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Sample records for yardlong bean vigna

  1. The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis

    PubMed Central

    Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Vaughan, Duncan A.; Srinives, Peerasak

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims The genetics of domestication of yardlong bean [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis] is of particular interest because the genome of this legume has experienced divergent domestication. Initially, cowpea was domesticated from wild cowpea in Africa; in Asia a vegetable form of cowpea, yardlong bean, subsequently evolved from cowpea. Information on the genetics of domestication-related traits would be useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding programmes, as well as comparative genome study among members of the genus Vigna. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean and compare them with previously reported QTLs in closely related Vigna. Methods Two linkage maps were developed from BC1F1 and F2 populations from the cross between yardlong bean (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata cv.-gr. sesquipedalis) accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (V. unguiculata ssp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. Using these linkage maps, QTLs for 24 domestication-related traits were analysed and mapped. QTLs were detected for traits related to seed, pod, stem and leaf. Key Results Most traits were controlled by between one and 11 QTLs. QTLs for domestication-related traits show co-location on several narrow genomic regions on almost all linkage groups (LGs), but especially on LGs 3, 7, 8 and 11. Major QTLs for sizes of seed, pod, stem and leaf were principally located on LG7. Pleiotropy or close linkage of genes for the traits is suggested in these chromosome regions. Conclusions This is the first report of QTLs for domestication-related traits in yardlong bean. The results provide a foundation for marker-assisted selection of domestication-related QTLs in yardlong bean and enhance understanding of domestication in the genus Vigna. PMID:22419763

  2. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata).

    PubMed

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Baral, Bikash; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-09-15

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO₃ (N)-prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens-were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium -nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO₃.

  3. Silicon and Nitrate Differentially Modulate the Symbiotic Performances of Healthy and Virus-Infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Yardlong Bean (V. unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) and Mung Bean (V. radiata)

    PubMed Central

    Izaguirre-Mayoral, Maria Luisa; Brito, Miriam; Garrido, Mario José

    2017-01-01

    The effects of 2 mM silicon (Si) and 10 mM KNO3 (N)—prime signals for plant resistance to pathogens—were analyzed in healthy and Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) or Cowpea mild mottle virus (CMMV)-infected Bradyrhizobium-nodulated cowpea, yardlong bean and mung bean plants. In healthy plants of the three Vigna taxa, nodulation and growth were promoted in the order of Si + N > N > Si > controls. In the case of healthy cowpea and yardlong bean, the addition of Si and N decreased ureide and α-amino acids (AA) contents in the nodules and leaves in the order of Si + N> N > Si > controls. On the other hand, the addition of N arrested the deleterious effects of CCMV or CMMV infections on growth and nodulation in the three Vigna taxa. However, the addition of Si or Si + N hindered growth and nodulation in the CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean, causing a massive accumulation of ureides in the leaves and nodules. Nevertheless, the AA content in leaves and nodules of CCMV- or CMMV-infected cowpea and yardlong bean was promoted by Si but reduced to minimum by Si + N. These results contrasted to the counteracting effects of Si or Si + N in the CCMV- and CMMV-infected mung bean via enhanced growth, nodulation and levels of ureide and AA in the leaves and nodules. Together, these observations suggest the fertilization with Si + N exclusively in virus-free cowpea and yardlong bean crops. However, Si + N fertilization must be encouraged in virus-endangered mung bean crops to enhance growth, nodulation and N-metabolism. It is noteworthy to see the enhanced nodulation of the three Vigna taxa in the presence of 10 mM KNO3. PMID:28914770

  4. Identification and characterization of anthocyanins in yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis L.) by High-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS) analysis.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae Joung; Lee, Myoung-Hee; Park, Chang-Hwan; Pae, Suk-Bok; Shim, Kang-Bo; Ko, Jong-Min; Shin, Sang-Ouk; Baek, In-Youl; Park, Keum-Yong

    2010-02-24

    Anthocyanins play an important role in physiological functions related to human health. The objective of this study was to investigate the profiles of anthocyanins in the immature purple pods and black seeds of yard-long beans ( Vigna unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis L.) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (DAD-ESI/MS) analysis. The individual anthocyanins were identified by comparing their mass spectrometric data and retention times. In the purple pods, five individual anthocyanins were identified: delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (2), cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (4), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (5), pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (7), and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (8). From the black seed coat of the yard-long beans, seven anthocyanins were identified, including delphinidin-3-O-galactoside (1), cyanidin-3-O-galactoside (3), petunidin-3-O-glucoside (6), and malvidin-3-O-glucoside (9), together with compounds 2, 5, and 8. In this study, we report for the first time anthocyanin profiles for the pod and seed coat of yard-long beans.

  5. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8.

  7. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  8. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  9. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  10. Saponins and Flavonoids from Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis L.) Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in ICR Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zheng, Yinan; Cai, Zongwei; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: As an herbal medicine, adzuki bean has been practiced since the Tang Dynasty of China to maintain health and control weight; this practice is still very popular in China nowadays. However, it is still lack of sufficient scientific basis to explain scientific principle of this popular civil practice in weight control using adzuki bean. The purpose of this study was to verify and explain the anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean through in vitro enzymatic assays, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo study of obese mice model. Methods: Inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) on pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase activities, and noradrenaline-induced lipolysis were assessed. High-fat diet-induced obesity model was created to study anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean. Both serum and liver lipid parameters were determined after 8 weeks intervention. Results: Adzuki bean extracts enhanced lipolysis. Compared to the final body weight of high-fat diet group, oral administration of adzuki bean significantly ( p < 0.05) reduced the final body weight of mice and adipose tissue accumulation. The adzuki bean intervention also significantly reduced the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and liver lipid. Conclusion: Adzuki bean demonstrated the anti-obesity effects on mice, such effects may mediated through the inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities, and lipolysis enhancement effect of active components from adzuki bean.

  11. Saponins and Flavonoids from Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis L.) Ameliorate High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity in ICR Mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zheng, Yinan; Cai, Zongwei; Xu, Baojun

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose: As an herbal medicine, adzuki bean has been practiced since the Tang Dynasty of China to maintain health and control weight; this practice is still very popular in China nowadays. However, it is still lack of sufficient scientific basis to explain scientific principle of this popular civil practice in weight control using adzuki bean. The purpose of this study was to verify and explain the anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean through in vitro enzymatic assays, in vitro lipolysis and in vivo study of obese mice model. Methods: Inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) on pancreatic lipase, α-glucosidase activities, and noradrenaline-induced lipolysis were assessed. High-fat diet-induced obesity model was created to study anti-obesity effects of adzuki bean. Both serum and liver lipid parameters were determined after 8 weeks intervention. Results: Adzuki bean extracts enhanced lipolysis. Compared to the final body weight of high-fat diet group, oral administration of adzuki bean significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the final body weight of mice and adipose tissue accumulation. The adzuki bean intervention also significantly reduced the levels of serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and liver lipid. Conclusion: Adzuki bean demonstrated the anti-obesity effects on mice, such effects may mediated through the inhibitory effects of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities, and lipolysis enhancement effect of active components from adzuki bean. PMID:29021760

  12. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation.

  13. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-10-27

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean.

  15. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean. PMID:26460024

  16. Stachyose synthesis in seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis): molecular cloning and functional expression of stachyose synthase.

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, T; Mucha, J; Mayer, U; Popp, M; Glössl, J; Richter, A

    1999-12-01

    Stachyose is the major soluble carbohydrate in seeds of a number of important crop species. It is synthesized from raffinose and galactinol by the action of stachyose synthase (EC 2.4.1.67). We report here on the identification of a cDNA encoding stachyose synthase from seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi). Based on internal amino acid sequences of the enzyme purified from adzuki bean, oligonucleotides were designed and used to amplify corresponding sequences from adzuki bean cDNA by RT-PCR, followed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE-PCR). The complete cDNA sequence comprised 3046 nucleotides and included an open reading frame which encoded a polypeptide of 857 amino acid residues. The entire coding region was amplified by PCR, engineered into the baculovirus expression vector pVL1393 and introduced into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells for heterologous expression. The recombinant protein was immunologically reactive with polyclonal antibodies raised against stachyose synthase purified from adzuki bean and was shown to be a functional stachyose synthase with the same catalytic properties as its native counterpart. High levels of stachyose synthase mRNA were transiently accumulated midway through seed development, and the enzyme was also present in mature seeds and during germination.

  17. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used.

  18. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA.

  19. Morphology, crystallinity, pasting, thermal and quality characteristics of starches from adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and edible kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii Benth).

    PubMed

    Reddy, Chagam Koteswara; Luan, Fei; Xu, Baojun

    2017-12-01

    Starches were isolated from adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and edible kudzu (Pueraria thomsonii Benth) and investigated for their physico-chemical, morphological, pasting, crystallinity, thermal and FT-IR spectroscopic characteristics. Statistical analysis of physico-chemical and functional characteristics showed significant (p<0.05) difference between isolated starches from adzuki bean and edible kudzu. The XRD pattern of starches from adzuki bean and edible kudzu showed A-type with reflections (2θ) at 15.0°, 17.03°, 17.89°, 23.18°and 15.12°, 17.03°, 17.77°, 23.3°, respectively. The starch granules from adzuki bean were smooth, round, oval to kidney or irregular while those of edible kudzu starch were spherical, hemispherical and polygonal. Edible kudzu starch exhibited high pasting temperature, gelatinization temperatures, enthalpy and less pasting parameters as compared to starch from adzuki bean. Peaks in FT-IR spectra of both starches shown its carbohydrate nature. Starch from adzuki bean showed high swelling power and solubility as compared to edible kudzu, and enhanced the swelling power and solubility of isolated starches with the temperature raised from 50°C and 90°C. Finally, this work offers data for the application of starches isolated from adzuki bean and edible kudzu that would be applicable for both food and non-food industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of biochar on enhanced nutrient use efficiency of green bean, Vigna radiata L.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Songkrit; Tawinteung, Nukoon

    2017-04-01

    Biochar is the carbonized material produced from biomass and is used in several environmental applications. The biochar characteristics depend on the carbonization conditions and feedstock. The suitability of a given biochar for soil improvement depends on the biochar characteristics, soil properties, and target plants. Biochar has been applied at 1-20% (w/w) in the soil, but currently there is a lack of information on what type and concentration of biochar are most suitable for a specific plant and soil quality. Too much biochar will reduce plant growth because of the high alkalinity of biochar, which will cause long-term soil alkalinity. In contrast, too little biochar might be insufficient to enhance plant productivity. In this study, a suitable concentration of cassava stem (an abundant agricultural waste in Thailand) biochar produced at 350 °C was evaluated for green bean (Vigna radiata L.) growth from germination to seed production in pots over 8 weeks. The soil fertility was increased with increasing biochar concentration. At 5% (w/w) biochar, the soil fertility and plant growth were significantly enhanced, while 10% (w/w) biochar significantly enhanced bean growth and bean pod production. The increased biochar concentration in the soil significantly increased the soil total nitrogen and extractable potassium (K) levels but did not affect the amount of available phosphorous. Biochar at 10% (w/w) significantly induced the accumulation of K in the stems, leaves, nut shells, and roots but not in nut seeds. Moreover, biochar not only increased the K concentration in soil but also increased the plant nutrient use efficiency of K, which is important for plant growth. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  1. Remediation of arsenic in mung bean (Vigna radiata) with growth enhancement by unique arsenic-resistant bacterium Acinetobacter lwoffii.

    PubMed

    Das, Joyati; Sarkar, Priyabrata

    2018-05-15

    Arsenic, a carcinogenic and toxic contaminant of soil and water, affects human health adversely. During last few decades, it has been an important global environmental issue. Among several arsenic detoxification methods remediation using arsenic resistant microbes is proved to be environment-friendly and cost-effective. This study aimed to test the effects of arsenic utilizing bacterial strain Acinetobacter lwoffii (RJB-2) on arsenic uptake and growth of mung bean plants (Vigna radiata). RJB-2 exhibited tolerance up to 125mM of arsenic (V) and 50mM of arsenic (III). RJB-2 produced plant growth promoting substances e.g. indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and phosphate solubilization in the absence and in presence of arsenic. Pot experiments were used to scrutinize the role of RJB-2 on arsenic uptake and growth of mung bean plants grown in soil amended with 22.5mgkg -1 of sodium arsenate (Na 2 HAsO 4 ·7H 2 O). RJB-2 could arrest arsenic uptake in just 7days and increase plant growth, number of plants per pot, chlorophyll and carotenoid content of the mung bean plants. RJB-2 formed biofilm and its root-association helped to abate arsenic uptake in mung bean. Confocal and light microscopic studies also revealed the abatement of arsenic uptake and increase in chlorophyll content in mung bean plants in presence of RJB-2. RJB-2 was also responsible for less production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mung bean plants reducing the oxidative damage caused by arsenic. The lower percentage of electrolytic leakage (EL) in RJB-2 inoculated mung bean plants proved arsenic abatement. The study also reported the distribution of arsenic in various parts of mung bean plant. RJB-2 owing to its intrinsic abilities of plant growth promotion even in presence of high concentrations of arsenic could inhibit arsenic uptake completely and therefore it could be used in large-scale cultivation for phytostabilization of plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  2. Utilization of Diamine Oxidase Enzyme from Mung Bean Sprouts (Vigna radiata L) for Histamine biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Abdul; Wahab, A. W.; Raya, I.; Natsir, H.; Arif, A. R.

    2018-03-01

    This research is aimed to utilize the diamine oxidase enzyme (DAO) which isolated from mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L) to develop histamine biosensors based on electode enzyme with the amperometric method (cyclic voltammetry).The DAO enzyme is trapped inside the membrane of chitin-cellulose acetate 2:1 and glutaraldehyde which super imposed on a Pt electrode. Histamine will be oxidized by DAO enzyme to produce aldehydes and H2O2 that acting as electron transfer mediators.The performance of biosensors will be measured at various concentrations of glutaraldehyde, temperature changes and different range of pH. Recently, it has been found that the optimal conditions obtained from the paramaters as follows; at 25% of glutaraldehyde, temperature of 37°C and pH of 7.4. Eventually, the results provided an expectation for applying histamine biosensors in determining the freshness and safety of fish specifically skombroidae families.

  3. Phenolic antioxidants in some Vigna species of legumes and their distinct inhibitory effects on α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase activities.

    PubMed

    Sreerama, Yadahally N; Takahashi, Yoko; Yamaki, Kohji

    2012-09-01

    Phenolic extracts of 4 Vigna species of legumes (mung bean, moth bean, and black and red varieties of adzuki beans) were evaluated for phenolic contents, antioxidant activities, and inhibitory properties against α-glucosidase and pancreatic lipase. Results showed that adzuki bean varieties contain higher phenolic indexes than mung bean and moth beans. Adzuki bean (black) variety was found to be the most active 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and superoxide anion scavenger. However, the hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating abilities were significantly higher in adzuki bean (red) variety. Mung bean exhibited least antioxidant activities in all the methods tested. Phenolic extracts from these legumes also showed distinct variations in the inhibition of enzymes associated with hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Inhibitory activities of all the extracts against lipase were found to be more potent than α-glucosidase. Although, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity was superior in the black variety of adzuki bean (IC(50,) 26.28 mg/mL), both adzuki bean varieties (black and red) along with moth bean showed strong inhibitory activities on lipase with no significant difference in their IC(50) values (7.32 to 9.85 mg/mL). These results suggest that Vigna species of legumes are potential source of antioxidant phenolics and also great sources of strong natural inhibitors for α-glucosidase and lipase activities. This information may help for effective utilization of these legumes as functional food ingredients for promoting health. Practical Application:  Vigna species of legumes are good sources of phenolic antioxidants and strong natural inhibitors of enzymes associated with diabetes and obesity. Therefore, utilization of these legumes in the development of functional foods with increased therapeutic value would be a significant step toward health promotion and wellness. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  5. Expanding the repertoire of microsatellite markers for polymorphism studies in Indian accessions of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Shrivastava, Divya; Verma, Priyanka; Bhatia, Sabhyata

    2014-09-01

    Limited availability of validated, polymorphic microsatellite markers in mung bean (Vigna radiata), an important food legume of India, has been a major hurdle towards its improvement and higher yield. The present study was undertaken in order to develop a new set of microsatellite markers and utilize them for the analysis of genetic diversity within mung bean accessions from India. A GA/CT enriched library was constructed from V. radiata which resulted in 1,250 putative recombinant clones of which 850 were sequenced. SSR motifs were identified and their flanking sequences were utilized to design 328 SSR primer pairs. Of these, 48 SSR markers were employed for assessing genetic diversity among 76 mung bean accessions from various geographical locations in India. Two hundred and thirty four alleles with an average of 4.85 alleles per locus were detected at 48 loci. The polymorphic information content (PIC) per locus varied from 0.1 to 0.88 (average: 0.49 per locus). The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.40 to 0.95 and 0.40 to 0.81 respectively. Based on Jaccard's similarity matrix, a dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) analysis which revealed that one accession from Bundi, Rajasthan was clustered out separately while remaining accessions were grouped into two major clusters. The markers generated in this study will help in expanding the repertoire of the available SSR markers thereby facilitating analysis of genetic diversity, molecular mapping and ultimately broadening the scope for genetic improvement of this legume.

  6. Seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed coat of cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) slowly browns to a darker color during storage. High temperature and humidity during storage might contribute to this color change. Variation in browning rate among seeds in a lot leads to a mixture of seed colors creating an unacceptable product...

  7. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  8. Compositional studies and biological activities of some mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) cultivars commonly consumed in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Shakeel; Bukhari, Shazia Anwer; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Ercisli, Sezai; Jaafar, Hawa Z E

    2014-05-30

    In recent years, the desire to adopt a healthy diet has drawn attention to legume seeds and food products derived from them. Mash bean is an important legume crop used in Pakistan however a systematic mapping of the chemical composition of mash bean seeds is lacking. Therefore seeds of four mash bean (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper, family Leguminoseae) cultivars (NARC-Mash-1, NARC-Mash-2, NARC-Mash-3, NARC-Mash-97) commonly consumed in Pakistan have been analyzed for their chemical composition, antioxidant potential and biological activities like inhibition of formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) activity and tyrosinase inhibition activity. The investigated cultivars varied in terms of biochemical composition to various extents. Mineral composition indicated potassium and zinc in highest and lowest amounts respectively, in all cultivars. The amino acid profile in protein of these cultivars suggested cysteine is present in lowest quantity in all cultivars while fatty acid distribution pattern indicated unsaturated fatty acids as major fatty acids in all cultivars. All cultivars were found to be rich source of tocopherols and sterols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fingerprints of seed flour and extracts indicated major functional groups such as polysaccharides, lipids, amides, amines and amino acids. Results indicated that all investigated cultivars possessed appreciable antioxidant potential. All cultivars are rich source of protein and possess sufficient content of dietary fiber, a balanced amino acid profile, low saturated fatty acids and antioxidant capacity that rationalizes many traditional uses of seeds of this crop besides its nutritional importance. The collected data will be useful for academic and corporate researchers, nutritionists and clinical dieticians as well as consumers. If proper attention is paid, it may become an important export commodity and may fetch considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan.

  9. Effect of exogenous ATP on the postharvest properties and pectin degradation of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Zhou, Yige; He, Zhenyun; Liu, Qin; Lai, Shaojuan; Yang, Hongshun

    2018-06-15

    The effects of exogenous ATP on the postharvest quality, browning and softening of mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts were evaluated. ATP treatment significantly alleviated the quality loss and browning events during the storage of 3 days. It also reduced the oxidant damage by inducing high activities of peroxidase (9.3-13.9%) and superoxide dismutase (8.8-10.3%) which scavenged the reactive oxygen species (ROS) effectively. Transcriptional results indicated that ATP treatment decreased VrPL1, VrPME and VrPG1 gene expression levels more than 2 folds at some time points. Furthermore, the atomic force microscope (AFM) images revealed that the pectin degradation was notably slowed by ATP treatment and the width and height of pectin backbone were better maintained (47.1% and 45.6% higher than control without ATP treatment). The cooperative effects of ROS scavenging and decreased expressions of pectin-related genes might contribute to the deferred pectin deterioration and firmness loss by ATP treatment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Common bean and cowpea improvement in Angola

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During 2014 and 2015, the Instituto de Investigação Agronómica (IIA) evaluated the performance of common bean (Phaselolus vulgaris L.) breeding lines and improved cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) varieties. The field experiments were planted in the lowlands at Mazozo and in the highlands at Chian...

  11. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  12. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Phytochemical distribution in hull and cotyledon of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) and mung bean (Vigna radiate L.), and their contribution to antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic activities.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaqiang; Cai, Weixi; Wu, Tong; Xu, Baojun

    2016-06-15

    Total saponin content, total phenolics content, total flavonoids content, condensed tannin content in hull, cotyledon and whole grain of both adzuki bean and mung bean were determined by colorimetric methods. Vitexin and isovitexin contents in mung bean were determined by HPLC. Antioxidant effects were evaluated with DPPH scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic effects of beans were evaluated by protease and aldose reductase inhibitory assays, respectively. The results indicated that the bean hulls were the most abundant in phytochemicals and largely contributed antioxidant activities, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-diabetic effects of whole grains. The result showed that mung bean hull was the most abundant with vitexin at 37.43 mg/g and isovitexin at 47.18 mg/g, respectively. Most of the phytochemicals and bioactivities were most predominantly contributed by the bean hulls with exception for condensed tannin of mung bean; which was more abundant in the cotyledon than its hull. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract inhibits the development of experimentally induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice.

    PubMed

    Collantes, Therese Marie; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kwon, Hyoung-Jun; Jung, Bock-Gie; Alfajaro, Mia Madel; Kim, Deok-Song; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Hosmillo, Myra; Park, Jun-Gyu; Son, Kyu-Yeol; Park, Sang-Ik; Kang, Mun-Il; Park, Su-Jin; Lee, Seung Woong; Lee, Woo-Song; Cho, Kyoung-Oh

    2012-06-01

    The present study investigated the effects of azuki bean (Vigna angularis) extract (VAE) on the progress of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice induced by 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. The efficacy of VAE in NC/Nga mice was determined by measuring gross and histological skin lesions, serum IgE levels, eosinophil ratio in peripheral leucocytes, and mRNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-4, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ in splenocytes. Continuous ingestion of VAE inhibited the development of the AD-like skin lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In the VAE-treated mice, the numbers of mast cells in the skin, eosinophil ratio in peripheral leucocytes, relative mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines in the spleen, and serum IgE levels were significantly reduced. Results suggest that VAE can inhibit the development of AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulating immune mediators and cells, and may be an effective alternative therapy for AD. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bean common mosaic virus isolates causing different symptoms in asparagus bean in China differ greatly in the 5'-parts of their genomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongying; Chen, Jiong; Chen, Jianping; Adams, Michael J; Hou, Mingsheng

    2002-06-01

    Potyvirus isolates from asparagus bean ( Vigna sesquipedalis) plants in Zhejiang province, China, caused either rugose and vein banding mosaic symptoms (isolate R) or severe yellowing (isolate Y) in this host, but were otherwise similar in host range. Both isolates were completely sequenced and shown to be isolates of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV). The complete sequences were 9992 (R) or 10062 (Y) nucleotides long and shared 91.7% identical nucleotides (93.2% identical amino acids) in their genomes and were more distantly related to the BCMV-Peanut stripe virus sequence (PStV). The isolates were much less similar to one another in the 5'-UTR and the N-terminal region of the P1 protein. In the P1, isolate Y was closer to PStV (76.1% identical amino acids) than to isolate R (64.8%). Phylogenetic analyses of the coat protein region showed that the new isolates grouped with other isolates from Vigna spp., forming the blackeye cowpea mosaic strain subgroup of BCMV with 94-98% nucleotides (96-99% amino acids) identical to one another and about 90% identity to other BCMV isolates. Other significant subgroupings amongst published BCMV isolates were detected.

  16. Development and characterization of a new set of genomic microsatellite markers in rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi and Ohashi) and their utilization in genetic diversity analysis of collections from North East India.

    PubMed

    Iangrai, Banshanlang; Pattanayak, Arunava; Khongwir, D Evanoreen Ann; Pale, Gratify; Gatphoh, Emica Mary; Das, Alpana; Chrungoo, Nikhil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Rice bean [Vigna umbellate (Thumb.) Ohwi and Ohashi] is an underutilized crop believed to be domesticated in the Myanmar-Thailand region of Asia. In India, rice bean is mainly cultivated in the North-Eastern Hills, which is a hotspot for biological diversity. A 5' anchored PCR was used to develop microsatellite markers in rice bean. Twenty-eight specific primer pairs were designed and employed to characterize sixty five ricebean accessions collected from North East India. A total of 179 alleles were amplified with an average of 6.393 alleles per locus. The gene diversity was high (mean 0.534) in the accessions collected from Darjeeling, Nagaland and Manipur, which are bordering areas with East Nepal and Myanmar, respectively. Exceptionally high outcrossing rate was observed in the entire population. Population structure analysis identified three distinct clusters in which accessions collected from areas bordering Myanmar and East Nepal grouped separately. Using a combination of STRUCTURE and Principal Coordinate Analysis, relative affinity of the intermediate accessions could be established. However, differences in allelic counts among populations were non-significant. The results showed that there is a high level of genetic diversity within the accessions, with high outcrossing rate.

  17. Determination of Urease Biochemical Properties of Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata ssp sesquipedalis L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zusfahair; Ningsih, D. R.; Fatoni, A.; Pertiwi, D. S.

    2018-04-01

    Urease is enzyme that plays a role in nitrogen metabolism during plant germination. Plants that produce a lot of urease are grains. This study used asparagus bean as source of urease. The purpose of this research is to learn the effect of germination time on the activity of urease enzyme from asparagus bean and its biochemical properties. The research was started by germination of asparagus bean on day 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Asparagus bean sprouts were extracted using acetone and separated by centrifugation to obtain the crude extract of urease. The biochemical properties of the crude extract of urease was further determined including: the effect of temperature, pH, substrate concentration, and metal addition to urease activity. The urease activity is determined by the Nessler method. The germination time of asparagus bean in yielding urease enzyme reached the optimum activity on the 8th day with activity value of 593.7 U/mL. The biochemical properties of urease from asparagus bean have optimum activity at 35 °C, pH 7.0 and substrate concentration 0.125% with activity value of 600 U/mL. Addition of CaCl2, SnCl2 and ZnCl2 metals decrease the activity of urease.

  18. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W; Sloan, Daniel B; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-20

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes.

  19. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 1005.00 Corn (Maize). 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans. 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans. 0713.39 Beans, other. 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans. 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum). 0713.20 Chickpeas...

  20. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils...

  1. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (Maize) 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40...

  2. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90 Dried...

  3. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils...

  4. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils...

  5. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 1005.00 Corn (Maize). 0713.31 Dried Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek. 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans. 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans. 0713.39 Beans, other. 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans. 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum). 0713.20 Chickpeas...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90 Dried...

  7. 31 CFR Appendix A to Part 538 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90 Dried...

  8. 31 CFR Appendix B to Part 560 - Bulk Agricultural Commodities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Beans including Vigna mungo (L.), Hepper, and Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek 0713.32 Small red (adzuki) beans 0713.33 Kidney beans, including white pea beans 0713.39 Beans, other 0713.50 Broad beans and horse beans 0713.10 Dried Peas (Pisum sativum) 0713.20 Chickpeas (garbanzos) 0713.40 Lentils 0713.90 Dried...

  9. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327bp encoding 109 amino acids w...

  10. Using Mung Beans as a Simple, Informative Means to Evaluate the Phytotoxicity of Engineered Nanomaterials and Introduce the Concept of Nanophytotoxicity to Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Shailise S.; Owen, Matthew J.; Pedersen, Brian P.; Liu, Gang-yu; Miller, William J. W.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a lecture and lab series that focuses on teaching the concept of nanophytotoxicity to undergraduate students in a relatively simple experiment. In this experiment, students evaluated the phytotoxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) using mung beans (i.e., "Vigna radiata") and industrially relevant, commercially…

  11. Mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.)) coat extract modulates macrophage functions to enhance antigen presentation: A proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Akiko; Hitachi, Keisuke; Zhu, Wei; Tian, Jingkui; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-05-24

    The immunomodulatory effect of mung bean is mainly attributed to antioxidant properties of flavonoids; however, the precise machinery for biological effect on animal cells remains uncertain. To understand the physiological change produced by mung bean consumption, proteomic and metabolomic techniques were used. In vitro assay confirmed the importance of synergistic interaction among multiple flavonoids by IL-6 expression. Proteomic analysis detected that the abundance of 190 proteins was changed in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by treatment with coat extract. Pathway mapping revealed that a range of proteins were regulated including an interferon-responsive antiviral enzyme (2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase), antigen processing factors (immunoglobulin heavy chain-binding protein and protein disulfide-isomerase), and proteins related to proteasomal degradation. Major histocompatibility complex pathway was activated. These results suggest that mung bean consumption enhances immune response toward a Th2-promoting polarization. This study highlighted the immunomodulation of RAW264.7 cells in response to treatment with mung bean seed coat extract, using gel-free proteomic technique. The mechanism of immunomodulation by mung bean has not been described until today except for a report which identified HMGB1 suppression as a pathway underlying the protective effect against sepsis. This study suggested that the mung bean is involved in the regulation of antigen processing and presentation, and thus shifts immune response from acute febrile illness to specific/systemic and long-lasting immunity to protect the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Too much to handle? Pesticide dependence of smallholder vegetable farmers in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Schreinemachers, Pepijn; Chen, Hsiao-Pu; Nguyen, Thi Tan Loc; Buntong, Borarin; Bouapao, Lilao; Gautam, Shriniwas; Le, Nhu Thinh; Pinn, Thira; Vilaysone, Phimchai; Srinivasan, Ramasamy

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to understand farmers' knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding agricultural pest management and synthetic pesticide use in Southeast Asia. Data were used from 900 farm households producing leaf mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. et Coss.) and yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis (L.) Verdc.) in Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Farmers heavily depended on synthetic pesticides as their main method of pest control. Most farmers were aware of the adverse health effects associated with pesticide use and covered body parts while spraying, but also considered pesticides to be highly effective and indispensable farm inputs. Farmers were largely unable to distinguish between common beneficial and harmful arthropods. Greater knowledge about this was associated with less pesticide use while greater awareness of pesticide health risks was associated with fewer observed poisoning symptoms. For the average farm and while controlling for other factors, farmers who sought advice from friends and neighbors used 45% less pesticide, but those who sought advice from pesticide shopkeepers used 251% more pesticide. Pesticide use was 42% less when a woman was in charge of pest management and 31% less when farmers had adopted biopesticides. These findings suggest relevant entry points for interventions aimed at reducing pesticide dependence. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Transcriptome Profiling of Two Asparagus Bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. sesquipedalis) Cultivars Differing in Chilling Tolerance under Cold Stress.

    PubMed

    Tan, Huaqiang; Huang, Haitao; Tie, Manman; Tang, Yi; Lai, Yunsong; Li, Huanxiu

    2016-01-01

    Cowpea (V. unguiculata L. Walp.) is an important tropical grain legume. Asparagus bean (V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedialis) is a distinctive subspecies of cowpea, which is considered one of the top ten Asian vegetables. It can be adapted to a wide range of environmental stimuli such as drought and heat. Nevertheless, it is an extremely cold-sensitive tropical species. Improvement of chilling tolerance in asparagus bean may significantly increase its production and prolong its supply. However, gene regulation and signaling pathways related to cold response in this crop remain unknown. Using Illumina sequencing technology, modification of global gene expression in response to chilling stress in two asparagus bean cultivars-"Dubai bean" and "Ningjiang-3", which are tolerant and sensitive to chilling, respectively-were investigated. More than 1.8 million clean reads were obtained from each sample. After de novo assembly, 88,869 unigenes were finally generated with a mean length of 635 bp. Of these unigenes, 41,925 (47.18%) had functional annotations when aligned to public protein databases. Further, we identified 3,510 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Dubai bean, including 2,103 up-regulated genes and 1,407 down-regulated genes. While in Ningjiang-3, we found 2,868 DEGs, 1,786 of which were increasing and the others were decreasing. 1,744 DEGs were commonly regulated in two cultivars, suggesting that some genes play fundamental roles in asparagus bean during cold stress. Functional classification of the DEGs in two cultivars using Mercator pipeline indicated that RNA, protein, signaling, stress and hormone metabolism were five major groups. In RNA group, analysis of TFs in DREB subfamily showed that ICE1-CBF3-COR cold responsive cascade may also exist in asparagus bean. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource for asparagus bean, which will accelerate breeding cold resistant asparagus bean varieties through genetic engineering, and

  14. Characterization and quantification of flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MSn analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Cai, Zongwei; Xu, Baojun

    2017-09-22

    Bioactive activities of adzuki bean have been widely reported, however, the phytochemical information of adzuki bean is incomplete. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify flavonoids and saponins in adzuki bean. High performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electro spray ionization-tandem multi-stage mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n ) were applied to do qualitative and quantitative analyses. A total of 15 compounds from adzuki bean were identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS n . Among 15 compounds identified, four flavonoids (catechin, vitexin-4″-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, and quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) and six saponins (azukisaponin I, II, III, IV, V, and VI) in adzuki bean were further quantified by external calibration method using HPLC-MS with the program of time segment and extract ion chromatogram (EIC) analysis. Current qualitative and quantitative method based on HPLC and MS technique provides a scientific basis for in vitro and in vivo pharmacological study in the future. Graphical abstract Isolation and characterization of flavonoids and saponins from adzuki bean.

  15. Interactions of light and gravity on growth, orientation, and lignin biosynthesis in mung beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahns, G. C.

    1984-01-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata L.) seedlings grown on the third Space Transport Mission (STS-3) showed marked orientation problems (some of the stems elongated horizontally and many of the roots were growing upward) and had a lower lignin content than the ground based controls. This research was initiated to determine if the atypical growth characteristics of mung beans grown in microgravity could be simulated using horizontal clinostats. Most of the effort focused on the design, construction and testing of the clinostats. In order to closely approximate the growth conditions of the plants grown in the plant growth unit on STS-3, cylindrical lexan minichambers were constructed. Results showed that plants grown using these clinostats in the horizontal position exhibit similar growth characteristics to the plants grown on STS-3 (disorientation of both stems and roots), while the vertical stationary and vertical rotating controls exhibit normal growth.

  16. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  17. Chlorophyll, Carotenoid and Anthocyanin Accumulation in Mung Bean Seedling Under Clinorotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakajima, Shusaku; Shiraga, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Tetsuhito; Kondo, Naoshi; Ogawa, Yuichi

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of plant pigments in mung bean ( Vigna radiata L.) seedlings was measured after clinorotation (2 rpm for 2-4 days), and compared to a stationary control. The pigments measured included chlorophyll and carotenoid in primary leaves, and the anthocyanin in seedlings. While significant changes in chlorophyll and carotenoid accumulation were not observed during the initial 2 to 4 days of cultivation, by day 4 the seedlings grown on the clinostat had lower levels of anthocyanin, compared to those in the control seedlings. To further detail the cause for the observed reduction in anthocyanin accumulation under altered gravity conditions, seedlings were grown in the presence of silver nitrate, a known ethylene inhibitor, for 4 days, since it is known ethylene has a negative impact on anthocyanin accumulation. Silver nitrate promoted anthocyanin accumulation in the clinostat seedlings, and as a result there was no significant difference between the control and clinostat seedlings in anthocyanin accumulation. The results suggest that slow clinorotation negatively impacts anthocyanin pigmentation in mung bean seedlings, with endogenous ethylene suspected to be involved in this.

  18. Identification of aroma volatiles and understanding 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline biosynthetic mechanism in aromatic mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek).

    PubMed

    Attar, Usmangani; Hinge, Vidya; Zanan, Rahul; Adhav, Rahul; Nadaf, Altafhusain

    2017-04-01

    Mung bean having high food value and easily digestible proteins, is one of the socioeconomically important crop of India. Among the varied cultivars, Sona mung is having aroma and hence popularly cultivated in the pockets of Ganga river basin at Bhutnir char village of Malda District in the West Bengal state. In the present study, aroma volatiles with special reference to 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP) were analyzed using HS-SPME-GCMS from Sona mung bean and compared with non-scented mung bean (PHULE M-9339). 26 volatiles in seeds of Sona mung and 20 in non-scented mung bean were identified, in which 3,7-dimethyl-6-octenal, (2 E )-2-decen-1-ol, 2-ethyl-1-dodecanol and 3,5,5-trimethyl-2-cyclohexene-1-one are first time reported. 0.19 ± 0.001 ppm 2AP was recorded in Sona mung seeds whereas it was not detected in non-scented mung bean. PCA analysis indicated that 2AP, octanal, 1 pentanol, decanal, phenylmethanol and 2-nonen-1-ol were the major contributors in the aroma of Sona mung bean. The significantly higher level proline, methylglyoxal and lower level of BADH2 transcript were detected in Sona mung than non-scented mung, suggesting similar 2AP biosynthesis mechanism in Sona mung bean as reported in scented rice, sorghum and soybean.

  19. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  20. Effect of gamma irradiation on the thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin B 6 content in two varieties of Brazilian beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villavicencio, A. L. C. H. A. L. C. H.; Mancini-Filho, J. J.; Delincée, H. H.; Bognár, A. A.

    2000-03-01

    The effect of 60Co gamma rays on the content of several B-vitamins in two varieties of Brazilian beans has been studied. Carioca ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. Carioca) and Macaçar beans ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, var. Macaçar) were irradiated at doses of 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 kGy, and subsequently stored at ambient temperature for 6 months. The content of vitamin B 1, B 2 and B 6 was analysed by HPLC. In addition, the optimum cooking time was established for each dose and bean variety. A taste panel evaluated sensory properties. Only slight changes were measured for thiamine and riboflavin, whereas a dose-dependent decrease was noted for pyridoxine, which, however, was significant only at the highest doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Cooking time was considerably reduced with increasing radiation dose, but accompanied by a loss of the sensory quality. However, at the disinfestation dose up to 1 kGy, acceptable ratings were obtained for the sensory evaluation. In conclusion, for insect disinfestation of Brazilian beans radiation processing is a promising technology.

  1. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  2. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  3. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  4. Effect of acid pretreatment and the germination period on the composition and antioxidant activity of rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Sritongtae, Burachat; Sangsukiam, Thasanporn; Morgan, Michael R A; Duangmal, Kiattisak

    2017-07-15

    This research evaluated effect of germination period and acid pretreatment on chemical composition and antioxidant activity of rice bean sprouts. Moisture, total phenolics, reducing sugar and B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, and niacin) content of steamed sprouts increased with increasing germination time (p⩽0.05). Pretreatment with 1% (w/v) citric acid for 6h significantly increased the total phenolic content. The 18-h-germinated rice beans showed the highest crude protein content, as determined using the Kjeldahl method. During germination, acid pretreatment led to a significant decrease in the intensity of the 76-kDa band. Germination caused a significant increase in radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power, especially in sprouts from citric acid-treated seeds. The antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extracts from both pretreated beans and the control were 1.3-1.6 times higher than those obtained from the water extracts. Major phenolics found in both 0-h and 18-h-germinated rice beans were catechin and rutin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Construction and analysis of an SSH cDNA library of early heat-induced genes of Vigna aconitifolia variety RMO-40.

    PubMed

    Rampuria, Sakshi; Joshi, Uma; Palit, Paramita; Deokar, Amit A; Meghwal, Raju R; Mohapatra, T; Srinivasan, R; Bhatt, K V; Sharma, Ramavtar

    2012-11-01

    Moth bean ( Vigna aconitifolia (Jacq.) Marechal) is an important grain legume crop grown in rain fed areas of hot desert regions of Thar, India, under scorching sun rays with very little supplementation of water. An SSH cDNA library was generated from leaf tissues of V. aconitifolia var. RMO-40 exposed to an elevated temperature of 42 °C for 5 min to identify early-induced genes. A total of 488 unigenes (114 contigs and 374 singletons) were derived by cluster assembly and sequence alignment of 738 ESTs; out of 206 ESTs (28%) of unknown proteins, 160 ESTs (14%) were found to be novel to moth bean. Only 578 ESTs (78%) showed significant BLASTX similarity (<1 × 10(-6)) in the NCBI non-redundant database. Gene ontology functional classification terms were retrieved for 479 (65%) sequences, and 339 sequences were annotated with 165 EC codes and mapped to 68 different KEGG pathways. Four hundred and fifty-two ESTs were further annotated with InterProScan (IPS), and no IPS was assigned to 153 ESTs. In addition, the expression level of 27 ESTs in response to heat stress was evaluated through semiquantitative RT-PCR assay. Approximately 20 different signaling genes and 16 different transcription factors have been shown to be associated with heat stress in moth bean for the first time.

  6. β-Glucoside Activators of Mung Bean UDP-Glucose: β-Glucan Synthase 1

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Theresa; Ross, Peter; Weinberger-Ohana, Patricia; Garden, Gwenn; Benziman, Moshe

    1988-01-01

    Heat-stable activators of membranous β-glucan synthase have been isolated from the supernatant fraction of crude mung bean (Vigna radiata) extracts by DEAE-cellulose and silica-gel chromatography. One of the activators has been partially purified and characterized on the basis of susceptibility to various enzymes and by analysis of the products formed upon total acid hydrolysis, alkaline-methanolysis, and β-glucosidase digestion. This activator has the characteristics of a 1,2-dioleoyl diglyceride containing β-linked glucose residue(s) at the C-3 position. When expressed per mole of glucosyl residues, the maximal Ka value of the activator is estimated to be 25 micromolar. Both the intact glucosyl and fatty acid moiety are essential to the stimulatory effect of the activator. PMID:16666038

  7. Involvement of abscisic acid in regulating antioxidative defense systems and IAA-oxidase activity and improving adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Weng; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Zeng, Xiao-Ying

    2014-01-01

    In vitro experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of abscisic acid (ABA) and Cd on antioxidative defense systems and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) oxidase during adventitious rooting in mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] seedlings. The exogenous ABA significantly enhanced the number and fresh weight of the adventitious roots. CdCl2 strongly inhibited adventitious rooting. Pretreatment with 10 μM ABA clearly alleviated the inhibitory effect of Cd on rooting. ABA significantly reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT) activities, as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and ascorbic acid (ASA) during adventitious rooting. ABA strongly increased IAA-oxidase activity during the induction (0-12 h) and expression (after 48 h) phases and increased the phenols levels. Cd treatment significantly reduced the activities of SOD, APX, POD, and IAA oxidase, as well as GSH level. Cd strongly increased ASA levels. ABA pretreatment counteracted Cd-induced alterations of certain antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, e.g., remarkably rescued APX and POD activities, reduced the elevated SOD and CAT activities and ASA levels, and recovered the reduced GSH levels, caused by Cd stress. Thus, the physiological effects of the combination of ABA and Cd treatments were opposite of those obtained with Cd treatment alone, suggesting that ABA involved in the regulation of antioxidative defense systems and the alleviation of wounding- and Cd-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Cowpeas and pinto beans: yields and light efficiency of candidate space crops in the Laboratory Biosphere closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; Allen, J. P.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas Vigna unguiculata pinto beans Phaseolus vulgaris L and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility Laboratory Biosphere from February to May 2005 The lighting regime was 13 hours light 11 hours dark at a light intensity of 960 mu mol m -2 s -1 45 moles m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different plant densities The pinto bean produced 710 g m -2 total aboveground biomass and 341 g m -2 at 33 5 plants per m 2 and at 37 5 plants per m 2 produced 1092 g m -2 total biomass and 537 g m -2 of dry seed an increase of almost 50 Cowpeas at 28 plants m -2 yielded 1060 g m -2 of total biomass and 387 g seed m -2 outproducing the less dense planting by more than double 209 in biomass and 86 more seed as the planting of 21 plants m -2 produced 508 g m-2 of total biomass and 209 g m-2 of seed Edible yield rate EYR for the denser cowpea bean was 4 6 g m -2 day -1 vs 2 5 g m -2 day -1 for the less dense stand average yield was 3 5 g m -2 day -1 EYR for the denser pinto bean was 8 5 g m -2 day -1 vs 5 3 g m -2 day -1 average EYR for the pinto beans was 7 0 g m -2 day -1 Yield efficiency rate YER the ratio of edible to non-edible biomass was 0 97 for the dense pinto bean 0 92 for the less dense pinto bean and average 0 94 for the entire crop The cowpeas

  9. Enhancing mung bean hydration using the ultrasound technology: description of mechanisms and impact on its germination and main components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Pereira, Jessica Da Costa; Castanha, Nanci; Júnior, Manoel Divino Da Matta; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2016-12-01

    The ultrasound technology was successfully used to improve the mass transfer processes on food. However, the study of this technology on the grain hydration and on its main components properties was still not appropriately described. This work studied the application of the ultrasound technology on the hydration process of mung beans (Vigna radiata). This grain showed sigmoidal hydration behavior with a specific water entrance pathway. The ultrasound reduced ~25% of the hydration process time. In addition, this technology caused acceleration of the seed germination - and some hypothesis for this enhancement were proposed. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the ultrasound did not change both structure and pasting properties of the bean starch. Finally, the flour rheological properties proved that the ultrasound increased its apparent viscosity, and as the starch was not modified, this alteration was attributed to the proteins. All these results are very desirable for industry since the ultrasound technology improves the hydration process without altering the starch properties, accelerates the germination process (that is important for the malting and sprouting process) and increases the flour apparent viscosity, which is desirable to produce bean-based products that need higher consistency.

  10. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    SciTech Connect

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 ({sup 238}U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the {sup 238}U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). {sup 238}U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sitesmore » of deposition of {sup 238}U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of {sup 238}U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of {sup 238}U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of {sup 238}U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of {sup 238}U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of {sup 238}U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that {sup 238}U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.« less

  11. The study of equivalent dose of uranium in long bean (V. U. Sesquipedalis) and the effect on human

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Nur Shahidah Abdul; Yoshandi, Tengku Mohammad; Majid, Sukiman Sarmania Amran Ab.; Mohamed, Faizal; Siong, Khoo Kok

    2016-01-01

    In the case of accidental release of Uranium-238 (238U) radionuclides in a nuclear facility or in the environment, internal contamination by either acute or chronic exposure has the potential to induce both radiological and chemical toxic effects. A study was conducted to estimate the 238U radionuclide concentration in the long beans using Induced Coupled Mass Plasma-Spectrometry (ICP-MS). 238U radionuclide is a naturally occurring radioactive material that can be found in soil and can be transferred to the long bean (Vigna unguiculata subsp. Sesquapedalis) directly or indirectly via water or air. Kidney and liver are the major sites of deposition of 238U radionuclide. The obtained dose exposed in the liver and kidney is used to assess the safety level for public intake of 238U radionuclide from the consumption of long beans. The concentration of 238U radionuclide measured in long bean samples was 0.0226 ± 0.0009 mg/kg. Total activity of 238U radionuclide was 0.0044 ± 0.0002 Bq/day with the daily intake of 0.3545 ± 0.0143 µg/day and the annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of 238U radionuclide in long beans was 0.2230 ± 0.0087 µSv/year. The committed equivalent dose of 238U radionuclide from the assessment in the liver and kidney are 0.4198 ± 0.0165 nSv and 10.9335 ± 0.4288 nSv. The risk of cancer of 238U radionuclide was determined to be (86.0466 ± 3.3748) × 10-9. Thus, the results concluded that 238U radionuclide in local long beans was in the permitted level and safe to consume without posing any significant radiological threat to population.

  12. A compendium of transcription factor and Transcriptionally active protein coding gene families in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.).

    PubMed

    Misra, Vikram A; Wang, Yu; Timko, Michael P

    2017-11-22

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is the most important food and forage legume in the semi-arid tropics of sub-Saharan Africa where approximately 80% of worldwide production takes place primarily on low-input, subsistence farm sites. Among the major goals of cowpea breeding and improvement programs are the rapid manipulation of agronomic traits for seed size and quality and improved resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses to enhance productivity. Knowing the suite of transcription factors (TFs) and transcriptionally active proteins (TAPs) that control various critical plant cellular processes would contribute tremendously to these improvement aims. We used a computational approach that employed three different predictive pipelines to data mine the cowpea genome and identified over 4400 genes representing 136 different TF and TAP families. We compare the information content of cowpea to two evolutionarily close species common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and soybean (Glycine max) to gauge the relative informational content. Our data indicate that correcting for genome size cowpea has fewer TF and TAP genes than common bean (4408 / 5291) and soybean (4408/ 11,065). Members of the GROWTH-REGULATING FACTOR (GRF) and Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene families appear to be over-represented in the genome relative to common bean and soybean, whereas members of the MADS (Minichromosome maintenance deficient 1 (MCM1), AGAMOUS, DEFICIENS, and serum response factor (SRF)) and C2C2-YABBY appear to be under-represented. Analysis of the AP2-EREBP APETALA2-Ethylene Responsive Element Binding Protein (AP2-EREBP), NAC (NAM (no apical meristem), ATAF1, 2 (Arabidopsis transcription activation factor), CUC (cup-shaped cotyledon)), and WRKY families, known to be important in defense signaling, revealed changes and phylogenetic rearrangements relative to common bean and soybean that suggest these groups may have evolved different functions. The availability of detailed

  13. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies.

