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Sample records for yeast extract sucrose

  1. Malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar, a suitable medium for enumeration and isolation of fungi from silage.

    PubMed Central

    Skaar, I; Stenwig, H

    1996-01-01

    A general medium named malt-yeast extract-sucrose agar (MYSA) containing oxgall was designed. The medium was intended for the enumeration and isolation of molds and yeasts in routine examinations of animal feed stuffs. In this study MYSA was tested as a general medium for mycological examination of silage. The medium was compared with dichloran-rose bengal medium (DRBC) in an examination of more than 500 specimens of big bale grass silage. Selected characteristics of known fungal species commonly isolated from feeds were examined after growth on MYSA and DRBC and on malt extract agar, used as a noninhibitory control medium. MYSA suppressed bacterial growth, without affecting the growth of fungi common in feeds. The fungi growing on MYSA were easily recognized, and the medium seemed to slow radial growth of fungal colonies, which permitted, easy counting. The number of species found was higher on MYSA than on DRBC. When we compared MYSA with DRBC for mycological examination of grass silage samples, MYSA was found to be the medium of choice. PMID:8837416

  2. Yeast Extract: Sucrose Ratio Effects on Egg Load, Survival, and Mortality Caused by GF-120 in Western Cherry Fruit Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrinsic sources of nitrogen are needed by tephritid fruit flies for optimal nutrition. In this study, relationships between yeast extract diets containing 0, 0.109, 0.545, 1.09, 2.18, 3.27, and 5.45% nitrogen (N) and diet intake, survival, egg production, and responses to spinosad bait in western...

  3. Glucose and sucrose: hazardous fast-food for industrial yeast?

    PubMed

    Verstrepen, Kevin J; Iserentant, Dirk; Malcorps, Philippe; Derdelinckx, Guy; Van Dijck, Patrick; Winderickx, Joris; Pretorius, Isak S; Thevelein, Johan M; Delvaux, Freddy R

    2004-10-01

    Yeast cells often encounter a mixture of different carbohydrates in industrial processes. However, glucose and sucrose are always consumed first. The presence of these sugars causes repression of gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, respiration and the uptake of less-preferred carbohydrates. Glucose and sucrose also trigger unexpected, hormone-like effects, including the activation of cellular growth, the mobilization of storage compounds and the diminution of cellular stress resistance. In an industrial context, these effects lead to several yeast-related problems, such as slow or incomplete fermentation, 'off flavors' and poor maintenance of yeast vitality. Recent studies indicate that the use of mutants with altered responses to carbohydrates can significantly increase productivity. Alternatively, avoiding unnecessary exposure to glucose and sucrose could also improve the performance of industrial yeasts.

  4. Sucrose-fueled, energy dissipative, transient formation of molecular hydrogels mediated by yeast activity.

    PubMed

    Angulo-Pachón, César A; Miravet, Juan F

    2016-04-01

    A biologically mediated, energy dissipative, reversible formation of fibrillar networks is reported. The process of gelation is linked to sucrose-fueled production of CO2 by baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Continuous fueling of the system is required to maintain the self-assembled fibrillar network. PMID:27009800

  5. Expression of a functional barley sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Hochstrasser, U; Lüscher, M; De Virgilio, C; Boller, T; Wiemken, A

    1998-12-01

    The cDNA encoding sucrose-fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) from barley (Hordeum vulgare) has been expressed in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris, using a translational fusion into vector pPICZ alphaC, containing the N-terminal signal sequence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor to allow entry into the secretory pathway. Transformed Pichia produced and secreted a functional 6-SFT which had characteristics similar to the barley enzyme, but had a pronounced additional 1-SST activity when incubated with sucrose.

  6. A novel zinc finger protein encoded by a couch potato homologue from Solanum tuberosum enables a sucrose transport-deficient yeast strain to grow on sucrose.

    PubMed

    Kühn, C; Frommer, W B

    1995-06-25

    A yeast strain deficient in secreted invertase but expressing a cytoplasmic sucrose synthase has been used to select for potato genes that enable growth on sucrose as the sole carbon source by suppressing the sucrose uptake deficiency. Besides the already known sucrose transporter gene (StSUT1), ten different suppressor clones were identified and characterized. One of these cDNAs (PCP1) enabled efficient growth of the mutant yeast strain and mediated uptake of radiolabeled sucrose. The cDNA encodes a protein of 509 amino acids which is highly hydrophilic and thus does not seem to represent a transporter. Sequence comparisons show that the protein contains zinc finger motifs and shares weak homologies with the Drosophila couch potato gene, which serves as a transcriptional regulator, indicating that PCP1 activates a silent endogenous sucrose uptake system. The other suppressor clones encode either putative transcriptional regulators, protein kinases or enzymes involved in thiamine biosynthesis, ferredoxin reduction or glutamyl tRNA reduction and suppress the phenotype by unknown mechanisms.

  7. Proline accumulation in baker's yeast enhances high-sucrose stress tolerance and fermentation ability in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to various baking-associated stresses. High-sucrose concentrations exert severe osmotic stress that seriously damages cellular components by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we found that the accumulation of proline conferred freeze-thaw stress tolerance and the baker's yeast strain that accumulated proline retained higher-level fermentation abilities in frozen doughs than the wild-type strain. In this study, we constructed self-cloning diploid baker's yeast strains that accumulate proline. These resultant strains showed higher cell viability and lower intracellular oxidation levels than that observed in the wild-type strain under high-sucrose stress condition. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough. These results demonstrate the usefulness of proline-accumulating baker's yeast for sweet dough baking. PMID:22041027

  8. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout extract, as described in this section, may... produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived from Saccharomyces cereviseae,...

  9. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  10. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract is the food ingredient resulting from concentration of the solubles of mechanically ruptured cells of a selected strain of yeast,...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  14. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section 172.590... CONSUMPTION Flavoring Agents and Related Substances § 172.590 Yeast-malt sprout extract. Yeast-malt sprout... prescribed conditions: (a) The additive is produced by partial hydrolysis of yeast extract (derived...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1983 - Bakers yeast extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bakers yeast extract. 184.1983 Section 184.1983... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1983 Bakers yeast extract. (a) Bakers yeast extract... a selected strain of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It may be concentrated or dried. (b)...

  16. Supplemental diets containing yeast, sucrose, and soy powder enhance the survivorship, growth, and development of prey-limited cursorial spiders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effects of a food spray mixture (‘wheast’) and its individual ingredients (sucrose, yeast, and toasted soy flour) on the survivorship, growth, and development of a cursorial spider, Hibana futilis Banks (Anyphaenidae). Some treatments included eggs of Helicoverpa zea, a favored prey...

  17. Dissecting principles governing actin assembly using yeast extracts.

    PubMed

    Michelot, Alphée; Drubin, David G

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe recent protocols that we have developed to trigger actin assembly and actin-based motility in yeast cell extracts. Our method allows for the fast preparation of yeast extracts that are competent in dynamic assembly of distinct actin filament structures of biologically appropriate protein composition. Compared to previous extract-based systems using other eukaryotic cell types, yeast provides a unique advantage for combining reconstituted assays with the preparation of extracts from genetically modified yeast strains. We present a global strategy for dissecting the functions of individual proteins, where the activities of the proteins are analyzed in systems of variable complexity, ranging from simple mixtures of pure proteins to the full complexity of a cell's cytoplasm.

  18. Effect of yeast extract on growth kinetics of Monascus purpureus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, D G; Kilikian, B V

    2001-01-01

    Growth kinetics and red pigment production of Monascus purpureus CCT 3802 was studied. A reproducible inoculum with extremely dispersed hyphae for bioreactor runs was obtained through a two-step cultivation in a shaker. First, the spores were cultivated in a complex medium rendering a suspension of vegetative cells. In the second step these cells were grown in a semisynthetic medium. Two types of media were employed in the bioreactor runs: a semisynthetic (glucose, salts, and yeast extract), and a synthetic, without yeast extract. The inclusion of yeast extract, caused an increase in cell yield on glucose (Yx/s) as high as 40%. Also, yeast extract probably yielded a higher proportion of red pigment associated with the cell, relative to the synthetic medium. On the other hand, cells grown on the synthetic medium were slightly higher producers of red soluble pigments.

  19. Tris-sucrose buffer system: a new specially designed medium for extracellular invertase production by immobilized cells of isolated yeast Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61.

    PubMed

    Aydogan, Mehmet Nuri; Taskin, Mesut; Canli, Ozden; Arslan, Nazli Pinar; Ortucu, Serkan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to isolate new yeasts with high extracellular (exo) invertase activity and to investigate the usability of buffer systems as invertase production media by immobilized yeast cells. Among 70 yeast isolates, Cryptococcus laurentii MT-61 had the highest exo-invertase activity. Immobilization of yeast cells was performed using sodium alginate. Higher exo-invertase activity for immobilized cells was achieved in tris-sucrose buffer system (TSBS) compared to sodium acetate buffer system and potassium phosphate buffer system. TSBS was prepared by dissolving 30 g of sucrose in 1 L of tris buffer solution. The optimum pH, temperature, and incubation time for invertase production with immobilized cells were determined as 8.0, 35 °C and 36 h in TSBS, respectively. Under optimized conditions, maximum exo-invertase activity was found to be 28.4 U/mL in sterile and nonsterile TSBS. Immobilized cells could be reused in 14 and 12 successive cycles in sterile and nonsterile TSBS without any loss in the maximum invertase activity, respectively. This is the first report which showed that immobilized microbial cells could be used as a biocatalyst for exo-invertase production in buffer system. As an additional contribution, a new yeast strain with high invertase activity was isolated.

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing yeast-derived invertase in either the cytosol, vacuole or apoplast: a powerful tool for studying sucrose metabolism and sink/source interactions.

    PubMed

    Sonnewald, U; Brauer, M; von Schaewen, A; Stitt, M; Willmitzer, L

    1991-07-01

    In higher plants sucrose plays a central roles with respect to both short-term storage and distribution of photoassimilates formed in the leaf. Sucrose is synthesized in the cytosol, transiently stored in the vacuole and exported via the apoplast. In order to elucidate the role of the different compartments with respect to sucrose metabolism, a yeast-derived invertase was directed into the cytosol and vacuole of transgenic tobacco plants. This was in addition to the targeting of yeast-derived invertase into the apoplast described previously. Vacuolar targeting was achieved by fusing an N-terminal portion (146 amino acids long) of the vacuolar protein patatin to the coding region of the mature invertase protein. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the yeast-derived invertase in different subcellular compartments displayed dramatic phenotypic differences when compared to wild-type plants. All transgenic plants showed stunted growth accompanied by reduced root formation. Starch and soluble sugars accumulated in leaves indicating that the distribution of sucrose was impaired in all cases. Expression of cytosolic yeast invertase resulted in the accumulation of starch and soluble sugars in both very young (sink) and older (source) leaves. The leaves were curved, indicating a more rapid cell expansion or cell division at the upper side of the leaf. Light-green sectors with reduced photosynthetic activity were evenly distributed over the leaf surface. With the apoplastic and vacuolar invertase, the phenotypical changes induced only appear in older (source) leaves. The development of bleached and/or necrotic sectors was linked to the source state of a leaf. Bleaching followed the sink to source transition, starting at the rim of the leaf and moving to the base. The bleaching was paralleled by the inhibition of photosynthesis. PMID:1844880

  1. 21 CFR 172.590 - Yeast-malt sprout extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN... additive may be used as a flavor enhancer in food at a level not in excess of that reasonably required to... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Yeast-malt sprout extract. 172.590 Section...

  2. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics. PMID:27449232

  3. Spent brewer's yeast extract as an ingredient in cooked hams.

    PubMed

    Pancrazio, Gaston; Cunha, Sara C; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Loureiro, Mónica; Meireles, Sónia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O; Pinho, Olívia

    2016-11-01

    This work describes the effect of the incorporation of 1% spent yeast extract into cooked hams. Physical/chemical/sensorial characteristics and changes during 12 and 90days storage were evaluated on control and treated cooked hams processed for 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 or 3h. Spent yeast extract addition increased hardness, chewiness, ash, protein and free amino acid content. Similar volatile profiles were obtained, although there were some quantitative differences. No advantages were observed for increased cooking time. No significant differences were observed for physical and sensorial parameters of cooked hams with spent yeast extract at 12 and 90days post production, but His, aldehydes and esters increased at the end of storage. This behaviour was similar to that observed for control hams. The higher hardness of cooked ham with 1% yeast extract was due to the stronger gel formed during cooking and was maintained during storage. This additive acts as gel stabilizer for cooked ham production and could potentially improve other processing characteristics.

  4. Extraction and analysis of soluble inositol polyphosphates from yeast.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cristina; Saiardi, Adolfo

    2006-01-01

    Soluble inositol polyphosphates are implicated in the regulation of many important cellular functions. This protocol to extract and separate inositol polyphosphates from Saccharomyces cerevisiae is divided into three steps: labeling of yeast, extraction of soluble inositol polyphosphates and chromatographic separation. Yeast cells are incubated with tritiated inositol, which is taken up and metabolized into different phosphorylated forms. Soluble inositol polyphosphates are then acid-extracted and fractionated by high-performance liquid chromatography. The radioactivity of each fraction is determined by scintillation counting. This highly sensitive and reproducible method allows the accurate detection of subtle changes in the inositol polyphosphate profile and takes less than 48 h. It can easily be applied to other systems and we have included two adaptations of the protocol, one optimized for mammalian cells and the other for Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:17406485

  5. Inhibition of spoiling yeasts of fruit juices through citrus extracts.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Antonio; Speranza, Barbara; Campaniello, Daniela; Corbo, Maria Rosaria; Sinigaglia, Milena

    2013-10-01

    This article reports on the bioactivities of citrus extracts (citrus extract, lemon extract, and neroli) toward Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Pichia membranifaciens, and Rhodotorula bacarum. The bioactivities of the extracts (from 10 to 100 ppm) were evaluated through a microdilution method; thereafter, citrus extracts (0 to 80 ppm) were tested in combination with either pH (3.0 to 5.0) or temperature (5 to 25°C). Finally, a confirmatory experiment was run in a commercial drink (referred to as red fruit juice) containing citrus extract (40 ppm) that was inoculated with either S. cerevisiae or Z. bailii (5 log CFU/ml) and stored at 4 and 25°C. Yeasts increased to 7 log CFU/ml (Z. bailii) or 8 log CFU/ml (S. cerevisiae) in the control at 25°C, but the citrus extract addition controlled yeast growth for at least 3 days; under refrigeration, the effect was significant for 10 days.

  6. Ameliorative Effect of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in Alcohol- and Sucrose-Induced Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akindele, Abidemi J.; Iyamu, Endurance A.; Dutt, Prabhu; Satti, Naresh K.; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major health problem worldwide considering the prevalence of morbidity and mortality. Plants remain a reliable source of efficacious and better tolerated drugs and botanicals. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the chemo-profiled hydroethanolic leaf extract of Byrsocarpus coccineus in ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertension. Groups of rats were treated orally (p.o.) with distilled water (10 ml/kg), ethanol (35%; 3 g/kg), sucrose (5-7%), and B. coccineus (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg), and nifedipine together with ethanol and sucrose separately for 8 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, blood pressure and heart rate of rats were determined. Blood was collected for serum biochemical parameters and lipid profile assessment, and the liver, aorta, kidney, and heart were harvested for estimation of in vivo antioxidants and malondialdehyde (MDA). Results obtained in this study showed that B. coccineus at the various doses administered reduced the systolic, diastolic, and arterial blood pressure elevated by ethanol and sucrose. Also, the extract reversed the reduction in catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by ethanol and sucrose. The level of MDA was reduced compared to the ethanol- and sucrose-induced hypertensive group. With respect to lipid profile, administration of B. coccineus at the various doses reduced the levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and atherogenic indices, compared to the ethanol and sucrose groups. In conclusion the hydroethanolic leaf extract of B. coccineus exerted significant antihypertensive effect and this is probably related to the antioxidant property and improvement of lipid profile observed in this study. PMID:25161923

  7. Antifungal Activity of Diglycerin Ester of Fatty Acids against Yeasts and Its Comparison with Those of Sucrose Monopalmitate and Sodium Benzoate.

    PubMed

    Shimazaki, Aiko; Sakamoto, Jin J; Furuta, Masakazu; Tsuchido, Tetsuaki

    2016-01-01

    The antifungal activities of diglycerin monoester of fatty acids (DGCs), which have been employed as food emulsifiers, were examined against three yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans and Candida utilis and were compared with those of sucrose monoester of palmitic acid (SC16) as another type of emulsifier and sodium benzoate (SB) as a weak acid food preservative. When the minimum growth inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of diglycerin monolaurate (DGC12) against these yeasts were determined 2 d after incubation in YM broth at pH5.0, they were relatively low, being 0.01% (w/v), for both S. cerevisiae and C. utilis, whereas was high, being 4.0% (w/v), for C. albicans. On the contrary, the MICs of sucrose monopalmitate (SC16) were high, being 3.0 and 4.0% (w/v), for the former two yeasts, respectively, but 0.6% (w/v) for the last yeast. In contrast to these emulsifiers, the MICs of sodium benzoate (SB) were similar independently upon the yeast strain, being in order 0.4, 0.3 and 0.5% (w/v), for the above yeasts, respectively. The anti-yeast activities of DGC12 and SC16 were gradually increased with a decrease in pH, in a manner similar to that of SB, except for the action of SC16 on C. albicans, for which the activity was more effective at pHs 5.0 and 6.0 than at pHs 4.0 and 7.0. Among DGCs tested having different fatty acid moieties in the molecule, lauroyl ester (DGC12) was more effective than myristoyl and palmitoyl esters against S. cerevisiae and C. utilis. The inhibitory effect of DGC12 on the yeast growth depended upon both the cell density and the strength of aeration during the treatment. Further, DGC12 was found to kill S. cerevisiae and C. utilis cells at a rather low concentration of 0.005% (w/v) in 50mM acetate buffer at pH5.0, although, against C. albicans cells, only slight fungicidal activity was demonstrated at a high concentration of 0.5% (w/v). The results obtained support the effectiveness of practical application of DGC12 to acidic

  8. Mild water stress of Phaseolus vulgaris plants leads to reduced starch synthesis and extractable sucrose phosphate synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vassey, T.L.; Sharkey, T.D. )

    1989-04-01

    Mild water stress, on the order of {minus}1.0 megapascals xylem water potential, can reduce the rate of photosynthesis and eliminate the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by O{sub 2} in water-stress-sensitive plants such as Phaseolus vulgaris. To investigate the lack of O{sub 2} inhibition of photosynthesis, we measured stromal and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, sucrose phosphate synthase, and partitioning of newly fixed carbon between starch and sucrose before, during, and after mild water stress. The extractable activity of the fructose bisphosphatases was unaffected by mild water stress. The extractable activity of SPS was inhibited by more than 60% in plants stressed to water potentials of {minus}0.9 megapascals. Water stress caused a decline in the starch/sucrose partitioning ratio indicating that starch synthesis was inhibited more than sucrose synthesis. We conclude that the reduced rate of photosynthesis during water stress is caused by stomatal closure, and that the restriction of CO{sub 2} supply caused by stomatal closure leads to a reduction in the capacity for both starch and sucrose synthesis. This causes the reduced O{sub 2} inhibition and abrupt CO{sub 2} saturation of photosynthesis.

  9. Capillary ion chromatography-mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of glucosylglycerol and sucrose in intracellular extracts of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Fa, Yun; Liang, Wenhui; Cui, He; Duan, Yangkai; Yang, Menglong; Gao, Jun; Liu, Huizhou

    2015-09-15

    A capillary ion chromatography-mass spectrometry (MS) method was proposed to determine glucosylglycerol (GG), sucrose, and five other carbohydrates. MS conditions and make-up flow parameters were optimized. This method is accurate and sensitive for simultaneous analysis of carbohydrates, with mean correlation coefficients of determination greater than 0.99, relative standard deviation of 0.91-2.81% for eight replicates, and average spiked recoveries of 97.3-104.9%. Limits of detection of sodium adduct were obtained with MS detection in selected ion mode for GG (0.006mg/L), sucrose (0.02mg/L), and other carbohydrates (0.03mg/L). This method was successfully applied to determine GG and sucrose in intracellular extracts of salt-stressed cyanobacteria.

  10. Production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, using sucrose by fungal and yeast strains, and their interfacial properties.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomotake; Ishibashi, Yuko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Imura, Tomohiro; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Kitamoto, Dai

    2009-10-01

    Glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids (MELs), were produced from glucose and sucrose without vegetable oils. Pseudozyma antarctica JCM 10317, Ustilago maydis NBRC 5346, U. scitaminea NBRC 32730, and P. siamensis CBS 9960 produced mainly MEL-A, MEL-A, MEL-B, and MEL-C respectively. The sucrose-derived MELs showed excellent interfacial properties: low critical micelle concentration as well as that of oil-derived MELs. PMID:19809166

  11. Protective effect of extracts of Perilla frutescens treated with sucrose on tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced oxidative hepatotoxicity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sung-Yong; Hong, Chung-Oui; Lee, Hojoung; Park, Sang-Yul; Park, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Kwang-Won

    2012-07-15

    Perilla frutescens leaves are often used in East Asian gourmet food. In this study, we investigated the hepatoprotective effects of P. frutescens leaves grown in different concentrations of sucrose (0, 115, 175 and 235 mM sucrose) leading to four samples of perilla leaf extracts (PLEs). Based on caffeic acid level and antioxidant activities, further experiments were conducted using perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose compared with non-treated perilla leaf extracts as a control. Oral intubation with non-treated perilla leaf extracts or perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose (1000 mg/kg b.w. rat) for 5 days was conducted before treatment with a single dose of tert-butyl hydroperoxide (0.5 mmol/kg b.w., i.p.) led to a significant reduction of hepatic toxicity in the perilla leaf extracts treated with 6% sucrose. We demonstrated that P. frutescens with higher contents of caffeic acid was produced, and that sucrose could play a role in the induction of this secondary metabolite. Sucrose-treated perilla leaves, which had better antioxidant activities than untreated leaves, can be used as a potential dietary source.

  12. The effects of different yeast extracts on secondary metabolite production in Fusarium.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Sondergaard, Teis Esben

    2014-01-17

    Yeast extract is an important constituent in several media used for metabolite profiling of filamentous fungi. The nutrient composition can vary between brands and thereby influence production of secondary metabolites, which can be regulated in response to nitrogen, carbon and pH. In the present study we examined the production of known secondary metabolites in Fusarium pseudograminearum, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium avenaceum and Fusarium fujikuroi and in each species we identified several secondary metabolites which are influenced by yeast extract brands. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone were produced in high levels on some yeast extract by F. pseudograminearum and F. graminearum, while absent on others. Chlamydosporol, 2-AOD-3-ol and enniatins were influenced by yeast extracts in F. avenaceum, while bikaverin, gibberellic acid, fumonisin and fusaric acid were affected in F. fujikuroi. Aurofusarin and fusarin C on the other hand were not affected by yeast extracts in all producing strains. The observed differences in production in metabolite profiles show the need to use the same yeast extract brand in repeating experiments. The study illustrates furthermore that it can be beneficial to use more than one yeast extract in metabolite profiling a species.

  13. Yeast extract stimulates production of glycolipid biosurfactants, mannosylerythritol lipids, by Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Masaaki; Nagahama, Takahiko; Fukuoka, Tokuma; Morita, Tomotake; Imura, Tomohiro; Kitamoto, Dai; Hatada, Yuji

    2011-06-01

    We improved the culture conditions for a biosurfactant producing yeast, Pseudozyma hubeiensis SY62. We found that yeast extract greatly stimulates MEL production. Furthermore, we demonstrated a highly efficient production of MELs in the improved medium by fed-batch cultivation. The final concentration of MELs reached 129 ± 8.2g/l for one week. PMID:21393057

  14. Acidifying and yeast extract in diets for adults cats.

    PubMed

    Ogoshi, Rosana C S; Zangeronimo, Márcio G; Dos Reis, Jéssica S; França, Janine; Santos, João P F; Pires, Carolina P; Chizzotti, Ana F; Costa, Adriano C; Ferreira, Lívia G; Saad, Flávia M O B

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding an acidifying agent based on phosphoric acid (A), a yeast extract from a specific strain (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (Y) and the combination of these two additives in food for adult cats. A test was conducted with 24 animals (mean 3.5 years old), mixed breed, weighing 3.72 ± 0.74 kg, kept in individual metabolic cages and distributed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial design (with or without A 0.6% of dry matter, with or without Y 1.5% of dry matter) totalling four treatments and six replicates of each condition. The experimental period was 15 days. The A or the Y reduced (P< 0.01) the dry matter intake, but the effect was not observed when they were associated. The association improved (P<0.05) the digestibility of dry matter and ashes. The A reduced urine pH (P=0.05) regardless of the presence of the Y. There was no effect (P>0.09) on other parameters evaluated. Results of this study show that the isolated use of 0.6% A or 1.5% Y in diets for cats is not recommended. However, the association of these two additives was beneficial in increasing nutrient digestibility.

  15. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  16. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1246 - Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1246 Yeast Extract Hydrolysate from... exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the biochemical pesticide Yeast...

  20. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations.

  1. Strategy for the extraction of yeast DNA from artisan agave must for quantitative PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Kirchmayr, Manuel Reinhart; Segura-Garcia, Luis Eduardo; Flores-Berrios, Ericka Patricia; Gschaedler, Anne

    2011-11-01

    An efficient method for the direct extraction of yeast genomic DNA from agave must was developed. The optimized protocol, which was based on silica-adsorption of DNA on microcolumns, included an enzymatic cell wall degradation step followed by prolonged lysis with hot detergent. The resulting extracts were suitable templates for subsequent qPCR assays that quantified mixed yeast populations in artisan Mexican mezcal fermentations. PMID:21820955

  2. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  3. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings. PMID:27602264

  4. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Edward D; Schulz, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers' yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers' yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer's yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers' yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers' yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed "Vegemite Beer" would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  5. Vegemite Beer: yeast extract spreads as nutrient supplements to promote fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    Vegemite is an iconic Australian food spread made from spent brewers’ yeast extract, which has been reported to be used as an ingredient in illegal home brewing. In this study, we tested the utility of Vegemite and the similar spread Marmite in promoting fermentation. We could not culture microorganisms from either Vegemite or Marmite, consistent with these food-grade spreads being essentially sterile. To test if the addition of Vegemite or Marmite could assist in fermentation when additional viable yeast was also present, solutions containing glucose and a range of concentrations of either Vegemite or Marmite were inoculated with brewers’ yeast. No fermentation occurred in any condition without addition of extra brewer’s yeast. Fermentation did not occur when yeast was inoculated into solutions containing only glucose, but progressed efficiently with when Vegemite or Marmite was also added. Gas Chromatography confirmed that ethanol was present at ∼3% v/v post-fermentation in all samples which contained glucose, Vegemite or Marmite, and brewers’ yeast. Trace amounts of methanol were also detected. Mass spectrometry proteomics identified abundant intracellular yeast proteins and barley proteins in Vegemite and Marmite, and abundant secreted yeast proteins from actively growing yeast in those samples to which extra brewers’ yeast had been added. We estimate that the real-world cost of home brewed “Vegemite Beer” would be very low. Our results show that Vegemite or other yeast extract spreads could provide cheap and readily available sources of nutrient supplementation to increase the efficiency of fermentation in home brewing or other settings.

  6. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema. PMID:17291738

  7. Screening of plant extracts for antimicrobial activity against bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance.

