf cutaneous blood flow. Subjective evaluation of sickness symptoms was based on Graybiel's diagnostic criteria and Golding's rating method. Our results indicated that under controlled laboratory conditions, different phases of the menstrual cycle appear to have no influence on subjective symptoms of motion sickness or on cutaneous blood flow increase in the forearm and calf. The lack of commonality between the types and levels of hormones that are released during motion sickness and those that are involved in different menstrual phases appears to support our findings.

  4. Surreptitious surgery on Long Island Sound: The oral cancer surgeries of President Grover Cleveland.

    PubMed

    Maloney, William

    2010-01-01

    Grover Cleveland rose from being the mayor of Buffalo to the governor of New York to the president of the United States. At the start of Cleveland's second term as president, the nation was involved in a severe financial crisis, the extent of which was not known by the general public. President Cleveland was to make a strong appeal to Congress in the coming months to repeal the Sherman Silver Purchase Act of 1890. He thought this would set the nation on the road to fiscal recovery. However, his vice president, Adlai Stevenson, strongly opposed repeal of the Sherman Act. Prior to scheduling his appearance before Congress, President Cleveland noticed a rough spot on his palate. A biopsy confirmed that it was cancer, and it was determined that surgery was needed. Cleveland and his advisors thought the nation would be thrown into a panic if the President's health did not remain a secret. A surgical team, which included a dentist, performed the surgery in secrecy while traveling aboard a yacht. A prosthetic obturator was fabricated by a New York prosthodontist to close the surgical defect. Cleveland recovered well, made a forceful speech before Congress, had the Sherman Act repealed and lived without a recurrence of his oral cancer for the rest of his life. The public remained unaware, for the most part, of the gravity of President Cleveland's health for decades.

  5. Navigation and Strategy in Ocean Racing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, J. H.

    This paper was originally published in Vol. 34 of the Journal (p. 286). In its reprinted form, it has been reduced in length by Robin Payne. It is followed by comments from Stuart Quarrie.Captain Illingworth's paper was read to an Ordinary Meeting of the Institute held at the Royal Geographical Society on 17 March 1950. Introducing the speaker, the chairman, Captain G. C. Saul, said that Captain Illingworth's name was familiar to anyone who had had any connection with ocean racing, and to most people who were interested in sailing. He was Commodore of the Royal Ocean Racing Club (RORC) and of the Royal Naval Sailing Association, and was a member of the Council of the Yacht Racing Association.He had had many years' experience of long distance racing and had won his first championship in 1929. In 194; he had won the Sydney—Hobart race in Rani and in 1947 won the Fastnet and the Channel Race in Myth of Malham (Fig. 1). In 1948 he took part in the Bermuda race in Myth of Malham and then sailed back across the Atlantic to compete in the Santander and Belle He races. In the latter race he beat the whole ocean racing fleet boat for boat. In 1949 he again won the Fastnet Cup and also won the points championship over the whole season.

  6. Overview of the 1988 GCE/CASE/WATOX Studies of biogeochemical cycles in the North Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, Alexander A. P.; Galloway, James N.; Artz, Richard S.; Boatman, Joseph F.

    1990-06-01

    The 1988 Global Change Expedition/Coordinated Air-Sea Experiment/Western Atlantic Ocean Experiment (GCE/CASE/WATOX) was a multifaceted research program designed to study atmospheric and oceanic processes affecting the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and trace metals in the North Atlantic Ocean region. Field work included (1) a 49-day research cruise aboard NOAA ship Mt. Mitchell (Global Change Expedition) from Norfolk, Virginia, to Bermuda, Iceland, the Azores, and Barbados, (2) eight flights of the NOAA King Air research aircraft, four off the Virginia Capes and four near Bermuda (CASE/WATOX), and (3) a research cruise aboard the yacht Fleurtie near Bermuda (WATOX). Objectives of GCE/CASE/WATOX were (1) to examine processes controlling the mesoscale distributions of productivity, chlorophyll, and phytoplankton growth rates in Atlantic surface waters, (2) to identify factors controlling the distribution of ozone in the North Atlantic marine boundary layer, and (3) to estimate the contributions of sources on surrounding continents to the biogeochemical cycles of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals over the North Atlantic region during the boreal summer season. The individual papers in this and the next two issues of Global Biogeochemical Cycles provide details on the results and analyses of the individual measurement efforts. This paper provides a brief overview of GCE/CASE/WATOX.

  7. A combined experimental-modelling method for the detection and analysis of pollution in coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limić, Nedzad; Valković, Vladivoj

    1996-04-01

    Pollution of coastal seas with toxic substances can be efficiently detected by examining toxic materials in sediment samples. These samples contain information on the overall pollution from surrounding sources such as yacht anchorages, nearby industries, sewage systems, etc. In an efficient analysis of pollution one must determine the contribution from each individual source. In this work it is demonstrated that a modelling method can be utilized for solving this latter problem. The modelling method is based on a unique interpretation of concentrations in sediments from all sampling stations. The proposed method is a synthesis consisting of the utilization of PIXE as an efficient method of pollution concentration determination and the code ANCOPOL (N. Limic and R. Benis, The computer code ANCOPOL, SimTel/msdos/geology, 1994 [1]) for the calculation of contributions from the main polluters. The efficiency and limits of the proposed method are demonstrated by discussing trace element concentrations in sediments of Punat Bay on the island of Krk in Croatia.

  8. Rivers as urban landscapes: renaissance of the waterfront.

    PubMed

    Benson, E

    2002-01-01

    The Lake Ontario Waterfront Trail, currently stretching 350 kilometres along the shore of Lake Ontario, Canada, links 26 communities, 184 natural areas, 161 parks and promenades, 84 marinas and yacht clubs, hundreds of historic places, fairs, museums, art galleries and festivals. The Waterfront Trail is a catalyst for a new attitude and way of thinking towards the Lake Ontario waterfront and its watersheds - one that integrates ecological health, economic vitality and a sense of community. Since it was launched in 1995, the Trail has accompanied the protection of the most valued elements of the waterfront, and the transformation of under-utilized and environmentally degraded lands to vibrant places with businesses and jobs, parks and recreational facilities, green spaces, natural habitats and cultural venues and attractions. It is through the Trail that people have been mobilized to improve the waterfront as they have rediscovered the shoreline and understood the interconnections, both natural and cultural, that are so vital to its health and vitality. The Waterfront Regeneration Trust is the not-for-profit charitable organization that has been leading this large-scale greenway initiative over the past 10 years. While much has been accomplished, there remains much to do to enhance and expand the greenway. This presentation will focus on the lessons we have learned over the past decade in our involvement with more than 100 projects and what those lessons mean for the next decade of waterfront regeneration.

  9. Macrofaunal recolonization of copper-contaminated sediments in San Diego Bay.

    PubMed

    Neira, Carlos; Mendoza, Guillermo; Porrachia, Magali; Stransky, Chris; Levin, Lisa A

    2015-12-30

    Effects of Cu-loading on macrofaunal recolonization were examined in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (San Diego Bay, California). Sediments with high and low Cu levels were defaunated and Cu-spiked, translocated, and then placed back into the environment. These demonstrated that the alteration observed in benthic communities associated with Cu contamination occurs during initial recolonization. After a 3-month exposure to sediments with varying Cu levels, two primary colonizing communities were identified: (1) a "mouth assemblage" resembling adjacent background fauna associated with low-Cu levels that was more diverse and predominantly dominated by surface- and subsurface-deposit feeders, burrowers, and tube builders, and (2) a "head assemblage" resembling adjacent background fauna associated with high-Cu concentrations, with few dominant species and an increasing importance of carnivores and mobile epifauna. Cu loading can cause reduced biodiversity and lower structural complexity that may last several months if high concentrations persist, with a direct effect on community functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of the primary bacterial microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling release coatings in temperate and tropical environments in Eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Childs, Samantha; Eason Hubbard, Maeve R; Carey, Janet M; Burgman, Mark A; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The role played by bacteria during the pioneering stages of colonisation on marine coatings was investigated over three distinct seasons in both tropical and temperate environments. Novel methods were developed to facilitate the study of the adhered bacterial population on the test coatings in their native, hydrated state. The approach eliminated destructive sample preparation techniques, including sample dehydration and/or removal from the substratum surface prior to analysis. Bacterial colonisation during initial biofilm formation was evaluated on two antifouling paints, Intersmooth 360 and Super Yacht 800, and a fouling release coating, Intersleek 700. Bacterial colonisation was quantified on all three coating surfaces. Intersleek 700 displayed the quickest colonisation by bacteria, resulting in major modification of the substratum surface within 2-4 days following immersion in the ocean. Whilst fouling accumulated more quickly on Intersleek 700, by 16 days all three coatings were fouled significantly. Bacterial fouling was correlated to both location and season, with fouling occurring at a more rapid rate at the Cairns location, as well as during the summer months, when higher water temperatures were recorded. Successful colonisation of all coatings by bacteria soon after immersion modifies the characteristics of the surfaces at the hull/water interface, and subsequent settlement by higher biofouling organisms must be moderated by these modified surfaces.

  11. Application of smart optical fiber sensors for structural load monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Heddwyn; Everall, Lorna A.; Gallon, Andrew M.

    2001-06-01

    This paper describes a smart monitoring system, incorporating optical fiber sensing techniques, capable of providing important structural information to designers and users alike. This technology has wide industrial and commercial application in areas including aerospace, civil, maritime and automotive engineering. In order to demonstrate the capability of the sensing system it has been installed in a 35m free-standing carbon fiber yacht mast, where a complete optical network of strain and temperature sensors were embedded into a composite mast and boom during lay-up. The system was able to monitor the behavior of the composite rig through a range of handling conditions. The resulting strain information can be used by engineers to improve the structural design process. Embedded fiber optic sensors have wide ranging application for structural load monitoring. Due to their small size, optical fiber sensors can be readily embedded into composite materials. Other advantages include their immediate multiplexing capability and immunity to electro-magnetic interference. The capability of this system has been demonstrated within the maritime and industrial environment, but can be adapted for any application.

  12. Aerodynamics of high aspect-ratio sails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crook, Andrew; Gerritsen, Margot

    2003-11-01

    Experiments studying the aerodynamics of a 25circular-arc sail section (representative of an AC gennaker cross-section) have been undertaken in the 7x10 ft tunnels at NASA-Ames and Georgia Tech. The aims of the study are to gain a deeper physical understanding of the flow past downwind sails at various angles of incidence and Reynolds numbers, and to create a comprehensive database for validation of numerical models and turbulence models used by the yacht research community and competitive sailing industry. The reason for testing a rectangular planform sail with no spanwise variation in twist or cross-section is to first provide a detailed understanding of the flow topology around generic sail sections. Currently, data of sufficient accuracy to be used for CFD validation are not available. 3D experiments with realistic sail planforms and twisted onset flow are planned for the future. Two models have been tested, one with an AR of 15 and constructed from steel and the other with an AR of 10 and constructed from carbon-fiber and foam. The latter model has pressure tappings, whilst the former was coated with PSP. Pressure distributions, surface flow visualization and PIV reveal the details of the changing flow patterns and separation types with varying angle of incidence.

  13. THE GENERAL ECOLOGY AND GROWTH OF A SOLITARY ASCIDIAN, CORELLA WILLMERIANA.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Gretchen

    1968-10-01

    1. A one-year field study of the ecology of the solitary ascidian Corella willmeriana Herdman was conducted between April, 1966, and April, 1967, at the Bremerton Yacht Club, Bremerton, Washington, where two polyvinyl chloride frames containing glass plates were examined at monthly intervals. 2. The results indicate that Corella is a primary colonizer, preferring to settle on clean surfaces. Growth is rapid during the summer, when sexual maturity, corresponding to a size of 12 mm., may be attained in three months and life span is approximately five months. Individuals grow at a slower rate and live longer during the winter; the life span then is seven or eight months. 3. Very young specimens of Corella are frequently overgrown during the winter by the colonial ascidian Diplosoma macdonaldi. The causes of death of adult Corella are not completely known, although a small percentage of them are eaten by the polyclad flatworm Eurylepta leoparda. A luxuriant spring growth of filamentous diatoms may cause death of adult Corella by smothering them.