  14. 28-Homobrassinolide mitigates boron induced toxicity through enhanced antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Mohammad; Fariduddin, Qazi; Ahmad, Aqil

    2011-11-01

    The objective of this study was to establish relationship between boron induced oxidative stress and antioxidant system in Vigna radiata plants and also to investigate whether brassinosteroids will enhance the level of antioxidant system that could confer tolerance to the plants from the boron induced oxidative stress. The mung bean (V. radiata cv. T-44) plants were administered with 0.50, 1.0 and 2.0 mM boron at 6 d stage for 7 d along with nutrient solution. At 13 d stage, the seedlings were sprayed with deionized water (control) or 10(-8) M of 28-homobrassinolide and plants were harvested at 21 d stage to assess growth, leaf gas-exchange traits and biochemical parameters. The boron treatments diminished growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes along with nitrate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activity in the concentration dependent manner whereas, it enhanced lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, accumulation of H(2)O(2) as well as proline, and various antioxidant enzymes in the leaves of mung bean which were more pronounced at higher concentrations of boron. However, the follow-up application of 28-homobrassinolide to the boron stressed plants improved growth, water relations and photosynthesis and further enhanced the various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the B-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of infrared treatment on quality and fungal decontamination of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) inoculated with Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Meenu, Maninder; Guha, Paramita; Mishra, Sunita

    2018-05-01

    Mung bean is a rich source of protein, carbohydrates and fiber content. It also exhibits a high level of antioxidant activity due to the presence of phenolic compounds. Aspergillus flavus and A. niger are the two major fungal strains associated with stored mung bean that lead to post-harvest losses of grains and also cause serious health risks to human beings. Thus there is a need to explore an economical decontamination method that can be used without affecting the biochemical parameters of grains. It was observed that infrared (IR) treatment of mung bean surface up to 70 °C for 5 min at an intensity of 0.299 kW m -2 led to complete visible inhibition of fungal growth. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that surface irregularities and physical disruption of spores coat are the major reasons behind the inactivation of IR-treated fungal spores. It was also reported that IR treatment up to 70 °C for 5 min does not cause any negative impact on the biochemical and physical properties of mung bean. From the results of the present study, it was concluded that IR treatment at 70 °C for 5 min using an IR source having an intensity of 0.299 kW m -2 can be successfully used as a method of fungal decontamination. The fungal spore population was reduced (approximately 5.3 log 10 CFU g -1 reductions) without significantly altering the biochemical and physical properties of grains. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Vigna (Leguminosae) sensu lato: the names and identities of the American segregate genera.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Thulin, Mats; Pasquet, Rémy; Weeden, Norm; Lavin, Matt

    2011-10-01

    The legume genus Vigna and close relatives have highly elaborated floral morphologies that involve the coiling, bending, and intricate connection of flower parts. Banners, levers, platforms, and pumps have evolved that attract pollinators and then manipulate their movement. Given this three-dimensional floral complexity, the taxonomy of Vigna and relatives has been confounded by the study of mostly two-dimensional museum specimens. A molecular phylogenetic analysis was undertaken in the effort to resolve long-standing taxonomic questions centered on floral morphology. The phylogenetic analysis included cpDNA trnK and nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S (ITS) sequence variation. The American species were comprehensively sampled and outgroups included Old World relatives. The trnK and ITS data analyses concurred in resolving six well-supported clades of American Vigna that are most closely related to other American genera: Dolichopsis, Macroptilium, Mysanthus, Oryxis, Oxyrhynchus, Phaseolus, Ramirezella, and Strophostyles. These 14 American clades ranked here as genera are resolved as sister to a clade comprising the mainly Old World species of Vigna. American Vigna clades were reassigned to the genera Ancistrotropis, Cochliasanthus, Condylostylis, Leptospron, Sigmoidotropis, and the newly described Helicotropis. Vigna sensu stricto in the Americas now includes relatively few and mostly pantropical species. Elaborate floral asymmetries are readily used to apomorphically diagnose nearly all of the American genera. The age estimates of the extant diversification of the American and its Old World sister clade are approximately coeval at ca. 6-7 million yr, which belies much greater floral variation in the Americas.

  17. Investigation of process and product parameters for physicochemical properties of rice and mung bean (Vigna radiata) flour based extruded snacks.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Baljit; Hussain, Syed Zameer; Sharma, Savita

    2017-05-01

    PR 106 and SML 668 cultivars of rice and mung bean respectively, were studied for their potential to serve as a nutritious snack with improved protein quality and quantity. The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed moisture content (14-18%), screw speed (400-550 rpm) and barrel temperature (130-170°C) on the physicochemical properties (bulk density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and hardness) was investigated. The replacement of rice flour at 30% level with mung bean flour for making extruded snacks was evaluated. Pasting temperature increased (84-93 °C) while peak viscosity (2768-408 cP), hold viscosity (2018-369 cP), breakdown (750-39 cP), setback (2697-622 cP) and final viscosity (4715-991 cP) decreased with increasing mung bean flour addition. Increasing feed moisture lowered the specific mechanical energy (SME), WAI and WSI of extrudates whereas increased bulk density and hardness. Higher screw speed had linear positive effect on SME of extruder and negative linear effect on WAI. Positive curvilinear quadratic effect of screw speed was also observed on WSI and density. Higher barrel temperature linearly decreased the SME, density and hardness of extrudates. Developed extrusion cooked rice-mung bean snacks with increased protein content and improved protein quality along with higher dietary fibre and minerals have good potential in effectively delivering the nutrition to the population.

  18. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  19. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  20. 21 CFR 155.120 - Canned green beans and canned wax beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned green beans and canned wax beans. 155.120... Vegetables § 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or wax bean plants...

  1. Pulse diversity for polyphenolic secondary metabolites

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The pulse species including guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.), Lablab purpureus L. Sweet, Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc., Teramnus labialis (L.f.) Spreng, alfalfa (Medicago sativa ssp. sativa), green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), fava beans (Vicia faba L.), blackeye pea (Vigna unguiculat...

  2. Cross-sectional survey of indicator and pathogenic bacteria on vegetables sold from Asian vendors at farmers' markets in northern California.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fengguang; Li, Xunde; Carabez, Jennifer; Ragosta, Guy; Fernandez, Kristine L; Wang, Elaine; Thiptara, Anyarat; Antaki, Elizabeth; Atwill, Edward R

    2015-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted during summer 2013 to determine the occurrence of Escherichia coli, fecal coliforms (FCs), E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella on raw vegetable commodities common to Asian cuisine from 21 vendors or farmers at six farmers' markets in northern California. Based on 242 samples from six commodities (basil, yardlong beans, bitter squash, okra, squash stems and leaves, cilantro), 100% of samples had detectable FCs and 20% had detectable E. coli. The mean concentrations were 0.67 log CFU/g and 1.26 log CFU per bundle for E. coli and 4.00 log CFU/g and 6.26 log CFU per bundle for FCs. Vegetables irrigated with ground versus surface water contained lower concentrations of FCs, but this difference was not observed for E. coli. Yardlong beans, bitter squash, and okra had lower levels of FCs compared with basil, cilantro, and squash stems and leaves. Sixteen (6.6%) samples had detectable levels of Salmonella serovars (Newport, Enteritidis, Agona, and Worthington), with the majority of positives found in cilantro and squash stems and leaves. There was a twofold higher probability of Salmonella contamination in samples from growers or vendors who stated that they used organic farming practices compared with samples from those using conventional farming practices. Lastly, the concentrations of FC and E. coli bacteria were significantly associated with Salmonella contamination: for each additional 100 CFU/g or bundle, the probability of Salmonella contamination increased by ∼15 and ∼30%, respectively. None of the samples had detectable E. coli O157:H7.

  3. Development of unigene-derived SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and their transferability to other Vigna species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, S K; Gopalakrishna, T

    2010-07-01

    Unigene sequences available in public databases provide a cost-effective and valuable source for the development of molecular markers. In this study, the identification and development of unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is presented. A total of 1071 SSRs were identified in 15 740 cowpea unigene sequences downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The most frequent SSR motifs present in the unigenes were trinucleotides (59.7%), followed by dinucleotides (34.8%), pentanucleotides (4%), and tetranucleotides (1.5%). The copy number varied from 6 to 33 for dinucleotide, 5 to 29 for trinucleotide, 5 to 7 for tetranucleotide, and 4 to 6 for pentanucleotide repeats. Primer pairs were successfully designed for 803 SSR motifs and 102 SSR markers were finally characterized and validated. Putative function was assigned to 64.7% of the unigene SSR markers based on significant homology to reported proteins. About 31.7% of the SSRs were present in coding sequences and 68.3% in untranslated regions of the genes. About 87% of the SSRs located in the coding sequences were trinucleotide repeats. Allelic variation at 32 SSR loci produced 98 alleles in 20 cowpea genotypes. The polymorphic information content for the SSR markers varied from 0.10 to 0.83 with an average of 0.53. These unigene SSR markers showed a high rate of transferability (88%) across other Vigna species, thereby expanding their utility. Alignment of unigene sequences with soybean genomic sequences revealed the presence of introns in amplified products of some of the SSR markers. This study presents the distribution of SSRs in the expressed portion of the cowpea genome and is the first report of the development of functional unigene-based SSR markers in cowpea. These SSR markers would play an important role in molecular mapping, comparative genomics, and marker-assisted selection strategies in cowpea and other Vigna species.

  4. Conservation and genetic characterisation of common bean landraces from Cilento region (southern Italy): high differentiation in spite of low genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Daniele; Cennamo, Paola; Del Guacchio, Emanuele; Di Novella, Riccardo; Caputo, Paolo

    2018-02-01

    Since its introduction from Central-South America to Italy almost 500 years ago, the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was largely cultivated across the peninsula in hundreds of different landraces. However, globalisation and technological modernisation of agricultural practices in the last decades promoted the cultivation of few varieties at the expense of traditional and local agro-ecotypes, which have been confined to local markets or have completely disappeared. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and differentiation in 12 common bean landraces once largely cultivated in the Cilento region (Campania region, southern Italy), and now the object of a recovery program to save them from extinction. The analysis conducted using 13 nuclear microsatellite loci in 140 individuals revealed a high degree of homozygosity within each landrace and a strong genetic differentiation that was reflected in the success in assigning individuals to the source landrace. On the contrary, internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, analysed in one individual per landrace, were highly similar among common bean landraces but allowed the identification of a cowpea variety (Vigna unguiculata Walp.), a crop largely cultivated in the Old World before the arrival of common bean from Americas. In conclusion, our study highlighted that conservation of landraces is important not only for the cultural and socio-economic value that they have for local communities, but also because the time and conditions in which they have been selected have led to that genetic distinctiveness that is at the basis of many potential agronomical applications and dietary benefits.

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  8. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  9. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  10. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  11. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  12. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...

  13. Key odorants in cured Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of differing bean quality.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Makoto; Inai, Yoko; Miyazawa, Norio; Kurobayashi, Yoshiko; Fujita, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The odor-active volatiles in Madagascar vanilla beans (Vanilla planiforia) of two grades, red whole beans as standard quality and cuts beans as substandard quality, were characterized by instrumental and sensory analyses. The higher contents of vanillin and β-damascenone in red whole beans than in cuts beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the sweet and dried fruit-like notes, while the higher contents of guaiacol and 3-phenylpropanoic acid in cuts beans than in red whole beans respectively contributed to significant differences in the phenolic and metallic notes. A sensory evaluation to compare red whole beans and their reconstituted aroma characterized both samples as being similar, while in respect of the phenolic note, the reconstituted aroma significantly differed from the reconstituted aroma with guaiacol added at the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol in cuts beans. It is suggested from these results that the concentration ratio of vanillin and guaiacol could be used as an index for the quality of Madagascar vanilla beans.

  14. Studies on physico-chemical and cooking characteristics of rice bean varieties grown in NE region of India.

    PubMed

    Bepary, Rejaul Hoque; Wadikar, D D; Neog, Seuji Borah; Patki, P E

    2017-03-01

    Rice bean ( Vigna umbellata ) is grown in South and Southeast Asia, and the bean has gained importance due to its nutritional strength in terms of dietary fiber, quality protein and minerals. In current study, the nutritional and functional components, cooking and thermo-gravimetric properties of eleven rice bean varieties from NE India were investigated. Results revealed that the major nutrients among the varieties ranged as follows: 54.21-60.49% carbohydrates, 15.64-21.60% protein, 1.22-2.3% fat, 5.53-6.56% crude fibre, 3.34-3.8% ash; while the functional, anti-nutritional factors and mineral were present as 1189.32-1645.8 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g polyphenols, 205.38-432.14 mg/100 g phytic acid, 23.14-34.12 mg/100 g oxalate, 690.7-1589.5 mg/100 g saponins, 49.90-158.17 μg/100 g hydrocyanide, 111.51-168 calcium, 5.50-10.44 zinc, 3.72-8.37 iron. Principal component analysis revealed that varieties with higher calcium, iron and ash content had lower cooking time, swelling ratio, and cooked grain hardness. It is also revealed that varieties with higher weight loss at sixth stage in thermogravimetric graph had lower carbohydrate and higher protein content. Nagadal variety had higher fat, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, copper and chromium content and better cooking quality as compared to the other varieties. The study revealed that Nagadal variety was superior to other varieties with respect to mineral content, cooking and thermal properties and hence have better potential in the development of value added products.

  15. Modification of whole flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea by steam jet cooking and drum drying

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole bean flours of navy bean, pinto bean, black bean and chickpea were processed by excess steam jet cooking, drum drying, and milling to a state resembling the raw flours. Analysis of the structure and size of the particles, color, solubility and pasting characteristics, dietary fiber, and protei...

  16. Actinobacteria Associated With Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Funneliformis mosseae Spores, Taxonomic Characterization and Their Beneficial Traits to Plants: Evidence Obtained From Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) and Thai Jasmine Rice (Oryza sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Lasudee, Krisana; Tokuyama, Shinji; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Pathom-aree, Wasu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we report on the isolation of actinobacteria obtained from spores of Funneliformis mosseae and provide evidence for their potential in agricultural uses as plant growth promoters in vitro and in vivo. Actinobacteria were isolated from spores of F. mosseae using the dilution plate technique and media designed for the selective isolation of members of specific actinobacterial taxa. Six strains namely 48, S1, S3, S4, S4-1 and SP, were isolated and identified based on16S rRNA gene sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that isolate SP belonged to the genus Pseudonocardia with P. nantongensis KLBMP 1282T as its closest neighbor. The remaining isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Two isolates, 48 and S3 were most closely related to S. thermocarboxydus DSM 44293T. Isolates S4 and S4-1 shared the highest 16S RNA gene similarity with S. pilosus NBRC 127772T. Isolate S1 showed its closest relationship with the type strain of S. spinoverrucosus NBRC14228T. The ability of these isolates to produce indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), siderophores and the ability to solubilize phosphate in vitro were examined. All isolates produced siderophores, four isolates produced IAA and two isolates solubilized inorganic phosphate at varying levels. S. thermocarboxydus isolate S3 showed the highest IAA production with high activities of phosphate solubilization and siderophore production. The inoculation of mung beans (Vigna radiata) with this strain resulted in a significant increase in fresh weight, root length and total length as an effect of IAA production. In an experiment with rice (Oryza sativa), S. thermocarboxydus isolate S3 promoted the growth of rice plants grown in low nutritional soil under induced drought stress. This report supports the view that the inoculation of rice with plant growth promoting actinobacteria mitigates some adverse effects of low nutrient and drought stress on rice. PMID:29942292

  17. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Elenilda J; Carvalho, Lucia M J; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M; Cardoso, Flávio S N; Carvalho, José L V

    2016-01-01

    The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients.

  18. Cowpeas and pinto beans: Performance and yields of candidate space crops in the laboratory biosphere closed ecological system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, M.; Dempster, W. F.; Allen, J. P.; Silverstone, S.; Alling, A.; van Thillo, M.

    An experiment utilizing cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L.), pinto beans ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Apogee ultra-dwarf wheat ( Triticum sativa L.) was conducted in the soil-based closed ecological facility, Laboratory Biosphere, from February to May 2005. The lighting regime was 13 h light/11 h dark at a light intensity of 960 μmol m -2 s -1, 45 mol m -2 day -1 supplied by high-pressure sodium lamps. The pinto beans and cowpeas were grown at two different planting densities. Pinto bean production was 341.5 g dry seed m -2 (5.42 g m -2 day -1) and 579.5 dry seed m -2 (9.20 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 32.5 plants m -2 and 37.5 plants m -2, respectively. Cowpea yielded 187.9 g dry seed m -2 (2.21 g m -2 day -1) and 348.8 dry seed m -2 (4.10 g m -2 day -1) at planted densities of 20.8 plants m -2 and 27.7 plants m -2, respectively. The crop was grown at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels, with levels ranging from 300-3000 ppm daily during the majority of the crop cycle. During early stages (first 10 days) of the crop, CO 2 was allowed to rise to 7860 ppm while soil respiration dominated, and then was brought down by plant photosynthesis. CO 2 was injected 27 times during days 29-71 to replenish CO 2 used by the crop during photosynthesis. Temperature regime was 24-28 °C day/deg 20-24 °C night. Pinto bean matured and was harvested 20 days earlier than is typical for this variety, while the cowpea, which had trouble establishing, took 25 days more for harvest than typical for this variety. Productivity and atmospheric dynamic results of these studies contribute toward the design of an envisioned ground-based test bed prototype Mars base.

  19. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients’ sera

    PubMed Central

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Scope Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Methods and results Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients’ sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients’ sera. Conclusion We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. PMID:23996905

  20. Identification of QTL and Qualitative Trait Loci for Agronomic Traits Using SNP Markers in the Adzuki Bean.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Yang, Kai; Yang, Wei; Chu, Liwei; Chen, Chunhai; Zhao, Bo; Li, Yisong; Jian, Jianbo; Yin, Zhichao; Wang, Tianqi; Wan, Ping

    2017-01-01

    The adzuki bean ( Vigna angularis ) is an important grain legume. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and qualitative trait genes plays an important role in gene cloning, molecular-marker-assisted selection (MAS), and trait improvement. However, the genetic control of agronomic traits in the adzuki bean remains poorly understood. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are invaluable in the construction of high-density genetic maps. We mapped 26 agronomic QTLs and five qualitative trait genes related to pigmentation using 1,571 polymorphic SNP markers from the adzuki bean genome via restriction-site-associated DNA sequencing of 150 members of an F 2 population derived from a cross between cultivated and wild adzuki beans. We mapped 11 QTLs for flowering time and pod maturity on chromosomes 4, 7, and 10. Six 100-seed weight (SD100WT) QTLs were detected. Two major flowering time QTLs were located on chromosome 4, firstly VaFld4.1 (PEVs 71.3%), co-segregating with SNP marker s690-144110, and VaFld4.2 (PEVs 67.6%) at a 0.974 cM genetic distance from the SNP marker s165-116310. Three QTLs for seed number per pod ( Snp3.1, Snp3.2 , and Snp4.1 ) were mapped on chromosomes 3 and 4. One QTL VaSdt4.1 of seed thickness (SDT) and three QTLs for branch number on the main stem were detected on chromosome 4. QTLs for maximum leaf width (LFMW) and stem internode length were mapped to chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively. Trait genes controlling the color of the seed coat, pod, stem and flower were mapped to chromosomes 3 and 1. Three candidate genes, VaAGL, VaPhyE , and VaAP2 , were identified for flowering time and pod maturity. VaAGL encodes an agamous-like MADS-box protein of 379 amino acids. VaPhyE encodes a phytochrome E protein of 1,121 amino acids. Four phytochrome genes ( VaPhyA1, VaPhyA2, VaPhyB , and VaPhyE ) were identified in the adzuki bean genome. We found candidate genes VaAP2/ERF.81 and VaAP2/ERF.82 of SD100WT, VaAP2-s4 of SDT, and VaAP2/ERF.86 of LFMW. A

  1. Vig r 6, the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vigna radiata) sprouts, cross-reacts with Bet v 1-related allergens and binds IgE from birch pollen allergic patients' sera.

    PubMed

    Guhsl, Eva Elisabeth; Hofstetter, Gerlinde; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Ebner, Christof; Vieths, Stefan; Vogel, Lothar; Breiteneder, Heimo; Radauer, Christian

    2014-03-01

    Birch pollen associated allergy to mung bean sprouts is caused by cross-reactivity between the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and the mung bean allergen Vig r 1. We aimed to determine the allergenicity of the cytokinin-specific binding protein from mung bean (Vig r 6), another allergen related to Bet v 1 with only 31% sequence identity. Bet v 1, Gly m 4, Vig r 1, and Vig r 6 were produced in Escherichia coli. In an ELISA, 73 and 32% of Bet v 1-sensitized birch-allergic patients' sera (n = 60) showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and Vig r 6, respectively. Of 19 patients who reported allergic reactions or had positive prick-to-prick tests to mung bean sprouts, 79% showed IgE binding to Vig r 1 and 63% showed IgE binding to Vig r 6. Bet v 1 completely inhibited IgE binding to both mung bean allergens. Vig r 6 showed partial cross-reactivity with Vig r 1 and activated basophils sensitized with mung bean allergic patients' sera. We demonstrated IgE cross-reactivity despite low sequence identity between Vig r 6 and other Bet v 1-related allergens. Thus, IgE binding to Vig r 6 may contribute to birch pollinosis-associated mung bean sprout allergy. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. A novel symbiovar (aegeanense) of the genus Ensifer nodulates Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) forms nitrogen-fixing root nodules with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium, although a few studies have reported the isolation of fast-growing rhizobia under laboratory and field conditions. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, very limited information is available on cowpea rhizobia in European soils. The aim of this study was to study the genetic and phenotypic diversity of indigenous cowpea-nodulating rhizobia in Greece. The genetic diversity of indigenous rhizobia associated with cowpea was investigated through a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into three groups. Based on the analysis of the 16S rRNA genes, IGS and on the concatenation of six housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, gyrB, truA, thrA and SMc00019), rhizobial isolates were classified within the species Ensifer fredii. However, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC, nifH and rhcRST genes, showed that the Ensifer isolates are markedly diverged from type and reference strains of E. fredii and formed one clearly separate cluster. The E. fredii strains were able to nodulate and fix nitrogen in cowpea but not in soybean and common bean. The present study showed that cowpea is nodulated under field conditions by fast-growing rhizobia belonging to the species E. fredii. Based on the phylogenies, similarity levels of symbiotic genes and the host range, the Ensifer isolates may constitute a new symbiovar for which the name 'aegeanense' is proposed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Successful introgression of abiotic stress tolerance from wild tepary bean to common bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production is severely limited due to abiotic stresses, including drought and sub-zero temperatures. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius Gray), a relative of common bean, has demonstrated tolerance to these stresses. Preliminary studies screening tepary accessions ...

  4. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  5. Reflective Polyethylene Mulch Reduces Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) Densities and Damage in Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L B; Kuhar, T P

    2016-08-01

    Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant, is a serious pest of snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L., in the eastern United States. These beetles are intolerant to direct sunlight, explaining why individuals are typically found on the undersides of leaves and in the lower portion of the plant canopy. We hypothesized that snap beans grown on reflective, agricultural polyethylene (plastic mulch) would have fewer Mexican bean beetles and less injury than those grown on black plastic or bare soil. In 2014 and 2015, beans were seeded into beds of metallized, white, and black plastic, and bare soil, in field plots near Blacksburg, VA. Mexican bean beetle density, feeding injury, predatory arthropods, and snap bean yield were sampled. Reflected light intensity, temperature, and humidity were monitored using data loggers. Pyranometer readings showed that reflected light intensity was highest over metallized plastic and second highest over white plastic; black plastic and bare soil were similarly low. Temperature and humidity were unaffected by treatments. Significant reductions in Mexican bean beetle densities and feeding injury were observed in both metallized and white plastic plots compared to black plastic and bare soil, with metallized plastic having the fewest Mexican bean beetle life stages and injury. Predatory arthropod densities were not reduced by reflective plastic. Metallized plots produced the highest yields, followed by white. The results of this study suggest that growing snap beans on reflective plastic mulch can suppress the incidence and damage of Mexican bean beetle, and increase yield in snap beans. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Organophosphorus acid anhydrolase in slime mold, duckweed and mung bean: a continuing search for a physiological role and a natural substrate.

    PubMed

    Hoskin, F C; Walker, J E; Mello, C M

    1999-05-14

    Recently, and for the first time, a diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP)-hydrolyzing enzyme, i.e. an organophosphorus acid anhydrolase (OPAA), has been reported in a plant-source. Based on this and other suggestive evidence, the ability of three plant sources and a protist to hydrolyze DFP and 1,2,2-trimethylpropyl methylphosphonofluoridate (Soman) were tested, and the effects of Mn2+ and ethylenediamine tetraacetate (EDTA) on this activity. The plants are duckweed (Lemna minor), giant duckweed (Spirodela oligorhiza), and germinated mung bean (Vigna radiata); the protist is a slime mold (Dictyostelium discoidium). The tests are based on a crude classification of OPAAs as 'squid type' (DFP hydrolyzed more rapidly than Soman) and all of the others termed by us, with questionable justification, as 'Mazur type' (Soman hydrolyzed more rapidly than DFP). Of the two duckweeds, Spirodela oligorhiza hydrolyzes Soman but not DFP, and Lemna minor does not hydrolyze either substrate. In contrast to the report of Yu and Sakurai, mung bean does not hydrolyze DFP and hydrolyzes Soman with a 5-fold stimulation by Mn2+ and a marked inhibition by EDTA. The slime mold hydrolyzes Soman more rapidly than DFP (but does hydrolyze DFP) and the hydrolysis is Mn2+ stimulated. The failure of these plant sources to hydrolyze DFP is similar to the behavior of OPAA from Bacillus stearothermophilus.

  7. Insecticide Efficacy and Timing for Control of Western Bean Cutworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Dry and Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Goudis, L A; Trueman, C L; Baute, T S; Hallett, R H; Gillard, C L

    2016-02-01

    The western bean cutworm, Striacosta albicosta (Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is a recent pest of corn, dry,and snap beans, in the Great Lakes region, and best practices for its management in beans need to be established.Insecticide efficacy and application timing field studies, conducted in 2011–2013, determined that lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorantraniliprole were capable of reducing western bean cutworm feeding damage in dry beans from 2.3 to 0.4% in preharvest samples, and in snap beans from 4.8 to 0.1% of marketable pods, respectively. The best application timing in dry beans was determined to be 4–18 d after 50% egg hatch. No economic benefit was found when products were applied to dry beans, and despite high artificial inoculation rates, damage to marketable yield was relatively low. Thiamethoxam, methoxyfenozide, and spinetoram were also found to be effective at reducing western bean cutworm damage in dry bean to as low as 0.3% compared to an untreated control with 2.5% damaged pods. In snap beans, increased return on investment between CAD$400 and CAD$600 was seen with multiple applications of lambda-cyhalothrin, and with chlorantraniliprole applied 4 d after egg mass infestation.

  8. Transient increase in the levels of gamma-tubulin complex in reorientation of cortical microtubules by gravity in azuki bean epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soga, Kouichi; Kotake, Toshihisa; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Kamisaka, Seiichiro; Hoson, Takayuki

    Azuki bean (Vigna angularis Ohwi et Ohashi) seedlings were exposed to centrifugal hypergravity, and the changes in the orientation of cortical microtubules and the expression of genes cording γ-tubulin complex (VaTUBG and VaSpc98p) were examined. By 300 g treatment, the percentage of cells with transverse microtubules was decreased, while that with longitudinal microtubules was increased in epicotyls. Hypergravity increased the expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p transiently. Also, the expression of both genes was increased transiently by removal of hypergravity stimulus. Lanthanum and gadolinium ions, potential blockers of mechanosensitive calcium ion-permeable channels (mechanoreceptors), nullified reorientation of microtubules as well as up-regulation of expression of VaTUBG and VaSpc98p by hypergravity. These results suggest that mechanoreceptors on the plasma membrane may perceive the gravity signal, which leads to reorientation of cortical microtubules by transiently stimulating the formation of γ-tubulin complex.

  9. In Rwandese Women with Low Iron Status, Iron Absorption from Low-Phytic Acid Beans and Biofortified Beans Is Comparable, but Low-Phytic Acid Beans Cause Adverse Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Rohner, Fabian; Gahutu, Jean Bosco; Campion, Bruno; Boy, Erick; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Zimmerman, Michael Bruce; Zwahlen, Christian; Wirth, James P; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Phytic acid (PA) is a major inhibitor of iron bioavailability from beans, and high PA concentrations might limit the positive effect of biofortified beans (BBs) on iron status. Low-phytic acid (lpa) bean varieties could increase iron bioavailability. We set out to test whether lpa beans provide more bioavailable iron than a BB variety when served as part of a composite meal in a bean-consuming population with low iron status. Dietary iron absorption from lpa, iron-biofortified, and control beans (CBs) (regular iron and PA concentrations) was compared in 25 nonpregnant young women with low iron status with the use of a multiple-meal crossover design. Iron absorption was measured with stable iron isotopes. PA concentration in lpa beans was ∼10% of BBs and CBs, and iron concentration in BBs was ∼2- and 1.5-fold compared with CBs and lpa beans, respectively. Fractional iron absorption from lpa beans [8.6% (95% CI: 4.8%, 15.5%)], BBs [7.3% (95% CI: 4.0%, 13.4%)], and CBs [8.0% (95% CI: 4.4%, 14.6%)] did not significantly differ. The total amount of iron absorbed from lpa beans and BBs was 421 μg (95% CI: 234, 756 μg) and 431 μg (95% CI: 237, 786 μg), respectively, and did not significantly differ, but was >50% higher (P < 0.005) than from CBs (278 μg; 95% CI: 150, 499 μg). In our trial, the lpa beans were hard to cook, and their consumption caused transient adverse digestive side effects in ∼95% of participants. Gel electrophoresis analysis showed phytohemagglutinin L (PHA-L) residues in cooked lpa beans. BBs and lpa beans provided more bioavailable iron than control beans and could reduce dietary iron deficiency. Digestive side effects of lpa beans were likely caused by PHA-L, but it is unclear to what extent the associated digestive problems reduced iron bioavailability. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02215278. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Healthy food trends - beans and legumes

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a side dish at breakfast, lunch, or dinner. Mash them up for dips and spreads. Use bean flour to bake them. To reduce the gas caused by eating beans: Always soak dried beans. If you do not eat a lot of beans, gradually add them to ...

  11. Response to growth and production of green beans (Vigna radiata L.) in various cropping spots and fertilizer provision of layer chickens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitinjak, L.; Purba, E.

    2018-02-01

    Agroecology affecting plant growth can be influenced by factors such as plant spacing and growing media. This study aims to determine the effect of plant spacing and chicken manure on the growth and production of green beans. Plants were planted at three spacing plants (20cm x 20cm, 20cm x 30cm, and 20cm x 40cm) while manure was applied at 3.75, 7.50 and 11.25 ton/ha and without manure as a comparison. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The result showed that the highest diameter of stem was resulted from the application of 11.25 ton/ha of manure combined with the planting space of 20cm x 40 cm. Similarly, the highest number of branch of stem we found at the plot where chicken manure of 11.25 ton/ha with planting space of 20cm x 30cm. The highest production (4,944.4 kg/ha) was resulted from 7.50 ton/ha manure with combined with planting space of 20cm x 40cm. There was an interaction between the treatment of manure and the planting space of soybean. The production of green bean was 24% higher in 7.50 ton/ha manure combined with 20cm x 40cm planting space compared to no manure (control).

  12. Comparison of developmental gradients for growth, ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding activity in mung bean hypocotyls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basel, L. E.; Cleland, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison has been made of the developmental gradients along a mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl of the growth rate, plasma membrane ATPase, and fusicoccin-binding protein (FCBP) activity to determine whether they are interrelated. The hook and four sequential 7.5 millimeter segments of the hypocotyl below the hook were cut. A plasma membrane-enriched fraction was isolated from each section by aqueous two-phase partitioning and assayed for vanadate-sensitive ATPase and FCBP activity. Each gradient had a distinctive and different pattern. Endogenous growth rate was maximal in the second section and much lower in the others. Vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity was maximal in the third section, but remained high in the older sections. Amounts of ATPase protein, shown by specific antibody binding, did not correlate with the amount of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in the three youngest sections. FCBP activity was almost absent in the first section, then increased to a maximum in the oldest sections. These data show that the growth rate is not determined by the ATPase activity, and that there are no fixed ratios between the ATPase and FCBP.

  13. Rhizosphere microorganisms affected by soil solarization and cover cropping in Capsicum annuum and Phaseolus lunatus agroecosystems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil solarization or cover cropping on bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus, L.) rhizosphere microorganisms. In Experiment I, flat surface solarization (FSS), raised bed solarization (RBS), cowpea (Vigna unguiculat...

  14. Evaluation of Yardlong Bean as a Potential New Crop for Southern Growers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ethnicity plays a strong role in niche market development, and the Asian market is currently under served. As Asian populations continue to grow in Mississippi, especially along the Gulf Coast, it is important to recognize new market opportunities. The fruits and vegetables desired by the diverse A...

  15. Breeding Beans with Bruchid and Multiple Virus Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are worldwide threats to dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production. Beans planted in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean also need resistance to Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV). The common bean weev...

  16. Registration of AO-1012-29-3-3A red kidney bean germplasm line with bean weevil, BCMV and BCMNV resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are important seed-borne diseases of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the Americas and Africa. The bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obtectus Say) is an aggressive post-harvest pest of the common bean. The development of bea...

  17. Study on great northern beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): effect of drum drying process on bean flour properties and effect on gamma radiation on bean starch properties

    SciTech Connect

    Rayas-Solis, P.

    Great Northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) drum dried flours at native pH of 6.54, pH 6 and 7 showed reduced activities of trypsin inhibitor, ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitor, hemagglutinating titer, and nitrogen solubility. Electrophoretic analyses showed a slight modification of the native bean proteins, and the presence of at least four trypsin inhibitors. The study of the effect of 2.5-20 kGy irradiation doses on Great Northern beans showed essentially no modification of the electrophoretic mobility of the storage proteins or the trypsin inhibitors. Nitrogen solubility and hemagglutinating activity were essentially unchanged. With the 20 kGy dose, decrease in ..cap alpha..-amylase inhibitormore » activity, decrease reactive/available lysine content, and decrease cooking time of the irradiated beans after 11 months of storage were observed. Taste panel results indicated that the control and 20 kGy irradiated bean were significantly different at 5% level. At 20 kGy dose, the beans developed a partially water soluble brown color.« less

  18. De novo transcriptomic analysis of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) for genic SSR marker development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Liangliang; Wang, Suhua; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2017-07-11

    Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is one of the most important legumes in tropical and semi-arid regions. However, there is relatively little genomic information available for genetic research on and breeding of cowpea. The objectives of this study were to analyse the cowpea transcriptome and develop genic molecular markers for future genetic studies of this genus. Approximately 54 million high-quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from cowpea based on Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and were de novo assembled to generate 47,899 unigenes with an N50 length of 1534 bp. Sequence similarity analysis revealed 36,289 unigenes (75.8%) with significant similarity to known proteins in the non-redundant (Nr) protein database, 23,471 unigenes (49.0%) with BLAST hits in the Swiss-Prot database, and 20,654 unigenes (43.1%) with high similarity in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database. Further analysis identified 5560 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) as potential genic molecular markers. Validating a random set of 500 SSR markers yielded 54 polymorphic markers among 32 cowpea accessions. This transcriptomic analysis of cowpea provided a valuable set of genomic data for characterizing genes with important agronomic traits in Vigna unguiculata and a new set of genic SSR markers for further genetic studies and breeding in cowpea and related Vigna species.

  19. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work.

  20. Protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores for bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products.

    PubMed

    Kannan, S; Nielsen, S S; Mason, A C

    2001-10-01

    Vegetable proteins are an integral part of infant weaning diets in Latin America. Protein quality in plant-based products, however, is constrained by amino acid composition and intrinsically present antinutritional factors. The goal of this study was to improve bean protein quality by utilizing fermentation and germination processing. The objectives were to determine if protein quality, as measured by Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) approved True Protein Digestibility (TPD) and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores (PDCAAS), of formulated bean-based weaning products could be improved upon fermentation and germination and if protein quality could be further improved when processed beans were combined with cooked rice. Results showed that the highest TPD and PDCAAS values were obtained for cooked germinated beans combined with rice. The TPD values for products ranged from 80 to 91%, and the PDCAAS values were 0.38-0.51. There was no significant increase (P < 0.05) of either TPD or PDCAAS values upon fermentation. Germination increased TPD of cooked bean products; this increase was not, however, accompanied by an increase in PDCAAS. When combined with rice, the PDCAAS values for all bean products improved significantly, thus supporting the concept of cereal-legume complementation. In conclusion, this study showed the range of PDCAAS in processed black bean and bean-rice infant weaning food products. The potential for incorporation of these products into the diets of weaning age Latin American children would, however, be confirmed only after validation with growth or metabolic balance studies in human infants.

  1. Wide-angle x-ray scattering and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data combined to test models for cellulose microfibrils in mung bean cell walls.

    PubMed

    Newman, Roger H; Hill, Stefan J; Harris, Philip J

    2013-12-01

    A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette.

  2. Actin in Mung Bean Mitochondria and Implications for Its Function[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Yih-Shan; Cheng, Ning; Hsiao, Lin-June; Annamalai, Arunachalam; Jauh, Guang-Yuh; Wen, Tuan-Nan; Dai, Hwa; Chiang, Kwen-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Here, a large fraction of plant mitochondrial actin was found to be resistant to protease and high-salt treatments, suggesting it was protected by mitochondrial membranes. A portion of this actin became sensitive to protease or high-salt treatment after removal of the mitochondrial outer membrane, indicating that some actin is located inside the mitochondrial outer membrane. The import of an actin–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein into the mitochondria in a transgenic plant, actin:GFP, was visualized in living cells and demonstrated by flow cytometry and immunoblot analyses. Polymerized actin was found in mitochondria of actin:GFP plants and in mung bean (Vigna radiata). Notably, actin associated with mitochondria purified from early-developing cotyledons during seed germination was sensitive to high-salt and protease treatments. With cotyledon ageing, mitochondrial actin became more resistant to both treatments. The progressive import of actin into cotyledon mitochondria appeared to occur in concert with the conversion of quiescent mitochondria into active forms during seed germination. The binding of actin to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was demonstrated by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry analysis. Porin and ADP/ATP carrier proteins were also found in mtDNA-protein complexes. Treatment with an actin depolymerization reagent reduced the mitochondrial membrane potential and triggered the release of cytochrome C. The potential function of mitochondrial actin and a possible actin import pathway are discussed. PMID:21984697

  3. Improvement of the antioxidant and hypolipidaemic effects of cowpea flours (Vigna unguiculata) by fermentation: results of in vitro and in vivo experiments.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Andrade, Ana M; López Chaves, Carlos; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cañizares, Francisco J; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesús M

    2015-04-01

    The antioxidant capacity and hypolipidaemic effects of Vigna unguiculata, as well as their potential improvement by different fermentation and thermal processes were studied using in vitro and in vivo methods. Phenolic content and reducing capacity of legume acetone extract were significantly increased by different fermentation processes, and by the thermal treatment of fermented legume flours. TBARS inhibiting capacity was increased by fermentation but not by thermal treatment. A higher ability to decrease Cu(2+)/H2O2-induced electrophoretic mobility of LDL was found in fermented when compared to raw legume extracts, and a higher protective effect on short term metabolic status of HT-29 cells was found for raw and lactobacillus-fermented Vigna followed by naturally fermented Vigna extracts. Significant improvements in plasma antioxidant capacity and hepatic activity of antioxidant enzymes were observed in rats that consumed fermented legume flours when compared to the untreated legume or a casein-methionine control diet. In addition, liver weight and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were also positively affected by untreated or naturally fermented Vigna. V. unguiculata has demonstrated its potential as a functional food with interesting antioxidant and lipid lowering properties, which can be further augmented by fermentation processes associated or not to thermal processing. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Kinetics model development of cocoa bean fermentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresnowati, M. T. A. P.; Gunawan, Agus Yodi; Muliyadini, Winny

    2015-12-01

    Although Indonesia is one of the biggest cocoa beans producers in the world, Indonesian cocoa beans are oftenly of low quality and thereby frequently priced low in the world market. In order to improve the quality, adequate post-harvest cocoa processing techniques are required. Fermentation is the vital stage in series of cocoa beans post harvest processing which could improve the quality of cocoa beans, in particular taste, aroma, and colours. During the fermentation process, combination of microbes grow producing metabolites that serve as the precursors for cocoa beans flavour. Microbial composition and thereby their activities will affect the fermentation performance and influence the properties of cocoa beans. The correlation could be reviewed using a kinetic model that includes unstructured microbial growth, substrate utilization and metabolic product formation. The developed kinetic model could be further used to design cocoa bean fermentation process to meet the expected quality. Further the development of kinetic model of cocoa bean fermentation also serve as a good case study of mixed culture solid state fermentation, that has rarely been studied. This paper presents the development of a kinetic model for solid-state cocoa beans fermentation using an empirical approach. Series of lab scale cocoa bean fermentations, either natural fermentations without starter addition or fermentations with mixed yeast and lactic acid bacteria starter addition, were used for model parameters estimation. The results showed that cocoa beans fermentation can be modelled mathematically and the best model included substrate utilization, microbial growth, metabolites production and its transport. Although the developed model still can not explain the dynamics in microbial population, this model can sufficiently explained the observed changes in sugar concentration as well as metabolic products in the cocoa bean pulp.

  5. 76 FR 68057 - Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya Into the United States

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    .... APHIS-2010-0101] RIN 0579-AD39 Importation of French Beans and Runner Beans From the Republic of Kenya.... SUMMARY: We are amending the fruits and vegetables regulations to allow the importation of French beans and runner beans from the Republic of Kenya into the United States. As a condition of entry, both...

  6. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  7. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for spectral characterization of regular coffee beans and luwak coffee bean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nufiqurakhmah, Nufiqurakhmah; Nasution, Aulia; Suyanto, Hery

    2016-11-01

    Luwak (civet) coffee refers to a type of coffee, where the cherries have been priorly digested and then defecated by a civet (Paradoxurus Hermaphroditus), a catlike animals typically habited in Indonesia. Luwak will only selectively select ripe cherries, and digesting them by enzymatic fermentation in its digestive system. The defecated beans is then removed and cleaned from the feces. It is regarded as the world's most expensive coffee, Traditionally the quality of the coffee is subjectively determined by a tester. This research is motivated by the needs to study and develop quantitative parameters in determining the quality of coffee bean, which are more objective to measure the quality of coffee products. LIBS technique was used to identify the elemental contents of coffee beans based on its spectral characteristics in the range 200-900 nm. Samples of green beans from variant of arabica and robusta, either regular and luwak, were collected from 5 plantations in East Java. From the recorded spectra, intensity ratio of nitrogen (N), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) as essential elements in coffee is applied. In general, values extracted from luwak coffee bean is higher with increases 0.03% - 79.93%. A Discriminant Function Analysis (DFA) also applied to identify marker elements that characterize the regular and luwak beans. Elements of Ca, W, Sr, Mg, and H are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans from arabica variant, while Ca and W are the ones used to differentiate the regular and luwak beans of robusta variant.

  8. Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering and Solid-State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Data Combined to Test Models for Cellulose Microfibrils in Mung Bean Cell Walls1

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Roger H.; Hill, Stefan J.; Harris, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    A synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering study of mung bean (Vigna radiata) primary cell walls was combined with published solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance data to test models for packing of (1→4)-β-glucan chains in cellulose microfibrils. Computer-simulated peak shapes, calculated for 36-chain microfibrils with perfect order or uncorrelated disorder, were sharper than those in the experimental diffractogram. Introducing correlated disorder into the models broaden the simulated peaks but only when the disorder was increased to unrealistic magnitudes. Computer-simulated diffractograms, calculated for 24- and 18-chain models, showed good fits to experimental data. Particularly good fits to both x-ray and nuclear magnetic resonance data were obtained for collections of 18-chain models with mixed cross-sectional shapes and occasional twinning. Synthesis of 18-chain microfibrils is consistent with a model for cellulose-synthesizing complexes in which three cellulose synthase polypeptides form a particle and six particles form a rosette. PMID:24154621

  9. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  10. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  11. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  12. 46 CFR 148.235 - Castor beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Castor beans. 148.235 Section 148.235 Shipping COAST... THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Special Requirements for Certain Materials § 148.235 Castor beans. (a) This part applies only to the stowage and transportation of whole castor beans. Castor meal, castor...

  13. Biofortified black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize/bean diet provide more bioavailable iron to piglets than standard black beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard black beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), one standard (“Low”) and the other biofortified (“High”) in Fe (71 and 106 ug Fe/g, respectively) were used. Maize-bas...

  14. Registration of ‘Krimson’ cranberry bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cranberry is an important dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) market class grown in the United States and Canada. Beet curly top virus (BCTV) plagues cranberry bean production in the western U.S. (CA, ID, OR, WA). ‘Krimson’ (Reg. No. CV PI 663911 ) cranberry bean released by the USDA-ARS in 2009, ...

  15. Safety assessment of the biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd.

    PubMed

    Yang, Juan; Ding, Xiaowen; Qin, Yingrui; Zeng, Yitao

    2014-08-06

    To evaluate the safety of biogenic amines, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to evaluate the levels of biogenic amines in fermented soya beans and fermented bean curd. In fermented soya beans, the total biogenic amines content was in a relatively safe range in many samples, although the concentration of histamine, tyramine, and β-phenethylamine was high enough in some samples to cause a possible safety threat, and 8 of the 30 samples were deemed unsafe. In fermented bean curd, the total biogenic amines content was more than 900 mg/kg in 19 white sufu amples, a level that has been determined to pose a safety hazard; putrescine was the only one detected in all samples and also had the highest concentration, which made samples a safety hazard; the content of tryptamine, β-phenethylamine, tyramine, and histamine had reached the level of threat to human health in some white and green sufu samples, and that may imply another potential safety risk; and 25 of the 33 samples were unsafe. In conclusion, the content of biogenic amines in all fermented soya bean products should be studied and appropriate limits determined to ensure the safety of eating these foods.

  16. Gene-based SNP discovery in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) and common bean (P. vulgaris) for diversity analysis and comparative mapping.

    PubMed

    Gujaria-Verma, Neha; Ramsay, Larissa; Sharpe, Andrew G; Sanderson, Lacey-Anne; Debouck, Daniel G; Tar'an, Bunyamin; Bett, Kirstin E

    2016-03-15

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is an important grain legume and there has been a recent resurgence in interest in its relative, tepary bean (P. acutifolius), owing to this species' ability to better withstand abiotic stresses. Genomic resources are scarce for this minor crop species and a better knowledge of the genome-level relationship between these two species would facilitate improvement in both. High-throughput genotyping has facilitated large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification leading to the development of molecular markers with associated sequence information that can be used to place them in the context of a full genome assembly. Transcript-based SNPs were identified from six common bean and two tepary bean accessions and a subset were used to generate a 768-SNP Illumina GoldenGate assay for each species. The tepary bean assay was used to assess diversity in wild and cultivated tepary bean and to generate the first gene-based map of the tepary bean genome. Genotypic analyses of the diversity panel showed a clear separation between domesticated and cultivated tepary beans, two distinct groups within the domesticated types, and P. parvifolius was confirmed to be distinct. The genetic map of tepary bean was compared to the common bean genome assembly to demonstrate high levels of collinearity between the two species with differences limited to a few intra-chromosomal rearrangements. The development of the first set of genomic resources specifically for tepary bean has allowed for greater insight into the structure of this species and its relationship to its agriculturally more prominent relative, common bean. These resources will be helpful in the development of efficient breeding strategies for both species and will facilitate the introgression of agriculturally important traits from one crop into the other.

  17. Quality and market chain of Aceh Cocoa Beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan; Sulaiman, I.; Ikhsan, CN; Faizun, N.

    2018-05-01

    After long-lasting conflict and tsunami on December 26, 2004, some international donors/NGOs supported Aceh on cocoa development. Aceh cocoa sector has experienced tremendous growth in Indonesia. This study aims to investigate quality and market chain of Aceh cocoa beans. The survey was conducted in Pidie District. A number of 21 farmers and 1 exporter were interviewed; the beans from farmer’s warehouses were analyzed and compared to Indonesia National Standard (INS). The result showed that the beans were generally produced from 6 Sub-Districts: Keumala, Titeue, Glumpang Tiga, Padang Tiji, and Tangse. They were not fermented; most were exported to the USA. Based on bean count, quality was mainly included in I/A and II/B. The main quality problem was high moisture content. Presumably, the beans were bought by wholesalers with lower price although not been sufficiently dried. Other quality parameters were good: no moldy bean and contaminant, very low insect damage/hollow-/germinated beans, and tiny broken beans (quality I)

  18. Electron-paramagnetic-resonance studies of leghaemoglobins from soya-bean and cowpea root nodules. Identification of nitrosyl-leghaemoglobin in crude leghaemoglobin preparations

    PubMed Central

    Maskall, C. Sidney; Gibson, John F.; Dart, Peter J.

    1977-01-01

    1. Leghaemoglobins from soya-bean (Glycine max) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root nodules were purified by chromatography on DEAE-cellulose phosphate columns at pH8.0 and pH5.8, to avoid the relatively low pH (5.2) commonly used to purify these proteins. 2. E.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectra of the fluoride, azide, hydroxide and cyanide complexes of these ferric leghaemoglobins were very similar to the spectra of the corresponding myoglobin derivatives, indicating that the immediate environment of the iron in leghaemoglobin and myoglobin is similar, an imidazole moiety of histidine being the proximal ligand to the haem iron [cf. Appleby, Blumberg, Peisach, Wittenberg & Wittenberg (1976) J. Biol. Chem. 251, 6090–6096]. 3. E.p.r. spectra of the acid-metleghaemoglobins showed prominent high-spin features very near g=6 and g=2 and, unlike myoglobin, small low-spin absorptions near g=2.26, 2.72 and 3.14. The width of the g=6 absorption derivative at 10–20K was about 4–4.5mT, similar to the value for acid-methaemoglobin. In contrast, a recently published (Appleby et al., 1976) spectrum of acid-metleghaemoglobin a had less high-spin character and a much broader absorption derivative around g=6. 4. E.p.r. spectra of ferric leghaemoglobin nicotinate and imidazole complexes suggest that the low-spin absorption near g=3.14 can be attributed to a trace of ferric leghaemoglobin nicotinate, and those near g=2.26 and 2.72 are from an endogenous dihistidyl haemichrome. 5. A large e.p.r. signal at g=2 in all samples of crude leghaemoglobin was shown to be from nitrosyl-leghaemoglobin. A soya-bean sample contained 27±3% of the latter. A previously unidentified form of soya-bean ferrous leghaemoglobin a was shown to be its nitrosyl derivative. If this is not an artifact, and occurs in the root nodule, the nitrosyl radical may interfere with the function of leghaemoglobin. PMID:23110

  19. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean gives remarks at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Guest view works of art by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean during the opening of the show "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  1. Caffeine Extraction from Raw and Roasted Coffee Beans.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Donyau; Lin, Chih-Yang; Hu, Chen-Ti; Lee, Sanboh

    2018-04-01

    Coffee is a stimulant, psychoactive, popular daily beverage, and its caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior. These important issues prompted us to study caffeine extraction from both the raw and roasted coffee beans of 3 types at different temperatures. A hemispheric model is developed to simulate the extraction process of the caffeine from the coffee beans of hemisphere is proposed. The experimental data are in good agreement with the predicted model. The effective diffusivities of caffeine in both the raw and roasted beans increase with temperature in all 3 types. An incubation period, decreasing with increasing temperature, is observed in all samples studied. Caffeine extraction in roasted beans is more rapid than that for the raw beans and the time difference is significant at low temperatures. In both the raw and roasted samples, caffeine diffusion in the raw beans and the incubation behavior are thermally activated processes. Single activation energies are obtained for diffusion within the extraction temperature range for all beans tested with the exception of one type of the coffee beans, Mandheling, which exhibits 2 activation energies in raw samples. The surface energies of the epidermis of the raw beans and roasted beans obtained from the contact angle measurements are used to interpret the difference of incubation periods. This study has a potential application to the decaffeinated coffee industry.Caffeine affects human physiological health and behavior so that caffeine extraction from coffee beans of different types at different temperatures is important for product refining and customers. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  2. Yeasts are essential for cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2014-03-17

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao) are the major raw material for chocolate production and fermentation of the beans is essential for the development of chocolate flavor precursors. In this study, a novel approach was used to determine the role of yeasts in cocoa fermentation and their contribution to chocolate quality. Cocoa bean fermentations were conducted with the addition of 200ppm Natamycin to inhibit the growth of yeasts, and the resultant microbial ecology and metabolism, bean chemistry and chocolate quality were compared with those of normal (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii and Kluyveromyces marxianus, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in the control fermentation. In fermentations with the presence of Natamycin, the same bacterial species grew but yeast growth was inhibited. Physical and chemical analyses showed that beans fermented without yeasts had increased shell content, lower production of ethanol, higher alcohols and esters throughout fermentation and lesser presence of pyrazines in the roasted product. Quality tests revealed that beans fermented without yeasts were purplish-violet in color and not fully brown, and chocolate prepared from these beans tasted more acid and lacked characteristic chocolate flavor. Beans fermented with yeast growth were fully brown in color and gave chocolate with typical characters which were clearly preferred by sensory panels. Our findings demonstrate that yeast growth and activity were essential for cocoa bean fermentation and the development of chocolate characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia siliqua (Linne), a leguminous evergreen...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1343 - Locust (carob) bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Locust (carob) bean gum. 184.1343 Section 184.1343... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1343 Locust (carob) bean gum. (a) Locust (carob) bean gum is primarily the macerated endosperm of the seed of the locust (carob) bean tree, Ceratonia...