    PubMed

    Weckesser, S; Engel, K; Simon-Haarhaus, B; Wittmer, A; Pelz, K; Schempp, C M

    2007-08-01

    There is cumulative resistance against antibiotics of many bacteria. Therefore, the development of new antiseptics and antimicrobial agents for the treatment of skin infections is of increasing interest. We have screened six plant extracts and isolated compounds for antimicrobial effects on bacteria and yeasts with dermatological relevance. The following plant extracts have been tested: Gentiana lutea, Harpagophytum procumbens, Boswellia serrata (dry extracts), Usnea barbata, Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis (supercritical carbon dioxide [CO2] extracts). Additionally, the following characteristic plant substances were tested: usnic acid, carnosol, carnosic acid, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, harpagoside, boswellic acid and gentiopicroside. The extracts and compounds were tested against 29 aerobic and anaerobic bacteria and yeasts in the agar dilution test. U. barbata-extract and usnic acid were the most active compounds, especially in anaerobic bacteria. Usnea CO2-extract effectively inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant strains - MRSA), Propionibacterium acnes and Corynebacterium species. Growth of the dimorphic yeast Malassezia furfur was also inhibited by Usnea-extract. Besides the Usnea-extract, Rosmarinus-, Salvia-, Boswellia- and Harpagophytum-extracts proved to be effective against a panel of bacteria. It is concluded that due to their antimicrobial effects some of the plant extracts may be used for the topical treatment of skin disorders like acne vulgaris and seborrhoic eczema.

  8. [Study of the Sporothrix schenkii (yeast forms) extract. Electrophoretic and immunoelectrophoretic analyses: characterization of enzymatic activities].

    PubMed

    Walbaum, S; Duriez, T; Dujardin, L; Biguet, J

    1978-07-28

    An extract from living yeast forms of S. schenckii was prepared. The yeasts originated from a shake culture in B.H.I. broth (Difco) incubated for 3 days at 35 degrees C in darkness; they were harvested, washed and disrupted with glass beads in a model MSK Braun mechanical cell homogenizer; a freezing-thawing was added to improve the extract. After electrophoretic separation in agarose gel, the extract's components were characterized by their enzymic activity; with this technique, 30 bands were revealed. These enzymic activities were also investigated on the antigenic fractions of the extract revealed by a rabbit hyperimmunserum: 16 among 22 immunoprecipitates are identified by their catalytic properties. Study of the earliest precipitating antibodies (appearing-order and enzymic caracterization) in rabbits just immunized completes this work. How to ameliorate the quality of the extract by culture and extraction conditions is also specified. PMID:692628

  9. Use of Non-Conventional Cell Disruption Method for Extraction of Proteins from Black Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Čolnik, Maja; Primožič, Mateja; Knez, Željko; Leitgeb, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pressure and treatment time on cells disruption of different black yeasts and on activities of extracted proteins using supercritical carbon dioxide process was studied. The cells of three different black yeasts Phaeotheca triangularis, Trimatostroma salinum, and Wallemia ichthyophaga were exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) by varying pressure at fixed temperature (35°C). The black yeasts cell walls were disrupted, and the content of the cells was spilled into the liquid medium. The impact of SC CO2 conditions on secretion of enzymes and proteins from black yeast cells suspension was studied. The residual activity of the enzymes cellulase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, and protease was studied by enzymatic assay. The viability of black yeast cells was determined by measuring the optical density of the cell suspension at 600 nm. The total protein concentration in the suspension was determined on UV–Vis spectrophotometer at 595 nm. The release of intracellular and extracellular products from black yeast cells was achieved. Also, the observation by an environmental scanning electron microscopy shows major morphological changes with SC CO2-treated cells. The advantages of the proposed method are in a simple use, which is also possible for heat-sensitive materials on one hand and on the other hand integration of the extraction of enzymes and their use in biocatalytical reactions. PMID:27148527

  10. Use of Non-Conventional Cell Disruption Method for Extraction of Proteins from Black Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Čolnik, Maja; Primožič, Mateja; Knez, Željko; Leitgeb, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The influence of pressure and treatment time on cells disruption of different black yeasts and on activities of extracted proteins using supercritical carbon dioxide process was studied. The cells of three different black yeasts Phaeotheca triangularis, Trimatostroma salinum, and Wallemia ichthyophaga were exposed to supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2) by varying pressure at fixed temperature (35°C). The black yeasts cell walls were disrupted, and the content of the cells was spilled into the liquid medium. The impact of SC CO2 conditions on secretion of enzymes and proteins from black yeast cells suspension was studied. The residual activity of the enzymes cellulase, β-glucosidase, α-amylase, and protease was studied by enzymatic assay. The viability of black yeast cells was determined by measuring the optical density of the cell suspension at 600 nm. The total protein concentration in the suspension was determined on UV-Vis spectrophotometer at 595 nm. The release of intracellular and extracellular products from black yeast cells was achieved. Also, the observation by an environmental scanning electron microscopy shows major morphological changes with SC CO2-treated cells. The advantages of the proposed method are in a simple use, which is also possible for heat-sensitive materials on one hand and on the other hand integration of the extraction of enzymes and their use in biocatalytical reactions.

  11. Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardello, H M; Da Silva, M A; Damasio, M H

    1999-01-01

    Special diets are used to mitigate many human diseases. When these diets require changes in carbohydrate content, then sweetness becomes an important characteristic. The range of low-calorie sweeteners available to the food industry is expanding. It is essential to have an exact knowledge of the relative sweetness of various sweeteners in relation to different sucrose concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the variation on the relative sweetness of aspartame (APM), stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni] leaf extract (SrB) and the mixture cyclamate/saccharin--two parts of cyclamate and one part of saccharin--(C/S) with the increase in their concentrations, and in neutral and acid pH in equisweet concentration to 10% sucrose, using magnitude estimation. Sweetness equivalence of SrB in relation to sucrose concentrations of 20% or higher and of APM and C/S to sucrose concentrations of 40% or higher could not be determined, because a bitter taste predominated. The potency of all sweeteners decreased as the level of sweetner increased. In equi-sweet concentration of sucrose at 10%, with pH 7.0 and pH 3.0, the potency was practically the same for all sweeteners evaluated.

  12. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeast extracts contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. A standardized yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey po...

  13. GMAX Yeast Background Strain Made from Industrial Tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Engineered to Convert Sucrose, Starch and Cellulosic Sugars Universally to Ethanol Anaerobically with Concurrent Coproduct Expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tailored GMAX yeast background strain technology for universal ethanol production industrially. Production of the stable baseline glucose, mannose, arabinose, xylose-utilizing (GMAX) yeast will be evaluated by taking the genes identified in high-throughput screening for a plasmid-based yeast to uti...

  14. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress would both improve human health and provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed a standard diet or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (Alphamune™, YE), ...

  15. Gastrointestinal Maturation is Accelerated in Turkey Poults Supplemented with a Mannan-Oligosaccharide Yeast Extract (Alphamune)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, has been shown to stimulate the immune system, increase body weight in pigs, and reduce Salmonella colonization in chickens. The influence of Alphamune™ on gastrointestinal tract development has not been reported. Two trials were conducted to evalu...

  16. A single protocol for extraction of gDNA from bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Vingataramin, Laurie; Frost, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    Guanidine thiocyanate breakage of microorganisms has been the standard initial step in genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction of microbial DNA for two decades, despite the requirement for pretreatments to extract DNA from microorganisms other than Gram-negative bacteria. We report a quick and low-cost gDNA extraction protocol called EtNa that is efficient for bacteria and yeast over a broad range of concentrations. EtNa is based on a hot alkaline ethanol lysis. The solution can be immediately centrifuged to yield a crude gDNA extract suitable for PCR, or it can be directly applied to a silica column for purification. PMID:25757544

  17. A single protocol for extraction of gDNA from bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Vingataramin, Laurie; Frost, Eric H

    2015-03-01

    Guanidine thiocyanate breakage of microorganisms has been the standard initial step in genomic DNA (gDNA) extraction of microbial DNA for two decades, despite the requirement for pretreatments to extract DNA from microorganisms other than Gram-negative bacteria. We report a quick and low-cost gDNA extraction protocol called EtNa that is efficient for bacteria and yeast over a broad range of concentrations. EtNa is based on a hot alkaline ethanol lysis. The solution can be immediately centrifuged to yield a crude gDNA extract suitable for PCR, or it can be directly applied to a silica column for purification.

  18. Leavening ability of baker's yeast exposed to hyperosmotic media.

    PubMed

    Hirasawa, R; Yokoigawa, K

    2001-01-15

    To develop a simple and rapid method for enhancing the leavening ability of baker's yeast, we examined the fermentation ability of baker's yeast exposed to hyperosmotic media. When baker's yeast cells were incubated at 25 degrees C for 1 h in a hyperosmotic medium containing 0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% peptone and 20% sucrose, the cells showed a higher fermentation ability in the subsequent fermentation test than those untreated. The increased ratios were from 40 to 60% depending on the strains used. Glucose and fructose showed a similar effect to that of sucrose, but sorbitol was less effective. A high correlation between the intracellular glycerol content and fermentation ability after the osmotic treatment suggested that glycerol accumulated during the hyperosmotic treatment was used in the subsequent fermentation as a substrate, lessened the lag time, and consequently enhanced the fermentation ability. Various baker's yeasts also showed a high leavening ability in dough after the hyperosmotic treatment.

  19. NMR studies of a bacterial cell culture medium (LB broth): cyclic nucleotides in yeast extracts.

    PubMed

    Rayner, M H; Sadler, P J; Scawen, M D

    1990-03-01

    The composition of LB broth (tryptone, yeast extract and NaCl) was investigated by 1H,31P-NMR spectroscopy, FPLC and gel electrophoresis. An unexpected finding was the high level of 2'3'-cyclic nucleotides, detected by characteristic 31P-NMR resonances in the region 20-21 ppm, originating from the yeast component. 31P-NMR resonances for cyclic nucleotides were observed during the autolysis of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, and in model reactions of RNase with RNA.

  20. Obtaining and selection of hexokinases-less strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for production of ethanol and fructose from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Rodrigo Setem; Gomes, Luiz Humberto; Gonzaga do P Filho, Luiz; Tavares, Flávio C A

    2008-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae hexokinase-less strains were produced to study the production of ethanol and fructose from sucrose. These strains do not have the hexokinases A and B. Twenty-three double-mutant strains were produced, and then, three were selected for presenting a smaller growth in yeast extract-peptone-fructose. In fermentations with a medium containing sucrose (180.3 g L(-1)) and with cell recycles, simulating industrial conditions, the capacity of these mutant yeasts in inverting sucrose and fermenting only glucose was well characterized. Besides that, we could also see their great tolerance to the stresses of fermentative recycles, where fructose production (until 90 g L(-1)) and ethanol production (until 42.3 g L(-1)) occurred in cycles of 12 h, in which hexokinase-less yeasts performed high growth (51.2% of wet biomass) and viability rates (77% of viable cells) after nine consecutive cycles.

  1. Inhibition of Melanogenesis by Yeast Extracts from Cultivations of Recombinant Pichia pastoris Catalyzing ortho-Hydroxylation of Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Chang, Te-sheng; Tsai, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-01-01

    The inhibition of melanogenesis by yeast extracts from cultivations of recombinant Pichia pastoris catalyzing ortho-hydroxylation of flavonoids was investigated. The recombinant yeast harbored a fusion gene composed of the CYP57B3 gene from Aspergillus oryzae and a cytochrome reductase gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Ten flavonoids belonging to flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavanols, and isoflavones were evaluated for biotransformation by the recombinant strain. The results showed that five flavonoids, including the flavone apigenin, the flavanones naringenin and liquiritigenin, and the isoflavones daidzein and genistein, could be biotransformed. The yeast extracts from the five biotransformation fermentations were then evaluated for inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in cultured mouse B16 melanoma cells. Three yeast extracts from biotransformation fermentation feeding with daidzein, genistein, or apigenin showed inhibitory activity on melanogenesis in the B16 cells, while the extract from genistein biotransformation exhibited the highest activity. The yeast extract from genistein biotransformation also showed inhibitory activity on cellular tyrosinase activity in the B16 cells. The present study shows a CYP with multiple flavonoid substrates for the first time and highlights the usage of yeast extracts from cultivations of the recombinant yeast catalyzing flavonoids' biotransformation in the development of skin-whitening agents.

  2. Unveiling the potential of novel yeast protein extracts in white wines clarification and stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Joana P.; Neto, Rodrigo; Centeno, Filipe; De Fátima Teixeira, Maria; Gomes, Ana Catarina

    2015-01-01

    Fining agents derived from animal and mineral sources are widely used to clarify and stabilize white wines. Nevertheless, health and environmental problems are being raised, concerning the allergenic and environmental impact of some of those fining products. In this study, our aim is to validate the potential of yeast protein extracts, obtained from an alternative and safe source, naturally present in wine: oenological yeasts. Three untreated white wines were used in this work in order to evaluate the impact of these novel yeast protein extracts (YPE) in terms of the wine clarification and stabilization improvement. Two separated fining trials were thus conducted at laboratory scale and the yeast alternatives were compared with reference fining agents, obtained from mineral, animal and vegetable origins. Our results indicate that YPE were capable to promote (i) brilliance/color improvement, (ii) turbidity reduction (76–89% comparing with the untreated wines), and (iii) production of compact and homogeneous lees (44% smaller volume than obtained with bentonite). Additionally, after submitting wines to natural and forced oxidations, YPE treatments revealed (iv) different forms of colloidal stabilization, by presenting comparable or superior effects when particularly compared to casein. Altogether, this study reveals that YPE represent a promising alternative for white wine fining, since they are resultant from a natural and more sustainable origin, at present not regarded as potential allergenic according to Regulation (EC) No. 1169/2011. PMID:25853122

  3. Removal of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose from soybean meal using either ethanol extraction or exogenous alpha-galactosidase and broiler performance.

    PubMed

    Irish, G G; Barbour, G W; Classen, H L; Tyler, R T; Bedford, M R

    1995-09-01

    Two studies using broiler chicks and one using adult White Leghorn roosters were conducted to determine the influence of stachyose and raffinose (alpha-galactosides of sucrose) present in soybean meal (SBM) on the nutritional value of the meal. In Experiment 1, the addition of four levels (0, .05, .10, or .20 g/kg) of alpha-galactosidase with and without 1 g/kg of invertase to a corn-SBM diet had no effect on weight gain, feed efficiency, protein digestibility, or the digestible energy value of the feed when fed to broiler chicks. However, both enzymes decreased (P < .001) dietary AMEn. In Experiment 2, ethanol extraction and incubation of SBM with alpha-galactosidase decreased the concentrations of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose in SBM from 6.59 to .81 and 1.43%, respectively. However, when broiler chicks were fed semi-purified diets containing SBM, ethanol-extracted SBM, water-incubated SBM, or water plus alpha-galactosidase-incubated SBM, no improvements in weight gain, feed efficiency, or apparent protein digestibility were observed. There was also no improvement in TMEn when the above meals were precision fed to adult White Leghorn roosters (Experiment 3). These results indicate that the removal of up to approximately 90% of the alpha-galactosides of sucrose has no beneficial effect on the nutritional value of SBM for chickens.

  4. Dextransucrase production using cashew apple juice as substrate: effect of phosphate and yeast extract addition.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Clarice M A; Honorato, Talita L; Pinto, Gustavo A S; Maia, Geraldo A; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-05-01

    Cashew apples are considered agriculture excess in the Brazilian Northeast because cashew trees are cultivated primarily with the aim of cashew nut production. In this work, the use of cashew apple juice as a substrate for Leuconostoc mesenteroides cultivation was investigated. The effect of yeast extract and phosphate addition was evaluated using factorial planning tools. Both phosphate and yeast extract addition were significant factors for biomass growth, but had no significant effect on maximum enzyme activity. The enzyme activities found in cashew apple juice assays were at least 3.5 times higher than the activity found in the synthetic medium. Assays with pH control (pH = 6.5) were also carried out. The pH-controlled fermentation enhanced biomass growth, but decreased the enzyme activity. Crude enzyme free of cells produced using cashew apple juice was stable for 16 h at 30 degrees C at a pH of 5.0.

  5. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb.

  6. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA.

    PubMed

    Blount, Benjamin A; Driessen, Maureen R M; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  7. Acceleration of yoghurt fermentation time by yeast extract and partial characterisation of the active components.

    PubMed

    Smith, Esti-Andrine; Myburgh, Jacobus; Osthoff, Gernot; de Wit, Maryna

    2014-11-01

    Water soluble autolysate of yeast, usually utilised for microbial growth support, was used as additive in yoghurt fermentation. The yeast extract (YE) resulted in a decrease of fermentation time by 21% to reach a pH of 4·6. However, the YE resulted in unacceptable flavour and taste. By size exclusion chromatography, a fraction of the YE was obtained that could account for the observed 21% decrease in fermentation time. The fraction contained molecules of low molecular weight, consisting of minerals, free amino acids and peptides. The acceleration of the yoghurt fermentation was ascribed to the short peptides in the fraction. It is proposed that the application of this extract in industrial yoghurt manufacture would result in savings for both the industry and the consumer.

  8. GC Preps: Fast and Easy Extraction of Stable Yeast Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Blount, Benjamin A.; Driessen, Maureen R. M.; Ellis, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Existing yeast genomic DNA extraction methods are not ideally suited to extensive screening of colonies by PCR, due to being too lengthy, too laborious or yielding poor quality DNA and inconsistent results. We developed the GC prep method as a solution to this problem. Yeast cells from colonies or liquid cultures are lysed by vortex mixing with glass beads and then boiled in the presence of a metal chelating resin. In around 12 minutes, multiple samples can be processed to extract high yields of genomic DNA. These preparations perform as effectively in PCR screening as DNA purified by organic solvent methods, are stable for up to 1 year at room temperature and can be used as the template for PCR amplification of fragments of at least 8 kb. PMID:27240644

  9. Ultrasound assisted extraction of carbohydrates from microalgae as feedstock for yeast fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guili; Chen, Xue; Wang, Lei; Zhou, Shixiao; Feng, Huixing; Chen, Wei Ning; Lau, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Recently, carbohydrates biomass from microalgae is considered as a promising and inexpensive feedstock for biofeuls production by microorganism fermentation. The main obstacle of the process is microalgae pretreatment and carbohydrates extraction from algal cell. In this study, comparison of three pretreatment methods was performed and the results showed that ultrasonic assisted extraction (UAE) was very effective. The effects of four parameters (ultrasonic power, extraction time, flow rate and algal cell concentration, respectively) on extraction efficiency were also investigated. Additionally, in order to identify significant factors for glucose yield, combination of these four parameters was examined by using fractional factorial design (FFD) and the regression model was obtained. Meanwhile, the refined model was confirmed as a good fitting model via analysis of variance (ANOVA). After extraction, glucose obtained from microalgae was used as substrate for Rhodosporidium toruloides fermentation and yeast biomass was much higher than that of control culture.

  10. Aniline blue-containing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium for presumptive identification of Legionella species

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, R.L.

    1982-04-01

    By utilizing buffered charcoal-yeast extract medium containing 0.01% aniline blue in conjunction with a long-wave UV light, the differentiation of five species of Legionella was facilitated. L. pneumophila, when grown on this medium, did not absorb the aniline blue dye; however, L. micdadei, L. dumoffii, L. bozemanii, and L. gormanii absorbed the dye in varying amounts and produced colonies of various shades of blue.

  11. Methyl jasmonate and yeast extract stimulate mitragynine production in Mitragyna speciosa (Roxb.) Korth. shoot culture.

    PubMed

    Wungsintaweekul, Juraithip; Choo-Malee, Jutarat; Charoonratana, Tossaton; Keawpradub, Niwat

    2012-10-01

    Mitragynine is a pharmacologically-active terpenoid indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa leaves. Treatment with methyl jasmonate (10 μM) for 24 h and yeast extract (0.1 mg/ml) for 12 h were the optimum conditions of elicitation of mitragynine accumulation in a M. speciosa shoot culture. The former elicitor gave 0.11 mg mitragynine/g dry wt. Tryptophan decarboxylase and strictosidine synthase mRNA levels were enhanced in accordance with mitragynine accumulation. PMID:22714271

  12. Microbial dynamics during azo dye degradation in a UASB reactor supplied with yeast extract

    PubMed Central

    Silva, S.Q.; Silva, D.C.; Lanna, M.C.S.; Baeta, B.E.L.; Aquino, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    The present work aimed to investigate the microbial dynamics during the anaerobic treatment of the azo dye blue HRFL in bench scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. Sludge samples were collected under distinct operational phases, when the reactor were stable (low variation of color removal), to assess the effect of glucose and yeast extract as source of carbon and redox mediators, respectively. Reactors performance was evaluated based on COD (chemical oxygen demand) and color removal. The microbial dynamics were investigated by PCR-DGGE (Polimerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient of Gel Electrophoresis) technique by comparing the 16S rDNA profiles among samples. The results suggest that the composition of microorganisms changed from the beginning to the end of the reactor operation, probably in response to the presence of azo dye and/or its degradation byproducts. Despite the highest efficiency of color removal was observed in the presence of 500 mg/L of yeast extract (up to 93%), there were no differences regarding the microbial profiles that could indicate a microbial selection by the yeast extract addition. On the other hand Methosarcina barkeri was detected only in the end of operation when the best efficiencies on color removal occurred. Nevertheless the biomass selection observed in the last stages of UASB operation is probably a result of the washout of the sludge in response of accumulation of aromatic amines which led to tolerant and very active biomass that contributed to high efficiencies on color removal. PMID:25763018

  13. Trophic effect of a methanol yeast extract on 3T3 fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Dominique; Dillemans, Monique; Allardin, David; Priem, Fabian; Van Nedervelde, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    With regard to the increase of human life expectancy, interest for topical treatments aimed to counteract skin aging is still growing. Hence, research for bioactive compounds able to stimulate skin fibroblast activity is an attractive topic. Having previously described the effects of a new methanol yeast extract on growth and metabolic activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we studied its effects on 3T3 fibroblasts to evaluate its potential antiaging property. This investigation demonstrates that this extract increases proliferation as well as migration of 3T3 cells and decreases their entrance in senescence and apoptosis phases. Altogether, these results open new perspectives for the formulation of innovative antiaging topical treatments.

  14. Host-Pathogen Interactions: XIV. Isolation and Partial Characterization of an Elicitor from Yeast Extract.

    PubMed

    Hahn, M G; Albersheim, P

    1978-07-01

    An elicitor of glyceollin accumulation in soybeans (Glycine max L.) has been isolated from a commercially available extract of brewers' yeast. Yeast is not a known pathogen of plants. The elicitor was isolated by precipitation in 80% (v/v) ethanol followed by column chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, sulfopropyl-Sephadex, and concanavalin A-Sepharose. Compositional and structural analysis showed the elicitor to be a glucan containing terminal, 3-, 6-, and 3,6-linked glucosyl residues. The yeast elicitor stimulates the accumulation of glyceollin in the cotyledons and hypocotyls of soybeans when as little as 15 nanograms or 100 nanograms of the elicitor is applied to the respective tissues. The yeast elicitor is very similar in both structure and absolute elicitor activity to an elicitor isolated from the mycelial walls of Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae, a pathogen of soybeans. These and other results of this laboratory suggest that plants are able to respond to the presence of a wide range of fungi by recognizing, as foreign to the plant, structural polysaccharides of the mycelial walls of the fungi.

  15. Detergent assisted lipid extraction from wet yeast biomass for biodiesel: A response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Sravan Kumar; Bezawada, Jyothi; Kaur, Rajwinder; Kuttiraja, Mathiazhakan; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D

    2016-10-01

    The lipid extraction from the microbial biomass is a tedious and high cost dependent process. In the present study, detergent assisted lipids extraction from the culture of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY-7 was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of three principle parameters (N-LS concentration, time and temperature) on microbial lipid extraction efficiency % (w/w). The results obtained by statistical analysis showed that the quadratic model fits in all cases. Maximum lipid recovery of 95.3±0.3% w/w was obtained at the optimum level of process variables [N-LS concentration 24.42mg (equal to 48mgN-LS/g dry biomass), treatment time 8.8min and reaction temperature 30.2°C]. Whereas the conventional chloroform and methanol extraction to achieve total lipid recovery required 12h at 60°C. The study confirmed that oleaginous yeast biomass treatment with N-lauroyl sarcosine would be a promising approach for industrial scale microbial lipid recovery.

  16. Detergent assisted lipid extraction from wet yeast biomass for biodiesel: A response surface methodology approach.

    PubMed

    Yellapu, Sravan Kumar; Bezawada, Jyothi; Kaur, Rajwinder; Kuttiraja, Mathiazhakan; Tyagi, Rajeshwar D

    2016-10-01

    The lipid extraction from the microbial biomass is a tedious and high cost dependent process. In the present study, detergent assisted lipids extraction from the culture of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica SKY-7 was carried out. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the effect of three principle parameters (N-LS concentration, time and temperature) on microbial lipid extraction efficiency % (w/w). The results obtained by statistical analysis showed that the quadratic model fits in all cases. Maximum lipid recovery of 95.3±0.3% w/w was obtained at the optimum level of process variables [N-LS concentration 24.42mg (equal to 48mgN-LS/g dry biomass), treatment time 8.8min and reaction temperature 30.2°C]. Whereas the conventional chloroform and methanol extraction to achieve total lipid recovery required 12h at 60°C. The study confirmed that oleaginous yeast biomass treatment with N-lauroyl sarcosine would be a promising approach for industrial scale microbial lipid recovery. PMID:27416517

  17. Extraction of brewer's yeasts using different methods of cell disruption for practical biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Matoulková, Dagmar; Kolouchová, Irena; Masák, Jan; Viden, Ivan; Sigler, Karel

    2015-05-01

    The methods of preparation of fatty acids from brewer's yeast and its use in production of biofuels and in different branches of industry are described. Isolation of fatty acids from cell lipids includes cell disintegration (e.g., with liquid nitrogen, KOH, NaOH, petroleum ether, nitrogenous basic compounds, etc.) and subsequent processing of extracted lipids, including analysis of fatty acid and computing of biodiesel properties such as viscosity, density, cloud point, and cetane number. Methyl esters obtained from brewer's waste yeast are well suited for the production of biodiesel. All 49 samples (7 breweries and 7 methods) meet the requirements for biodiesel quality in both the composition of fatty acids and the properties of the biofuel required by the US and EU standards.