  14. [Q:] When would you prefer a SOSSAGE to a SAUSAGE? [A:] At about 100 msec. ERP correlates of orthographic typicality and lexicality in written word recognition.

    PubMed

    Hauk, O; Patterson, K; Woollams, A; Watling, L; Pulvermüller, F; Rogers, T T

    2006-05-01

    Using a speeded lexical decision task, event-related potentials (ERPs), and minimum norm current source estimates, we investigated early spatiotemporal aspects of cortical activation elicited by words and pseudo-words that varied in their orthographic typicality, that is, in the frequency of their component letter pairs (bi-grams) and triplets (tri-grams). At around 100 msec after stimulus onset, the ERP pattern revealed a significant typicality effect, where words and pseudo-words with atypical orthography (e.g., yacht, cacht) elicited stronger brain activation than items characterized by typical spelling patterns (cart, yart). At approximately 200 msec, the ERP pattern revealed a significant lexicality effect, with pseudo-words eliciting stronger brain activity than words. The two main factors interacted significantly at around 160 msec, where words showed a typicality effect but pseudo-words did not. The principal cortical sources of the effects of both typicality and lexicality were localized in the inferior temporal cortex. Around 160 msec, atypical words elicited the stronger source currents in the left anterior inferior temporal cortex, whereas the left perisylvian cortex was the site of greater activation to typical words. Our data support distinct but interactive processing stages in word recognition, with surface features of the stimulus being processed before the word as a meaningful lexical entry. The interaction of typicality and lexicality can be explained by integration of information from the early form-based system and lexicosemantic processes.

  15. Large-area thermographic inspection of GRP composite marine vessel hulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Thomas S.; Berger, Harold; Weaver, Elizabeth

    1993-04-01

    Every year there is an increase in the number of Glass Reinforced Plastic (GRP) composite vessels the Coast Guard inspects. A fast, nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique is needed to facilitate these inspections. The technique must be suitable for use in field environments. Through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract with the Coast Guard R&D Center, Industrial Quality, Inc. has performed a feasibility study evaluating the use of infrared thermography for such applications. The study demonstrated the ability of infrared thermography to detect hidden flaws through a variety of laminates and sandwich panel core materials. Empirical results matched well with analytical results of the sensitivity of the technique to various sizes of discontinuities at different depths. Following the successful SBIR program results, the Coast Guard R&D Center asked IQI to do a survey of the Steam Yacht Medea. The Medea had been repaired by a unique system of laying foam core and fiberglass over the ship's original steel-clad hull. The hybrid steel/foam core/GRP hull provided an additional structural configuration for the infrared thermography inspection equipment to handle.

  16. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Thomas C; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M; Grzymski, Joseph J; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K; Neches, Russell Y; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T; Lauro, Federico M

    2015-10-20

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a 'citizen oceanography' approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  17. Cardiac responses of grey seals during diving at sea.

    PubMed

    Thompson, D; Fedak, M A

    1993-01-01

    Heart rate, swimming speed and diving depth data were collected from free-ranging grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, as they foraged and travelled in the sea around the Hebrides Islands off western Scotland. Information was collected on a tracking yacht using a combination of sonic and radio telemetry. Diving heart rate declined as a function of dive duration. In long dives, grey seals employed extreme bradycardia, with heart rates falling to 4 beats min-1 for extended periods, despite the animal being free to breath at will. This extreme dive response is part of the normal foraging behaviour. Seals spent 89% of the time submerged during bouts of long dives; swimming was restricted to ascent and descent. Dive durations exceeded estimated aerobic dive limit, even assuming resting metabolic rates. These results indicate that behavioural, and possibly cellular, energy-sparing mechanisms play an important role in diving behaviour of grey seals. This has implications not only for studies of mammalian energetics but also for our understanding of the foraging tactics and prey selection of marine mammals. If some seals are using energy-sparing mechanisms to reduce metabolic costs while at depth, they may be forced to wait for and ambush prey rather than to search for and chase it.

  18. Space Flows and Disturbances Due to Bodies in Motion Through the Magnetoplasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarjov, Maxim G.

    2000-10-01

    In this paper a method is concerned which makes it possible to describe numerically and analytically the most famous structures in the non-equilibrium ionosphere, such as stratified and yacht sail like structures, flute jets, wakes and clouds. These problems are of practical interest in space sciences, astrophysics and in turbulence theory, and also of fundamental interest since they enable one to concentrate on the effects of the ambient electric and magnetic fields. Disturbances of charged particle flows due to the ambient flow interactions with bodies are simulated with taking into account the ambient magnetic field effect. The effects of interactions between solid surfaces and the flows was simulated by making use of an original image method. The flow disturbances were described by the Boltzmann equation. In the case of the ambient homogeneous magnetic field the Boltzmann equation is solved analytically. The case of diffuse reflection of particles by surface is considered in detail. The disturbances of charged particle concentration are calculated in 3D space. The contours of constant particle concentration obtained from numerical simulations illustrate the dynamics of developing stratifications and flute structures in charged particle jets and wakes under the ambient magnetic field effect. The basic goal of this paper is to present the method and to demonstate its possibility for simulations of turbulence, plasma jets, wakes and clouds in the ionosphere and Space when effects of electric and magnetic fields are taken into account.

  19. The Role of Tourism and Recreation in the Spread of Non-Native Species: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lucy G.; Rocliffe, Steve; Haddaway, Neal R.; Dunn, Alison M.

    2015-01-01

    Managing the pathways by which non-native species are introduced and spread is considered the most effective way of preventing species invasions. Tourism and outdoor recreation involve the frequent congregation of people, vehicles and vessels from geographically diverse areas. They are therefore perceived to be major pathways for the movement of non-native species, and ones that will become increasingly important with the continued growth of these sectors. However, a global assessment of the relationship between tourism activities and the introduction of non-native species–particularly in freshwater and marine environments–is lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of tourism and outdoor recreation on non-native species in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments. Our results provide quantitative evidence that the abundance and richness of non-native species are significantly higher in sites where tourist activities take place than in control sites. The pattern was consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments; across a variety of vectors (e.g. horses, hikers, yachts); and across a range of taxonomic groups. These results highlight the need for widespread biosecurity interventions to prevent the inadvertent introduction of invasive non-native species (INNS) as the tourism and outdoor recreation sectors grow. PMID:26485300

  20. Floating Classroom Outreach as an Introduction to Ocean Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFadden, M.

    2016-02-01

    Many children and young adults living within only one hour of the coast never have the opportunity to explore a beach or go out on a boat because of financial challenges or lack of transportation.These types of experiences are the spark that helped many ocean scientists become fascinated with the ocean and later pursue a career related to the ocean. This presentation will discuss a variety of outreach projects and the efficacy of each. Projects vary in age, complexity and cost. These projects include a Beach Clean-Up open to students and their families at a community college organized by a campus volunteer group with a focus on social issues, a Marine Biology and Physical Oceanography class joint floating classroom trip open to college students to introduce non-STEM students to marine science in an exciting setting, and an education outreach trip for 8-12 years old children from the Boys and Girls Club in Newport, RI in collaboration with The International SeaKeepers Society, a non-profit that facilitates ocean research and education by working closely with the yachting community. Emphasis on environmental education in the U.S. has grown considerably over recent years, and the development of unique and innovative approaches to hands-on marine science education are needed to excite students to explore the marine environment and care about environmental stewardship.

  1. Power electronic supply system with the wind turbine dedicated for average power receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widerski, Tomasz; Skrzypek, Adam

    2018-05-01

    This article presents the original project of the AC-DC-AC converter dedicated to low power wind turbines. Such a set can be a good solution for powering isolated objects that do not have access to the power grid, for example isolated houses, mountain lodges or forester's lodges, where they can replace expensive diesel engine generators. An additional source of energy in the form of a mini-wind farm is also a good alternative to yachts, marinas and tent sites, which are characterized by relatively low power consumption. This article presents a designed low power wind converter that is dedicated to these applications. The main design idea of the authors was to create a device that converts the very wide range input voltage directly to a stable 230VAC output voltage without the battery buffer. Authors focused on maximum safety of using and service. The converter contains the thermal protection, short-circuit protection and overvoltage protection. The components have been selected in such a way as to ensure that the device functions as efficiently as possible.

  2. The Role of Tourism and Recreation in the Spread of Non-Native Species: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lucy G; Rocliffe, Steve; Haddaway, Neal R; Dunn, Alison M

    2015-01-01

    Managing the pathways by which non-native species are introduced and spread is considered the most effective way of preventing species invasions. Tourism and outdoor recreation involve the frequent congregation of people, vehicles and vessels from geographically diverse areas. They are therefore perceived to be major pathways for the movement of non-native species, and ones that will become increasingly important with the continued growth of these sectors. However, a global assessment of the relationship between tourism activities and the introduction of non-native species-particularly in freshwater and marine environments-is lacking. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of tourism and outdoor recreation on non-native species in terrestrial, marine and freshwater environments. Our results provide quantitative evidence that the abundance and richness of non-native species are significantly higher in sites where tourist activities take place than in control sites. The pattern was consistent across terrestrial, freshwater and marine environments; across a variety of vectors (e.g. horses, hikers, yachts); and across a range of taxonomic groups. These results highlight the need for widespread biosecurity interventions to prevent the inadvertent introduction of invasive non-native species (INNS) as the tourism and outdoor recreation sectors grow.

  3. Sequencing at sea: challenges and experiences in Ion Torrent PGM sequencing during the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yan Wei; Cuevas, Daniel A.; Silva, Genivaldo Gueiros Z.; Aguinaldo, Kristen; Dinsdale, Elizabeth A.; Haas, Andreas F.; Hatay, Mark; Sanchez, Savannah E.; Wegley-Kelly, Linda; Dutilh, Bas E.; Harkins, Timothy T.; Lee, Clarence C.; Tom, Warren; Sandin, Stuart A.; Smith, Jennifer E.; Zgliczynski, Brian; Vermeij, Mark J.A.; Rohwer, Forest

    2014-01-01

    Genomics and metagenomics have revolutionized our understanding of marine microbial ecology and the importance of microbes in global geochemical cycles. However, the process of DNA sequencing has always been an abstract extension of the research expedition, completed once the samples were returned to the laboratory. During the 2013 Southern Line Islands Research Expedition, we started the first effort to bring next generation sequencing to some of the most remote locations on our planet. We successfully sequenced twenty six marine microbial genomes, and two marine microbial metagenomes using the Ion Torrent PGM platform on the Merchant Yacht Hanse Explorer. Onboard sequence assembly, annotation, and analysis enabled us to investigate the role of the microbes in the coral reef ecology of these islands and atolls. This analysis identified phosphonate as an important phosphorous source for microbes growing in the Line Islands and reinforced the importance of L-serine in marine microbial ecosystems. Sequencing in the field allowed us to propose hypotheses and conduct experiments and further sampling based on the sequences generated. By eliminating the delay between sampling and sequencing, we enhanced the productivity of the research expedition. By overcoming the hurdles associated with sequencing on a boat in the middle of the Pacific Ocean we proved the flexibility of the sequencing, annotation, and analysis pipelines. PMID:25177534

  4. Spatial association of marine dockage with land-borne infestations of invasive termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae: Coptotermes) in urban south Florida.