  8. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    .... 1993. Pancreatic enlargement is evident in rats fed diets containing raw soybeans (Glycine rnax) or cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) for 800 days but not in those fed diets based on kidney beans (Phaseolus....; Dorward, P.M.; Buchan, W.C.; Armour, J.C.; Pustzai, A. 1995. Consumption of diets containing raw soya...

  9. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) CIAT germplasm collection for response to common bacterial blight and bean common mosaic necrosis virus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyvirus that cause production losses in common and tepary beans. Developing resistance to viruses, specifically BCMV, BCMNV and BGYMV, will be critical for expanding tepary bean production. This stu...

  10. Diversity and Evolution of Salt Tolerance in the Genus Vigna

    PubMed Central

    Iseki, Kohtaro; Takahashi, Yu; Muto, Chiaki; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    Breeding salt tolerant plants is difficult without utilizing a diversity of wild crop relatives. Since the genus Vigna (family Fabaceae) is comprised of many wild relatives adapted to various environmental conditions, we evaluated the salt tolerance of 69 accessions of this genus, including that of wild and domesticated accessions originating from Asia, Africa, Oceania, and South America. We grew plants under 50 mM and 200 mM NaCl for two weeks and then measured the biomass, relative quantum yield of photosystem II, leaf Na+ concentrations, and leaf K+ concentrations. The accessions were clustered into four groups: the most tolerant, tolerant, moderately susceptible, and susceptible. From the most tolerant group, we selected six accessions, all of which were wild accessions adapted to coastal environments, as promising sources of salt tolerance because of their consistently high relative shoot biomass and relative quantum yield. Interestingly, variations in leaf Na+ concentration were observed between the accessions in the most tolerant group, suggesting different mechanisms were responsible for their salt tolerance. Phylogenetic analysis with nuclear DNA sequences revealed that salt tolerance had evolved independently at least four times in the genus Vigna, within a relatively short period. The findings suggested that simple genetic changes in a few genes might have greatly affected salt tolerances. The elucidation of genetic mechanisms of salt tolerances in the selected accessions may contribute to improving the poor salt tolerance in legume crops. PMID:27736995

  11. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  12. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  13. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  14. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  15. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  16. 21 CFR 582.7343 - Locust bean gum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Locust bean gum. 582.7343 Section 582.7343 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... bean gum. (a) Product. Locust (carob) bean gum. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  17. Glutathione-induced drought stress tolerance in mung bean: coordinated roles of the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal detoxification systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Drought is considered one of the most acute environmental stresses presently affecting agriculture. We studied the role of exogenous glutathione (GSH) in conferring drought stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. Binamoog-1) seedlings by examining the antioxidant defence and methylglyoxal (MG) detoxification systems and physiological features. Six-day-old seedlings were exposed to drought stress (−0.7 MPa), induced by polyethylene glycol alone and in combination with GSH (1 mM) for 24 and 48 h. Drought stress decreased seedling dry weight and leaf area; resulted in oxidative stress as evidenced by histochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and O2⋅− in the leaves; increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), reactive oxygen species like H2O2 content and O2⋅− generation rate and lipoxygenase activity; and increased the MG level. Drought decreased leaf succulence, leaf chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC); increased proline (Pro); decreased ascorbate (AsA); increased endogenous GSH and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) content; decreased the GSH/GSSG ratio; increased ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase activities; and decreased the activities of monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and catalase. The activities of glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II) increased due to drought stress. In contrast to drought stress alone, exogenous GSH enhanced most of the components of the antioxidant and glyoxalase systems in drought-affected mung bean seedlings at 24 h, but GSH did not significantly affect AsA, Pro, RWC, leaf succulence and the activities of Gly I and DHAR after 48 h of stress. Thus, exogenous GSH supplementation with drought significantly enhanced the antioxidant components and successively reduced oxidative damage, and GSH up-regulated the glyoxalase system and reduced MG toxicity, which played a significant role in improving the physiological features and drought

  18. Effect of cooking methods on selected physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean.

    PubMed

    Güzel, Demet; Sayar, Sedat

    2012-02-01

    The effects of atmospheric pressure cooking (APC) and high-pressure cooking (HPC) on the physicochemical and nutritional properties of barlotto bean, chickpea, faba bean, and white kidney bean were investigated. The hardness of the legumes cooked by APC or HPC were not statistically different (P > 0.05). APC resulted in higher percentage of seed coat splits than HPC. Both cooking methods decreased Hunter "L" value significantly (P < 0.05). The "a" and "b" values of dark-colored seeds decreased after cooking, while these values tended to increase for the light-colored seeds. The total amounts of solid lost from legume seeds were higher after HPC compared with APC. Rapidly digestible starch (RDS) percentages increased considerably after both cooking methods. High pressure cooked legumes resulted in higher levels of resistant starch (RS) but lower levels of slowly digestible starch (SDS) than the atmospheric pressure cooked legumes.

  19. Breeding black beans for Haiti with multiple virus resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black bean production in the lowlands of Central America and the Caribbean is threatened by Bean golden yellow mosaic virus (BGYMV) and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV). Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop, test and release tropically-adapted black bean lines with resis...

  20. The polyphenolic profiles of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M; Pastor-Corrales, Marcial S; Luthria, Devanand L

    2008-03-01

    Based on the phenolic profiles obtained by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS), 24 common bean samples, representing 17 varieties and 7 generic off-the-shelf items, belonging to ten US commercial market classes can be organized into six different groups. All of them contained the same hydroxycinnaminic acids, but the flavonoid components showed distinct differences. Black beans contained primarily the 3- O -glucosides of delphinidin, petunidin and malvidin, while pinto beans contained kaempferol and its 3- O -glycosides. Light red kidney bean contained traces of quercetin 3- O -glucoside and its malonates, but pink and dark red kidney beans contained the diglycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. Small red beans contained kaempferol 3- O -glucoside and pelargonidin 3- O -glucoside, while no flavonoids were detected in alubia, cranberry, great northern, and navy beans. This is the first report of the tentative identification of quercetin 3- O -pentosylhexoside and flavonoid glucoside malonates, and the first detailed detection of hydroxycinnamates, in common beans.

  1. Extrinsic labeling method may not accurately measure Fe absorption from cooked pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris): comparison of extrinsic and intrinsic labeling of beans.

    PubMed

    Jin, Fuxia; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Rutzke, Michael A; Welch, Ross M; Glahn, Raymond P

    2008-08-27

    Isotopic labeling of food has been widely used for the measurement of Fe absorption in determining requirements and evaluating the factors involved in Fe bioavailability. An extrinsic labeling technique will not accurately predict the total Fe absorption from foods unless complete isotopic exchange takes place between an extrinsically added isotope label and the intrinsic Fe of the food. We examined isotopic exchange in the case of both white beans and colored beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with an in vitro digestion model. There are significant differences in (58)Fe/(56)Fe ratios between the sample digest supernatant and the pellet of extrinsically labeled pinto bean. The white bean digest shows significantly better equilibration of the extrinsic (58)Fe with the intrinsic (56)Fe. In contrast to the extrinsically labeled samples, both white and red beans labeled intrinsically with (58)Fe demonstrated consistent ratios of (58)Fe/(56)Fe in the bean meal, digest, supernatant, and pellet. It is possible that the polyphenolics in the bean seed coat may bind Fe and thus interfere with extrinsic labeling of the bean meals. These observations raise questions on the accuracy of studies that used extrinsic tags to measure Fe absorption from beans. Intrinsic labeling appears necessary to accurately measure Fe bioavailability from beans.

  2. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    NASA Apollo 7 Astronaut Walt Cunningham, left, and NASA STS-125 Mission Specialist Michael Massimino talk with another guest during the opening of "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" by NASA Apollo 12 Astronaut and Artist Alan Bean at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Indole-3-butyric acid mediates antioxidative defense systems to promote adventitious rooting in mung bean seedlings under cadmium and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Weng; Zeng, Xiao-Ying; Leng, Yan; Feng, Lin; Kang, Xiao-Hu

    2018-06-08

    In vitro experiments were performed to determine whether auxin can mediate the formation of adventitious roots in response to heavy metal and drought stresses using a model rooting plant, mung bean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek]. The treatments with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly inhibited the formation and growth of adventitious roots in mung bean seedlings. In contrast, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), IBA considerably cancelled the inhibition of adventitious rooting by stresses. Treatment with CdCl 2 or mannitol alone significantly increased the soluble protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. CdCl 2 and mannitol stress each induced differentially significant changes in the activities of antioxidative enzyme and antioxidant levels during adventitious rooting. Notably, both CdCl 2 and mannitol stress strongly reduced the peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and phenols levels. Catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were enhanced by CdCl 2 but reduced by mannitol. CdCl 2 increased the ascorbate acid (ASA) level, which was decreased by mannitol. Furthermore, when CdCl 2 or mannitol was applied together with IBA, IBA counteracted the CdCl 2 - or mannitol-induced increase or decrease in certain antioxidants, MDA, and antioxidative enzymes. These results suggest that Cd and mannitol stress inhibition of adventitious rooting is associated with the regulation of antioxidative enzymes and antioxidants in cells to defense the oxidative stress. Moreover, IBA alleviates the effects of Cd and mannitol stress on the rooting process partially through the regulation of antioxidative defense systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Functional properties of yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) starch.

    PubMed

    Mélo, E A; Stamford, T L M; Silva, M P C; Krieger, N; Stamford, N P

    2003-08-01

    The study was carried out in order to determine and establish the functional characters of starch extracted from yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L) Urban) compared with cassava starch. Yam bean is a tropical tuber legume easily grown and holds a great potential as a new source of starch. Yam bean starch shows functional properties which are peculiar to those of most starch root crops. Gelatinization temperature (53-63 degrees C) and the pasting temperature (64.5 degrees C) are less than those of cereal starch, however, the swelling power is high (54.4 g gel/g dried starch). Yam bean starch paste presents a high viscosity profile, high retrogradation tendency and low stability on cooking. The functional properties of yam bean starch, similar to those of cassava starch, allows yam bean to be used as a potential new source of starch.

  5. Antinutritional factors in anasazi and other pinto beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Weder, J K; Telek, L; Vozári-Hampe, M; Saini, H S

    1997-01-01

    Antinutritional factors of anasazi bean were compared to traditional pinto bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Anasazi beans contained less (p<0.001) soluble and bound condensed tannins compared to pinto beans. No differences (p>0.05) in stachyose and raffinose content were found between the two bean types; verbascose was not detected at all. Significant (p<0.05) differences in lectin content were observed between anasazi and pinto bean. The lectins of anasazi beans were classified as non toxic and those of the pinto beans as toxic types. No differences (p>0.05) in inhibitor activity against human and bovine trypsin and chymotrypsin were found between the two bean types.

  6. [Faba bean fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum )control and its mechanism in different wheat varieties and faba bean intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li; Yang, Zhi-Xian

    2014-07-01

    Field experiment and hydroponic culture were conducted to investigate effects of three wheat varieties (Yunmai 42, Yunmai 47 and Mianyang 29) and faba bean intercropping on the shoot biomass, disease index of fusarium wilt, functional diversity of microbial community and the amount of Fusarium oxysporum in rhizosphere of faba bean. Contents and components of the soluble sugars, free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates were also examined. Results showed that, compared with monocropped faba bean, shoot biomass of faba bean significantly increased by 16.6% and 13.4%, disease index of faba bean fusarium wilt significantly decreased by 47.6% and 23.3% as intercropped with Yunmai 42 and Yunmai 47, but no significant differences of both shoot biomass and disease index were found as intercropped with Mianyang 29. Compared with monocropped faba bean, the average well color development (AWCD value) and total utilization ability of carbon sources of faba bean significantly increased, the amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean rhizosphere significantly decreased, and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere changed as intercropped with YM42 and YM47, while no significant effects as intercropped with MY29. Total contents of soluble sugar, free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates were in the trend of MY29>YM47>YM42. Contents of serine, glutamic, glycine, valine, methionine, phenylalanine, lysine in root exudates of MY29 were significantly higher than that in YM42 and YM47. The arginine was detected only in the root exudates of YM42 and YM47, and leucine was detected only in the root exudates of MY29. Six organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, t-aconitic acid were detected in root exudates of MY29 and YM47, and four organic acids of tartaric acid, malic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid were detected in root exudates of YM42. Malic acid content in root exudates of YM47 and MY29 was

  7. [Effect of grain-bean package, grain-bean package dietary fiber and single whole grain dietary fiber on dyslipidemia rats].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zhai, Chengkai; Sun, Guiju; Zhang, Hong; Jiang, Mingxia; Zhang, Haifeng; Guo, Junling; Lan, Xi

    2014-05-01

    To observe and compare the effects of grain-bean package, dietary fiber (DF) extracted from grain-bean package, and DF from grain corn on the blood lipids and fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity in high-fat, high-cholesterol feeding induced dyslipidemia rats, and observe its effects on regulation of sterol regulatory element protein-1c (SREBP-1c) mRNA expression in rat liver. Consolidation 50 SD rats of clean grade feeding adaptation for one week, randomly assigned into normal control group, hyperlipidemia model group, grain-bean package group, grain-bean package DF group and grain corn group. Feed with corresponding diets for 8 weeks, and measure the total cholesterol (TC), triglyceridaemia (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), FAS, SREBP-1c mRNA of all groups. Compared with control group, TC, TG, FBG levels of hyperlipidemia model group were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Compared with model group, TC, TG, FBG levels of grain-bean package group, grain-bean package DF group were significantly decreased, HDL-C levels significantly increased, and activity of FAS, regulation of SREBP-1c were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). The Grain-bean package dietary fiber can improve blood lipids levels of dyslipidemia rats, and decrease FAS activity and SREBP-1c mRNA expression.

  8. High-throughput metabolic profiling of diverse green Coffea arabica beans identified tryptophan as a universal discrimination factor for immature beans.

    PubMed

    Setoyama, Daiki; Iwasa, Keiko; Seta, Harumichi; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Miura, Daisuke; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Chifumi; Nakahara, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    The maturity of green coffee beans is the most influential determinant of the quality and flavor of the resultant coffee beverage. However, the chemical compounds that can be used to discriminate the maturity of the beans remain uncharacterized. We herein analyzed four distinct stages of maturity (immature, semi-mature, mature and overripe) of nine different varieties of green Coffea arabica beans hand-harvested from a single experimental field in Hawaii. After developing a high-throughput experimental system for sample preparation and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) measurement, we applied metabolic profiling, integrated with chemometric techniques, to explore the relationship between the metabolome and maturity of the sample in a non-biased way. For the multivariate statistical analyses, a partial least square (PLS) regression model was successfully created, which allowed us to accurately predict the maturity of the beans based on the metabolomic information. As a result, tryptophan was identified to be the best contributor to the regression model; the relative MS intensity of tryptophan was higher in immature beans than in those after the semi-mature stages in all arabica varieties investigated, demonstrating a universal discrimination factor for diverse arabica beans. Therefore, typtophan, either alone or together with other metabolites, may be utilized for traders as an assessment standard when purchasing qualified trading green arabica bean products. Furthermore, our results suggest that the tryptophan metabolism may be tightly linked to the development of coffee cherries and/or beans.

  9. Intercropping Corn with Lablab bean, Velvet Bean, and Scarlet Runner Bean for Forage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Low crude protein (CP) concentration in corn (Zea mays L.) forage is its major limitation in dairy rations. This experiment was designed to determine if intercropping corn with climbing beans is a viable option to increase CP concentration in forage rather than purchasing costly CP supplements for ...

  10. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. Here, we report the transcriptional respo...

  11. Growth and anatomical parameters of adventitious roots formed on mung bean hypocotyls are correlated with galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides structure.

    PubMed

    Kollárová, K; Zelko, I; Henselová, M; Capek, P; Lišková, D

    2012-01-01

    The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation.

  12. Growth and Anatomical Parameters of Adventitious Roots Formed on Mung Bean Hypocotyls Are Correlated with Galactoglucomannan Oligosaccharides Structure

    PubMed Central

    Kollárová, K.; Zelko, I.; Henselová, M.; Capek, P.; Lišková, D.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of galactoglucomannan oligosaccharides (GGMOs) compared with chemically modified oligosaccharides, GGMOs-g (with reduced number of D-galactose side chains) and GGMOs-r (with reduced reducing ends) on mung bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) adventitious roots formation, elongation, and anatomical structure have been studied. All types of oligosaccharides influenced adventitious root formation in the same way: stimulation in the absence of exogenous auxin and inhibition in the presence of exogenous auxin. Both reactions are probably related with the presence/content of endogenous auxin in plant cuttings. However, the adventitious root length was inhibited by GGMOs both in the absence as well as in the presence of auxin (IBA or NAA), while GGMOs-g inhibition was significantly weaker compared with GGMOs. GGMOs-r were without significant difference on both processes, compared with GGMOs. GGMOs affected not only the adventitious root length but also their anatomy in dependence on the combination with certain type of auxin. The oligosaccharides influenced cortical cells division, which was reflected in the cortex area and in the root diameter. All processes followed were dependent on oligosaccharides chemical structure. The results suggest also that GGM-derived oligosaccharides may play an important role in adventitious roots elongation but not in their formation. PMID:22666154

  13. Proteome Characterization of Leaves in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Robison, Faith M.; Heuberger, Adam L.; Brick, Mark A.; Prenni, Jessica E.

    2015-01-01

    Dry edible bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a globally relevant food crop. The bean genome was recently sequenced and annotated allowing for proteomics investigations aimed at characterization of leaf phenotypes important to agriculture. The objective of this study was to utilize a shotgun proteomics approach to characterize the leaf proteome and to identify protein abundance differences between two bean lines with known variation in their physiological resistance to biotic stresses. Overall, 640 proteins were confidently identified. Among these are proteins known to be involved in a variety of molecular functions including oxidoreductase activity, binding peroxidase activity, and hydrolase activity. Twenty nine proteins were found to significantly vary in abundance (p-value < 0.05) between the two bean lines, including proteins associated with biotic stress. To our knowledge, this work represents the first large scale shotgun proteomic analysis of beans and our results lay the groundwork for future studies designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen resistance. PMID:28248269

  14. Physicochemical properties and digestibility of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) starches.

    PubMed

    Du, Shuang-Kui; Jiang, Hongxin; Ai, Yongfeng; Jane, Jay-Lin

    2014-08-08

    Physicochemical properties and digestibility of pinto bean, red kidney bean, black bean and navy bean starches were analyzed. All the common bean starches had oval and spherical granules with average diameter of 25.3-27.4 μm. Amylose contents were 32.0-45.4%. Black bean starch showed the highest peak viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback, whereas red kidney bean starch showed the lowest pasting temperature, peak viscosity, breakdown, and setback. Pinto bean starch showed the highest onset and peak gelatinization temperatures, and the lowest gelatinization temperature range; whereas navy bean starch exhibited the lowest values. Amylopectin of red kidney bean had the highest molecular weight (Mw) and z-average gyration radius (Rz), whereas black bean amylopectin had the lowest values of Mw and Rz. The proportions of DP 6-12, DP 13-24, DP 25-36, and DP ≥ 37 and average branch-chain lengths were 23.30-35.21%, 47.79-53.53%, 8.99-12.65%, 6.39-13.49%, and 17.91-21.56, respectively. All the native bean starches were highly resistant to enzyme digestion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-20

    AS12-49-7278 (19-20 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean, lunar module pilot, participated. Conrad, who took this picture, is reflected in Bean's helmet visor. Conrad and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) to explore the lunar surface while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  17. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    PubMed

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Development, release and dissemination of "Sankara" black bean in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in the Caribbean is threatened by Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV), Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) and Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV). The University of Puerto Rico, the University of Nebraska, the USDA-ARS, Zamorano and the National ...

  19. Anaphylactic shock following castor bean contact: a case report.

    PubMed

    Coattrenec, Y; Jaques, D; Jandus, P; Harr, T; Spoerl, D

    2017-01-01

    The castor bean plant, Ricinus communis , is known to have allergenic and toxic properties. Castor bean allergy has been described mainly as an occupational inhalation allergy in laboratory workers, in persons working in oil processing mills or in agricultural industry. So far, only one case of anaphylactic reaction due to castor bean sensitization confirmed by specific IgE has been described in literature. A 30-year-old woman presented to the emergency room with severe angioedema followed by urticaria, hypotension and tachycardia. She recovered after treatment with antihistamines, corticosteroids, nebulized adrenaline and intravenous fluids. Food induced anaphylaxis was excluded by allergological investigations. After repeated thorough history, the patient mentioned having bitten into a castor bean just before the reaction. Cutaneous test (prick-to-prick) and specific IgE for castor bean were highly positive. We report the second case of a severe anaphylactic reaction to castor beans, confirmed by IgE testing, reported in the literature. It underlines the importance of a meticulous history in allergology and highlights the fact, that castor beans may cause potentially fatal anaphylaxis.

  20. Registration of ‘Samurai’ Otebo Bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Samurai’ otebo bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI ), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2015 as an upright, full-season cultivar with virus [caused by Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV)] resistance and high-yield potential. Samurai was developed using ped...

  1. Evaluation of bean and soy tempeh influence on intestinal bacteria and estimation of antibacterial properties of bean tempeh.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Maciej; Jasińska-Kuligowska, Iwona; Nowak, Jacek

    2013-01-01

    In this study the effect of bean tempeh on the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus paracasei bacteria was investigated. Antibacterial activity was observed only in relation to the bacteria Bacillus subtilis. The effect of tempeh products on human intestinal microflora was also assessed. Bean and soy tempeh were culinarily processed and next digested in conditions simulating the human digestive tract (one of the digestive tracts was equipped with a mechanism simulating absorption). Soy tempeh stimulated most the growth of bacteria of the genus Bifidobacterium, while bean tempeh that of Escherichia coli. Using simulation of absorption for the digestion of fried soy tempeh resulted in a higher rise in the bacteria count of the genus Lactobacillus, while after digestion of fried bean tempeh the highest increase was recorded for Bifidobacterium and E. coli.

  2. The use of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) traditional varieties and their mixtures with commercial varieties to manage bean fly (Ophiomyia spp.) infestations in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Ssekandi, W; Mulumba, J W; Colangelo, P; Nankya, R; Fadda, C; Karungi, J; Otim, M; De Santis, P; Jarvis, D I

    The bean fly ( Ophiomyia spp.) is considered the most economically damaging field insect pest of common beans in Uganda. Despite the use of existing pest management approaches, reported damage has remained high. Forty-eight traditional and improved common bean varieties currently grown in farmers' fields were evaluated for resistance against bean fly. Data on bean fly incidence, severity and root damage from bean stem maggot were collected. Generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) revealed significant resistance to bean fly in the Ugandan traditional varieties. A popular resistant traditional variety and a popular susceptible commercial variety were selected from the 48 varieties and evaluated in pure and mixed stands. The incidence of bean fly infestation on both varieties in mixtures with different arrangements (systematic random versus rows), and different proportions within each of the two arrangements, was measured and analysed using GLMMs. The proportion of resistant varieties in a mixture and the arrangement type significantly decreased bean fly damage compared to pure stands, with the highest decrease in damage registered in the systematic random mixture with at least 50 % of resistant variety. The highest reduction in root damage, obvious 21 days after planting, was found in systematic random mixtures with at least 50 % of the resistant variety. Small holder farmers in East Africa and elsewhere in the world have local preferences for growing bean varieties in genetic mixtures. These mixtures can be enhanced by the use of resistant varieties in the mixtures to reduce bean fly damage on susceptible popular varieties.

  3. Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds from Fava Bean Sprouts.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Koharu; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kawarazaki, Kai; Izawa, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2016-06-01

    Fava beans are eaten all over the world and recently, marketing for their sprouts began in Japan. Fava bean sprouts contain more polyphenols and l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-DOPA) than the bean itself. Our antioxidant screening program has shown that fava bean sprouts also possess a higher antioxidant activity than other commercially available sprouts and mature beans. However, the individual constituents of fava bean sprouts are not entirely known. In the present study, we investigated the phenolic compounds of fava bean sprouts and their antioxidant activity. Air-dried fava bean sprouts were treated with 80% methanol and the extract was partitioned in water with chloroform and ethyl acetate. HPLC analysis had shown that the ethyl acetate-soluble parts contained phenolic compounds, separated by preparative HPLC to yield 5 compounds (1-5). Structural analysis using NMR and MS revealed that the compounds isolated were kaempferol glycosides. All isolated compounds had an α-rhamnose at the C-7 position with different sugars attached at the C-3 position. Compounds 1-5 had β-galactose, β-glucose, α-rhamnose, 6-acetyl-β-galactose and 6-acetyl-β-glucose, respectively, at the C-3 position. The amount of l-DOPA in fava bean sprouts was determined by the quantitative (1) H NMR technique. The l-DOPA content was 550.45 mg ± 11.34 /100 g of the raw sprouts. The antioxidant activities of compounds 2-5 and l-DOPA were evaluated using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl scavenging assay. l-DOPA showed high antioxidant activity, but the isolated kaempferol glycosides showed weak activity. Therefore, it can be suggested that l-DOPA contributed to the antioxidant activity of fava bean sprouts. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Wreath Laying Ceremony for Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    Members of the news media assemble to cover a ceremony on Wednesday, May 30, 2018, during which a memorial wreath is placed in the Apollo-Saturn V Center of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex honoring former NASA astronaut Alan Bean. In the background is a large mural of a painting by Alan Bean who became an accomplished artist after leaving NASA. Bean was the fourth person to walk on the Moon as lunar module pilot on Apollo 12 in November 1969. He went on to command the 59-day Skylab 3 mission in 1973. He died in Houston on May 26, 2018, at the age of 86.

  5. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding...

  6. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding...

  7. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding...

  8. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean crop insurance provisions. The Processing Bean Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding...

  9. Dynamic transcriptome profiling of Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) infection in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martin, Kathleen; Singh, Jugpreet; Hill, John H; Whitham, Steven A; Cannon, Steven B

    2016-08-11

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) is widespread, with Phaseolus species as the primary host plants. Numerous BCMV strains have been identified on the basis of a panel of bean varieties that distinguish the pathogenicity types with respect to the viral strains. The molecular responses in Phaseolus to BCMV infection have not yet been well characterized. We report the transcriptional responses of a widely susceptible variety of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L., cultivar 'Stringless green refugee') to two BCMV strains, in a time-course experiment. We also report the genome sequence of a previously unreported BCMV strain. The interaction with the known strain NL1-Iowa causes moderate symptoms and large transcriptional responses, and the newly identified strain (Strain 2 or S2) causes severe symptoms and moderate transcriptional responses. The transcriptional profiles of host plants infected with the two isolates are distinct, and involve numerous differences in splice forms in particular genes, and pathway specific expression patterns. We identified differential host transcriptome response after infection of two different strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Virus infection initiated a suite of changes in gene expression level and patterns in the host plants. Pathways related to defense, gene regulation, metabolic processes, photosynthesis were specifically altered after virus infection. Results presented in this study can increase the understanding of host-pathogen interactions and provide resources for further investigations of the biological mechanisms in BCMV infection and defense.

  10. Solubilization of an Arabinan Arabinosyltransferase Activity from Mung Bean Hypocotyls1

    PubMed Central

    Nunan, Kylie Joy; Scheller, Henrik Vibe

    2003-01-01

    The biosynthesis of polysaccharides destined for the plant cell wall and the subsequent assembly of the cell wall are poorly understood processes that are currently the focus of much research. Arabinan, a component of the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan I, is composed of arabinosyl residues connected via various glycosidic linkages, and therefore, the biosynthesis of arabinan is likely to involve more than one arabinosyltransferase. We have studied the transfer of [14C]arabinose (Ara) from UDP-l-arabinopyranose onto polysaccharides using microsomal membranes isolated from mung bean (Vigna radiata) hypocotyls. [14C]arabinosyl and [14C]xylosyl residues were incorporated into endogenous products due to the presence of UDP-Xyl-4-epimerase activity. Enzymatic digestion of endogenous products with endo-arabinanase released very little radiolabeled sugars, whereas digestion with arabinofuranosidase released some [14C]Ara. Microsomal membranes solubilized with the detergent octyl glucoside were able to add a single [14C]Ara residue onto (1→5)-linked α-l-arabino-oligosaccharide acceptors. The reaction had a pH optimum of 6.5 and a requirement for manganese ions. However, enzymatic digestion of the radiolabeled oligosaccharides with endo-arabinanase and arabinofuranosidases could not fully release the radiolabeled Ara residue, indicating that the [14C]Ara residue was not a (1→2)-, (1→3)-, or (1→5)-linked α-l-arabinofuranosyl residue. Rather, mild acid treatment of the product suggested that the radiolabeled Ara residue was in a pyranose conformation, and this result was confirmed by thin-layer chromatography of radiolabeled partially methylated sugars. Using microsomal membranes separated on a discontinuous sucrose gradient, the arabinosyltransferase activity appears to be mainly localized to Golgi membranes. PMID:12746538

  11. Simultaneous determination of levodopa and carbidopa from fava bean, green peas and green beans by high performance liquid gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Mehran S M, Mohseni; B, Golshani

    2013-06-01

    According to many studies, sprouted fava beans are a rich source of levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) the precursor of dopamine, and they are now being investigated for use in the management of Parkinson's disease. The addition of Carbidopa (C-dopa) can reduce the daily use of the L-dopa dosage requirements and it can also reduce the side effects which are associated with the L-dopa administration. The present research was conducted to find the levo-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-dopa) and Carbidopa (C-dopa) in fava beans, green peas and green beans by High Performance Gas Chromatography (HPLC). Carbidopa (C-dopa) is a peripheral decarboxylase inhibitor. As a substitution therapy, it used in combination to treat Parkinson's disease. We obtained L-dopa and C-dopa from fava beans which were in the fresh and dry sprouted form, whose concentrations were 1.4,1.5 and 2.6,2.4 mg/ml respectively. The maximal stimulation of the L-DOPA content was seen on day 8 for the fava beans, which was 100% higher than that of the control level. The results of this study indicate that faba beans are a good source of natural L-dopa and C-dopa. The quantification of this capacity according to the stage and the plant part could be suitable for applications in the food industry and in plant medicine. The consumption of fava beans can increase the levels of L-dopa and C-dopa in the blood, with a marked improvement in the motor performance of the patients with parkinson disease, without any side effects.

  12. Identification of biochemical features of defective Coffea arabica L. beans.

    PubMed

    Casas, María I; Vaughan, Michael J; Bonello, Pierluigi; McSpadden Gardener, Brian; Grotewold, Erich; Alonso, Ana P

    2017-05-01

    Coffee organoleptic properties are based in part on the quality and chemical composition of coffee beans. The presence of defective beans during processing and roasting contribute to off flavors and reduce overall cup quality. A multipronged approach was undertaken to identify specific biochemical markers for defective beans. To this end, beans were split into defective and non-defective fractions and biochemically profiled in both green and roasted states. A set of 17 compounds in green beans, including organic acids, amino acids and reducing sugars; and 35 compounds in roasted beans, dominated by volatile compounds, organic acids, sugars and sugar alcohols, were sufficient to separate the defective and non-defective fractions. Unsorted coffee was examined for the presence of the biochemical markers to test their utility in detecting defective beans. Although the green coffee marker compounds were found in all fractions, three of the roasted coffee marker compounds (1-methylpyrrole, 5-methyl- 2-furfurylfuran, and 2-methylfuran) were uniquely present in defective fractions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A Phaseolus vulgaris diversity panel for Andean bean improvement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) of the Andean gene pool, including red mottled, kidney, cranberry, and yellow seed types are important in Africa and in the Americas. Andean dry bean breeding gains have lagged behind those of Mesoamerican beans. These differences may be due to a narrower genetic b...

  14. Protein Mobilization in Germinating Mung Bean Seeds Involves Vacuolar Sorting Receptors and Multivesicular Bodies1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junqi; Li, Yubing; Lo, Sze Wan; Hillmer, Stefan; Sun, Samuel S.M.; Robinson, David G.; Jiang, Liwen

    2007-01-01

    Plants accumulate and store proteins in protein storage vacuoles (PSVs) during seed development and maturation. Upon seed germination, these storage proteins are mobilized to provide nutrients for seedling growth. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of protein degradation during seed germination. Here we test the hypothesis that vacuolar sorting receptor (VSR) proteins play a role in mediating protein degradation in germinating seeds. We demonstrate that both VSR proteins and hydrolytic enzymes are synthesized de novo during mung bean (Vigna radiata) seed germination. Immunogold electron microscopy with VSR antibodies demonstrate that VSRs mainly locate to the peripheral membrane of multivesicular bodies (MVBs), presumably as recycling receptors in day 1 germinating seeds, but become internalized to the MVB lumen, presumably for degradation at day 3 germination. Chemical cross-linking and immunoprecipitation with VSR antibodies have identified the cysteine protease aleurain as a specific VSR-interacting protein in germinating seeds. Further confocal immunofluorescence and immunogold electron microscopy studies demonstrate that VSR and aleurain colocalize to MVBs as well as PSVs in germinating seeds. Thus, MVBs in germinating seeds exercise dual functions: as a storage compartment for proteases that are physically separated from PSVs in the mature seed and as an intermediate compartment for VSR-mediated delivery of proteases from the Golgi apparatus to the PSV for protein degradation during seed germination. PMID:17322331

  15. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans.

    PubMed

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-05-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans.

  16. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    PubMed Central

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  17. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties.

    PubMed

    Yi-Shen, Zhu; Shuai, Sun; FitzGerald, Richard

    2018-01-01

    To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/the World Health Organization (WHO) amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin). However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications.

  18. The effect of lactic acid bacteria on cocoa bean fermentation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Van Thi Thuy; Zhao, Jian; Fleet, Graham

    2015-07-16

    Cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) are the raw material for chocolate production. Fermentation of cocoa pulp by microorganisms is crucial for developing chocolate flavor precursors. Yeasts conduct an alcoholic fermentation within the bean pulp that is essential for the production of good quality beans, giving typical chocolate characters. However, the roles of bacteria such as lactic acid bacteria and acetic acid bacteria in contributing to the quality of cocoa bean and chocolate are not fully understood. Using controlled laboratory fermentations, this study investigated the contribution of lactic acid bacteria to cocoa bean fermentation. Cocoa beans were fermented under conditions where the growth of lactic acid bacteria was restricted by the use of nisin and lysozyme. The resultant microbial ecology, chemistry and chocolate quality of beans from these fermentations were compared with those of indigenous (control) fermentations. The yeasts Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Pichia kudriavzevii, Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus fermentum and the acetic acid bacteria Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii were the major species found in control fermentations. In fermentations with the presence of nisin and lysozyme, the same species of yeasts and acetic acid bacteria grew but the growth of lactic acid bacteria was prevented or restricted. These beans underwent characteristic alcoholic fermentation where the utilization of sugars and the production of ethanol, organic acids and volatile compounds in the bean pulp and nibs were similar for beans fermented in the presence of lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid was produced during both fermentations but more so when lactic acid bacteria grew. Beans fermented in the presence or absence of lactic acid bacteria were fully fermented, had similar shell weights and gave acceptable chocolates with no differences

  19. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance provisions. The dry bean crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  20. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance provisions. The dry bean crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  1. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance provisions. The dry bean crop insurance provisions for the 2003 and succeeding crop years are as follows...

  2. Growth of Clostridium perfringens during cooling of refried beans.

    PubMed

    Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan M; Akins, E Deann; Friedrich, Loretta M; Danyluk, Michelle D; Simonne, Amarat H

    2012-10-01

    Outbreaks of Clostridium perfringens have been associated with dishes containing refried beans from food service establishments. However, growth of C. perfringens in refried beans has not been investigated, and predictive models have not been validated in this food matrix. We investigated the growth of C. perfringens during the cooling of refried beans. Refried beans (pinto and black, with and without salt added) were inoculated with 3 log CFU/g C. perfringens spores and incubated isothermally at 12, 23, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50°C. The levels of C. perfringens were monitored 3, 5, 8, and 10 h after inoculation, and then fitted to the Baranyi primary model and the Rosso secondary model prior to solving the Baranyi differential equation. The final model was validated by dynamic cooling experiments carried out in stockpots, thus mimicking the worst possible food service conditions. All refried beans samples supported the growth of C. perfringens, and all models fit the data with pseudo-R(2) values of 0.95 or greater and mean square errors of 0.3 or lower. The estimated maximum specific growth rates were generally higher in pinto beans, with or without salt added (2.64 and 1.95 h(-1), respectively), when compared with black beans, with or without salt added (1.78 and 1.61 h(-1), respectively). After 10 h of incubation, maximum populations of C. perfringens were significantly higher in samples with no salt added (7.9 log CFU/g for both pinto and black beans) than in samples with salt added (7.3 and 7.2 log CFU/g for pinto and black beans, respectively). The dynamic model predicted the growth of C. perfringens during cooling, with an average root mean squared error of 0.44. The use of large stockpots to cool refried beans led to an observed 1.2-log increase (1.5-log increase predicted by model) in levels of C. perfringens during cooling. The use of shallower pans for cooling is recommended, because they cool faster, therefore limiting the growth of C. perfringens.

  3. Superconductivity modelling: Homogenization of Bean`s model in three dimensions, and the problem of transverse conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Bossavit, A.

    The authors show how to pass from the local Bean`s model, assumed to be valid as a behavior law for a homogeneous superconductor, to a model of similar form, valid on a larger space scale. The process, which can be iterated to higher and higher space scales, consists in solving for the fields e and j over a ``periodicity cell`` with periodic boundary conditions.

  4. Variation in caffeine concentration in single coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Fox, Glen P; Wu, Alex; Yiran, Liang; Force, Lesleigh

    2013-11-13

    Twenty-eight coffee samples from around the world were tested for caffeine levels to develop near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) calibrations for whole and ground coffee. Twenty-five individual beans from five of those coffees were used to develop a NIRS calibration for caffeine concentration in single beans. An international standard high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to analyze for caffeine content. Coffee is a legal stimulant and possesses a number of heath properties. However, there is variation in the level of caffeine in brewed coffee and other caffeinated beverages. Being able to sort beans on the basis of caffeine concentration will improve quality control in the level of caffeine in those beverages. The range in caffeine concentration was from 0.01 mg/g (decaffeinated coffee) to 19.9 mg/g (Italian coffee). The majority of coffees were around 10.0-12.0 mg/g. The NIRS results showed r(2) values for bulk unground and ground coffees were >0.90 with standard errors <2 mg/g. For the single-bean calibration the r(2) values were between 0.85 and 0.93 with standard errors of cross validation of 0.8-1.6 mg/g depending upon calibration. The results showed it was possible to develop NIRS calibrations to estimate the caffeine concentration of individual coffee beans. One application of this calibration could be sorting beans on caffeine concentration to provide greater quality control for high-end markets. Furthermore, bean sorting may open new markets for novel coffee products.

  5. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  6. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  7. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  8. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  9. 9 CFR 319.301 - Chili con carne with beans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chili con carne with beans. 319.301 Section 319.301 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.301 Chili con carne with beans. Chili con carne with beans shall contain...

  10. Mung bean proteins and peptides: nutritional, functional and bioactive properties

    PubMed Central

    Yi-Shen, Zhu; Shuai, Sun; FitzGerald, Richard

    2018-01-01

    To date, no extensive literature review exists regarding potential uses of mung bean proteins and peptides. As mung bean has long been widely used as a food source, early studies evaluated mung bean nutritional value against the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/the World Health Organization (WHO) amino acids dietary recommendations. The comparison demonstrated mung bean to be a good protein source, except for deficiencies in sulphur-containing amino acids, methionine and cysteine. Methionine and cysteine residues have been introduced into the 8S globulin through protein engineering technology. Subsequently, purified mung bean proteins and peptides have facilitated the study of their structural and functional properties. Two main types of extraction methods have been reported for isolation of proteins and peptides from mung bean flours, permitting sequencing of major proteins present in mung bean, including albumins and globulins (notably 8S globulin). However, the sequence for albumin deposited in the UniProt database differs from other sequences reported in the literature. Meanwhile, a limited number of reports have revealed other useful bioactivities for proteins and hydrolysed peptides, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity, anti-fungal activity and trypsin inhibitory activity. Consequently, several mung bean hydrolysed peptides have served as effective food additives to prevent proteolysis during storage. Ultimately, further research will reveal other nutritional, functional and bioactive properties of mung bean for uses in diverse applications. PMID:29545737

  11. Astronaut Bean - Acrobatics - Orbital Workshop (OWS)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-20

    S73-32632 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, performs acrobatics and simulated gymnastics in the dome area of the Orbital Workshop in this photographic reproduction taken from a television transmission made by a color TV camera aboard the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. Bean appears to be floating in a diving position. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Astronaut Alan L. Bean - Family - Houston, TX

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-07-05

    S73-31104 (17 July 1973) --- The wife and children of astronaut Alan L. Bean are photographed at their home near the Johnson Space Center (JSC), where their husband and father is preparing for NASA?s second manned Skylab mission. Bean is commander of the Skylab 3 Earth-orbital mission and will be joined by scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, science pilot, and astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot for the schedule two-month mission. With Mrs. Sue Bean are the couple?s children Clay, 17, and Amy Sue, 10; and the family?s pet dog. Photo credit: NASA

  13. Yam bean seed poisoning mimicking cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Hung, Y-M; Hung, S-Y; Olson, K R; Chou, K-J; Lin, S-L; Chung, H-M; Tung, C-N; Chang, J-C

    2007-02-01

    Yam bean is a common food in southern Taiwan. However, its seeds are rarely consumed. We describe five patients of yam bean seed poisoning in Taiwan, one of them life-threatening. The five patients presented with perioral numbness, nausea and vomiting after eating a same soup made from yam bean seeds. One of them, a 54-year-old woman, had difficulty breathing and lost consciousness. Physical examination showed dilated pupils and coma with no focal neurological signs. The initial blood pressure was normal. Laboratory data showed a severe anion gap metabolic acidosis, with a serum lactate level of 185 mg/dL. An initial diagnosis of cyanide intoxication was considered and she was given sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate i.v. Hypotension ensued shortly afterwards and pulmonary artery catheterization showed a decreased cardiac index. Aggressive fluid and inotropic therapy were given and the patient eventually recovered. The other four patients suffered only minor gastrointestinal and neurological symptoms and received supportive treatment. Cyanide levels were negative in all five patients. Yam bean seed poisoning can cause acute metabolic acidosis and altered mental status, which could be confused with acute cyanide intoxication from a cyanogenic glycoside-containing plant. To our knowledge, this is the first outbreak of yam bean seed poisoning reported in the English published work.

  14. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of accessions in the Chinese cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important legume crop with diverse uses. The species is presently a minor crop, and evaluation of its genetic diversity has been very limited. In this study, a total of 200 genic and 100 genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed from cowpea unigene ...

  15. [Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy predicts protein, moisture and ash in beans].

    PubMed

    Gao, Huiyu; Wang, Guodong; Men, Jianhua; Wang, Zhu

    2017-05-01

    To explore the potential of near-infrared reflectance( NIR)spectroscopy to determine macronutrient contents in beans. NIR spectra and analytical measurements of protein, moisture and ash were collected from 70 kinds of beans. Reference methods were used to analyze all the ground beans samples. NIR spectra on intact and ground beans samples were registered. Partial least-squares( PLS)regression models were developed with principal components analysis( PCA) to assign 49 bean accessions to a calibration data set and 21 accessions to an external validation set. For intact beans, the relative predictive determinant( RPD) values for protein and ash( 3. 67 and 3. 97, respectively) were good for screening. RPD value for moisture was only 1. 39, which was not recommended. For ground beans, the RPD values for protein, moisture and ash( 6. 63, 5. 25 and 3. 57, respectively) were good enough for screening. The protein, moisture and ash levels for intact and ground beans were all significantly correlated( P < 0. 001) between the NIR and reference method and there was no statistically significant difference in the mean with these three traits. This research demonstrates that NIR is a promising technique for simultaneous sorting ofmultiple traits in beans with no or easy sample preparation.

  16. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  17. Phenotyping common beans for adaptation to drought

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Stephen E.; Rao, Idupulapati M.; Blair, Matthew W.; Acosta-Gallegos, Jorge A.

    2013-01-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) originated in the New World and are the grain legume of greatest production for direct human consumption. Common bean production is subject to frequent droughts in highland Mexico, in the Pacific coast of Central America, in northeast Brazil, and in eastern and southern Africa from Ethiopia to South Africa. This article reviews efforts to improve common bean for drought tolerance, referring to genetic diversity for drought response, the physiology of drought tolerance mechanisms, and breeding strategies. Different races of common bean respond differently to drought, with race Durango of highland Mexico being a major source of genes. Sister species of P. vulgaris likewise have unique traits, especially P. acutifolius which is well adapted to dryland conditions. Diverse sources of tolerance may have different mechanisms of plant response, implying the need for different methods of phenotyping to recognize the relevant traits. Practical considerations of field management are discussed including: trial planning; water management; and field preparation. PMID:23507928

  18. African origin of Bradyrhizobium populations nodulating Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc) in Ghanaian and South African soils

    PubMed Central

    Puozaa, Doris K.; Dakora, Felix D.

    2017-01-01

    Flavonoids secreted by legumes play a major role as signal molecules for attracting compatible rhizobia. The aim of this study was to assess and understand the diversity of microsymbionts nodulating Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L. Verdc.) landraces of different seedcoat colours using restriction fragment length polymorphism and phylogenetic analysis. Seedcoat pigmentation of landraces had effect on the diversity of microsymbionts of Bambara groundnut. Even when planted together in one hole, nodulating bradyrhizobia clustered differently. For example, 16S rDNA-RFLP typing of rhizobial samples TUTVSBLM.I, TUTVSCRM.I and TUTVSRDM.I originating respectively from Black, Cream and Red landraces that were co-planted in the same hole at Manga in the Sudano-sahelian savanna, as well as TUTVSCRK.I and TUTVSRDK.I respectively from Cream and Red landraces co-planted at Kpalisogu in the Guinea savanna, revealed different 16S rDNA- RFLP types. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA, glnII, recA and atpD sequences showed that Vigna subterranea was nodulated specifically by a diverse group of Bradyrhizobium species (e.g. Bradyrhizobium vignae, and a novel group of Bradyrhizobium spp.) in soils from Ghana and South Africa. The recA gene phylogeny showed incongruency with the other housekeeping genes, indicating the possibility of lateral gene transfer and/or recombination events. The grouping of isolates according to symbiotic gene (nifH and nodD) phylogenies revealed inter- and intra-specific symbiotic plasmid transfer and different evolutionary history. The results also showed that a cropping history and physico-chemical environment of soils increased bradyrhizobial diversity in Ghana and South Africa. PMID:28945783

  19. Preservation of flavor in freeze dried green beans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Davis, D.

    1973-01-01

    Before freeze drying, green beans are heated to point at which their cell structure is altered. Beans freeze dried with altered cell structure have improved rehydration properties and retain color, flavor, and texture.

  20. Genetics of resistance to the geminivirus, Bean dwarf mosaic virus, and the role of the hypersensitive response in common bean.

    PubMed

    Seo, Y-S; Gepts, P; Gilbertson, R L

    2004-03-01

    Bean dwarf mosaic virus (BDMV) is a single-stranded DNA virus (genus: Begomovirus, family: Geminiviridae) that infects common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and causes stunted plant growth, and mosaic and mottle symptoms in leaves. BDMV shows differential pathogenicity in common bean, infecting germplasm of the Andean gene pool (e.g., the snap bean cultivar Topcrop), but not that of the Middle American gene pool (e.g., the pinto bean cultivar Othello). Resistance to BDMV in Othello is associated with development of a hypersensitive response (HR) in vascular (phloem) tissues. In this study, Middle American germplasm representing the four recognized races (i.e., Durango, Guatemala, Jalisco, and Mesoamerica) and the parents of Othello were inoculated with BDMV and a BDMV-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. All genotypes showed partial or complete resistance to BDMV and BDMV-GFP, indicating the widespread distribution of resistance in the Middle American gene pool. A number of BDMV-resistant germplasm did not show the HR, indicating it is not correlated with resistance. In the F(1), F(2), and F(3) of reciprocal crosses between Othello and Topcrop, a single dominant allele, Bdm, conferred BDMV resistance.

  1. Beneficial Effects of Common Bean on Adiposity and Lipid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; McGinley, John N; Neil, Elizabeth S; Brick, Mark A

    2017-09-09

    In developed countries which are at the epicenter of the obesity pandemic, pulse crop consumption is well below recommended levels. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled clinical trials, pulse consumption was associated with improved weight control and reduced adiposity, although the underlying mechanisms were a matter of speculation. Common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most widely consumed pulse crop and was the focus of this investigation. Using outbred genetic models of dietary induced obesity resistance and of dietary induced obesity sensitivity in the rat, the impact of bean consumption was investigated on the efficiency with which consumed food was converted to body mass (food efficiency ratio), body fat accumulation, adipocyte morphometrics, and patterns of protein expression associated with lipid metabolism. Cooked whole bean as well as a commercially prepared cooked bean powders were evaluated. While bean consumption did not affect food efficiency ratio, bean reduced visceral adiposity and adipocyte size in both obesity sensitive and resistant rats. In liver, bean consumption increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, which is the rate limiting step in long chain fatty acid oxidation and also resulted in lower levels of circulating triglycerides. Collectively, our results are consistent with the clinical finding that pulse consumption is anti-obesogenic and indicate that one mechanism by which cooked bean exerts its bioactivity is oxidation of long chain fatty acids.