  18. Analysis of the dynamics of relaxation type oscillation in glycolysis of yeast extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Das, J; Busse, H G

    1991-01-01

    In yeasts, the glycolysis may display oscillations of its metabolites while it is converting glucose. The dynamics of the oscillations has been investigated in cytoplasmic extracts of yeast under relaxation type conditions by determining the time course of some of the glycolytic metabolites. The compounds of the nucleotide pool have been identified as fast variables and the glucose derivatives as slow variables of the relaxation type. The period of oscillation has been subdivided into four phases which represent prominent parts of the limit cycle in the phase plane of a slow versus a fast variable. From the reaction processes in these phases, a dynamical picture of the mechanisms of oscillations is suggested. Accordingly, the oscillation results from an alternating activity of the fructose bisphosphate and the polysaccharide synthesis, both of which are coupled to glycolysis via the nucleotide pool. The processes in the phases are analyzed by calculating the rates of the reaction steps in the biochemical pathway. PMID:1832975

  19. Sucrose hydrolases from the midgut of the sugarcane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Cíntia N B; Isejima, Eliza M; Samuels, Richard I; Silva, Carlos P

    2004-11-01

    A beta-fructosidase (EC 3.2.1.26) was isolated from the midgut of larval sugar cane stalk borer Diatraea saccharalis by mild-denaturing electrophoresis and further purified to near homogeneity by gel filtration. beta-Fructosidase hydrolysed sucrose, raffinose and the fructosyl-trisaccharide isokestose, but it had no activity against maltose, melibiose and synthetic substrates for alpha-glucosidases. Two other sucrose hydrolases, one resembling a alpha-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.20) and the other one active specifically against sucrose (sucrase) were detected in the larval midgut of D. saccharalis. All three sucrose hydrolases were associated with the midgut epithelium of larval D. saccharalis. Relative molecular mass (M(r)) of the beta-fructosidase was estimated around 45,000 (by gel filtration). The other two sucrose hydrolases had M(r) of 54,000 (alpha-glucosidase) and 59,000 (sucrase). The pH optima of the sucrose hydrolases were 5-10 for both alpha-glucosidase and sucrase and 7-8 for beta-fructosidase. Considering V(max)/K(m) ratios, beta-fructosidase preferentially cleaves isokestose rather than raffinose and sucrose. In order to evaluate the possible contribution of microorganisms isolated from the midgut to the pool of sucrose hydrolases, washed midgut epithelia were homogenised and plated onto appropriate media. Seven bacterial and one yeast species were isolated. None of the sucrose hydrolases extracted from the microorganisms corresponded to the enzymes isolated from midgut tissue homogenates. This result suggests that the major sucrose hydrolases found in the midgut of larval D. saccharalis were probably produced by the insect themselves not by the gut microflora.

  20. A Yeast Metabolite Extraction Protocol Optimised for Time-Series Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Sasidharan, Kalesh; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing call for the absolute quantification of time-resolved metabolite data. However, a number of technical issues exist, such as metabolites being modified/degraded either chemically or enzymatically during the extraction process. Additionally, capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is incompatible with high salt concentrations often used in extraction protocols. In microbial systems, metabolite yield is influenced by the extraction protocol used and the cell disruption rate. Here we present a method that rapidly quenches metabolism using dry-ice ethanol bath and methanol N-ethylmaleimide solution (thus stabilising thiols), disrupts cells efficiently using bead-beating and avoids artefacts created by live-cell pelleting. Rapid sample processing minimised metabolite leaching. Cell weight, number and size distribution was used to calculate metabolites to an attomol/cell level. We apply this method to samples obtained from the respiratory oscillation that occurs when yeast are grown continuously. PMID:22952947

  1. A simple and sensitive method to extract bacterial, yeast and fungal DNA from blood culture material.

    PubMed

    Millar, B C; Jiru, X; Moore, J E; Earle, J A

    2000-10-01

    This study investigated the various commercially available kits and 'in-house' methods to extract DNA from Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and fungal agents in commonly employed blood culture material. The main methods investigated were as follows; Qiagen QIAmp Blood kit, Roche high PCR template preparation kit, Puregene DNA extraction kit, boiling, glass beads/sonication and wash/alkali/heat lysis. The results indicated that a simple wash/alkali/heat lysis method was the most sensitive, reproducible, simple and cost-effective extraction method. This was the only method which removed any PCR inhibitors and inherent DNA which existed in virgin BacT/Alert aerobic, anaerobic and paediatric blood culture material. Contaminating microbial DNA from Lactococcus lactis or Bacillus coagulans was identified in all batches of BacT/Alert FAN aerobic blood culture material examined.

  2. Malolactic bioconversion using a Oenococcus oeni strain for cider production: effect of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mónica; García, Luis A; Díaz, Mario

    2003-12-01

    Yeast extract addition to reconstituted apple juice had a positive impact on the development of the malolactic starter culture used to ensure malolactic fermentation in cider, using active but non-proliferating cells. In this work, the reuse of fermentation lees from cider is proposed as an alternative to the use of commercial yeast extract products. Malolactic enzymatic assays, both in whole cells and cell-free extracts, were carried out to determine the best time to harvest cells for use as an inoculum in cider. Cells harvested at the late exponential phase, the physiological stage of growth corresponding to the maximum values of specific malolactic activity, achieved a good rate of malic acid degradation in controlled cider fermentation. Under the laboratory conditions used, malic acid degradation rates in the fermentation media turned out to be near 2.0 and 2.5 times lower, compared with the rates obtained in whole-cell enzymatic assays, as useful data applicable to industrial cider production.

  3. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of yeast extracts containing rotavirus-like particles: a potential veterinary vaccine.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Limas, William A; Pastor, Ana Ruth; Esquivel-Soto, Ernesto; Esquivel-Guadarrama, Fernando; Ramírez, Octavio T; Palomares, Laura A

    2014-05-19

    Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in many animal species of economic interest. A simple, safe and cost-effective vaccine is required for the control and prevention of rotavirus in animals. In this study, we evaluated the use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extracts containing rotavirus-like particles (RLP) as a vaccine candidate in an adult mice model. Two doses of 1mg of yeast extract containing rotavirus proteins (between 0.3 and 3 μg) resulted in an immunological response capable of reducing the replication of rotavirus after infection. Viral shedding in all mice groups diminished in comparison with the control group when challenged with 100 50% diarrhea doses (DD50) of murine rotavirus strain EDIM. Interestingly, when immunizing intranasally protection against rotavirus infection was observed even when no increase in rotavirus-specific antibody titers was evident, suggesting that cellular responses were responsible of protection. Our results indicate that raw yeast extracts containing rotavirus proteins and RLP are a simple, cost-effective alternative for veterinary vaccines against rotavirus.

  4. Optimized extract preparation methods and reaction conditions for improved yeast cell-free protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Hodgman, C Eric; Jewett, Michael C

    2013-10-01

    Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) has emerged as a powerful platform technology to help satisfy the growing demand for simple, affordable, and efficient protein production. In this article, we describe a novel CFPS platform derived from the popular bio-manufacturing organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By developing a streamlined crude extract preparation protocol and optimizing the CFPS reaction conditions we were able to achieve active firefly luciferase synthesis yields of 7.7 ± 0.5 µg mL(-1) with batch reactions lasting up to 2 h. This duration of synthesis is the longest ever reported for a yeast CFPS batch reaction. Furthermore, by removing extraneous processing steps and eliminating expensive reagents from the cell-free reaction, we have increased relative product yield (µg protein synthesized per $ reagent cost) over an alternative commonly used method up to 2000-fold from ∼2 × 10(-4) to ∼4 × 10(-1)  µg $(-1) , which now puts the yeast CPFS platform on par with other eukaryotic CFPS platforms commercially available. Our results set the stage for developing a yeast CFPS platform that provides for high-yielding and cost-effective expression of a variety of protein therapeutics and protein libraries.

  5. Effect of scenedesmus acuminatus green algae extracts on the development of Candida lipolytic yeast in gas condensate-containing media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilmes, B. I.; Kasymova, G. A.; Runov, V. I.; Karavayeva, N. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are given of a comparative study of the growth and development as well as the characteristics of the biomass of the C. Lipolytica yeast according to the content of raw protein, protein, lipids, vitamins in the B group, and residual hydrocarbons during growth in media with de-aromatized gas-condensate FNZ as the carbon source with aqueous and alcohol extracts of S. acuminatus as the biostimulants. It is shown that the decoction and aqueous extract of green algae has the most intensive stimulating effect on the yeast growth. When a decoction of algae is added to the medium, the content of residual hydrocarbons in the biomass of C. lipolytica yeast is reduced by 4%; the quantity of protein, lipids, thamine and inositol with replacement of the yeast autolysate by the decoction of algae is altered little.

  6. Inhibition of sucrose phosphatase by sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, J. S.

    1967-01-01

    1. Partially purified sucrose phosphatase from immature stem tissue of sugarcane is inhibited by sucrose. The enzyme was also inhibited by maltose, melezitose and 6-kestose but not by eight other sugars, including glucose and fructose. 2. The relative effectiveness of sucrose, maltose and melezitose as inhibitors is different for sucrose phosphatase from different plants. 3. The inhibition of the sugar-cane enzyme by sucrose was shown to be partially competitive. The Ki for sucrose is about 10mm. 4. Melezitose is also a partially competitive inhibitor of the enzyme but the inhibition by maltose is probably mixed. 5. The possibility that sucrose controls both the rate of accumulation of sucrose in stems of sugar-cane and sucrose synthesis in leaves by inhibiting sucrose phosphatase is discussed. PMID:4291490

  7. Flavins contained in yeast extract are exploited for anodic electron transfer by Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Masaki; Freguia, Stefano; Wang, Yung-Fu; Tsujimura, Seiya; Kano, Kenji

    2010-06-01

    Cyclic voltammograms of yeast extract-containing medium exhibit a clear redox peak around -0.4V vs. Ag|AgCl. Fermentative bacterium Lactococcus lactis was hereby shown to exploit this redox compound for extracellular electron transfer towards a graphite anode using glucose as an electron donor. High performance liquid chromatography revealed that this may be a flavin-type compound. The ability of L. lactis to exploit exogenous flavins for anodic glucose oxidation was confirmed by tests where flavin-type compounds were supplied to the bacterium in well defined media. Based on its mid-point potential, riboflavin can be regarded as a near-optimal mediator for microbially catalyzed anodic electron transfer. Riboflavin derivative flavin mononucleotide (FMN) was also exploited by L. lactis as a redox shuttle, unlike flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), possibly due to the absence of a specific transporter for the latter. The use of yeast extract in microbial fuel cell media is herein discouraged based on the related unwanted artificial addition of redox mediators which may distort experimental results.

  8. Recovery of spores of Clostridium botulinum in yeast extract agar and pork infusion agar after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Odlaug, T E; Pflug, I J

    1977-10-01

    Yeast extract agar, pork infusion agar, and modifications of these media were used to recover heated Clostridium botulinum spores. The D- and z-values were determined. Two type A strains and one type B strain of C. botulinum were studied. In all cases the D-values were largest when the spores were recovered in yeast extract agar, compared to the D-values for spores recovered in pork infusion agar. The z-values for strains 62A and A16037 were largest when the spores were recovered in pork infusion agar. The addition of sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate to pork infusion agar resulted in D-values for C. botulinum 62A spores similar to those for the same spores recovered in yeast extract agar. The results suggest that sodium bicarbonate and sodium thioglycolate should be added to recovery media for heated C. botulinum spores to obtain maximum plate counts. PMID:335970

  9. In vivo antiprostate tumor potential of Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) tuber extract (VGDE) and the cytotoxicity of its major compound pentaisovaleryl sucrose

    PubMed Central

    Toyang, Ngeh J.; Ateh, Eugene N.; Davis, Harry; Tane, Pierre; Sondengam, Luc B.; Bryant, Joseph; Verpoorte, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Vernonia guineensis Benth. (Asteraceae) root decoction is used in folk medicine in Cameroon to treat some ailments including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to validate the claimed antiprostate cancer activity of Vernonia guineensis Benth. in vivo and to investigate the cytotoxicity of a pentaisovaleryl sucrose isolated from Vernonia guineensis on some cancer cell lines. Materials and methods A crude dichloromethane extract of Vernonia guineensis (VGDE) was used for this study. For in vivo antiprostate cancer efficacy, nude mice (n = 16) were injected subcutaneously with prostate cancer PC-3 cells. Upon the formation of the xenograft tumors, the mice were divided into two equal groups with approximately the same mean tumor volume per group. One group was treated with VGDE orally (500 mg/kg) and the other with a vehicle control for 30 days. Body weight and tumor volumes were measured 2 × a week and on the 33rd day, the mice were euthanized and tumors harvested and weighed. For the cytotoxicity study, the WST-1 assay was used to determine the activity of pentaisovaleryl sucrose previously isolated from VGDE. The cancer cell lines used in the cytotoxicity study included breast, colon, leukemia, lung, melanoma, ovarian and prostate. Results Prostate cancer (PC-3) xenograft tumors treated with VGDE showed a significant decrease in tumor size (P = 0.0295) compared to control. Pentaisovaleryl sucrose also demonstrated cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines with IC50 values as follows: MDA-MD-231—6.66 µM; MCF-7—7.50 µM; HCT116—14.12 µM; A549—5.76 µM; HL60—6.43 µM; A375—8.64 µM; OVCAR3—9.53 µM; Capan1—7.13 µM; Mia-Paca 6.47 µM. Conclusion VGDE does possess in vivo activity against prostate tumor and has potential for development into a natural product for the treatment of prostate cancer. This study thus provides preliminary validation for the folk use of Vernonia guineensis against prostate

  10. Isomaltulose production from sucrose by Protaminobacter rubrum immobilized in calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    de Oliva-Neto, P; Menão, Paula T P

    2009-09-01

    Different culture conditions for Protaminobacter rubrum and enzymatic reaction parameters were evaluated with the goal of improving isomaltulose production. P. rubrum was grown in a medium with 1% (w/v) cane molasses and 0.5% yeast extract and achieved a maximum cell yield Y(x/s) of 0.295 g of cells/g sucrose and a specific growth rate (mu) of 0.192 h(-1). The immobilization of P. rubrum cells was carried out with calcium alginate, glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine. Stabile immobilized cell pellets were obtained and used 24 times in batch processes. Enzymatic conversion was carried out at different sucrose concentrations and in pH 6 medium with 70% (w/v) sucrose at 30 degrees C an isomaltulose yield of 89-94% (w/v) was obtained. The specific activity of the P. rubrum immobilized pellets in calcium alginate at 30 degrees C ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 g isomaltulose g(-1) pellet h(-1), respectively with 70% and 65% sucrose solution, while in lower sucrose concentration had higher specific activities presumably due to substrate inhibition of the isomaltulose synthase in higher sucrose concentrations.

  11. Photocatalytic activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Kaushik; Sarkar, C. K.; Ghosh, C. K.

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of metallic and semiconductor nanoparticles through physical and chemical route is quiet common but biological synthesis procedures are gaining momentum due to their simplicity, cost-effectivity and eco-friendliness. Here, we report green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution of silver salts using yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae) extract. The nanoparticles formation was gradually investigated by UV-Vis spectrometer. X-ray diffraction analysis was done to identify different phases of biosynthesized Ag nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to study the particle size and morphology of silver nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the nanoparticles was performed to study the role of biomolecules capped on the surface of Ag nanoparticles during interaction. Photocatalytic activity of these biosynthesized nanoparticles was studied using an organic dye, methylene blue under solar irradiation and these nanoparticles showed efficacy in degrading the dye within a few hours of exposure.

  12. Effect of ultrafiltration of yeast extracts on their ability to promote lactic acid bacteria growth.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, H; Champagne, C P; Conway, J; Degré, R

    1999-11-01

    Five yeast extracts (YE) were fractionated by ultrafiltration (UF) with 1, 3, and 10 kDa molecular weight cutoff membranes, concentrated by freeze-drying, and the resulting powders of yeast extract filtrates (YEF) were evaluated for their growth-promoting properties on nine cultures of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). There was an increase in alpha-amino nitrogen content of the YEF powders as the pore size of the UF membranes used to filter the YE solutions decreased. The source of YE had a much greater effect than UF on the growth of LAB. This was also the case for the YEF contents in total and alpha-amino nitrogen. Growth curves of the LAB showed that maximum growth rate (mumax) data were on average 30% higher with bakers' YE than with brewers' YE, while maximum optical density (ODmax) values were on average 16% higher with bakers' YE. This could be related to the higher nitrogen content of the bakers' YE used in this study. Modification by UF of the YE had no significant influence on the growth of 4 of the 9 LAB strains. The three strains of Lactobacillus casei were negatively influenced by UF, as they did not grow as well in the media containing the YEF obtained after filtering with 1 and 3 kDa membranes. On a total solids basis, the 2.5 x retentates from the 10 kDa membrane gave, on average, 4% lower mumax and 5% lower ODmax values as compared to cultures where the corresponding YEF was used as medium supplement. This could also be partially related to the different nitrogen contents of the filtrates and retentates.

  13. Effects of yeast extract and vitamin D on turkey mortality and cellulitis incidence in a transport stress model.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated yeast extract (YE) and vitamin D (VD) in turkeys treated with dexamethasone (Dex) at intervals designed to simulate transport stress during a 3 stage growout. YE but not VD decreased early mortality (P = 0.001) and mortality at wk 7 (P= 0.02) and wk 12 (P = 0.002) but not wk 16. Celluli...

  14. Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi )

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

  15. Use of yeast cell wall extract as a tool to reduce the impact of necrotic enteritis in broilers.

    PubMed

    M'Sadeq, Shawkat A; Wu, Shu-Biao; Choct, Mingan; Forder, Rebecca; Swick, Robert A

    2015-05-01

    The use of a yeast cell wall extract derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Actigen(®)) has been proposed as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics. This experiment was conducted to investigate the efficacy of yeast cell extract as an alternative to zinc bacitracin or salinomycin using a necrotic enteritis challenge model. A feeding study was conducted using 480-day-old male Ross 308 chicks assigned to 48 floor pens. A 2 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments was employed. The factors were: challenge (- or +) and feed additive (control, zinc bacitracin at 100/50 mg/kg, yeast cell wall extract at 400/800/200 mg/kg, or salinomycin at 60 mg/kg in starter, grower, and finisher, respectively). Diets based on wheat, sorghum, soybean meal, meat and bone meal, and canola meal were formulated according to the Ross 308 nutrient specifications. Birds were challenged using a previously established protocol (attenuated Eimeria spp oocysts) on d 9 and 10(8) to 10(9) Clostridium perfringens (type A strain EHE-NE18) on d 14 and 15). Challenged and unchallenged birds were partitioned to avoid cross contamination. Challenged birds had lower weight gain, feed intake and livability compared to unchallenged birds on d 24 and d 35 (P < 0.05). Birds given zinc bacitracin, yeast cell wall extract, or salinomycin had improved weight gain and livability when compared to control birds given no additives. Challenge × additive interactions were observed for feed intake and weight gain on d 24 and d 35 (P < 0.01). The additives all had a greater positive impact on feed intake, weight gain, and livability in challenged than unchallenged birds. All challenged birds showed higher necrotic enteritis lesion scores in the small intestine sections when compared to unchallenged birds (P < 0.01). Birds fed yeast cell wall extract exhibited increased villus height, decreased crypt depth, and increased villus:crypt ratio when challenged. Yeast cell wall extract, zinc bacitracin, and salinomycin were

  16. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1854 Sucrose. (a) Sucrose (C12H22O11, CAS Reg. No. 57-50-11-1) sugar, cane sugar, or beet sugar is the... sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion, then clarified and evaporated....

  17. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice

    PubMed Central

    Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Hussin, Aminuddin bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  18. In Vivo Hypocholesterolemic Effect of MARDI Fermented Red Yeast Rice Water Extract in High Cholesterol Diet Fed Mice.

    PubMed

    Yeap, Swee Keong; Beh, Boon Kee; Kong, Joan; Ho, Wan Yong; Mohd Yusof, Hamidah; Mohamad, Nurul Elyani; Hussin, Aminuddin Bin; Jaganath, Indu Bala; Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Jamaluddin, Anisah; Long, Kamariah

    2014-01-01

    Fermented red yeast rice has been traditionally consumed as medication in Asian cuisine. This study aimed to determine the in vivo hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects of fermented red yeast rice water extract produced using Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Monascus purpureus strains in mice fed with high cholesterol diet. Absence of monacolin-k, lower level of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), higher content of total amino acids, and antioxidant activities were detected in MARDI fermented red yeast rice water extract (MFRYR). In vivo MFRYR treatment on hypercholesterolemic mice recorded similar lipid lowering effect as commercial red yeast rice extract (CRYR) as it helps to reduce the elevated serum liver enzyme and increased the antioxidant levels in liver. This effect was also associated with the upregulation of apolipoproteins-E and inhibition of Von Willebrand factor expression. In summary, MFRYR enriched in antioxidant and amino acid without monacolin-k showed similar hypocholesterolemic effect as CRYR that was rich in monacolin-k and GABA. PMID:25031606

  19. Zinc-containing yeast extract promotes nonrapid eye movement sleep in mice.

    PubMed

    Cherasse, Yoan; Saito, Hitomi; Nagata, Nanae; Aritake, Kosuke; Lazarus, Michael; Urade, Yoshihiro

    2015-10-01

    Zinc is an essential trace element for humans and animals, being located, among other places, in the synaptic vesicles of cortical glutamatergic neurons and hippocampal mossy fibers in the brain. Extracellular zinc has the potential to interact with and modulate many different synaptic targets, including glutamate and GABA receptors. Because of the central role of these neurotransmitters in brain activity, we examined in this study the sleep-promoting activity of zinc by monitoring locomotor activity and electroencephalogram after its administration to mice. Zinc-containing yeast extract (40 and 80 mg/kg) dose dependently increased the total amount of nonrapid eye movement sleep and decreased the locomotor activity. However, this preparation did not change the amount of rapid eye movement sleep or show any adverse effects such as rebound of insomnia during a period of 24 h following the induction of sleep; whereas the extracts containing other divalent cations (manganese, iron, and copper) did not decrease the locomotor activity. This is the first evidence that zinc can induce sleep. Our data open the way to new types of food supplements designed to improve sleep.

  20. Contributions of sucrose synthase and invertase to the metabolism of sucrose in developing leaves: estimation by alternate substrate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Schmalstig, J.G.; Hitz, W.D.

    1987-10-01

    The relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to initial cleavage of phloem-imported sucrose was calculated for sink leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr cv Wye) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. monohybrid). Invertase from yeast hydrolyzed sucrose 4200 times faster than 1'-deoxy-1'-fluorosucrose (FS) while sucrose cleavage by sucrose synthase from developing soybean leaves proceeded only 3.6 times faster than cleavage of FS.(/sup 14/C)Sucrose and (/sup 14/C)FS, used as tracers of sucrose, were transported at identical rates to developing leaves through the phloem. The rate of label incorporation into insoluble products varied with leaf age from 3.4 to 8.0 times faster when (/sup 14/C)sucrose was supplied than when (/sup 14/C)FS was supplied. The discrimination in metabolism was related to enzymatic discriminations against FS to calculate the relative contributions of invertase and sucrose synthase to sucrose cleavage. In the youngest soybean leaves measured, 4% of final laminar length (FLL), all cleavage was by sucrose synthase. Invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 47% by 7.6% FLL, increased to 54% by 11% FLL, then declined to 42% for the remainder of the import phase. In sugar beet sink leaves at 30% FLL invertase contribution to sucrose metabolism was 58%.

  1. Evaluation of the efficacy of yeast extract in reducing intestinal Clostridium perfringens levels in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Thanissery, R; McReynolds, J L; Conner, D E; Macklin, K S; Curtis, P A; Fasina, Y O

    2010-11-01

    The etiological agent of necrotic enteritis is Clostridium perfringens. Traditionally, necrotic enteritis is controlled with in-feed antibiotics. However, increasing consumer demand for drug-free poultry has fostered the search for nonantibiotic alternatives. Yeast extract contain nucleotides that are immunomodulatory and also essential for cellular functions. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NuPro yeast extract (Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) in reducing intestinal C. perfringens levels in broiler chickens. One hundred ninety-two 1-d-old male broiler chicks were obtained and randomly assigned to 6 treatments in a battery cage trial. Treatment 1 consisted of chicks fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (BD) without added bacitracin methylene disalicylate or NuPro. Treatment 2 consisted of chicks fed BD into which bacitracin methylene disalicylate was added at 0.055 g/kg. Treatment 3 consisted of chicks fed BD supplemented with NuPro at a 2% level for the first 10 d of the experiment. Treatments 4 (PX), 5, and 6 (PN) consisted of chicks that were challenged with 3 mL of the C. perfringens inoculum (~10(7) cfu/mL) on d 14, 15, and 16 of the experiment and fed diets similar to treatments 1, 2, and 3, respectively. On d 1 and 7 postchallenge, intestinal C. perfringens levels, lesion scores, and alkaline phosphatase activity were assessed. On d 1 postchallenge, C. perfringens level in treatment 5 (2.09 log(10) cfu/g) was lower (P < 0.05) compared with the PX treatment (4.71 log(10) cfu/g) but similar to the PN treatment (2.98 log(10) cfu/g). A similar trend was observed on d 7 postchallenge. NuPro supplementation enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) in C. perfringens-challenged chicks and appeared to reduce intestinal lesion scores. Although dietary supplementation of NuPro in the PN treatment reduced C. perfringens levels by 1.73 and 0.68 log(10) cfu/g compared with the PX treatment on d 1 and 7 postchallenge, respectively, these

  2. Preparation of a γ-glutamylcysteine-enriched yeast extract from a newly developed GSH2-deficient strain.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, Hiroaki; Suehiro, Mariko; Sugimoto, Reiko; Yamagishi, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    Gamma-glutamylcysteine (γ-GC), the precursor of glutathione (GSH), may have significant health benefits as a dietary supplement, but there are few cost-effective methods available for its large-scale production. We developed an efficient method for producing γ-GC in a mutant yeast strain using a three-step breeding procedure and a unique cultivation process. In the first breeding step, we prepared a glutathione synthetase (GSH2)-deficient yeast mutant. In the second step, selenate (SeO(4)(2-)) sensitivity was introduced by crossing the GSH2-deficient mutant with a strain harboring the met30 mutation. In the final step, pantothenic acid auxotrophy was introduced by ethyl methanesulfonate mutagenesis. The isolated strain displayed significantly enhanced cellular γ-GC when cultivated in synthetic medium without pantothenic acid, reaching a maximum level of 4.39% of dry cell weight. Using this strain, we were able to prepare a yeast extract containing approximately 13% γ-GC (w/w), which is markedly higher than the reported value (0.3%) of commercially available yeast extracts. The present method may facilitate large-scale γ-GC production for investigating the nutritive value and other benefits of dietary γ-GC.

  3. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sugar, or beet sugar is the chemical β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sugar, or beet sugar is the chemical β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion,...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sugar, or beet sugar is the chemical β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion,...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1854 - Sucrose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sugar, or beet sugar is the chemical β-D-fructofuranosyl-α-D-glucopyranoside. Sucrose is obtained by crystallization from sugar cane or sugar beet juice that has been extracted by pressing or diffusion,...