    PubMed

    Hochmair, Hartwig H; Scheffrahn, Rudolf H

    2010-08-01

    Marine vessels have been implicated in the anthropogenic dispersal of invasive termites for the past 500 yr. It has long been suspected that two invasive termites, the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, and Coptotermes gestroi (Wasmann) (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae), were introduced to and dispersed throughout South Florida by sailboats and yachts. We compared the distances between 190 terrestrial point records for Formosan subterranean termite, 177 records for C. gestroi, and random locations with the nearest marine dockage by using spatial analysis. Results show that the median distance to nearest docks associated with C. gestroi is significantly smaller than for the random points. Results also reveal that the median distance to nearest docks associated with Formosan subterranean termite is significantly smaller than for the random points. These results support the hypothesis that C. gestroi and Formosan subterranean termite are significantly closer to potential infested boat locations, i.e., marine docks, than random points in these urban areas. The results of our study suggest yet another source of aggregation in the context of exotic species, namely, hubs for pleasure boating.

  5. Are There Separate Neural Systems for Spelling? New Insights into the Role of Rules and Memory in Spelling from Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Norton, Elizabeth S; Kovelman, Ioulia; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2007-03-01

    How do people spell the thousands of words at the tips of their tongues? Are words with regular sound-to-letter correspondences (e.g., "blink") spelled using the same neural systems as those with irregular correspondences (e.g., "yacht")? By offering novel neuroimaging evidence, we aim to advance contemporary debate about whether people use a single lexical memory process or whether dual mechanisms of lexical memory and sublexical phonological rules work in concert. We further aim to advance understanding of how people read by taking a fresh look at the related yet distinct capacity to spell. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, 12 participants heard low-frequency regular words, irregular words, and nonwords (e.g., "shelm") and responded whether a visual presentation of the word was spelled correctly or incorrectly. While behavioral measures suggested some differences in accuracy and reaction time for the different word types, the neuroimaging results alone demonstrated robust differential processing and support a dual-route model of spelling, with implications for how spelling is taught and remediated in clinical and educational contexts.

  6. Sleep restriction and degraded reaction-time performance in Figaro solo sailing races.

    PubMed

    Hurdiel, Rémy; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Aron, Christophe; McCauley, Peter; Jacolot, Laure; Theunynck, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In solo offshore sailing races like those of the Solitaire du Figaro, sleep must be obtained in multiple short bouts to maintain competitive performance and safety. Little is known about the amount of sleep restriction experienced at sea and the effects that fatigue from sleep loss have on sailors' performance. Therefore, we assessed sleep in sailors of yachts in the Figaro 2 Beneteau class during races and compared response times on a serial simple reaction-time test before and after races. Twelve men (professional sailors) recorded their sleep and measured their response times during one of the three single-handed races of 150, 300 and 350 nautical miles (nominally 24-50 h in duration). Total estimated sleep duration at sea indicated considerable sleep insufficiency. Response times were slower after races than before. The results suggest that professional sailors incur severe sleep loss and demonstrate marked performance impairment when competing in one- to two-day solo sailing races. Competitive performance could be improved by actively managing sleep during solo offshore sailing races.

  7. Potential use of an ultrasound antifouling technology as a ballast water treatment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estévez-Calvar, Noelia; Gambardella, Chiara; Miraglia, Francesco; Pavanello, Giovanni; Greco, Giuliano; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, at a laboratory scale, the potentialities of an ultrasound-based treatment initially designed to eliminate fouling, as a ballast water treatment system. Therefore, early life stages of three different zooplanktonic species (Amphibalanus amphitrite, Brachionus plicatilis and Artemia salina) were exposed to ultrasound waves (20-22 kHz). The experimental set up included static assays with variations of time exposure (30 s, 60 s and 30 s on/60 s off/30 s on), material of tanks (stainless steel, galvanized steel and plastic) and position of the ultrasound source. Results showed that the treatment efficacy increased from 30 to 60 s and no differences were registered between 60 s-continuous exposure and pulse exposure. The highest efficacy was observed in Experiment I (metal-to-metal contact assay) with a mortality value of 93-95% for B. plicatilis and A. salina. It consisted of organisms located inside stainless steel tubes that were located in direct contact with the ultrasound source and treated for 60 s. Further, we found that, generally, A. amphitrite and B. plicatilis were the most resistant species to the ultrasound treatment whereas A. salina was the most sensitive. We further discuss that US may unlikely be used for commercial vessels, but may be used to treat ballast water in smaller ballast tanks as on board of mega yachts.

  8. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-10-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system.

  9. Using APEX to Model Anticipated Human Error: Analysis of a GPS Navigational Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanSelst, Mark; Freed, Michael; Shefto, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The interface development process can be dramatically improved by predicting design facilitated human error at an early stage in the design process. The approach we advocate is to SIMULATE the behavior of a human agent carrying out tasks with a well-specified user interface, ANALYZE the simulation for instances of human error, and then REFINE the interface or protocol to minimize predicted error. This approach, incorporated into the APEX modeling architecture, differs from past approaches to human simulation in Its emphasis on error rather than e.g. learning rate or speed of response. The APEX model consists of two major components: (1) a powerful action selection component capable of simulating behavior in complex, multiple-task environments; and (2) a resource architecture which constrains cognitive, perceptual, and motor capabilities to within empirically demonstrated limits. The model mimics human errors arising from interactions between limited human resources and elements of the computer interface whose design falls to anticipate those limits. We analyze the design of a hand-held Global Positioning System (GPS) device used for radical and navigational decisions in small yacht recalls. The analysis demonstrates how human system modeling can be an effective design aid, helping to accelerate the process of refining a product (or procedure).

  10. Spatially extensive microbial biogeography of the Indian Ocean provides insights into the unique community structure of a pristine coral atoll

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Ostrowski, Martin; Williams, Rohan B.; Xie, Chao; Jensen, Rachelle M.; Grzymski, Joseph J.; Senstius, Svend Jacob; Givskov, Michael; Hoeke, Ron; Philip, Gayle K.; Neches, Russell Y.; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I.; Chénard, Caroline; Paulsen, Ian T.; Lauro, Federico M.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms act both as drivers and indicators of perturbations in the marine environment. In an effort to establish baselines to predict the response of marine habitats to environmental change, here we report a broad survey of microbial diversity across the Indian Ocean, including the first microbial samples collected in the pristine lagoon of Salomon Islands, Chagos Archipelago. This was the first large-scale ecogenomic survey aboard a private yacht employing a ‘citizen oceanography’ approach and tools and protocols easily adapted to ocean going sailboats. Our data highlighted biogeographic patterns in microbial community composition across the Indian Ocean. Samples from within the Salomon Islands lagoon contained a community which was different even from adjacent samples despite constant water exchange, driven by the dominance of the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Synechococcus. In the lagoon, Synechococcus was also responsible for driving shifts in the metatranscriptional profiles. Enrichment of transcripts related to photosynthesis and nutrient cycling indicated bottom-up controls of community structure. However a five-fold increase in viral transcripts within the lagoon during the day, suggested a concomitant top-down control by bacteriophages. Indeed, genome recruitment against Synechococcus reference genomes suggested a role of viruses in providing the ecological filter for determining the β-diversity patterns in this system. PMID:26481089

  11. Obliterative bronchiolitis in fibreglass workers: a new occupational disease?

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Paul; McGavin, Clive R; Kreiss, Kathleen; Nicholson, Andrew G; Maher, Toby M; Howell, Tim; Banks, John; Newman Taylor, Anthony J; Chen, Chi-Hsien; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Shih, Tung-Sheng; Burge, P Sherwood

    2013-05-01

    Obliterative bronchiolitis (OB) is a rare disease with a small number of established occupational aetiologies. We describe a case series of severe OB in workers making glass-reinforced plastics. Workplace exposures were the likely cause after the independent diagnosis of OB in two workers laying up the fibreglass hulls of yachts; the second worker took over the job of the first after he left following a lung transplant. Presentation of these two cases at international meetings led to others identifying similar workers. We identified six workers with good evidence of OB. All were involved in preparing fibreglass with styrene resins, five as boat builders laying up fibreglass hulls and one during cooling-tower fabrication. The disease came on rapidly without unusual acute exposures. Two patients had lung transplants, while another died while waiting for one. Histology confirmed OB in the four with biopsies/post-mortem examinations or explanted lungs. A rare, potentially fatal disease occurring in six workers laying up fibreglass with styrene resins from five different worksites suggests that work exposures were the cause of their OB. The precise agent responsible awaits identification.

  12. Injury and illness at the Newport-Bermuda race 1998- 2006.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Andrew T; Fischer, Edwin G; Mello, Michael J; Baird, Janette

    2008-01-01

    To describe the relative frequency and types of injury and illness in the Newport-Bermuda off-shore yachting race. At the end of each race held in even numbered years from 1998-2006, the captain of each boat was asked to complete a survey detailing any injury or illness among his/her crew. There was an overall 87% response rate to the survey. During the study period, 38 injuries and 57 illnesses were reported for an estimated 8105 sailors, yielding rate of injury or illness of 12 per 1000 races per sailor. Most common were injuries to the upper extremity (47%), and lacerations were the most common type of injury (45%). Sea sickness was the most common illness, and the rate of illness and injury increased in races that took place in heavy weather. Radio consultations were used 4 times, and 3 sailors required transport to a hospital. The rate of injury and illness was relatively low in the Newport-Bermuda race. Injuries to the upper extremities and lacerations were most common, and sea sickness was the most common illness. The majority of illness and injury can be initially managed onboard.

  13. New generation of space capabilities resulting from US/RF cooperative efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humpherys, Thomas; Misnik, Victor; Sinelshchikov, Valery; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Khatulev, Valery; Carpenter, Jack; Watson, John; Chvanov, Dmitry; Privalsky, Victor

    2006-09-01

    Previous successful international cooperative efforts offer a wealth of experience in dealing with highly sensitive issues, but cooperative remote sensing for monitoring and understanding the global environmental is in the national interest of all countries. Cooperation between international partners is paramount, particularly with the Russian Federation, due to its technological maturity and strategic political and geographical position in the world. Based on experience gained over a decade of collaborative space research efforts, continued cooperation provides an achievable goal as well as understanding the fabric of our coexistence. Past cooperative space research efforts demonstrate the ability of the US and Russian Federation to develop a framework for cooperation, working together on a complex, state-of-the-art joint satellite program. These efforts consisted of teams of scientists and engineers who overcame numerous cultural, linguistic, engineering approaches and different political environments. Among these major achievements are: (1) field measurement activities with US satellites MSTI and MSX and the Russian RESURS-1 satellite, as well as the joint experimental use of the US FISTA aircraft; (2) successful joint Science, Conceptual and Preliminary Design Reviews; (3) joint publications of scientific research technical papers, (4) Russian investment in development, demonstration and operation of the Monitor-E spacecraft (Yacht satellite bus), (5) successful demonstration of the conversion of the SS-19 into a satellite launch system, and (6) negotiation of contractual and technical assistant agreements. This paper discusses a new generation of science and space capabilities available to the Remote Sensing community. Specific topics include: joint requirements definition process and work allocation for hardware and responsibility for software development; the function, description and status of Russian contributions in providing space component prototypes

  14. Ototoxic effects of occupational exposure to styrene and co-exposure to styrene and noise.

    PubMed

    Sliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Kotylo, Piotr; Fiszer, Marta; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

    2003-01-01

    Ototoxicity of styrene and the synergistic action of styrene and noise have been shown in rats. The respective data in humans are scarce and equivocal. This study evaluated the effects of occupational exposure to styrene and combined exposures to styrene and noise on hearing. The study group, comprised of 290-yacht yard and plastic factory workers, was exposed to a mixture of organic solvents, having styrene as its main compound. The reference group, totaling 223 subjects, included (1) white-collar workers, exposed neither to solvents nor noise and (2) metal factory workers, exposed exclusively to noise. All subjects were assessed by means of a detailed questionnaire and underwent otorhinolaryngological and audiometric examinations. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed almost a 4-fold (or 3.9; 95% CI = 2.4-6.2) increase in the odds of developing hearing loss related to styrene exposure. The factors adjusted for were: age, gender, current occupational exposure to noise, and exposure to noise in the past. In cases of the combined exposures to styrene and noise, the odds ratios were two to three times higher than the respective values for styrene-only and noise-only exposed subjects. The mean hearing thresholds--adjusted for age, gender, and exposure to noise--were significantly higher in the solvent-exposed group than in the unexposed reference group at all frequencies tested. A positive linear relationship existed between an averaged working life exposure to styrene concentration and a hearing threshold at the frequencies of 6 and 8 kHz. This study provides the epidemiological evidence that occupational exposure to styrene is related to an increased risk of hearing loss. Combined exposures to noise and styrene seem to be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone.