  2. Beneficial Effects of Common Bean on Adiposity and Lipid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    McGinley, John N.; Neil, Elizabeth S.; Brick, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    In developed countries which are at the epicenter of the obesity pandemic, pulse crop consumption is well below recommended levels. In a recent systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 randomized controlled clinical trials, pulse consumption was associated with improved weight control and reduced adiposity, although the underlying mechanisms were a matter of speculation. Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most widely consumed pulse crop and was the focus of this investigation. Using outbred genetic models of dietary induced obesity resistance and of dietary induced obesity sensitivity in the rat, the impact of bean consumption was investigated on the efficiency with which consumed food was converted to body mass (food efficiency ratio), body fat accumulation, adipocyte morphometrics, and patterns of protein expression associated with lipid metabolism. Cooked whole bean as well as a commercially prepared cooked bean powders were evaluated. While bean consumption did not affect food efficiency ratio, bean reduced visceral adiposity and adipocyte size in both obesity sensitive and resistant rats. In liver, bean consumption increased carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1, which is the rate limiting step in long chain fatty acid oxidation and also resulted in lower levels of circulating triglycerides. Collectively, our results are consistent with the clinical finding that pulse consumption is anti-obesogenic and indicate that one mechanism by which cooked bean exerts its bioactivity is oxidation of long chain fatty acids. PMID:28891931

  3. Chemometric dissimilarity in nutritive value of popularly consumed Nigerian brown and white common beans.

    PubMed

    Moyib, Oluwasayo Kehinde; Alashiri, Ganiyy Olasunkanmi; Adejoye, Oluseyi Damilola

    2015-01-01

    Brown beans are the preferred varieties over the white beans in Nigeria due to their assumed richer nutrients. This study was aimed at assessing and characterising some popular Nigerian common beans for their nutritive value based on seed coat colour. Three varieties, each, of Nigerian brown and white beans, and one, each, of French bean and soybean were analysed for 19 nutrients. Z-statistics test showed that Nigerian beans are nutritionally analogous to French bean and soybean. Analysis of variance showed that seed coat colour varied with proximate nutrients, Ca, Fe, and Vit C. Chemometric analysis methods revealed superior beans for macro and micro nutrients and presented clearer groupings among the beans for seed coat colour. The study estimated a moderate genetic distance (GD) that will facilitate transfer of useful genes and intercrossing among the beans. It also offers an opportunity to integrate French bean and soybean into genetic improvement programs in Nigerian common beans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis): nutrition related aspects and needed nutrition research.

    PubMed

    Akpapunam, M A; Sefa-Dedeh, S

    1997-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics and food potentials of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) have been reviewed. The bean is a good sources of protein, 23% to 34%, and carbohydrate 55%. It is also a good source of Ca, Zn, P, Mg, Cu and Ni. Jack bean protein is adequate in most essential amino acids with the exception of methionine and cystine which may be nutritionally limiting. Antinutritional and toxic factors including trypsin inhibitors, hemagglutinins, cyanogen glucosides, oligosaccharides and others are present in jack bean. Properly processed jack bean could be used to prepare some of the popular dishes made from cowpea, peanut, pigeon pea and soybean. Industrial products such as protein concentrates and isolates, starch, flakes, grits and flours can be produced from the bean. Further research is needed to identify varieties with high protein and nutritional quality. Development of new highly nutritious food products based on whole or processed jack bean should increase production and expand use.

  5. Arizona Registered Dietitians Show Gaps in Knowledge of Bean Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Sharon V.; Dougherty, Mariah K.

    2018-01-01

    Registered Dietitians (RDs) promote nutrition practices and policies and can influence food consumption patterns to include nutrient dense foods such as beans. Although many evidence-based health benefits of bean consumption (e.g., cholesterol reduction, glycemic control) have been demonstrated, there is limited research on the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of RDs regarding the inclusion of beans in a healthy diet. To fill this existing research gap, this cross-sectional survey explored the perceptions, knowledge, and attitudes of 296 RDs in Arizona, USA, toward beans. The RDs largely held positive attitudes toward the healthfulness of beans and were aware of many health benefits. Some gaps in awareness were evident, including effect on cancer risk, intestinal health benefits, folate content, and application with celiac disease patients. RDs with greater personal bean consumption had significantly higher bean health benefit knowledge. Twenty-nine percent of the RDs did not know the meaning of ‘legume’, and over two-thirds could not define the term ‘pulse’. It is essential that RDs have up-to-date, evidence-based information regarding bean benefits to provide appropriate education to patients, clients, and the public. PMID:29316699

  6. Beans and Other Legumes: Types and Cooking Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition and healthy eating Want to add nutritious beans and legumes to your diet but aren't ... Staff Legumes — a class of vegetables that includes beans, peas and lentils — are among the most versatile ...

  7. Physico-chemical properties and extrusion behaviour of selected common bean varieties.

    PubMed

    Natabirwa, Hedwig; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Lungaho, Mercy

    2018-03-01

    Extrusion processing offers the possibility of processing common beans industrially into highly nutritious and functional products. However, there is limited information on properties of extrudates from different bean varieties and their association with raw material characteristics and extrusion conditions. In this study, physico-chemical properties of raw and extruded Bishaz, K131, NABE19, Roba1 and RWR2245 common beans were determined. The relationships between bean characteristics and extrusion conditions on the extrudate properties were analysed. Extrudate physico-chemical and pasting properties varied significantly (P < 0.05) among bean varieties. Expansion ratio and water solubility decreased, while bulk density, water absorption, peak and breakdown viscosities increased as feed moisture increased. Protein exhibited significant positive correlation (P < 0.05) with water solubility index, and negative correlations (P < 0.05) with water absorption, bulk density and pasting viscosities. Iron and dietary fibre showed positive correlation while total ash exhibited negative correlation with peak viscosity, final viscosity and setback. Similar trends were observed in principal component analysis. Extrudate physico-chemical properties were found to be associated with beans protein, starch, iron, zinc and fibre contents. Therefore, bean chemical composition may serve as an indicator for beans extrusion behaviour and could be useful in selection of beans for extrusion. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Wreath Laying Ceremony for Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    Associate Kennedy Space Center Director Kelvin Manning joins guests in a ceremony on Wednesday, May 30, 2018, honoring former NASA astronaut Alan Bean. As lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, Bean was the fourth person to walk on the Moon in November 1969. He went on to command the 59-day Skylab 3 mission in 1973. He died in Houston on May 26, 2018, at the age of 86.

  9. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in bldg 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center. Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  10. The first fatal case of yam bean and rotenone toxicity in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narongchai, Paitoon; Narongchai, Siripun; Thampituk, Suparat

    2005-07-01

    The first fatal case of Yam bean and Rotenone toxicity in Thailand was studied at Forensic Medicine, Chiang Mai, Thailand. A Chinese Taiwan man, 59 years old, was found dead after Yam bean ingestion. Yam bean toxicity and death have been found very rarely in the world and has not been reported in Thailand The Yam bean plant is grown widely in Northern Thailand. But many people know that mature pods, seeds and filage of the Yam bean, except the tuberous root, are very toxic. The victim ate a lot of Yam bean seeds and died within 2 hours with respiratory failure. The authors detected Rotenone substance in Yam bean seeds, gastric content and 72 ng/ml blood by HPLC. Also generalized microscopic hemorrhage in the brain, lungs, liver and adrenal glands which were of characteristic pathology were detected. The authors concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia from Yam bean or Rotenone toxicity.

  11. Storage proteins of common bean identified with 2D-PAGE

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The common bean is a significant source of protein, complex carbohydrates, fiber, and minerals. Seeds of most dry beans contain 15 to 25% protein and are rich in lysine but low in the sulfur containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. Knowledge of common bean proteins is important for research a...

  12. Behavior of pesticides in coffee beans during the roasting process.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Katsushi; Nishizawa, Hideo; Manabe, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    In Japan, maximum residue limits for pesticides (MRL) in coffee are set on green coffee beans, but not roasted coffee beans, although roasted beans are actually used to prepare coffee for drinking. Little is known about the behavior of pesticides during the roasting process. In the present study, we examined the changes in the concentration of pesticide (organochlorine: γ-BHC, chlordane and heptachlor) residues in coffee beans during the roasting process. We prepared green coffee beans spiked with these pesticides (0.2 and 1.0 μg/g), and the residue levels in the beans were measured before and after the roasting process. We determined the residual rate after the roasting process. γ-BHC was not detectable at all, and more than 90% of chlordane was lost after the roasting (3.1 and 5.1% of chlordane remained in the beans spiked with 0.2 and 1.0 μg/g of chlordane, respectively). A low level of heptachlor (0.72%) was left in the coffee beans spiked with 1 μg/g of heptachlor. Disappearance of γ-BHC during the roasting process may be due to the high vapor pressure of γ-BHC, while chlordane has a lower vapor pressure. We also examined the behavior of piperonyl butoxide and atrazine during the roasting process. Piperonyl butoxide behaved similarly to chlordane, but atrazine disappeared after the roasting process, because it is unstable to heat.

  13. Lipid-modifying enzymes in oat and faba bean.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Piironen, Vieno; Lampi, Anna-Maija

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to study lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX) and peroxygenase (POX) activities in oat and faba bean samples to be able to evaluate their potential in formation of lipid-derived off-flavours. Lipase and LOX activities were measured by spectroscopy, and POX activities via the formation of epoxides. An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to study the formation of fatty acid epoxides. The epoxides of esters were measured by gas chromatography. Mass spectroscopy was used to verify the identity of the epoxides. Both oat and faba bean possessed high lipase activities. In faba bean, LOX catalysed the formation of hydroperoxides, whose break-down products are the likely cause of off-flavours. Since oat had low LOX activity, autoxidation is needed to initiate lipid oxidation. Oat had high POX activity, which is able to convert hydroperoxides to epoxy and hydroxy fatty acids that could contribute significantly to off-flavours. POX activity in the faba bean was low. Thus, in faba bean volatile lipid oxidation products could rapidly be formed by LOX, whereas in oat reactions are slower due to the need of autoxidation prior to further reactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. NASA Remembers Astronaut Alan Bean - Moonwalker, Skylab Commander, Artist

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-26

    Apollo 12 astronaut Alan Bean has died at the age of 86. Bean walked on the Moon in 1969, commanded the second Skylab crew in 1973 and went on in retirement to paint the remarkable worlds and sights he had seen like no other artist. Born in Wheeler, Texas, Bean got an aeronautical engineering degree from the University of Texas before joining the Navy, where he spent four years with a jet attack squadron. As a Navy test pilot, Bean flew several types of aircraft before he was selected with the third group of NASA astronauts in October 1963. He served as a backup for crewmembers on Gemini 10 and Apollo 9. After his Apollo and Skylab flights, Bean remained with NASA until 1981, when he retired to devote full time to painting. He followed that dream for many years at his home studio in Houston, with considerable success. His paintings were particularly popular among space enthusiasts.

  15. Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. A major focus of this grant was to understand the chemical composition of the seeds, and to ascertain if...UNCLASSIFIED Chemical Investigations of the Castor Bean Plant Ricinus communis Simon P. B. Ovenden, Christina K. Bagas, David J...investigation of several forensic aspects of the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. A major focus of this grant was to understand the chemical

  16. Dry bean genotype evaluation for growth, yield components and phosphorus use efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans along with rice are staple food for populations of South America. In this tropical region beans are grown on Oxisols and phosphorus is one of the most yield limiting factors for dry bean production. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate P use efficiency in 20 promising dry bean...

  17. Astronaut Alan Bean shaves while aboard Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, uses battery powered shaver while in the crew quarters of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  18. Diversification and Population Structure in Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Matthew W.; Soler, Alvaro; Cortés, Andrés J.

    2012-01-01

    Wild accessions of crops and landraces are valuable genetic resources for plant breeding and for conserving alleles and gene combinations in planta. The primary genepool of cultivated common beans includes wild accessions of Phaseolus vulgaris. These are of the same species as the domesticates and therefore are easily crossable with cultivated accessions. Molecular marker assessment of wild beans and landraces is important for the proper utilization and conservation of these important genetic resources. The goal of this research was to evaluate a collection of wild beans with fluorescent microsatellite or simple sequence repeat markers and to determine the population structure in combination with cultivated beans of all known races. Marker diversity in terms of average number of alleles per marker was high (13) for the combination of 36 markers and 104 wild genotypes that was similar to the average of 14 alleles per marker found for the 606 cultivated genotypes. Diversity in wild beans appears to be somewhat higher than in cultivated beans on a per genotype basis. Five populations or genepools were identified in structure analysis of the wild beans corresponding to segments of the geographical range, including Mesoamerican (Mexican), Guatemalan, Colombian, Ecuadorian-northern Peruvian and Andean (Argentina, Bolivia and Southern Peru). The combined analysis of wild and cultivated accessions showed that the first and last of these genepools were related to the cultivated genepools of the same names and the penultimate was found to be distinct but not ancestral to the others. The Guatemalan genepool was very novel and perhaps related to cultivars of race Guatemala, while the Colombian population was also distinct. Results suggest geographic isolation, founder effects or natural selection could have created the different semi-discrete populations of wild beans and that multiple domestications and introgression were involved in creating the diversity of cultivated beans

  19. A Recombinant of Bean common mosaic virus Induces Temperature-Insensitive Necrosis in an I Gene-Bearing Line of Common Bean.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xue; Poplawsky, Alan R; Karasev, Alexander V

    2014-11-01

    The I gene is a single, dominant gene conferring temperature-sensitive resistance to all known strains of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). However, the closely related Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) induces whole plant necrosis in I-bearing genotypes of common bean, and the presence of additional, recessive genes is required to prevent this severe whole plant necrotic reaction caused by BCMNV. Almost all known BCMNV isolates have so far been classified as having pathotype VI based on their interactions with the five BCMV resistance genes, and all have a distinct serotype A. Here, we describe a new isolate of BCMV, RU1M, capable of inducing whole plant necrosis in the presence of the I gene, that appears to belong to pathotype VII and exhibits B-serotype. Unlike other isolates of BCMV, RU1M was able to induce severe whole plant necrosis below 30°C in bean cultivar Jubila that carries the I gene and a protective recessive gene bc-1. The whole genome of RU1M was cloned and sequenced and determined to be 9,953 nucleotides long excluding poly(A), coding for a single polyprotein of 3,186 amino acids. Most of the genome was found almost identical (>98%) to the BCMV isolate RU1-OR (also pathotype VII) that did not induce necrotic symptoms in 'Jubila'. Inspection of the nucleotide sequences for BCMV isolates RU1-OR, RU1M, and US10 (all pathotype VII) and three closely related sequences of BCMV isolates RU1P, RU1D, and RU1W (all pathotype VI) revealed that RU1M is a product of recombination between RU1-OR and a yet unknown potyvirus. A 0.8-kb fragment of an unknown origin in the RU1M genome may have led to its ability to induce necrosis regardless of temperature in beans carrying the I gene. This is the first report of a BCMV isolate inducing temperature-insensitive necrosis in an I gene containing bean genotype.

  20. Improving the detection of cocoa bean fermentation-related changes using image fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Daniel; Criollo, Ronald; Liao, Wenzhi; Cevallos-Cevallos, Juan; Castro, Rodrigo; Bayona, Oswaldo

    2017-05-01

    Complex chemical processes occur in during cocoa bean fermentation. To select well-fermented beans, experts take a sample of beans, cut them in half and visually check its color. Often farmers mix high and low quality beans therefore, chocolate properties are difficult to control. In this paper, we explore how close-range hyper- spectral (HS) data can be used to characterize the fermentation process of two types of cocoa beans (CCN51 and National). Our aim is to find spectral differences to allow bean classification. The main issue is to extract reliable spectral data as openings resulting from the loss of water during fermentation, can cover up to 40% of the bean surface. We exploit HS pan-sharpening techniques to increase the spatial resolution of HS images and filter out uneven surface regions. In particular, the guided filter PCA approach which has proved suitable to use high-resolution RGB data as guide image. Our preliminary results show that this pre-processing step improves the separability of classes corresponding to each fermentation stage compared to using the average spectrum of the bean surface.

  1. The cocoa bean fermentation process: from ecosystem analysis to starter culture development.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, L; Weckx, S

    2016-07-01

    Cocoa bean fermentation is still a spontaneous curing process to facilitate drying of nongerminating cocoa beans by pulp removal as well as to stimulate colour and flavour development of fermented dry cocoa beans. As it is carried out on farm, cocoa bean fermentation is subjected to various agricultural and operational practices and hence fermented dry cocoa beans of variable quality are obtained. Spontaneous cocoa bean fermentations carried out with care for approximate four days are characterized by a succession of particular microbial activities of three groups of micro-organisms, namely yeasts, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), which results in well-fermented fully brown cocoa beans. This has been shown through a plethora of studies, often using a multiphasic experimental approach. Selected strains of several of the prevailing microbial species have been tested in appropriate cocoa pulp simulation media to unravel their functional roles and interactions as well as in small plastic vessels containing fresh cocoa pulp-bean mass to evaluate their capacity to dominate the cocoa bean fermentation process. Various starter cultures have been proposed for successful fermentation, encompassing both cocoa-derived and cocoa nonspecific strains of (hybrid) yeasts, LAB and AAB, some of which have been implemented on farms successfully. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  2. Astronaut Alan Bean participates in lunar surface simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-29

    S69-56059 (24 Oct. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot of the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, participates in lunar surface simulation training in Building 29 at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC). Bean is strapped to a one-sixth gravity simulator.

  3. Wreath Laying Ceremony for Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    Therrin Protze, COO at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, speaks in the Apollo-Saturn V Center during a ceremony on Wednesday, May 30, 2018, honoring former NASA astronaut Alan Bean. As lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, Bean was the fourth person to walk on the Moon in November 1969. He went on to command the 59-day Skylab 3 mission in 1973. He died in Houston on May 26, 2018, at the age of 86.

  4. Common bean proteomics: Present status and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Zargar, Sajad Majeed; Mahajan, Reetika; Nazir, Muslima; Nagar, Preeti; Kim, Sun Tae; Rai, Vandna; Masi, Antonio; Ahmad, Syed Mudasir; Shah, Riaz Ahmad; Ganai, Nazir Ahmad; Agrawal, Ganesh K; Rakwal, Randeep

    2017-10-03

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a legume of appreciable importance and usefulness worldwide to the human population providing food and feed. It is rich in high-quality protein, energy, fiber and micronutrients especially iron, zinc, and pro-vitamin A; and possesses potentially disease-preventing and health-promoting compounds. The recently published genome sequence of common bean is an important landmark in common bean research, opening new avenues for understanding its genetics in depth. This legume crop is affected by diverse biotic and abiotic stresses severely limiting its productivity. Looking at the trend of increasing world population and the need for food crops best suited to the health of humankind, the legumes will be in great demand, including the common bean mostly for its nutritive values. Hence the need for new research in understanding the biology of this crop brings us to utilize and apply high-throughput omics approaches. In this mini-review our focus will be on the need for proteomics studies in common bean, potential of proteomics for understanding genetic regulation under abiotic and biotic stresses and how proteogenomics will lead to nutritional improvement. We will also discuss future proteomics-based strategies that must be adopted to mine new genomic resources by identifying molecular switches regulating various biological processes. Common bean is regarded as "grain of hope" for the poor, being rich in high-quality protein, energy, fiber and micronutrients (iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A); and possesses potentially disease-preventing and health-promoting compounds. Increasing world population and the need for food crops best suited to the health of humankind, puts legumes into great demand, which includes the common bean mostly. An important landmark in common bean research was the recent publication of its genome sequence, opening new avenues for understanding its genetics in depth. This legume crop is affected by diverse biotic and

  5. Low-Income US Women Under-informed of the Specific Health Benefits of Consuming Beans.

    PubMed

    Winham, Donna M; Armstrong Florian, Traci L; Thompson, Sharon V

    2016-01-01

    Bean consumption can reduce chronic disease risk and improve nutrition status. Consumer knowledge of bean health benefits could lead to increased intakes. Low-income women have poorer health and nutrition, but their level of knowledge about bean health benefits is unknown. Beans are a familiar food of reasonable cost in most settings and are cultural staples for Hispanics and other ethnicities. Study objectives were to assess awareness of bean health benefits among low-income women, and to evaluate any differences by acculturation status for Hispanic women in the Southwestern United States. A convenience sample of 406 primarily Mexican-origin (70%) low-income women completed a survey on knowledge of bean health benefits and general food behaviors. Principal components analysis of responses identified two summary scale constructs representing "bean health benefits" and "food behaviors." Acculturation level was the main independent variable in chi-square or ANOVA. The survey completion rate was 86% (406/471). Most women agreed or strongly agreed that beans improved nutrition (65%) and were satiating (62%). Over 50% answered 'neutral' to statements that beans could lower LDL cholesterol (52%), control blood glucose (56%) or reduce cancer risk (56%), indicating indifference or possible lack of knowledge about bean health benefits. There were significant differences by acculturation for beliefs that beans aid weight loss and intestinal health. Scores on the bean health benefits scale, but not the food behavior scale, also differed by acculturation. Limited resource women have a favorable view of the nutrition value of beans, but the majority did not agree or disagreed with statements about bean health benefits. Greater efforts to educate low-income women about bean health benefits may increase consumption and improve nutrition.

  6. Physicochemical properties and antioxidant capacity of raw, roasted and puffed cacao beans.

    PubMed

    Hu, SuJung; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2016-03-01

    The antioxidant capacity and attributable bioactive compounds of puffed cacao beans were investigated. Roasting was carried out at 190°C for 15min and puffing was performed at 4-7kgf/cm(2). Cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) showed the highest total polyphenols (23.16mgGAE/gsample) and total flavonoids (10.65mgCE/gsample) (p<0.05). As the puffing pressure increased, the amount of total polyphenols and total flavonoids decreased. The antioxidant capacity of cacao beans reflected the total polyphenols and flavonoids measured. The quantities of theobromine, catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidin B2 were higher in cacao beans puffed at 4kgf/cm(2) than in roasted cacao beans. Puffed cacao beans received a good sensory score in flavor, but sourness increased as puffing pressure increased. Thus, these results suggest that, in cacao bean processing, puffing could be an alternative to roasting, which provide a rich taste and high antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short-Term Local Adaptation of Historical Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties and Implications for In Situ Management of Bean Diversity.

    PubMed

    Klaedtke, Stephanie M; Caproni, Leonardo; Klauck, Julia; de la Grandville, Paul; Dutartre, Martin; Stassart, Pierre M; Chable, Véronique; Negri, Valeria; Raggi, Lorenzo

    2017-02-28

    Recognizing both the stakes of traditional European common bean diversity and the role farmers' and gardeners' networks play in maintaining this diversity, the present study examines the role that local adaptation plays for the management of common bean diversity in situ. To the purpose, four historical bean varieties and one modern control were multiplied on two organic farms for three growing seasons. The fifteen resulting populations, the initial ones and two populations of each variety obtained after the three years of multiplication, were then grown in a common garden. Twenty-two Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers and 13 phenotypic traits were assessed. In total, 68.2% of tested markers were polymorphic and a total of 66 different alleles were identified. F ST analysis showed that the genetic composition of two varieties multiplied in different environments changed. At the phenotypic level, differences were observed in flowering date and leaf length. Results indicate that three years of multiplication suffice for local adaptation to occur. The spatial dynamics of genetic and phenotypic bean diversity imply that the maintenance of diversity should be considered at the scale of the network, rather than individual farms and gardens. The microevolution of bean populations within networks of gardens and farms emerges as a research perspective.

  8. 75 FR 43142 - United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ...] United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... comments on the possible establishment of voluntary United States Standards for Grades of Refried Beans... industry requested that USDA develop grade standards for canned refried beans to be used by the industry...

  9. Toxicity Assessment of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Widely Consumed by Tunisian Population.

    PubMed

    Nciri, Nader; Cho, Namjun; El Mhamdi, Faiçal; Ben Ismail, Hanen; Ben Mansour, Abderraouf; Sassi, Fayçal Haj; Ben Aissa-Fennira, Fatma

    2015-09-01

    This research aimed at assessing the content and the functional properties of phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in different varieties of beans widely consumed in Tunisia through soaking, cooking, autoclaving, germination, and their combinations. This study was carried out on three varieties of white beans grown in different localities of Tunisia, namely Twila, Coco, and Beldia, as well as on imported and local canned beans. All bean samples underwent biochemical and immunological evaluation by employing several techniques such as indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), hemagglutinating assay, Ouchterlony double immunodiffusion, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Biochemical and immunological analyses indicated that raw dry beans contained a considerable amount of proteins and PHAs. ELISA demonstrated that soaking, either in plain water or in alkaline solution, caused an increase in the concentration of PHA. A slight increase of PHA was produced equally by germination during 4 days in all bean varieties. Cooking or autoclaving of presoaked beans resulted in a complete disappearance of PHA. ELISA test also proved that both imported and local canned beans contained fingerprints of PHA. Hemagglutination assays showed that not only cooked and autoclaved presoaked beans lacked the ability to agglutinate red blood cells but also autoclaved unsoaked beans did. In agar gel immunodiffusion using rabbit anti-PHA serum, raw, soaked, cooked unsoaked, and sprouted beans gave precipitin arc reactions, indicating that PHA existed in immunoreactive form in the tested seeds. SDS-PAGE electrophoretograms showed protein isolates of Twila and Beldia beans to have different profiles through soaking, cooking, and autoclaving processes. This work revealed that the combination of soaking and cooking/autoclaving was the best way in reducing PHA content and its activity in all bean varieties when compared with germination.

  10. Phytochemical Characteristics of Coffee Bean Treated by Coating of Ginseng Extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Yoon; Hong, Hee-Do; Bae, Hye-Min; Choi, Changsun; Kim, Kyung-Tack

    2011-01-01

    The principal objective of this study was to assess the instrumental and sensory characteristics of ginseng coffee with different ratios of the ingredients: type of coffee bean (Colombia, Brazil, and Indonesia), type of ginseng extract (white ginseng, red ginseng, and America ginseng) and concentration of ginseng extract (3, 6, and 9 w/v %). The sensory optimal condition of white ginseng coffee, red ginseng coffee and America ginseng coffee were as follows: 3% Indonesian coffee bean coated with 3% white ginseng extract, Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract and Colombian coffee bean coated with 3% American ginseng extract, respectively. In particular, the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract had significantly higher scores than other samples in terms of flavor, taste, and overall preference. Additionally, the contents of total ginsenoside and total sugar and total phenolic compounds were also highest in the Colombian coffee bean coated with 6% red ginseng extract. PMID:23717089

  11. Distinction of Ecuadorian varieties of fermented cocoa beans using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vargas Jentzsch, Paul; Ciobotă, Valerian; Salinas, Wilson; Kampe, Bernd; Aponte, Pedro M; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen; Ramos, Luis A

    2016-11-15

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is a crop of economic importance. In Ecuador, there are two predominant cocoa varieties: National and CCN-51. The National variety is the most demanded, since its cocoa beans are used to produce the finest chocolates. Raman measurements of fermented, dried and unpeeled cocoa beans were performed using a handheld spectrometer. Samples of the National and CCN-51 varieties were collected from different provinces and studied in this work. For each sample, 25 cocoa beans were considered and each bean was measured at 4 different spots. The most important Raman features of the spectra were assigned and discussed. The spectroscopic data were processed using chemometrics, resulting in a distinction of varieties with 91.8% of total accuracy. Differences in the average Raman spectra of cocoa beans from different sites but within the same variety can be attributed to environmental factors affecting the cocoa beans during the fermentation and drying processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification

    PubMed Central

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T.; Riskin, Shelby H.; Krusche, Alex V.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N.; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A.; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A.

    2013-01-01

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales. PMID:23610178

  13. Watershed responses to Amazon soya bean cropland expansion and intensification.

    PubMed

    Neill, Christopher; Coe, Michael T; Riskin, Shelby H; Krusche, Alex V; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Macedo, Marcia N; McHorney, Richard; Lefebvre, Paul; Davidson, Eric A; Scheffler, Raphael; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Porder, Stephen; Deegan, Linda A

    2013-06-05

    The expansion and intensification of soya bean agriculture in southeastern Amazonia can alter watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry by changing the land cover, water balance and nutrient inputs. Several new insights on the responses of watershed hydrology and biogeochemistry to deforestation in Mato Grosso have emerged from recent intensive field campaigns in this region. Because of reduced evapotranspiration, total water export increases threefold to fourfold in soya bean watersheds compared with forest. However, the deep and highly permeable soils on the broad plateaus on which much of the soya bean cultivation has expanded buffer small soya bean watersheds against increased stormflows. Concentrations of nitrate and phosphate do not differ between forest or soya bean watersheds because fixation of phosphorus fertilizer by iron and aluminium oxides and anion exchange of nitrate in deep soils restrict nutrient movement. Despite resistance to biogeochemical change, streams in soya bean watersheds have higher temperatures caused by impoundments and reduction of bordering riparian forest. In larger rivers, increased water flow, current velocities and sediment flux following deforestation can reshape stream morphology, suggesting that cumulative impacts of deforestation in small watersheds will occur at larger scales.

  14. Wreath Laying Ceremony for Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana speaks to guests in the Apollo-Saturn V Center at the spaceport's visitor complex on Wednesday, May 30, 2018. The ceremony is honoring the memory of former NASA astronaut Alan Bean. As lunar module pilot on Apollo 12, Bean was the fourth person to walk on the Moon in November 1969. He went on to command the 59-day Skylab 3 mission in 1973. He died in Houston on May 26, 2018, at the age of 86.

  15. Interplanting Annual Ryegrass, Wheat, Oat, and Corn to Mitigate Iron Deficiency in Dry Beans

    PubMed Central

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal. PMID:25536084

  16. Interplanting annual ryegrass, wheat, oat, and corn to mitigate iron deficiency in dry beans.

    PubMed

    Omondi, Emmanuel Chiwo; Kniss, Andrew R

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated whether grass intercropping can be used to alleviate Fe deficiency chlorosis in dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in high pH, calcareous soils with low organic matter. Field studies were conducted at the University of Wyoming Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Center in 2009 and 2010. Black- and navy beans were grown alone or intercropped with annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.), oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), or spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a two-factor factorial strip-plot randomized complete block design. All four grass species increased chlorophyll intensity in dry beans. However, grass species did not increase iron (Fe) concentration in dry bean tissues suggesting inefficient utilization of Fe present in the dry bean tissues. In 2009, nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) and manganese (Mn) concentration in bean tissue were greater in bean monoculture than in grass intercropped beans. Bean monoculture also had greater soil NO3-N concentrations than grass intercropped treatments. In 2009, grass intercrops reduced dry bean yield >25% compared to bean monoculture. Annual ryegrass was the least competitive of the four annual grass species. This suggests that competition from grasses for nutrients, water, or light may have outweighed benefits accruing from grass intercropping. Additional studies are required to determine the appropriate grass and dry bean densities, as well as the optimum time of grass removal.

  17. Culinary alternatives for common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): sensory characteristics of immature seeds.

    PubMed

    Romero del Castillo, Roser; Ferreira, Juan José; Pérez-Vega, Elena; Almirall, Antoni; Casañas, Francesc

    2010-08-15

    Immature bean seeds feature in several dishes in southern Europe; however, they are not used in all traditional areas of dry beans cultivation. To determine whether differences in the use of immature seeds are due to cultural reasons or intrinsic properties of the seeds, the prestigious varieties of beans cultivated in three areas of Spain with different traditions regarding the use of immature seeds in bean dishes were studied. We found differences in the culinary and sensory traits between beans harvested when mature and those harvested when immature in the three areas. However, the degree and direction of these differences varied according to the area. Moreover, the different varieties tested within each area responded differently. The sum of the genetic, environmental and interaction effects results in complex alternatives to the mature beans; the gastronomic tradition has taken advantage of only some of these alternatives. A lack of traditional dishes using immature beans does not mean that the local beans harvested when immature lack suitable sensory traits. Specific trials in each area of cultivation can reveal alternative textures and bean flavour intensities in immature seeds. Copyright (c) 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of hybrid variety cocoa beans.

    PubMed

    Jonfia-Essien, W A; West, G; Alderson, P G; Tucker, G

    2008-06-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) is a major, economically important, international crop and has been associated with several nutritional benefits including high antioxidant capacity. New cocoa hybrids have been developed in Ghana that exhibit resistance to pest damage during storage. The aim of this work was to assess the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of these new hybrids in comparison to more traditional cocoa varieties. Total extractable phenolics were similar in all the four hybrids tested ranging from 69.9 to 81.6FAEg(-1). These levels were very similar to that extracted from traditional beans (73.8±2.5FAEg(-1)). The "phenolic profile" was determined by HPLC. A total of 25 peaks was observed but there were only minor differences in this profile between traditional and hybrid bean extracts. Antioxidant capacity was determined using the FRAP assay and traditional beans were found to possess 12.4μmolTEg(-1). In comparison the hybrid beans had antioxidant capacities ranging from 21.6 to 45.5μmolTEg(-1), and these were significantly higher than in the traditional beans for three out of the four hybrids. Since the phenolic and antioxidant levels and in these hybrid varieties were either similar to, or higher than, that obtained from traditional beans, the introduction of these new varieties would be unlikely to impact detrimentally on these nutritional components of the beans. Copyright © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tests for sensitisation in occupational medicine practice--the soy bean example.

    PubMed

    Roodt, L; Rees, D

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of sensitisation to soy bean measured by specific IgE and skin prick tests (SPTs) and to examine the association between evidence of sensitisation to soy bean allergens and symptoms of allergic disease. Cross-sectional study. Questionnaire survey. A venous blood sample was taken for specific IgE testing, and SPTs for common allergens and soy bean dust were performed. Soy bean mill. A volunteer sample of 22 workers exposed to soy bean dust; the first 20 non-exposed workers presenting to the National Centre for Occupational Health clinic formed the control group. Immunological tests for sensitisation and symptoms of respiratory and allergic disease. Eight of the exposed workers had positive skin reactions to either full-fat or defatted soy bean. None of the controls was SPT-positive. Eight of the exposed workers had increased levels of soy-specific IgE of whom only 4 were SPT-positive and had an increased level of soy-specific IgE. One of the control workers had an increased level of soy-specific IgE. Workers with an increased specific IgE or SPT positive to soy bean did not have more symptoms than workers with negative tests. However, work-related breathlessness was significantly higher in the exposed group (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the immunological tests for sensitisation were not useful in identifying workers with soy bean-related disease but that tests for sensitisation were linked to exposure.

  20. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  1. Population structure analysis and association mapping of seed antioxidant content in USDA cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) core collection using SNPs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L) Walp.) is an important legume and the antioxidants in cowpea seeds have been recognized as health-promoting compounds for human. The objectives of this study were to analyze the population structure of cowpea collections using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and to...

  2. Puffing, a novel coffee bean processing technique for the enhancement of extract yield and antioxidant capacity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wooki; Kim, Sang-Youn; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2018-02-01

    Puffing of coffee beans, which induces heat- and pressure-derived physicochemical changes, was applied as an alternative to roasting. Roasted or puffed coffee beans with equivalent lightness values were compared. The moisture content was higher while the crude fat and protein compositions were lower in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The pH was lower and the acid content was higher in puffed beans than in roasted beans. The roasted beans exhibited greater specific volumes, while the puffed beans displayed greater extraction yields. The trigonelline and total phenolic contents were greater in puffed beans than in roasted beans resulting in an enhanced antioxidant capacity. Sensory evaluation of roasted and puffed coffee bean brews revealed that puffing did not affect the flavor or overall acceptance. The current study provides evidence that puffing is an alternative to roasting coffee beans with various benefits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-62 - Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. 319.56... Vegetables § 319.56-62 Fresh beans, shelled or in pods, from Jordan. Fresh beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L... Spodoptera littoralis. (a) Packinghouse requirements. The beans must be packed in packing facilities that are...

  4. High-density genetic map construction and comparative genome analysis in asparagus bean.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haitao; Tan, Huaqiang; Xu, Dongmei; Tang, Yi; Niu, Yisong; Lai, Yunsong; Tie, Manman; Li, Huanxiu

    2018-03-19

    Genetic maps are a prerequisite for quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis, marker-assisted selection (MAS), fine gene mapping, and assembly of genome sequences. So far, several asparagus bean linkage maps have been established using various kinds of molecular markers. However, these maps were all constructed by gel- or array-based markers. No maps based on sequencing method have been reported. In this study, an NGS-based strategy, SLAF-seq, was applied to create a high-density genetic map for asparagus bean. Through SLAF library construction and Illumina sequencing of two parents and 100 F2 individuals, a total of 55,437 polymorphic SLAF markers were developed and mined for SNP markers. The map consisted of 5,225 SNP markers in 11 LGs, spanning a total distance of 1,850.81 cM, with an average distance between markers of 0.35 cM. Comparative genome analysis with four other legume species, soybean, common bean, mung bean and adzuki bean showed that asparagus bean is genetically more related to adzuki bean. The results will provide a foundation for future genomic research, such as QTL fine mapping, comparative mapping in pulses, and offer support for assembling asparagus bean genome sequence.

  5. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  6. White beans provide more bioavailable iron than red beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Iron-biofortification of crops is a strategy that alleviates iron deficiency. The common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an attractive candidate for biofortification. However, beans are high in poly-phenols that may inhibit iron absorption. In vitro studies have shown that iron bioavailability from ...

  7. Genetic divergence of common bean cultivars.

    PubMed

    Veloso, J S; Silva, W; Pinheiro, L R; Dos Santos, J B; Fonseca, N S; Euzebio, M P

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate genetic divergence in the 'Carioca' (beige with brown stripes) common bean cultivar used by different institutions and in 16 other common bean cultivars used in the Rede Cooperativa de Pesquisa de Feijão (Cooperative Network of Common Bean Research), by using simple sequence repeats associated with agronomic traits that are highly distributed in the common bean genome. We evaluated 22 polymorphic loci using bulks containing DNA from 30 plants. There was genetic divergence among the Carioca cultivar provided by the institutions. Nevertheless, there was lower divergence among them than among the other cultivars. The cultivar used by Instituto Agronômico do Paraná was the most divergent in relation to the Carioca samples. The least divergence was observed among the samples used by Universidade Federal de Lavras and by Embrapa Arroz e Feijão. Of all the cultivars, 'CNFP 10104' and 'BRSMG Realce' showed the greatest dissimilarity. The cultivars were separated in two groups of greatest similarity using the Structure software. Genetic variation among cultivars was greater than the variation within or between the groups formed. This fact, together with the high estimate of heterozygosity observed and the genetic divergence of the samples of the Carioca cultivar in relation to the original provided by Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, indicates a mixture of cultivars. The high divergence among cultivars provides potential for the utilization of this genetic variability in plant breeding.

  8. Enzymatic degradation of oligosaccharides in pinto bean flour.

    PubMed

    Song, Danfeng; Chang, Sam K C

    2006-02-22

    The use of dry edible beans is limited due to the presence of flatulence factors, the raffinose oligosaccharides. Our objective was to investigate the process for the removal of oligosaccharides from pinto bean using enzymatic treatment and to compare it to removal by soaking and cooking methods. Crude enzyme preparation was produced by six fungal species on wheat bran- and okara-based substrates with soy tofu whey. The loss of raffinose oligosaccharides after soaking pinto beans for 16 h at the room temperature was 10%, after cooking for 90 min was 52%, and after autoclaving for 30 min was 58%. On the other hand, the treatment using crude alpha-galactosidase (60 U mL(-1)) produced by Aspergillus awamori NRRL 4869 from wheat bran-based substrate with soy tofu whey on pinto bean flour for 2 h completely hydrolyzed raffinose oligosaccharides. These results supported that the enzymatic treatment was the most effective among various processing methods tested for removing the raffinose oligosaccharides, and hence, crude alpha-galactosidases from fungi have potential use in the food industry.

  9. Rapid prediction of single green coffee bean moisture and lipid content by hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, Nicola; Whitworth, Martin B; Grebby, Stephen; Fisk, Ian D

    2018-06-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (1000-2500 nm) was used for rapid prediction of moisture and total lipid content in intact green coffee beans on a single bean basis. Arabica and Robusta samples from several growing locations were scanned using a "push-broom" system. Hypercubes were segmented to select single beans, and average spectra were measured for each bean. Partial Least Squares regression was used to build quantitative prediction models on single beans (n = 320-350). The models exhibited good performance and acceptable prediction errors of ∼0.28% for moisture and ∼0.89% for lipids. This study represents the first time that HSI-based quantitative prediction models have been developed for coffee, and specifically green coffee beans. In addition, this is the first attempt to build such models using single intact coffee beans. The composition variability between beans was studied, and fat and moisture distribution were visualized within individual coffee beans. This rapid, non-destructive approach could have important applications for research laboratories, breeding programmes, and for rapid screening for industry.

  10. Wreath Laying Ceremony for Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    A memorial wreath placed in the Apollo-Saturn V Center of the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex on Wednesday, May 30, 2018, honors former NASA astronaut Alan Bean. He was the fourth person to walk on the Moon as lunar module pilot on Apollo 12 in November 1969. He went on to command the 59-day Skylab 3 mission in 1973. In the background is a large mural of a painting by Bean who became an accomplished artist after leaving NASA. He died in Houston on May 26, 2018, at the age of 86.

  11. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Winham, Donna M; Hutchins, Andrea M

    2011-11-21

    Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the potential for gastrointestinal discomfort when

  12. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the

  13. Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola isolated from weeds in bean crop fields.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sanz, A M; Rodicio, M R; González, A J

    2016-04-01

    Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, the causative agent of halo blight in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), was isolated from weeds associated with bean crops in Spain. The bacterium was recovered from Fumaria sp, Mercurialis annua, Solanum nigrum and Sonchus oleraceus. Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola had previously been isolated from leguminous plants and S. nigrum, but to our knowledge, this is the first time it was recovered from the other three species. The isolates were phenotypically and genetically characterized, and they were compared with isolates recovered from common beans. Five different genotypic profiles were detected by PmeI-PFGE, two of them being of new description. Weed isolates were as pathogenic on bean plants as bean isolates, but they were not pathogenic on S. nigrum. Regarding the survival of the pathogen in weeds, Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola was isolated from So. oleraceus 11 weeks after the end of the bean crop. These results strongly support the idea of weeds as a potential source of inoculum for halo blight in bean. It has traditionally been considered that the main source of inoculum of Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola causing halo blight disease in Phaseolus vulgaris are the bean seeds, and that the host range of the bacterium is almost restricted to leguminous plants. In this study, the bacterium was recovered from four nonleguminous weed species collected in bean fields, and its permanence in weeds for at least 11 weeks after the harvesting of the beans was demonstrated. We have also proved that the strains isolated from weeds were pathogenic on bean plants. Accordingly, the host range of Ps. s. pv. phaseolicola could be broader than previously thought and weeds appear to be acting as a reservoir of the pathogen until the next crop. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Effects of Thiamethoxam-Treated Seed on Mexican Bean Beetle (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), Nontarget Arthropods, and Crop Performance in Southwestern Virginia Snap Beans.

    PubMed

    Nottingham, L; Kuhar, T P; Kring, T; Herbert, D A; Arancibia, R; Schultz, P

    2017-12-08

    Thiamethoxam is a neonicotinoid insecticide commonly applied directly to the seeds (seed-treatment) of commercial snap beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. While previous studies have examined target and nontarget effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments in snap beans and other crops, to our knowledge, none have been conducted in agroecosystems predominated by the pest Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae). This study examined the effects of thiamethoxam-treated snap beans on E. varivestis, other arthropods, and crop performance in southwestern Virginia. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate residual toxicity of treated snap beans to E. varivestis and a key predator, Podisus maculiventris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Treated plants were highly toxic to E. varivestis at 13 d, moderately toxic from 16 to 20 d, and minimally toxic at 24 d. P. maculiventris was unaffected by exposure to treated plants or by feeding on E. varivestis that consumed treated plants. Small plot field experiments in 2014 and 2015 showed no significant effects of thiamethoxam seed-treatments on E. varivestis densities, other arthropods, crop injury, or yield. In 2016, planting was delayed by persistent rain, resulting in early E. varivestis colonization. In this year, thiamethoxam-treated plants had significantly lower densities and feeding injury from E. varivestis, followed by significantly higher yields. Natural enemies were unaffected by seed-treatments in all field experiments. These experiments demonstrated that thiamethoxam seed-treatments provide control of E. varivestis when beetles infest fields within 2 to 3 wk after planting; but otherwise provide negligible advantages. Negative effects from thiamethoxam seed-treatments on nontarget arthropods appear minimal for snap beans in this region. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please

  15. Advances in the improvement of tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change, high temperature and drought are increasingly critical factors affecting agriculture and specifically the production of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray), native to the Sonora desert located in the northern part of Mexico and southwest o...

  16. Astronaut Alan Bean holds Special Environmental Sample Container

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, holds a Special Environmental Sample Container filled with lunar soil collected during the extravehicular activity (EVA) in which Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean participated. Connrad, who took this picture, is reflected in the helmet visor of the lunar module pilot.

  17. Biofortified red mottled beans (phaseolus vulgaris L.) in a maize and bean diet provide more bioavailable iron than standard red mottled beans: studies in poultry (Gallus gallus) and an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective was to compare the capacities of biofortified and standard colored beans to deliver iron (Fe) for hemoglobin synthesis. Two isolines of large-seeded, red mottled Andean beans (Phaseolus valgaris L.), one standard (“Low FE”) and the other biofortified (“High Fe”) in Fe (49 and 71 ug Fe...

  18. Effect of gamma irradiation on nutritional value of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) for chicks.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S J; Pubols, M H; McGinnis, J

    1979-07-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (60Co) of different varieties and breeding lines of dry field beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on chick growth was determined using a chick growth assay in which the diet contained approximately 50% beans. Total protein (N X 6.25) in beans was not changed appreciably by irradiation (21 Mrad) but protein solubility in water was decreased. Irradiation increased in vitro enzymatic digestibility of bean protein by pepsin and by a mixture of trypsin, chymotrypsin and peptidase. In the bioassay the diet was formulated to derive half of the total protein (22.6%) from beans. Autoclaved Pinto and Pink beans gave significantly better growth than Red Mexican and White Pea beans. The differences between Red Mexican and White Pea beans were not significant except for Red Mexican breeding line number RS-59. The nutritional value of all varieties of beans, based on chick growth, was significantly improved by gamma irradiation. The irradiation treatment of beans tended to increase nitrogen retention by chicks and decrease uric acid nitrogen excretion in relation to nitrogen intake.

  19. 7 CFR 457.155 - Processing bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing bean crop insurance provisions. 457.155 Section 457.155 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.155 Processing bean...

  20. Phytic acid concentration influences iron bioavailability from biofortified beans in Rwandese women with low iron status.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nicolai; Egli, Ines; Gahutu, Jean B; Tugirimana, Pierrot L; Boy, Erick; Hurrell, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The common bean is a staple crop in many African and Latin American countries and is the focus of biofortification initiatives. Bean iron concentration has been doubled by selective plant breeding, but the additional iron is reported to be of low bioavailability, most likely due to high phytic acid (PA) concentrations. The present study evaluated the impact of PA on iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans. Iron absorption, based on erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes, was measured in 22 Rwandese women who consumed multiple, composite bean meals with potatoes or rice in a crossover design. Iron absorption from meals containing biofortified beans (8.8 mg Fe, 1320 mg PA/100 g) and control beans (5.4 mg Fe, 980 mg PA/100 g) was measured with beans containing either their native PA concentration or with beans that were ∼50% dephytinized or >95% dephytinized. The iron concentration of the cooked composite meals with biofortified beans was 54% higher than in the same meals with control beans. With native PA concentrations, fractional iron absorption from the control bean meals was 9.2%, 30% higher than that from the biofortified bean meals (P < 0.001). The quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals (406 μg) was 19% higher (P < 0.05) than that from the control bean meals. With ∼50% and >95% dephytinization, the quantity of iron absorbed from the biofortified bean meals increased to 599 and 746 μg, respectively, which was 37% (P < 0.005) and 51% (P < 0.0001) higher than from the control bean meals. PA strongly decreases iron bioavailability from iron-biofortified beans, and a high PA concentration is an important impediment to the optimal effectiveness of bean iron biofortification. Plant breeders should focus on lowering the PA concentration of high-iron beans. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01521273. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Comprehensive analysis and discovery of drought-related NAC transcription factors in common bean.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Wang, Lanfen; Wang, Shumin

    2016-09-07

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important warm-season food legume. Drought is the most important environmental stress factor affecting large areas of common bean via plant death or reduced global production. The NAM, ATAF1/2 and CUC2 (NAC) domain protein family are classic transcription factors (TFs) involved in a variety of abiotic stresses, particularly drought stress. However, the NAC TFs in common bean have not been characterized. In the present study, 86 putative NAC TF proteins were identified from the common bean genome database and located on 11 common bean chromosomes. The proteins were phylogenetically clustered into 8 distinct subfamilies. The gene structure and motif composition of common bean NACs were similar in each subfamily. These results suggest that NACs in the same subfamily may possess conserved functions. The expression patterns of common bean NAC genes were also characterized. The majority of NACs exhibited specific temporal and spatial expression patterns. We identified 22 drought-related NAC TFs based on transcriptome data for drought-tolerant and drought-sensitive genotypes. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm the expression patterns of the 20 drought-related NAC genes. Based on the common bean genome sequence, we analyzed the structural characteristics, genome distribution, and expression profiles of NAC gene family members and analyzed drought-responsive NAC genes. Our results provide useful information for the functional characterization of common bean NAC genes and rich resources and opportunities for understanding common bean drought stress tolerance mechanisms.

  2. "The Bean Files."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haq, Krystyna; Longnecker, Nancy; Hickey, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Describes classroom use and effectiveness of "The Bean Files," an internet package that uses humorous stories to introduce students to life on a wheat-sheep farm in the Mediterranean climate areas of Australia. The focus of the program is on the role of legume-cereal rotations in the farming system and the science underpinning this…

  3. Improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism via mung bean protein consumption: clinical trials of GLUCODIA™ isolated mung bean protein in the USA and Canada.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Mitsutaka; Sugano, Hideo; Shigihara, Yuhko; Shiraishi, Yoshiaki; Motoyama, Takayasu

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to confirm the effects of a commercially available mung bean protein isolate (GLUCODIA™) on glucose and lipid metabolism. The main component of GLUCODIA™ is 8S globulin, which constitutes 80 % of the total protein. The overall structure of this protein closely resembles soyabean β-conglycinin, which accounts for 20 % of total soya protein (soya protein isolate; SPI). Many physiological beneficial effects of β-conglycinin have been reported. GLUCODIA™ is expected to produce beneficial effects with fewer intakes than SPI. We conducted two independent double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies. In the first (preliminary dose decision trial) study, mung bean protein was shown to exert physiological beneficial effects when 3·0 g were ingested per d. In the second (main clinical trial) study, mung bean protein isolate did not lower plasma glucose levels, although the mean insulin level decreased with consumption of mung bean protein. The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values significantly decreased with mung bean protein. The mean TAG level significantly decreased with consumption of mung bean protein isolate. A significant increase in serum adiponectin levels and improvement in liver function enzymes were observed. These findings suggest that GLUCODIA™ could be useful in the prevention of insulin resistance and visceral fat accumulation, which are known to trigger the metabolic syndrome, and in the prevention of liver function decline.