  7. Switching the mode of sucrose utilization by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Badotti, Fernanda; Dário, Marcelo G; Alves, Sergio L; Cordioli, Maria Luiza A; Miletti, Luiz C; de Araujo, Pedro S; Stambuk, Boris U

    2008-01-01

    Background Overflow metabolism is an undesirable characteristic of aerobic cultures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during biomass-directed processes. It results from elevated sugar consumption rates that cause a high substrate conversion to ethanol and other bi-products, severely affecting cell physiology, bioprocess performance, and biomass yields. Fed-batch culture, where sucrose consumption rates are controlled by the external addition of sugar aiming at its low concentrations in the fermentor, is the classical bioprocessing alternative to prevent sugar fermentation by yeasts. However, fed-batch fermentations present drawbacks that could be overcome by simpler batch cultures at relatively high (e.g. 20 g/L) initial sugar concentrations. In this study, a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase activity was engineered to transport sucrose into the cells through a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity, and the growth kinetics and biomass yields on sucrose analyzed using simple batch cultures. Results We have deleted from the genome of a S. cerevisiae strain lacking invertase the high-affinity sucrose-H+ symporter encoded by the AGT1 gene. This strain could still grow efficiently on sucrose due to a low-affinity and low-capacity sucrose-H+ symport activity mediated by the MALx1 maltose permeases, and its further intracellular hydrolysis by cytoplasmic maltases. Although sucrose consumption by this engineered yeast strain was slower than with the parental yeast strain, the cells grew efficiently on sucrose due to an increased respiration of the carbon source. Consequently, this engineered yeast strain produced less ethanol and 1.5 to 2 times more biomass when cultivated in simple batch mode using 20 g/L sucrose as the carbon source. Conclusion Higher cell densities during batch cultures on 20 g/L sucrose were achieved by using a S. cerevisiae strain engineered in the sucrose uptake system. Such result was accomplished by effectively reducing sucrose

  8. Effects of dietary yeast extract on turkey stress response and heterophil oxidative burst activity.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Dutta, V; Huff, W E; Rath, N C

    2011-08-01

    1. Effective nutritional approaches to counteract the negative effects of stress may provide food animal producers with useful alternatives to antibiotics. In this study, turkeys were fed on a standard diet, or the same diet supplemented with yeast extract (YE), to determine if YE would improve disease resistance in a stress model. 2. At 16 weeks of age, half of the birds were exposed to a bacterial challenge using a coarse spray of the pen environment. A subset of control and challenged birds was also treated with dexamethasone (Dex) prior to challenge (Dex/challenge). At 18 weeks, another subset was subjected to a 12?h transport stress protocol (Challenge/transport). All birds were bled and necropsied the morning after transport. The numbers and proportions of blood cells and the heterophil oxidative burst activity (OBA) were determined. Serum corticosterone (Cort) levels of male birds were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Body weight and gain were increased by YE during week 1. 3. YE decreased mortality and bacterial isolation following Dex/challenge only in females. Cort levels in male turkeys were decreased by YE and Dex treatment. OBA was higher in males and in birds given YE and was reduced by challenge and transport. 4. These results suggest there may be gender differences in the turkey stress response and that dietary YE has potential for modulating the impact of stress on innate immunity of turkeys. PMID:21919572

  9. Biphenyl Phytoalexin in Sorbus pohuashanensis Suspension Cell Induced by Yeast Extract.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liangyun; Yang, Jian; Yang, Guang; Kang, Chuanzhi; Xiao, Wenjuan; Lv, Chaogeng; Wang, Sheng; Tang, Jinfu; Guo, Lanping

    2016-01-01

    Biphenyls are unique phytoalexins de novo synthesized in plants in response to pathogen attack. These compounds are found in Maloideae, a subfamily of the Rosaceae. The anti-microbial activities of biphenyls have been reported in a number of studies and they appear to represent an important defense strategy against pathogens common in the Maloideae, such as species in Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus, and Chaenomeles. Here, cell suspension cultures of Sorbus pohuashanensis were established to study biphenyl phytoalexins formation after yeast extract (YE) treatment. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method coupled with quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) LC-MS/MS was applied to determine the time course of these biphenyl biomarkers accumulation in YE-treated S. pohuashanensis suspension cells. The results of quantitative analyses show the content of Noraucuparin, 2'-Hydroxyaucuparin, and their glycosides initially increased, then decreased over time. The Noraucuparin content reached its highest (225.76 μg·g(-1)) at 18 h after treatment, 6 hours earlier than that of Noraucuparin 5-O-β-d-glucopyranoside. The content of 2'-Hydroxyaucuparin reached its highest (422.75 μg·g(-1)) at 30 h after treatment, also earlier than that of its glycoside. The understanding of phytoalexin metabolism in this study may provide a basis for improving Maloideae resistance to pathogens. PMID:27649118

  10. Investigations on hydrolytic activities from Stachybotrys microspora and their use as an alternative in yeast DNA extraction.

    PubMed

    Abdeljalil, Salma; Ben Hmad, Ines; Saibi, Walid; Amouri, Bahia; Maalej, Wiem; Kaaniche, Marwa; Koubaa, Aida; Gargouri, Ali

    2014-02-01

    Stachybotrys microspora is a filamentous fungus characterized by the secretion of multiple hydrolytic activities (cellulolytic and non-cellulolytic enzymes). The production of these biocatalysts was studied under submerged culture using glucose, cellulose, and wheat bran as carbon sources. Endoglucanases, pectinases, xylanases, β-glucanases, chitinases, and proteases were induced on cellulose-based medium and repressed on glucose in both strains with higher amounts produced by the mutant. β-glucosidases were roughly equally produced by both strains under glucose and cellulose conditions. The yield of chitinases, β-glucanases, and proteases produced by Stachybotrys strains was as much higher than the commercialized lysing enzyme called "zymolyase," currently used in yeast DNA extraction. In this context, we showed that S. microspora hydrolases can be successfully applied in the extraction of yeast DNA.

  11. Yeast extract and methyl jasmonate-induced silymarin production in cell cultures of Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sampedro, M Angeles; Fernández-Tárrago, Jorge; Corchete, Purificación

    2005-09-22

    The biosynthesis of the flavonolignan silymarin, a constitutive compound of the fruits of Silybum marianum with strong antihepatotoxic and hepatoprotective activities, is severely reduced in cell cultures of this species. It is well known that elicitation is one of the strategies employed to increase accumulation of secondary metabolites. Our study here reports on the effect of several compounds on the production of silymarin in S. marianum cultures. Yeast extract (YE), chitin and chitosan were compared with respect to their effects on silymarin accumulation in S. marianum suspensions and only yeast extract stimulated production. Jasmonic acid (JA) potentiated the yeast extract effect. One of the jasmonic acid derivatives, methyl jasmonate (MeJA), strongly promoted the accumulation of silymarin. Methyl jasmonate acted in a number of steps of the metabolic pathway of flavonolignans and its stimulating effect was totally dependent of "de novo" protein synthesis. Chalcone synthase (CHS) activity was enhanced by methyl jasmonate; however there did not appear to be a temporal relationship between silymarin accumulation and increase in enzyme activity. Also, this increase was not blocked by the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CH). This study indicates that elicitor treatment promotes secondary metabolite production in S. marianum cultures and that jasmonic acid and its functional analogue plays a critical role in elicitation.

  12. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus

    PubMed Central

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  13. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution.

  14. Impact of Phosphate, Potassium, Yeast Extract, and Trace Metals on Chitosan and Metabolite Production by Mucor indicus.

    PubMed

    Safaei, Zahra; Karimi, Keikhosro; Zamani, Akram

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effects of phosphate, potassium, yeast extract, and trace metals on the growth of Mucor indicus and chitosan, chitin, and metabolite production by the fungus were investigated. Maximum yield of chitosan (0.32 g/g cell wall) was obtained in a phosphate-free medium. Reversely, cell growth and ethanol formation by the fungus were positively affected in the presence of phosphate. In a phosphate-free medium, the highest chitosan content (0.42 g/g cell wall) and cell growth (0.66 g/g sugar) were obtained at 2.5 g/L of KOH. Potassium concentration had no significant effect on ethanol and glycerol yields. The presence of trace metals significantly increased the chitosan yield at an optimal phosphate and potassium concentration (0.50 g/g cell wall). By contrast, production of ethanol by the fungus was negatively affected (0.33 g/g sugars). A remarkable increase in chitin and decrease in chitosan were observed in the absence of yeast extract and concentrations lower than 2 g/L. The maximum chitosan yield of 51% cell wall was obtained at 5 g/L of yeast extract when the medium contained no phosphate, 2.5 g/L KOH, and 1 mL/L trace metal solution. PMID:27589726

  15. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  16. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  17. Cell-recycle continuous fermentation of Enterococcus faecalis RKY1 for economical production of lactic acid by reduction of yeast extract supplementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ryun-Kyung; Ryu, Hwa-Won; Oh, Hurok; Kim, Mina; Wee, Young-Jung

    2014-05-01

    Both lactic acid productivity and cell growth were linearly correlated with yeast extract supplementation in batch fermentation. During conventional continuous operation, although fresh feed was introduced into the bioreactor with a significantly low dilution rate (0.04 h(-1)), the amount of yeast extract employed was not enough to maintain the growth of microorganism. However, when the fresh feed contained 100 g/l glucose and 2 g/l yeast extract during cell-recycle continuous operation at a dilution rate of 0.04 h(-1), more than 90 g/l lactic acid was continuously produced, with the average productivity of 3.72 g/l·h. In this experiment, 82 g of yeast extract (77% of reduction yield) could be reduced for the production of 1 kg of lactic acid compared with batch fermentation of a similar volumetric productivity.

  18. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes.

    PubMed

    Lutchman, Vicky; Medkour, Younes; Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I

    2016-03-29

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  19. Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eugenie; Arlia-Ciommo, Anthony; Dakik, Pamela; Cortes, Berly; Feldman, Rachel; Mohtashami, Sadaf; McAuley, Mélissa; Chancharoen, Marisa; Rukundo, Belise; Simard, Éric; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2016-01-01

    We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging. PMID:26918729

  20. Yeast Extract and Silver Nitrate Induce the Expression of Phenylpropanoid Biosynthetic Genes and Induce the Accumulation of Rosmarinic Acid in Agastache rugosa Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Park, Woo Tae; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Yeo, Sun Kyung; Jeon, Jin; Park, Jong Seok; Lee, Sook Young; Park, Sang Un

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the role of yeast extract and silver nitrate on the enhancement of phenylpropanoid pathway genes and accumulation of rosmarinic acid in Agastache rugosa cell cultures. The treatment of cell cultures with yeast extract (500 mg/L) and silver nitrate (30 mg/L) for varying times enhanced the expression of genes in the phenylpropanoid pathway and the production of rosmarinic acid. The results indicated that the expression of RAS and HPPR was proportional to the amount of yeast extract and silver nitrate. The transcript levels of HPPR under yeast extract treatment were 1.84-, 1.97-, and 2.86-fold higher than the control treatments after 3, 6, and 12 h, respectively, whereas PAL expression under silver nitrate treatment was 52.31-fold higher than in the non-treated controls after 24 h of elicitation. The concentration of rosmarinic acid was directly proportional to the concentration of the applied elicitors. Yeast extract supplementation documented the highest amount of rosmarinic acid at 4.98 mg/g, whereas silver nitrate addition resulted in a comparatively lower amount of rosmarinic acid at 0.65 mg/g. In conclusion, addition of yeast extract to the cell cultures enhanced the accumulation of rosmarinic acid, which was evidenced by the expression levels of the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway genes in A. rugosa.

  1. The use of sucrose-acetone-extracted Rift Valley fever virus antigen derived from cell culture in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and haemagglutination-inhibition test.

    PubMed

    Paweska, J T; Barnard, B J; Williams, R

    1995-12-01

    A sucrose-acetone-extracted, Madin-Darby-bovine-kidney (MDBK)-derived Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigen was tested both in an indirect ELISA and a haemagglutination-inhibition test for its ability to detect serum antibodies to RVFV. Optimal conditions for antigen concentration, serum and conjugate dilutions for the ELISA were established by checkerboard titration. The specificity and sensitivity of ELISA were determined by the use of paired pre- and post-vaccination sheep-serum samples. Compared with the virus neutralization test, the overall ELISA specificity and sensitivity were 97.4 and 97.3%, respectively. There was a 100% correlation between the results obtained in haemagglutination-inhibition tests with a RVFV sucrose-acetone-extracted antigen derived from hamster liver, and from MDBK cells. A total of 10 582 field-serum samples (84 cattle, 3,659 sheep, 6,839 goats) collected in 1994-1995 from animals of unknown vaccination status in different regions of South Africa were tested with ELISA for antibodies against RVFV. There were no seropositive cattle, 0.16% seropositive sheep and 0.12% seropositive goats. This study demonstrates the potential diagnostic application of cell-culture-derived, sucrose-acetone-extracted RVFV antigen in an indirect ELISA and HI test.

  2. Sucrose and Related Oligosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggleston, Gillian

    Sucrose (α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1↔2)-β-D-fructofuranoside) is the most common low-molecular-weight sugar found in the plant kingdom. It is ubiquitously known as common table sugar and primarily produced industrially from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris); the basics of the industrial manufacture of sucrose are outlined in this chapter. Commercial sucrose has a very high purity (> 99.9%) making it one of the purest organic substances produced on an industrial scale. Value-addition to sucrose via chemical and biotechnological reactions is becoming more important for the diversification of the sugar industry to maintain the industries' competitiveness in a world increasingly turning to a bio-based economy. The basis for the chemical reactivity of sucrose is the eight hydroxyl groups present on the molecule, although, sucrose chemical reactivity is regarded as difficult. Increasing use of enzymatic biotechnological techniques to derivatize sucrose is expected, to add special functionalities to sucrose products like biodegradability, biocompatibility, and non-toxicity. Analysis of sucrose by colorimetric, enzymatic, oxidation-reduction and chromatography methods are discussed. Oligosaccharides related to sucrose are outlined in detail and include sucrose-based plant, honey and in vitro oligosaccharides.

  3. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content.

  4. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans.

  5. Interactions of grape tannins and wine polyphenols with a yeast protein extract, mannoproteins and β-glucan.

    PubMed

    Mekoue Nguela, J; Poncet-Legrand, C; Sieczkowski, N; Vernhet, A

    2016-11-01

    At present, there is a great interest in enology for yeast derived products to replace aging on lees in winemaking or as an alternative for wine fining. These are yeast protein extracts (YPE), cell walls and mannoproteins. Our aim was to further understand the mechanisms that drive interactions between these components and red wine polyphenols. To this end, interactions between grape skin tannins or wine polyphenols or tannins and a YPE, a mannoprotein fraction and a β-glucan were monitored by binding experiments, ITC and DLS. Depending on the tannin structure, a different affinity between the polyphenols and the YPE was observed, as well as differences in the stability of the aggregates. This was attributed to the mean degree of polymerization of tannins in the polyphenol fractions and to chemical changes that occur during winemaking. Much lower affinities were found between polyphenols and polysaccharides, with different behaviors between mannoproteins and β-glucans. PMID:27211695

  6. Glucosyltransferase production by Klebsiella sp. K18 and conversion of sucrose to palatinose using immobilized cells

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Daniela C.; Kawaguti, Haroldo Y.; Sato, Hélia H.

    2009-01-01

    The strain Klebsiella sp. K18 produces the enzyme glucosyltransferase and catalyses the conversion of sucrose to palatinose, an alternative sugar that presents low cariogenicity. Response Surface Methodology was successfully employed to determine the optimal concentration of culture medium components. Maximum glucosyltransferase production (21.78 U mL-1) was achieved using the optimized medium composed by sugar cane molasses (80 g L-1), bacteriological peptone (7 g L-1) and yeast extract (20 g L-1), after 8 hours of fermentation at 28°C. The conversion of sucrose to palatinose was studied utilizing immobilized cells in calcium alginate. The effects of the alginate concentration (2-4%), cell mass concentration (20-40%) and substrate concentration (25-45%) were evaluated and the yield of palatinose was approximately 62.5%. PMID:24031319

  7. The large subunit determines catalytic specificity of barley sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase and fescue sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Altenbach, Denise; Nüesch, Eveline; Meyer, Alain D; Boller, Thomas; Wiemken, Andres

    2004-06-01

    Plant fructosyltransferases are highly homologous in primary sequence and typically consist of two subunits but catalyze widely different reactions. Using functional expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris, we show that the substrate specificity of festuca sucrose:sucrose 1--beta-D-fructosyltransferase (1-SST) and barley sucrose:fructan 6--beta-D-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) is entirely determined by the large subunit. Chimeric enzymes with the large subunit of festuca 1-SST (LSuB) and the small subunit of barley 6-SFT have the same catalytic specificity as the native festuca 1-SST and vice versa. If the LSuB is expressed alone, it does not yield a functionally active enzyme, indicating that the small subunit is nevertheless essential.

  8. Sucrose and Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a relationship most sweet.

    PubMed

    Marques, Wesley Leoricy; Raghavendran, Vijayendran; Stambuk, Boris Ugarte; Gombert, Andreas Karoly

    2016-02-01

    Sucrose is an abundant, readily available and inexpensive substrate for industrial biotechnology processes and its use is demonstrated with much success in the production of fuel ethanol in Brazil. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which naturally evolved to efficiently consume sugars such as sucrose, is one of the most important cell factories due to its robustness, stress tolerance, genetic accessibility, simple nutrient requirements and long history as an industrial workhorse. This minireview is focused on sucrose metabolism in S. cerevisiae, a rather unexplored subject in the scientific literature. An analysis of sucrose availability in nature and yeast sugar metabolism was performed, in order to understand the molecular background that makes S. cerevisiae consume this sugar efficiently. A historical overview on the use of sucrose and S. cerevisiae by humans is also presented considering sugarcane and sugarbeet as the main sources of this carbohydrate. Physiological aspects of sucrose consumption are compared with those concerning other economically relevant sugars. Also, metabolic engineering efforts to alter sucrose catabolism are presented in a chronological manner. In spite of its extensive use in yeast-based industries, a lot of basic and applied research on sucrose metabolism is imperative, mainly in fields such as genetics, physiology and metabolic engineering.

  9. High sucrose consumption promotes obesity whereas its low consumption induces oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-08-01

    The effects of sucrose in varied concentrations (0.25-20%) with constant amount of yeasts in larval diet on development and metabolic parameters of adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were studied. Larvae consumed more food at low sucrose diet, overeating with yeast. On high sucrose diet, larvae ingested more carbohydrates, despite consuming less food and obtaining less protein derived from yeast. High sucrose diet slowed down pupation and increased pupa mortality, enhanced levels of lipids and glycogen, increased dry body mass, decreased water content, i.e. resulted in obese phenotype. Furthermore, it suppressed reactive oxygen species-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase. The activity of catalase was gender-related. In males, at all sucrose concentrations used catalase activity was higher than at its concentration of 0.25%, whereas in females sucrose concentration virtually did not influence the activity. High sucrose diet increased content of protein thiols and the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The increase in sucrose concentration also enhanced uric acid level in females, but caused opposite effects in males. Development on high sucrose diets was accompanied by elevated steady-state insulin-like peptide 3 mRNA level. Finally, carbohydrate starvation at yeast overfeeding on low sucrose diets resulted in oxidative stress reflected by higher levels of oxidized lipids and proteins accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase activity. Potential mechanisms involved in regulation of redox processes by carbohydrates are discussed.

  10. High sucrose consumption promotes obesity whereas its low consumption induces oxidative stress in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Rovenko, Bohdana M; Kubrak, Olga I; Gospodaryov, Dmytro V; Perkhulyn, Natalia V; Yurkevych, Ihor S; Sanz, Alberto; Lushchak, Oleh V; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2015-08-01

    The effects of sucrose in varied concentrations (0.25-20%) with constant amount of yeasts in larval diet on development and metabolic parameters of adult fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster were studied. Larvae consumed more food at low sucrose diet, overeating with yeast. On high sucrose diet, larvae ingested more carbohydrates, despite consuming less food and obtaining less protein derived from yeast. High sucrose diet slowed down pupation and increased pupa mortality, enhanced levels of lipids and glycogen, increased dry body mass, decreased water content, i.e. resulted in obese phenotype. Furthermore, it suppressed reactive oxygen species-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins as well as the activity of superoxide dismutase. The activity of catalase was gender-related. In males, at all sucrose concentrations used catalase activity was higher than at its concentration of 0.25%, whereas in females sucrose concentration virtually did not influence the activity. High sucrose diet increased content of protein thiols and the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. The increase in sucrose concentration also enhanced uric acid level in females, but caused opposite effects in males. Development on high sucrose diets was accompanied by elevated steady-state insulin-like peptide 3 mRNA level. Finally, carbohydrate starvation at yeast overfeeding on low sucrose diets resulted in oxidative stress reflected by higher levels of oxidized lipids and proteins accompanied by increased superoxide dismutase activity. Potential mechanisms involved in regulation of redox processes by carbohydrates are discussed. PMID:26050918

  11. Evaluation of Extraction Protocols for Simultaneous Polar and Non-Polar Yeast Metabolite Analysis Using Multivariate Projection Methods

    PubMed Central

    Tambellini, Nicolas P.; Zaremberg, Vanina; Turner, Raymond J.; Weljie, Aalim M.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomic and lipidomic approaches aim to measure metabolites or lipids in the cell. Metabolite extraction is a key step in obtaining useful and reliable data for successful metabolite studies. Significant efforts have been made to identify the optimal extraction protocol for various platforms and biological systems, for both polar and non-polar metabolites. Here we report an approach utilizing chemoinformatics for systematic comparison of protocols to extract both from a single sample of the model yeast organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Three chloroform/methanol/water partitioning based extraction protocols found in literature were evaluated for their effectiveness at reproducibly extracting both polar and non-polar metabolites. Fatty acid methyl esters and methoxyamine/trimethylsilyl derivatized aqueous compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry to evaluate non-polar or polar metabolite analysis. The comparative breadth and amount of recovered metabolites was evaluated using multivariate projection methods. This approach identified an optimal protocol consisting of 64 identified polar metabolites from 105 ion hits and 12 fatty acids recovered, and will potentially attenuate the error and variation associated with combining metabolite profiles from different samples for untargeted analysis with both polar and non-polar analytes. It also confirmed the value of using multivariate projection methods to compare established extraction protocols. PMID:24958140

  12. Anaerobic degradation of azo dye Drimaren blue HFRL in UASB reactor in the presence of yeast extract a source of carbon and redox mediator.

    PubMed

    Baêta, B E L; Aquino, S F; Silva, S Q; Rabelo, C A

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents results on anaerobic degradation of the azo dye blue HFRL in a bench scale Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor operated at ambient temperature. The results show that the addition of yeast extract (500 mg/L) increased color removal (P < 0.05) from 62 to 93% despite the low chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal (~35%) which happened due to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation. There were no differences in color removal (~91%) when yeast extract (500 mg/L) was used in the presence or absence of glucose, suggesting that yeast extract acted as source of redox mediator (riboflavin) and carbon. The specific rate of dye removal increased along the operational phases and depended on the presence of yeast extract, suggesting progressive biomass acclimatization. Analysis of bacterial diversity by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) method showed there was biomass selection along the bioreactor operation and no evidence of azo dye degrading bacteria predominance. This strengthens the hypothesis that color removal happens extracellularly by the reduction of azo bond by reduced redox mediators, such as riboflavin, which is present in high amount in the yeast extract.

  13. Sucrose signaling in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tognetti, Jorge A.; Pontis, Horacio G.; Martínez-Noël, Giselle M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sucrose as a signaling molecule in plants was originally proposed several decades ago. However, recognition of sucrose as a true signal has been largely debated and only recently this role has been fully accepted. The best-studied cases of sucrose signaling involve metabolic processes, such as the induction of fructan or anthocyanin synthesis, but a large volume of scattered information suggests that sucrose signals may control a vast array of developmental processes along the whole life cycle of the plant. Also, wide gaps exist in our current understanding of the intracellular steps that mediate sucrose action. Sucrose concentration in plant tissues tends to be directly related to light intensity, and inversely related to temperature, and accordingly, exogenous sucrose supply often mimics the effect of high light and cold. However, many exceptions to this rule seem to occur due to interactions with other signaling pathways. In conclusion, the sucrose role as a signal molecule in plants is starting to be unveiled and much research is still needed to have a complete map of its significance in plant function. PMID:23333971

  14. Asymmetric bioreduction of acetophenones by Baker's yeast and its cell-free extract encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Nakanishi, Kazuma

    2014-02-01

    Baker's yeast (BY) encapsulated in silica materials was synthesized using a yeast cell suspension and its cell-free extract during a sol-gel reaction of tetramethoxysilane with nitric acid as a catalyst. The synthesized samples were fully characterized using various methods, such as scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential thermal analysis. The BY cells were easily encapsulated inside silica-gel networks, and the ratio of the cells in the silica gel was approximately 75 wt%, which indicated that a large volume of BY was trapped with a small amount of silica. The enzyme activity (asymmetric reduction of prochiral ketones) of BY and its cell-free extract encapsulated in silica gel was investigated in detail. The activities and enantioselectivities of free and encapsulated BY were similar to those of acetophenone and its fluorine derivatives, which indicated that the conformation structure of BY enzymes inside silica-gel networks did not change. In addition, the encapsulated BY exhibited considerably better solvent (methanol) stability and recyclability compared to free BY solution. We expect that the development of BY encapsulated in sol-gel silica materials will significantly impact the industrial-scale advancement of high-efficiency and low-cost biocatalysts for the synthesis of valuable chiral alcohols.

  15. A novel sucrose synthase pathway for sucrose degradation in cultured sycamore cells.

    PubMed

    Huber, S C; Akazawa, T

    1986-08-01

    Enzymes of sucrose degradation and glycolysis in cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells were assayed and characterized in crude extracts and after partial purification, in an attempt to identify pathways for sucrose catabolism. Desalted cell extracts contained similar activities (20-40 nanomoles per milligram protein per minute) of sucrose synthase, neutral invertase, glucokinase, fructokinase, phosphofructokinase, and UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase (assayed with 2 micromolar pyrophosphate (PPi). PPi-linked phosphofructokinase activity was virtually dependent upon fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, and the maximum activity exceeded that of ATP-linked phosphofructokinase. Hexokinase activity, with glucose as substrate, was highly specific for ATP, whereas fructokinase activity was relatively nonspecific. At 1 millimolar nucleoside triphosphate, fructokinase activity decreased in the order: UTP > ATP > CTP > GTP. We propose two pathways for sucrose degradation. One involves invertase action, followed by classical glycolysis of hexose sugars, and the other is a novel pathway initiated by sucrose synthase. The K(m) for sucrose of sucrose synthase was severalfold lower than that of neutral invertase (15 versus 65 millimolar), which may determine carbon partitioning between the two pathways. The sucrose synthase pathway proposed involves cycling of uridylates and PPi. UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase, which is shown to be an effective ;PPi-scavenger,' would consume PPi and form UTP. The UTP could be then utilized in the UTP-linked fructokinase reaction, thereby forming UDP for sucrose synthase. The source of PPi is postulated to arise from the back reaction of PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Sycamore cells contained a substantial endogenous pool of PPi (about 3 nanomoles per gram fresh weight, roughly 1/10 the amount of ATP in these cells), and sufficient fructose 2,6-bisphosphate (0.09 nanomole per gram fresh weight) to activate the PPi-linked phosphofructokinase. Possible

  16. Influence of hen age on the response of turkey poults to cold stress, Escherichia coli challenge, and treatment with a yeast extract antibiotic alternative.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Rath, N C; Solis de Los Santos, F; Farnell, M B; Donoghue, A M

    2007-04-01

    Two battery experiments were conducted to evaluate a commercial yeast extract feed supplement, Alphamune, in a cold stress-Escherichia coli challenge of 1-wk-old turkeys. Experiment 1 used 1-d-old male poults that were the progeny of 33-wk-old hens in their second week of lay. Experiment 2 used male poults of the same genetic line from 40-wk-old hens in their eighth week of lay. Poults were fed a standard unmedicated turkey starter diet or the same diet with either a low level (504 g/t) or a high level (1,008 g/t) of yeast extract. Challenged birds were exposed to intermittent cold stress during wk 1 to 3 and to a respiratory E. coli challenge at 1 wk of age. In both experiments, BW at wk 1 was increased by feeding yeast extract. In experiment 1, challenged, control-fed birds had decreased BW at wk 3 and feed conversion was protected by both levels of yeast extract supplementation. In experiment 2, challenge had no effect on control-fed birds; however, yeast extract decreased the BW of challenged birds. In experiment 1, total leukocyte numbers were decreased by challenge of control-fed birds only, and there was no effect of challenge on the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. In experiment 2, total leukocyte numbers were decreased and the heterophil/lymphocyte ratio was increased in challenged, control-fed birds. Percentage mortality was not affected by challenge in experiment 1; however, in experiment 2, mortality was increased by challenge of control-fed birds and those fed the lower level of yeast extract. These results suggest that hen age should be considered when designing studies to evaluate antibiotic alternatives and in making decisions for incorporating such alternatives into production. PMID:17369533

  17. Lead and Cu in contaminated urban soils: extraction with chemical reagents and bioluminescent bacteria and yeast.

    PubMed

    Peltola, Pasi; Ivask, Angela; Aström, Mats; Virta, Marko

    2005-11-01

    Twenty urban soil samples, with a wide range of Pb (14-5323 mg/kg) and Cu (8-12987 mg/kg), were used to compare the operational speciation of a five-step sequential leach with the bioavailability determined with bioluminescent Pb (RN4220(pTOO24)) and Cu (MC1061(pSLcueR/pDNPcopAluc)) specific bacterial biosensors and a Cu specific yeast sensor. The bioavailable Pb concentrations were all similar or lower than the first sequential leach step (1M NaOAc). In contrast, in some samples the bioavailable concentrations of Cu clearly exceeded even the second sequential leach step (0.1 M Na4P2O7). With the yeast sensor 12/20 samples were below detection, however, the yeast sensor was capable of detecting all high Cu concentrations. The biosensors used in this study are not capable of detecting the natural soil concentrations of Pb and Cu in the studied area.