  15. Salivary IgA as a risk factor for upper respiratory infections in elite professional athletes.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Gleeson, Michael; Folland, Jonathan P

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between physiological and psychological stress and immune function is widely recognized; however, there is little evidence to confirm a direct link between depressed immune function and incidence of illness in athletes. To examine the relationship between salivary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) and upper respiratory infections (URI) in a cohort of professional athletes over a prolonged period. Thirty-eight elite America's Cup yacht racing athletes were studied over 50 wk of training. Resting, unstimulated saliva samples were collected weekly (38 h after exercise, consistent time of day, fasted) together with clinically confirmed URI, training load, and perceived fatigue rating. s-IgA was highly variable within (coefficients of variation [CV] = 48%) and between subjects (CV = 71%). No significant correlation was found between absolute s-IgA concentration and the incidence of URI among athletes (r = 0.11). However, a significant (28%, P < 0.005) reduction in s-IgA occurred during the 3 wk before URI episodes and returned to baseline by 2 wk after a URI. When an athlete did not have, or was not recovering from URI, a s-IgA value lower than 40% of their mean healthy s-IgA concentration indicated a one in two chance of contracting an URI within 3 wk. On a group basis, relative s-IgA determined a substantial proportion of the variability in weekly URI incidence. The typical decline in an individual's relative s-IgA over the 3 wk before a URI appears to precede and contribute to URI risk, with the magnitude of the decrease related to the risk of URI, independent of the absolute s-IgA concentration. These findings have important implications for athletes and coaches in identifying periods of high URI risk.

  16. Life and death on the Amazon: illness and injury to travelers on a South American expedition.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Marc T M; Leggat, Peter A

    2003-01-01

    Commercial expeditions provide an opportunity for travelers to undertake various specialized travel to more adventurous destinations in the relative security of an expeditionary group. Little is known about the illnesses and injuries occurring on such expeditions. From the commencement of the Blake Expedition in 2001, the expedition physician recorded all illnesses and injuries reported among the crew and also among the indigenous people encountered, while undertaking the expedition. The duration of the expedition was two and a half months, and involved travel by yacht, riverboat and jungle canoe or "bongo". The crew numbered 26 personnel: 24 men, including the expedition physician, and two women. Seventy-eight health problems were reported and recorded among 19 (73.1%) members of the expeditionary team. There was one death, but there were no other major incidents requiring emergency evacuation or hospitalization. Types of illness were largely those related to ear, nose and throat disease (15/78, 19%), injuries (12/87, 15%), bites and stings (12/87, 15%), and respiratory (10/78, 13%), dermatologic (9/78, 12%) and gastroenterologic conditions (7/78, 9%). A further 24 health problems were reported and recorded among 22 indigenous people who approached the expedition physician for treatment. Types of illness were largely related to dermatologic conditions (9/24, 38%), accidents and injuries (4/24, 17%), and malaria (4/24, 17%). This expedition was both noteworthy and newsworthy because of the death of the team leader, Sir Peter Blake, although the health problems encountered were largely similar to those reported for other expeditions. Tropical disease was uncommon. Adequate pre-trip preparation of expedition teams is considered important, and the inclusion of an expedition physician decreased the reliance on local health services, which are often scarce or absent on more remote-location expeditions. Adequate psychological preparation of expedition teams should also

  17. Indicators of sailing performance in youth dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Callewaert, Margot; Boone, Jan; Celie, Bert; De Clercq, Dirk; Bourgois, Jan G

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine indicators of sailing performance in 2 (age) groups of youth sailors by investigating the anthropometric, physical and motor coordination differences and factors discriminating between elite and non-elite male optimist sailors and young dynamic hikers. Anthropometric measurements from 23 optimist sailors (mean ± SD age = 12.3 ± 1.4 years) and 24 dynamic youth hikers (i.e. Laser 4.7, Laser radial and Europe sailors <18 years who have to sail the boat in a very dynamic manner, due to a high sailor to yacht weight ratio) (mean ± SD age = 16.5 ± 1.6 years) were conducted. They performed a physical fitness test battery (EUROFIT), motor coordination test battery (Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder) and the Bucket test. Both groups of sailors were divided into two subgroups (i.e. elites and non-elites) based on sailing expertise. The significant differences, taking biological maturation into account and factors discriminating between elite and non-elite optimist sailors and dynamic hikers were explored by means of multivariate analysis of covariance and discriminant analysis, respectively. The main results indicated that 100.0% of elite optimist sailors and 88.9% of elite dynamic hikers could be correctly classified by means of two motor coordination tests (i.e. side step and side jump) and Bucket test, respectively. As such, strength- and speed-oriented motor coordination and isometric knee-extension strength endurance can be identified as indicators of sailing performance in young optimist and dynamic youth sailors, respectively. Therefore, we emphasise the importance of motor coordination skill training in optimist sailors (<15 years) and maximum strength training later on (>15 years) in order to increase their isometric knee-extension strength endurance.

  18. The amathiiform Ctenostomata (phylum Bryozoa) of New Zealand--including four new species, two of them of probable alien origin.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Dennis P; Spencer-Jones, Mary

    2013-01-01

    The status of the vesiculariid ctenostome genus Amathia in New Zealand has been evaluated on the basis of all known material, including historic specimens in museums and those newly collected during formal surveillance of ports, harbours and vessels for possible alien species. Eight species are recognised, four of them new to science. Amathia gracei n. sp. and Amathia zealandica n. sp. are the only apparently endemic species. Amathia chimonidesi n. sp. appears to be a previously unrecognised alien species and is known only from shipping harbours and/or yacht marinas and some nearby beaches. Amathia similis n. sp. has been known in the Auckland area since the 1960s but was confused with A. distans Busk. Amathia bicornis (Tenison-Woods), A. biseriata Krauss, A. lamourouxi Chimonides and A. wilsoni Kirkpatrick are Australasian species that occur naturally on both sides of the Tasman Sea. Of this latter group, A. bicornis was discovered only at a single locality on the southwest coast of North Island in 1983 on a fucoid seaweed and it may be relatively re-cently self-introduced. A specimen of A. lendigera (Linnaeus) in the Museum of New Zealand, purportedly from Napier, is considered to be based on a misunderstanding or a labelling error and does not represent a failed alien introduction. The Amathia-like vesiculariid Bowerbankia citrina (Hincks) sensu lato is newly recorded for New Zealand. Keys are provided to the amathiiform (i.e. Amathia and Amathia-like) Ctenostomata of New Zealand and to the worldwide species of Amathia and Bowerbankia with zooid clusters spiralled on stoloniform axes.

  19. Heavy metals in Lake Balaton: water column, suspended matter, sediment and biota.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H L; Leermakers, M; Osán, J; Török, S; Baeyens, W

    2005-03-20

    During the period 1999-2002, five sampling cruises have been carried out on Lake Balaton to assess trace metal distribution in the lake and to identify major sources. Eighteen elements, including Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb (trace metals) and Al, Ba, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr (major metals), were determined in one or more of the lake's compartments. Lower trace metal concentrations in rainwater were observed in June and February 2000, while much higher levels were present in September 2001 (during a storm event) and in snow (February 2000). In the Northern and Western parts of the lake, especially at the inflow of river Zala and the locations of the yacht harbours, metal concentrations were higher in almost all compartments. Because the lake is very shallow, storm conditions also change significantly the metal distributions in the dissolved and particulate phases. The Kis-Balaton protection system located on Zala river functions very efficiently for retaining suspended particulate matter (SPM; 72% retention) and associated metals. Metal concentrations in surface sediments of the lake showed a high variability. After normalisation for the fine sediment fraction, only a few stations including Zala mouth appeared to be enriched in trace metals. In zooplankton, Zn seemed to be much more elevated compared to the other trace metals. Based on the molar ratios of the trace metals in the various compartments and input flows of the lake, several trends could be deduced. For example, molar ratios of the trace metals in the dissolved and solid (suspended particulate matter and sediments) phases in the lake are fairly similar to those in Zala River.

  20. History and classification of anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; de Weck, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Anaphylaxis as the maximal variant of an acute systemic hypersensitivity reaction can involve several organ systems, particularly the skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract and the cardiovascular system. The severity of anaphylactic reaction is variable and can be classified into severity grades I-IV. Some reactions are fatal. Most frequent elicitors of anaphylaxis are foods in childhood, later insect stings and drugs. The phenomenon itself has been described in ancient medical literature, but was actually recognized and named at the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Richet and Paul Portier. In the course of experiments starting on the yacht of the Prince of Monaco and continued in the laboratory in Paris, they tried to immunize dogs with extracts of Physalia species in an attempt to develop an antitoxin to the venom of the Portuguese man-of-war. While Charles Richet believed that anaphylaxis was a 'lack of protection', it has become clear that an exaggerated immune reaction, especially involving immunoglobulin E antibodies, is the underlying pathomechanism in allergic anaphylaxis besides immune complex reactions. Non-immunologically mediated reactions leading to similar clinical symptomatology have been called 'anaphylactoid' or 'pseudo-allergic'--especially by Paul Kallos--and are now called 'non-immune anaphylaxis' according to a consensus of the World Allergy Organization (WAO). The distinction of different pathophysiological processes is important since non-immune anaphylaxis cannot be detected by skin test or in vitro allergy diagnostic procedures. History and provocation tests are crucial. The intensity of the reaction is not only influenced by the degree of sensitization but also by concomitant other factors as age, simultaneous exposure to other allergens, underlying infection, physical exercise or psychological stress or concomitant medication (e.g. beta-blockers, NSAIDs); this phenomenon has been called augmentation or summation

  1. [Detection of astrovirus RNA from sewage works, seawater and native oysters samples in Chiba City, Japan using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Yokoi, H; Kitahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Utagawa, E

    2001-04-01

    Through a year from April, 1999 to March, 2000, 20 samples, which consisted of raw sewage (2), chlorine-treated sewage (2), seawater (10) and naturally grown oysters (6), were collected monthly both from the sewage works at Mihama-ku, Chiba City and at a yacht harbor in Chiba City Bay, Japan. Astrovirus RNA were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and was typed by direct sequencing. Astrovirus positive products were detected from 9 samples (raw sewage; 1/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2, seawater; 5/10 and oysters; 1/6) collected in April, 1999. In May, positive products were detected from 4 samples (raw sewage; 2/2 and seawater; 2/10). In June, only 1 positive product was detected from raw sewage. The number of positive samples showed a tendency to decrease and no positive products were detected from samples collected in July, 1999 to January, 2000. After that period, positive products were again detected from 3 samples (raw sewage; 1/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2) collected in February, 2000. In March, the number of positive samples showed the peak and positive products were detected from 12 samples (raw sewage; 2/2, chlorine-treated sewage; 2/2, seawater; 7/10 and oysters: 1/6). Astrovirus positive products detected in April, May, June, July, 1999 and February, 2000 were classified into type 1 or 2 by sequencing, whereas in March, 2000 were type 1, 2, 3, 6 and 7.