  4. 1H NMR study of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Acquotti, Domenico; Cirlini, Martina; Palla, Gerardo

    2010-12-08

    This study reports for the first time the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans using the (1)H NMR technique applied to polar extracts of fermented cocoa beans. The simultaneous detection and quantification of amino acids, polyalcohols, organic acids, sugars, methylxanthines, catechins, and phenols were obtained by assigning the major signals of the spectra for different varieties of cocoa beans (Forastero, Criollo, and Trinitario) from different countries (Ecuador, Ghana, Grenada, and Trinidad). The data set obtained, representative of all classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was useful to characterize the fermented cocoa beans as a function of the variety and geographic origin.

  5. 7 CFR 457.150 - Dry bean crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry bean crop insurance provisions. 457.150 Section 457.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.150 Dry bean crop insurance...

  6. Volatile compounds of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Liang, Lisa S Y; Balasubramanian, Parthiba

    2007-12-01

    Volatile compounds of uncooked dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars representing three market classes (black, dark red kidney and pinto) grown in 2005 were isolated with headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME), and analyzed with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 62 volatiles consisting of aromatic hydrocarbons, aldehydes, alkanes, alcohols and ketones represented on average 62, 38, 21, 12, and 9 x 10(6) total area counts, respectively. Bean cultivars differed in abundance and profile of volatiles. The combination of 18 compounds comprising a common profile explained 79% of the variance among cultivars based on principal component analysis (PCA). The SPME technique proved to be a rapid and effective method for routine evaluation of dry bean volatile profile.

  7. Characterisation of a haemagglutinin from Hokkaido red bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jack H; Wan, Chung T; Ng, Tzi B

    2010-01-15

    A haemagglutinin was purified from Japanese Hokkaido red beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Hokkaido red bean) with a procedure that included three chromatographic media. Haemagglutinating activity was adsorbed on DEAE cellulose, Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The pure haemagglutinin was a homodimer and each subunit was around 30 kDa in molecular mass. The haemagglutinating activity of this agglutinin could not be inhibited by a variety of simple sugars at 200 mmol L(-1) concentration including alpha-L-fucose, D(+)-galactose, D(+)-glucose, D(+)-glucosamine, D(-)galactosamine, galacturonic acid, (+)-lactose, D(+)-melibose, L(-)-mannose, D(+)-mannose, D-mannosamine, D(+)-raffinose, L-rhamnose, (+)-xylose and galacturonic acid. The haemagglutinating activity was fully retained at pH 4-11 and at 0-80 degrees C, but was completely lost at extreme pH values (0-2 and 13-14) and at very high temperatures (90 degrees C and 100 degrees C). The haemagglutinin exhibited a weak mitogenic activity toward mouse splenocytes, a stronger anti-proliferative activity than Con A toward HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells and inhibited >80% of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activity at 3.3 micromol L(-1). It was devoid of anti-fungal activity. Hokkaido red bean haemagglutinin possesses a potent anti-proliferative effect on HepG2 cells. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Constitutive nitrate reductase expression and inhibition in winged bean

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Shenchuan; Harper, J.E.

    It was found that NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} had no effect on winged bean nitrate reductase activity (NRA). Similar NRA was expressed in plants grown on NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, urea, NH{sub 4}{sup +}, and nil N. This indicated that the primary NR expressed in winged bean was constitutive, rather than substrate-inducible. Maximum NRA in winged bean was obtained in the light. KClO{sub 3} was capable of inhibiting NRA of leaves if added to the root growth medium or to the NR assay medium, indicating possible competition with NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} at the reduction site. While it has previously been shown thatmore » either cycloheximide alone, or both cycloheximide and chloramphenicol impair the synthesis of NR protein, our data unexpectedly demonstrated that cycloheximide had little effect on NRA, whereas chloramphenicol greatly inhibited the expression of NRA in winged bean. One interpretation is that chloroplasts may influence the activity and/or synthesis of constitutive NR proteins.« less

  9. Hypersensitive response of beans to Apion godmani (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    PubMed

    Garza, R; Vera, J; Cardona, C; Barcenas, N; Singh, S P

    2001-08-01

    High levels of resistance to Apion godinani Wagner have been reported in bean, Phaseolus vulgaris L., landraces from Mexico. We report on the role of hypersensitivity to A. godmani in five resistant and three susceptible bean genotypes. In susceptible genotypes (cultivars 'Canario 107','Jamapa', and 'Zacatecas 45'), the eggs and first instars of A. godmani were embedded in the pod mesocarp and usually were surrounded by healthy tissue. In contrast, in resistant landraces ('Amarillo 154', 'Amarillo 155', 'J-117', 'Puebla 36', and 'Pinto 168'), necrotic tissues developed concentrically around the oviposition site, encapsulating eggs and dead larvae. An inverse relationship between percentage egg and larval encapsulation at the early immature pod stages and percentage of damaged seeds at harvest was found. Results indicate that hypersensitivity in developing pods plays an important role in antibiosis to A. godmani in beans. This information will facilitate future genetic and biochemical research and provide much needed information concerning the phenotypic basis of resistance to A. godmani in bean.

  10. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco J L; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields.

  11. Interactions Between QTL SAP6 and SU91 on Resistance to Common Bacterial Blight in Red Kidney Bean and Pinto Bean Populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to common bacterial blight in common bean is a complex trait that is quantitatively inherited. We examined the interaction between two independent QTL, SAP6 and SU91, which condition resistance to CBB.The QTL were studied in a pinto bean F2 population a cross between Othello (sap6 sap6 //...

  12. The triumph and tragedy of James Baxler Bean, MD, DDS (1834-1870).

    PubMed

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A

    2003-03-01

    In 1863, James Baxter Bean, a Southern physician and dentist, invented the interdental splint. This device was used to treat hundreds of Confederate soldiers who had received gun shot-related facial and jaw injuries during the Civil War. Made of vulcanized India-rubber, the splint provided a dramatic breakthrough in the treatment of maxillofacial wounds. In an Atlanta, Georgia hospital, Dr. Bean utilized his invention by establishing the first ward devoted exclusively to the treatment of jaw fractures. He also invented an apparatus that manufactured and administered nitrous oxide. Additionally, Bean's groundwork in casting aluminum as a denture base material led to Taggart's later invention (in 1907) of the casting machine. After the Civil War, Dr. Bean became a highly successful dentist, practicing in Baltimore, Maryland. In the fall of 1870, at age 36, Bean, representing the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C., traveled to Europe to gather geological specimens. A short time after arriving, Bean decided to climb Mont Blanc with ten other men. The entire group perished in a raging 8-day snow storm on the mountain peak. This tragedy, a compelling drama, is legendary in the annals of mountaineering history. After Dr. Bean's passing, his wife lost her sanity and subsequently died. Later, the death of the couple's only child, Chapin, sadly ended the family line. Although his life was cut short, Bean's contributions to dentistry have been significant and far-reaching.

  13. 32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Coffee bean sluiceway on ground floor showing chute bringing beans from first floor hopper. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1B-17 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  14. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  15. Changes in key aroma compounds of Criollo cocoa beans during roasting.

    PubMed

    Frauendorfer, Felix; Schieberle, Peter

    2008-11-12

    Application of a comparative aroma extraction dilution analysis on unroasted and roasted Criollo cocoa beans revealed 42 aroma compounds in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 1-4096 for the unroasted and 4-8192 for the roasted cocoa beans. While the same compounds were present in the unroasted and roasted cocoa beans, respectively, these clearly differed in their intensity. For example, 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (rancid) and acetic acid (sour) showed the highest FD factors in the unroasted beans, while 3-methylbutanal (malty), 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (caramel-like), and 2- and 3-methylbutanoic acid (sweaty) were detected with the highest FD factors in the roasted seeds. Quantitation of 30 odorants by means of stable isotope dilution assays followed by a calculation of odor activity values (ratio of the concentration/odor threshold) revealed concentrations above the odor threshold for 22 compounds in the unroasted and 27 compounds in the roasted cocoa beans, respectively. In particular, a strong increase in the concentrations of the Strecker aldehydes 3-methylbutanal and phenylacetaldehyde as well as 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone was measured, suggesting that these odorants should contribute most to the changes in the overall aroma after roasting. Various compounds contributing to the aroma of roasted cocoa beans, such as 3-methylbutanoic acid, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, and 2-phenylethanol, were already present in unroasted, fermented cocoa beans and were not increased during roasting.

  16. Comparison of Cocoa Beans from China, Indonesia and Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Fenglin; Tan, Lehe; Wu, Huasong; Fang, Yiming; Xu, Fei; Chu, Zhong; Wang, Qinghuang

    2013-01-01

    A survey on five kinds of cocoa beans from new cocoa planting countries was conducted to analyze each kind’s basic quality. The average bean weight and butter content of Hainan cocoa beans were the lowest, at less than 1.1 g, and 39.24% to 43.44%, respectively. Cocoa beans from Indonesia where shown to be about 8.0% and 9.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content, respectively, than that of Papua New Guinea and about 20.0% and 25.0% higher in average bean weight and butter content than Chinese dried beans, respectively. The average total polyphenolic content ranged from 81.22 mg/10 g to 301.01 mg/10 g. The Hainan 2011 sample had the highest total polyphenolic content, followed by the unfermented sample from Indonesia and the Papua New Guinea sample. The polyphenolic levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were 123.61 mg/10 g and lower than the other three samples, but the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total polyphenolic content of 81.22 mg/10 g. The average total amino acid content ranged from 11.58 g/100 g to 18.17 g/100 g. The total amino acid content was the highest in the Indonesian unfermented sample, followed by the Hainan 2011 sample and the Papua New Guinea sample. The levels found in the Hainan 2010 sample were lower; the Indonesian fermented sample had the lowest total amino acid content. PMID:28239108

  17. Toxic leukoencephalopathy due to yam bean seeds poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fu, Pin-Kuei; Wang, Pao-Yu

    2012-07-01

    Toxic leukoencephalopathy is attributed to exposure to a wide variety of agents, including systemic chemotherapy, cranial irradiation, illicit drug abuse, and toxins from the environment. Diagnosis of this disease requires documented exposure to a toxin, neurobehavioral deficits, and typical neuroimaging abnormalities. Intoxication by compounds extracted from yam bean seeds may mimic cyanide poisoning but fail to respond to antidotal therapy. We report a 54-year-old Chinese woman who developed disturbed consciousness after eating 40 pieces of yam bean seeds. Head computed tomography obtained 24 hours after the episode was normal. However, magnetic resonance imaging obtained 20 days after the episode revealed symmetrical faint high signal over the bilateral periventricular white matter on T1-weighted image, which turned into diffuse and symmetrical bright high signal on FLAIR. The diagnosis of this patient was toxic leukoencephalopathy by yam bean seeds intoxication. The changes in brain images after yam bean seeds intoxication have not ever been reported. Physicians in Asia and the Pacific islands should have a high index of suspicion when they care for patients with acute confusion and a high anion gap metabolic acidosis but normal serum cyanide level.

  18. Hydration properties and texture fingerprints of easy- and hard-to-cook bean varieties

    PubMed Central

    Kinyanjui, Peter K; Njoroge, Daniel M; Makokha, Anselimo O; Christiaens, Stefanie; Ndaka, Daniel S; Hendrickx, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the factors that affect the hydration and cooking profiles of different bean varieties. During this study, nine bean varieties were classified as either easy-to-cook (ETC) or hard-to-cook (HTC) based on a subjective finger pressing test and an objective cutting test. Rose coco, Red haricot, and Zebra beans were classified as ETC, while Canadian wonder, Soya fupi, Pinto, non-nodulating, Mwezi moja, Gwaku, and New mwezi moja were HTC. The effect of different soaking (pre)-treatments on the cooking behavior and/or water absorption of whole or dehulled beans was investigated. Dehulling, soaking in high pH and monovalent salt solutions reduced the cooking time of beans, while soaking in low pH and CaCl2 solutions increased the cooking time. Moisture uptake was faster in ETC and dehulled beans. Soaking at high temperatures also increased the hydration rate. The results point to pectin-related aspects and the rate of water uptake as possible factors that influence the cooking rate of beans. PMID:25650021

  19. Effect of edible coating on the aromatic attributes of roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Supriya; Parande, A K; Ramalakshmi, K; Nagaraju, V D

    2015-09-01

    Coffee is known throughout the world for its distinct aroma and flavour which results from a number of volatile compounds present in it. It is very difficult to arrest the aromatic compounds once the roasting process is complete and it becomes even more challenging to store the beans for a longer time with the retained volatiles as these compounds are easily lost during industrialized processing such as the grinding of roasted coffee beans and storage of ground coffee. Thus, an attempt was made to minimise the loss of volatile from roasted coffee beans by coating with Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), Hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose (HPMC) and Whey protein concentrate. Coffee volatiles were analysed by Gas chromatography and 14 major compounds were identified and compared in this study. Results showed an increase in the relative area of major volatile compounds in coated roasted coffee beans when compared with unroasted coffee beans for consecutive two months. Moreover, effect of coating on textural properties and non-volatiles were also analysed. The results have indicated that edible coatings preserve the sensory properties of roasted coffee beans for a longer shelf life and cellulose derivatives, as an edible coating, exhibited the best protecting effect on roasted coffee beans.

  20. Recognition of Roasted Coffee Bean Levels using Image Processing and Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasution, T. H.; Andayani, U.

    2017-03-01

    The coffee beans roast levels have some characteristics. However, some people cannot recognize the coffee beans roast level. In this research, we propose to design a method to recognize the coffee beans roast level of images digital by processing the image and classifying with backpropagation neural network. The steps consist of how to collect the images data with image acquisition, pre-processing, feature extraction using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) method and finally normalization of data extraction using decimal scaling features. The values of decimal scaling features become an input of classifying in backpropagation neural network. We use the method of backpropagation to recognize the coffee beans roast levels. The results showed that the proposed method is able to identify the coffee roasts beans level with an accuracy of 97.5%.

  1. Occurrence and characterization of Bean common mosaic virus strain NL1 in Iowa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) and the related Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV) are widely distributed across the United States infecting primarily common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Eight characterized pathotypes have been distinguished on host differential cultivars. To further characteri...

  2. Evaluation of vegetable-faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping under Latvian agro-ecological conditions.

    PubMed

    Lepse, Līga; Dane, Sandra; Zeipiņa, Solvita; Domínguez-Perles, Raul; Rosa, Eduardo As

    2017-10-01

    Monoculture is used mostly in conventional agriculture, where a single crop is cultivated on the same land for a period of at least 12 months. In an organic and integrated growing approach, more attention is paid to plant-environment interactions and, as a result, diverse growing systems applying intercropping, catch crops, and green manure are being implemented. Thus, field experiments for evaluation of vegetable/faba bean full intercropping efficiency, in terms of vegetable and faba bean yield and protein content, were set up during two consecutive growing seasons (2014 and 2015). Data obtained showed that the most efficient intercropping variants were cabbage/faba bean (cabbage yield 1.27-2.91 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.20-0.43 kg m -2 ) and carrot/faba bean (carrot yield 1.67-2.28 kg m -2 , immature faba bean pods 0.10-0.52 kg m -2 ), whilst onion and faba bean intercrop is not recommended for vegetable growing since it induces a very low onion yield (0.66-1.09 kg m -2 ), although the highest immature faba bean pod yield was found in the onion/faba bean intercropping scheme (up to 0.56 kg m -2 ). Vegetable/faba bean intercropping can be used in practical horticulture for carrot and cabbage growing in order to ensure sustainable farming and environmentally friendly horticultural production. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Iron absorption from beans with different contents of iron, evaluated by stable isotopes.

    PubMed

    Junqueira-Franco, Márcia Varella Morandi; Dutra de Oliveira, José Eduardo; Nutti, Marilia Regini; Pereira, Helton Santos; Carvalho, José Luiz Vianna de; Abrams, Steven A; Brandão, Camila Fernanda Cunha; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio

    2018-06-01

    The introduction of biofortified foods such as beans with higher iron content may be a useful tool in preventing iron deficiency. The biofortification aims to reach the root of the problem of malnutrition, targets the neediest population, uses embedded distribution mechanisms, is scientifically feasible and effective in terms of cost, and complements other ongoing interventions to control micronutrient deficiency. However, to ensure effectiveness, measurement of the absorption of minerals is essential. The objective of this study was to evaluate the iron bioavailability of common bean BRS Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification, compared with common bean BRS Estilo in man through reliable techniques that have not been previously used in Brazil. The study included 29 young adult volunteers divided into 2 groups: Group CB (13 subjects) received 100 g of common beans (BRS-Estilo) cooked labeled with iron-58 ( 58 Fe) and Group TBB (16 patients) received 100 g common bean target for iron biofortification (BRS-Pontal), cooked and labeled with iron58 ( 58 Fe). The next day they received the reference dose of ferrous sulfate enriched iron-57 ( 57 Fe). Isotopic evaluation of iron for measurement of iron incorporation into erythrocytes was performed 14 days after consumption. The beans used, were produced, through conventional breeding program, by EMBRAPA/Rice and Beans. The iron absorption was evaluated by assessing the isotopic enrichment of the stable isotope. Mean iron absorption from the meal with common beans was 0.409% (±0.040%) and mean iron incorporation from the meal with target beans for biofortification 0.407% (±0.038%) and did not differ between the groups. This study tested the iron absorption from a single bean meal in healthy volunteers or non anemics, In the present study the iron absorption ratio from common bean Pontal (PO), targeted for biofortification and compared with common bean BRS Estilo was not significantly different. The iron concentration

  4. Effects of High Hydrostatic Pressure on Water Absorption of Adzuki Beans

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Shigeaki; Shigematsu, Toru; Karo, Mineko; Hayashi, Mayumi; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    The effect of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on dried soybean, adzuki bean, and kintoki kidney bean, which are low-moisture-content cellular biological materials, was investigated from the viewpoint of water absorption. The samples were vacuum-packed with distilled water and pressurized at 200 MPa and 25 °C for 10 min. After the HHP treatment, time courses of the moisture contents of the samples were measured, and the dimensionless moisture contents were estimated. Water absorption in the case of soybean could be fitted well by a simple water diffusion model. High pressures were found to have negligible effects on water absorption into the cotyledon of soybean and kintoki kidney bean. A non-linear least square method based on the Weibull equation was applied for the adzuki beans, and the effective water diffusion coefficient was found to increase significantly from 8.6 × 10−13 to 6.7 × 10−10 m2/s after HHP treatment. Approximately 30% of the testa of the adzuki bean was damaged upon HHP treatment, which was comparable to the surface area of the testa in the partially peeled adzuki bean sample. Thus, HHP was confirmed to promote mass transfer to the cotyledon of legumes with a tight testa. PMID:28231195

  5. Apollo 12 - Bean - Conrad - during geological field trip

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-10-24

    S69-55667 (10 Oct. 1969) --- Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. and Alan L. Bean train for their upcoming Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. Here they are entering a simulated lunar surface area near Flagstaff, Arizona. Both are wearing lunar surface cameras strapped to their bodies. Conrad (left), the Apollo 12 mission commander, is carrying some of the tools from the geological tool container. The geological tool container, being carried here by Bean, the lunar module pilot, is similar to the one which will be used during scheduled extravehicular activity (EVA) periods on Nov. 19 and 20, 1969, on the lunar surface. While astronauts Conrad and Bean conduct their scheduled EVA on the moon's surface, astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, will man the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  6. Review: The Potential of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) as a Vehicle for Iron Biofortification

    PubMed Central

    Petry, Nicolai; Boy, Erick; Wirth, James P.; Hurrell, Richard F.

    2015-01-01

    Common beans are a staple food and the major source of iron for populations in Eastern Africa and Latin America. Bean iron concentration is high and can be further increased by biofortification. A major constraint to bean iron biofortification is low iron absorption, attributed to inhibitory compounds such as phytic acid (PA) and polyphenol(s) (PP). We have evaluated the usefulness of the common bean as a vehicle for iron biofortification. High iron concentrations and wide genetic variability have enabled plant breeders to develop high iron bean varieties (up to 10 mg/100 g). PA concentrations in beans are high and tend to increase with iron biofortification. Short-term human isotope studies indicate that iron absorption from beans is low, PA is the major inhibitor, and bean PP play a minor role. Multiple composite meal studies indicate that decreasing the PA level in the biofortified varieties substantially increases iron absorption. Fractional iron absorption from composite meals was 4%–7% in iron deficient women; thus the consumption of 100 g biofortified beans/day would provide about 30%–50% of their daily iron requirement. Beans are a good vehicle for iron biofortification, and regular high consumption would be expected to help combat iron deficiency (ID). PMID:25679229

  7. Seedborne Pathogenic Fungi in Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. INTA Rojo) in Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Marcenaro, Delfia; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. In Nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. Here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'INTA Rojo'. Beans grown in the four main production areas in Nicaragua (Boaco, Carazo, Estelí, Matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. A total of 133 fungal strains were isolated from surface-sterilized beans and inoculated to healthy lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) under controlled conditions. Eighty-seven isolates caused symptoms of varying severity in the seedlings, including discoloration, necrotic lesions, cankers, rot, and lethal necrosis. Pathogenic isolates were divided into eight phenotypically distinguishable groups based on morphology and growth characteristics on artificial growth medium, and further identified by analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequences (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal RNA genes. The pathogenic isolates belonged to eight genera. Fusarium spp. (F. chlamydosporum, F. equiseti, F. incarnatum), Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Macrophomina phaseolina, and Penicillium citrinum were the most damaging and common fungi found in the seed lots. Furthermore, Corynespora cassiicola, Colletotrichum capsisi, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Aspergillus flavus, and Diaporthe sp. (Phomopsis) were seedborne in cultivar 'INTA Rojo' and found to be pathogenic to bean seedlings. This study reveals, for the first time, many seedborne pathogenic fungi in beans in Nicaragua; furthermore, prior to this study, little information was available concerning F. equiseti, F. incarnatum, L. theobromae, C. cassiicola, and Diaporthe spp. as seedborne pathogens of common bean. Our results lay the basis for developing diagnostic tools for seed health inspection and for further study of the epidemiology

  8. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    PubMed

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteomic analysis of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The modern cultivated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has evolved from wild common beans distributed in Central America, Mexico and the Andean region of South America. It has been reported that wild common bean accessions have higher levels of protein content than the domesticated dry bean cultiva...

  10. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae).

    PubMed

    War, Abdul R; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [ Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata ] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [ Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints

  11. Mechanism of Resistance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] to bruchids, Callosobruchus spp. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)

    PubMed Central

    War, Abdul R.; Murugesan, Surya; Boddepalli, Venkata N.; Srinivasan, Ramasamy; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.

    2017-01-01

    Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek var. radiata] is an important pulse crop in Asia, and is consumed as dry seeds and as bean sprouts. It is an excellent source of digestible protein. Bruchids [Callosobruchus chinensis (L.) and Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)] are the important pests of mungbean and cause damage in the field and in storage. Bruchid infestation reduces the nutritional and market value of the grain and renders seeds unfit for human consumption, agricultural and commercial uses. These pests are controlled mainly by fumigation with highly toxic chemicals such as carbon disulfide, phosphene, and methyl bromide, or by dusting with several other insecticides, which leave residues on the grain, thus, threatening food safety. Some plant-based extracts have been found useful in controlling bruchids, but are not fully successful due to their short-term activity, rapid degradability, and potentially negative effect on seed germination. Although some wild sources of bruchid resistance in mungbean have been reported, which have been used to develop bruchid- resistant lines, undesirable genetic linkages threaten the proper exploitation of genetic diversity from wild germplasm into commercial cultivars. Further, biotype variation in bruchids has rendered some mungbean lines susceptible that otherwise would have been resistant to the pest. Host plant resistance is a cost-effective and a safe alternative to control bruchids in mungbean and is associated with morphological, biochemical, and molecular traits. These traits affect insect growth and development, thereby, reduce the yield losses by the pests. Understanding the defense mechanisms against insect pests could be utilized in exploiting these traits in crop breeding. This review discusses different traits in mungbean involved in defense against bruchids and their utility in pest management. We also highlight the breeding constraints for developing bruchid-resistant mungbean and how can these constraints be

  12. Demonstrating a Nutritional Advantage to the Fast-Cooking Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Wiesinger, Jason A; Cichy, Karen A; Glahn, Raymond P; Grusak, Michael A; Brick, Mark A; Thompson, Henry J; Tako, Elad

    2016-11-16

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient-dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the nutritive value of 12 dry edible bean lines that vary for cooking time (20-89 min) from four market classes (yellow, cranberry, light red kidney, and red mottled) of economic importance in bean-consuming regions of Africa and the Americas. When compared to their slower cooking counterparts within each market class, fast-cooking dry beans retain more protein and minerals while maintaining similar starch and fiber densities when fully cooked. For example, some of the highest protein and mineral retention values were measured in the fast-cooking yellow bean cultivar Cebo Cela, which offered 20% more protein, 10% more iron, and 10% more zinc with each serving when compared with Canario, a slow-cooking yellow bean that requires twice the cooking time to become palatable. A Caco-2 cell culture model also revealed the bioavailability of iron is significantly higher in faster cooking entries (r = -0.537, P = 0.009) as compared to slower cooking entries in the same market class. These findings suggest that fast-cooking bean varieties have improved nutritive value through greater nutrient retention and improved iron bioavailability.

  13. Analysis of hard-to-cook red and black common beans using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Giselle A; Ozen, Banu F; Mauer, Lisa J; Nielsen, S Suzanne

    2004-03-24

    Extracted fractions from black and red common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Beans were stored under three conditions: control at 4 degrees C; hard-to-cook (HTC) at 29 degrees C, 65% RH for 3.5 months; and refrigerated at 2 degrees C, 79% RH for 3.5 months after a HTC period (called HTC-refrigerated). Two fractions isolated from the beans, the soluble pectin fraction (SPF) and the water insoluble residue of the cell wall (WIRCW), were analyzed using diffuse reflectance (DRIFTS) FT-IR. The soaking water and cooking water from the beans were also studied using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR. The DRIFTS FT-IR results from the SPF and WIRCW fractions were consistent with previously published data for Carioca beans showing that in general, more phenolic compounds were associated with the SPF of HTC beans than in the control beans. Results also showed that HTC-refrigerated beans had higher concentrations of phenolic compounds than control beans in the SPF. The ATR FT-IR results for soaking and cooking waters from the HTC-refrigerated and HTC beans had higher concentrations of absorbing compounds than the control beans, indicating that they lost more constituents to the water. Additionally, results indicate that the mechanism(s) for reversibility of the HTC defect could be different than the one(s) involved in the development of the defect.

  14. Bioprocessing of common beans in diets for tilapia: in vivo digestibility and antinutritional factors.

    PubMed

    Valdez-González, Francisco; Gutiérrez-Dorado, Roberto; Hernández-Llamas, Alfredo; García-Ulloa, Manuel; Sánchez-Magaña, Luís; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Breidy; Rodríguez-González, Hervey

    2017-09-01

    Bioprocessing of ingredients by solid-state fermentation is a low-cost technique for preparing diets. It is performed by adding microorganisms such as Rhizopus oligosporus to bean grains, achieving minimal degradation of nutrients and a significant improvement in digestibility. In particular, fermentation induces favorable changes in beans by reducing enzyme inhibitors, such as phytates and tannins. Fermentation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the protein content and digestibility of dry matter and protein compared with whole bean grains, and decreased the content of lipids, ash and phytic acid. Hardening did not have a significant (P > 0.05) effect on the chemical content of beans and digestibility of diets. The dehulled bean meal significantly (P < 0.05) increased protein and lipid content and digestibility of dry matter and protein of beans, and decreased fiber, ash and tannin content. The chemical content of beans and digestibility of ingredients compare favorably with those reported by other authors, indicating the benefits of fermentation and dehulling. We concluded that bean meal obtained from fermentation or dehulling represents a low-cost alternative for diets for tilapia. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Cooking quality and starch digestibility of gluten free pasta using new bean flour.

    PubMed

    Giuberti, Gianluca; Gallo, Antonio; Cerioli, Carla; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2015-05-15

    The use of rice/leguminous blend may be nutritionally convenient in gluten free product manufacturing. Gluten free spaghetti was prepared with rice flour and different concentrations of bean flour (included at levels of 0%, 20% and 40%, w/w) derived from a new developed white-seeded low phytic acid and lectin free (ws+lpa+lf) bean cultivar. Protein, ash and dietary fibre contents increased linearly (P<0.05) while total starch decreased quadratically (P<0.05) with the inclusion of ws+lpa+lf bean flour. The colour of spaghetti was influenced (P<0.05) by ws+lpa+lf bean inclusion. With respect to 0% spaghetti, the inclusion of ws+lpa+lf bean increased linearly (P<0.05) the optimal cooking time and the water absorption capacity, without affecting cooking loss and texture properties. The ws+lpa+lf bean inclusion increases quadratically (P<0.05) the resistant starch content, while decreasing quadratically (P<0.05) the in vitro glycemic index. The partial replacement of rice flour with bean flour can favourably be used in gluten free spaghetti formulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance and digestion of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Naves, A B; Freitas Júnior, J E; Barletta, R V; Gandra, J R; Calomeni, G D; Gardinal, R; Takiya, C S; Vendramini, T H A; Mingoti, R D; Rennó, F P

    2016-08-01

    Differing soya bean particle sizes may affect productive performance and ruminal fermentation due to the level of fatty acid (FA) exposure of the cotyledon in soya bean grain and because the protein in small particles is more rapidly degraded than the protein in large particles, which influence ruminal fibre digestion and the amounts of ruminally undegradable nutrients. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effects of raw soya bean particle size on productive performance, digestion and milk FA profile of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein cows were assigned to three 4 × 4 Latin squares with 21-day periods. At the start of the experiment, cows were 121 days in milk (DIM) and yielded 30.2 kg/day of milk. Cows were fed 4 diets: (i) control diet (CO), without raw soya bean; (ii) whole raw soya bean (WRS); (iii) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 4-mm screen (CS4); and (iv) cracked raw soya bean in Wiley mill 2-mm screen (CS2). The inclusion of soya beans (whole or cracked) was 200 g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis and partially replaced ground corn and soya bean meal. Uncorrected milk yield and composition were not influenced by experimental diets; however, fat-corrected milk (FCM) decreased when cows were fed soya bean treatments. Soya bean diets increased the intake of ether extract (EE) and net energy of lactation (NEL ), and decreased the intake of DM and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC). Ruminal propionate concentration was lower in cows fed WRS than cows fed CS2 or CS4. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented lower nitrogen in faeces than cows fed WRS. The milk of cows fed WRS, CS2 and CS4 presented higher unsaturated FA than cows fed CO. The addition of raw soya bean in cow diets, regardless of the particle size, did not impair uncorrected milk yield and nutrient digestion, and increased the concentration of unsaturated FA in milk. Cows fed cracked raw soya bean presented similar productive performance to cows fed whole raw soya bean. Journal of

  17. Evaluation of the tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius) diversity panel for response to the NL 3 strain of Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and for biological nitrogen fixation with Bradyrhizobium strains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aphid-transmitted Bean Common Mosaic Necrosis Virus (BCMNV) and Bean Common Mosaic Virus (BCMV) are potyviruses that are seed transmitted in tepary bean. Developing resistance to these viruses will be critical for expanding production in areas where they are endemic. Biological nitrogen fixation (BN...

  18. Effects of Dietary Cooked Navy Bean on the Fecal Microbiome of Healthy Companion Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Katherine R.; Forster, Genevieve; Dowd, Scot E.; Ryan, Elizabeth P.; Swanson, Kelly S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. Methodology/Principal Findings Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets). After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. Conclusions No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted. PMID:24040374

  19. Effects of dietary cooked navy bean on the fecal microbiome of healthy companion dogs.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Katherine R; Forster, Genevieve; Dowd, Scot E; Ryan, Elizabeth P; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-01-01

    Cooked bean powders are a promising novel protein and fiber source for dogs, which have demonstrated potential to alter microbial composition and function for chronic disease control and prevention. This study aimed to determine the impact of cooked navy bean powder fed as a staple food ingredient on the fecal microbiome of healthy adult pet dogs. Fecal samples from healthy dogs prior to dietary control and after 4 wk of dietary treatment with macro- and micronutrient matched diets containing either 0 or 25% cooked navy beans (n = 11 and n = 10, respectively) were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. There were few differences between dogs fed the control and navy bean diets after 4 wk of treatment. These data indicate that there were no major effects of navy bean inclusion on microbial populations. However, significant differences due to dietary intervention onto both research diets were observed (i.e., microbial populations at baseline versus 4 wk of intervention with 0 or 25% navy bean diets). After 4 wk of dietary intervention on either control or navy bean diet, the Phylum Firmicutes was increased and the Phyla Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria were decreased compared to baseline. No negative alterations of microbial populations occurred following cooked navy bean intake in dogs, indicating that bean powders may be a viable protein and fiber source for commercial pet foods. The highly variable microbial populations observed in these healthy adult pet dogs at baseline is one potential reason for the difficulty to detect alterations in microbial populations following dietary changes. Given the potential physiological benefits of bean intake in humans and dogs, further evaluation of the impacts of cooked navy bean intake on fecal microbial populations with higher power or more sensitive methods are warranted.

  20. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. [Microbial and physiological mechanisms for alleviating fusarium wilt of faba bean in intercropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Dong, Kun; Yang, Zhi Xian; Zheng, Yi; Tang, Li

    2016-06-01

    A field trial was conducted to investigate effects of wheat and faba bean intercropping on incidence and index of fusarium wilt, amount of Fusarium oxysporum of faba bean, oxidase activity and membrane peroxidation of faba bean roots. Functional diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of faba bean was analyzed by using Biolog microbial analysis system, contents of pheno-lic acids in faba bean rhizosphere soil were determined with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that in comparison with that of monocropped faba bean, wheat and faba bean intercropping tended to reduce the incidence and disease index of faba bean. The fusarium wilt was significantly decreased by 15.8% and 22.8% during the peak infection and late infection stages, and the average well color development (AWCD value) was promoted obviously. The Shannon diversity (H) and richness (S) increased by 4.4% and 19.4% during the peak infection stage and 5.3% and 37.1% during the late infection stage, respectively. Principal component analysis demonstrated that intercropping significantly changed the rhizospheric microbial community composition. The amount of F. oxysporum in rhizosphere soil of intercropped faba bean was significantly decreased by 53.8% and 33.1%, respectively, during the peak infection and late infection stages, and contents of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid also significantly decreased, peroxidase (POD), catalases (CAT) activities in roots of intercropped faba bean increased significantly by 20.0% and 31.3%, respectively during the peak infection stage and 38.5% and 66.7% respectively during the late infection stage, and the malondialdehyd (MDA) content decreased significantly by 36.3% and 46.3%, respectively during peak infection stage and late infection stage. It was concluded that wheat with faba bean intercropping could significantly promote the soil microbial activity and diversity

  2. Gene expression patterns regulating the seed metabolism in relation to deterioration/ageing of primed mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Satyendra Nath; Maheshwari, Ankita; Sharma, Chitra; Shukla, Nidhi

    2018-03-01

    We are proposing mechanisms to account for the loss of viability (seed deterioration/ageing) and enhancement in seed quality (post-storage priming treatment). In order to understand the regulatory mechanism of these traits, we conducted controlled deterioration (CD) test for up to 8 d using primed mung bean seeds and examined how CD effects the expression of many genes, regulating the seed metabolism in relation to CD and priming. Germination declined progressively with increased duration of CD, and the priming treatment completely/partially reversed the inhibition depending on the duration of CD. The loss of germination capacity by CD was accompanied by a reduction in total RNA content and RNA integrity, indicating that RNA quantity and quality impacts seed longevity. Expression analysis revealed that biosynthesis genes of GA, ethylene, ABA and ROS-scavenging enzymes were differentially affected in response to duration of CD and priming, suggesting coordinately regulated mechanisms for controlling the germination capacity of seeds by modifying the permeability characteristics of biological membranes and activities of different enzymes. ABA genes were highly expressed when germination was delayed and inhibited by CD. Whereas, GA and ethylene genes were more highly expressed when germination was enhanced and permitted by priming under similar conditions. GSTI, a well characterized enzyme family involved in stress tolerance, was expressed in primed seeds over the period of CD, suggesting an additional protection against deterioration. The results are discussed in light of understanding the mechanisms underlying longevity/priming which are important issues economically and ecologically. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity ofmore » the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.« less

  4. In vitro root induction of faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Roba M; Elazab, Heba E M; Hussein, Gihan M H; Metry, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for regeneration of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) plants is the difficulty of in vitro root induction. In the present study, in vitro rooting and its architecture have been studied. Adventitious root formation was successfully induced from regenerated faba bean shoots of four Egyptian cultivars, i.e., Giza 461, Giza 40, Giza 834 and Giza 716 on hormone free MS medium supplemented with 5 mg/l silver nitrate. Among the four cultivars, Giza 461 and Giza 40 were recorded as the highest root formation response (75 % and 65) followed by cultivars Giza716 and Giza843 (20%, and 10%). Anatomical study proved that the produced roots are initiated as the adventitious lateral root (LR) with tri-arch xylem strands as compared with the penta-arch of the primary roots of the intact faba bean seedling. The obtained results overcome the root induction problem in faba bean.

  5. Populational survey of arthropods on transgenic common bean expressing the rep gene from Bean golden mosaic virus

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Patrícia V; Quintela, Eliane D; Junqueira, Ana Maria R; Aragão, Francisco JL; Faria, Josias C

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops is considered the fastest adopted crop technology in the history of modern agriculture. However, possible undesirable and unintended effects must be considered during the research steps toward development of a commercial product. In this report we evaluated effects of a common bean virus resistant line on arthropod populations, considered as non-target organisms. This GM bean line (named M1/4) was modified for resistance against Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) by expressing a mutated REP protein, which is essential for virus replication. Biosafety studies were performed for a period of three years under field conditions. The abundance of some species was significantly higher in specific treatments in a particular year, but not consistently different in other years. A regular pattern was not observed in the distribution of insects between genetically modified and conventional treatments. Data analyses showed that minor differences observed can be attributed to random variation and were not consistent enough to conclude that the treatments were different. Therefore the present study indicates that the relative abundance of species are similar in transgenic and non-transgenic fields. PMID:24922280

  6. Molecular cytogenetic characterisation and phylogenetic analysis of the seven cultivated Vigna species (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    She, C-W; Jiang, X-H; Ou, L-J; Liu, J; Long, K-L; Zhang, L-H; Duan, W-T; Zhao, W; Hu, J-C

    2015-01-01

    The genomic organisation of the seven cultivated Vigna species, V. unguiculata, V. subterranea, V. angularis, V. umbellata, V. radiata, V. mungo and V. aconitifolia, was determined using sequential combined PI and DAPI (CPD) staining and dual-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with 5S and 45S rDNA probes. For phylogenetic analyses, comparative genomic in situ hybridisation (cGISH) onto somatic chromosomes and sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of 45S rDNA were used. Quantitative karyotypes were established using chromosome measurements, fluorochrome bands and rDNA FISH signals. All species had symmetrical karyotypes composed of only metacentric or metacentric and submetacentric chromosomes. Distinct heterochromatin differentiation was revealed by CPD staining and DAPI counterstaining after FISH. The rDNA sites among all species differed in their number, location and size. cGISH of V. umbellata genomic DNA to the chromosomes of all species produced strong signals in all centromeric regions of V. umbellata and V. angularis, weak signals in all pericentromeric regions of V. aconitifolia, and CPD-banded proximal regions of V. mungo var. mungo. Molecular phylogenetic trees showed that V. angularis and V. umbellata were the closest relatives, and V. mungo and V. aconitifolia were relatively closely related; these species formed a group that was separated from another group comprising V. radiata, V. unguiculata ssp. sesquipedalis and V. subterranea. This result was consistent with the phylogenetic relationships inferred from the heterochromatin and cGISH patterns; thus, fluorochrome banding and cGISH are efficient tools for the phylogenetic analysis of Vigna species. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  7. Complete genome sequences of two novel bipartite begomoviruses infecting common bean in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Chang-Sidorchuk, Lidia; González-Alvarez, Heidy; Navas-Castillo, Jesús; Fiallo-Olivé, Elvira; Martínez-Zubiaur, Yamila

    2017-05-01

    The common bean is a host for a large number of begomoviruses (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) in the New World. Based on the current taxonomic criteria established for the genus Begomovirus, two new members of this genus infecting common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Cuba are herein reported. The cloned bipartite genomes, composed of DNA-A and DNA-B, showed the typical organization of the New World begomoviruses. We propose the names common bean severe mosaic virus and common bean mottle virus for the new begomovirus species.

  8. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  9. Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in elongating cortical cells of mung bean roots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    1990-01-01

    Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in primary roots of 2-day-old mung bean (Vigna mungo L. cv. black matpe) seedlings were investigated using glass microelectrodes held by 3-dimensional hydraulic micro-drives. The electrodes were inserted into outer cortical cells within the elongation zone. Intracellular potentials, angle of root orientation with respect to gravity, and position within the root of the impaled cortical cell were measured simultaneously. Gravistimulation caused intracellular potential changes in cortical cells of the elongation zone. When the roots were oriented vertically, the intracellular potentials of the outer cortical cells (2 mm behind the root apex) were approximately - 115 mV. When the roots were placed horizontally cortical cells on the upper side hyperpolarized to - 154 mV within 30 s while cortical cells on the lower side depolarized to about - 62 mV. This electrical asymmetry did not occur in cells of the maturation zone. Because attempts to insert the electrode into cells of the root cap were unsuccessful, these cells were not measured. The hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the upper side was greatly reduced upon application of N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), an inhibitor of respiratory energy coupling. When stimulated roots were returned to the vertical, the degree of hyperpolarization of cortical cells on the previous upper side decreased within 30 s and approached that of cortical cells in non-stimulated roots. This cycle of hyperpolarization/loss of hyperpolarization was repeatable at least ten times by alternately turning the root from the vertical to the horizontal and back again. The very short (<30 s) lag period of these electrical changes indicates that they may result from stimulus-perception and transduction within the elongation zone rather than from transmission of a signal from the root cap.

  10. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields.

    PubMed

    Riskin, Shelby H; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-06-05

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km(2) soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) (30 kg P ha(-1) yr(-1) above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs.

  11. N abundance of nodules as an indicator of N metabolism in n(2)-fixing plants.

    PubMed

    Shearer, G; Feldman, L; Bryan, B A; Skeeters, J L; Kohl, D H; Amarger, N; Mariotti, F; Mariotti, A

    1982-08-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of (15)N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N(2)-fixing plants. N(2)-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in (15)N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N(2)-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in (15)N. Thus, (15)N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N(2)-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of (15)N enrichment in N(2)-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N(2) and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit (15)N enrichment.

  12. Elucidating potential utilization of Portuguese common bean varieties in rice based processed foods.

    PubMed

    Carbas, Bruna; Pathania, Shivani; Castanho, Ana; Lourenço, Diana; Veiga, Isabel Mota; Patto, Maria Carlota Vaz; Brites, Carla

    2018-03-01

    The present study was aimed at studying the physico-chemical and functional properties of 31 Portuguese common bean varieties. In addition, the whole bean flours (WBF) and starch isolates (SI) of three representative bean varieties and their rice: bean blends (70:30; 50:50) were assessed for amylose content, thermal and pasting properties in view of supplementation in rice based processed foods. Bean varieties showed significant differences in protein content (20.78-27.10%), fat content (1.16-2.18%), hydration capacity (95.90-149.30%), unhydrated seeds (4.00-40.00%), γ tocopherol (3.20-98.05 mg/100 g fat), δ tocopherol (0.06-4.72 mg/100 g fat) and pasting behavior. Amylose content of WBF (11.4-20.2%) was significantly lower than rice flour (23.51%) whereas SI of beans (40.00-47.26%) had significantly higher amylose content than SI of rice (28.13%). DSC results showed that WBF (11.4-20.2 °C) had significantly broader and lower gelatinization temperature range (∆Tr) than corresponding SI (20.9-23.1 °C). WBF had significantly lower pasting viscosity due to low starch content and compositional matrix effect as compared to SI. Setback viscosities of WBF and rice: bean blends was lower than rice flour. Low setback viscosities of rice:bean blends may be used to prevent syneresis and stabilizing the quality of frozen foods in rice based processed foods.

  13. [Preferential habits of consumers of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, J Z; Guzmán Maldonado, H; Jiménez, A; Mejía, C; Muñoz Ramos, J J; Acosta Gallegos, J A; Hoyos, G; López Salinas, E; González Eguiarte, D; Salinas Pérez, R; González Acuña, J; Muñoz Villalobos, J A; Fernández Hernández, P; Cáceres, B

    1997-06-01

    A detailed knowledge of the consumer's preferences for the different classes of common bean is useful to define objectives in bean breeding and quality projects in a given region or country and it is also a valuable tool to design marketing strategies. The present work consisted on the application of a survey to 1514 common bean consumers in 14 states of Mexico. To facilitate the interpretation of the results the country was divided in four regions: North East, North West, Center and South. In the North West region, 98% of the surveyed individuals eat the "Azufrado" types (sulphur yellow); in the North East, 70% of the consumers prefer "pinto" (beige with brown mottles) and "Bayo" (cream) types; in the South, 90% of the consumers prefer the "Black" type; and in the Center of the country, all commercial classes are consumed. Within a commercial class, specific characteristics are demanded. For instance, in the black type, small and opaque seeds are preferred while in the "Flor de mayo" (Beige with pink mottles) type medium to large seeds having bright seed coat are preferred. The main characteristics utilized by consumers to select a given bean type are cooking time and flavor. It was observed that preferential classes are well established among the consumers since 70% responded that they would not change the preferred class even if the alternative class was sold to a lower price. Consumers do not soak the beans, because it changes the flavor and the aspect of the cooked beans and they do not add salt at the beginning of the cooking process due to the same reason. Organoleptic studies conducted in the laboratory confirmed that soaking of beans or addition of salts in the soaking water or at the beginning of the cooking process negatively affected acceptability of cooked beans by panelists. In this paper aspects related to ways of processing and consuming common beans as well as marketing aspects are discussed.

  14. Physical properties of extruded products from three Mexican common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Guzman, N E; Gallegos-Infante, J A; Gonzalez-Laredo, R F; Bello-Perez, A; Delgado-Licon, E; Ochoa-Martinez, A; Prado-Ortiz, M J

    2008-09-01

    The physical properties of extruded products from three Mexican common bean cultivars were investigated. Common bean cultivars Flor de Mayo, Pinto Villa and Bayo Victoria from the same harvesting season (2006) were used in this work. Beans were milled and the flour was hydrated to 24, 26 and 28 g of water/100 g of dry weight. Two temperatures, 130 degrees C and 165 degrees C at the end of the extruder barrel without die, were experimented. Common bean flour extrudates were evaluated for water absorption index (WAI), water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC), and emulsifying capacity (EC). Flor de Mayo extrudates showed the highest WAC and WAI values. Thus starch from Flor de Mayo beans showed minor restricted water availability. In all cases, the OAC of extruded products was lower than the crude bean flour. The EC for Bayo Victoria flour increased as a consequence of the extrusion process. The EC for Flor de Mayo was higher at lower temperature and lower moisture content than Pinto Villa and Bayo Victoria beans. EC behavior of Pinto Villa was similar to Bayo cultivar. These results indicate that it is possible to produce new extruded products with good physical properties from these common bean cultivars.

  15. Evidence for the presence of a [2Fe-2S] ferredoxin in bean sprouts.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, M; Sung, J D; Malkin, R; Zilber, A; Droux, M; Knaff, D B

    1988-07-06

    An iron-sulfur protein with properties similar to those of ferredoxins found in the leaves of higher plants has been isolated from bean sprouts--a non-photosynthetic plant tissue. The bean sprout protein has a molecular mass of 12.5 kDa and appears to contain a single [2Fe-2S] cluster. The absorbance and circular dichroism spectra of the bean sprout protein resemble those of spinach leaf ferredoxin and the bean sprout protein can replace spinach ferredoxin as an electron donor for NADP+ reduction, nitrite reduction and thioredoxin reduction by spinach leaf enzymes. Although the reduced bean sprout protein (Em = -440 mV) is a slightly stronger reductant than spinach ferredoxin and appears to be less acidic than spinach ferredoxin, the two proteins are similar enough so that the bean sprout protein is recognized by an antibody raised against spinach ferredoxin.

  16. Evaluation of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) response to charcoal rot

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Charcoal rot in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Gold. (Mph), is an endemic disease in the prevailing hot and dry conditions in southern Puerto Rico. This study evaluated the 120 bean genotypes that compose the BASE 120 panel under screenhouse conditio...

  17. Genome-wide association study of anthracnose resistance in Andean beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anthracnose is a seed-borne disease of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, and the pathogen is cosmopolitan in distribution. The objectives of this study were to identify new sources of anthracnose resistance in a diverse panel of 230 Andean beans ...

  18. Selection of common bean to broad environmental adaptation in Haiti

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars in Haiti need adaptation to a broad range of environments and resistance to the most important diseases such as Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus. The Legume Breeding Program (LBP), a collaborative effort of the AREA project (USAID funded through IFAS/Univ...

  19. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-04-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  20. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T; Melot, Brent C; Speirs, Rory W; Hendon, Christopher H

    2016-04-18

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily.

  1. The effect of bean origin and temperature on grinding roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    Uman, Erol; Colonna-Dashwood, Maxwell; Colonna-Dashwood, Lesley; Perger, Matthew; Klatt, Christian; Leighton, Stephen; Miller, Brian; Butler, Keith T.; Melot, Brent C.; Speirs, Rory W.; Hendon, Christopher H.

    2016-01-01

    Coffee is prepared by the extraction of a complex array of organic molecules from the roasted bean, which has been ground into fine particulates. The extraction depends on temperature, water chemistry and also the accessible surface area of the coffee. Here we investigate whether variations in the production processes of single origin coffee beans affects the particle size distribution upon grinding. We find that the particle size distribution is independent of the bean origin and processing method. Furthermore, we elucidate the influence of bean temperature on particle size distribution, concluding that grinding cold results in a narrower particle size distribution, and reduced mean particle size. We anticipate these results will influence the production of coffee industrially, as well as contribute to how we store and use coffee daily. PMID:27086837

  2. Towards the development of a sustainable soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyunwoo; Weier, Steven; Razvi, Fareha; Peña, Pamela A; Sims, Neil A; Lowell, Jennica; Hungate, Cory; Kissinger, Karma; Key, Gavin; Fraser, Paul; Napier, Johnathan A; Cahoon, Edgar B; Clemente, Tom E

    2017-02-01

    Soya bean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soya bean breeding and molecular biology programmes. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soya bean coproducts, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soya bean-based protein and a high Omega-3 fatty acid soya bean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana). Communicated herein are aquafeed formulations with major reduction in marine ingredients that translates to more total Omega-3 fatty acids in harvested flesh. Building off of these findings, subsequent efforts were directed towards a genetic strategy that would translate to a prototype design of an optimal identity-preserved soya bean-based feedstock for aquaculture, whereby a multigene stack approach for the targeted synthesis of two value-added output traits, eicosapentaenoic acid and the ketocarotenoid, astaxanthin, were introduced into the crop. To this end, the systematic introduction of seven transgenic cassettes into soya bean, and the molecular and phenotypic evaluation of the derived novel events are described. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Greater bile acid excretion with soy bean than with cow milk in infants.