  18. Bio-Based Solvents for Green Extraction of Lipids from Oleaginous Yeast Biomass for Sustainable Aviation Biofuel.

    PubMed

    Breil, Cassandra; Meullemiestre, Alice; Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-01-01

    Lipid-based oleaginous microorganisms are potential candidates and resources for the sustainable production of biofuels. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of several alternative bio-based solvents for extracting lipids from yeasts. We used experimental design and simulation with Hansen solubility simulations and the conductor-like screening model for realistic solvation (COSMO-RS) to simulate the solubilization of lipids in each of these solvents. Lipid extracts were analyzed by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) to obtain the distribution of lipids classes and gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector (GC/FID) to obtain fatty acid profiles. Our aim was to correlate simulation with experimentation for extraction and solvation of lipids with bio-based solvents in order to make a preliminary evaluation for the replacement of hexane to extract lipids from microorganisms. Differences between theory and practice were noted for several solvents, such as CPME, MeTHF and ethyl acetate, which appeared to be good candidates to replace hexane. PMID:26861274

  19. Selection and use of pectinolytic yeasts for improving clarification and phenolic extraction in winemaking.

    PubMed

    Belda, Ignacio; Conchillo, Lorena B; Ruiz, Javier; Navascués, Eva; Marquina, Domingo; Santos, Antonio

    2016-04-16

    Pectinase enzymes have shown a considerable influence in both, sensitive and technological properties of wines. They can help to improve clarification process, releasing more color and flavor compounds entrapped in grape skin, facilitating the liberation of phenolic compounds. This work aims to find yeasts that, because of their native pectinases, can be applied on combined fermentations with Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtaining significant benefits over single-inoculated traditional fermentations. 462 yeast strains isolated from wineries were identified and tested for several enzymatic activities of recognized interest for enology industry. Considering the 7 identified species, only Aureobasidium pullulans, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Metschnikowia fructicola showed polygalacturonase activity. Because of its interest in winemaking, due to its reported incidence in wine flavor, the impact of M. pulcherrima as a source of pectinolytic enzymes was analyzed by measuring its influence in filterability, turbidity and the increase on color, anthocyanin and polyphenol content of wines fermented in combination with S. cerevisiae. Among the strains screened, M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was selected, due to its polygalacturonase activity, for further characterization in both, laboratory and semi-industrial scale assays. The kinetics concerning several metabolites of enological concern were followed during the entire fermentation process at microvinification scale. Improved results were obtained in the expected parameters when M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was used, in comparison to wines fermented with S. cerevisiae alone and combined with other pectinolytic and non-pectinolytic yeasts (A. pullulans and Lachancea thermotolerans, respectively), even working better than commercial enzymes preparations in most parameters. Additionally, M. pulcherrima NS-EM-34 was used at a semi-industrial scale combined with three different S. cerevisiae strains, confirming its potential application for

  20. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... often you receive iron sucrose injection and your total number of doses based on your condition and ... hands or feet; swelling of the hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. ...

  1. The natural yeast extract isolated by ethanol precipitation inhibits melanin synthesis by modulating tyrosinase activity and downregulating melanosome transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Woo Jin; Rhee, Do Young; Bang, Seung Hyun; Kim, Su Yeon; Won, Chong Hyun; Lee, Mi Woo; Choi, Jee Ho; Chang, Sung Eun

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of EP-2, a natural yeast extract isolated by ethanol precipitation from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on melanogenesis and to determine its underlying mechanism of action. Our results show that although EP-2 is not a direct tyrosinase inhibitor, when EP-2 was added to the culture media of B16F10 melanoma cells, intracellular tyrosinase activity was decreased. However, EP-2 had no effect on the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor or tyrosinase. EP-2 was found to inhibit melanogenesis and melanosome transfer when it was added to melanocytes and keratinocytes in coculture. In addition, protease-activated receptor 2, a key protein associated with melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes, was downregulated in the presence of EP-2. In conclusion, EP-2 is a potent inhibitor of melanogenesis and its hypomelanogenic effect is related to the inhibition of tyrosinase activity and transfer of melanosomes.

  2. Sucrose transporters of higher plants.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Christina; Grof, Christopher P L

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances have provided new insights into how sucrose is moved from sites of synthesis to sites of utilisation or storage in sink organs. Sucrose transporters play a central role, as they orchestrate sucrose allocation both intracellularly and at the whole plant level. Sucrose produced in mesophyll cells of leaves may be effluxed into the apoplasm of mesophyll or phloem parenchyma cells by a mechanism that remains elusive, but experimentally consistent with facilitated transport or energy-dependent sucrose/H(+) antiport. From the apoplasm, sucrose/H(+) symporters transport sucrose across the plasma membrane of cells making up the sieve element/companion cell (SE/CC) complex, the long distance conduits of the phloem. Phloem unloading of sucrose in key sinks such as developing seeds involves two sequential transport steps, sucrose efflux followed by sucrose influx. Besides plasma membrane specific sucrose transporters, sucrose transporters on the tonoplast contribute to the capacity for elevated sucrose accumulation in storage organs such as sugar beet roots or sugarcane culms. Except for several sucrose facilitators from seed coats of some leguminous plants all sucrose transporters cloned to date, including recently identified vacuolar sucrose transporters, have been characterised as sucrose/H(+) symporters. Transporters functioning to efflux sucrose into source or sink apoplasms as well as those supporting sucrose/H(+) antiport on tonoplasts, remain to be identified. Sucrose transporter expression and activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional as well as post-translational levels. Light quality and phytohormones play essential regulatory roles and the sucrose molecule itself functions as a signal.

  3. Effects of a dietary yeast extract on hematological parameters, heterophil function, and bacterial clearance in turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A standardized yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE), was added to turkey poult diets. Male poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 week of age. At 3 weeks of age chal...

  4. The effect of a yeast extract feed additive on turkeys challenged with Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes and subjected to transport stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a need to develop nutritional methods for controlling pathogens in poultry production. A yeast extract supplement, Alphamune™ (YE) was added to the diet of turkeys which were exposed to E. coli and L. monocytogenes Scott A at 16 wks of age using coarse spray and feed inclusion. Positive c...

  5. Effects of bentonite and yeast extract as nutrient on decrease in hydraulic conductivity of porous media due to CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Eryürük, Kağan; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Iwao; Katayama, Arata

    2015-10-01

    The reduction mechanism of hydraulic conductivity was investigated in porous media treated with bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates induced by growing cells of Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859). Bentonite, the bacterial cells, and a precipitation solution, composing of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea with or without 2% weight/volume yeast extract allowing the bacterial growth were sequentially introduced into the continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.05 and 3 mm in diameter. The treatments reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the columns from between 8.4 × 10(-1) and 4.1 × 10(-3) cm/s to between 9.9 × 10(-4) and 2.1 × 10(-6) cm/s as the lowest. With yeast extract, the conductivity continuously decreased during four days of the experiment, while became stable after two days without yeast extract. Introduction of the bacterial cells did not decrease the conductivity. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity was inversely correlated with the volume occupied by the depositions of bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates in column, showing the same efficiency but a larger effect of the CaCO3 precipitates with increasing volume by bacterial growth. The smaller glass beads resulted in larger volume of the depositions. Bentonite increased the deposition of CaCO3 precipitates. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that without yeast extract, bentonite and the CaCO3 precipitates formed aggregates with glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. With yeast extract, in addition to the aggregates, the individual CaCO3 precipitates formed separately from the aggregates reduced the hydraulic conductivity. PMID:25736267

  6. Effects of bentonite and yeast extract as nutrient on decrease in hydraulic conductivity of porous media due to CaCO3 precipitation induced by Sporosarcina pasteurii.

    PubMed

    Eryürük, Kağan; Yang, Suyin; Suzuki, Daisuke; Sakaguchi, Iwao; Katayama, Arata

    2015-10-01

    The reduction mechanism of hydraulic conductivity was investigated in porous media treated with bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates induced by growing cells of Sporosarcina pasteurii (ATCC 11859). Bentonite, the bacterial cells, and a precipitation solution, composing of 0.5 M CaCl2 and 0.5 M urea with or without 2% weight/volume yeast extract allowing the bacterial growth were sequentially introduced into the continuous-flow columns containing glass beads between 0.05 and 3 mm in diameter. The treatments reduced the hydraulic conductivity of the columns from between 8.4 × 10(-1) and 4.1 × 10(-3) cm/s to between 9.9 × 10(-4) and 2.1 × 10(-6) cm/s as the lowest. With yeast extract, the conductivity continuously decreased during four days of the experiment, while became stable after two days without yeast extract. Introduction of the bacterial cells did not decrease the conductivity. The reduction in hydraulic conductivity was inversely correlated with the volume occupied by the depositions of bentonite and CaCO3 precipitates in column, showing the same efficiency but a larger effect of the CaCO3 precipitates with increasing volume by bacterial growth. The smaller glass beads resulted in larger volume of the depositions. Bentonite increased the deposition of CaCO3 precipitates. Analysis using the Kozeny-Carman equation suggested that without yeast extract, bentonite and the CaCO3 precipitates formed aggregates with glass beads, thus increasing their diameter and consequently decreasing the pore size in the column. With yeast extract, in addition to the aggregates, the individual CaCO3 precipitates formed separately from the aggregates reduced the hydraulic conductivity.

  7. Simple method for the extraction and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of carotenoid pigments from red yeasts (Basidiomycota, Fungi).

    PubMed

    Weber, Roland W S; Anke, Heidrun; Davoli, Paolo

    2007-03-23

    A simple method for the extraction of carotenoid pigments from frozen wet cells of red yeasts (Basidiomycota) and their analysis by reversed-phase HPLC using a C(18) column and a water/acetone solvent system is described. Typical red yeast carotenoids belonging to an oxidative series from the monocyclic gamma-carotene to 2-hydroxytorularhodin and from the bicyclic beta-carotene to astaxanthin were separated. Pigment identity was confirmed by LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) mass spectrometry using similar chromatographic conditions.

  8. Improvement of grape and wine phenolic content by foliar application to grapevine of three different elicitors: Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Portu, Javier; López, Rosa; Baroja, Elisa; Santamaría, Pilar; Garde-Cerdán, Teresa

    2016-06-15

    Phenolic compounds play a key role in grape and wine organoleptic properties, being therefore a key parameter in wine quality. Elicitor application constitutes an interesting field of research since it is indirectly involved in the accumulation of phenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of three different elicitors on both grape and wine phenolic content. Methyl jasmonate, chitosan, and a commercial yeast extract were applied to the canopy at veraison and one week later. Results showed that foliar treatments carried out with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract achieved the best results, increasing grape and wine anthocyanin content when compared to the control. Moreover, the application of the yeast elicitor also enhanced grape stilbene content. In contrast, the chitosan treatment did not have a substantial impact on the phenolic compounds. The results of this study indicate that methyl jasmonate and yeast extract applications could be a simple practice to increase grape and wine phenolic content. PMID:26868568

  9. Yeast tRNA3Leu gene transcribed and spliced in a HeLa cell extract.

    PubMed Central

    Standring, D N; Venegas, A; Rutter, W J

    1981-01-01

    A cloned yeast tRNA3Leu gene containing a 33-base intervening sequence (IVS) is selectively transcribed by a soluble extract from HeLa cells. The 130-nucleotide tRNA3Leu precursor RNA formed is colinear with the gene and contains approximately 4 leader nucleotides and up to 9 trailer nucleotides. The IVS is accurately and efficiently removed by an endogenous HeLa excision-ligase activity to yield the spliced tRNA, the free IVS, and the half-tRNA intermediates. The splicing reaction occurs without prior 5' and 3' maturation of the precursor but, with this exception, this pattern of synthesis and subsequent maturation of the tRNA3Leu precursor conforms to the scheme for tRNA biosynthesis deduced for the xenopus system. Indeed, the two systems utilize similar or identical tRNA3Leu precursors. Our results stress the extraordinary conservation of tRNA biosynthesis in eukaryotes and demonstrate that a HeLa extract provides a useful system for investigating this process. Images PMID:6796956

  10. Extraction of ethanol with higher carboxylic acid solvents and their toxicity to yeast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a screening exercise for ethanol-selective extraction solvents, partitioning of ethanol and water from a 5 wt% aqueous solution into several C8 – C18 carboxylic acids was studied. Results for the acids are compared with those from alcohols of similar structure. In all cases studied, the acids exh...

  11. A new β-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z Lewis; Weber, Scott A; Cotta, Michael A; Li, Shi-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 that is able to utilize cellobiose as sole source of carbon and produce sufficient native β-glucosidase enzyme activity for cellulosic ethanol production using SSF. In addition, this yeast is tolerant to the major inhibitors derived from lignocellulosic biomass pre-treatment such as 2-furaldehyde (furfural) and 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF), and converted furfural into furan methanol in less than 12h and HMF into furan-2,5-dimethanol within 24h in the presence of 15 mM each of furfural and HMF. Using xylose-extracted corncob residue as cellulosic feedstock, an ethanol production of 23 g/l was obtained using 25% solids loading at 37 °C by SSF without addition of exogenous β-glucosidase. Development of this yeast aids renewable biofuels development efforts for economic consolidated SSF bio-processing.

  12. THE VITAMIN B(1) AND B(2) G CONTENT OF LIVER EXTRACT AND BREWERS' YEAST CONCENTRATE.

    PubMed

    Miller, D K; Rhoads, C P

    1934-02-28

    1. Liver extract powder, No. 343 Lilly, and the same material prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by mouth in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats weighing from 40 to 50 gm., contain sufficient vitamin B(1) to support normal growth, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. Moreover, liver extract in the forms mentioned, administered in the same amounts, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth of similar rate when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 2. Liver extract (Lilly) in the form prepared for parenteral use, when administered daily by intraperitoneal injections, in amounts derived from 2.5 gm. of fresh whole liver, to rats under standard experimental conditions, does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to maintain normal growth. Furthermore, the amount of vitamin B(1) present in liver extract in this form is not as effective in supporting normal growth when given by intraperitoneal injection as it is when given by mouth. 3. Vegex, when administered daily in amounts of 50, 150, and 250 mg. to rats of 40 to 50 gm. in weight contains sufficient vitamin B(1) to maintain normal growth of the rats, provided the animals receive in addition an adequate amount of vitamin B(2) G. However, vegex in the same amounts does not contain sufficient vitamin B(2) G to support normal growth of similar rats when all other necessary constituents of the diet are provided. 4. These experiments indicate that the extrinsic, anti-anemic factor of Castle and the thermostable growth-promoting food constituent, commonly known as vitamin B(2) G, are not identical.

  13. Budding yeast protein extraction and purification for the study of function, interactions, and post-translational modifications.

    PubMed

    Szymanski, Eva Paige; Kerscher, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Homogenization by bead beating is a fast and efficient way to release DNA, RNA, proteins, and metabolites from budding yeast cells, which are notoriously hard to disrupt. Here we describe the use of a bead mill homogenizer for the extraction of proteins into buffers optimized to maintain the functions, interactions and post-translational modifications of proteins. Logarithmically growing cells expressing the protein of interest are grown in a liquid growth media of choice. The growth media may be supplemented with reagents to induce protein expression from inducible promoters (e.g. galactose), synchronize cell cycle stage (e.g. nocodazole), or inhibit proteasome function (e.g. MG132). Cells are then pelleted and resuspended in a suitable buffer containing protease and/or phosphatase inhibitors and are either processed immediately or frozen in liquid nitrogen for later use. Homogenization is accomplished by six cycles of 20 sec bead-beating (5.5 m/sec), each followed by one minute incubation on ice. The resulting homogenate is cleared by centrifugation and small particulates can be removed by filtration. The resulting cleared whole cell extract (WCE) is precipitated using 20% TCA for direct analysis of total proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by Western blotting. Extracts are also suitable for affinity purification of specific proteins, the detection of post-translational modifications, or the analysis of co-purifying proteins. As is the case for most protein purification protocols, some enzymes and proteins may require unique conditions or buffer compositions for their purification and others may be unstable or insoluble under the conditions stated. In the latter case, the protocol presented may provide a useful starting point to empirically determine the best bead-beating strategy for protein extraction and purification. We show the extraction and purification of an epitope-tagged SUMO E3 ligase, Siz1, a cell cycle regulated protein that becomes both sumoylated and

  14. Phloem Loading by the PmSUC2 Sucrose Carrier from Plantago major Occurs into Companion Cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stadler, R.; Brandner, J.; Schulz, A.; Gahrtz, M.; Sauer, N.

    1995-01-01

    High levels of mRNA for the sucrose-H+ symporter PmSUC2 have been found in the vascular bundles of petioles from Plantago major. The possible role of PmSUC2 in phloem loading was studied with antiserum raised against the recombinant PmSUC2 protein. This antiserum labeled a single 35-kD protein band in detergent extracts of P. major vascular bundles. It showed no cross-reaction with the P. major sucrose carrier PmSUC1, which was tested with detergent extracts from plasma membranes of transgenic yeast strains containing either the P. major sucrose transporter PmSUC1 or PmSUC2. The antiserum was used to determine the site of PmSUC2 expression in leaves, petioles, and roots of P. major. In cross-sections and longitudinal sections, the PmSUC2 protein was found in only one single cell type. These cells were identified as companion cells because they are nucleated, contain a dense cytoplasm, and are always adjacent to a sieve element. The labeled cells had the same longitudinal extension as did their sister sieve elements and always ended next to the sieve plates, which were characterized by specific staining. PmSUC2 mRNA and PmSUC2 protein were also detected in P. major roots. The function of PmSUC2 in the different organs and its role in phloem loading are discussed. PMID:12242355

  15. Yeast cell wall extract induces disease resistance against bacterial and fungal pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica crop.

    PubMed

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods.

  16. Yeast extract promotes decolorization of azo dyes by stimulating azoreductase activity in Shewanella sp. strain IFN4.

    PubMed

    Imran, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad; Negm, Fayek; Khalid, Azeem; Shaharoona, Baby; Hussain, Sabir; Mahmood Nadeem, Sajid; Crowley, David E

    2016-02-01

    Biological treatment of azo dyes commonly requires a combined anaerobic-aerobic process in which initial decolorization is achieved by reductive cleavage of azo bonds on the parent molecule. The present study was conducted to examine the relative importance of co-substrates for driving reductive decolorization of azo dyes by Shewanella sp. strain IFN4 using whole cells and enzyme assays. Results showed that the dye decolorization by strain IFN4 was faster in medium containing 1gL(-1) yeast extract (YE) as compared to nine other co-substrates. Moreover, only YE stimulated azoreductase activity (increased from 1.32 to 4.19U/mg protein). Increasing the level of YE up to 8gL(-)(1) resulted into 81% decolorization of the dye in 1h along with an increase in azoreductase activity up to 6.16U/mg protein. Among the components of YE, only riboflavin stimulated the decolorization process as well as enzyme activity. Moreover, strain IFN4 demonstrated flavin reductase activity, and a significant correlation (r(2)=0.98) between flavin reduction and dye reduction by this strain emphasized the involvement of flavin compounds in the decolorization process. The results of this study show that YE serves both as a source of reducing equivalents and an electron shuttle for catalyzing dye reduction.

  17. Fractionation of yeast extract by nanofiltration process to assess key compounds involved in CHO cell culture improvement.

    PubMed

    Mosser, Mathilde; Kapel, Romain; Chevalot, Isabelle; Olmos, Eric; Marc, Ivan; Marc, Annie; Oriol, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Yeast extract (YE) is known to greatly enhance mammalian cell culture performances, but its undefined composition decreases process reliability. Accordingly, in the present study, the nature of YE compounds involved in the improvement of recombinant CHO cell growth and IgG production was investigated. First, the benefits of YE were verified, revealing that it increased maximal concentrations of viable cells and IgG up to 73 and 60%, respectively compared to a reference culture. Then, the analyses of YE composition highlighted the presence of molecules such as amino acids, vitamins, salts, nucleobase, and glucose that were contained in reference medium, while others including peptides, trehalose, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids were not. Consequently, YE was fractionated by a nanofiltration process to deeper evaluate its effects on CHO cell cultures. The YE molecules already contained in reference medium were mainly isolated in the permeate fraction together with trehalose and short peptides, while other molecules were concentrated in the retentate. Permeate, which was free of macromolecules, exhibited a similar positive effect than raw YE on maximal concentrations. Additional studies on cell energetic metabolism underlined that dipeptides and tripeptides in permeate were used as an efficient source of nitrogenous substrates.

  18. Yeast Cell Wall Extract Induces Disease Resistance against Bacterial and Fungal Pathogens in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica Crop

    PubMed Central

    Narusaka, Mari; Minami, Taichi; Iwabuchi, Chikako; Hamasaki, Takashi; Takasaki, Satoko; Kawamura, Kimito; Narusaka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Housaku Monogatari (HM) is a plant activator prepared from a yeast cell wall extract. We examined the efficacy of HM application and observed that HM treatment increased the resistance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa leaves to bacterial and fungal infections. HM reduced the severity of bacterial leaf spot and anthracnose on A. thaliana and Brassica crop leaves with protective effects. In addition, gene expression analysis of A. thaliana plants after treatment with HM indicated increased expression of several plant defense-related genes. HM treatment appears to induce early activation of jasmonate/ethylene and late activation of salicylic acid (SA) pathways. Analysis using signaling mutants revealed that HM required SA accumulation and SA signaling to facilitate resistance to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum. In addition, HM-induced resistance conferred chitin-independent disease resistance to bacterial pathogens in A. thaliana. These results suggest that HM contains multiple microbe-associated molecular patterns that activate defense responses in plants. These findings suggest that the application of HM is a useful tool that may facilitate new disease control methods. PMID:25565273

  19. Effects of vitamin D and yeast extract supplementation on turkey mortality and clostridial dermatitis incidence in a dexamethasone immunosuppression model.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Ratha, N C

    2014-12-01

    Clostridial dermatitis (CD) is a production disease of commercial turkeys that is characterized by sudden mortality in market-aged male birds and by lesions that include fluid and air bubbles under the skin of the thigh, breast, and tail area. We have developed a model for CD using dexamethasone (Dex) injection that suggests this disease may be related to stressors during the last stages of turkey production. Male turkeys were provided with control feed and water or with feed supplemented with a commercial yeast extract (YE) product, water supplemented with vitamin D (VD), or the combination. At 6, 11, and 15 wk of age birds were treated with three intramuscular injections of Dex over a 5-day period. Both YE and VD, but not the combination, decreased early mortality. At week 7 mortality was increased by VD, and cellulitis lesions were seen in 7/8 mortalities. Mortality at week 12 was decreased by both YE and the combination of YE and VD, and cellulitis lesions were seen in 8/17 mortalities. There were no significant differences in mortality at week 16. Total mortality was 66 birds, and 23 of these had cellulitis lesions (38%). There were no YE-treated birds with CD lesions; however, 67% of VD-treated birds had CD lesions. This study suggests that feed supplementation with YE may improve the ability of turkeys to withstand the stressors during late production and provide protection against the development of CD; however, high levels of VD supplementation may be detrimental.

  20. Ethanol production from syngas by Clostridium strain P11 using corn steep liquor as a nutrient replacement to yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Maddipati, Prasanth; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Bellmer, Danielle D; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2011-06-01

    The feasibility of replacing yeast extract (YE) by corn steep liquor (CSL), a low cost nutrient source, for syngas fermentation to produce ethanol using Clostridium strain P11 was investigated. About 32% more ethanol (1.7 g L(-1)) was produced with 20 g L(-1) CSL media in 250-mL bottle fermentations compared to media with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h. Maximum ethanol concentrations after 360 h of fermentation in a 7.5-L fermentor with 10 and 20 g L(-1) CSL media were 8.6 and 9.6 g L(-1), respectively, which represent 57% and 60% of the theoretical ethanol yields from CO. Only about 6.1 g L(-1) of ethanol was obtained in the medium with 1 g L(-1) YE after 360 h, which represents 53% of the theoretical ethanol yield from CO. The use of CSL also enhanced butanol production by sevenfold compared to YE in bottle fermentations. These results demonstrate that CSL can replace YE as the primary medium component and significantly enhance ethanol production by Clostridium strain P11.

  1. Potato sucrose transporter expression in minor veins indicates a role in phloem loading.

    PubMed

    Riesmeier, J W; Hirner, B; Frommer, W B

    1993-11-01

    The major transport form of assimilates in most plants is sucrose. Translocation from the mesophyll into the phloem for long-distance transport is assumed to be carrier mediated in many species. A sucrose transporter cDNA was isolated from potato by complementation of a yeast strain that is unable to grow on sucrose because of the absence of an endogenous sucrose uptake system and the lack of a secreted invertase. The deduced amino acid sequence of the potato sucrose transporter gene StSUT1 is highly hydrophobic and is 68% identical to the spinach sucrose transporter SoSUT1 (pS21). In yeast, the sensitivity of sucrose transport to protonophores and to an increase in pH is consistent with an active proton cotransport mechanism. Substrate specificity and inhibition by protein modifiers are similar to results obtained for sucrose transport into protoplasts and plasma membrane vesicles and for the spinach transporter, with the exception of a reduction in maltose affinity. RNA gel blot analysis shows that the StSUT1 gene is highly expressed in mature leaves, whereas stem and sink tissues, such as developing leaves, show only low expression. RNA in situ hybridization studies show that the transporter gene is expressed specifically in the phloem. Both the properties and the expression pattern are consistent with a function of the sucrose transporter protein in phloem loading.

  2. Sugar (sucrose) holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce-Lee, E. L.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2004-06-01

    Computer holograms made with sugar crystals are reported. This material is well known as a good sweetener; the sugar from sugar cane or sugar beet (sucrose). These sweetener can be applied as honey "water and diluted sugar" easily on any substrate such as plastics or glasses without critical conditions for developed process. This step corresponds only to the cured sucrose as a photopolymer process. The maximum absorption spectra is localized at UV region λ=240 nm. We record with lithographic techniques some gratings, showing a good diffraction efficiency around 45%. This material has good resolution to make diffraction gratings. These properties are attractive because they open the possibility to make phase holograms on candies. Mainly the phase modulation is by refraction index.