  2. Can cognitive models explain brain activation during word and pseudoword reading? A meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J S H; Rastle, Kathleen; Davis, Matthew H

    2013-07-01

    Reading in many alphabetic writing systems depends on both item-specific knowledge used to read irregular words (sew, yacht) and generative spelling-sound knowledge used to read pseudowords (tew, yash). Research into the neural basis of these abilities has been directed largely by cognitive accounts proposed by the dual-route cascaded and triangle models of reading. We develop a framework that enables predictions for neural activity to be derived from cognitive models of reading using 2 principles: (a) the extent to which a model component or brain region is engaged by a stimulus and (b) how much effort is exerted in processing that stimulus. To evaluate the derived predictions, we conducted a meta-analysis of 36 neuroimaging studies of reading using the quantitative activation likelihood estimation technique. Reliable clusters of activity are localized during word versus pseudoword and irregular versus regular word reading and demonstrate a great deal of convergence between the functional organization of the reading system put forward by cognitive models and the neural systems activated during reading tasks. Specifically, left-hemisphere activation clusters are revealed reflecting orthographic analysis (occipitotemporal cortex), lexical and/or semantic processing (anterior fusiform, middle temporal gyrus), spelling-sound conversion (inferior parietal cortex), and phonological output resolution (inferior frontal gyrus). Our framework and results establish that cognitive models of reading are relevant for interpreting neuroimaging studies and that neuroscientific studies can provide data relevant for advancing cognitive models. This article thus provides a firm empirical foundation from which to improve integration between cognitive and neural accounts of the reading process. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  3. Relationship between lysosomal membrane destabilization and chemical body burden in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from Galveston Bay, Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Wade, Terry L; Sericano, Jose L

    2002-06-01

    Lysosomal destabilization was measured by using hemocytes of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) collected along a chemical concentration gradient in Galveston Bay, Texas, USA. Results of the lysosomal response were compared to concentrations of organic compounds and trace elements in oyster tissue. Concentrations (on a dry-wt basis) ranged from 288 to 2,390 ng/g for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 38 to 877 ng Sn/g for tri-n-butyltin (TBT), 60 to 562 ng/g for polyclorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 7 to 71 ng/g for total DDT. Trace element concentrations (on a dry-wt basis) ranged from 1.1 to 4.0 microg/g for Cd, 105 to 229 microg/g for Cu, 212 to 868 microg/g for Al, and 1,200 to 8,180 microg/g for Zn. The percentage of destabilized lysosomes ranged from 34 to 81%. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between lysosomal destabilization and body burden of organic compounds (PAHs, PCBs, TBT, and chlorinated pesticides). No significant correlation was found between metal concentrations and lysosomal destabilization. Based on lysosomal destabilization, the study sites in Galveston Bay can be placed in one of three groups: healthy (Hanna Reef and Confederate Bay), moderately damaged (Offats Bayou and Todd's Dump), and highly damaged (Yacht Club and Ship Channel). Lysosomal destabilization that is consistent with toxic chemical body burdens supports previous observations that lysosomal membranes are damaged by toxic chemicals and indicates that this method can serve as an early screening tool to assess overall ecosystem health by using oysters.

  4. Occurrence and distribution of nonionic surfactants, their degradation products, and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates in coastal waters and sediments in Spain.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Mira; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo Rodrigez; Borrull, Francisco; Marce, Rosa Maria; González, Mazo Eduardo; Barceló, Damià

    2002-01-01

    Spain is one of the European countries that still discharges untreated wastewaters and sewage sludge to the sea. A total of 35 samples of coastal waters and 39 samples of harbor sediments was analyzed. Samples were collected from several hot spots on the Spanish coast, such as the harbors of Tarragona, Almería, and Barcelona, the mouths of the Besos and Llobregat rivers, the Bay of Cadiz, and various yacht harbors at the Mediterranean coast. A generic analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-APCI/ESI-MS) was employed for determining the concentrations of alcohol ethoxylates (AEO), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEO), coconut diethanol amides (CDEA), nonylphenoxy-monocarboxylates (NPEC), nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS) in sediment and water samples. The analysis revealed the presence of considerably high concentrations of NPEOs and NP near the points of discharge of industrial and urban wastewaters. Nonylphenol was found in 47% of water samples and in 77% of all sediment samples analyzed. Values for NP ranged from <0.15 to 4.1 microg/L in seawater and from <8 to 1,050 microg/kg in sediments. Levels of AEOs and CDEAs in seawater and marine sediments are reported for the first time. Concentrations of CDEAs in sediment, which were predominated by C11 through C15 homologues, ranged from 30 to 2,700 microg/kg, while in seawater, concentrations found were up to 24 microg/L. The AEOs were found to accumulate in a bottom sediment and they were detected in all analyzed sediment samples in concentrations from 37 to 1,300 microg/kg.

  5. Population genetics features for persistent, but transient, Botryllus schlosseri (Urochordata) congregations in a central Californian marina.

    PubMed

    Karahan, Arzu; Douek, Jacob; Paz, Guy; Rinkevich, Baruch

    2016-08-01

    The colonial tunicate Botryllus schlosseri is a globally distributed, invasive ascidian that has colonized the Californian coasts of the USA during the mid-late 1940s and has, since the late 1980s, spread north to Washington. This study analyzes the population genetic characteristics of transient populations residing at the Elkhorn Yacht-Club (EYC), in central California (seven sessions, 1996-2008), which suffered periodic catastrophes caused by episodic fresh-water floods and a single sampling session (in the year 2001) of five West-Coast populations using the mtDNA COI gene and five microsatellite markers. EYC microsatellite results were further compared with the closely situated but persistent population of the Santa Cruz Harbor (SCH) to understand the impact on EYC population regeneration processes after the 2005-flood catastrophe. All microsatellites were highly polymorphic, revealing a large number of unique alleles at different sampling dates. Whereas pairwise θ did not reveal significant differences between the EYC time-series samplings, the overall θ was significant, as it was between all the 2001 West Coast populations. The most likely cluster number was 3 for the EYC samples whereas two K values were obtained (2 and 5) for the 2001 samples. Tajima's D and Fu's/Fs tests did not reject the null hypothesis for COI neutral evolution, except for in the EYC-2000, 2007 and two 2001 samplings. The wide geographical range of the analyses has indicated that following the EYC 2005-flood catastrophe, newcomers could have originated from neighboring populations, from deep-water colonies that may have escaped the 2005 low salinity event, or less expectedly, from far away West-Coast populations, while revealing that the SCH population is the most probable source for the EYC population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Response of the Mississippi Bight and Sound to the Passage of Tropical Storm Cindy Through the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hode, L. E.; Howden, S. D.; Diercks, A. R.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Jones, E. B.; Martin, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    Damage inflicted by tropical storms and hurricanes on coastal communities and industries has become a growing concern in recent decades. Consequently, utilizing products from existing ocean observing platforms, ocean modeling forecasts and satellite data helps to identify the effects of individual storms on the northern Gulf of Mexico. Using data from the jointly-operated United States Geological Survey and Mississippi Department of Marine Resources (USGS-MDMR) hydrological stations, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) tide gages, and the Central Gulf of Mexico Ocean Observing System (CenGOOS) high frequency radar (HFR) network, we tracked temperature, salinity, water level and surface current changes in the Mississippi Sound and Bight during June 2017. We performed time series analyses and compared conditions during the buildup and passage of tropical storm Cindy to climatological values as well as to satellite observations and results from a regional application of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM). Elevated salinities proceeded Cindy's landfall on June 22, 2017, while anomalously fresh water marked all Mississippi Sound stations afterwards. Onshore surface currents dominated the Mississippi Bight, and current speeds exceeded more than four times the climatological average in the southeastern Bight. Indeed, regions of enhanced current speeds were observed throughout the month of June 2017. Tidal ranges in the Mississippi Sound were on average half a meter higher than predicted, and Shell Beach (Louisiana) and the Bay Waveland Yacht Club (Mississippi) saw extended periods where tides exceeded one meter above predicted values. These results help to quantify the tidal inundation caused by Cindy but also illustrate the massive riverine discharge driven by the storm's precipitation. Model results provide information on areas of the study region not covered by measurements; additionally, comparing observations to model products helps estimate model

  7. Development of the initial diatom microfouling layer on antifouling and fouling-release surfaces in temperate and tropical Australia.

    PubMed

    Molino, Paul J; Campbell, Ewan; Wetherbee, Richard

    2009-11-01

    Diatoms are a major component of the slime layers that form on artificial surfaces in marine environments. In this article, the role played by diatoms during the pioneering stages of colonization of three marine antifouling (AF) coatings, viz Intersmooth 360, Super Yacht 800 and a fouling-release (FR) coating Intersleek 700, was investigated. The study was conducted over three distinct seasons in two very different marine environments in Australia, ie temperate Williamstown, Victoria and tropical Cairns, Queensland. Diatom fouling occurred more rapidly on the FR coating Intersleek 700, compared to both biocidal AF paints. However, colonization by diatoms on all three coatings was generally slow during the 16-day study. Benthic diatoms do not subsist by floating around in the water column, rather they only gain the opportunity to colonize new surfaces when they either voluntarily release or are displaced from their benthic habitat, thereafter entering the water column where the opportunity to adhere to a new surface presents itself. However, once settled, fouling diatoms grow exponentially from the site of attachment, spreading out until they populate large areas of the surface. This mode of surface colonization correlates more with an 'infection' type, epidemiology model, a mechanism that accounts for the colonization of significant regions of the coating surface from a single fouling diatom cell, forming 'clonal patches'. This is in comparison to the bacterial colonization of the surface, which exhibits far more rapid recruitment and growth of cells on the substratum surface. Therefore, it is hypothesized that fouling diatoms may be characterized more by their ability to adhere and grow on surfaces already modified by bacterial biofilms, rather than on their strength of adhesion. Cell morphology and the ability to avoid shear may also be an important factor.

  8. Bioavailability and Environmental Regulation - Integrating a Fate & Effects Model with a Biotic Ligand Model for Copper in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, I.; Chadwick, B.; Rosen, G.; Wang, P. F.; Paquin, P.; Santore, R.; Ryan, A.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the bioavailability of metals in the aquatic environment is important for defining appropriate regulatory constraints. A failure to recognize the importance of bioavailability factors on metal toxicity can result in criteria that are over- or under-protective. USEPA addresses the tendency of the national Water Quality Criterion (WQC) for regulation of copper in marine waters to underestimate the natural attenuation of copper toxicity in harbors by the application of site-specific Water Quality Standards (WQS). Which provides the level of protection intended by the WQC, and establishes realistic regulatory objectives. However, development of site-specific WQS involves a long-term effort, and does not account for temporal variation. The toxicity model seawater-Biotic Ligand Model (BLM) was developed and integrated with the existing Curvilinear Hydrodynamics in 3 Dimensions (CH3D) transport & fate model to create an efficient tool for development of site-specific WQS in harbors. The integrated model was demonstrated at a harbor-wide scale in San Diego Bay and Pearl Harbor, and accounted for the natural physical, chemical, biological and toxicological characteristics of the harbor to achieve more scientifically based compliance. In both harbors the spatial and temporal distributions of copper species, toxic effects, and Water Effect Ratio predicted by the integrated model are comparable to previous data. The model was further demonstrated in Shelter Island Yacht Basin (SIYB) marina in San Diego Bay. The integrated model agreed with toxicological and chemical approaches by indicating negligible bioavailability as well as no toxicity; but for a single event, even though an increasing gradient in Cu was observed both horizontally and vertically, with concentrations that reached levels well above current regulatory thresholds. These results support the incorporation by USEPA of the seawater-BLM in a full-strength seawater criterion.

  9. Earth Observations taken by the Expedition 22 Crew

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-12-02

    ISS022-E-005403 (2 Dec. 2009) --- Giens Peninsula, France is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 22 crew member on the International Space Station. This detailed image depicts the Giens Peninsula located along the Mediterranean coastline of France. The peninsula is part of the Cote d?Azur, also known as the French Riviera, the coastal region bounded by the Rhone River to the west, to the north by the Rhone Alps, and the east by the Italian border. The peninsula itself, extended out southwards from the city of Hyeres to the resort community of Giens, is formed from two tombolos. A tombolo is a ridge of beach material (typically sand) built by wave action that connects an island to the mainland. Tombolos, like many coastal features, typically change dramatically over geologic time due to fluctuating sediment supply, coastal currents, sea levels and storm events. The tombolos of the Giens Peninsula have been modified by human activities including sand dune removal, construction of roadways, and replacement of the original sand by other materials. The long-term survival of these tombolos will be determined by the effects of these changes on the natural coastal processes, with potential sea level rise presenting an additional threat. In addition to Giens, three other urban areas are visible in this image; Carqueiranne, Hyeres, and La Londe-les-Maures. The urban areas are recognizable by both light pink rooftops and grey street grids. These contrast with green to brown vegetated areas including agricultural fields (between Hyeres and La Londe-les-Maures, top center) and dark green vegetated hillslopes (between Hyeres and Carqueiranne, top left). Small white dots and streaks in the Mediterranean Sea are actually yachts and other pleasure craft.