    PubMed

    Potter, J M; Nestel, P J

    1976-05-01

    The excretion of fecal sterols and bile acids was measured in five infants from the 1st week of life to 2 or 3 months of age as the composition of their diet was changed from cow milk to soy bean milk. Bile acid excretion, adjusted for body weight, was initially lower during the 1st than during the 3rd week, when it reached adult values. The average excretion of bile acids was 6.8 mg/kg per day with soy bean milk and 3.6 mg/kg per day with cow milk. Net sterol excretion (total sterol output minus cholesterol intake) was also twice as high with soy bean milk and probably reflected enhancement of cholesterol re-excretion as well as of synthesis since the cholesterol content of soy beans is nil. However, net sterol excretion remained higher with soy bean than with cow milk even when egg yolk cholesterol was added to the soy bean milk. It is concluded that the substitution of soy bean milk for cow milk, which lowered the plasma cholesterol in all infants (even in the presence of dietary cholesterol) leads to an increase in bile acids and probably also in cholesterol excretion in young infants.

  4. Micro-PIXE investigation of bean seeds to assist micronutrient biofortification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvitanich, Cristina; Przybyłowicz, Wojciech J.; Mesjasz-Przybyłowicz, Jolanta; Blair, Matthew W.; Astudillo, Carolina; Orłowska, Elżbieta; Jurkiewicz, Anna M.; Jensen, Erik Ø.; Stougaard, Jens

    2011-10-01

    This study compares the distribution and concentrations of micro- and macronutrients in different bean cultivars with the aim of optimizing the biofortification, a sustainable approach towards improving dietary quality. Micro-PIXE was used to reveal the distribution of Fe, Zn, Mn, Ca, P, S in seeds of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus). Average concentrations of elements in different tissues were obtained using ICP-AES. The highest concentrations of Zn in the studied beans were found in the embryonic axis, but an increased concentration of this element was also detected in the provascular bundles of the cotyledons. The first layer of cells surrounding provascular bundles accumulated high concentrations of Fe, while the next cell layer had an increased concentration of Mn. The analysis showed that the provascular bundles and the first cell layers surrounding them could have a significant role in the storage of important seed micronutrients - Zn, Fe, and Mn. This information has important implications for molecular biology studies aimed at seed biofortification.

  5. Pyruvate metabolism in castor-bean mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Brailsford, M A; Thompson, A G; Kaderbhai, N; Beechey, R B

    1986-01-01

    We report the isolation of mitochondria from the endosperm of castor beans (Ricinus communis). These mitochondria oxidized succinate, external NADH, malate and pyruvate with respiratory-control and ADP/O ratios consistent with those found previously with mitochondria from other plant sources. The mitochondria exhibited considerable sensitivity to the electron-transport-chain inhibitors antimycin A and cyanide when oxidizing succinate and external NADH. Pyruvate-dependent O2 uptake was relatively insensitive to these inhibitors, although the residual O2 uptake could be inhibited by salicylhydroxamic acid. We conclude that a cyanide-insensitive alternative terminal oxidase is functional in these mitochondria. However, electrons from the succinate dehydrogenase or external NADH dehydrogenase seem to have no access to this pathway. There is little interconnection between the salicylhydroxamic acid-sensitive and cyanide-sensitive pathways of electron transport. alpha-Cyanocinnamate and its analogues, compound UK5099 [alpha-cyano-beta-(1-phenylindol-3-yl)acrylate] and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate, were all found to be potent non-competitive inhibitors of pyruvate oxidation in castor-bean mitochondria. The accumulation of pyruvate by castor-bean mitochondria was determined by using a silicone-oil-centrifugation technique. The accumulation was shown to observe Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with a Km for pyruvate of 0.10 mM and a Vmax. of 0.95 nmol/min per mg of mitochondrial protein. However, the observed rates of pyruvate accumulation were insufficient to account for the pyruvate oxidation rates found in the oxygen-electrode studies. We were able to demonstrate that this is due to the immediate export of the accumulated radiolabel in the form of malate and citrate. Compound UK5099 inhibited the accumulation of [2-14C]pyruvate by castor-bean mitochondria at concentrations similar to those required to inhibit pyruvate oxidation. PMID:3814077

  6. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies.

    PubMed

    Perera, Thushanthi; Young, Matthew R; Zhang, Zhiying; Murphy, Gwen; Colburn, Nancy H; Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J; Cross, Amanda J; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-04-01

    Aim of the study was to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Using LC/mass spectroscopy ± ESI and GC/mass spectroscopy, serum metabolites of dry beans were measured in 46 men before and after a 4-week dry bean enriched diet (250 g/day) and 12 mice that received a standardized diet containing either 0 or 10% navy bean ethanol extract for 6 weeks; we also investigated fecal metabolites in the mice. The serum metabolites identified in these controlled feeding studies were then investigated in 212 polyp-free participants from the Polyp Prevention Trial who self-reported either increased (≥+31 g/day from baseline), high dry bean intake of ≥42 g/day in year 3 or low, unchanged dry bean consumption of <8 g/day; serum was analyzed from baseline and year 3. Serum pipecolic acid and S-methyl cysteine were elevated after dry bean consumption in human and mouse studies and reflected dry bean consumption in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Identification and monitoring of metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Thushanthi; Young, Matthew R.; Zhang, Zhiying; Murphy, Gwen; Colburn, Nancy H.; Lanza, Elaine; Hartman, Terryl J.; Cross, Amanda J.; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Scope Aim of the study was to identify and monitor metabolite markers of dry bean consumption in parallel human and mouse studies that each had shown chemopreventive effects of dry bean consumption on colorectal neoplasia risk. Methods and Results Using liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy +/− electrospray ionization and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, serum metabolites of dry beans were measured in 46 men before and after a four-week dry bean-enriched diet (250 g/d) and 12 mice that received a standardized diet containing either 0 or 10% navy bean ethanol extract for 6 weeks; we also investigated fecal metabolites in the mice. The serum metabolites identified in these controlled feeding studies were then investigated in 212 polyp-free participants from the Polyp Prevention Trial who self-reported either increased (≥+31 g/d from baseline), high dry bean intake of ≥42 g/d in year 3 or low, unchanged dry bean consumption of <8 g/d; serum was analyzed from baseline and year 3. Serum pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine were elevated after dry bean consumption in human and mouse studies and reflected dry bean consumption in the Polyp Prevention Trial. Conclusions Serum levels of pipecolic acid and S-methyl-cysteine are useful biomarkers of dry bean consumption. PMID:25641932

  8. 40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Coffee bean drying trays that are stored in racks under building and pulled out to sun dry beans on terraces to the north and south of building. HAER PR, 6-MAGU, 1C-3 - Hacienda Buena Vista, PR Route 10 (Ponce to Arecibo), Magueyes, Ponce Municipio, PR

  9. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  10. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU exerperiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  11. Antioxidant activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis of black bean protein concentrate using different enzymes. Bean proteins were extracted and hydrolyzed over a period of 120 min using the enzymes pepsin or alcalase. The protein hydrolysates’ molecular weight was assayed by e...

  12. Extraction and analysis of antioxidant capacity in eight edible beans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work we explored the use of microwave as a fast method for the extraction of antioxidants from beans. Antioxidant capacity of the extracts from meat and the hull of eight common beans was determined, using the ß-carotene bleaching method. Microwave-assisted extraction was achieved using two ...

  13. Breeding and genomics status in faba bean (Vicia faba L)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Faba bean is an important legume crop due to its high yield potential and nutrition dense grains. There are significant achievements in faba bean improvement during the last four decades, leading to the doubling the global yield average. This paper intends to review the genetic diversity, the breedi...

  14. A comparison of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of sword beans and soybeans fermented with Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Han, Seon Su; Hur, Sun Jin; Lee, Si Kyung

    2015-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of non-fermented or Bacillus subtilis-fermented soybeans and sword beans (red and white). The total flavonoid content in both sword bean types was higher (1.9-2.5-fold) than that in soybeans. The total phenolic content in fermented red sword beans was 2.5-fold greater than that in non-fermented red sword beans. HPLC profiles revealed that gallic acid, methyl gallate, and ellagic acid were major phenolic components of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans. DPPH radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were higher in fermented red sword beans than in other beans. Non-fermented/fermented red sword beans had higher nitrite scavenging activity than butylated hydroxytoluene and non-fermented/fermented soybeans. The hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of non-fermented/fermented red sword beans was higher (1.5-2.6-fold) than that of non-fermented/fermented soybeans. These results suggest that B. subtilis-fermented sword beans are potential natural antioxidant sources and anti-inflammatory agents for the food industry.

  15. Alan Bean and Don Peterson Wreath Laying Ceremony

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-05-30

    NASA’s Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex hosted two remembrance ceremonies Wednesday, May 30 in honor of astronauts Alan Bean and Don Peterson, respectively. Bean, a member of the U.S. Astronaut Hall of Fame was selected to join NASA’s third astronaut class in 1963. He was the fourth person to walk on the Moon during the Apollo 12 mission in 1969. Bean went on to become the commander of the second crewed flight of Skylab in 1973 and an accomplished artist during his retirement. He passed away on May 26 at the age of 86. Peterson became a NASA astronaut in 1969. He flew on the maiden voyage of Space Shuttle Challenger in 1983 and was one of the first astronauts to perform a spacewalk from the shuttle. He passed away on May 27 at the age of 84.WreatWreljklaejlkjawekjwWwewerewrwefdsfdsgdfgsdfggdfsgdfsgdfsfdgdffgddsfgrtWrjelkwjlkrewsadjkl

  16. Effect of processing methods on nutritional, sensory, and physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour.

    PubMed

    Nkundabombi, Marie Grace; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy; Muyonga, John H

    2016-05-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are rich nutritious and affordable by vulnerable groups, thus a good choice for biofortification to address malnutrition. However, increasing micronutrients content of beans, without improving micronutrients bioavailability will not improve the micronutrients status of consumers. Effect of different processing methods on the physicochemical characteristics of biofortified bean flour was determined. Processing methods used in this study were malting (48 h), roasting (170°C/45 min), and extrusion cooking using a twin screw extruder with three heating sections, the first set at 60°C, the second at 130°C, and the last one at 150°C. The screw was set at a speed of 35 Hz (123g) and bean flour moisture content was 15%. Mineral extractability, in vitro protein digestibility, pasting properties, and sensory acceptability of porridge and sauce from processed flour were determined. All processing methods significantly increased (P < 0.05) mineral extractability, iron from 38.9% to 79.5% for K131 and from 40.7% to 83.4% for ROBA1, in vitro protein digestibility from 58.2% to 82% for ROBA1 and from 56.2% to 79% for K131. Pasting viscosities of both bean varieties reduced with processing. There was no significant difference (P < 0.05) between sensory acceptability of porridge or sauce from extruded biofortified bean flour and malted/roasted biofortified bean flour. Acceptability was also not affected by the bean variety used. Mineral bioavailability and in vitro protein digestibility increased more for extruded flour than for malted/roasted flours. Sauce and porridge prepared from processed biofortified bean flour had lower viscosity (extruded flour had the lowest viscosity), thus higher nutrient and energy density than those prepared from unprocessed biofortified bean flour. Estimated nutritional contribution of sauce and porridge made from processed ROBA1 flour to daily requirement of children below 5 years and women of

  17. Sharing Beans with Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Clare V.

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and researchers have known for decades that the use of storybooks can have a positive impact on students' experiences with mathematics. This article describes how first graders in an urban public school actively engage with mathematics by using the story "Bean Thirteen" as a context for developing number sense. This…

  18. Knowledge Gaps of the Health Benefits of Beans among Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Shelly M; Winham, Donna M; Hradek, Christine

    2018-01-01

    We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories. Of the 158 women who completed the survey, 58% were Hispanic, with a mean age of 36 years. In terms of acculturation, 24% were Hispanic-dominant, 30% bicultural, and 46% English dominant. Over 50% of all respondents did not know bean consumption lowered cholesterol, aided blood glucose control, or reduced some cancer risks. Responses for 5 of 7 knowledge statements differed significantly by acculturation. Hispanic-dominant and bicultural women reported significantly better health, higher bean consumption, and less cigarette smoking than English-dominant women. Bicultural and English-dominant women were more likely to use the Internet for nutrition information. There are knowledge gaps about the health benefits of bean consumption among low-income women. Nutrition education to improve their knowledge may lead to increased bean consumption, reducing health disparities and improving nutrition.

  19. Identification of novel orosensory active molecules in cured vanilla Beans (Vanilla planifolia).

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Bernd; Hofmann, Thomas

    2009-05-13

    Sequential application of solvent extraction, gel permeation chromatography, and HPLC in combination with taste dilution analyses, followed by LC-MS and 1D/2D NMR experiments, led to the discovery of seven velvety mouth-coating molecules in cured beans of Vanilla planifolia . Among these, 5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)vanillin, 4-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-2-methoxyphenol, 4-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)-5-methoxybenzaldehyde, (1-O-vanilloyl)-(6-O-feruloyl)-beta-d-glucopyranoside, americanin A, and 4',6'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-carboxaldehyde were previously not reported in vanilla beans. Sensory studies revealed human recognition thresholds for the velvety mouth-coating sensation between 1.0 and 5.0 mumol/kg (water). Interestingly, the biphenyl derivatives were found to enhance the perception of creaminess and fatty body of sweetened skim milk, among which 4',6'-dihydroxy-3',5-dimethoxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-3-carboxaldehyde showed the lowest threshold level of 5 mumol/kg. Quantitative analysis of these compounds in cured vanilla beans from different origins as well as in noncured beans revealed that, with the exception of americanin A, all of the other taste compounds are not present in the green vanilla beans and are formed during the bean curing process.

  20. Locust bean gum: processing, properties and food applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Barak, Sheweta; Mudgil, Deepak

    2014-05-01

    Locust bean gum or carob gum is a galactomannan obtained from seed endosperm of carob tree i.e. Ceratonia siliqua. It is widely utilized as an additive in various industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, paper, textile, oil well drilling and cosmetics. Industrial applications of locust bean gum are due to its ability to form hydrogen bonding with water molecule. It is also beneficial in the control of many health problems like diabetes, bowel movements, heart disease and colon cancer due to its dietary fiber action. This article focuses on production, processing, composition, properties, food applications and health benefits of locust bean gum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A survey of the nutritional and haemagglutination properties of legume seeds generally available in the UK.

    PubMed

    Grant, G; More, L J; McKenzie, N H; Stewart, J C; Pusztai, A

    1983-09-01

    Eighty-five samples from fifteen different legume seed lines generally available in the UK were examined by measurements of their net protein utilization by rats and by haemagglutination tests with erythrocytes from a number of different animal species. From these results the seeds were classified into four broad groups. Group a seeds from most varieties of kidney (Phaseolus vulgaris), runner (Phaseolus coccineus) and tepary (Phaseolus acutifolius) beans showed high reactivity with all cell types and were also highly toxic. Group b, which contained seeds from lima or butter beans (Phaseolus lunatus) and winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus), agglutinated only human and pronase-treated rat erythrocytes. These seeds did not support proper growth of the rats although the animals survived the 10 d experimental period. Group c consisted of seeds from lentils (Lens culinaris), peas (Pisum sativum), chick-peas (Cicer arietinum), blackeyed peas (Vigna sinensis), pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan), mung beans (Phaseolus aureus), field or broad beans (Vicia faba) and aduki beans (Phaseolus angularis). These generally had low reactivity with all cells and were non-toxic. Group d, represented by soya (Glycine max) and pinto (Phaseolus vulgaris) beans, generally had low reactivity with all cells but caused growth depression at certain dietary concentrations. This growth depression was probably mainly due to antinutritional factors other than lectins. Lectins from group a seeds showed many structural and immunological similarities. However the subunit composition of the lectin from the tepary bean samples was different from that of the other bean lectins in this or any other groups.

  2. Root rots of common and tepary beans in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root rots are a disease complex affecting common bean and can be severe in bean growing areas in the tropics and subtropics. The presence of several pathogens makes it difficult to breed for resistance because of the synergistic effect of the pathogens in the host and the interaction of soil factors...

  3. Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein hydrolysates: Physicochemical and functional properties.

    PubMed

    Evangelho, Jarine Amaral do; Vanier, Nathan Levien; Pinto, Vânia Zanella; Berrios, Jose J De; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa

    2017-01-01

    Black bean protein hydrolysates obtained from pepsin and alcalase digestions until 120min of hydrolysis were evaluated by gel electrophoresis, relative fluorescence intensity, emulsifying properties, light micrograph of emulsions and in vitro antioxidant activity. The emulsion stability of the bean protein hydrolysates were evaluated during 30days of storage. The pepsin-treated bean protein hydrolysates presented higher degree of hydrolysis than the alcalase-treated protein hydrolysates. The alcalase-treated bean protein hydrolysates showed higher surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, the protein hydrolysates obtained with alcalase digestion presented higher emulsion stability during 30-days than those obtained from pepsin digestion. The protein concentrate and especially the hydrolysates obtained from alcalase digestion had good emulsion stability and antioxidant activity. Thus, they could be exploited as protein supplements in the diet as nutritional and bioactive foods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analyzing bean extracts using time-dependent SDS trapping to quantify the kinetic stability of phaseolin proteins.

    PubMed

    Thibeault, Jane; Church, Jennifer; Ortiz-Perez, Brian; Addo, Samuel; Hill, Shakeema; Khalil, Areeg; Young, Malaney; Xia, Ke; Colón, Wilfredo

    2017-09-30

    In common beans and lima bean, the storage protein phaseolin is difficult to degrade and SDS-resistant, a sign of kinetic stability. Kinetically stable proteins (KSPs) are characterized by having a high-energy barrier between the native and denatured states that results in very slow unfolding. Such proteins are resistant to proteolytic degradation and detergents, such as SDS. Here the method SDS-Trapping of Proteins (S-TraP) is applied directly on bean extracts to quantify the kinetic stability of phaseolin in lima bean and several common beans, including black bean, navy bean, and small red bean. The bean extracts were incubated in SDS at various temperatures (60-75 °C) for different time periods, followed by SDS-PAGE analysis at room temperature, and subsequent band quantification to determine the kinetics of phaseolin unfolding. Eyring plot analysis showed that the phaseolin from each bean has high kinetic stability, with an SDS-trapping (i.e. unfolding) half-life ranging from about 20-100 years at 24 °C and 2-7 years at 37 °C. The remarkably high kinetic stability of these phaseolin proteins is consistent with the low digestibility of common beans and lima bean, as well as their relatively high germination temperatures. From a practical perspective, this work exemplifies that S-TraP is a useful and cost-effective method for quantifying the kinetic stability of proteins in biological extracts or lysates. Depending on the protein to be studied and its abundance, S-TraP may be performed directly on the extract without need for protein purification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Separation, Identification, and Bioactivities of the Main Gallotannins of Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata) Coats.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ren-You; Kong, Kin-Weng; Li, Hua-Bin; Wu, Kao; Ge, Ying-Ying; Chan, Chak-Lun; Shi, Xian-Ming; Corke, Harold

    2018-01-01

    The red sword bean ( Canavalia gladiata ) is an underutilized edible bean cultivated in China. It was previously found to have the highest content of antioxidant polyphenols among 42 edible beans, mainly gallic acid, and gallotannins in its red bean coat, an apparently unique characteristic among edible beans. In this study, the main phenolic compounds in red sword bean coats were further separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities and antibacterial activity (diameter of inhibition zone, DIZ) of main gallotannin-rich fractions were tested. Our results showed that gallotannins of red sword bean coats were mainly comprised of monogalloyl to hexagalloyl hexosides. Interestingly, tetragalloyl, pentagalloyl, and hexagalloyl hexosides were identified as the possible candidates responsible for the red color of the coats. On the other hand, gallotannin-rich fractions exhibited diverse antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and tetragalloyl hexoside overall had the highest free radical scavenging and antibacterial activities. The degree of galloylation did not completely explain the structure-function relationship of gallotannins isolated from red sword bean coats, as there should exist other factors affecting their bioactivities. In conclusion, red sword bean coats are excellent natural sources of gallotannins, and their gallotannin-rich extracts can be utilized as natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents with potential health benefits as well as application in food industry.

  6. Separation, Identification, and Bioactivities of the Main Gallotannins of Red Sword Bean (Canavalia gladiata) Coats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Ren-You; Kong, Kin-Weng; Li, Hua-Bin; Wu, Kao; Ge, Ying-Ying; Chan, Chak-Lun; Shi, Xian-Ming; Corke, Harold

    2018-02-01

    The red sword bean (Canavalia gladiata) is an underutilized edible bean cultivated in China. It was previously found to have the highest content of antioxidant polyphenols among 42 edible beans, mainly gallic acid and gallotannins in its red bean coat, an apparently unique characteristic among edible beans. In this study, the main phenolic compounds in red sword bean coats were further separated by Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and identified by LC-MS/MS. Furthermore, the FRAP and ABTS antioxidant activities and antibacterial activity (diameter of inhibition zone, DIZ) of main gallotannin-rich fractions were tested. Our results showed that gallotannins of red sword bean coats were mainly comprised of nonogalloyl to hexagalloyl hexosides. Interestingly, tetragalloyl, pentagalloyl, and hexagalloyl hexosides were identified as the main candidates responsible for the red color of the coats. On the other hand, gallotannin-rich fractions exhibited diverse antioxidant and antibacterial activities, and tetragalloyl hexoside overall had the highest free radical scavenging and antibacterial activities. The degree of galloylation did not completely explain the structure-function relationship of gallotannins isolated from red sword bean coats, as there should exist other factors affecting their bioactivities. In conclusion, red sword bean coats are excellent natural sources of gallotannins, and their gallotannin-rich extracts can be utilized as natural antioxidant and antibacterial agents with potential health benefits as well as application in food industry.

  7. Feeding differently processed soya bean. Part 2. An assessment of haematological responses in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Aletor, V A; Egberongbe, O

    1992-01-01

    The use of differently processed soya bean as a major source of dietary protein was evaluated in a haematological study using broiler chickens in which groundnut cake (GNC), raw soya bean (RSB), roasted soya bean (RtSB), cooked soya bean (CSB) and soya bean oil cake (SBC) were fed on equi-protein basis. The results showed that: 1. Red blood cell (RBC) count and haemoglobin content of blood significantly (P less than 0.05) increased in chicks fed RSB relative to the other soya bean diets. Feeding differently processed soya bean significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced mean cell haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) while the mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) was not significantly influenced. 2. Both the total white blood cell (WBC) count and the monocytes were significantly (P less than 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Chicks fed processed soya bean generally had higher number of monocytes. 3. Physical properties determined were specific gravity and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The latter was significantly (P less than 0.05) lower in all the processed soya bean-fed chicks. 4. Minerals determined in blood were Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu and P. Of all these, chicks fed RSB had significantly (P less than 0.01) lower levels of blood Mg and marked decrease in Ca.

  8. The fate of phosphorus fertilizer in Amazon soya bean fields

    PubMed Central

    Riskin, Shelby H.; Porder, Stephen; Neill, Christopher; Figueira, Adelaine Michela e Silva; Tubbesing, Carmen; Mahowald, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Fertilizer-intensive soya bean agriculture has recently expanded in southeastern Amazonia, and whereas intensive fertilizer use in the temperate zone has led to widespread eutrophication of freshwater ecosystems, the effects in tropical systems are less well understood. We examined the fate of fertilizer phosphorus (P) by comparing P forms and budgets across a chronosequence of soya bean fields (converted to soya beans between 2003 and 2008) and forests on an 800 km2 soya bean farm in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Soya bean fields were fertilized with 50 kg P ha−1 yr−1 (30 kg P ha−1 yr−1 above what is removed in crops). We used modified Hedley fractionation to quantify soil P pools and found increases in less-plant-available inorganic pools and decreases in organic pools in agricultural soils compared with forest. Fertilizer P did not move below 20 cm. Measurements of P sorption capacity suggest that while fertilizer inputs quench close to half of the sorption capacity of fast-reacting pools, most added P is bound in more slowly reacting pools. Our data suggest that this agricultural system currently has a low risk of P losses to waterways and that long time-scales are required to reach critical soil thresholds that would allow continued high yields with reduced fertilizer inputs. PMID:23610165

  9. Oviposition in Delia platura (Diptera, Anthomyiidae): the role of volatile and contact cues of bean.

    PubMed

    Gouinguené, Sandrine P; Städler, Erich

    2006-07-01

    The choice of a suitable oviposition site by female insects is essential for survival of their progeny. Both olfactory and contact cues of the oviposition site may mediate this choice. The polyphagous Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), a severe agricultural pest of numerous crops, lays eggs in the soil close to germinating seeds. Maggots feed upon the cotyledons. Only little is known about the cues guiding oviposition behavior. In this study, the effects of both olfactory and contact cues of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) on oviposition of D. platura females were tested. Egg deposition on germinated beans was preferred to egg deposition on ungerminated beans or on beans in different postgerminating developmental stages. Olfactory cues of germinating beans alone stimulated female flies to lay eggs. Additional contact cues of germinating beans seemed to enhance the response, but the difference was not significant. Surface extracts of germinating beans sprayed on surrogate beans showed that both polar and nonpolar substances stimulated oviposition of D. platura flies. Gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection recordings of head space samples of germinating beans showed positive response of females to different compounds. We conclude that olfaction plays a major role when D. platura females are searching for oviposition sites. Volatile compounds released from germinating beans such as 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone, 1-hepten-3-one, 1-octen-3-ol, and 3-octanone should be considered as key compounds that mediate oviposition behavior. The use of different sensory modalities by closely related species of Delia is discussed.

  10. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Ulloa, José Armando; Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-03-01

    Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas a w and L* , a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, -0.28 and -1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1-9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R 2 >0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food.

  11. Implications of mitotic and meiotic irregularities in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Lima, D C; Braz, G T; Dos Reis, G B; Techio, V H; Davide, L C; de F B Abreu, A

    2016-05-23

    The common bean has great social and economic importance in Brazil and is the subject of a high number of publications, especially in the fields of genetics and breeding. Breeding programs aim to increase grain yield; however, mitosis and meiosis represent under explored research areas that have a direct impact on grain yield. Therefore, the study of cell division could be another tool available to bean geneticists and breeders. The aim of this study was to investigate irregularities occurring during the cell cycle and meiosis in common bean. The common bean cultivar used was BRSMG Talismã, which owing to its high yield and grain quality is recommended for cultivation in Brazil. We classified the interphase nuclei, estimated the mitotic and meiotic index, grain pollen viability, and percentage of abnormalities in both processes. The mitotic index was 4.1%, the interphase nucleus was non-reticulated, and 19% of dividing somatic cells showed abnormal behavior. Meiosis also presented irregularities resulting in a meiotic index of 44.6%. Viability of pollen grains was 94.3%. These results indicate that the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã possesses repair mechanisms that compensate for changes by producing a large number of pollen grains. Another important strategy adopted by bean plants to ensure stability is the elimination of abnormal cells by apoptosis. As the common bean cultivar BRSMG Talismã is recommended for cultivation because of its good agronomic performance, it can be concluded that mitotic and meiotic irregularities have no negative influence on its grain quality and yield.

  12. Structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean (Vicia faba L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujiao; Wu, Xuexia; Hou, Wanwei; Li, Ping; Sha, Weichao; Tian, Yingying

    2017-05-01

    The protein subunit is the most important basic unit of protein, and its study can unravel the structure and function of seed storage proteins in faba bean. In this study, we identified six specific protein subunits in Faba bean (cv. Qinghai 13) combining liquid chromatography (LC), liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization mass (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and bio-information technology. The results suggested a diversity of seed storage proteins in faba bean, and a total of 16 proteins (four GroEL molecular chaperones and 12 plant-specific proteins) were identified from 97-, 96-, 64-, 47-, 42-, and 38-kD-specific protein subunits in faba bean based on the peptide sequence. We also analyzed the composition and abundance of the amino acids, the physicochemical characteristics, secondary structure, three-dimensional structure, transmembrane domain, and possible subcellular localization of these identified proteins in faba bean seed, and finally predicted function and structure. The three-dimensional structures were generated based on homologous modeling, and the protein function was analyzed based on the annotation from the non-redundant protein database (NR database, NCBI) and function analysis of optimal modeling. The objective of this study was to identify the seed storage proteins in faba bean and confirm the structure and function of these proteins. Our results can be useful for the study of protein nutrition and achieve breeding goals for optimal protein quality in faba bean.

  13. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp)

    PubMed Central

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T.; Hand, Melanie L.; Johnson, Susan D.; Taylor, Jennifer M.; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads. PMID:29528046

  14. Assembled genomic and tissue-specific transcriptomic data resources for two genetically distinct lines of Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp).

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Andrew; Henderson, Steven T; Hand, Melanie L; Johnson, Susan D; Taylor, Jennifer M; Koltunow, Anna

    2018-02-09

    Cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume crop for food security in areas of low-input and smallholder farming throughout Africa and Asia. Genetic improvements are required to increase yield and resilience to biotic and abiotic stress and to enhance cowpea crop performance. An integrated cowpea genomic and gene expression data resource has the potential to greatly accelerate breeding and the delivery of novel genetic traits for cowpea. Extensive genomic resources for cowpea have been absent from the public domain; however, a recent early release reference genome for IT97K-499-35 ( Vigna unguiculata  v1.0, NSF, UCR, USAID, DOE-JGI, http://phytozome.jgi.doe.gov/) has now been established in a collaboration between the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) and University California (UC) Riverside. Here we release supporting genomic and transcriptomic data for IT97K-499-35 and a second transformable cowpea variety, IT86D-1010. The transcriptome resource includes six tissue-specific datasets for each variety, with particular emphasis on reproductive tissues that extend and support the V. unguiculata v1.0 reference. Annotations have been included in our resource to allow direct mapping to the v1.0 cowpea reference. Access to this resource provided here is supported by raw and assembled data downloads.

  15. The preparation of soy-bean foods for use in rural communities of the developing world.

    PubMed

    Kay, T

    1998-08-01

    Since the beginning of 1970, there has been a great breakthrough in the popularization of soy-bean-based food in Nigeria and in many parts of the developing world, especially for use in the prevention of kwashiorkor. Since 1975, soy bean has become a main source of daily dietary protein in many parts of Nigeria as a result of the successful incorporation of soy-bean products into almost all traditional Nigerian foods. This is a review of previous work in Nigeria on eliminating the beany flavour, bitter taste, and flatus factors in soy-bean milk and cooked soy-bean paste preparations.

  16. Preliminary results of simulation of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays in ground-based experiments on plant objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belisheva, Natalia; Petrashova, Dina; Shchegolev, Boris

    The most dangerous for the astronauts and cosmonauts are the cosmic rays and drastic decrease of the tension of geomagnetic field (GMF) on the Earth orbit and in the open space. The tension in the interplanetary magnetic field is 10 nT, whereas the tension of GMF is 10 (4) nT on the Earth surface. We carried out the preliminary experiments for study the effects of hypo magnetic conditions and variations in energetic range of cosmic rays (CR) on the plant objects (Vigna radiata, Phaseolus vulgaris, Allium cepa and A. fistulosum, Cucumis sativis). GMF was weakened by using special shielding chamber made on the basis of the amorphous alloy magnetic material. The camera is able to weaken the GMF from 48 μT till 0.192 μT. Modulation of the energetic range of the neutron component of secondary CR was performed with using of the shielding by graphite and by paraffin. The influence of hypo magnetic field and the neutron intensity were studied on the germination of seeds, the growth, the length and the side branches of the roots in the experimental samples. We found that the sensitivity to the hypo magnetic field and to the variations in energetic range of neutrons can vary from object to object. For instance, exposure of the hypo magnetic field on black bean and mung bean stimulated the growth of the roots while do not affect on the white bean. Likewise sensitivity of Phaseolus vulgaris (black and white bean) and Vigna radiata (mung bean) to exposure of nucleon component of cosmic rays on the Earth's surface are differed. It was found that modification of energetic range of CR by using graphite shielding leads to a change in sign of correlation between the length of roots in all experimental samples and the nucleon component of CR compared with the control samples. This is evidence that physiology of biological objects significantly are modified in hypo magnetic environment, as well as under exposure of the CR in different energetic ranges during the space flights. Our

  17. [Comparison of green coffee beans volatiles chemical composition of Hainan main area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Suo; Chu, Zhong; Gu, Feng-Lin; Lu, Min-Quan; Lu, Shao-Fang; Wu, Gui-Ping; Tan, Le-He

    2013-02-01

    Chemical component of Hainan green coffee beans was analyzed with solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the discrepancy between two green coffee beans was differentiated through the spectrum database retrieval and retention index of compound characterization. The experimental results show that: the chemical composition of Wanning coffee beans and Chengmai coffee beans is basically the same. The quantity of analyzed compound in Wanning area coffee is 91, and in Chengmai area coffee is 106, the quantity of the same compound is 66, and the percent of the same component is 75.52%. The same compounds accounted for 89.86% of the total content of Wanning area coffee, and accounted for 85.70% of the total content of Chengmai area coffee.

  18. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  19. A modified laboratory canning protocol for quality evaluation of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L).

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Parthiba; Slinkard, Alfred; Tyler, Robert; Vandenberg, Albert

    2000-05-01

    The effects of calcium (Ca 2+ ) level in the soak water, blanch water and brine, blanching temperature, and total seed solids on dry bean canning quality were investigated to optimise a laboratory canning protocol. A linear increase in the Ca 2+ level of soak water, blanch water and brine resulted in a linear decrease in hydration coefficient and percent washed drained weight but a linear increase in texture. Low Ca 2+ level (10 mg kg -1 ) reduced the hydration time for dry bean seed from 14 to 1 h. Blanching temperatures of 50, 70 and 88 °C had non-significant effects on canning quality traits. Blanching for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean or at 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean resulted in percent washed drained weight ≥ 60, as required by the Canada Agricultural Products Standards Act. Seed solids levels of 95-97 g per 300 × 407 (14 fl oz) can were sufficient to attain a percent washed drained weight of 60. It was confirmed that the thermal processing conditions (115.6 °C retort temperature, 45 min) used in this study were sufficient to achieve commercial sterility. The optimised lab protocol for evaluation of the canning quality of dry bean breeding lines is as follows. Seed containing 95 g of solids for pinto bean, 96 g for navy bean and 97 g for black bean is soaked in water for 30 min at 20 °C and blanched for 30 min at 70 °C for black bean and 88 °C for navy bean and pinto bean in water containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ . The seed is then transferred to a 300 × 407 can, filled with brine containing 10 mg kg -1 of Ca 2+ , 1.3% (w/v) of NaCl and 1.6% (w/v) of sugar. The can is then sealed, processed in steam at 115.6 °C for 45 min and cooled at 20 °C for 20 min. Cans are stored for at least 2 weeks prior to quality evaluation of the canned product. Canning of dry bean seed according to this protocol results in precise estimation of canning quality traits, particularly percent

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two subpackages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  1. Mapping the non-darkening trait from 'Wit-rood boontje' in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Erfatpour, M; Navabi, A; Pauls, K P

    2018-06-01

    A QTL for non-darkening seed coat from 'Wit-rood boontje' was mapped in pinto bean population on chromosome Pv10, comprising 40 candidate genes. The seed coat colour darkens with age in some market classes of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), including pinto bean. Beans with darkened seed coats are discounted in the market place, since they are believed to be associated with lower nutritional quality, increased cooking time, and decreased palatability. The objective of this research was to map a non-darkening gene from a cranberry-like bean 'Wit-rood boontje' using a recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between 'Wit-rood boontje' and a slow-darkening pinto bean (1533-15). The population was characterized for seed phenotype and genotyped with an Illumina BeadChip. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 1327 informative SNP markers plus an STS marker (OL4S 500 ) and an SSR marker (Pvsd-0028), previously associated with the J gene and Sd gene, respectively, as well as non-darkening and slow-darkening phenotypes. The linkage map spanned 1253.2 cM over 11 chromosomes. A major QTL for the non-darkening trait was flanked by SNP 715646341 and SNP 715646348 on chromosome Pv10. The region, which spanned 13.2 cM, explained 48% of the phenotypic variation for seed coat darkening. Forty candidate genes were identified in the QTL interval. This information can be used to develop a gene-based marker to facilitate breeding non-darkening pinto beans and may lead to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism for the postharvest darkening phenomenon in pinto bean.

  2. Antihypercholesterolaemic influence of dietary tender cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) in cholesterol fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Pande, S.; Platel, K.; Srinivasan, K.

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Cluster beans (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba) are rich source of soluble fibre content and are known for their cholesterol lowering effect. The beneficial anti-hypercholesterolaemic effect of whole dietary cluster beans as a source of dietary fibre was evaluated in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia in experimental rats. Methods: Male Wistar rats (90-95 g) divided in six groups of 10 rats each were used. Freeze dried tender cluster beans were included at 12.5 and 25 per cent levels in the diet of animals maintained for 8 wk either on high (0.5%) cholesterol diet or basal control diet. Results: Significant anti-hypercholesterolaemic effect was seen in cluster bean fed animals, the decrease in serum cholesterol being particularly in the LDL associated fraction. There was also a beneficial increase in HDL associated cholesterol fraction. Hepatic lipid profile showed a significant decrease in both cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of feeding tender cluster beans along with high cholesterol diet. Interpretation & Conclusions: The present experimental results showed the beneficial hypocholesterolaemic and hypolipidimic influences dietary tender cluster beans in atherogenic situation. Studies in human need to be done to confirm the results. PMID:22561629

  3. [Role of black bean Phaseolus vulgaris on the nutritional status of Guatemalan population].

    PubMed

    Serrano, José; Goñi, Isabel

    2004-03-01

    Guatemala provides an example of epidemiological superposition, in which health problems typical of developed countries and developing countries are both observed. Nutritional deficiencies in some micronutrients like vitamin A and iron coexist alongside chronic diseases such as diabetes type II and cardiovascular diseases. The importance of black beans in the normal Guatemala diet is well known:70g per capita of black beans are consumed daily. Black beans are an important sources of protein and energy in the diet. They contain "lente" digestion carbohydrates and a high proportion of non-digested carbohydrates that may be fermented in the large intestine. Theses types of carbohydrates are associated with a low glycemic response, low serum cholesterol levels, and a decrease of colon cancer risk factors. These physiological effects may be related to colonic fermentation end products (propionic and butyric acids). Black beans also contain several antinutritional compounds (enzymatic inhibitors, haemaglutenins, saponins and phytic acid, etc.), some of them thermolabiles that are partially eliminated during culinary processes and may modify the nutritional quality of beans. Black beans play a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases in Guatemala.

  4. Apollo 12 Mission image - Alan Bean unloads ALSEP RTG fuel element

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6790 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, is photographed at quadrant II of the Lunar Module (LM) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. This picture was taken by astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander. Here, Bean is using a fuel transfer tool to remove the fuel element from the fuel cask mounted on the LM's descent stage. The fuel element was then placed in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), the power source for the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which was deployed on the moon by the two astronauts. The RTG is next to Bean's right leg. While astronauts Conrad and Bean descended in the LM "Intrepid" to explore the Ocean of Storms region of the moon, astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) "Yankee Clipper" in lunar orbit.

  5. Cooking processes increase bioactive compounds in organic and conventional green beans.

    PubMed

    Lima, Giuseppina Pace Pereira; Costa, Sergio Marques; Monaco, Kamila de Almeida; Uliana, Maira Rodrigues; Fernandez, Roberto Morato; Correa, Camila Renata; Vianello, Fabio; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; Minatel, Igor Otavio

    2017-12-01

    The influence of cooking methods on chlorophyl, carotenoids, polyamines, polyphenols contents and antioxidant capacity were analyzed in organic and conventional green beans. The initial raw material had a higher content of chlorophyl and total phenolics in conventional green beans, whereas organic cultive favored flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Polyamines and carotenoids were similar for the two crop systems. After the cooking process, carotenoids (β-carotene, lutein and zeaxanthin) increased. Microwave heating favored the enhancement of some polar compounds, whereas pressure cooking favored carotenoids. When we used the estimation of the radical scavenging activity by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, a reduction of the DPPH radical signal in the presence of green bean extracts was observed, regardless of the mode of cultivation. The highest reduction of the ESR signal ocurred for microwave cooking in organic and conventional green beans, indicating a higher availability of antioxidants with this type of heat treatment.

  6. Alan Bean Art Exhibit

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-07-19

    Former NASA Astronaut and U.S. Senator John Glenn is seen at the opening of the exhibit "Alan Bean: Painting Apollo, First Artist on Another World" at the National Air and Space Museum, Monday, July 20, 2009 in Washington. The show opening coincided with the 40th anniversary celebration of Apollo. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  7. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning in ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jensen, Wayne I.; Allen, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Castor bean (Ricinus communis) poisoning accounted for the death of several thousand ducks in the Texas panhandle in the fall and winter months of 1969-1971.Signs of intoxication resembled those of botulism, except for mucoid, blood-tinged excreta. The most common lesions were severe fatty change in the liver, widely distributed internal petechial hemorrhages or ecchymoses, and catarrhal enteritis.Nearly intact castor beans were found in the stomach of one duck during field necropsy. Fragments of seed coat resembling castor bean were found in the stomachs of 10 of 14 ducks examined in the laboratory.Clinical signs and postmortem lesions observed in wild ducks were induced experimentally in mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) by force-feeding intact castor beans. Toxicity titrations were erratic, but the LD50 appeared to be between three and four seeds.The mouse toxicity test, used to detect Clostridium botulinum toxin in the blood serum of intoxicated ducks, was negative in every case. Hemagglutination and precipitin tests generally failed to detect castor bean in extracts of excreta or intestinal contents of experimentally intoxicated ducks.

  8. Consumer acceptability of gluten-free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours.

    PubMed

    Simons, Courtney Wayne; Hall, Clifford

    2018-01-01

    Beany and grassy flavors in raw edible bean flours reduce consumer acceptability of bean-based baked products. In order to improve consumer acceptability, beans may be further processed by cooking and germination. However, these operations drive up the cost of end-products. Therefore, it is necessary to develop formulations, using raw edible bean flours that have acceptable sensory attributes. In this study, cooked, germinated, and germinated/steam-blanched (GSB) pinto bean flours were used to make gluten-free cookies, and their sensory characteristics evaluated to determine how their consumer acceptability scores compared. Taste panelists (31) graded cookies made from raw pinto beans with an overall value of 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale ( p  < .05). This rating was not significantly different from cookies formulated with germinated and GSB flours. Therefore, gluten-free cookies can be made using raw pinto bean flours at a 40% inclusion level, with similar sensory characteristics as those prepared with flours treated by cooking and germination. Instrumental measurement of cookie hardness and color showed no significant difference in hardness, but significant differences in color. The germinated bean flour produced cookies with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a*, b*, Chroma and hue values compared to the other treatments. There was no significant difference in the cookie spread ratio. Proximate composition, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and gelatinization properties of the flour treatments were characterized.

  9. Cookies elaborated with oat and common bean flours improved serum markers in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramírez, Iza F; Becerril-Ocampo, Laura J; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Herrera, Mayra D; Guzmán-Maldonado, S Horacio; Cruz-Bravo, Raquel K

    2018-02-01

    Common beans have been associated with anti-diabetic effects, due to its high content of bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, its consumption has decreased worldwide. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in the development of novel functional foods elaborated with common beans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic effect of oat-bean flour cookies, and to analyze its bioactive composition, using commercial oat-wheat cookies for comparative purposes. Oat-bean cookies (1.2 g kg -1 ) slightly decreased serum glucose levels (∼1.1-fold) and increased insulin levels (∼1.2-fold) in diabetic rats, reducing the hyperglycemic peak in healthy rats (∼1.1-fold). Oat-bean cookies (0.8 and 1.2 g kg -1 ) exerted a greater hypolipidemic effect than commercial oat-wheat cookies (1.2 g kg -1 ), as observed in decreased serum triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Furthermore, the supplementation with 1.2 g kg -1 oat-bean cookies decreased atherogenic index and serum C-reactive protein levels, suggesting their cardioprotective potential. The beneficial effect of oat-bean cookies was associated with their high content of dietary fiber and galacto oligosaccharides, as well as chlorogenic acid, rutin, protocatechuic acid, β-sitosterol and soyasaponins. These results suggest that common beans can be used as functional ingredients for the elaboration of cookies with anti-diabetic effects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-27

    SL3-107-1215 (27 Aug. 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. One of his fellow crewmen took this photograph with a 35mm Nikon camera. Bean is strapped into the back mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). The dome area is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom. Photo credit: NASA

  11. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-18

    SL3-108-1304 (July-September 1973) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the forward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). This ASMU experiment is being done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom. Photo credit: NASA

  12. Protection against common bean rust conferred by a gene silencing method

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rust disease of the dry bean plant, Phaseolus vulgaris, is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus. The fungus acquires its nutrients and energy from bean leaves using a specialized cell structure, the haustorium, through which it secretes effector proteins that contribute to pathogenicity by ...

  13. Chemical, Physicochemical, Nutritional, Microbiological, Sensory and Rehydration Characteristics of Instant Whole Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Zavala, Silvia Jazmin; Ramírez-Salas, Silvia Patricia; Rosas-Ulloa, Petra; Ramírez-Ramírez, José Carmen; Ulloa-Rangel, Blanca Estela

    2015-01-01

    Summary Instant whole beans obtained by drying at 25 °C were evaluated for their chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics. The proximal composition of instant whole beans was typical of this kind of food, whereas aw and L*, a* and b* values were 0.639, 98.55, –0.28 and –1.52, respectively. In instant whole beans, 75% of the essential amino acids had a value greater or equal to the reference standard for adult humans; the protein quality in terms of chemical score was 95%. Microbiological counts of aerobic mesophilic bacteria, moulds, yeasts and total coliforms of rehydrated instant whole beans were <10 CFU/g, whereas the scores for colour, flavour, texture and overall acceptability were 7.22, 7.68, 7.24 and 7.34, respectively, on a 1–9 hedonic scale. The logarithmic and Pilosof models showed close fits (R2>0.99) to the experimental data for drying of cooked beans and rehydration of instant whole beans, respectively. In the light of the chemical, physicochemical, nutritional, microbiological, sensory and rehydration characteristics of instant whole beans found in this study, drying at 25 °C is recommended for the production of such food. PMID:27904331

  14. POP levels in beans from Mediterranean and tropical areas.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Giuseppa; Haddaoui, Imen; Lo Turco, Vincenzo; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Fede, Maria Rita; Dugo, Giacomo

    2017-06-01

    Despite the importance of beans as food, few studies are conducted to control their contamination by persistent organic pollutants (POPs), compounds of great importance because of their toxicity and tendency to accumulate in food chains. In order to evaluate the human exposure to POPs by the consumption of beans a monitoring programme was conducted on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) residues in samples coming from Italy, Mexico, India, Japan, Ghana and Ivory Coast. All beans were extracted with an accelerated solvents extractor in triplicate; the clean-up step was done with a Florisil column; identification and quantification was carried out using a TSQ Quantum XLS Ultra GC-MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring mode. Results revealed concentrations of ∑PAHs ranged from 7.31 µg kg -1 to 686 µg kg -1 , ∑PCBs between 1.85 µg kg -1 and 43.1 µg kg -1 and ∑OCPs ranged from 1.37 µg kg -1 to 71.8 µg kg -1 . Our results showed that beans coming from Ivory Coast are the most exposed to the risk of contamination by all the pollutants investigated. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Reduction of viral load in whitefly (Bemisia tabaci Gen.) feeding on RNAi-mediated bean golden mosaic virus resistant transgenic bean plants.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Nayhanne T; de Faria, Josias C; Aragão, Francisco J L

    2015-12-02

    The RNAi concept was explored to silence the rep gene from the bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) and a genetically modified (GM) bean immune to the virus was previously generated. We investigated if BGMV-viruliferous whiteflies would reduce viral amount after feeding on GM plants. BGMV DNA amount was significantly reduced in whiteflies feeding in GM-plants (compared with insects feeding on non-GM plants) for a period of 4 and 8 days in 52% and 84% respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Origin-based polyphenolic fingerprinting of Theobroma cacao in unfermented and fermented beans.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Roy N; Grimbs, Sergio; Behrends, Britta; Bernaert, Herwig; Ullrich, Matthias S; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2017-09-01

    A comprehensive analysis of cocoa polyphenols from unfermented and fermented cocoa beans from a wide range of geographic origins was carried out to catalogue systematic differences based on their origin as well as fermentation status. This study identifies previously unknown compounds with the goal to ascertain, which of these are responsible for the largest differences between bean types. UHPLC coupled with ultra-high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry was employed to identify and relatively quantify various oligomeric proanthocyanidins and their glycosides amongst several other unreported compounds. A series of biomarkers allowing a clear distinction between unfermented and fermented cocoa beans and for beans of different origins were identified. The large sample set employed allowed comparison of statistically significant variations of key cocoa constituents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Advances in tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) genetics and breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tepary bean is a drought and heat-tolerant sister species of common bean with similar nutritional characteristics and with potential for expanded production in agroecological zones that are marginal due to abiotic stress. A key to expanded production of this orphan crop is the improvement of biotic ...

  18. Natural occurrence of alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether in soya beans.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, M S; Barros, G G; Chulze, S N; Ramirez, M L

    2012-08-01

    The natural occurrence of alternariol (AOH) and alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) in soya beans harvested in Argentina was evaluated. Both toxins were simultaneously detected by using HPLC analysis coupled with a solid phase extraction column clean-up. Characteristics of this in-house method such as accuracy, precision and detection and quantification limits were defined by means of recovery test with spiked soya bean samples. Out of 50 soya bean samples, 60% showed contamination with the mycotoxins analyzed; among them, 16% were only contaminated with AOH and 14% just with AME. Fifteen of the positive samples showed co-occurrence of both mycotoxins analyzed. AOH was detected in concentrations ranging from 25 to 211 ng/g, whereas AME was found in concentrations ranging from 62 to 1,153 ng/g. Although a limited number of samples were evaluated, this is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria toxins in soya beans and is relevant from the point of view of animal public health.