  3. Microwave, ultrasound, thermal treatments, and bead milling as intensification techniques for extraction of lipids from oleaginous Yarrowia lipolytica yeast for a biojetfuel application.

    PubMed

    Meullemiestre, Alice; Breil, Cassandra; Abert-Vian, Maryline; Chemat, Farid

    2016-07-01

    In the present work, two different ways of lipids extraction from Yarrowia lipolytica yeast were investigated in order to maximize the extraction yield. Firstly, various modern techniques of extraction including ultrasound, microwave, and bead milling were tested to intensify the efficiency of lipid recovery. Secondly, several pretreatments such as freezing/defrosting, cold drying, bead milling, and microwave prior two washing of mixture solvent of chloroform:methanol (1:2, v/v) were study to evaluate the impact on lipid recovery. All these treatments were compared to conventional maceration, in terms of lipids extraction yield and lipid composition analysis. The main result of this study is the large difference of lipid recovery among treatments and the alteration of lipids profile after microwave and ultrasound techniques.

  4. Comparative proteomic analysis of the response to silver ions and yeast extract in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Shen, Ye; Shen, Zhuo; Zhao, Le; Ning, Deli; Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Rong; Huang, Luqi

    2016-10-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses can inhibit plant growth, resulting in losses of crop productivity. However, moderate adverse stress can promote the accumulation of valuable natural products in medicinal plants. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms thus might help optimize the variety of available plant medicinal materials and improve their quality. In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures were employed as an in vitro model of the Chinese herb Danshen. A comparative proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS was performed. By comparing the gel images of groups exposed to the stress of yeast extract (YE) combined with Ag(+) and controls, 64 proteins were identified that showed significant changes in protein abundance for at least one time point after treatment. According to analysis based on the KEGG and related physiological experimental verification, it was found that YE and Ag(+) stress induced a burst of reactive oxygen species and activated the Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling pathway. Expression of immune-suppressive proteins increased. Epidermal cells underwent programmed cell death. Energy metabolism was enhanced and carbon metabolism shifted to favor the production of secondary metabolites such as lignin, tanshinone and salvianolic acids. The tanshinone and salvianolic acids were deposited on the collapsed epidermal cells forming a physicochemical barrier. The defense proteins and these natural products together enhanced the stress resistance of the plants. Since higher levels of natural products represent good quality in medicinal materials, this study sheds new light on quality formation mechanisms of medicinal plants and will hopefully encourage further research on how the planting environment affects the efficacy of herbal medicines.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis of the response to silver ions and yeast extract in Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yajun; Shen, Ye; Shen, Zhuo; Zhao, Le; Ning, Deli; Jiang, Chao; Zhao, Rong; Huang, Luqi

    2016-10-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses can inhibit plant growth, resulting in losses of crop productivity. However, moderate adverse stress can promote the accumulation of valuable natural products in medicinal plants. Elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms thus might help optimize the variety of available plant medicinal materials and improve their quality. In this study, Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root cultures were employed as an in vitro model of the Chinese herb Danshen. A comparative proteomic analysis using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS was performed. By comparing the gel images of groups exposed to the stress of yeast extract (YE) combined with Ag(+) and controls, 64 proteins were identified that showed significant changes in protein abundance for at least one time point after treatment. According to analysis based on the KEGG and related physiological experimental verification, it was found that YE and Ag(+) stress induced a burst of reactive oxygen species and activated the Ca(2+)/calmodulin signaling pathway. Expression of immune-suppressive proteins increased. Epidermal cells underwent programmed cell death. Energy metabolism was enhanced and carbon metabolism shifted to favor the production of secondary metabolites such as lignin, tanshinone and salvianolic acids. The tanshinone and salvianolic acids were deposited on the collapsed epidermal cells forming a physicochemical barrier. The defense proteins and these natural products together enhanced the stress resistance of the plants. Since higher levels of natural products represent good quality in medicinal materials, this study sheds new light on quality formation mechanisms of medicinal plants and will hopefully encourage further research on how the planting environment affects the efficacy of herbal medicines. PMID:27372730

  6. Bacterial clearance, heterophil function, and hematological parameters of transport-stressed turkey poults supplemented with dietary yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Huff, G R; Huff, W E; Farnell, M B; Rath, N C; Solis de Los Santos, F; Donoghue, A M

    2010-03-01

    Yeast extracts (YE) contain biological response modifiers that may be useful as alternatives to antibiotics for controlling pathogens in poultry production and mitigating the deleterious effects of production stressors. The objective of the present study was to determine the ability of a commercial dietary YE (Alphamune) to modulate the immune response in male turkey poults challenged with Escherichia coli and subjected to transport stress. Alphamune was added to turkey poult diets at 0, 500, or 1,000 g/ton. Poults were challenged by air sac injection with 60 cfu of E. coli at 1 wk of age. At 3 wk of age, these challenged birds were subjected to transport stress and birds were bled and necropsied the following morning. Blood cell numbers and percentages, hematological parameters, and clinical chemistry values were determined. Oxidative burst activity of isolated heterophils was measured using stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate and a 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay. Data were analyzed using GLM and least squares means procedures of the SAS program. The numbers and percentages of heterophils in peripheral blood were increased and their oxidative burst activity was stimulated by YE. The stress challenge dramatically increased oxidative burst and this increase was significantly modulated by YE treatment. Serum levels of calcium, phosphorus, and triglycerides were decreased and uric acid levels, erythrocyte numbers, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were increased by YE supplementation. Bacteria were isolated from the air sac and liver of a lower percentage of birds provided with YE. These results suggest that dietary YE has potential as a nonantibiotic alternative for decreasing bacterial pathogens in turkey production. PMID:20181859

  7. Beneficial effect of brewers' yeast extract on daily activity in a murine model of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Takashi; Yu, Fei; Zhu, Shi-Jie; Moriya, Junji; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Shigeto; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Brewers' yeast extract (BYE) on daily activity in a mouse model of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). CFS was induced by repeated injection of Brucella abortus (BA) antigen every 2 weeks. BYE was orally administered to mice in a dose of 2 g per kg per day for 2 weeks before injecting BA and for 4 weeks thereafter. We evaluated daily running activity in mice receiving BYE as compared with that in untreated mice. Weekly variation of body weight (BW) and survival in both groups was monitored during the observation period. Spleen weight (SW), SW/BW ratio, percent splenic follicular area and expression levels of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA in spleen were determined in both groups at the time of sacrifice. The daily activity during 2 weeks after the second BA injection was significantly higher in the treated group than in the control. There was no difference in BW between both groups through the experimental course. Two mice in the control died 2 and 7 days after the second injection, whereas no mice in the treated group died. Significantly decreased SW and SW/BW ratio were observed in the treated mice together with elevation of splenic follicular area. There were suppressed IFN-gamma and IL-10 mRNA levels in spleens from the treated mice. Our results suggest that BYE might have a protective effect on the marked reduction in activity following repeated BA injection via normalization of host immune responses.

  8. New methodologies for the extraction and fractionation of bioactive carbohydrates from mulberry (Morus alba) leaves.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Sonia; Ruiz-Aceituno, Laura; Sanz, María L; Soria, Ana C

    2013-05-15

    Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) was applied for the first time to extract bioactive low molecular weight carbohydrates (iminosugars and inositols) from mulberry ( Morus alba ) leaves. Under optimized conditions, PLE provided a similar yield to the conventional process used to extract these bioactives, but in less time (5 vs 90 min). To remove carbohydrates that interfere with the bioactivity of iminosugars from PLE extracts, two fractionation treatments were evaluated: yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) incubation and cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Both methods allowed complete removal of major soluble carbohydrates (fructose, glucose, galactose, and sucrose), without affecting the content of mulberry bioactives. As an advantage over CEC, the yeast treatment preserves bioactive inositols, and it is an affordable methodology that employs food grade solvents. This work found PLE followed by yeast treatment to be an easily scalable and automatable procedure that can be implemented in the food industry.

  9. Citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 and purification of citric acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling-Fei; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2013-11-01

    In this study, citric acid production from extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by the genetically engineered yeast Yarrowia lipolytica strain 30 was investigated. After the compositions of the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers for citric acid production were optimized, the results showed that natural components of extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers without addition of any other components were suitable for citric acid production by the yeast strain. During 10 L fermentation using the extract containing 84.3 g L(-1) total sugars, 68.3 g L(-1) citric acid was produced and the yield of citric acid was 0.91 g g(-1) within 336 h. At the end of the fermentation, 9.2 g L(-1) of residual total sugar and 2.1 g L(-1) of reducing sugar were left in the fermented medium. At the same time, citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was purified. It was found that 67.2 % of the citric acid in the supernatant of the culture was recovered and purity of citric acid in the crystal was 96 %.

  10. Enhancing isomaltulose production by recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase: culture medium optimization containing agricultural wastes and cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Yu, Jianguang; Wang, Yanyuan; Feng, Xiaohai; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2013-10-01

    Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l⁻¹), yeast extract (25.93 g l⁻¹), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l⁻¹) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 ± 0.11 U mg DCW⁻¹) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet⁻¹ h⁻¹. A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 ± 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose. PMID:23300051

  11. Enhancing isomaltulose production by recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase: culture medium optimization containing agricultural wastes and cell immobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Yu, Jianguang; Wang, Yanyuan; Feng, Xiaohai; Ouyang, Pingkai

    2013-10-01

    Isomaltulose is a structural isomer of sucrose commercially used in food industries. In this work, recombinant Escherichia coli producing sucrose isomerase (SIase) was used to convert sucrose into isomaltulose. To develop an economical industrial medium, untreated cane molasses (10.63 g l⁻¹), yeast extract (25.93 g l⁻¹), and corn steep liquor (10.45 g l⁻¹) were used as main culture compositions for SIase production. The relatively high SIase activity (14.50 ± 0.11 U mg DCW⁻¹) was obtained by the recombinant cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first investigation on SIase production by engineered E. coli using untreated cane molasses. The recombinant E. coli cells expressing the SIase gene were immobilized in calcium alginate gel in order to improve the efficiency of recycling. The immobilization was most effective with 2 % (w/v) sodium alginate and 3 % (w/v) calcium chloride. The optimal initial biomass for immobilization was 20 % (w/v, wet wt.), with a hardening time of 8 h for cell immobilization. The immobilized E. coli cells exhibited good stability for 30 batches with the productivity of 0.45 g isomaltulose g pellet⁻¹ h⁻¹. A continuous isomaltulose formation process using a column reactor remained stable for 40 days with 83 ± 2 % isomaltulose yield, which would be beneficial for economical production of isomaltulose.

  12. Effects of a preparation of combined glutathione-enriched yeast and rice embryo/soybean extracts on ethanol hangover.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heon-Sik; Song, Jugyeong; Kim, Tae Myoung; Joo, Seong Soo; Park, Dongsun; Jeon, Jeong Hee; Shin, Sunhee; Park, Hyoung Kook; Lee, Won Kyung; Ly, Sun Yung; Kim, Mee Ree; Lee, Do Ik; Kim, Yun-Bae

    2009-12-01

    The effects of a preparation of combined glutathione-enriched yeast (GEY) and rice embryo/soybean (RES) extracts (20:1), GEY/RES, on experimentally induced ethanol hangover were investigated in male Sprague-Dawley rats. To evaluate the preventive effects on hangover, rats were orally administered GEY/RES (50/2.5, 100/5, or 200/10 mg/kg) for 2 weeks. At 30 minutes after the final treatment, they were challenged with 3 mL/kg ethanol (15 mL of 20% in water/kg). The blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 hours postchallenge. Hepatic mRNA expression levels of alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 type 2E1 (CYP2E1), and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Additional rats were challenged with ethanol and, 60 minutes later, administered GEY/RES to evaluate alcohol clearance. Pretreatment with GEY/RES for 2 weeks reduced the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde in a dose-dependent manner, lowering by 29.5% and 54.6% at the highest dose (200/10 mg/kg), respectively. The expressions of mRNAs for ADH and ALDH, the major alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, were markedly increased in the livers of rats administered GEY/RES for 2 weeks, whereas CYP2E1 mRNA was suppressed. Postchallenge treatment with GEY/RES enhanced the alcohol clearance rate by lowering blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde by 24% and 26.6%, respectively, for the highest dose group. GEY/RES remarkably eliminated 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical and FeCl(3)-mediated lipid peroxidation in vitro and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation following ethanol administration in vivo. Therefore, it is suggested that GEY/RES reduces the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde not only by modulating alcohol-metabolizing enzymes, but also by exerting its antioxidant activity, and that GEY/RES could be a promising candidate for improvements of alcoholic hangover.

  13. Differentiation and numerical analysis of oral yeasts based on SDS-Page profiles. Influence of the culture media on the whole-cell protein extracts.

    PubMed

    Höfling, J F; Rosa, E A; Pereira, C V; Boriollo, M F; Rodrigues, J A

    2001-08-01

    The application of gel electrophoresis and numerical analysis of yeast soluble proteins analysis to the investigation of 12 oral yeast strains belonging to five species is described. It involves one-dimensional electrophoresis of SDS-solubilized whole-cell proteins using different culture media for the cultivation of the cells, integration densitometries in the areas of the gels and percentages of the proteins extraction. These extracts were prepared from four isolates of Candida albicans, two of C. tropicalis, C. guilliermondii, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei. The extracts from whole-cells proteins using different culture media for the cultivation of the cells were fractionated by slab electrophoresis using a discontinuous buffer system. The corresponding patterns showed at least 36 polypeptides in the range of 14.4-200 kDa. Different isolates of each species were clearly different in each of the five species. The data obtained suggest that different nutritional compositions led to the expression of different proteins derived from alternatives metabolic pathways expressed by the electrophoretic profiles. The construction of a database of protein fingerprints and numerical analysis based on such data, may have some implications in the classification and identification of such species with epidemiological, ecological and taxonomic purposes. A well defined or synthetic culture media seems to be much properly.

  14. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5 g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7 g/L after 48 hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7 g/L, respectively, after 48 hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475 g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD.

  15. A preliminary study on the effect of adding yeast extract to cheese curd on proteolysis and flavour development of reduced-fat Cheddar.

    PubMed

    Shakeel-Ur-Rehman; Farkye, Nana Y; Vedamuthu, Ebenezer R; Drake, Mary A

    2003-02-01

    Yeast extract was used as a nutrient for growing lactobacilli in reduced-fat Cheddar cheese as early growth of non-starter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB) in Cheddar cheese is suppressed by pasteurization of milk and the hostile environment of the cheese. Reduced-fat Cheddar cheese was manufactured from 100 kg standardized milk on two occasions. After milling, the curd was divided into two portions, C and E. To control portion, C, salt was added at normal levels. A mixture of salt and yeast extract was added to the experimental, E. The cheeses were ripened for 7 months at 8 degrees C and assessed for proteolysis and NSLAB growth during ripening. Mean % moisture, fat, protein, salt and pH were 40.6, 20.5, 31.1, 1.72 and 5.22 respectively, in E cheeses, and 39.5, 20.5, 30.9, 1.68 and 5.22, respectively, in C cheese. NSLAB counts in E cheeses were 10(1), 10(3), 10(5) cfu/g compared with 0, 10(1), 10(4) cfu/g in C respectively, after 1, 7 and 30 d of ripening. After 60 d, cell densities of NSLAB were similar (approximately 10(6) cfu/g) in C and E cheese. Addition of yeast extract to curd affected neither the electrophoretic patterns of cheese nor its water-soluble N content during ripening. However, the total free amino acids were significantly higher in E cheese than C cheese throughout ripening, suggesting faster secondary proteolysis in the former cheeses. A 6-member trained descriptive panel evaluated the cheese at 7 months and found that the E cheeses had higher intensities of whey, fruity, sulphur, nutty, sweet and sour flavours, but had lower intensities of brothy flavours as compared to C cheeses. Also, the E cheeses were perceived to be more mature than corresponding C cheese. Results show that addition of yeast extract to cheese curd is a promising method of enhancing flavour development in ripened cheeses.

  16. Inhibitory Properties of Aqueous Ethanol Extracts of Propolis on Alpha-Glucosidase

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongcheng; Wang, Guangxin; Beta, Trust; Dong, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inhibitory properties of various extracts of propolis on alpha-glucosidase from baker's yeast and mammalian intestine. Inhibitory activities of aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis were determined by using 4-nitrophenyl-D-glucopyranoside, sucrose and maltose as substrates, and acarbose as a positive reference. All extracts were significantly effective in inhibiting α-glucosidase from baker's yeast and rat intestinal sucrase in comparison with acarbose (P < 0.05). The 75% ethanol extracts of propolis (75% EEP) showed the highest inhibitory effect on α-glucosidase and sucrase and were a noncompetitive inhibition mode. 50% EEP, 95%, EEP and 100% EEP exhibited a mixed inhibition mode, while water extracts of propolis (WEP) and 25% EEP demonstrated a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, WEP presented the highest inhibitory activity against maltase. These results suggest that aqueous ethanol extracts of propolis may be used as nutraceuticals for the regulation of postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25767553

  17. Cyclin B-Cdk1 Kinase Stimulates ORC- and Cdc6-Independent Steps of Semiconservative Plasmid Replication in Yeast Nuclear Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Bernard P.; Pasero, Philippe; Braguglia, Diego; Heun, Patrick; Weinreich, Michael; Gasser, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear extracts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells synchronized in S phase support the semiconservative replication of supercoiled plasmids in vitro. We examined the dependence of this reaction on the prereplicative complex that assembles at yeast origins and on S-phase kinases that trigger initiation in vivo. We found that replication in nuclear extracts initiates independently of the origin recognition complex (ORC), Cdc6p, and an autonomously replicating sequence (ARS) consensus. Nonetheless, quantitative density gradient analysis showed that S- and M-phase nuclear extracts consistently promote semiconservative DNA replication more efficiently than G1-phase extracts. The observed semiconservative replication is compromised in S-phase nuclear extracts deficient for the Cdk1 kinase (Cdc28p) but not in extracts deficient for the Cdc7p kinase. In a cdc4-1 G1-phase extract, which accumulates high levels of the specific Clb-Cdk1 inhibitor p40SIC1, very low levels of semiconservative DNA replication were detected. Recombinant Clb5-Cdc28 restores replication in a cdc28-4 S-phase extract yet fails to do so in the cdc4-1 G1-phase extract. In contrast, the addition of recombinant Xenopus CycB-Cdc2, which is not sensitive to inhibition by p40SIC1, restores efficient replication to both extracts. Our results suggest that in addition to its well-characterized role in regulating the origin-specific prereplication complex, the Clb-Cdk1 complex modulates the efficiency of the replication machinery itself. PMID:9891057

  18. Evolution of plant sucrose uptake transporters.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Anke; Sivitz, Alicia B; Ward, John M

    2012-01-01

    In angiosperms, sucrose uptake transporters (SUTs) have important functions especially in vascular tissue. Here we explore the evolutionary origins of SUTs by analysis of angiosperm SUTs and homologous transporters in a vascular early land plant, Selaginella moellendorffii, and a non-vascular plant, the bryophyte Physcomitrella patens, the charophyte algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus, several red algae and fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Plant SUTs cluster into three types by phylogenetic analysis. Previous studies using angiosperms had shown that types I and II are localized to the plasma membrane while type III SUTs are associated with vacuolar membrane. SUT homologs were not found in the chlorophyte algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Volvox carterii. However, the characean algae Chlorokybus atmosphyticus contains a SUT homolog (CaSUT1) and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it is basal to all other streptophyte SUTs analyzed. SUTs are present in both red algae and S. pombe but they are less related to plant SUTs than CaSUT1. Both Selaginella and Physcomitrella encode type II and III SUTs suggesting that both plasma membrane and vacuolar sucrose transporter activities were present in early land plants. It is likely that SUT transporters are important for scavenging sucrose from the environment and intracellular compartments in charophyte and non-vascular plants. Type I SUTs were only found in eudicots and we conclude that they evolved from type III SUTs, possibly through loss of a vacuolar targeting sequence. Eudicots utilize type I SUTs for phloem (vascular tissue) loading while monocots use type II SUTs for phloem loading. We show that HvSUT1 from barley, a type II SUT, reverted the growth defect of the Arabidopsis atsuc2 (type I) mutant. This indicates that type I and II SUTs evolved similar (and interchangeable) phloem loading transporter capabilities independently. PMID:22639641

  19. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses: II. Nutrient excretion and potential environmental impact.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that an equine diet formulated with chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials (DFM) and Yucca schidigera extract would decrease excretion of nutrients that have potential for environmental impact. Horses were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) the aforementioned additives. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co were included in the ADD diet at a 100% replacement rate of sulfate forms used in the CTRL diet. Additionally, the ADD diet included organic selenium yeast, DFM, and Yucca schidigera extract. Ten horses were fed the 2 experimental diets during two 42-d periods in a crossover design. Total fecal and urine collection occurred during the last 14 d of each period. Results indicate no significant differences between Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co concentrations excreted via urine (P > 0.05) due to dietary treatment. There was no difference between fecal Cu and Mn concentrations (P > 0.05) based on diet consumed. Mean fecal Zn and Co concentrations excreted by horses consuming ADD were greater than CTRL (P < 0.003). Differences due to diet were found for selenium fecal (P < 0.0001) and urine (P < 0.0001) excretions, with decreased concentrations found for horses consuming organic selenium yeast (ADD). In contrast, fecal K (%) was greater (P = 0.0421) for horses consuming ADD, whereas concentrations of fecal solids, total N, ammonia N, P, total ammonia, and fecal output did not differ between dietary treatments (P > 0.05). In feces stockpiled to simulate a crude composting method, no differences (P > 0.05) due to diet were detected for particle size, temperature, moisture, OM, total N, P, phosphate, K, moisture, potash, or ammonia N (P > 0.05). Although no difference (P = 0.2737) in feces stockpile temperature due to diet was found, temperature differences over time were documented (P < 0.0001). In conclusion, the addition of certain chelated

  20. Analysis of sucrose esters--insecticides from the surface of tobacco plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Simonovska, Breda; Srbinoska, Marija; Vovk, Irena

    2006-09-15

    Sucrose esters from the surface of leaves of Nicotiana tabacum L. have been shown to possess interesting biological activities. We developed a simple and effective method for their analysis using HPTLC silica gel plates, n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:3, v/v) as developing solvent and aniline-diphenylamine as a detection reagent. Off-line TLC-MS was also used for the detection and identification of the compounds. Solutions containing sucrose esters upon alkaline hydrolysis give sucrose, which is used for indirect estimation by TLC of the sucrose ester content. The method is applicable for the screening for sucrose esters in plant extracts. The extract obtained from the surface of green leaves of oriental tobacco type Prilep P-23 contains sucrose esters and is effective against Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in laboratory and field experiments. PMID:16820155

  1. Transcriptional activation of a geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase gene, GGPPS2, isolated from Scoparia dulcis by treatment with methyl jasmonate and yeast extract.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Taura, F; Kurosaki, F

    2014-10-01

    A cDNA clone, designated SdGGPPS2, was isolated from young seedlings of Scoparia dulcis. The putative amino acid sequence of the translate of the gene showed high homology with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (GGPPS) from various plant sources, and the N-terminal residues exhibited the characteristics of chloroplast targeting sequence. An appreciable increase in the transcriptional level of SdGGPPS2 was observed by exposure of the leaf tissues of S. dulcis to methyl jasmonate, yeast extract or Ca(2+) ionophore A23187. In contrast, SdGGPPS1, a homologous GGPPS gene of the plant, showed no or only negligible change in the expression level upon treatment with these stimuli. The truncated protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli in which the putative targeting domain was deleted catalyzed the condensation of farnesyl diphosphate and isopentenyl diphosphate to liberate geranylgeranyl diphosphate. These results suggested that SdGGPPS2 plays physiological roles in methyl jasmonate and yeast extract-induced metabolism in the chloroplast of S. dulcis cells. PMID:25027024

  2. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  3. Improvement on the productivity of continuous tequila fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae of Agave tequilana juice with supplementation of yeast extract and aeration.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Cortés, Guillermo; Valle-Rodríguez, Juan Octavio; Herrera-López, Enrique J; Díaz-Montaño, Dulce María; González-García, Yolanda; Escalona-Buendía, Héctor B; Córdova, Jesús

    2016-12-01

    Agave (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) fermentations are traditionally carried out employing batch systems in the process of tequila manufacturing; nevertheless, continuous cultures could be an attractive technological alternative to increase productivity and efficiency of sugar to ethanol conversion. However, agave juice (used as a culture medium) has nutritional deficiencies that limit the implementation of yeast continuous fermentations, resulting in high residual sugars and low fermentative rates. In this work, fermentations of agave juice using Saccharomyces cerevisiae were put into operation to prove the necessity of supplementing yeast extract, in order to alleviate nutritional deficiencies of agave juice. Furthermore, continuous fermentations were performed at two different aeration flow rates, and feeding sterilized and non-sterilized media. The obtained fermented musts were subsequently distilled to obtain tequila and the preference level was compared against two commercial tequilas, according to a sensorial analysis. The supplementation of agave juice with air and yeast extract augmented the fermentative capacity of S. cerevisiae S1 and the ethanol productivities, compared to those continuous fermentations non supplemented. In fact, aeration improved ethanol production from 37 to 40 g L(-1), reducing sugars consumption from 73 to 88 g L(-1) and ethanol productivity from 3.0 to 3.2 g (Lh)(-1), for non-aerated and aerated (at 0.02 vvm) cultures, respectively. Supplementation of yeast extract allowed an increase in specific growth rate and dilution rates (0.12 h(-1), compared to 0.08 h(-1) of non-supplemented cultures), ethanol production (47 g L(-1)), reducing sugars consumption (93 g L(-1)) and ethanol productivity [5.6 g (Lh)(-1)] were reached. Additionally, the effect of feeding sterilized or non-sterilized medium to the continuous cultures was compared, finding no significant differences between both types of cultures. The overall effect

  4. Use of high-ethanol-resistant yeast isolates from Nigerian palm wine in lager beer brewing.

    PubMed

    Agu, R C; Anyanwu, T U; Onwumelu, A H

    1993-11-01

    High-ethanol-resistant yeasts, characterized as Saccharomyces sp., were isolated from Nigerian palm wine with added sucrose for high gravity brewing. The yeast isolates that survived the highest ethanol production were used to ferment brewery wort and produced 8.2 to 8.5% (v/v) ethanol; values almost double that of the control yeast from a local brewery.

  5. Mediated amperometry reveals different modes of yeast responses to sugars.

    PubMed

    Garjonyte, Rasa; Melvydas, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2016-02-01

    Menadione-mediated amperometry at carbon paste electrodes modified with various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii) was employed to monitor redox activity inside the yeast cells induced by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose or galactose. Continuous measurements revealed distinct modes (transient or gradually increasing) of the current development during the first 2 to 3 min after subjection to glucose, fructose and sucrose at electrodes containing S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains. Different modes (increasing or decreasing) of the current development after yeast subjection to galactose at electrodes with S. cerevisiae or D. hansenii and at electrodes with C. pulcherrima and P. guilliermondii suggested different mechanisms of galactose assimilation.