  10. Aerobic power and peak power of elite America's Cup sailors.

    PubMed

    Neville, Vernon; Pain, Matthew T G; Folland, Jonathan P

    2009-05-01

    Big-boat yacht racing is one of the only able bodied sporting activities where standing arm-cranking ('grinding') is the primary physical activity. However, the physiological capabilities of elite sailors for standing arm-cranking have been largely unreported. The purpose of the study was to assess aerobic parameters, VO(2peak) and onset of blood lactate (OBLA), and anaerobic performance, torque-crank velocity and power-crank velocity relationships and therefore peak power (P (max)) and optimum crank-velocity (omega(opt)), of America's Cup sailors during standing arm-cranking. Thirty-three elite professional sailors performed a step test to exhaustion, and a subset of ten grinders performed maximal 7 s isokinetic sprints at different crank velocities, using a standing arm-crank ergometer. VO(2peak) was 4.7 +/- 0.5 L/min (range 3.6-5.5 L/min) at a power output of 332 +/- 44 W (range 235-425 W). OBLA occurred at a power output of 202 +/- 31 W (61% of W(max)) and VO(2) of 3.3 +/- 0.4 L/min (71% of VO(2peak)). The torque-crank velocity relationship was linear for all participants (r = 0.9 +/- 0.1). P (max) was 1,420 +/- 37 W (range 1,192-1,617 W), and omega(opt) was 125 +/- 6 rpm. These data are among the highest upper-body anaerobic and aerobic power values reported. The unique nature of these athletes, with their high fat-free mass and specific selection and training for standing arm cranking, likely accounts for the high values. The influence of crank velocity on peak power implies that power production during on-board 'grinding' may be optimised through the use of appropriate gear-ratios and the development of efficient gear change mechanisms.

  11. Hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) and its application to predicting key process variables.

    PubMed

    He, Yan-Lin; Xu, Yuan; Geng, Zhi-Qiang; Zhu, Qun-Xiong

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a hybrid robust model based on an improved functional link neural network integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) is proposed. Firstly, an improved functional link neural network with small norm of expanded weights and high input-output correlation (SNEWHIOC-FLNN) was proposed for enhancing the generalization performance of FLNN. Unlike the traditional FLNN, the expanded variables of the original inputs are not directly used as the inputs in the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model. The original inputs are attached to some small norm of expanded weights. As a result, the correlation coefficient between some of the expanded variables and the outputs is enhanced. The larger the correlation coefficient is, the more relevant the expanded variables tend to be. In the end, the expanded variables with larger correlation coefficient are selected as the inputs to improve the performance of the traditional FLNN. In order to test the proposed SNEWHIOC-FLNN model, three UCI (University of California, Irvine) regression datasets named Housing, Concrete Compressive Strength (CCS), and Yacht Hydro Dynamics (YHD) are selected. Then a hybrid model based on the improved FLNN integrating with partial least square (IFLNN-PLS) was built. In IFLNN-PLS model, the connection weights are calculated using the partial least square method but not the error back propagation algorithm. Lastly, IFLNN-PLS was developed as an intelligent measurement model for accurately predicting the key variables in the Purified Terephthalic Acid (PTA) process and the High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) process. Simulation results illustrated that the IFLNN-PLS could significant improve the prediction performance. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anthropogenic chemical cues can alter the swimming behaviour of juvenile stages of a temperate fish.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gil, Carlos; Cotgrove, Lucy; Smee, Sarah Louise; Simón-Otegui, David; Hinz, Hilmar; Grau, Amalia; Palmer, Miquel; Catalán, Ignacio A

    2017-04-01

    Human pressure on coastal areas is affecting essential ecosystems including fish nursery habitats. Among these anthropogenic uses, the seasonal increment in the pressure due to leisure activities such as coastal tourism and yachting is an important environmental stressor in many coastal zones. These pressures may elicit understudied impacts due to, for example, sunscreens or other seasonal pollutants. The island of Majorca, northwest Mediterranean Sea, experiences one of the highest number of tourist visits per capita in the world, thus the surrounding coastal habitat is subject to high anthropogenic seasonal stress. Studies on early stages of fishes have observed responses to coastal chemical cues for the selection or avoidance of habitats. However, the potential interferences of human impacts on these signals are largely unknown. A choice chamber was used to determine water type preference and behaviour in naïve settled juvenile gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata), a temperate species of commercial interest. Fish were tested individually for behavioural changes with respect to water types from potential beneficial habitats, such as seawater with extract of the endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica, anthropogenically influenced habitats such as water extracted from a commercial and recreational harbour and seawater mixed with sunscreen at concentrations observed in coastal waters. Using a Bayesian approach, we investigated a) water type preference; b) mean speed; and c) variance in the movement (as an indicator of burst swimming activity, or "sprint" behaviour) as behavioural descriptors with respect to water type. Fish spent similar percentage of time in treatment and control water types. However, movement descriptors showed that fish in sunscreen water moved slower (98.43% probability of being slower) and performed fewer sprints (90.1% probability of having less burst in speed) compared to control water. Less evident increases in sprints were observed in harbour

  13. [Problems regarding the examination in forensic medicine].

    PubMed

    Naitow, M

    1989-10-01

    Problems encountered regarding the examination in forensic pathology are variable, even if the field of interest in limited to trauma alone. The most important problem appears to be the establishment of a causal relationship between the trauma and the death of the victim. From the materials I have contributed concerning examinations in forensic medicine, the problems inherent in the examination of the victim of traumatic shock may be introduced. The results from animal studies, which have been attempted to provide an experimental background to support the observations, are also discussed. My personal opinions on several trial cases in which there was a disagreement of opinion regarding the examination results will also be expressed. 1. Distinguishing death due to traumatic shock from death due to disease In the "Yacht school" incident, children with emotional disturbances and youths with a history of misconduct were treated with training which included physical punishment. Autopsy findings were compared between a 13-year old boy who was concluded to have died of traumatic shock from numerous beatings and a 21-year old youth who died of hemorrhagic pneumonia. In my opinion, a causative role of injury in the death was found in both cases. 2. Shock due to tourniquet This autopsy case concerns a 23-year-old male who entered a yoga training center, was tightly bound with a rope and died on the 8th day. Histological examination revealed thrombus formation in the small blood vessels and leukocyte agglutination within the blood vessels of the alveolar wall, suggesting DIC. While these findings were thought to be almost indistinguishable from those found in traumatic shock, the background conditions, including hunger, dehydration and hypothermia cannot be neglected in the evaluation. 3. Child abuse In one incident, a mother and her lover beat a 25-month old girl every day until her death. The original examination concluded that the cause of death was traumatic shock due to

  14. Constraining calving front processes on W Greenland outlet glaciers using inertial-corrected laser scanning & swath-bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, R.; Hubbard, A.; Neale, M.; Woodward, J.; Box, J. E.; Nick, F.

    2010-12-01

    Calving and submarine melt account for the majority of loss from the Antarctic and over 50% of that from the Greenland Ice Sheet. These ice-ocean processes are highly efficient mass-loss mechanisms, providing a rapid link between terrestrial ice (storage) and the oceanic sink (sea level/freshwater flux) which renders the ocean-outlet-ice sheet system potentially highly non-linear. Despite this, the controls on tidewater processes are poorly understood and a process based description of them is lacking from the present generation of coupled ice sheet models. We present details from an innovative study where two survey techniques are integrated to enable the construction of accurate, ~m resolution 3d digital terrain models (DTMs) of the aerial and submarine ice front of calving outlet glaciers. A 2km range terrestrial laser scanner was combined with a 416KHz swath-interferometric system and corrected via an inertial motion unit stabilized by RTK GPS and gyro-compass data. The system was mounted aboard a heavy displacement (20,000kg) yacht in addition to a light displacement (100kg) semi-autonomous boat and used to image the aerial and submarine calving fronts of two large outlet glaciers in W Greenland. Six daily surveys, each 2.5km long were repeated across Lille Glacier during which significant ice flow, melt and calving events were observed and captured from on-ice GPS stations and time-lapse sequences. A curtain of CTD and velocity casts were also conducted to constrain the fresh and oceanic mass and energy fluxes within the fjord. The residual of successive DTMs yield the spatial pattern of frontal change enabling the processes of aerial and submarine calving and melt to be quantified and constrained in unprecedented detail. These observed frontal changes are tentatively related to local dynamic, atmospheric and oceanographic processes that drive them. A partial survey of Store Glacier (~7km calving front & W Greenland 2nd largest outlet after Jakobshavn Isbrae

  15. Assessment of seismic hazards along the northern Gulf of Aqaba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abueladas, Abdel-Rahman Aqel

    Aqaba and Elat are very important port and recreation cities for the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Israel, respectively. The two cities are the most susceptible to damage from a destructive future earthquake because they are located over the tectonically active Dead Sea transform fault (DST) that is the source of most of the major historical earthquakes in the region. The largest twentieth century earthquake on the DST, the magnitude Mw 7.2 Nuweiba earthquake of November 22, 1995, caused damage to structures in both cities. The integration of geological, geophysical, and earthquake engineering studies will help to assess the seismic hazards by determining the location and slip potential of active faults and by mapping areas of high liquefaction susceptibility. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) as a high resolution shallow geophysical tool was used to map the shallow active faults in Aqaba, Taba Sabkha area, and Elat. The GPR data revealed the onshore continuation of the Evrona, West Aqaba, Aqaba fault zones, and several transverse faults. The integration of offshore and onshore data confirm the extension of these faults along both sides of the Gulf of Aqaba. A 3D model of GPR data at one site in Aqaba indicates that the NW-trending transverse faults right laterally offset older than NE-trending faults. The most hazardous fault is the Evrona fault which extends north to the Tabs Sabkha. A geographic information system (GIS) database of the seismic hazard was created in order to facilitate the analyzing, manipulation, and updating of the input parameters. Liquefaction potential maps were created for the region based on analysis of borehole data. The liquefaction map shows high and moderate liquefaction susceptibility zones along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aqaba. In Aqaba several hotels are located within a high and moderate liquefaction zones. The Yacht Club, Aqaba, Ayla archaeological site, and a part of commercial area are also situated in a risk area. A part

  16. Developments in Airborne Oceanography and Air-Sea Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melville, W. K.