  19. Developing a prebiotic yogurt enriched by red bean powder: Microbiological, physi-cochemical and sensory aspect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyoningrum, Fitri; Priadi, Gunawan; Afiati, Fifi

    2017-01-01

    Red bean is widely known as a prebiotic, but addition of it into yogurt is rare. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red bean powder addition on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory of yogurt. Skim milk also added into yogurt formula to optimize the quality of yogurt. The treatment of concentrations, either red bean and skim milk, did not effect on the viability of lactic acid bacteria of yogurt (8.35 - 9.03 log cfu/ml) and the crude fiber content (0.04 - 0.08%). The increasing of red bean concentration induced the increase of protein content significantly. The increasing of level concentration, either red bean or skim milk, induced the increasing of carbohydrate content. Opposite phenomenon was occurred on the moisture content. Based on the sensory test result, the addition of 3% of skim milk and 2%of red bean into yogurt still accepted by panelist.

  20. Astronaut Alan Bean flies the Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, flies the M509 Astronaut Maneuvering Equipment in the foreward dome area of the Orbital Workshop (OWS) on the space station cluster in Earth orbit. Bean is strapped in to the back-mounted, hand-controlled Automatically Stabilized Maneuvering Unit (ASMU). He is wearing a pressure suit for this run of the M509 experiment, but other ASMU tests are done in shirt sleeves. The dome area where the experiment is conducted is about 22 feet in diameter and 19 feet from top to bottom.

  1. Intake of bean fiber, beans, and grains and reduced risk of hormone receptor-negative breast cancer: the San Francisco Bay Area Breast Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Sangaramoorthy, Meera; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M

    2018-05-01

    High dietary fiber intake has been associated with reduced breast cancer risk, but few studies considered tumor subtypes defined by estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) status or included racial/ethnic minority populations who vary in their fiber intake. We analyzed food frequency data from a population-based case-control study, including 2135 breast cancer cases (1070 Hispanics, 493 African Americans, and 572 non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs)) and 2571 controls (1391 Hispanics, 557 African Americans, and 623 NHWs). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer associated with fiber intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Breast cancer risk associated with high intake (high vs. low quartile) of bean fiber (p-trend = 0.01), total beans (p-trend = 0.03), or total grains (p-trend = 0.05) was reduced by 20%. Inverse associations were strongest for ER-PR- breast cancer, with risk reductions associated with high intake ranging from 28 to 36%. For bean fiber, risk was reduced among foreign-born Hispanics only, who had the highest fiber intake, whereas for grain intake, inverse associations were found among NHWs only. There was no evidence of association with fiber intake from vegetables and fruits or total intake of vegetables and fruits. A high dietary intake of bean fiber and fiber-rich foods such as beans and grains may lower the risk of ER-PR- breast cancer, an aggressive breast cancer subtype for which few risk factors have been identified. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Classifying Physical Morphology of Cocoa Beans Digital Images using Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawi, Armin; Adhitya, Yudhi

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this research is to determine the quality of cocoa beans through morphology of their digital images. Samples of cocoa beans were scattered on a bright white paper under a controlled lighting condition. A compact digital camera was used to capture the images. The images were then processed to extract their morphological parameters. Classification process begins with an analysis of cocoa beans image based on morphological feature extraction. Parameters for extraction of morphological or physical feature parameters, i.e., Area, Perimeter, Major Axis Length, Minor Axis Length, Aspect Ratio, Circularity, Roundness, Ferret Diameter. The cocoa beans are classified into 4 groups, i.e.: Normal Beans, Broken Beans, Fractured Beans, and Skin Damaged Beans. The model of classification used in this paper is the Multiclass Ensemble Least-Squares Support Vector Machine (MELS-SVM), a proposed improvement model of SVM using ensemble method in which the separate hyperplanes are obtained by least square approach and the multiclass procedure uses One-Against- All method. The result of our proposed model showed that the classification with morphological feature input parameters were accurately as 99.705% for the four classes, respectively.

  3. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    PubMed

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  4. Reduction of antiproliferative capacities, cell-based antioxidant capacities and phytochemical contents of common beans and soybeans upon thermal processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2011-12-01

    The effects of boiling and steaming processes on the antiproliferative and cellular antioxidant properties, as well as phytochemicals, of two types of common beans (pinto and black beans) and two types of soybeans (yellow and black) were investigated. All thermal-processing methods caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in total phenolic content (TPC), total saponin content (TSC) and phytic acid content (PAC) values in all bean types (except for TPC values in pressure-steamed yellow soybeans) as compared to those of the raw beans. All types of uncooked raw beans exhibited cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in dose-dependent manners. Black soybeans exhibited the greatest CAA, followed by black beans, pinto beans and yellow soybeans. The CAA of cooked beans were generally diminished or eliminated by thermal processing. The hydrophilic extracts from raw pinto beans, black beans and black soybeans exhibited antiproliferation capacities against human gastric (AGS) and colorectal (SW480) cancer cells in dose-dependent manners. The raw yellow soybeans exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferation activities against the SW480 cells. Most of the cooked beans lost their antiproliferation capacities as observed in the raw beans. These results indicate that different processing methods may have various effects on phytochemical profiles and bioactivities. Overall, thermal processing caused a significant reduction of the health-promotion effects of beans. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Bean model in suprconductivity: Variational formulation and numerical solution

    SciTech Connect

    Prigozhin, L.

    The Bean critical-state model describes the penetration of magnetic field into type-II superconductors. Mathematically, this is a free boundary problem and its solution is of interest in applied superconductivity. We derive a variational formulation for the Bean model and use it to solve two-dimensional and axially symmetric critical-state problems numerically. 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean with subpackages of the ALSEP during EVA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6807 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot, traverses with the two sub packages of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA). Bean deployed the ALSEP components 300 feet from the Lunar Module (LM). The LM and deployed erectable S-band antenna can be seen in the background.

  7. Hypersensitivity linked to exposure of broad bean protein(s) in allergic patients and BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, Sandeep; Verma, Alok K; Sharma, Akanksha; Tripathi, Anurag; Chaudhari, Bhushan P; Kant, Surya; Das, Mukul; Jain, Swatantra K; Dwivedi, Premendra D

    2014-01-01

    Broad bean (Vicia faba L.), a common vegetable, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is consumed worldwide. Limited studies have been done on allergenicity of broad beans. The aim of this study was to determine if broad bean proteins have the ability to elicit allergic responses due to the presence of clinically relevant allergenic proteins. Simulated gastric fluid (SGF) assay and immunoglobulin E (IgE) immunoblotting were carried out to identify pepsin-resistant and IgE-binding proteins. The allergenicity of broad beans was assessed in allergic patients, BALB/c mice, splenocytes, and RBL-2H3 cells. Eight broad bean proteins of approximate molecular weight 70, 60, 48, 32, 23, 19, 15, and 10 kDa that remained undigested in SGF, showed IgE-binding capacity as well. Of 127 allergic patients studied, broad bean allergy was evident in 16 (12%). Mice sensitized with broad bean showed increased levels of histamine, total and specific IgE, and severe signs of systemic anaphylaxis compared with controls. Enhanced levels of histamine, prostaglandin D2, cysteinyl leukotriene, and β-hexosaminidase release were observed in the primed RBL-2H3 cells following broad bean exposure. The levels of interleukin IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted were found enhanced in broad bean-treated splenocytes culture supernatant compared with controls. This study inferred that broad bean proteins have the ability to elicit allergic responses due to the presence of clinically relevant allergenic proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nutritional evaluation of raw and extruded kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. pinto) in chicken diets.

    PubMed

    Arija, I; Centeno, C; Viveros, A; Brenes, A; Marzo, F; Illera, J C; Silvan, G

    2006-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effect of inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200, and 300 g/kg) of raw kidney bean and extruded kidney bean in broiler chick (0 to 21 d of age) diets on performance, digestive organ sizes, protein and amino acid digestibilities, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and blood parameters. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with 3 levels of kidney bean with and without extrusion. Positive control without kidney bean was used. Increasing the kidney bean content in the diet reduced weight gain and consumption, and increased the feed-to-gain ratio. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights, and intestinal viscosity were increased in response to increasing kidney bean concentration in the diet. The inclusion of different concentrations of kidney bean did not affect the apparent ileal digestibility of essential and nonessential amino acids, except for Met, Phe, and Cys, which were increased. Increasing kidney bean in the diet did not affect blood parameters, except for total protein, which was increased, and for androstenedione and testosterone, which were reduced. Extrusion significantly improved weight gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion. Relative pancreas, liver, and jejunum weights were reduced and spleen weight, cecal and intestinal viscosity were increased by extrusion. Apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and all essential and nonessential amino acids were improved by extrusion. Like-wise, extrusion increased significantly the concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, and testosterone. We concluded that the inclusion of kidney bean in chicken diets cause a negative effect on performance and CP and amino acid digestibilities, and modified digestive organ sizes, intestinal viscosity, cecal pH, and some blood parameters. These effects were counteracted by the extrusion of kidney bean. However, the inclusion of extruded kidney bean in a chick diet resulted in poorer

  9. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry bean powders

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study aimed to investigate the impacts of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four bean varieties. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size = 0.5 mm)...

  10. Detection of radiation treatment of beans using DNA comet assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ashfaq A.; Khan, Hasan M.; Delincée, Henry

    2002-03-01

    A simple technique of microgel electrophoresis of single cells (DNA Comet Assay) enabled a quick detection of radiation treatment of several kinds of leguminous beans (azuki, black, black eye, mung, pinto, red kidney and white beans). Each variety was exposed to radiation doses of 0.5, 1 and 5kGy covering the permissible limits for insect disinfestation. The cells or nuclei from beans were extracted in cold PBS, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, lysed between 15 and 60min in 2.5% SDS and electrophoresis was carried out at a voltage of 2V/cm for 2-2.5min. After silver staining, the slides were evaluated through an ordinary transmission microscope. In irradiated samples, fragmented DNA stretched towards the anode and the damaged cells appeared as a comet. The density of DNA in the tails increased with increasing radiation dose. However, in non-irradiated samples, the large molecules of DNA remained relatively intact and there was only minor or no migration of DNA; the cells were round or had very short tails only. Hence, the DNA comet assay provides an inexpensive, rapid and relatively simple screening method for the detection of irradiated beans.

  11. Solar-Terrestrial Effects on Bean Seed Imbibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minorsky, P. V.

    2012-12-01

    Forty years ago, a lively debate ensued amongst biologists concerning the nature of biological rhythms. The "endogenous" school argued that biological rhythms that occur in the absence of any obvious environmental oscillation arise endogenously from within the organism itself. The "exogenous" school on the other hand proposed that subtle and pervasive exogenous factors (e.g., geomagnetic variations or cosmic radiation) underlie most biological rhythms. Much of the debate between the endogenous vs. exogenous schools focused on circadian (circa-24 h) rhythms in particular. The demonstration that circadian rhythms continue in orbiting spacecraft was widely regarded as the final nail in the coffin of the "exogenous" school, and the entire school sank into obscurity. Regrettably, the demise of the "exogenous" school also caused some interesting findings concerning non-circadian rhythms to fall into oblivion as well. Three different research groups, for example, reported that bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds display rhythms in imbibition that have ~7- or ~14-day periodicities. Consistent with the idea of an exogenous synchronizer, these rhythms often occurred synchronously in bean seed populations located 1500 km apart. The present experiment was initiated with the intention of examining whether these ~7 and ~14 d oscillations in imbibition corresponded to oscillations in solar-terrestrial parameters. Three replicates of ~25 g of bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Provider) were weighed daily and placed into beakers containing 200 ml of distilled water at 25° C. This temperature was maintained by nesting the beakers inside larger, temperature-jacketed beakers through which water from a temperature-regulated water bath was circulated. Four hours later the experiments were terminated: the bean seeds were blotted and weighed. Experiments were conducted almost every day between 3 and 7 AM UT from Jan 18, 2007 to Feb 26, 2008. A major difference between the present study and

  12. Natural postharvest aflatoxin occurrence in food legumes in the smallholder farming sector of Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Maringe, David Tinayeshe; Chidewe, Cathrine; Benhura, Mudadi Albert; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Murashiki, Tatenda Clive; Dembedza, Mavis Precious; Siziba, Lucia; Nyanga, Loveness Kuziwa

    2017-03-01

    Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB 1 , AFB 2 , AFG 1 and AFG 2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up. Aflatoxins were detected in 12.5% of groundnut samples with concentrations ranging up to 175.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were present in 4.3% of the cowpea samples with concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 103.4 µg/kg. Due to alarming levels of aflatoxins detected in legumes versus maximum permissible levels, there is a need to assist smallholder farmers to develop harvest control strategies to reduce contamination of aflatoxins in legumes.

  13. Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Prime Crew Lunar Module Pilot of the Apollo 12 Lunar Landing Mission, in his space suit minus the helmet. He is standing outside beside a mock-up of the Lunar Lander.

  14. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of chiral carbon dots and their effects on mung bean plant growth.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mengling; Hu, Lulu; Wang, Huibo; Song, Yuxiang; Liu, Yang; Li, Hao; Shao, Mingwang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2018-06-27

    Chiral compounds/materials have important effects on the growth of plants. Chiral carbon dots (CDs), as an emerging chiral carbon nanomaterial, have great potential in bio-application and bio-nanotechnology. Herein, we report a hydrothermal method to synthesize chiral CDs from cysteine (cys) and citric acid. These chiral CDs were further demonstrated to have systemic effects on the growth of mung bean plants, in which case both l- and d-CDs can promote the growth of the root in mung bean plants, stem length of mung bean sprouts and water absorption of bean seeds. The elongation of mung bean sprouts presented an increasing trend with the treatment of chiral CDs of increasing concentration (below 500 μg mL-1). Furthermore, in the optimal concentration (100 μg mL-1), the l-CDs can improve root vigor and the activity of the Rubisco enzyme of bean sprouts by 8.4% and 20.5%, while the d-CDs increased by 28.9% and 67.5%. Due to more superior properties in improving root vigor and the activity of the Rubisco enzyme of mung bean sprouts, d-CDs are able to enhance photosynthesis better and accumulate more carbohydrate in mung bean plants.

  15. Microwave and micronization treatments affect dehulling characteristics and bioactive contents of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Oomah, B Dave; Kotzeva, Lily; Allen, Meghan; Bassinello, Priscila Zaczuk

    2014-05-01

    Heat pretreatment is considered the first step in grain milling. This study therefore evaluated microwave and micronization heat treatments in improving the dehulling characteristics, phenolic composition and antioxidant and α-amylase activities of bean cultivars from three market classes. Heat treatments improved dehulling characteristics (hull yield, rate coefficient and reduced abrasive hardness index) depending on bean cultivar, whereas treatment effects increased with dehulling time. Micronization increased minor phenolic components (tartaric esters, flavonols and anthocyanins) of all beans but had variable effects on total phenolic content depending on market class. Microwave treatment increased α-amylase inhibitor concentration, activity and potency, which were strongly correlated (r²  = 0.71, P < 0.0001) with the flavonol content of beans. Heat treatment had variable effects on the phenolic composition of bean hulls obtained by abrasive dehulling without significantly altering the antioxidant activity of black and pinto bean hulls. Principal component analysis on 22 constituents analyzed in this study demonstrated the differences in dehulling characteristics and phenolic components of beans and hulls as major factors in segregating the beneficial heat treatment effects. Heat treatment may be useful in developing novel dietary fibers from beans with variable composition and bioactivity with a considerable range of applications as functional food ingredients. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. G-Bean: an ontology-graph based web tool for biomedical literature retrieval.

    PubMed

    Wang, James Z; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Dong, Liang; Li, Lin; Srimani, Pradip K; Yu, Philip S

    2014-01-01

    Currently, most people use NCBI's PubMed to search the MEDLINE database, an important bibliographical information source for life science and biomedical information. However, PubMed has some drawbacks that make it difficult to find relevant publications pertaining to users' individual intentions, especially for non-expert users. To ameliorate the disadvantages of PubMed, we developed G-Bean, a graph based biomedical search engine, to search biomedical articles in MEDLINE database more efficiently. G-Bean addresses PubMed's limitations with three innovations: (1) Parallel document index creation: a multithreaded index creation strategy is employed to generate the document index for G-Bean in parallel; (2) Ontology-graph based query expansion: an ontology graph is constructed by merging four major UMLS (Version 2013AA) vocabularies, MeSH, SNOMEDCT, CSP and AOD, to cover all concepts in National Library of Medicine (NLM) database; a Personalized PageRank algorithm is used to compute concept relevance in this ontology graph and the Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) weighting scheme is used to re-rank the concepts. The top 500 ranked concepts are selected for expanding the initial query to retrieve more accurate and relevant information; (3) Retrieval and re-ranking of documents based on user's search intention: after the user selects any article from the existing search results, G-Bean analyzes user's selections to determine his/her true search intention and then uses more relevant and more specific terms to retrieve additional related articles. The new articles are presented to the user in the order of their relevance to the already selected articles. Performance evaluation with 106 OHSUMED benchmark queries shows that G-Bean returns more relevant results than PubMed does when using these queries to search the MEDLINE database. PubMed could not even return any search result for some OHSUMED queries because it failed to form the appropriate Boolean

  17. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans

    PubMed Central

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E.; Hart, Jonathan J.; Glahn, Raymond P.

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3–glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  18. Studies of Cream Seeded Carioca Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from a Rwandan Efficacy Trial: In Vitro and In Vivo Screening Tools Reflect Human Studies and Predict Beneficial Results from Iron Biofortified Beans.

    PubMed

    Tako, Elad; Reed, Spenser; Anandaraman, Amrutha; Beebe, Steve E; Hart, Jonathan J; Glahn, Raymond P

    2015-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency is a highly prevalent micronutrient insufficiency predominantly caused by a lack of bioavailable Fe from the diet. The consumption of beans as a major food crop in some populations suffering from Fe deficiency is relatively high. Therefore, our objective was to determine whether a biofortified variety of cream seeded carioca bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) could provide more bioavailable-Fe than a standard variety using in-vivo (broiler chicken, Gallus gallus) and in-vitro (Caco-2 cell) models. Studies were conducted under conditions designed to mimic the actual human feeding protocol. Two carioca-beans, a standard (G4825; 58 μg Fe/g) and a biofortified (SMC; 106 μg Fe/g), were utilized. Diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements of Gallus gallus except for Fe (33.7 and 48.7 μg Fe/g, standard and biofortified diets, respectively). In-vitro observations indicated that more bioavailable-Fe was present in the biofortified beans and diet (P<0.05). In-vivo, improvements in Fe-status were observed in the biofortified bean treatment, as indicated by the increased total-body-Hemoglobin-Fe, and hepatic Fe-concentration (P<0.05). Also, DMT-1 mRNA-expression was increased in the standard bean treatment (P<0.05), indicating an upregulation of absorption to compensate for less bioavailable-Fe. These results demonstrate that the biofortified beans provided more bioavailable Fe; however, the in vitro results revealed that ferritin formation values were relatively low. Such observations are indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenols and phytate that inhibit Fe absorption. Indeed, we identified higher levels of phytate and quercetin 3-glucoside in the Fe biofortified bean variety. Our results indicate that the biofortified bean line was able to moderately improve Fe-status, and that concurrent increase in the concentration of phytate and polyphenols in beans may limit the benefit of increased Fe-concentration. Therefore, specific

  19. Evaluation of nematicides for southern root-knot nematode management in lima bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Southern root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita; RKN) significantly reduce lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) yields. Chemical control options for RKN are limited. We evaluated the efficacy of new nematicidal products on RKN in lima bean experiments conducted in greenhouse (GH) and microplot (MP) set...

  20. Expression of mung bean pectin acetyl esterase in potato tubers: effect on acetylation of cell wall polymers and tuber mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Orfila, Caroline; Dal Degan, Florence; Jørgensen, Bodil; Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Ray, Peter M; Ulvskov, Peter

    2012-07-01

    A mung bean (Vigna radiata) pectin acetyl esterase (CAA67728) was heterologously expressed in tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum) under the control of the granule-bound starch synthase promoter or the patatin promoter in order to probe the significance of O-acetylation on cell wall and tissue properties. The recombinant tubers showed no apparent macroscopic phenotype. The enzyme was recovered from transgenic tubers using a high ionic strength buffer and the extract was active against a range of pectic substrates. Partial in vivo de-acetylation of cell wall polysaccharides occurred in the transformants, as shown by a 39% decrease in the degree of acetylation (DA) of tuber cell wall material (CWM). Treatment of CWM using a combination of endo-polygalacturonase and pectin methyl esterase extracted more pectin polymers from the transformed tissue compared to wild type. The largest effect of the pectin acetyl esterase (68% decrease in DA) was seen in the residue from this extraction, suggesting that the enzyme is preferentially active on acetylated pectin that is tightly bound to the cell wall. The effects of acetylation on tuber mechanical properties were investigated by tests of failure under compression and by determination of viscoelastic relaxation spectra. These tests suggested that de-acetylation resulted in a stiffer tuber tissue and a stronger cell wall matrix, as a result of changes to a rapidly relaxing viscoelastic component. These results are discussed in relation to the role of pectin acetylation in primary cell walls and its implications for industrial uses of potato fibres.

  1. Extraction of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater with macroporous resins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoxi; Hansen, Conly; Allen, Karin

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater by column chromatography with 5 types of macroporous resins (Diaion Hp20, Sepabeads Sp70, Sepabeads Sp207, Sepabeads Sp700, and Sepabeads Sp710). By-product of canned black beans was partially purified by filtration, in anticipation of higher performance during column chromatography. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were measured and analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Both Langmuir (all R² ≥ 0.98) and Freundlich (all R² ≥ 0.97) models can describe the adsorption process of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater using the tested resins. The adsorption and desorption behaviors of anthocyanins were studied using a dynamic method on the 5 types of resins, and Sp700 presented the highest adsorption capacity (39 ± 4 mg/g; P < 0.05) as well as desorption capacity (19 ± 2%; P < 0.05), indicating that of the resins examined, Sp700 is a better candidate for purification of anthocyanins from black bean canning wastewater. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Interaction of cold radiofrequency plasma with seeds of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

    PubMed Central

    Bormashenko, Edward; Shapira, Yekaterina; Grynyov, Roman; Whyman, Gene; Bormashenko, Yelena; Drori, Elyashiv

    2015-01-01

    The impact of cold radiofrequency air plasma on the wetting properties and water imbibition of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was studied. The influence of plasma on wetting of a cotyledon and seed coat (testa) was elucidated. It was established that cold plasma treatment leads to hydrophilization of the cotyledon and tissues constituting the testa when they are separately exposed to plasma. By contrast, when the entire bean is exposed to plasma treatment, only the external surface of the bean is hydrophilized by the cold plasma. Water imbibition by plasma-treated beans was studied. Plasma treatment markedly accelerates the water absorption. The crucial role of a micropyle in the process of water imbibition was established. It was established that the final percentage of germination was almost the same in the cases of plasma-treated, untreated, and vacuum-pumped samples. However, the speed of germination was markedly higher for the plasma-treated samples. The influence of the vacuum pumping involved in the cold plasma treatment on the germination was also clarified. PMID:25948708

  3. Treatments for reducing total vicine in Egyptian faba bean (Giza 2 variety).

    PubMed

    Abd Allah, M A; Foda, Y H; Abu Salem, F M; Abd Allah, Z S

    1988-01-01

    The response of faba bean 'Vicia faba' (Giza 2 variety) towards soaking conditions differed greatly since the absorbed quantities of water (either by the whole or the decorticated forms) are a function of their chemical constituents. On the other hand, 28.45% of the total vicine (vicine & convicine) present in the whole faba bean samples was extracted after soaking for 72 h at room temperature. Subsequently, other soaking mediums, i.e., 0.5% sodium carbonate and/or 1% acetic acid were used in an attempt to increase the level of vicine elimination. Percentage removal of total vicine in whole faba bean was higher in the acidic (61.31%) than the alkaline (38.40%) medium under the conditions tested, i.e., at room temperature for 72 hours. The rates of vicine + convicine elimination in decorticated faba bean for the acidic acid and alkaline soaking media were 78.46 and 79.13%, respectively. The solubility ratio of total vicine relative to soaking solutions (H2O:Na2CO3:Acetic acid) was 1:1.35:2.16 in the whole broad bean and 1:2.41:2.39 in the decorticated samples. The residual amounts of total vicine (78.33% and 77.27%) present after stewing under normal and under pressure cooking conditions could be expected to be decreased to 30.33% for the former and 29.92% for the later after 72 h of soaking. Regression analysis was used to estimate the theoretical zero point of vicine elimination from faba bean through soaking in 1% acetic acid.

  4. Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov., pathogenic in bean.

    PubMed

    González, Ana J; Trapiello, Estefanía

    2014-05-01

    A yellow Gram-reaction-positive bacterium isolated from bean seeds (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was identified as Clavibacter michiganensis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Molecular methods were employed in order to identify the subspecies. Such methods included the amplification of specific sequences by PCR, 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA), RFLP and multilocus sequence analysis as well as the analysis of biochemical and phenotypic traits including API 50CH and API ZYM results. The results showed that strain LPPA 982T did not represent any known subspecies of C. michiganensis. Pathogenicity tests revealed that the strain is a bean pathogen causing a newly identified bacterial disease that we name bacterial bean leaf yellowing. On the basis of these results, strain LPPA 982T is regarded as representing a novel subspecies for which the name Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. phaseoli subsp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is LPPA 982T (=CECT 8144T=LMG 27667T).

  5. Resistance of common bean breeding lines to Phaeoisariopsis griseola isolates from Honduras

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) disease caused by Phaeoisariopsis griseola Sacc. Ferraris, is currently one of the most important factors limiting bean productivity in Central America. The development of breeding lines which combine resistance to ALS and Bean Golden Yellow Mosaic Virus (BGYMV) and tolerance...

  6. Diets enriched with cranberry beans alter the microbiota and mitigate colitis severity and associated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Monk, Jennifer M; Lepp, Dion; Zhang, Claire P; Wu, Wenqing; Zarepoor, Leila; Lu, Jenifer T; Pauls, K Peter; Tsao, Rong; Wood, Geoffrey A; Robinson, Lindsay E; Power, Krista A

    2016-02-01

    Common beans are rich in phenolic compounds and nondigestible fermentable components, which may help alleviate intestinal diseases. We assessed the gut health priming effect of a 20% cranberry bean flour diet from two bean varieties with differing profiles of phenolic compounds [darkening (DC) and nondarkening (NDC) cranberry beans vs. basal diet control (BD)] on critical aspects of gut health in unchallenged mice, and during dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis (2% DSS wt/vol, 7 days). In unchallenged mice, NDC and DC increased (i) cecal short-chain fatty acids, (ii) colon crypt height, (iii) crypt goblet cell number and mucus content and (iv) Muc1, Klf4, Relmβ and Reg3γ gene expression vs. BD, indicative of enhanced microbial activity and gut barrier function. Fecal 16S rRNA sequencing determined that beans reduced abundance of the Lactobacillaceae (Ruminococcus gnavus), Clostridiaceae (Clostridium perfringens), Peptococcaceae, Peptostreptococcaceae, Rikenellaceae and Pophyromonadaceae families, and increased abundance of S24-7 and Prevotellaceae. During colitis, beans reduced (i) disease severity and colonic histological damage, (ii) increased gene expression of barrier function promoting genes (Muc1-3, Relmβ, and Reg3γ) and (iii) reduced colonic and circulating inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα). Therefore, prior to disease induction, bean supplementation enhanced multiple concurrent gut health promoting parameters that translated into reduced colitis severity. Moreover, both bean diets exerted similar effects, indicating that differing phenolic content did not influence the endpoints assessed. These data demonstrate a proof-of-concept regarding the gut-priming potential of beans in colitis, which could be extended to mitigate the severity of other gut barrier-associated pathologies. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Differentiation of Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures by computer vision.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Juan C; Amores, Freddy M; Solórzano, Eddyn G; Rodríguez, Gladys A; La Mantia, Alessandro; Blasi, Paolo; Loor, Rey G

    2018-05-01

    Ecuador exports two major types of cocoa beans, the highly regarded and lucrative National, known for its fine aroma, and the CCN-51 clone type, used in bulk for mass chocolate products. In order to discourage exportation of National cocoa adulterated with CCN-51, a fast and objective methodology for distinguishing between the two types of cocoa beans is needed. This study reports a methodology based on computer vision, which makes it possible to recognize these beans and determine the percentage of their mixture. The methodology was challenged with 336 samples of National cocoa and 127 of CCN-51. By excluding the samples with a low fermentation level and white beans, the model discriminated with a precision higher than 98%. The model was also able to identify and quantify adulterations in 75 export batches of National cocoa and separate out poorly fermented beans. A scientifically reliable methodology able to discriminate between Ecuadorian National and CCN-51 cocoa beans and their mixtures was successfully developed. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Processing and characterization of fried beans varieties Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia].

    PubMed

    Hurtado, M L; Escobar, B; Estévez, A M

    2001-06-01

    The objective of this study was develop a snack product based on fried beans. For this purpose, three bean varieties were used: Pinto 114, Suave 85 and Tórtola Inia. The beans were treated with two soaking solutions, EDTA disodium salt and a mixture of NaOH/water, to determine if they had some effect on the product's final quality. On the other hand, before the beans were fried, some grains were given thermal treatment (blanched), leaving the other ones without this process (raw); this also had an effect on the final quality of the fried beans. Physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of the final fried products were determined. For three beans varieties, the blanched products had higher water content, higher oil absorption, lower protein content and larger water activity. The soaking solutions had no effect on the quality of manufactured products. The sensory analysis determined that the best treatment for Pinto 114 and Tórtola Inia was NaOH/water-raw grain, and EDTA raw grain for Suave 85.

  9. Active optical sensor assessment of spider mite damage on greenhouse beans and cotton.

    PubMed

    Martin, Daniel E; Latheef, Mohamed A

    2018-02-01

    The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, is an important pest of cotton in mid-southern USA and causes yield reduction and deprivation in fiber fitness. Cotton and pinto beans grown in the greenhouse were infested with spider mites at the three-leaf and trifoliate stages, respectively. Spider mite damage on cotton and bean canopies expressed as normalized difference vegetation index indicative of changes in plant health was measured for 27 consecutive days. Plant health decreased incrementally for cotton until day 21 when complete destruction occurred. Thereafter, regrowth reversed decline in plant health. On spider mite treated beans, plant vigor plateaued until day 11 when plant health declined incrementally. Results indicate that pinto beans were better suited as a host plant than cotton for rearing T. urticae in the laboratory.

  10. Decaffeinated Green Coffee Bean Extract Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Su Jin; Choi, Sena; Park, Taesun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether decaffeinated green coffee bean extract prevents obesity and improves insulin resistance and elucidated its mechanism of action. Male C57BL/6N mice (N = 48) were divided into six dietary groups: chow diet, HFD, HFD-supplemented with 0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.9% decaffeinated green coffee bean extract, and 0.15% 5-caffeoylquinic acid. Based on the reduction in HFD-induced body weight gain and increments in plasma lipids, glucose, and insulin levels, the minimum effective dose of green coffee bean extract appears to be 0.3%. Green coffee bean extract resulted in downregulation of genes involved in WNT10b- and galanin-mediated adipogenesis and TLR4-mediated proinflammatory pathway and stimulation of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in white adipose tissue. Taken together, decaffeinated green coffee bean extract appeared to reverse HFD-induced fat accumulation and insulin resistance by downregulating the genes involved in adipogenesis and inflammation in visceral adipose tissue. PMID:24817902

  11. Phylogenetic multilocus sequence analysis of indigenous slow-growing rhizobia nodulating cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) in Greece.

    PubMed

    Tampakaki, Anastasia P; Fotiadis, Christos T; Ntatsi, Georgia; Savvas, Dimitrios

    2017-04-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied. Forty-five authenticated strains were subjected to a polyphasic approach. ERIC-PCR based fingerprinting analysis grouped the isolates into seven groups and representative strains of each group were further analyzed. The analysis of the rrs gene showed that the strains belong to different species of the genus Bradyrhizobium. The analysis of the 16S-23S IGS region showed that the strains from each geographic region were characterized by distinct IGS types which may represent novel phylogenetic lineages, closely related to the type species of Bradyrhizobium pachyrhizi, Bradyrhizobium ferriligni and Bradyrhizobium liaoningense. MLSA analysis of three housekeeping genes (recA, glnII, and gyrB) showed the close relatedness of our strains with B. pachyrhizi PAC48 T and B. liaoningense USDA 3622 T and confirmed that the B. liaoningense-related isolate VUEP21 may constitute a novel species within Bradyrhizobium. Moreover, symbiotic gene phylogenies, based on nodC and nifH genes, showed that the B. pachyrhizi-related isolates belonged to symbiovar vignae, whereas the B. liaoningense-related isolates may represent a novel symbiovar. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. An increase in renal dopamine does not stimulate natriuresis after fava bean ingestion123

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Emily M; Cesar, Tericka S; Lonce, Suzanna; Ferguson, Marcus C; Robertson, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Fava beans (Vicia faba) contain dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa), and their ingestion may increase dopamine stores. Renal dopamine regulates blood pressure and blood volume via a natriuretic effect. Objective: The objective was to determine the relation between dietary fava beans, plasma and urinary catechols, and urinary sodium excretion in 13 healthy volunteers. Design: Catechol and sodium data were compared by using a longitudinal design in which all participants consumed a fixed-sodium study diet on day 1 and the fixed-sodium diet plus fava beans on day 2. Blood was sampled at 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a meal, and 3 consecutive 4-h urine samples were collected. Results: Mean (±SD) plasma dopa was significantly greater 1 h after fava bean consumption (11,670 ± 5440 compared with 1705 ± 530 pg/mL; P = 0.001) and remained elevated at 6 h. Plasma dopamine increased nearly 15-fold during this period. Fava bean consumption also increased urinary dopamine excretion to 306 ± 116, 360 ± 235, and 159 ± 111 μg/4-h urine sample compared with 45 ± 21, 54 ± 29, and 44 ± 17 μg in the 3 consecutive 4-h samples after the control diet (P ≤ 0.005). These substantial increases in plasma and urinary dopa and dopamine were unexpectedly associated with decreased urinary sodium. Conclusion: The failure of fava bean consumption to provoke natriuresis may indicate that dopa concentrations in commercially available beans do not raise renal dopamine sufficiently to stimulate sodium excretion, at least when beans are added to a moderate-sodium diet in healthy volunteers. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01064739. PMID:23553159

  13. Astronaut Alan Bean works on Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1969-11-19

    AS12-46-6749 (19 Nov. 1969) --- Astronaut Alan L. Bean, lunar module pilot for the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission, works at the Modular Equipment Stowage Assembly (MESA) on the Apollo 12 Lunar Module (LM) during the mission's first extravehicular activity, (EVA) on Nov. 19, 1969. Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., commander, and Bean descended in the Apollo 12 LM to explore the moon while astronaut Richard F. Gordon Jr., command module pilot, remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) in lunar orbit.

  14. PpTFDB: A pigeonpea transcription factor database for exploring functional genomics in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akshay; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.), a diploid legume crop, is a member of the tribe Phaseoleae. This tribe is descended from the millettioid (tropical) clade of the subfamily Papilionoideae, which includes many important legume crop species such as soybean (Glycine max), mung bean (Vigna radiata), cowpea (Vigna ungiculata), and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It plays major role in food and nutritional security, being rich source of proteins, minerals and vitamins. We have developed a comprehensive Pigeonpea Transcription Factors Database (PpTFDB) that encompasses information about 1829 putative transcription factors (TFs) and their 55 TF families. PpTFDB provides a comprehensive information about each of the identified TFs that includes chromosomal location, protein physicochemical properties, sequence data, protein functional annotation, simple sequence repeats (SSRs) with primers derived from their motifs, orthology with related legume crops, and gene ontology (GO) assignment to respective TFs. (PpTFDB: http://14.139.229.199/PpTFDB/Home.aspx) is a freely available and user friendly web resource that facilitates users to retrieve the information of individual members of a TF family through a set of query interfaces including TF ID or protein functional annotation. In addition, users can also get the information by browsing interfaces, which include browsing by TF Categories and by, GO Categories. This PpTFDB will serve as a promising central resource for researchers as well as breeders who are working towards crop improvement of legume crops. PMID:28651001

  15. Gastro-jejunal digestion of soya-bean-milk protein in humans.

    PubMed

    Baglieri, A; Mahe, S; Zidi, S; Huneau, J F; Thuillier, F; Marteau, P; Tome, D

    1994-10-01

    In order to determine how soya-bean proteins are digested and metabolized in the human intestine before colonic bacterial fermentation and to estimate their true digestibility, the gastro-jejunal behaviour of soya-bean proteins in water and in two other forms (a concentrated soya-bean-protein solution (isolate) and a drink composed of crude soya-bean proteins (soymilk)) was studied in humans. Experiments were carried out in eight healthy volunteers using a double-lumen steady-state intestinal perfusion method with polyethyleneglycol (PEG) as a non-absorbable volume marker. Gastric emptying and N and electrolyte contents of the jejunal digesta were analysed. Gastric half-emptying time (min) of the liquid phase after water ingestion (12.59 (SE 0.12)) was shorter (P < 0.05) than those for soymilk (37.74 (SE 11.57)) and isolate (36.52 (SE 11.23)). Electrolytic balances showed that for all meals, Na+, Cl- and K+ were secreted when Ca2+ was efficiently absorbed from the jejunal lumen. Gastro-jejunal N absorption for isolate and soymilk were 63 and 49% respectively, and were not significantly different from one another; after water ingestion, endogenous N was estimated to be 21 mmol. An estimate of the exogenous:endogenous values for the effluents was obtained from the amino acid compositions of soymilk and effluents after water or soymilk ingestion, indicating that 70% of the total N was exogenous and 30% endogenous. Under these conditions the endogenous fraction represented 31 mmol after soymilk ingestion and the gastro-jejunal N balance indicated that 54% of the soymilk was absorbed. This finding indicates that the true gastrojejunal digestibility of soya-bean proteins is similar to that of milk proteins.

  16. Identification of QTL in a tepary bean RIL population under abiotic stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High temperatures and drought are critical abiotic factors that limit the production of grain legumes, especially in tropical countries. Tepary bean (Phaseolus acutifolius A. Gray) is a species that is tolerant to high temperatures and drought. It is also closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vu...

  17. 15N Abundance of Nodules as an Indicator of N Metabolism in N2-Fixing Plants 1

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, Georgia; Feldman, Lori; Bryan, Barbara A.; Skeeters, Jerri L.; Kohl, Daniel H.; Amarger, Nöelle; Mariotti, Françoise; Mariotti, André

    1982-01-01

    This paper expands upon previous reports of 15N elevation in nodules (compared to other tissues) of N2-fixing plants. N2-Fixing nodules of Glycine max (soybeans), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Phaseolus coccineus (scarlet runner bean), Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite), and Olneya tesota (desert ironwood) were enriched in 15N. Nodules of Vicia faba (fava beans), Arachis hypogaea (peanut), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Pisum sativum (pea), Lathyrus sativus (grass pea), Medicago sativa (alfalfa), and Lupinus mutabilis (South American lupine) were not; nor were the nodules of nine species of N2-fixing nonlegumes. The nitrogen of ineffective nodules of soybeans and cowpeas was not enriched in 15N. Thus, 15N elevation in nodules of these plants depends on active N2-fixation. Results obtained so far on the generality of 15N enrichment in N2-fixing nodules suggest that only the nodules of plants which actively fix N2 and which transport allantoin or allantoic acid exhibit 15N enrichment. PMID:16662517

  18. Oligosaccharides composition in eight food legumes species as detected by high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Pei-Hong; Zang, Mei-Tong; Xing, Jie

    2015-08-30

    As probiotics, soy oligosaccharides have become popular as healthy foods to reduce disease risk. However, comprehensive information about oligosaccharides in different food legumes is limited. In this study, eight oligosaccharides were well detected and quantified in different varieties of eight legume species using high-resolution mass spectrometry. It was determined that species could be distinguished by total content of oligosaccharides and their distribution modes. Among the studied species, Vigna unguiculata is a better resource of non-digestible oligosaccharides, while Vicia faba and black soybean (Glycine max) are at a disadvantage. Normally, stachyose predominates in non-digestible oligosaccharides, except in mung bean and broad bean, where verbascose predominates. For mung bean and green soybean, the seed coat should be taken into account for oligosaccharide consumption. The developed high-resolution mass spectrometry method greatly simplified the sample preparation process and permitted the identification of oligosaccharides without reference compounds. This work involved extensive sample collecting and provided useful information for consumers. The developed method may be useful for rapid quantification of oligosaccharides in related foods. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Stable isotope composition of cocoa beans of different geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Perini, Matteo; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Barbero, Alice; Caligiani, Augusta; Camin, Federica

    2016-09-01

    The isotopic profile (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(18) O, δ(2) H, δ(34) S) was used to characterise a wide selection of cocoa beans from different renowned production areas (Africa, Asia, Central and South America). The factors most influencing the isotopic signatures of cocoa beans were climate and altitude for δ(13) C and the isotopic composition of precipitation water for δ(18) O and δ(2) H, whereas δ(15) N and δ(34) S were primarily affected by geology and fertilisation practises. Multi-isotopic analysis was shown to be sufficiently effective in determining the geographical origin of cocoa beans, and combining it with Canonical Discriminant Analysis led to more than 80% of samples being correctly reclassified. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Bioactive Compounds from Mexican Varieties of the Common Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): Implications for Health.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Mendoza, Celia; Sánchez, Esteban

    2017-08-17

    As Mexico is located within Mesoamerica, it is considered the site where the bean plant originated and where it was domesticated. Beans have been an integral part of the Mexican diet for thousands of years. Within the country, there are a number of genotypes possessing highly diverse physical and chemical properties. This review describes the major bioactive compounds contained on the Mexican varieties of the common bean. A brief analysis is carried out regarding the benefits they have on health. The effect of seed coat color on the nutraceutical compounds content is distinguished, where black bean stands out because it is high content of anthocyanins, polyphenols and flavonoids such as quercetin. This confers black bean with an elevated antioxidant capacity. The most prominent genotypes within this group are the "Negro San Luis", "Negro 8025" and "Negro Jamapa" varieties. Conversely, the analyzed evidence shows that more studies are needed in order to expand our knowledge on the nutraceutical quality of the Mexican bean genotypes, either grown or wild-type, as well as their impact on health in order to be used in genetic improvement programs or as a strategy to encourage their consumption. The latter is based on the high potential it has for health preservation and disease prevention.

  1. Correlating the properties of different carioca bean cultivars (Phaseolus vulgaris) with their hydration kinetics.

    PubMed

    Miano, Alberto Claudio; Saldaña, Erick; Campestrini, Luciano Henrique; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Augusto, Pedro Esteves Duarte

    2018-05-01

    This work explained how the intrinsic properties of beans affects the hydration process. For that, different properties of six cultivars of carioca bean (a variety of common bean) were analyzed to verify the correlation with their hydration kinetics characteristics (hydration rate, lag phase time and equilibrium moisture content), using a Multiple Factorial Analysis (MFA): the chemical composition (starch, protein, lipids, minerals (Mg, P, S, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn), functional groups from the seed coat analyzed by FT-IR), physical properties (size, 1000 grain weight, seed coat thickness, energy to penetrate the bean) and microstructure. Only few properties correlated with the hydration kinetics characteristics of the studied bean, comprising both composition and structure. The fat content, potassium content, specific surface, and the protein to lipids ratio correlated with the lag phase time, which is related with the seed coat impermeability to water. The necessary energy to perforate the seed coat correlated negatively with the hydration rate. It was concluded that the hydration of beans process is a complex phenomenon and that despite being from the same variety of legume, any change due to agronomic enhancement may affect their hydration process kinetics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of different nitrogen sources on plant characteristics and yield of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Luqueño, F; Reyes-Varela, V; Martínez-Suárez, C; Salomón-Hernández, G; Yáñez-Meneses, J; Ceballos-Ramírez, J M; Dendooven, L

    2010-01-01

    Wastewater sludge can be used to fertilize crops, especially after vermicomposting (composting with earthworms to reduce pathogens). How wastewater sludge or vermicompost affects bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) growth is still largely unknown. In this study the effect of different forms of N fertilizer on common bean plant characteristics and yield were investigated in a Typic Fragiudepts (sandy loam) soil under greenhouse conditions. Beans were fertilized with wastewater sludge, or wastewater sludge vermicompost, or urea, or grown in unamended soil, while plant characteristics and yield were monitored (the unamended soil had no fertilization). Yields of common bean plants cultivated in unamended soil or soil amended with urea were lower than those cultivated in wastewater sludge-amended soil. Application of vermicompost further improved plant development and increased yield compared with beans cultivated in wastewater amended soil. It was found that application of organic waste products improved growth and yield of bean plants compared to those amended with inorganic fertilizer.

  3. QTL analysis of symbiotic nitrogen fixation in a black bean RIL population

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L) acquires nitrogen (N) from the atmosphere through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) but it has a low efficiency to fix nitrogen. The objective of this study is to map the genes controlling nitrogen fixation in common bean. A mapping population consisting of 122 recomb...

  4. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  5. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-19

    SL3-108-1292 (19 Aug. 1973) --- Scientist-astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this onboard photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS) in Earth orbit. Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, pilot, took this picture with a 35mm Nikon camera. Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair. The crew of the second manned Skylab flight went on to successfully complete 59 days aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Photo credit: NASA

  6. G-Bean: an ontology-graph based web tool for biomedical literature retrieval

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently, most people use NCBI's PubMed to search the MEDLINE database, an important bibliographical information source for life science and biomedical information. However, PubMed has some drawbacks that make it difficult to find relevant publications pertaining to users' individual intentions, especially for non-expert users. To ameliorate the disadvantages of PubMed, we developed G-Bean, a graph based biomedical search engine, to search biomedical articles in MEDLINE database more efficiently. Methods G-Bean addresses PubMed's limitations with three innovations: (1) Parallel document index creation: a multithreaded index creation strategy is employed to generate the document index for G-Bean in parallel; (2) Ontology-graph based query expansion: an ontology graph is constructed by merging four major UMLS (Version 2013AA) vocabularies, MeSH, SNOMEDCT, CSP and AOD, to cover all concepts in National Library of Medicine (NLM) database; a Personalized PageRank algorithm is used to compute concept relevance in this ontology graph and the Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) weighting scheme is used to re-rank the concepts. The top 500 ranked concepts are selected for expanding the initial query to retrieve more accurate and relevant information; (3) Retrieval and re-ranking of documents based on user's search intention: after the user selects any article from the existing search results, G-Bean analyzes user's selections to determine his/her true search intention and then uses more relevant and more specific terms to retrieve additional related articles. The new articles are presented to the user in the order of their relevance to the already selected articles. Results Performance evaluation with 106 OHSUMED benchmark queries shows that G-Bean returns more relevant results than PubMed does when using these queries to search the MEDLINE database. PubMed could not even return any search result for some OHSUMED queries because it failed to

  7. Characterization of a Panela cheese with added probiotics and fava bean starch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Twenty Lactobacillus spp. and eight Bifidobacterium spp. were screened for their ability to ferment fava bean starch. B. breve ATCC 15700 and L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 were selected as probiotics for use in fresh style Panela cheese. Two types of fresh cheese (with and without 3% fava bean starch) ...

  8. Physicochemical, morphological and rheological properties of canned bean pastes "negro Queretaro" variety (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Preciado, A H; Estrada-Girón, Y; González-Álvarez, A; Fernández, V V A; Macías, E R; Soltero, J F A

    2014-09-01

    Proximate, thermal, morphological and rheological properties of canned "negro Querétaro" bean pastes, as a function of fat content (0, 2 and 3 %) and temperature (60, 70 and 85 °C), were evaluated. Raw and precooked bean pastes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Well-defined starch granules in the raw bean pastes were observed, whereas a gelatinized starch paste was observed for the canned bean pastes. The DSC analysis showed that the raw bean pastes had lower onset peak temperatures (79 °C, 79.1 °C) and gelatinization enthalpy (1.940 J/g), compared to that precooked bean pastes (70.4 °C, 75.7 °C and 1.314 J/g, respectively) thermal characteristics. Moreover, the dynamic rheological results showed a gel-like behavior for the canned bean pastes, where the storage modulus (G') was frequency independent and was higher than the loss modulus (G″). The non-linear rheological results exhibited a shear-thinning flow behavior, where the steady shear-viscosity was temperature and fat content dependent. For canned bean pastes, the shear-viscosity data followed a power law equation, where the power law index (n) decreased when the temperature and the fat content increased. The temperature effect on the shear-viscosity was described by an Arrhenius equation, where the activation energy (Ea) was in the range from 19.04 to 36.81 KJ/mol. This rheological behavior was caused by gelatinization of the starch during the cooking and sterilization processes, where starch-lipids and starch-proteins complex were formed.

  9. Black bean anthocyanin-rich extracts as food colorants: Physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Black beans contain anthocyanins that could be used as colorants in foods with associated health benefits. The objective was to optimize anthocyanins extraction from black bean coats and evaluate their physicochemical stability and antidiabetes potential. Optimal extraction conditions were 24% ethan...

  10. Inquiry-based Investigation in Biology Laboratories: Does Neem Provide Bioprotection against Bean Beetles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Amy R.; Sale, Amanda Lovelace; Srivatsan, Malathi; Beck, Christopher W.; Blumer, Lawrence S.; Grippo, Anne A.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an inquiry-based biology laboratory exercise in which undergraduate students designed experiments addressing whether material from the neem tree ("Azadirachta indica") altered bean beetle ("Callosobruchus maculatus") movements and oviposition. Students were introduced to the bean beetle life cycle, experimental…

  11. Registration of ‘Zenith' black bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Zenith’ black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, full-season cultivar with anthracnose [caused by Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (Sacc. et Magnus) Lams.-Scrib] resistance and excellent canning q...

  12. Release of "Bella" white bean cultivar

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    "Bella" Reg. No. GP-___, PI ______) is a multiple disease resistant white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar, adapted to the humid tropics that was developed and released cooperatively by the University of Puerto Rico Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS. The breeding objective was to...