  6. Protein phosphatase activity and sucrose-mediated induction of fructan synthesis in wheat.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Noël, Giselle M A; Tognetti, Jorge A; Salerno, Graciela L; Wiemken, Andres; Pontis, Horacio G

    2009-10-01

    In this work, we analyze protein phosphatase (PP) involvement in the sucrose-mediated induction of fructan metabolism in wheat (Triticum aestivum). The addition of okadaic acid (OA), a PP-inhibitor, to sucrose-fed leaves reduced fructosylsucrose-synthesizing activity (FSS) induction in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of the two enzymes that contribute to FSS activity, 1-SST (1-sucrose:sucrose fructosyltransferase, E.C. 2.4.1.99) and 6-SFT (6-sucrose:fructan fructosyltransferase, E.C. 2.4.1.10), was blocked by 1 microM OA. These results suggest the involvement of a PP type 2A in sucrose signaling leading to fructan synthesis. OA addition to the feeding medium impaired both sucrose accumulation in leaves and the expression of sucrose-H+ symporter (SUT1). It is known that sucrose concentration must exceed a threshold for the induction of fructan metabolism; hence PP2A inhibition may result in lower sucrose levels than required for this induction. OA also induced the vacuolar acid invertase (acid INV) transcript levels suggesting that PP activity might play a role in carbon partitioning. Total extractable PP2A activity decreased during 24 h of treatment with sucrose, in parallel with declining sugar uptake into leaf tissues. In conclusion, our results suggest that PP2A is involved in sucrose-induction of fructan metabolism and may play a role in regulating sucrose uptake, but do not rule out that further steps in sucrose signaling pathway may be affected.

  7. Could yeast infections impair recovery from mental illness? A case study using micronutrients and olive leaf extract for the treatment of ADHD and depression.

    PubMed

    Rucklidge, Julia J

    2013-01-01

    Micronutrients are increasingly used to treat psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mood disorders, stress, and anxiety. However, a number of factors influence optimal response and absorption of nutrients, including the health of the gut, particularly the presence of yeast infections, such as Candida. As part of a wider investigation into the impact of micronutrients on psychiatric symptoms, many participants who experienced a yeast infection during their treatment showed a diminished response to the micronutrients. One case was followed systematically over a period of 3 y with documentation of deterioration in psychiatric symptoms (ADHD and mood) when infected with Candida and then symptom improvement following successful treatment of the infection with olive leaf extract (OLE) and probiotics. This case outlines that micronutrient treatment might be severely compromised by infections such as Candida and may highlight the importance of gut health when treating psychiatric disorders with nutrients. Given the role that inflammation can play in absorption of nutrients, it was hypothesized that the infection was impairing absorption of the micronutrients. PMID:23784606

  8. Relationships among impurity components, sucrose, and sugarbeet processing quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium, potassium, amino-nitrogen, and invert sugar are naturally-occurring constituents of the sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) root, referred to as impurities, which impede sucrose extraction during routine factory operations. Three germplasm lines selected for low sodium, potassium, or amino-nitrogen...

  9. Expression of peach sucrose transporters in heterologous systems points out their different physiological role.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Laura; Falchi, Rachele; Hackel, Aleksandra; Kühn, Christina; Vizzotto, Giannina

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose is the major phloem-translocated component in a number of economically important plant species. The comprehension of the mechanisms involved in sucrose transport in peach fruit appears particularly relevant, since the accumulation of this sugar, during ripening, is crucial for the growth and quality of the fruit. Here, we report the functional characterisation and subcellular localisation of three sucrose transporters (PpSUT1, PpSUT2, PpSUT4) in peach, and we formulate novel hypotheses about their role in accumulation of sugar. We provide evidence, about the capability of both PpSUT1 and PpSUT4, expressed in mutant yeast strains to transport sucrose. The functionality of PpSUT1 at the plasma membrane, and of PpSUT4 at the tonoplast, has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the functionality of PpSUT2 was not confirmed: this protein is unable to complement two sucrose uptake-deficient mutant yeast strains. Our results corroborate the hypotheses that PpSUT1 partakes in phloem loading in leaves, and PpSUT4 sustains cell metabolism by regulating sucrose efflux from the vacuole.

  10. Expression of peach sucrose transporters in heterologous systems points out their different physiological role.

    PubMed

    Zanon, Laura; Falchi, Rachele; Hackel, Aleksandra; Kühn, Christina; Vizzotto, Giannina

    2015-09-01

    Sucrose is the major phloem-translocated component in a number of economically important plant species. The comprehension of the mechanisms involved in sucrose transport in peach fruit appears particularly relevant, since the accumulation of this sugar, during ripening, is crucial for the growth and quality of the fruit. Here, we report the functional characterisation and subcellular localisation of three sucrose transporters (PpSUT1, PpSUT2, PpSUT4) in peach, and we formulate novel hypotheses about their role in accumulation of sugar. We provide evidence, about the capability of both PpSUT1 and PpSUT4, expressed in mutant yeast strains to transport sucrose. The functionality of PpSUT1 at the plasma membrane, and of PpSUT4 at the tonoplast, has been demonstrated. On the other hand, the functionality of PpSUT2 was not confirmed: this protein is unable to complement two sucrose uptake-deficient mutant yeast strains. Our results corroborate the hypotheses that PpSUT1 partakes in phloem loading in leaves, and PpSUT4 sustains cell metabolism by regulating sucrose efflux from the vacuole. PMID:26259193

  11. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Price, Hannah C; Mattsson, Johan; Murray, Benjamin J

    2016-07-28

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes-Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  12. Sucrose diffusion in aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Benjamin J.

    2016-01-01

    The diffusion of sugar in aqueous solution is important both in nature and in technological applications, yet measurements of diffusion coefficients at low water content are scarce. We report directly measured sucrose diffusion coefficients in aqueous solution. Our technique utilises a Raman isotope tracer method to monitor the diffusion of non-deuterated and deuterated sucrose across a boundary between the two aqueous solutions. At a water activity of 0.4 (equivalent to 90 wt% sucrose) at room temperature, the diffusion coefficient of sucrose was determined to be approximately four orders of magnitude smaller than that of water in the same material. Using literature viscosity data, we show that, although inappropriate for the prediction of water diffusion, the Stokes–Einstein equation works well for predicting sucrose diffusion under the conditions studied. As well as providing information of importance to the fundamental understanding of diffusion in binary solutions, these data have technological, pharmaceutical and medical implications, for example in cryopreservation. Moreover, in the atmosphere, slow organic diffusion may have important implications for aerosol growth, chemistry and evaporation, where processes may be limited by the inability of a molecule to diffuse between the bulk and the surface of a particle. PMID:27364512

  13. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed.

  14. Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels.

    PubMed

    Nishinari, Katsuyoshi; Fang, Yapeng

    2016-05-18

    Sucrose release from polysaccharide gels has been studied extensively because it is expected to be useful in understanding flavour release from solid foods and to find a new processing method which produces more palatable and healthier foods. We provide an overview of the release of sucrose and other sugars from gels of agar and related polysaccharides. The addition of sucrose to agar solutions leads to the increase in transparency of the resulting gels and the decrease in syneresis, which is attributed to the decrease in mesh size in gels. The syneresis occurring in the quiescent condition and fluid release induced by compression is discussed. The relationship between the sugar release and the structural, rheological and thermal properties of gels is also discussed. Finally, the future research direction is proposed. PMID:26952168

  15. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different β-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced β-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 μg L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples. PMID:24355165

  16. A yeast bioassay for direct measurement of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in water without sample extraction, concentration, or sterilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Ren, Shujuan; Han, Shaolun; Li, Na

    2014-04-01

    The present study introduces an improved yeast bioassay for rapid yet sensitive evaluation of thyroid hormone disruption at the level of thyroid receptor (TR) in environmental water samples. This assay does not require water sample preparation and thus requires very little hands-on time. Based on different β-galactosidase substrates, two modified bioassays, a colorimetric bioassay and a chemiluminescent bioassay, were developed. The compounds tested included the known thyroid hormone 3,3',5-triiodo-l-thyronine (T3), the specific TR antagonist amiodarone hydrochloride (AH) and phthalate esters (PAEs), which potentially disrupt thyroid hormone signaling. The EC50 values for T3 were similar to those previously obtained using a 96-well plate bioassay. TR antagonism by AH was studied in the presence of 2.5 × 10(-7)M T3, and the concentration producing 20% of the maximum effect (RIC20) for AH was 3.1 × 10(-7)M and 7.8 × 10(-9)M for the colorimetric bioassay and chemiluminescent bioassay, respectively. None of the tested PAEs induced β-galactosidase expression, but diethylhexyl phthalate, benzyl butyl phthalate and dibutyl phthalate demonstrated TR antagonism. Furthermore, water samples collected from Guanting reservoir in Beijing were evaluated. Although TR agonism was not observed, antagonism was detected in all water samples and is expressed as AH equivalents. The toxicology equivalent quantity values obtained by the chemiluminescent bioassay ranged from 21.2 ± 1.6 to 313.9 ± 28.8 μg L(-1) AH, and similar values were obtained for the colorimetric bioassay. The present study shows that the modified yeast bioassay can be used as a valuable tool for quantification of thyroid hormone disrupting effects in environmental water samples.

  17. Molecular characterization of sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase associated with fructan accumulation in winter wheat during cold hardening.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Akira; Yoshida, Midori

    2002-11-01

    We isolated two cDNAs of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), designated wft1 and wft2, which encoded sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) and sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST; EC 2.4.1.99), respectively, which are involved in the synthesis of fructan in wheat. wft1 and wft2 were cloned by screening of a cDNA library with probed-cDNA fragments corresponding to plant fructosyltransferase and invertase. The identity of the clones was verified by functional characterization of recombinant proteins expressed in methylotrophic yeast, Pichiapastoris. Northern blotting showed that the level of wft2 transcripts increased from autumn to early winter in the crown tissues of all field-grown wheat cultivars examined. Higher levels of wft1 and wft2 transcripts were found in leaf tissues of snow mold-resistant cultivars, which accumulated more fructan than other cultivars. Our results showed that Wft1 and Wft2 were important in fructan accumulation during cold hardening of winter wheat.

  18. Sucrose partitioning between vascular bundles and storage parenchyma in the sugarcane stem: a potential role for the ShSUT1 sucrose transporter.

    PubMed

    Rae, Anne L; Perroux, Jai M; Grof, Christopher P L

    2005-04-01

    A transporter with homology to the SUT/SUC family of plant sucrose transporters was isolated from a sugarcane (Saccharum hybrid) stem cDNA library. The gene, designated ShSUT1, encodes a protein of 517 amino acids, including 12 predicted membrane-spanning domains and a large central cytoplasmic loop. ShSUT1 was demonstrated to be a functional sucrose transporter by expression in yeast. The estimated K(m) for sucrose of the ShSUT1 transporter was 2 mM at pH 5.5. ShSUT1 was expressed predominantly in mature leaves of sugarcane that were exporting sucrose and in stem internodes that were actively accumulating sucrose. Immunolocalization with a ShSUT1-specific antiserum identified the protein in cells at the periphery of the vascular bundles in the stem. These cells became lignified and suberized as stem development proceeded, forming a barrier to apoplasmic solute movement. However, the movement of the tracer dye, carboxyfluorescein from phloem to storage parenchyma cells suggested that symplasmic connections are present. ShSUT1 may have a role in partitioning of sucrose between the vascular tissue and sites of storage in the parenchyma cells of sugarcane stem internodes.

  19. Comparison of different extraction methods for simultaneous determination of B complex vitamins in nutritional yeast using LC/MS-TOF and stable isotope dilution assay.

    PubMed

    Hälvin, Kristel; Paalme, Toomas; Nisamedtinov, Ildar

    2013-02-01

    The application of LC/MS-TOF method combined with stable isotope dilution assay was studied for determination of thiamine, riboflavin, nicotinamide, nicotinic acid, pantothenic acid, pyridoxal, and pyridoxine in food. Nutritional yeast powder was used as a model food matrix. Acid extraction was compared with various enzymatic treatments in ammonium formate buffer to find a suitable method for the conversion of more complex vitamers into the same forms as the used isotope-labeled internal standards. The enzyme preparations α-amylase, takadiastase, β-glucosidase, and acid phosphatase were all able to liberate thiamine and riboflavin. The diastatic enzyme preparations α-amylase and takadiastase also expressed proteolytic side activities resulting in the formation of small peptides which interfered with the mass spectra of thiamine and riboflavin. Liberation of nicotinamide and pantothenic acid from NAD(+) and CoA, respectively, could not be achieved with any of the studied enzyme preparations. Hydrochloric acid extraction at 121 °C for 30 min was found to be destructive to pantothenic acid, but increased the liberation of pyridoxal.

  20. Featured Molecules: Sucrose and Vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coleman, William F.; Wildman, Randall J.

    2003-04-01

    The WebWare molecules of the month for April relate to the sense of taste. Apple Fool, the JCE Classroom Activity, mentions sucrose and vanillin and their use as flavorings. Fully manipulable (Chime) versions of these and other molecules are available at Only@JCE Online.

  1. Effects of Sugar (Sucrose) on Children's Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lee A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined effects of sugar on behavior of 45 preschool and elementary school children. Provided all children with basic breakfast that included drink containing either 50 g of sucrose, a comparably sweet placebo, or very little sucrose. Found some small behavior changes in high-sucrose group. All effects were small in magnitude and not considered…

  2. Effects of added chelated trace minerals, organic selenium, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract in horses. Part I: Blood nutrient concentration and digestibility.

    PubMed

    Gordon, M E; Edwards, M S; Sweeney, C R; Jerina, M L

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that feed additives such as chelated minerals, organic Se, yeast culture, direct-fed microbials, and Yucca schidigera extract would improve nutrient digestibility when included in an equine diet. Horses (Quarter Horse geldings 4.5 to 16 yr of age; mean BW 522 kg ± 46 kg) were acclimated to 100% pelleted diets formulated with (ADD) and without (CTRL) commercially available sources of the aforementioned additives followed by a 14-d collection period of feces and urine. Chelated sources of Cu, Zn, Mn and Co were utilized versus sulfated forms, at a 100% replacement rate. No significant differences among apparent the digestibility of DM, ADF, or NDF (P= 0.665, P = 0.866, P = 0.747, respectively) were detected between dietary treatments. Likewise, no differences in apparent digestibility of Cu (P = 0.724), Zn (P = 0.256), Mn (P = 0.888), Co (P = 0.71), or Se (P = 0.588) were observed. No differences were observed in serum Cu, Mn, or Co concentrations between ADD and CTRL at acclimation or collection time points (P > 0.05). While no difference in serum Zn concentrations were observed between ADD and CTRL groups at acclimation (P > 0.05), they were statistically higher at the collection time period for horses consuming CTRL (P < 0.0001). Whole blood Se concentration was greater in the CTRL group versus the ADD group both at acclimation (P = 0.041) and collection (P = 0.005) time periods. In reference to time, serum Cu concentrations increased (P = 0.012) for animals consuming CTRL, but not ADD (P > 0.05). Serum Zn concentrations of horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.021) and CTRL (P < 0.0001) increased over time from acclimation to collection time points. No time differences (P > 0.05) were observed in serum Mn concentrations. Serum Co concentrations increased over time in horses consuming both ADD (P = 0.001) and CTRL (P = 0.021). From acclimation to collection, whole blood Se concentration increased for horses

  3. A phloem-specific sucrose-H+ symporter from Plantago major L. supports the model of apoplastic phloem loading.

    PubMed

    Gahrtz, M; Stolz, J; Sauer, N

    1994-11-01

    In this paper the cloning of a full-length cDNA clone encoding the PmSUC2 sucrose-H+ symporter from Plantago major is described. This plant allows the simple preparation of vascular bundles from the basal regions of fully developed source leaves and thus a separation of vascular and non-vascular tissue. A cDNA library was constructed from poly(A)+ RNA isolated from vascular bundles and used for the subsequent cloning of cDNAs. The respective mRNA is specifically expressed in the vascular bundles as shown on Northern blots of total RNA from vascular and non-vascular tissues. The PmSUC2 protein has 12 putative transmembrane helices and is highly homologous to other plant sucrose transporters. Substrate specificity and energy dependence of the transporter encoded by this cDNA were determined by expression in baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PmSUC2 protein catalyses the transport of sucrose into transgenic yeast cells. Invertase null mutants of yeast expressing PmSUC2 accumulate sucrose more than 200-fold. This transport was sensitive to uncouplers or SH-group inhibitors. Plasma membranes from yeast cells expressing the PmSUC2 protein were purified and fused to proteoliposomes containing cytochrome-c-oxidase. In this system sucrose is accumulated only when proton motive force is generated, indicating that PmSUC2 is a sucrose-H+ symporter. The apparent molecular weight of the PmSUC2 protein is 35 kDa on 10% SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The presented data strongly support the theory of phloem loading from the apoplastic space by a sucrose-H+ symporter.

  4. An economic approach to efficient isotope labeling in insect cells using homemade 15N-, 13C- and 2H-labeled yeast extracts.

    PubMed

    Opitz, Christian; Isogai, Shin; Grzesiek, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Heterologous expression of proteins in insect cells is frequently used for crystallographic structural studies due to the high yields even for challenging proteins requiring the eukaryotic protein processing capabilities of the host. However for NMR studies, the need for isotope labeling poses extreme challenges in eukaryotic hosts. Here, we describe a robust method to achieve uniform protein (15)N and (13)C labeling of up to 90 % in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The approach is based on the production of labeled yeast extract, which is subsequently supplemented to insect cell growth media. The method also allows deuteration at levels of >60 % without decrease in expression yield. The economic implementation of the labeling procedures into a standard structural biology laboratory environment is described in a step-by-step protocol. Applications are demonstrated for a variety of NMR experiments using the Abelson kinase domain, GFP, and the beta-1 adrenergic receptor as examples. Deuterated expression of the latter provides spectra of very high quality of a eukaryotic G-protein coupled receptor.

  5. Understanding the intracellular effects of yeast extract on the enhancement of Fc-fusion protein production in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongdong; Sun, Yating; Liu, Xuping; Liu, Jintao; Zhang, Xintao; Zhao, Liang; Wang, Haibin; Tan, Wen-Song; Fan, Li

    2015-10-01

    Yeast extract (YE), as a non-animal source additive for mammalian cell culture medium, has been widely used for manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In the present study, one particular YE was found to have significantly improved the specific productivity (q p) of Fc-fusion protein in recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cell culture. In order to elucidate the intracellular effects of YE on protein productivity, steps of the target protein synthesis process were investigated to unveil their variations caused by YE addition. Stepwise analysis on Fc-fusion protein synthesis process showed that YE enhanced Fc-fusion protein gene transcription with cell cycle arrest at G1 phase; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway was activated to enhance the translation of Fc-fusion protein, and the block in post-translational steps of Fc-fusion protein was alleviated by YE addition as well. Our results revealed the responses of multiple protein production steps to the addition of YE and provided a practical guidance for the separation and application of active compounds from hydrolysates. PMID:26162671

  6. Comparison of a novel MPN method against the yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sartory, David P; Gu, Haoyi; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2008-07-01

    This study compared the Quanti-Disc most probable number (MPN) test for heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water with the widely used yeast extract agar (YEA) pour plate method. The Quanti-Disc test module contains 50 reaction wells in which a medium has been pre-deposited. The medium contains a suite of three fluorogenic enzyme substrates selected for the detection of enzymes expressed widely by heterotrophic bacteria. The MPN of heterotrophic bacteria is calculated from the number of fluorescing reaction wells after incubation of a sample. Quanti-Disc and the YEA pour plate method were compared according to guidance on comparing methods given in United Kingdom national guidance and ISO 17994:2004. The two methods were also challenged with reference strains and isolates of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water. This indicated that heterotrophic bacteria commonly encountered in drinking water are detected by both the YEA pour plate method and Quanti-Disc. Analysis of data from split water samples (723 for 37 degrees C tests and 872 for 22 degrees C tests) from nine geographically diverse laboratories in England and Wales demonstrated that the Quanti-Disc method is equivalent to the YEA pour plate method for the analysis of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking and similar waters at 37 degrees C, and superior to YEA for the analysis at 22 degrees C. The Quanti-Disc method is a simple and efficient alternative method for the enumeration of heterotrophic bacteria from drinking water.

  7. Comparison of the sequestering properties of yeast cell wall extract and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate in three in vitro models accounting for the animal physiological bioavailability of zearalenone.

    PubMed

    Yiannikouris, A; Kettunen, H; Apajalahti, J; Pennala, E; Moran, C A

    2013-01-01

    The sequestration/inactivation of the oestrogenic mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) by two adsorbents--yeast cell wall extract (YCW) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS)--was studied in three laboratory models: (1) an in vitro model was adapted from referenced methods to test for the sequestrant sorption capabilities under buffer conditions at two pH values using liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector for toxin quantification; (2) a second in vitro model was used to evaluate the sequestrant sorption stability according to pH variations and using ³H-labelled ZEA at low toxin concentration; and (3) an original, ex vivo Ussing chamber model was developed to further understand the transfer of ZEA through intestinal tissue and the impact of each sequestrant on the mycotoxin bioavailability of ³H-labelled ZEA. YCW was a more efficient ZEA adsorbent than HSCAS in all three models, except under very acidic conditions (pH 2.5 or 3.0). The Ussing chamber model offered a novel, ex vivo, alternative method for understanding the effect of sequestrant on the bioavailability of ZEA. The results showed that compared with HSCAS, YCW was more efficient in sequestering ZEA and that it reduced the accumulation of ZEA in the intestinal tissue by 40% (p < 0.001).

  8. Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Si, Shengli; Hao, Bo; Zha, Yi; Wan, Can; Hong, Shufen; Kang, Yongbo; Jia, Jun; Zhang, Jing; Li, Meng; Zhao, Chunqiao; Tu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Shiguang; Peng, Liangcai

    2014-10-01

    In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus. PMID:25079210

  9. Microbial counts and invert sugars in juice extracts from stored tubers of Cyperus esculentus Linn. (earth almond).

    PubMed

    Adebajo, L O

    1993-01-01

    The microbial populations and the levels of invert sugars in juice extracts from healthy tubers of Cyperus esculentus L. stored at 10, 20, 30 and 40 degrees C were determined. Bacterial counts increased with time and attained the peak on the 25th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. Similar trends were obtained for the yeasts, but the peak counts were recorded on the 20th and 35th d at 40 and 30 degrees C respectively. At 10 and 20 degrees C, the counts, both for bacteria and yeasts increased throughout the 40-d period. Invert sugar levels increased throughout the investigation period at all the tested temperatures. Highest levels were recorded at about 30 and 40 degrees C while the lowest levels were obtained at 10 degrees C. Of the seven bacteria and five yeasts tested, only Saccharomyces rouxii, S. cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces sp., Pseudomonas chlororaphis, P. fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis brought about significant hydrolysis of sucrose in vitro. Results on the microbial populations and levels of invert sugars in raw juice extracts suggest that yeasts could possibly play a greater role than bacteria in the hydrolysis of sucrose in vivo. PMID:8121474

  10. Fecal microbial communities of healthy adult dogs fed raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extracts as assessed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Dowd, Scot E; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M; Duclos, Laura; Swanson, Kelly S

    2013-06-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of feeding raw meat-based diets with or without inulin or yeast cell wall extract (YCW) on fecal microbial communities of dogs using 454 pyrosequencing. Six healthy female adult beagles (5.5 ± 0.5 years; 8.5 ± 0.5 kg) were randomly assigned to six test diets using a Latin square design: (1) beef control; (2) beef + 1.4% inulin; (3) beef + 1.4% YCW; (4) chicken control; (5) chicken + 1.4% inulin; and (6) chicken + 1.4% YCW. Following 14 days of adaptation, fresh fecal samples were collected on day 15 or day 16 of each period. Fecal genomic DNA was extracted and used to create 16S rRNA gene amplicons, which were subjected to 454 pyrosequencing and qPCR. Predominant fecal bacterial phyla included Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Beef-based diets increased (P < 0.05) Escherichia, but decreased (P < 0.05) Anaerobiospirillum vs. chicken-based diets. Inulin decreased (P < 0.05) Enterobacteriaceae. Inulin increased (P < 0.05) Megamonas vs. control. Inulin also decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia vs. YCW. qPCR data showed that YCW increased (P < 0.05) Bifidobacterium vs. inulin and control and inulin increased (P < 0.05) Lactobacillus vs. YCW. Although a few changes in fecal microbiota were observed with inulin or YCW consumption, a strong prebiotic effect was not observed.

  11. Yeast and mould dynamics in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese coagulated with an aqueous extract of Carlina acanthifolia All.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Polverigiani, Serena; Garofalo, Cristiana; Foligni, Roberta; Mozzon, Massimo; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is a speciality ewes' milk cheese traditionally manufactured in a foothill area of the Marche region (Central Italy) with a crude extract of fresh young leaves of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia as a coagulating agent. The fungal dynamics and diversity of this speciality cheese were investigated throughout the manufacturing and 20-day ripening process, using a combined PCR-DGGE approach. The fungal biota of a control ewes' milk cheese, manufactured with the same batch of milk coagulated with a commercial animal rennet, was also monitored by PCR-DGGE, in order to investigate the contribution of the peculiar vegetable coagulant to the fungal diversity and dynamics of the cheese. Based on the overall results collected, the raw milk and the dairy environment represented the main sources of fungal contamination, with a marginal or null contribution of thistle rennet to the fungal diversity and dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Yeast and mould dynamics in Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese coagulated with an aqueous extract of Carlina acanthifolia All.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Federica; Taccari, Manuela; Milanović, Vesna; Osimani, Andrea; Polverigiani, Serena; Garofalo, Cristiana; Foligni, Roberta; Mozzon, Massimo; Zitti, Silvia; Raffaelli, Nadia; Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia

    2016-08-01

    Caciofiore della Sibilla is a speciality ewes' milk cheese traditionally manufactured in a foothill area of the Marche region (Central Italy) with a crude extract of fresh young leaves of Carlina acanthifolia All. subsp. acanthifolia as a coagulating agent. The fungal dynamics and diversity of this speciality cheese were investigated throughout the manufacturing and 20-day ripening process, using a combined PCR-DGGE approach. The fungal biota of a control ewes' milk cheese, manufactured with the same batch of milk coagulated with a commercial animal rennet, was also monitored by PCR-DGGE, in order to investigate the contribution of the peculiar vegetable coagulant to the fungal diversity and dynamics of the cheese. Based on the overall results collected, the raw milk and the dairy environment represented the main sources of fungal contamination, with a marginal or null contribution of thistle rennet to the fungal diversity and dynamics of Caciofiore della Sibilla cheese. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27121441

  13. Direct conversion of inulin and extract of tubers of Jerusalem artichoke into single cell oil by co-cultures of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a and immobilized inulinase-producing yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chun-Hai; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Fang; Guo, Feng-Jun; Li, Mei; Song, Wei-Bo; Chi, Zhen-Ming

    2011-05-01

    In this study, it was found that the immobilized inulinase-producing cells of Pichia guilliermondii M-30 could produce 169.3 U/ml of inulinase activity while the free cells of the same yeast strain only produced 124.3 U/ml of inulinase activity within 48 h. When the immobilized inulinase-producing yeast cells were co-cultivated with the free cells of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa TJY15a, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 53.2% oil from inulin in its cells and cell dry weight reached 12.2g/l. Under the similar conditions, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 55.4% (w/w) oil from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in its cells and cell dry weight reached 12.8 g/l within 48 h. When the co-cultures were grown in 2l fermentor, R. mucilaginosa TJY15a could accumulate 56.6% (w/w) oil from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in its cells and cell dry weight reached 19.6g/l within 48 h. Over 90.0% of the fatty acids from the yeast strain TJY15a grown in the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was C(16:0), C(18:1) and C(18:2), especially C(18:1) (50.6%). PMID:21411313

  14. A new beta-glucosidase producing yeast for lower-cost cellulosic ethanol production from xylose-extracted corncob residues by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional cellulose-to-ethanol conversion by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF)requires enzymatic saccharification using both cellulase and ß-glucosidase allowing cellulose utilization by common ethanologenic yeast. Here we report a new yeast strain of Clavispora NRRL Y-50464 th...