    2014-12-01

    One of the earliest ocean-related flights was that of Amundsen to be first across the North Pole and Arctic from Svalbard to Alaska in the airship Norge in 1926. Twenty five years later Cox & Munk flew a B-17G "Flying Fortress" bomber over Hawaiian waters measuring sea surface slope statistics from photographs of sun glitter and wind speed from a yacht. The value of Cox & Munk's "airborne oceanography" became apparent another twenty five years later with the short-lived Seasat microwave remote-sensing mission, since interpretation of the Seasat data in geophysical variables required scattering theories that relied on their data. The universal acceptance of remote sensing in oceanography began in 1992 with the launch of, and successful analysis of sea surface height data from, the Topex/Poseidon radar altimeter. With that and the development of more realistic coupled atmosphere-ocean models it became apparent that our understanding of weather and climate variability in both the atmosphere and the ocean depends crucially on our ability to measure processes in boundary layers spanning the interface. Ten years ago UNOLS formed the Scientific Committee for Oceanographic Aircraft Research (SCOAR) "...to improve access to research aircraft facilities for ocean sciences"; an attempt to make access to aircraft as easy as access to research vessels. SCOAR emphasized then that "Aircraft are ideal for both fast-response investigations and routine, long-term measurements, and they naturally combine atmospheric measurements with oceanographic measurements on similar temporal and spatial scales." Since then developments in GPS positioning and miniaturization have made scientific measurements possible from smaller and smaller platforms, including the transition from manned to unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Furthermore, ship-launched and recovered UAVs have demonstrated how they can enhance the capabilities and reach of the research vessels, "projecting" research and science

  17. Exacerbation of noise-induced hearing loss by co-exposure to workplace chemicals.

    PubMed

    Sliwinska-Kowalska, Mariola; Zamyslowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szymczak, Wieslaw; Kotylo, Piotr; Fiszer, Marta; Wesolowski, Wiktor; Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska, Malgorzata

    2005-05-01

    : Numerous organic solvents applied in industry, like toluene, styrene, xylene and n-hexane have been demonstrated to impair hearing in animals. However, the effects of exposure to a given organic solvent and the interaction of noise and solvents on hearing in humans are still not fully recognized. : The study was aimed to assess the effects of occupational exposure to solvents alone or in combination with noise on hearing in 1117 employees of yacht, ship, plastic, shoe, and paint and lacquer industry. These persons were exposed either to the mixture of organic solvents with xylene as the main component, or predominantly to styrene, or to the mixture of n-hexane and toluene. Detailed questionnaire data and pure-tone audiometry were compared with data of the reference group that included white collar workers, exposed neither to solvents nor noise and metal factory workers exposed to noise only. In all statistics, the confounding factors were recognized as gender, age, exposure to noise, and other variables occurring at a different rate in study and reference group. : Odds ratio (OR) of hearing loss related with the particular exposure to chemicals was 2.4 (95%CI 1.59-3.74) in case of solvent mixture, 3.9 (95%CI 2.4-6.2) in case of styrene and 5.3 (95%CI 2.6-10.9) in case of n-hexane and toluene exposure. The odds of developing hearing loss substantially increased in the case of combined exposure to organic solvents and noise as compared to isolated exposure to each of these hazards. The highest OR (over 20-fold) was demonstrated in subgroups of subjects exposed simultaneously to noise and two ototoxic solvents (i.e. styrene and toluene or n-hexane and toluene). The mean hearing thresholds were significantly higher in the solvent-exposed groups than in the reference group. The differences in thresholds were observed at high frequencies in the solvent mixture- and n-hexane + toluene-exposed groups and at all frequencies in the styrene-exposed group. A positive linear

  18. Modeling and water quality assessment during realisation of the coastal projects in Sochi region (Black sea coast of Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokhoda-Shumskikh, L.

    2012-04-01

    Sochi region is the unique subtropical resort on the Black Sea coast of Russia. Nowadays due to Sochi is the capital of the Olympic game 2014, the government of the Russian Federation accepts the special federal program of Black Sea coast development. Program foresees the existing and creation of new coastal recreational and touristic complexes along the Russian Black Sea coast, such as complex of yacht harbors, water centers (aqua-centers), network of port localities and etc. These coastal projects are different, but the main problems of the environmental impact assessment are the same. The environmental impact and the relative damage should be assessed at the stage of construction as well as at the stage of operation. The key problem for the recreation coastal zone is water quality management. The port localities network as example is considered. To increase the accuracy and informative of forecasts for the coastal zone conditions the system-dynamic model has been developed, what allows to estimate the quality of the sea water, including that in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas with the limited water exchange. The model of water quality in the coastal zone includes the equations of deposit concentration changes and chemical substances evolution in the studied areas. The model incorporates joint description of cycles of two biogenic elements - nitrogen and phosphorus. The system is completely defined by the biogeochemical reactions. The sizes of such water areas allow the applying the full mixing and zero-dimensional models of water quality. The circulation of water inside the area is taken into account additionally. Water exchange in the semi-enclosed coastal water areas is defined by the discharge through the open parts of area border. The novelty of the offered model is its adaptation to the specific conditions of semi-enclosed coastal water areas. At the same time, the model contains details of the biogeochemical processes to complete modelling of the

  19. Experimental trials on the feasibility of offshore seed production of the mussel Mytilus edulis in the German Bight: installation, technical requirements and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Bela Hieronymus

    2007-06-01

    This study summarizes the activities and findings during a 2 year investigation on the grow-out of blue mussels ( Mytilus edulis) and the technical requirements to withstand harsh weather conditions at an offshore location. The experimental sites were two different test areas, each 5 ha in size, 12-15 m in depth, in the vicinity of the offshore lighthouse “Roter Sand” located 15-17 nautical miles northwest of the city of Bremerhaven (Germany). Two versions of submerged longline systems were deployed: a conventional polypropylene longline in 2002 as well as a steel hawser longline in 2003, both featuring different versions of buoyancy modes. The spat collectors and grow-out ropes were suspended perpendicular from the horizontal longline for several months beginning in March of each respective year. The test sites were visited and sampled on a monthly basis using research vessels. Larval abundances in the surrounding water column reached numbers of up to 1,467 individuals m-3. Post-larval settlement success varied through the entire experimental period, ranging from 29 to 796 individuals of spat per meter of collector. Settled mussels reached a shell length of up to 28 mm 6 months after settlement. Based on the growth rates observed for the seed, it is projected that mussels would reach market size (50 mm) in 12-15 months post settlement, and at the observed densities, each meter of collector rope could yield 10.9 kg of harvestable mussels. The polypropylene line resisted storm conditions with wind waves of up to 6.4 m and current velocities of 1.52 m s-1 and was retrieved in autumn of 2002. In contrast, the steel hawser-based line did not withstand the harsh weather conditions. The steel-based line consisted of six twisted strands that were untwisted by the strong currents and turbulences and consequently the individual strands were torn. Additionally, the line was accidentally cut by a yacht in July 2003. The biological study revealed that the tested location

  20. Physiological Stress Elicits Impaired Left Ventricular Function in Preterm-Born Adults.

    PubMed

    Huckstep, Odaro J; Williamson, Wilby; Telles, Fernando; Burchert, Holger; Bertagnolli, Mariane; Herdman, Charlotte; Arnold, Linda; Smillie, Robert; Mohamed, Afifah; Boardman, Henry; McCormick, Kenny; Neubauer, Stefan; Leeson, Paul; Lewandowski, Adam J

    2018-03-27

    Experimental and clinical studies show that prematurity leads to altered left ventricular (LV) structure and function with preserved resting LV ejection fraction (EF). Large-scale epidemiological data now links prematurity to increased early heart failure risk. The authors performed echocardiographic imaging at prescribed exercise intensities to determine whether preterm-born adults have impaired LV functional response to physical exercise. We recruited 101 normotensive young adults born preterm (n = 47; mean gestational age 32.8 ± 3.2 weeks) and term (n = 54) for detailed cardiovascular phenotyping. Full clinical resting and exercise stress echocardiograms were performed, with apical 4-chamber views collected while exercising at 40%, 60%, and 80% of peak exercise capacity, determined by maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Preterm-born individuals had greater LV mass (p = 0.015) with lower peak systolic longitudinal strain (p = 0.038) and similar EF to term-born control subjects at rest (p = 0.62). However, by 60% exercise intensity, EF was 6.7% lower in preterm subjects (71.9 ± 8.7% vs 78.6 ± 5.4%; p = 0.004) and further declined to 7.3% below the term-born group at 80% exercise intensity (69.8 ± 6.4% vs 77.1 ± 6.3%; p = 0.004). Submaximal cardiac output reserve was 56% lower in preterm-born subjects versus term-born control subjects at 40% of peak exercise capacity (729 ± 1,162 ml/min/m 2 vs. 1,669 ± 937 ml/min/m 2 ; p = 0.021). LV length and resting peak systolic longitudinal strain predicted EF increase from rest to 60% exercise intensity in the preterm group (r = 0.68, p = 0.009 and r = 0.56, p = 0.031, respectively). Preterm-born young adults had impaired LV response to physiological stress when subjected to physical exercise, which suggested a reduced myocardial functional reserve that might help explain their increased risk of early heart failure. (Young Adult Cardiovascular Health sTudy [YACHT]; NCT02103231

  1. Quantification of MTE in surface sediments of Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France): A preliminary approach for determination of sources and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jimenez, Joselyn; Goubert, Evelyne; Labeyrie, Laurent; Coynel, Alexandra; Menier, David

    2014-05-01

    The Morbihan Coast (South Brittany, France) has an intense coastal activity: farming, industry, urban habitation run-off, yachting and transportation. In the past centuries, tin mining industry was also developed. These different factors may introduce metal trace elements (MTE) into the marine environment at toxic concentration levels. This pollution can particularly affect the oyster production, widely developed in the area. Monitoring MTE in surface sediments at high spatial resolution has been programmed to assess pollutants and their sources in two of the major Morbihan coastal systems concerned with oyster farming, and where available information on MTE impact and sediment quality is limited: the Bay of Quiberon, partly protected from the open ocean by the Quiberon Peninsula and several islands, mostly sandy (coarse to fine, with a significant shelly fraction), with water depths shallower that 25 m, and the Gulf of Morbihan, a shallow depth (less than 5 m, apart from the two paleoriver beds), semi-enclosed, estuarine system with very coarse sand to fine mud, mostly distributed by a strong tidal current system. Fifty two surface sediment samples were collected in April 2013 to characterize the MTE spatial distribution through the salinity and pollution gradients, from the small local rivers and harbor areas to the open marine environments. Analyses cover sedimentological and biogeochemical properties (particulate organic carbon using a LECO-CS-230; MTE using ICP-MS or DMA for Hg). Statistical analyses help to discriminate within the spatial variability the natural (e.g. grain-size effect) and anthropogenic factors. MTE concentrations were also compared to local geochemical background as measured at the bottom of three sediment cores collected in representative sites, for calculating the enrichment index of each MTE and evaluating the degree of sediment contamination. The initial interpretation of the results would indicate a clear distinction between the

  2. Temporal patterns of physical activity in Olympic dinghy racing.

    PubMed

    Legg, S; Mackie, H; Smith, P

    1999-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the temporal patterns of physical activity in four classes of Olympic racing dinghy. Descriptive. A field (on-water) study. Nineteen elite New Zealand sailors (fifteen male and four female). Not applicable. The temporal pattern (duration and frequency) and nature of the physical activities of each sailor during each leg of simulated races were recorded on video tape and subsequently systematically quantified and categorised using notational analysis. The accumulated percentage of total leg time spent sitting (upright or leaning backwards), hiking (upright or fully extended) whilst trimming and whilst pumping the mainsheet and for the time spent on rig adjustments, tacking and gybing were calculated for both up-wind and off-wind sailing. When sailing up-wind, the most time was spent hiking upright (average 29-66% of total leg time) while trimming the mainsheet. During off-wind sailing, sailors spent the most time sitting upright while trimming the mainsheet (average 29-55% total leg time). Hiking upright while trimming the mainsheet was executed the greatest number of times (average 15.8-23.9) when sailing up-wind and sitting upright while trimming was executed the most times (average 3.5-7.4) when sailing off-wind. The most lengthy continuous activity was hiking upright while trimming the mainsheet when sailing up-wind (9-18 seconds) and sitting upright while trimming the mainsheet when sailing off-wind (17-34 seconds). The most physically demanding aspect of Olympic yacht racing is hiking. It occurs for the majority of up-wind legs when the wind starts to exceed approximately 8 knots. The only respite that the sailor gets from hiking is during tacking, rig adjustments or sitting in-board for brief periods when the wind is low. Sustained hiking tends to last for no more than approximately 20 seconds before the sailor changes to either a more extended or more upright hiking posture. The physical demands during off

  3. Some notes on an early nineteenth century manuscript medical receipt book.

    PubMed

    Jackson, W A

    2003-06-01

    There are 97 remedies listed, including 11 veterinary ones. These numbers include several that are duplicates. The commonest types of medicament are salves or ointments, of which there are ten, but these ten do not include ointments for specific complaints such as haemorrhoids or scurvy. The most frequently found cures are for the itch (10), rheumatism (5), gravel (4), pain (4), and piles (3), all the others having only one or two entries. They were intended to treat 39 human complaints and 9 animal ones. In addition there were formulae for killing lice, making rat poison, and preparing damson wine! The number of different medicaments that were used in the recipes was relatively small, but more than were to be found in the smaller sizes of domestic medicine cabinet. In 1820 Reece's Traveller's Dispensary that was flat and would fit in the pocket of a carriage, only contained ten drugs plus court plaster, lint, scales and weights with a book of directions and cost L3.10s.0d. (L3.50). The Lady's Dispensary which contained twenty medicines, including two pills, with some dispensing equipment and a book of directions cost L5.10s.0d. (L5.50). In all, he listed twenty different cabinets and a sea medicine chest ranging in price from L3.10s.0d. to L32.10s.0d. They included ones suitable for the family, country clergymen, and travellers on the continent and in the tropics. In 1862 Savory and Moore stocked a range of sixty-seven different medicine chests and cases in rosewood, mahogany, walnut, boxwood and leather that were fitted with 'modern appliances and conveniences adapted for the requirements of families, clergymen, officers, owners of yachts, and travellers.' Unfortunately no prices are quoted. I think that we can safely assume that the treatment received at the hands of Evan Jones was likely to be rather rough and ready when compared to the ministrations of a physician, surgeon, clergyman or local 'Lady Bountiful', but, nevertheless, must have been of great value

  4. Map Showing Seacliff Response to Climatic and Seismic Events, Seabright Beach, Santa Cruz County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Richmond, Bruce M.; D'Iorio, Mimi M.