  13. Dietary arsenic exposure in Brazil: The contribution of rice and beans.

    PubMed

    Ciminelli, Virginia S T; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack C; Silva, Gabriela C; Caldeira, Claudia L

    2017-02-01

    The human health risk associated with arsenic in food in Southeast Brazil was quantified. Based on the most commonly consumed food types in the Brazilian diet, the maximum inorganic As (iAs) daily intake from food (0.255 μg kg -1 body weight per day) is approximately 9% of the Benchmark Dose Lower Limit (BMDL 0.5 ) of 3 μg kg -1 body weight per day set by the World Health Organization (WHO) and Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Joint Expert Committee in Food Additives (JECFA). When water is included, the contribution of food to the total intake varies from 96.9% to 39.7%. Rice and beans, the main Brazilian staple food, contribute between 67 and 90% of the total As intake from food (46-79% from rice and 11-23% from beans). The substantial contribution of beans to total As food intake is reported for the first time. The broad range of As concentrations in rice and beans highlights the variable and potentially large contribution of both to As food intake in places where diet consists largely of these two food categories. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Catechol--an oviposition stimulant for cigarette beetle in roasted coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Nagasawa, Atsuhiko; Kamada, Yuji; Kosaka, Yuji; Arakida, Naohiro; Hori, Masatoshi

    2014-05-01

    The cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne, is a serious global pest that preys on stored food products. Larvae of the beetle cannot grow on roasted coffee beans or dried black or green tea leaves, although they oviposit on such products. We investigated oviposition by the beetles on MeOH extracts of the above products. The number of eggs laid increased with an increase in dose of each extract, indicating that chemical factors stimulate oviposition by the beetles. This was especially true for \\ coffee bean extracts, which elicited high numbers of eggs even at a low dose (0.1 g bean equivalent/ml) compared to other extracts. Coffee beans were extracted in hexane, chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water. The number of eggs laid was higher on filter papers treated with chloroform, 1-butanol, MeOH, and 20% MeOH in water extracts than on control (solvent alone) papers. The chloroform extract was fractionated by silica-gel column chromatography. Nine compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry from an active fraction. Of these compounds, only a significant ovipositional response to catechol was observed.

  15. Partition coefficient of cadmium between organic soils and bean and oat plants

    SciTech Connect

    Siddqui, M.F.R.; Courchesne, F.; Kennedy, G.

    Environmental fate models require the partition coefficient data of contaminants among two or more environmental compartments. The bioaccumulation of cadmium (Cd) by bean and oat plants grown on organic soils in a controlled growth chamber was investigated to validate the plant/soil partition coefficient. Total Cd was measured in the soils and in the different parts of the plants. The mean total Cd concentrations for soil cultivated with beans and oats were 0.86 and 0.69 {micro}g/g, respectively. Selective extractants (BaCl{sub 2}, Na-pyrophosphate and HNO{sub 3}-hydroxy) were used to evaluate solid phase Cd species in the soil. In the soil cultivated withmore » bean, BaCl{sub 2} exchangeable, Na-pyrophosphate extractable and HNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 2}OH extractable Cd represented 1.2, 1.6 and 50.9% of total soil Cd, respectively. For the soil cultivated with oats, the same extractants gave values of 1.1, 1.8 and 61.9%. Cd concentration levels in bean plants followed the sequence roots > fruits = stems > leaves (p < 0.01) while the following sequence was observed for oat plants: roots > fruits > stems > leaves (p < 0.05). The partition coefficient for total Cd (Cd{sub Plant tissue}/Cd{sub Soil}) was in the range of 0.28--0.55 for bean plants and 1.03--1.86 for oat plants.« less

  16. Consuming Iron Biofortified Beans Increases Iron Status in Rwandan Women after 128 Days in a Randomized Controlled Feeding Trial.

    PubMed

    Haas, Jere D; Luna, Sarah V; Lung'aho, Mercy G; Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Beebe, Stephen; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Egli, Ines M

    2016-08-01

    Food-based strategies to reduce nutritional iron deficiency have not been universally successful. Biofortification has the potential to become a sustainable, inexpensive, and effective solution. This randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the efficacy of iron-biofortified beans (Fe-Beans) to improve iron status in Rwandan women. A total of 195 women (aged 18-27 y) with serum ferritin <20 μg/L were randomly assigned to receive either Fe-Beans, with 86 mg Fe/kg, or standard unfortified beans (Control-Beans), with 50 mg Fe/kg, 2 times/d for 128 d in Huye, Rwanda. Iron status was assessed by hemoglobin, serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and body iron (BI); inflammation was assessed by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP). Anthropometric measurements were performed at baseline and at end line. Random weekly serial sampling was used to collect blood during the middle 8 wk of the feeding trial. Mixed-effects regression analysis with repeated measurements was used to evaluate the effect of Fe-Beans compared with Control-Beans on iron biomarkers throughout the course of the study. At baseline, 86% of subjects were iron-deficient (serum ferritin <15 μg/L) and 37% were anemic (hemoglobin <120 g/L). Both groups consumed an average of 336 g wet beans/d. The Fe-Beans group consumed 14.5 ± 1.6 mg Fe/d from biofortified beans, whereas the Control-Beans group consumed 8.6 ± 0.8 mg Fe/d from standard beans (P < 0.05). Repeated-measures analyses showed significant time-by-treatment interactions for hemoglobin, log serum ferritin, and BI (P < 0.05). The Fe-Beans group had significantly greater increases in hemoglobin (3.8 g/L), log serum ferritin (0.1 log μg/L), and BI (0.5 mg/kg) than did controls after 128 d. For every 1 g Fe consumed from beans over the 128 study days, there was a significant 4.2-g/L increase in hemoglobin (P < 0.05). The consumption of iron-biofortified beans significantly improved iron status

  17. Polyphenolic compounds appear to limit the nutritional benefit of biofortified higher iron black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Our objective was to determine if a biofortified variety of black bean can provide more bioavailable-iron (Fe) than a standard variety. Two lines of black beans (Phaseolus-vulgaris L.), a standard (DOR500; 59μg Fe/g) and biofortified (MIB465; 88μg Fe/g) were used. The DOR500 is a common commercial variety, and the MIB465 is a line developed for higher-Fe content. Given the high prevalence of Fe-deficiency anemia worldwide, it is important to determine if Fe-biofortified black beans can provide more absorbable-Fe. Methods Black bean based diets were formulated to meet the nutrient requirements for the broiler (Gallus-gallus) except for Fe (dietary Fe-concentrations were 39.4±0.2 and 52.9±0.9 mg/kg diet, standard vs. biofortified, respectively). Birds (n=14) were fed the diets for 6-weeks. Hemoglobin-(Hb), liver-ferritin and Fe-related transporter/enzyme gene-expression were measured. Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency and total-body-Hb-Fe values were used to estimate Fe-bioavailability. Results Hemoglobin-maintenance-efficiency values were higher (P<0.05) in the group consuming the standard-Fe beans on days 14, 21 and 28; indicating a compensatory response to lower dietary-Fe. Final total-Hb-Fe body content was higher in the biofortified vs. the standard group (26.6±0.9 and 24.4±0.8 mg, respectively; P<0.05). There were no differences in liver-ferritin or in expression of DMT-1, Dcyt-B, and ferroportin. In-vitro Fe-bioavailability assessment indicated very low Fe-bioavailability from both diets and between the two bean varieties (P>0.05). Such extremely-low in-vitro Fe-bioavailability measurement is indicative of the presence of high levels of polyphenolic-compounds that may inhibit Fe-absorption. High levels of these compounds would be expected in the black bean seed-coats. Conclusions The parameters of Fe-status measured in this study indicate that only a minor increase in absorbable-Fe was achieved with the higher-Fe beans. The results also raise

  18. Hyperspectral imaging for differentiation of foreign materials from pinto beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Zemlan, Michael; Henry, Sam

    2015-09-01

    Food safety and quality in packaged products are paramount in the food processing industry. To ensure that packaged products are free of foreign materials, such as debris and pests, unwanted materials mixed with the targeted products must be detected before packaging. A portable hyperspectral imaging system in the visible-to-NIR range has been used to acquire hyperspectral data cubes from pinto beans that have been mixed with foreign matter. Bands and band ratios have been identified as effective features to develop a classification scheme for detection of foreign materials in pinto beans. A support vector machine has been implemented with a quadratic kernel to separate pinto beans and background (Class 1) from all other materials (Class 2) in each scene. After creating a binary classification map for the scene, further analysis of these binary images allows separation of false positives from true positives for proper removal action during packaging.

  19. Physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunarharum, W. B.; Yuwono, S. S.; Pangestu, N. B. S. W.; Nadhiroh, H.

    2018-03-01

    Demand on high quality coffee for consumption is continually increasing not only in the consuming countries (importers) but also in the producing countries (exporters). Coffee quality could be affected by several factors from farm to cup including the post-harvest processing methods. This research aimed to investigate the influence of different post-harvest processing methods on physical and sensory quality of Java Arabica green coffee beans. The two factors being evaluated were three different post-harvest processing methods to produce green coffee beans (natural/dry, semi-washed and fully-washed processing) under sun drying. Physical quality evaluation was based on The Indonesian National Standard (SNI 01-2907-2008) while sensory quality was evaluated by five expert judges. The result shows that less defects observed in wet processed coffee as compared to the dry processing. The mechanical drying was also proven to yield a higher quality green coffee beans and minimise losses.

  20. Nutritional performance and activity of some digestive enzymes of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera , in response to seven tested bean cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Namin, Foroogh Rahimi; Naseri, Bahram; Razmjou, Jabraeil; Cohen, Allen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nutritional performance and activity of some digestive enzymes (protease and α -amylase) of Helicoverpa armigera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to feeding on bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae)) cultivars (Shokufa, Akhtar, Sayyad, Naz, Pak, Daneshkadeh, and Talash) were evaluated under laboratory conditions (25 ± 1°C, 65 ± 5% RH, and a 16:8 L:D photoperiod). The highest and lowest respective values of approximate digestibility were observed when fourth, fifth, and sixth larval instar H. armigera were fed red kidney bean Akhtar and white kidney bean Daneshkadeh. The efficiency of conversion of ingested and digested food was highest when H. armigera was fed red kidney beans Akhtar and Naz and lowest when they were fed white kidney bean Pak. The highest protease activity of fifth instars was observed when they were fed red kidney bean Naz, and the highest amylase activity of fifth instars was observed when they were fed red kidney bean Sayyad. Sixth instar larvae that fed on red kidney bean Sayyad showed the highest protease activity. Larvae reared on common bean Talash and white kidney bean Pak showed the highest amylase activity. Among bean cultivars tested, red kidney bean Sayyad was the most unsuitable host for feeding H. armigera . PMID:25368049

  1. Astronaut Alan Bean reads data from book while holding teleprinter tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Skylab 3 commander, reads data from book in his right hand while holding teleprinter tape in his left hand, in the ward room of the Skylab space station's Orbital Workshop (OWS) crew quarters. This photograph was taken with a 35mm Nikon camera held by one of Bean's fellow crewmen during the 56.5 day second manned Skylab mission in Earth orbit.

  2. Homostachydrine (pipecolic acid betaine) as authentication marker of roasted blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora (Robusta) beans.

    PubMed

    Servillo, Luigi; Giovane, Alfonso; Casale, Rosario; Cautela, Domenico; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; Castaldo, Domenico

    2016-08-15

    The occurrence of pipecolic acid betaine (homostachydrine) and its biosynthetic precursor N-methylpipecolic acid was detected for the first time in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica species. The analyses were conducted by HPLC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry and the metabolites identified by product ion spectra and comparison with authentic standards. N-methylpipecolic acid was found at similar levels in green coffee beans of Robusta and Arabica, whereas a noticeable difference of homostachydrine content was observed between the two green coffee bean species. Interestingly, homostachydrine content was found to be unaffected by coffee bean roasting treatment because of a noticeable heat stability, a feature that makes this compound a candidate marker to determine the content of Robusta and Arabica species in roasted coffee blends. To this end, a number of certified pure Arabica and Robusta green beans were analyzed for their homostachydrine content. Results showed that homostachydrine content was 1.5±0.5mg/kg in Arabica beans and 31.0±10.0mg/kg in Robusta beans. Finally, to further support the suitability of homostachydrine as quality marker of roasted blends of Arabica and Robusta coffee beans, commercial samples of roasted ground coffee blends were analyzed and the correspondence between the derived percentages of Arabica and Robusta beans with those declared on packages by manufacturers was verified. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A practical toxicity bioassay for vicine and convicine levels in faba bean (Vicia faba).

    PubMed

    Getachew, Fitsum; Vandenberg, Albert; Smits, Judit

    2018-04-02

    Faba bean (Vicia faba) vicine and convicine (V-C) aglycones (divicine and isouramil respectively) provoke an acute hemolytic anemia called favism in individuals with a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) enzyme defect in their red blood cells. Geneticists/plant breeders are working with faba bean to decrease V-C levels to improve public acceptance of this high-protein pulse crop. Here, we present a fast and simple ex vivo in vitro bioassay for V-C toxicity testing of faba bean or faba bean food products. We have shown that 1,3-bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU)-treated (i.e., sensitized) normal red blood cells, like G6PD-defective blood, displayed (i) continuous glutathione (GSH) depletion with no regeneration as incubation time and the dose of aglycones increased, (ii) progressive accumulation of denatured hemoglobin products into high molecular weight (HMW) proteins with increased aglycone dose, (iii) both band 3 membrane proteins and hemichromes, in HMW protein aggregates. We have also demonstrated that sensitized red blood cells can effectively differentiate various levels of toxicity among faba bean varieties through the two hemolysis biomarkers: GSH depletion and HMW clumping. BCNU-sensitized red blood cells provide an ideal model for favism blood, to assess and compare the toxicity of faba bean varieties and their food products. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Identity recognition in response to different levels of genetic relatedness in commercial soya bean

    PubMed Central

    Van Acker, Rene; Rajcan, Istvan; Swanton, Clarence J.

    2017-01-01

    Identity recognition systems allow plants to tailor competitive phenotypes in response to the genetic relatedness of neighbours. There is limited evidence for the existence of recognition systems in crop species and whether they operate at a level that would allow for identification of different degrees of relatedness. Here, we test the responses of commercial soya bean cultivars to neighbours of varying genetic relatedness consisting of other commercial cultivars (intraspecific), its wild progenitor Glycine soja, and another leguminous species Phaseolus vulgaris (interspecific). We found, for the first time to our knowledge, that a commercial soya bean cultivar, OAC Wallace, showed identity recognition responses to neighbours at different levels of genetic relatedness. OAC Wallace showed no response when grown with other commercial soya bean cultivars (intra-specific neighbours), showed increased allocation to leaves compared with stems with wild soya beans (highly related wild progenitor species), and increased allocation to leaves compared with stems and roots with white beans (interspecific neighbours). Wild soya bean also responded to identity recognition but these responses involved changes in biomass allocation towards stems instead of leaves suggesting that identity recognition responses are species-specific and consistent with the ecology of the species. In conclusion, elucidating identity recognition in crops may provide further knowledge into mechanisms of crop competition and the relationship between crop density and yield. PMID:28280587

  5. Microbiological and toxicological effects of Perla black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extracts: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Lara-Díaz, Víctor Javier; Gaytán-Ramos, Angel A; Dávalos-Balderas, Alfredo José; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Barbosa-Quintana, Alvaro; Sanson, Misu; López-Reyes, Alberto Gabriel; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the microbiological and toxicological effects of three Perla black bean extracts on the growth and culture of selected pathogenic microorganisms, the toxicity over Vero cell lines and an in vivo rat model. Three different solvents were used to obtain Perla black bean extracts. All three Perla black bean extracts were tested for antibacterial and antiparasitic activity and further analysed for intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC(50)). Methanol Perla black bean extract was used for acute toxicity test in rats, with the up-and-down doping method. All Perla black bean extracts inhibited bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes showed inhibition, while Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes did not. Acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were tested in parasites. The best IC(50) was observed for Giardia lamblia, while higher concentrations were active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The Vero cells toxicity levels (IC(50)) for methanol, acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were [mean +/- S.D. (95% CI)]: 275 +/- 6.2 (267.9-282.0), 390 +/- 4.6 (384.8-395.2) and 209 +/- 3.39 (205.6-212.4) microg/ml, respectively. In vivo acute toxicity assays did not show changes in absolute organ weights, gross and histological examinations of selected tissues or functional tests. The acetic acid and methanol Perla black bean extract proved to exhibit strong antibacterial activity and the acidified water Perla black bean extract exerted parasiticidal effects against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolitica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The three Perla black bean extracts assayed over Vero cells showed very low toxicity and the methanol Perla black bean extract in vivo did not cause toxicity.

  6. Flavor Compounds in Pixian Broad-Bean Paste: Non-Volatile Organic Acids and Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hongbin; Yu, Xiaoyu; Fang, Jiaxing; Lu, Yunhao; Liu, Ping; Xing, Yage; Wang, Qin; Che, Zhenming; He, Qiang

    2018-05-29

    Non-volatile organic acids and amino acids are important flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste, which is a traditional Chinese seasoning product. In this study, non-volatile organic acids, formed in the broad-bean paste due to the metabolism of large molecular compounds, are qualitatively and quantitatively determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Amino acids, mainly produced by hydrolysis of soybean proteins, were determined by the amino acid automatic analyzer. Results indicated that seven common organic acids and eighteen common amino acids were found in six Pixian broad-bean paste samples. The content of citric acid was found to be the highest in each sample, between 4.1 mg/g to 6.3 mg/g, and malic acid were between 2.1 mg/g to 3.6 mg/g ranked as the second. Moreover, fumaric acid was first detected in fermented bean pastes albeit with a low content. For amino acids, savory with lower sour taste including glutamine (Gln), glutamic acid (Glu), aspartic acid (Asp) and asparagines (Asn) were the most abundant, noted to be 6.5 mg/g, 4.0 mg/g, 6.4 mg/g, 4.9 mg/g, 6.2 mg/g and 10.2 mg/g, and bitter taste amino acids followed. More importantly, as important flavor materials in Pixian broad-bean paste, these two groups of substances are expected to be used to evaluate and represent the flavor quality of Pixian broad-bean paste. Moreover, the results revealed that citric acid, glutamic acid, methionine and proline were the most important flavor compounds. These findings are agreat contribution for evaluating the quality and further assessment of Pixian broad-bean paste.

  7. Optimization of culture conditions for gamma-aminobutyric acid production in fermented adzuki bean milk.

    PubMed

    Song, Hung Yi; Yu, Roch Chui

    2018-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), a nonprotein amino acid, is widely distributed in nature and fulfills several physiological functions. In this study, various lactic acid strains commonly used to produce fermented milk products were inoculated into adzuki bean milk for producing GABA. The high GABA producing strain was selected in further experiment to improve the GABA production utilizing culture medium optimization. The results demonstrated that adzuki bean milk inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG increased GABA content from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.44 mg/mL after 36 hours of fermentation, which showed the greatest elevation in this study. Furthermore, the optimal cultural condition to adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG to improve the GABA content was performed using response surface methodology. The results showed that GABA content was dependent on the addition of galactose, monosodium glutamate, and pyridoxine with which the increasing ratios of GABA were 23-38%, 24-68%, and 8-36%, respectively. The optimal culture condition for GABA production of adzuki bean milk was found at the content of 1.44% galactose, 2.27% monosodium glutamate, and 0.20% pyridoxine. Under the optimal cultural condition, the amount of GABA produced in the fermented adzuki bean milk was 1.12 mg/mL, which was 22.4-fold higher than that of the unfermented adzuki bean milk (0.05 mg/100 mL). The results suggested that the optimized cultural condition of adzuki bean milk inoculated with L. rhamnosus GG can increase GABA content for consumers as a daily supplement as suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Synthesis of a jojoba bean disaccharide.

    PubMed

    Kornienko, A; Marnera, G; d'Alarcao, M

    1998-08-01

    A synthesis of the disaccharide recently isolated from jojoba beans, 2-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-D-chiro-inositol, has been achieved. The suitably protected chiro-inositol unit was prepared by an enantiospecific synthesis from L-xylose utilizing SmI2-mediated pinacol coupling as a key step.

  9. Differential interactions between Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens and common bean.

    PubMed

    Valdo, S C D; Wendland, A; Araújo, L G; Melo, L C; Pereira, H S; Melo, P G; Faria, L C

    2016-11-21

    Bacterial wilt of common bean caused by Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens is an important disease in terms of economic importance. It reduces grain yield by colonizing xylem vessels, subsequently impeding the translocation of water and nutrients to the superior plant parts. The existence of physiological races in C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens has not so far been reported. The objective of the present investigation was to identify physiological races, evaluate differential interaction, and select resistant genotypes of common bean. Initially, 30 genotypes of common bean were inoculated with eight isolates exhibiting different levels of aggressiveness, under controlled greenhouse conditions. Disease was assessed 15 days after inoculation. The existence of differential interactions between C. flaccumfaciens pv. flaccumfaciens isolates and common bean genotypes were identified by utilizing partial diallel analysis. The most aggressive isolates were BRM 14939 and BRM 14942 and the least aggressive isolates were BRM 14941 and BRM 14946. The genotypes IPA 9, Ouro Branco, and Michelite were selected as more resistant among the test isolates. The genotypes IAC Carioca Akytã, BRS Notável, Pérola, IAC Carioca Aruã, and Coquinho contributed more to the isolate x genotype interaction according to the ecovalence method of estimation, and were, therefore, indicated as differentials. Based on these results, it was possible to conclude that physiological races of the pathogen exist, to select resistant genotypes, and to propose a set of differentials.

  10. Cacao bean husk: an applicable bedding material in dairy free-stall barns

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, Akira; Owada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Takehara, Kazuaki; Ito, Maria; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Sato, Kan; Itabashi, Hisao; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kanda, Shuhei

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of cacao bean husk as bedding material in free-stall barn on the behavior, productivity, and udder health of dairy cattle, and on the ammonia concentrations in the barn. Methods Four different stall surfaces (no bedding, cacao bean husk, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw) were each continuously tested for a period of 1 week to determine their effects on nine lactating Holstein cows housed in the free-stall barn with rubber matting. The lying time and the milk yield were measured between d 4 and d 7. Blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration and teat swabs for bacterial counts were obtained prior to morning milking on d 7. The time-averaged gas-phase ammonia concentrations in the barn were measured between d 2 and d 7. Results The cows spent approximately 2 h more per day lying in the stalls when bedding was available than without bedding. The milk yield increased in the experimental periods when cows had access to bedding materials as compared to the period without bedding. The lying time was positively correlated with the milk yield. Bacterial counts on the teat ends recorded for cows housed on cacao bean husk were significantly lower than those recorded for cows housed without bedding. Ammonia concentration under cacao bean husk bedding decreased by 6%, 15%, and 21% as compared to no bedding, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw, respectively. The cortisol concentration was lowest in the period when cacao bean husk bedding was used. We observed a positive correlation between the ammonia concentrations in the barn and the plasma cortisol concentrations. Conclusion Cacao bean husk is a potential alternative of conventional bedding material, such as sawdust or chopped wheat straw, with beneficial effects on udder health and ammonia concentrations in the barns. PMID:28002931

  11. Cacao bean husk: an applicable bedding material in dairy free-stall barns.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Akira; Owada, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Suguru; Komatsu, Natsumi; Takehara, Kazuaki; Ito, Maria; Matsuda, Kazuhide; Sato, Kan; Itabashi, Hisao; Sugimura, Satoshi; Kanda, Shuhei

    2017-07-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the effect of cacao bean husk as bedding material in free-stall barn on the behavior, productivity, and udder health of dairy cattle, and on the ammonia concentrations in the barn. Four different stall surfaces (no bedding, cacao bean husk, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw) were each continuously tested for a period of 1 week to determine their effects on nine lactating Holstein cows housed in the free-stall barn with rubber matting. The lying time and the milk yield were measured between d 4 and d 7. Blood samples for plasma cortisol concentration and teat swabs for bacterial counts were obtained prior to morning milking on d 7. The time-averaged gas-phase ammonia concentrations in the barn were measured between d 2 and d 7. The cows spent approximately 2 h more per day lying in the stalls when bedding was available than without bedding. The milk yield increased in the experimental periods when cows had access to bedding materials as compared to the period without bedding. The lying time was positively correlated with the milk yield. Bacterial counts on the teat ends recorded for cows housed on cacao bean husk were significantly lower than those recorded for cows housed without bedding. Ammonia concentration under cacao bean husk bedding decreased by 6%, 15%, and 21% as compared to no bedding, sawdust, and chopped wheat straw, respectively. The cortisol concentration was lowest in the period when cacao bean husk bedding was used. We observed a positive correlation between the ammonia concentrations in the barn and the plasma cortisol concentrations. Cacao bean husk is a potential alternative of conventional bedding material, such as sawdust or chopped wheat straw, with beneficial effects on udder health and ammonia concentrations in the barns.

  12. Bioavailability of trace elements in beans and zinc-biofortified wheat in pigs.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Dorthe; Nørgaard, Jan Værum; Torun, Bulent; Cakmak, Ismail; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to study bioavailability of trace elements in beans and wheat containing different levels of zinc and to study how the water solubility of trace elements was related to the bioavailability in pigs. Three wheat and two bean types were used: wheat of Danish origin as a control (CtrlW), two Turkish wheat types low (LZnW) and high (HZnW) in zinc, a common bean (Com), and a faba bean (Faba). Two diets were composed by combining 81 % CtrlW and 19 % Com or Faba beans. Solubility was measured as the trace element concentration in the supernatant of feedstuffs, and diets incubated in distilled water at pH 4 and 38°C for 3 h. The bioavailability of zinc and copper of the three wheat types and the two bean-containing diets were evaluated in the pigs by collection of urine and feces for 7 days. The solubility of zinc was 34-63 %, copper 18-42 %, and iron 3-11 %. The zinc apparent digestibility in pigs was similar in the three wheat groups (11-14 %), but was significantly higher in the CtrlW+Faba group (23 %) and negative in the CtrlW+Com group (-30 %). The apparent digestibility of copper was higher in the HZnW (27 %) and CtrlW+Faba (33 %) groups than in the CtrlW (17 %) and LZnW (18 %) groups. The apparent copper digestibility of the CtrlW+Com diet was negative (-7 %). The solubility and digestibility results did not reflect the concentration in feedstuffs. The in vitro results of water solubility showed no relationship to the results of trace mineral bioavailability in pigs.

  13. The Combined Intervention with Germinated Vigna radiata and Aerobic Interval Training Protocol Is an Effective Strategy for the Treatment of Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) and Other Alterations Related to the Metabolic Syndrome in Zucker Rats.

    PubMed

    Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Martínez, Rosario; Nebot, Elena; López-Jurado, María; Aranda, Pilar; Arrebola, Francisco; Cantarero, Samuel; Galisteo, Milagros; Porres, Jesus M

    2017-07-19

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a group of related metabolic alterations that increase the risk of developing non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Several lifestyle interventions based on dietary treatment with functional ingredients and physical activity are being studied as alternative or reinforcement treatments to the pharmacological ones actually in use. In the present experiment, the combined treatment with mung bean ( Vigna radiata ), a widely used legume with promising nutritional and health benefits that was included in the experimental diet as raw or 4 day-germinated seed flour, and aerobic interval training protocol (65-85% VO₂ max) has been tested in lean and obese Zucker rats following a 2 × 2 × 2 (2 phenotypes, 2 dietary interventions, 2 lifestyles) factorial ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) statistical analysis. Germination of V. radiata over a period of four days originated a significant protein hydrolysis leading to the appearance of low molecular weight peptides. The combination of 4 day-germinated V. radiata and aerobic interval training was more efficient compared to raw V. radiata at improving the aerobic capacity and physical performance, hepatic histology and functionality, and plasma lipid parameters as well as reverting the insulin resistance characteristic of the obese Zucker rat model. In conclusion, the joint intervention with legume sprouts and aerobic interval training protocol is an efficient treatment to improve the alterations of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as hepatic histology and functionality related to the development of NAFLD and the MetS.

  14. Ball mill tool for crushing coffee and cocoa beans base on fraction size sieving results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haryanto, B.; Sirait, M.; Azalea, M.; Alvin; Cahyani, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Crushing is one of the operation units that aimed to convert the size of solid material to be smoother particle’s size. The operation unit that can be used in this crushing is ball mill. The purpose of this study is to foresee the effect of raw material mass, grinding time, and the number of balls that are used in the ball mill tool related to the amount of raw material of coffee and cocoa beans. Solid material that has become smooth is then sieved with sieve mesh with size number: 50, 70, 100, and 140. It is in order to obtain the mass fraction that escaped from each sieve mesh. From the experiment, it can be concluded that mass percentage fraction of coffee powder is bigger than cocoa powder that escaped from the mesh. Hardness and humidity of coffee beans and cocoa beans have been the important factors that made coffee beans is easier to be crushed than cocoa beans.

  15. Polyphenol-Rich Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and Their Health Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are plant metabolites with potent anti-oxidant properties, which help to reduce the effects of oxidative stress-induced dreaded diseases. The evidence demonstrated that dietary polyphenols are of emerging increasing scientific interest due to their role in the prevention of degenerative diseases in humans. Possible health beneficial effects of polyphenols are based on the human consumption and their bioavailability. Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a greater source of polyphenolic compounds with numerous health promoting properties. Polyphenol-rich dry common beans have potential effects on human health, and possess anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-mutagenic and anti-carcinogenic properties. Based on the studies, the current comprehensive review aims to provide up-to-date information on the nutritional compositions and health-promoting effect of polyphenol-rich common beans, which help to explore their therapeutic values for future clinical studies. Investigation of common beans and their impacts on human health were obtained from various library databases and electronic searches (Science Direct PubMed, and Google Scholar). PMID:29113066

  16. Validation of quantitative method for azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas.

    PubMed

    Abdelraheem, Ehab M H; Hassan, Sayed M; Arief, Mohamed M H; Mohammad, Somaia G

    2015-09-01

    This study presents a method validation for extraction and quantitative analysis of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas using HPLC-UV and the results confirmed by GC-MS. The employed method involved initial extraction with acetonitrile after the addition of salts (magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride), followed by a cleanup step by activated neutral carbon. Validation parameters; linearity, matrix effect, LOQ, specificity, trueness and repeatability precision were attained. The spiking levels for the trueness and the precision experiments were (0.1, 0.5, 3 mg/kg). For HPLC-UV analysis, mean recoveries ranged between 83.69% to 91.58% and 81.99% to 107.85% for green beans and peas, respectively. For GC-MS analysis, mean recoveries ranged from 76.29% to 94.56% and 80.77% to 100.91% for green beans and peas, respectively. According to these results, the method has been proven to be efficient for extraction and determination of azoxystrobin residues in green beans and peas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates from raw and heat-treated yellow string beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).

    PubMed

    Karaś, Monika; Jakubczyk, Anna; Szymanowska, Urszula; Materska, Małgorzata; Zielińska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, legume plants have been considered not only a source of valuable proteins necessary for the proper functioning and growth of the body but also a source of bioactive compounds such as bioactive peptides, that may be beneficial to human health and protect against negative change in food. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of heat treatment on the release of antioxidant peptides obtained by hydrolysis of the yellow string beans protein. The antioxidant properties of the hydrolysates were evaluated through free radical scavenging activities (DPPH and ABTS) and inhibition of iron activities (chelation of Fe2+). The results show that the heat treatment had influence on both increased peptides content and antioxidant activity after pepsin hydrolysis of string bean protein. The peptides content after protein hydrolysis derived from raw and heat treated beans were noted 2.10 and 2.50 mg·ml-1, respectively. The hydrolysates obtained from raw (PHR) and heat treated (PHT) beans showed better antioxidant properties than protein isolates (PIR and PIT). Moreover, the hydrolysates obtained from heat treated beans showed the higher ability to scavenge DPPH• (46.12%) and ABTS+• (92.32%) than obtained from raw beans (38.02% and 88.24%, correspondingly). The IC50 value for Fe2+ chelating ability for pepsin hydrolysates obtained from raw and heat treatment beans were noted 0.81 and 0.19 mg·ml-1, respectively. In conclusion, the results of this study showed that the heat treatment string beans caused increase in the antioxidant activities of peptide-rich hydrolysates.

  18. Folate content in faba beans (Vicia faba L.)-effects of cultivar, maturity stage, industrial processing, and bioprocessing.

    PubMed

    Hefni, Mohammed E; Shalaby, Mohamed T; Witthöft, Cornelia M

    2015-01-01

    Faba beans are an important source of folate and commonly consumed in Egypt. This study examined the effects of Egyptian industrial food processing (e.g., canning and freezing), germination, cultivar, and maturity stages on folate content, with the aim to develop a candidate functional canned faba bean food with increased folate content. The folate content in four cultivars of green faba beans ranged from 110 to 130 μg 100 g(-1) fresh weight (535-620 μg 100 g(-1) dry matter [DM]), which was four- to sixfold higher than in dried seeds. Industrial canning of dried seeds resulted in significant folate losses of ∼20% (P = 0.004), while industrial freezing had no effect. Germination of faba beans increased the folate content by >40% (P < 0.0001). A novel industrial canning process involving pregermination of dried faba beans resulted in a net folate content of 194 μg 100 g(-1) DM, which is 52% more than in conventional canned beans. The consumption of green faba beans should be recommended, providing ∼120 μg dietary folate equivalents per 100 g/portion.

  19. Prediction of specialty coffee cup quality based on near infrared spectra of green coffee beans.

    PubMed

    Tolessa, Kassaye; Rademaker, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Boeckx, Pascal

    2016-04-01

    The growing global demand for specialty coffee increases the need for improved coffee quality assessment methods. Green bean coffee quality analysis is usually carried out by physical (e.g. black beans, immature beans) and cup quality (e.g. acidity, flavour) evaluation. However, these evaluation methods are subjective, costly, time consuming, require sample preparation and may end up in poor grading systems. This calls for the development of a rapid, low-cost, reliable and reproducible analytical method to evaluate coffee quality attributes and eventually chemical compounds of interest (e.g. chlorogenic acid) in coffee beans. The aim of this study was to develop a model able to predict coffee cup quality based on NIR spectra of green coffee beans. NIR spectra of 86 samples of green Arabica beans of varying quality were analysed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression method was used to develop a model correlating spectral data to cupping score data (cup quality). The selected PLS model had a good predictive power for total specialty cup quality and its individual quality attributes (overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste) showing a high correlation coefficient with r-values of 90, 90,78, 72 and 72, respectively, between measured and predicted cupping scores for 20 out of 86 samples. The corresponding root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 1.04, 0.22, 0.27, 0.24 and 0.27 for total specialty cup quality, overall cup preference, acidity, body and aftertaste, respectively. The results obtained suggest that NIR spectra of green coffee beans are a promising tool for fast and accurate prediction of coffee quality and for classifying green coffee beans into different specialty grades. However, the model should be further tested for coffee samples from different regions in Ethiopia and test if one generic or region-specific model should be developed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Demonstrating a nutritional advantage to the fast cooking dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a nutrient dense food rich in protein and micronutrients. Despite their nutritional benefits, long cooking times limit the consumption of dry beans worldwide, especially in nations where fuelwood for cooking is often expensive or scarce. This study evaluated the...

  1. CAFÉ-BEANS: An exhaustive hunt for high-mass binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Maíz-Apellániz, J.; Simón-Díaz, S.; Alfaro, E. J.; Herrero, A.; Alonso, J.; Barbá, R.; Lorenzo, J.; Marco, A.; Monguió, M.; Morrell, N.; Pellerin, A.; Sota, A.; Walborn, N. R.

    2015-05-01

    CAFÉ-BEANS is an on-going survey running on the 2.2 m telescope at Calar Alto. For more than two years, CAFÉ-BEANS has been collecting high-resolution spectra of early-type stars with the aim of detecting and characterising spectroscopic binaries. The main goal of this project is a thorough characterisation of multiplicity in high-mass stars by detecting all spectroscopic and visual binaries in a large sample of Galactic O-type stars, and solving their orbits. Our final objective is eliminating all biases in the high-mass-star IMF created by undetected binaries.

  2. Characterization of Sulfur Compounds in Coffee Beans by Sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lichtenberg, H.; Hormes, J.; Institute of Physics, University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn

    2007-02-02

    In this 'feasibility study' the influence of roasting on the sulfur speciation in Mexican coffee beans was investigated by sulfur K-XANES Spectroscopy. Spectra of green and slightly roasted beans could be fitted to a linear combination of 'standard' reference spectra for biological samples, whereas longer roasting obviously involves formation of additional sulfur compounds in considerable amounts.

  3. Registration of ‘Alpena' navy bean

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ‘Alpena’ navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (Reg. no. CV- , PI -), developed by Michigan State University AgBioResearch was released in 2014 as an upright, midseason cultivar with uniform dry down and excellent canning quality. Alpena was developed using pedigree breeding method to the F3 generation ...

  4. Molecular characterization of faba bean necrotic yellows viruses in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Kraberger, Simona; Kumari, Safaa G; Najar, Asma; Stainton, Daisy; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2018-03-01

    Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV) (genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae) has a genome comprising eight individually encapsidated circular single-stranded DNA components. It has frequently been found infecting faba bean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in association with satellite molecules (alphasatellites). Genome sequences of FBNYV from Azerbaijan, Egypt, Iran, Morocco, Spain and Syria have been determined previously and we now report the first five genome sequences of FBNYV and associated alphasatellites from faba bean sampled in Tunisia. In addition, we have determined the genome sequences of two additional FBNYV isolates from chickpea plants sampled in Syria and Iran. All individual FBNYV genome component sequences that were determined here share > 84% nucleotide sequence identity with FBNYV sequences available in public databases, with the DNA-M component displaying the highest degree of diversity. As with other studied nanoviruses, recombination and genome component reassortment occurs frequently both between FBNYV genomes and between genomes of nanoviruses belonging to other species.

  5. Common bean varieties demonstrate differential physiological and metabolic responses to the pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Robison, Faith M; Turner, Marie F; Jahn, Courtney E; Schwartz, Howard F; Prenni, Jessica E; Brick, Mark A; Heuberger, Adam L

    2018-02-24

    Plant physiology and metabolism are important components of a plant response to microbial pathogens. Physiological resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been established, but the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. Here, the physiological and metabolic responses of bean varieties that differ in physiological resistance to S. sclerotiorum are investigated. Upon infection, the resistant bean variety A195 had a unique physiological response that included reduced photosynthesis and maintaining a higher leaf surface pH during infection. Leaf metabolomics was performed on healthy tissue adjacent to the necrotic lesion at 16, 24, and 48 hr post inoculation, and 144 metabolites were detected that varied between A195 and Sacramento following infection. The metabolites that varied in leaves included amines/amino acids, organic acids, phytoalexins, and ureides. The metabolic pathways associated with resistance included amine metabolism, uriede-based nitrogen remobilization, antioxidant production, and bean-specific phytoalexin production. A second experiment was conducted in stems of 13 bean genotypes with varying resistance. Stem resistance was associated with phytoalexin production, but unlike leaf metabolism, lipid changes were associated with susceptibility. Taken together, the data supports a multifaceted, physiometabolic response of common bean to S. sclerotiorum that mediates resistance. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. In vitro starch digestibility, pasting and textural properties of mung bean: effect of different processing methods.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Maninder; Sandhu, Kawaljit Singh; Ahlawat, RavinderPal; Sharma, Somesh

    2015-03-01

    Mung bean was subjected to different processing conditions (soaking, germination, cooking and autoclaving) and their textural, pasting and in vitro starch digestibility characteristics were studied. A significant reduction in textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness) after cooking and autoclaving treatment of mung bean was observed. Flours made from differently processed mung bean showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in their pastin g characteristics. Peak and final viscosity were the highest for flour from germinated mung bean whereas those made from autoclaved mung bean showed the lowest value. in vitro starch digestibility of mung bean flours was assessed enzymatically using modified Englyst method and the parameters studied were readily digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), resistant starch (RS) and total starch (TS) content. Various processing treatments increased the RDS contents of mung bean, while the SDS content was found to be the highest for soaked and the lowest for the autoclaved sample. Germinated sample showed higher amount of digestible starch (RDS + SDS) as compared to raw and soaked samples. Flours from raw and soaked samples showed significantly low starch hydrolysis rate at all the temperatures with total hydrolysis of 29.9 and 31.2 %, respectively at 180 min whereas cooked and autoclaved samples showed high hydrolysis rates with 50.2 and 53.8 % of these hydrolyzing within 30 min of hydrolysis.

  7. Saponins from soy bean and mung bean inhibit the antigen specific activation of helper T cells by blocking cell cycle progression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Suk Jun; Bae, Joonbeom; Kim, Sunhee; Jeong, Seonah; Choi, Chang-Yong; Choi, Sang-Pil; Kim, Hyun-Sook; Jung, Woon-Won; Imm, Jee-Young; Kim, Sae Hun; Chun, Taehoon

    2013-02-01

    Treatment of helper T (Th) cells with saponins from soy bean and mung bean prevented their activation by inhibiting cell proliferation and cytokine secretion. However, the saponins did not affect the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II (A(b)) and co-stimulatory molecule (CD86) on professional antigen-presenting cells. Instead, the saponins directly inhibited Th cell proliferation by blocking the G(1) to S phase cell cycle transition. Moreover, blocking of the cell cycle by the saponins was achieved by decreased expression of cyclin D1 and cyclin E, and constitutive expression of p27(KIP1). Saponins also increased stability of p27(KIP1) in Th cells after antigenic stimulation.

  8. Multi-environment selection of small sieve snap beans reduces production constraints in East Africa and subtropical regions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Common bean rust caused by Uromyces appendiculatus, and heat stress lower the yield and quality of snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in East Africa. Four snap bean breeding lines previously selected for broad-spectrum rust resistance (involving Ur-4 and Ur-11 rust genes) and heat tolerance followin...

  9. Seed characteristics and physicochemical properties of powders of 25 edible dry bean varieties.

    PubMed

    Cappa, Carola; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2018-07-01

    Information on the physicochemical variability in dry bean seeds from different varieties grown over distinct crop years is lacking. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the environment and the seed characteristics of 25 edible dry bean varieties and to expand the knowledge on their proximate composition, starch digestibility, solvent retention capacity, and pasting and thermal properties. The impact of bean genotype (25 varieties), growing environment (two crop years), and powder particle size (≤0.5 mm, ≤1.0 mm) was investigated. Statistical differences (P > 0.05) in seed characteristics and in starch, amylose and protein contents were found among the 25 varieties. Unique pasting and thermal properties were observed, and genotype and particle size greatly affected these properties. The accumulated information can be used in breeding programs to select bean lines possessing unique properties for food ingredients while increasing the market value of the crop and enhancing human health. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of Thermal Processing and Maceration on the Antioxidant Activity of White Beans

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Karina; Brigide, Priscila; Bretas, Eloá Bolis; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange Guidolin

    2014-01-01

    Phenolic compounds, which naturally occur in beans, are known to have antioxidant activity, which may be partially lost during the processing of this legume. This study evaluated the effect of thermal processing and maceration on the phenolic acid and flavonoids profile and content and on the antioxidant activity of white beans. According to the results obtained from the 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) method, there were no significant differences among treatment groups analysed. When was using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl method (DPPH), beans cooked without maceration present the higher antioxidant activity, and raw beans the lower. The phenolic acids found in greater amounts were gallic acid and chlorogenic acid. Kaempferol was only detected in the soaked and cooked samples; catechin and kaempferol-3-rutinoside were found in the highest concentrations. Quercetin and kaempferol-3-glucoside were not affected by the cooking process, either with or without maceration. In general, the heat treatment increased the antioxidant activity. PMID:24991931

  11. Comparison of free amino acids, antioxidants, soluble phenolic acids, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation of fermented mung bean and soybean.

    PubMed

    Ali, Norlaily Mohd; Yeap, Swee-Keong; Yusof, Hamidah Mohd; Beh, Boon-Kee; Ho, Wan-Yong; Koh, Soo-Peng; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Long, Kamariah

    2016-03-30

    Mung bean and soybean have been individually reported previously to have antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects, while fermentation is a well-known process to enhance the bioactive compounds that contribute to higher antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodulation effects. In this study, the free amino acids profile, soluble phenolic acids content, antioxidants, cytotoxic and immunomodulatory effects of fermented and non-fermented mung bean and soybean were compared. Fermented mung bean was recorded to have the highest level of free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids (especially protocatechuic acid) and antioxidant activities among all the tested products. Both fermented mung bean and soybean possessed cytotoxicity activities against breast cancer MCF-7 cells by arresting the G0/G1 phase followed by apoptosis. Moreover, fermented mung bean and soybean also induced splenocyte proliferation and enhanced the levels of serum interleukin-2 and interferon-γ. Augmented amounts of free amino acids and phenolic acids content after fermentation enhanced the antioxidants, cytotoxicity and immunomodulation effects of mung bean and soybean. More specifically, fermented mung bean showed the best effects among all the tested products. This study revealed the potential of fermented mung bean and soybean as functional foods for maintenance of good health. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Consumer acceptance and aroma characterization of navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powders prepared by extrusion and conventional processing methods.

    PubMed

    Szczygiel, Edward J; Harte, Janice B; Strasburg, Gale M; Cho, Sungeun

    2017-09-01

    Food products produced with bean ingredients are gaining in popularity among consumers due to the reported health benefits. Navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) powder produced through extrusion can be considered as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional methods, which often involve high water inputs. Therefore, navy bean powders produced with extrusion and conventional methods were assessed for the impact of processing on consumer liking in end-use products and odor-active compounds. Consumer acceptance results reveal significant differences in flavor, texture and overall acceptance scores of several products produced with navy bean powder. Crackers produced with extruded navy bean powder received higher hedonic flavor ratings than those produced with commercial navy bean powder (P < 0.001). GC-O data showed that the commercial powder produced through conventional processing had much greater contents of several aliphatic aldehydes commonly formed via lipid oxidation, such as hexanal, octanal and nonanal with descriptors of 'grassy', 'nutty', 'fruity', 'dusty', and 'cleaner', compared to the extruded powder. Extrusion processed navy bean powders were preferred over commercial powders for certain navy bean powder applications. This is best explained by substantial differences in aroma profiles of the two powders that may have been caused by lipid oxidation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Application of 1H NMR for the characterisation of cocoa beans of different geographical origins and fermentation levels.

    PubMed

    Caligiani, Augusta; Palla, Luigi; Acquotti, Domenico; Marseglia, Angela; Palla, Gerardo

    2014-08-15

    This study reports for the first time the use of (1)H NMR technique combined with chemometrics to study the metabolic profile of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) beans of different varieties, origin and fermentation levels. Results of PCA applied to cocoa bean (1)H NMR dataset showed that the main factor influencing the cocoa bean metabolic profile is the fermentation level. In fact well fermented brown beans form a group clearly separated from unfermented, slaty, and underfermented, violet, beans, independently of the variety or geographical origin. Considering only well fermented beans, the metabolic profile obtained by (1)H NMR permitted to discriminate between some classes of samples. The National cocoa of Ecuador, known as Arriba, showed the most peculiar characteristics, while the samples coming from the African region showed some similar traits. The dataset obtained, representative of all the classes of soluble compounds of cocoa, was therefore useful to characterise fermented cocoa beans as a function of their origin and fermentation level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of the calf pancreas to differently processed soya bean and pea diets.

    PubMed

    Le Dréan, G; Le Huërou-Luron, I; Philouze-Romé, V; Toullec, R; Guilloteau, P

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of replacing skim-milk powder by differently treated soya bean or pea products on growth, pancreas size and pancreatic enzyme activities in calves. Three separate experiments have been performed. In experiments 1 and 2, 28 and 21 male Holstein calves were divided into 4 or 3 groups, respectively, and fed either dairy products or milk substitutes in which protein was mainly provided by soya bean products differing in their protein concentration due to the technological processing applied. In experiment 3, 45 male Holstein calves were divided into 3 groups and were fed either dairy products, or raw or flaked pea flour as a protein source. After an experimental period of 99 +/- 4 days in experiments 1 and 2, and of 88 days in experiment 3, animal growth rate was significantly lower with raw pea flour (16%) and with the soya bean diet, which was highly concentrated in carbohydrates and allergenic proteins (13-27%). Pancreas weight decreased significantly (16-18%) with pea diets and tended to be lower (NS) with the water extracted, concentrated and heated flour (soya bean). Amylase-specific activity increased significantly (43%) with pea diets but showed opposite tendencies with the most refined soya bean products. Proteolytic enzyme activities were slightly influenced by dietary protein source, but this was not as obvious as in the literature reviewed. Specific messenger RNAs corresponding to amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin seemed to increase (NS) with the soya bean diets, particularly with the less elaborated one. However, further investigations are required before any conclusions may be drawn concerning regulation levels of pancreatic adaptation to dietary protein. According to this study and the literature, results concerning pancreatic response to diets were different suggesting that the origin of soya bean, pea seeds and technological treatments applied to them were of great importance. Also, the level of

  16. Origin and diversification of winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.), a multipurpose underutilized legume.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuyi; Grall, Aurélie; Chapman, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    For many crops, research into the origin and partitioning of genetic variation is limited and this can slow or prevent crop improvement programs. Many of these underutilized crops have traits that could be of benefit in a changing climate due to stress tolerance or nutritional properties. Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC.) is one such crop. All parts of the plant can be eaten, from the roots to the seeds, and is high in protein as well as other micronutrients. The goal of our study was to identify the wild progenitor and analyze the partitioning of genetic variation in the crop. We used molecular phylogenetic analyses (cpDNA and nuclear ITS sequencing) to resolve relationships between all species in the genus, and population genetics (utilizing microsatellites) to identify genetic clusters of winged bean accessions and compare this to geography. We find that winged bean is genetically distinct from all other members of the genus. We also provide support for four groups of species in the genus, largely, but not completely, corresponding to the results of previous morphological analyses. Within winged bean, population genetic analysis using 10 polymorphic microsatellite markers suggests four genetic groups; however, there is little correspondence between the genetic variation and the geography of the accessions. The true wild progenitor of winged bean remains unknown (or is extinct). There has likely been large-scale cross-breeding, trade, and transport of winged bean and/or multiple origins of the crop. © 2018 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Zinc and selenium accumulation and their effect on iron bioavailability in common bean seeds.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Marislaine A; Boldrin, Paulo F; Hart, Jonathan J; de Andrade, Messias J B; Guilherme, Luiz R G; Glahn, Raymond P; Li, Li

    2017-02-01

    Common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) are the most important legume crops. They represent a major source of micronutrients and a target for essential trace mineral enhancement (i.e. biofortification). To investigate mineral accumulation during seed maturation and to examine whether it is possible to biofortify seeds with multi-micronutrients without affecting mineral bioavailability, three common bean cultivars were treated independently with zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), the two critical micronutrients that can be effectively enhanced via fertilization. The seed mineral concentrations during seed maturation and the seed Fe bioavailability were analyzed. Common bean seeds were found to respond positively to Zn and Se treatments in accumulating these micronutrients. While the seed pods showed a decrease in Zn and Se along with Fe content during pod development, the seeds maintained relatively constant mineral concentrations during seed maturation. Selenium treatment had minimal effect on the seed accumulation of phytic acid and polyphenols, the compounds affecting Fe bioavailability. Zinc treatment reduced phytic acid level, but did not dramatically affect the concentrations of total polyphenols. Iron bioavailability was found not to be greatly affected in seeds biofortified with Se and Zn. In contrast, the inhibitory polyphenol compounds in the black bean profoundly reduced Fe bioavailability. These results provide valuable information for Se and Zn enhancement in common bean seeds and suggest the possibility to biofortify with these essential nutrients without greatly affecting mineral bioavailability to increase the food quality of common bean seeds. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  19. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  20. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...