    2002-01-01

    the type or style of slope failure. Seabright Beach extends 0.9 km from San Lorenzo Point on the west to the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor on the east. The cliffs at Seabright Beach are completely protected from wave attack by a wide beach. The protective beach is a relatively recent feature that formed after the emplacement of the Santa Cruz Yacht Harbor jetty in 1963-1964. Prior to the completion of the jetty, the cliffs at Seabright Beach were subject to daily wave attack. The data in this study are post-jetty construction; therefore, the sea cliff failures and cliff retreat are the result of nonmarine processes (rainfall, groundwater and seismic shaking). The 8 to 15 m high cliffs at Seabright Beach are composed of the Miocene to Pliocene Purisima Formation, which is overlain by unconsolidated Pleistocene terrace deposits. The relative thickness of these units varies along the length of the cliff. At the west end of Seabright Beach, including San Lorenzo Point, nearly the entire cliff section is composed of Purisima Formation and is capped by less than 2 m of terrace deposits. In this exposure, the Purisima Formation is a moderately weathered, moderately indurated massive sandstone. The height of the cliffs and the thickness of the Purisima Formation decrease to the east. In the cliffs immediately adjacent to the harbor, the entire exposure is composed of terrace deposits. Toe-slope debris and wind-blown sand form a nearly continuous fan along the cliff base that obscure the lower portion of the cliff. This study documents the impacts of earthquakes and large storms to the sea cliffs in the Seabright Beach section. The first event is the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, a M7.1 earthquake that caused widespread damage to the area stretching from Santa Cruz to the San Francisco Bay. The epicenter of the earthquake was located in the Santa Cruz Mountains, approximately 9 km inland from the coast. Extensive block and debris falls, induced by the seismic shaking, occ

  5. The role of large and small cometary showers in the changes of living conditions on the Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churyumov, K. I.; Steklov, A. F.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Dashkiev, G. N.; Stepahno, I. V.; Steklov, E. A.; Slipchenko, A. S.; Romaniuk, Ya. O.

    2016-10-01

    Kyiv of specialized yachts with photorecorder, implemented by assistant professor G.N. Dashkiev. That's why we build big plans in this direction with the creation of several specialized yachts, which can be used in Kiev, Odessa, Nikolaev, where there is an astronomical observatory and meteor patrols. A large comet showers have to capture still far enough in space because they are deadly to of life on Earth. 3.4. Special AAO TAMS our services. Traditional Astronomical observatories (AO Kiev University. Shevchenko, MAO NASU, etc.) in need of of specialized aerial astronomical observatories (AAO) TAMS services based on of use drones, quadrocopters, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) with reliable PGAU [ 4, 6]. This is another important area for scientific and technical development services in TAMS "Churyumov Unified Network". 4. The International Academic Senate (IAS) and its role in the coordination of terrestrial services and networks, mobile, airborne and orbital space monitoring. Chief Scientific Secretary of the IAS Dashkiev GN not just passionate about photo-shoot on all kinds of dangerous intrusion into the sky over our cities, as has already been a great experience and significant progress in our common cause. Therefore, we hope not only to support the leadership of Ukraine, National Academy of Sciences, Security Service of Ukraine, the Emergencies Ministry, but also in the constructive and mutually beneficial cooperation with other countries

  6. Hydrographic variability in Bahia De La Paz, B. C. S, Mexico, during the 1997 1998 El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obeso-Nieblas, M.; Shirasago, B.; Sánchez-Velasco, L.; Gaviño-Rodriguez, J. H.

    2004-03-01

    Bahía de La Paz is an integral part of the coast of the Gulf of California and is the biggest bay of the eastern side of the Baja California Peninsula. Dynamic forcing and water interchange occur between the bay and the gulf through two different openings, the main and deep North Mouth with 350-m depth and the shallow San Lorenzo Channel with an average depth of 10 m. To determine the oceanographic conditions before and during El Niño 1997-1998 in Bahia de La Paz, CTD data were collected in four surveys aboard the research yacht CICIMAR XV during July 1996, March 1997, July 1997, and March 1998. The results revealed important variations in the hydrographic structure of the bay, both in space and time. The two summers had a complete absence of the mixed layer with a sharper thermocline during summer 1996 (0.25°C/m) than in summer 1997 (0.21°C/m). Additionally, the entire water column experienced an average temperature increase from 1.5°C at the surface with a maximum of 4.2°C to 28 m and around 1°C between 100 and 350 m, showing a halocline structure in summer 1997. At the end of the winters of 1997 and 1998, a 50-m mixed layer was detected, with higher average temperatures of 2.3°C in winter 1998. The temperature differences decreased with depth and were the same at 340 m with no traces of the halocline in winter 1998. The increase of temperature observed in the study area during the periods affected by El Niño 1997-1998 resulted in a sinking of the thermocline and isotherms, showing the strongest effect of this warming (>4°C) in the surface layer to 70 m during summer 1997. The stratification increased during the El Niño and was more evident in the period of small stratification in the region (winter) as showed by the φ parameter with values of 45 J/m3 in 1998 and 29 J/m3 in 1997, whereas during the strong stratification period (summer) the difference was small, with values of 137 J/m3 in 1996 and 139 J/m3 in 1997. In periods not affected by El Ni

  7. Submarine Landslides at Santa Catalina Island, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, M. R.; Francis, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    Santa Catalina Island is an active tectonic block of volcanic and metamorphic rocks originally exposed during middle Miocene transtension along the evolving Pacific-North America transform plate boundary. Post-Miocene transpression created the existing large pop-up structure along the major strike-slip restraining bend of the Catalina fault that forms the southwest flank of the uplift. Prominent submerged marine terraces apparent in high-resolution bathymetric maps interrupt the steep submarine slopes in the upper ~400 meters subsea depths. Steep subaerial slopes of the island are covered by Quaternary landslides, especially at the sea cliffs and in the blueschist metamorphic rocks. The submarine slopes also show numerous landslides that range in area from a few hectares to more than three sq-km (300 hectares). Three or more landslides of recent origin exist between the nearshore and first submerged terrace along the north-facing shelf of the island's West End. One of these slides occurred during September 2005 when divers observed a remarkable change in the seafloor configuration after previous dives in the area. Near a sunken yacht at about 45-ft depth where the bottom had sloped gently into deeper water, a "sinkhole" had formed that dropped steeply to 100-ft or greater depths. Some bubbling sand was observed in the shallow water areas that may be related to the landslide process. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry acquired in 2008 by CSU Monterey Bay show this "fresh" slide and at least two other slides of varying age along the West End. The slides are each roughly 2 hectares in area and their debris aprons are spread across the first terrace at about 85-m water depth that is likely associated with the Last Glacial Maximum sealevel lowstand. Larger submarine slides exist along the steep Catalina and Catalina Ridge escarpments along the southwest flank of the island platform. A prominent slide block, exceeding 3 sq-km in area, appears to have slipped more than

  8. The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.

    2012-01-01

    more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.

  9. Marine Science and Education in one Word: "planeetzee.org"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seys, J.; Copejans, E.; Ameije, K.

    2009-04-01

    It is a major challenge to bring science and technology to the public at large and more particular to young people. This is even more true for marine sciences, due to the very nature of the study field and the fact that the underwater world is difficult to experience and communicate. Therefore it is not surprising that in Europe there are only few examples of marine educational projects that try to go beyond the ‘observe and describe' approach. In 2004 SHE Consultancy, the Flanders Marine Institute VLIZ and DAB Vloot developed a first Belgian e-learning programme dedicated to oceans and seas, with the support of the Flemish government ("Action plan Science Communication"). This programme ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw' (www.expeditiezeeleeuw.be), ran from 2005 till 2007 and challenged some 3000 Flemish students of 16-18 years old all over Flanders to find creative solutions for 10 major marine issues at the Belgian coast. The class that could convince the jury to have discovered the most creative and intelligent solutions, wan a one-week scientific expedition at sea on board the vessel Zeeleeuw. As a successor to ‘Expedition Zeeleeuw', a new e-learning project on marine science was developed in 2007: ‘Planeet Zee' i.e. ‘Planet Ocean' (www.planeetzee.org; info via info@planeetzee.org + demo-site in English available at www.planetocean.eu). The new marine and coastal e-learning project is presented as a virtual sailing trip on the Atlantic Ocean. It follows the adventures of two youngsters "borrowing" the yacht of their father and getting into trouble on the open ocean. On this journey they face 21 problems (eg. out of food, drinking water or fuel, fear for whales, Bermuda triangle, tsunami's etc… ), each of them introduced by a short movie clip. When they realize they can not solve the problem, they ask for radio help and - what a surprise! - get interesting answers from the Zeeleeuw research vessel and its 21 marine scientists on board, that appears to be in the

  10. PREFACE: Electrostatics 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, James

    2015-10-01

    presentation related to their work. Chilworth Technology and Infolytica both took advantage of this opportunity. David Firth from Chilworth Technology delivered some case studies related to process safety and Chris Emson from Infolytica compared the different types of modelling software used in industry and academia. For two days of the conference, an exhibition was held for delegates to meet and discuss their work with interested companies. Sessions on Modelling and Simulation and on Measurement and Instrumentation were included. Recent successful IOP meetings on Electrospinning and Electrospray prove that this is an important topic, and were the subject of a session in the conference, including an invited talk by Dr Horst von Recum on Electrospun materials for affinity based drug delivery. The conference finished with a session on Environmental and Space Applications. The Southampton Yacht Club provided a fitting venue for the conference dinner on the Wednesday evening. Meal times, and conference dinners in particular, are always a great opportunity to meet with other workers in related fields, and there were many conversations started in question and answer sessions that continued over a plate of food. Within the conference dinner, prizes were awarded for the best student work. Ladislav Konopka's talk in the modelling and simulation session discussed how different particle sizes can be shown to transfer charge in a modelled system. Matthias Perez's poster presented early work on the use of a small-scale wind turbine to generate wind power. The discussions both within the lecture theatre and the ongoing discussions that occur over coffee and tea in between sessions are often a place where new ideas are shared. In fact, the presentation submitted by Dr Atsushi Ohsawa, Charge neutralisation from the side surface of an insulating plate, acknowledged an inspiration from a question raised at a previous Electrostatics conference in Budapest in 2013. In these proceedings the