  15. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities.

  16. Beta-glucan-depleted, glycopeptide-rich extracts from Brewer's and Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) lower interferon-gamma production by stimulated human blood cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Williams, Roderick; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama; Roessner, Ute; Bennett, Louise E

    2016-04-15

    Regulation of the human immune system requires controlled pro- and anti-inflammatory responses for host defence against infection and disease states. Yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), as used in brewing and baking, are mostly known for ability to stimulate the human immune-system predominantly reflecting the pro-inflammatory cell wall β-glucans. However, in this study, using food-compatible processing methods, glycopeptide-enriched and β-glucan-depleted products were each prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeasts, which suppressed production of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) in human whole blood cell assay, signifying that anti-inflammatory factors are also present in yeast. Anti-inflammatory bioactivities of products prepared from Brewer's and Baker's yeast were compared with the commercial yeast product, Epicor®. While unfractionated Epicor was inactive, the C18 resin-binding fractions of Brewer's and Baker's yeast products and Epicor dose-dependently lowered IFN-γ, demonstrating that Epicor also contained both pro-inflammatory (β-glucans) and anti-inflammatory components. Anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to C18 resin-binding species glyco-peptides in Epicor and experimental yeast products. This study demonstrated that pro- and anti-inflammatory factors could be resolved and enriched in yeasts by suitable processing, with potential to improve specific activities. PMID:26617014

  17. Sucrose transport into stalk tissue of sugarcane

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, M.; Maretzki, A. )

    1990-05-01

    The productivity of higher plants is, in part, dependent on transport of photosynthate from source to sink (in sugarcane, stalk) and upon its assimilation in cells of the sink tissue. In sugarcane, sucrose has been reported to undergo hydrolysis in the apoplast before uptake into the storage parenchyma, whereas recently, sucrose was reported to be taken up intact. This work was based on lack of randomization of ({sup 14}C)fructosyl sucrose accumulated after feeding tissue slices with this sugar. In this report, we present evidence from slices of stalk tissue that sucrose is taken up intact via a carrier-mediated, energy-dependent process. The evidence includes: (1) uptake of fluorosucrose, an analog of sucrose not subject to hydrolysis by invertase; (2) little or no randomization of ({sup 14}C) fructosyl sucrose taken up; (3) the presence of a saturable as well as a linear component of sucrose uptake; and (4) inhibition of both the saturable and linear components of sucrose uptake by protonophore and sulhydryl agents. Hexoses can also be taken up, and at a greater efficiency than sucrose. It is probable that both hexose and sucrose can be transported across the plasma membrane, depending on the physiological status of the plant.

  18. Counting Yeast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, Jonathan; Welton, Briana

    1998-01-01

    Describes changes to a traditional study of population in yeast colonies. Changes to the procedures include: (1) only one culture per student team; (2) cultures are inoculated only once; and (3) the same tube is sampled daily. (DDR)

  19. Yeast Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Candida is the scientific name for yeast. It is a fungus that lives almost everywhere, including in ... infection that causes white patches in your mouth Candida esophagitis is thrush that spreads to your esophagus, ...

  20. Rim15p-mediated regulation of sucrose utilization during molasses fermentation using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2.

    PubMed

    Inai, Tomomi; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zhou, Yan; Fukada, Rie; Akao, Takeshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi; Shimoi, Hitoshi

    2013-11-01

    Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the Rim15p-mediated stress-response pathway contribute to the high fermentation rate of sake yeast strains. In the present study, we found that disruption of the RIM15 gene in ethanol-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain PE-2 accelerated molasses fermentation through enhanced sucrose utilization following glucose starvation.

  1. In vitro exposure of Penicillium mycotoxins with or without a modified yeast cell wall extract (mYCW) on bovine macrophages (BoMacs).

    PubMed

    Oh, Se-Young; Quinton, V Margaret; Boermans, Herman J; Swamy, H V L N; Karrow, Niel A

    2015-11-01

    Penicillium mycotoxins (PMs) are contaminants that are frequently found in grain or crop-based silage for animal feed. Previously, we have characterized the potential immunotoxicity of the following PMs: citrinin (CIT), ochratoxin A (OTA), patulin (PAT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), and penicillic acid (PA) by using a bovine macrophage cell line (BoMacs). In the present study, cell proliferation was used as a bioassay endpoint to evaluate the efficacy of a modified yeast cell wall extract (mYCW), for preventing PM toxicity under various in vitro conditions such as the following: pH (3, 5, 7), incubation time (1, 2, 4, 6 h), percentage of mYCW (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0 %), and PM concentration. mYCW was most effective in preventing the toxicity of 12.88 and 25.8 μM OTA at pH 3.0 (p < 0.0001), regardless of incubation time (p < 0.0001) and the percentage of mYCW (p < 0.0001). An incubation time of 6 h (p < 0.05) or 0.5 and 1.0 % mYCW (p < 0.0001) significantly improved the efficacy of mYCW for preventing CIT toxicity. In contrast, 0.5 and 1.0 % of mYCW appeared to exacerbate the PAT toxicity (p < 0. 0001). This effect on PAT toxicity was constantly observed with higher PAT concentrations, and it reached significance at a concentration of 0.70 μM (p < 0.0001). mYCW had no effect on PA toxicity. These results suggest that mYCW may reduce OTA toxicity and, to some extent, CIT toxicity at pH 3.0. Although PAT toxicity was increased by mYCW treatment, PAT is readily degraded during heat treatment and may therefore be dealt with using other preventative measures.

  2. Glucose tolerance factor extracted from yeast: oral insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating agent: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Mizrahi, Tal; Raz, Itamar; Mirsky, Nitsa

    2012-09-01

    In search for an effective oral treatment for diabetes, we examined the capacity of glucose tolerance factor (GTF) extracted from yeast and administered orally to reduce hyperglycaemia in rat models exhibiting insulin deficiency. The cellular effect of GTF on the insulin signalling pathway was investigated in vitro. GTF (oral bolus), insulin (intraperitoneal) or their combination was administered to streptozotocin-diabetic (STZ) or hyperglycaemic Cohen diabetic-sensitive (hyp-CDs) rats. Blood glucose (BG) and insulin levels were measured in the postprandial (PP) state and during an oral glucose tolerance test. Deoxy-glucose transport and insulin signal transduction were assessed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and myoblasts incubated with the GTF. Low dose of insulin produced a 34 and 12·5 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. GTF induced a 33 and 17 % reduction in the PP-BG levels of hyp-CDs and STZ rats, respectively. When combined with insulin, a respective decrease (58 and 42 %) in BG levels was observed, suggesting a partially additive (hyp-CDs) or synergistic (STZ rats) effect of the GTF and insulin. GTF did not induce insulin secretion in hyp-CDs rats, yet it lowered their BG levels, proposing an effect on glucose clearance by peripheral tissues. GTF induced a dose-dependent increase in deoxy-glucose transport into myoblasts and fat cells similar to insulin, while the combined treatment resulted in augmented transport rate. GTF induced a dose- and time-dependent phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate 1, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase independent of insulin receptor phosphorylation. GTF exerts remarkable insulin-mimetic and insulin-potentiating effects, both in vivo and in vitro. It produces an insulin-like effect by acting on cellular signals downstream of the insulin receptor. These results demonstrate a potential source for a novel oral medication for diabetes.

  3. Sucrose synthesis in gamma irradiated sweet potato

    SciTech Connect

    Ailouni, S.; Hamdy, M.K.; Toledo, R.T.

    1987-01-01

    Effect of ..cap alpha..-irradiation carbohydrate metabolism was examined to elucidate mechanism of sucrose accumulation in sweet potato (SP). Enzymes examined were: ..beta..-amylase, phosphorylase, phosphoglucomutase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose phosphate synthetase and sucrose synthetase. Irradiated SP (Red Jewell) sucrose was synthesized to yield 10.7% after 4 d PI. Activities of sugar synthesizing enzymes in irradiated SP were enhanced to different degrees using 100-200 Krad and 3 d PI at 24/sup 0/C. Phosphorylase and phosphoglucomutases specific activities reached 2.4 and 1.8 folds, respectively compared to control SP. ..beta..-amylase, phosphoglucose isomerase, sucrose synthetase and sucrose phosphate synthetase were also affected to yield 1.2, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.2 folds, respectively compared to controls. It is believed that amylase hydrolyzed starch to glucose which is converted to fructose by phosphoglucose isomerase. Sucrose is then formed by sucrose phosphate synthetase and/or sucrose synthetase leading to its accumulation. The irradiated SP was used for alcohol fermentation leading to 500 gal. of 200 proof ethanol/acre (from 500-600 bushels tuber/acre).

  4. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes.

  5. Sucrose induces vesicle accumulation and autophagy.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Jun; Inoue, Hiroko

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown that the treatment of mammalian cells with sucrose leads to vacuole accumulation associated with lysosomes and upregulation of lysosomal enzyme expression and activity. Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved homeostatic process by which cells deliver cytoplasmic material for degradation into lysosomes, thus it is probable that sucrose affects the autophagic activity. The role of sucrose in autophagy is unknown; however, another disaccharide, trehalose has been shown to induce autophagy. In the current study, we used mouse embryonic fibroblasts to investigate whether sucrose induces autophagy and whether vesicle formation is associated with autophagy. The results showed that sucrose induces autophagy while being accumulated within the endosomes/lysosomes. These vesicles were swollen and packed within the cytoplasm. Furthermore, trehalose and the trisaccharide raffinose, which are not hydrolyzed in mammalian cells, increased the rate of vesicles accumulation and LC3-II level (a protein marker of autophagy). However, fructose and maltose did not show the same effects. The correlation between the two processes, vesicle accumulation and autophagy induction, was confirmed by treatment of cells with sucrose plus invertase, or maltose plus acarbose-the α-glucosidase inhibitor-and by sucrose deprivation. Results also showed that vesicle accumulation was not affected by autophagy inhibition. Therefore, the data suggest that sucrose-induced autophagy through accumulation of sucrose-containing vesicles is caused by the absence of hydrolysis enzymes. PMID:25389129

  6. Sucrose accumulation in mature sweet melon fruits. [Cucumis melo

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffer, A.A.; Aloni, B.

    1987-04-01

    Mesocarp tissue from sucrose-accumulating sweet melon (Cucumis melo cv. Galia) showed sucrose synthase activity (ca 1 nkat/gfw) while soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities were not observed. Sucrose uptake into mesocarp discs was linear with sucrose concentration (1-500 mM) and unaffected by PCMBS and CCCP. Sucrose compartmentation into the vacuole also increased linearly with sucrose concentration as indicated by compartmental efflux kinetics. Mesocarp discs incubated in /sup 14/C-fructose + UDP-glu synthesized /sup 14/C-sucrose and efflux kinetics indicated that the /sup 14/C-sucrose was compartmentalized. These data support the hypothesis that two mechanisms are involved in sucrose accumulation in sweet melon: (1) compartmentation of intact sucrose and (2) synthesis of sucrose via sucrose synthase and subsequent compartmentation in the vacuole.

  7. Characterization, localization, and seasonal changes of the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 in the phloem of Fraxinus excelsior.

    PubMed

    Öner-Sieben, Soner; Rappl, Christine; Sauer, Norbert; Stadler, Ruth; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2015-08-01

    Trees are generally assumed to be symplastic phloem loaders. A typical feature for most wooden species is an open minor vein structure with symplastic connections between mesophyll cells and phloem cells, which allow sucrose to move cell-to-cell through the plasmodesmata into the phloem. Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae) also translocates raffinose family oligosaccharides in addition to sucrose. Sucrose concentration was recently shown to be higher in the phloem sap than in the mesophyll cells. This suggests the involvement of apoplastic steps and the activity of sucrose transporters in addition to symplastic phloem-loading processes. In this study, the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 from F. excelsior was analysed. Heterologous expression in baker's yeast showed that FeSUT1 mediates the uptake of sucrose. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that FeSUT1 was exclusively located in phloem cells of minor veins and in the transport phloem of F. excelsior. Further characterization identified these cells as sieve elements and possibly ordinary companion cells but not as intermediary cells. The localization and expression pattern point towards functions of FeSUT1 in phloem loading of sucrose as well as in sucrose retrieval. FeSUT1 is most likely responsible for the observed sucrose gradient between mesophyll and phloem. The elevated expression level of FeSUT1 indicated an increased apoplastic carbon export activity from the leaves during spring and late autumn. It is hypothesized that the importance of apoplastic loading is high under low-sucrose conditions and that the availability of two different phloem-loading mechanisms confers advantages for temperate woody species like F. excelsior.

  8. Characterization, localization, and seasonal changes of the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 in the phloem of Fraxinus excelsior

    PubMed Central

    Öner-Sieben, Soner; Rappl, Christine; Sauer, Norbert; Stadler, Ruth; Lohaus, Gertrud

    2015-01-01

    Trees are generally assumed to be symplastic phloem loaders. A typical feature for most wooden species is an open minor vein structure with symplastic connections between mesophyll cells and phloem cells, which allow sucrose to move cell-to-cell through the plasmodesmata into the phloem. Fraxinus excelsior (Oleaceae) also translocates raffinose family oligosaccharides in addition to sucrose. Sucrose concentration was recently shown to be higher in the phloem sap than in the mesophyll cells. This suggests the involvement of apoplastic steps and the activity of sucrose transporters in addition to symplastic phloem-loading processes. In this study, the sucrose transporter FeSUT1 from F. excelsior was analysed. Heterologous expression in baker’s yeast showed that FeSUT1 mediates the uptake of sucrose. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that FeSUT1 was exclusively located in phloem cells of minor veins and in the transport phloem of F. excelsior. Further characterization identified these cells as sieve elements and possibly ordinary companion cells but not as intermediary cells. The localization and expression pattern point towards functions of FeSUT1 in phloem loading of sucrose as well as in sucrose retrieval. FeSUT1 is most likely responsible for the observed sucrose gradient between mesophyll and phloem. The elevated expression level of FeSUT1 indicated an increased apoplastic carbon export activity from the leaves during spring and late autumn. It is hypothesized that the importance of apoplastic loading is high under low-sucrose conditions and that the availability of two different phloem-loading mechanisms confers advantages for temperate woody species like F. excelsior. PMID:26022258

  9. Characterization of Saccharomyces strains with respect to their ability to grow and ferment in the presence of ethanol and sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, T.; Delcastillo, L.; Aguilera, A.; Conde, J.; Cerda-Olmedo, E.

    1982-12-01

    To optimize the conversion of carbohydrates to ethanol strains of several Saccharomyces species were examined for their ability to grow and ferment in a range of sucrose and ethanol concentrations. Isolated wine yeasts grew in the presence of 10% ethanol to the same final cell density as control cultures without ethanol. The best of these yeast strains grew in the presence of 15% ethanol and fermented in 18%. Ethanol accumulated, although at a reduced rate, after the cells stopped growing. Most yeast strains were highly fermentative in 50% sucrose. Some of them effectively utilized the carbohydrates of the culture, yielding final ethanol concentrations over 14%. Sixteen of the 35 strains were chosen for genetic analysis and breeding because of their capacity to sporulate. These strains are homothallic and their spores are viable.

  10. Yeast Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Baochi; Upadhyaya, Arpita; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Brenner, Michael

    2002-11-01

    It is well known that the Young's law and surface tension govern the shape of liquid droplets on solid surfaces. Here we address through experiments and theory the shape of growing aggregates of yeast on agar substrates, and assess whether these ideas still hold. Experiments are carried out on Baker's yeast, with different levels of expressions of an adhesive protein governing cell-cell and cell-substrate adhesion. Changing either the agar concentration or the expression of this protein modifies the local contact angle of a yeast droplet. When the colony is small, the shape is a spherical cap with the contact angle obeying Young's law. However, above a critical volume this structure is unstable, and the droplet becomes nonspherical. We present a theoretical model where this instability is caused by bulk elastic effects. The model predicts that the transition depends on both volume and contact angle, in a manner quantitatively consistent with our experiments.

  11. Internalization of Sucrose by Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus

    PubMed Central

    Ciulla, R.; Krishnan, S.; Roberts, M. F.

    1995-01-01

    When sucrose is present in the external medium, it is internalized by Methanococcus thermolithotrophicus. Sucrose internalization, as determined by both natural abundance (sup13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and [(sup14)C]sucrose uptake, is directly proportional to external sucrose levels. The uptake is energy independent and exhibits kinetic behavior consistent with a simple passive diffusion process. In the presence of 0.2 M sucrose, methanogenesis is inhibited as the NaCl concentration in the external medium is increased. Growth, as determined by protein content, is inhibited by 0.2 M sucrose when the external NaCl concentration is 1.4 M. These results are important because they show that (i) sucrose cannot be used as a noncharged solute to replace NaCl in experiments to evaluate how external osmotic strength affects the internal solute composition of M. thermolithotrophicus, and (ii) sucrose cannot be used as an impermeable marker for the extracellular volume in experiments to measure the intracellular volume of M. thermolithotrophicus. PMID:16534924

  12. Roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation.

    PubMed

    Daloso, Danilo M; Dos Anjos, Leticia; Fernie, Alisdair R

    2016-08-01

    The control of stomatal aperture involves reversible changes in the concentration of osmolytes in guard cells. Sucrose has long been proposed to have an osmolytic role in guard cells. However, direct evidence for such a role is lacking. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that sucrose may perform additional roles in guard cells. Here, we provide an update covering the multiple roles of sucrose in guard cell regulation, highlighting the knowledge accumulated regarding spatiotemporal differences in the synthesis, accumulation, and degradation of sucrose as well as reviewing the role of sucrose as a metabolic connector between mesophyll and guard cells. Analysis of transcriptomic data from previous studies reveals that several genes encoding sucrose and hexose transporters and genes involved in gluconeogenesis, sucrose and trehalose metabolism are highly expressed in guard cells compared with mesophyll cells. Interestingly, this analysis also showed that guard cells have considerably higher expression of C4 -marker genes than mesophyll cells. We discuss the possible roles of these genes in guard cell function and the role of sucrose in stomatal opening and closure. Finally, we provide a perspective for future experiments which are required to fill gaps in our understanding of both guard cell metabolism and stomatal regulation.

  13. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    PubMed

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  14. Sucrose-mediated transcriptional regulation of sucrose symporter activity in the phloem.

    SciTech Connect

    Matt Vaughn Greg Harrington Daniel R Bush

    2002-08-06

    This project was based on our discovery that sucrose acts as a signaling molecule that regulates the activity of a proton-sucrose symporter in sugar beet leaf tissue. A major objective here was determining how sucrose transporter activity is being regulated. When sucrose accumulates in the phloem sucrose transport activity drops dramatically. Western blots of plasma membrane proteins isolated from sucrose treated leaves showed that the loss of sucrose transport activity was proportional to a decline in symporter abundance, demonstrating that sucrose transport is regulated by changes in the amount of BvSUT1 protein. BvSUT1 transcript levels decreased in parallel with the loss of sucrose transport activity. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrated that BvSUT1 gene transcription was repressed significantly in nuclei from leaves fed 100 mM exogenous sucrose, showing that sucrose-dependent modulation of BvSUT1 mRNA levels is mediated by changes in transcription. To identify which secondary messenger systems might be involved in regulating symporter activity, we used a variety of pharmacological agents to probe for a role of calcium or protein phosphorylation in sucrose signaling. In a detailed analysis, only okadaic acid altered sucrose transport activity. These results suggest a protein phosphatase is involved. We hypothesized that protein kinase inhibitors would have a neutral affect or increase symporter transcription. Transpirational feeding of the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine had no impact on sucrose transport while calphostin C, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, caused a 60% increase. These data provided good evidence that protein phosphorylation plays a central role in regulating sucrose symporter expression and sucrose transport activity. To determine whether protein phosphorylation is involved in sucrose regulation of proton-sucrose symporter activity, we pre-fed leaves with staurosporine for 4 h and then fed the treated leaves water or 100 mM sucrose

  15. Identification and Characterization of the Sucrose Synthase 2 Gene (Sus2) in Durum Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Volpicella, Mariateresa; Fanizza, Immacolata; Leoni, Claudia; Gadaleta, Agata; Nigro, Domenica; Gattulli, Bruno; Mangini, Giacomo; Blanco, Antonio; Ceci, Luigi R.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. Sucrose synthase (SUS), which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, represents a key enzyme in the control of the flow of carbon into starch biosynthesis. In the present study the genomic identification and characterization of the Sus2-2A and Sus2-2B genes coding for SUS in durum wheat (cultivars Ciccio and Svevo) is reported. The genes were analyzed for their expression in different tissues and at different seed maturation stages, in four tetraploid wheat genotypes (Svevo, Ciccio, Primadur, and 5-BIL42). The activity of the encoded proteins was evaluated by specific activity assays on endosperm extracts and their structure established by modeling approaches. The combined results of sucrose synthase 2 expression and activity levels were then considered in the light of their possible involvement in starch yield. PMID:27014292

  16. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield.

    PubMed

    Hector, Stanton; Willard, Kyle; Bauer, Rolene; Mulako, Inonge; Slabbert, Etienne; Kossmann, Jens; George, Gavin M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans), while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation. PMID:26710215

  17. Diverse Exopolysaccharide Producing Bacteria Isolated from Milled Sugarcane: Implications for Cane Spoilage and Sucrose Yield

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Rolene; Mulako, Inonge; Slabbert, Etienne; Kossmann, Jens; George, Gavin M

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial deterioration of sugarcane during harvesting and processing is correlated with significant loss of sucrose yield and the accumulation of bacterial polysaccharides. Dextran, a homoglucan produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides, has been cited as the primary polysaccharide associated with sugarcane deterioration. A culture-based approach was used to isolate extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) producing bacterial strains from milled sugarcane stalks. Ribosomal RNA sequencing analysis grouped 25 isolates into 4 genera. This study identified 2 bacterial genera not previously associated with EPS production or sucrose degradation. All isolates produced polysaccharide when grown in the presence of sucrose. Monosaccharide analysis of purified polymers by Gas Chromatography revealed 17 EPSs consisting solely of glucose (homoglucans), while the remainder contained traces of mannose or fructose. Dextranase treatment of polysaccharides yielded full digestion profiles for only 11 extracts. Incomplete hydrolysis profiles of the remaining polysaccharides suggest the release of longer oligosaccharides which may interfere with sucrose crystal formation. PMID:26710215

  18. Establishment of Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. hairy root cultures and the promotion of tanshinone accumulation and gene expression with Ag⁺, methyl jasmonate, and yeast extract elicitation.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Wang, Bangqing; Li, Hongyan; Peng, Liang; Ru, Mei; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; Zhu, Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    Salvia castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. is an endemic medicinal plant distributed in China, and the notably high content of tanshinone IIA in the root is proven effective for the therapy of heart diseases. Hairy root induction of this Salvia species was inoculated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain ATCC 15834. Transformed hairy root was cultured in 6,7-V liquid medium for growth kinetics assessment and elicitation. An S curve was present in the hairy root cultures based on the fresh and dry weights with an interval of 3 days. An optimum concentration of the applied elicitors (15 μM Ag(+), 200 μM methyl jasmonate, and 200 mg l(-1) yeast extract elicitor) benefitted both the growth status and tanshinone accumulation in the hairy root cultures. Tanshinone IIA contents were mostly stimulated 1.8-fold and 1.99-fold compared with the control by Ag(+) and methyl jasmonate elicitation, respectively. Yeast extract dramatically enhanced dry mass accumulation, while it promoted cryptotanshinone content of 2.84 ± 0.33 mg g(-1) dry weight at most in the hairy root cultures. Selected elicitors diversely influenced tanshinone accumulation in the time courses of hairy root cultures within 7 days. Furthermore, transcripts of selected genes in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway were remarkably upregulated with elicitation. Yeast extract elicitor heightened 13.9-fold of isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase expression level at 12 h, while it increased 16.7-fold of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase transcript at 24 h compared with that of the control, which was more effective than Ag(+) and methyl jasmonate. This study provided a convenient hairy root culture system of S. castanea Diels f. tomentosa Stib. for tanshinone production for the first time.

  19. Sugars present in tobacco extracts.

    PubMed

    Hsu, S C; Pollack, R L; Hsu, A F; Going, R E

    1980-12-01

    The presence of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose in commercial tobacco products was identified and quantitated. Gas-liquid chromatographic studies showed that these five types of sugar were present in the water-soluble extracts of pouch and plug chewing tobacco, yet only fructose and glucose were found in extracts of snuff and unprocessed natural tobaccos. The amount of sucrose present in pouch chewing tobacco was twice that in plug chewing tobacco. No detectable amount of sucrose was found in snuff or unprocessed natural tobaccos. The content of maltose and isomaltose was much less than the content of fructose, glucose, or sucrose. All unprocessed natural tobacco leaves studied as controls contained low amounts of fructose and glucose, and no detectable amounts of sucrose, maltose, or isomaltose. The larger amounts of fructose and glucose, and the additional sucrose, maltose, and isomaltose present in pouch and plug chewing tobaccos are probably added during the manufacturing process. PMID:6935284

  20. Mediated amperometry reveals different modes of yeast responses to sugars.

    PubMed

    Garjonyte, Rasa; Melvydas, Vytautas; Malinauskas, Albertas

    2016-02-01

    Menadione-mediated amperometry at carbon paste electrodes modified with various yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida pulcherrima, Pichia guilliermondii and Debaryomyces hansenii) was employed to monitor redox activity inside the yeast cells induced by glucose, fructose, sucrose, maltose or galactose. Continuous measurements revealed distinct modes (transient or gradually increasing) of the current development during the first 2 to 3 min after subjection to glucose, fructose and sucrose at electrodes containing S. cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces strains. Different modes (increasing or decreasing) of the current development after yeast subjection to galactose at electrodes with S. cerevisiae or D. hansenii and at electrodes with C. pulcherrima and P. guilliermondii suggested different mechanisms of galactose assimilation. PMID:26523505

  1. Enzymatic conversion of sucrose to hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Woodward, J.; Orr, M.

    1998-11-01

    The enzymatic conversion of sugars to hydrogen could be a promising method for alternative fuel production. Maple tree sap is a source of environmental sugar (e.g., sucrose) that has the potential to be converted into hydrogen using the enzymes invertase, glucose dehydrogenase (GDH), hydrogenase, and glucose isomerase (GI) and the cofactor NADP{sup +}/NADPH. The kinetics of hydrogen production have been studied, and optimal conditions for hydrogen production are described. At low initial sucrose concentrations, in the absence of glucose isomerase, stoichiometric yields of mol of H{sub 2}/mol of sucrose were achieved. At higher sucrose concentrations, the yield of hydrogen declined so that at an initial sucrose concentration of 292 mM only 7% yield of hydrogen was obtained. The reason for this low yield was studied and shown not to be caused by enzyme inactivation or a pH drop during the reaction but due to an instability of the cofactor NADP{sup +}. Although gluconic and inhibited both NADPH production and oxidation of GDH and hydrogenase, respectively, it was not the major cause of NADP{sup +} instability. Fructose was also shown to be converted to hydrogen if GI was present in the reaction mixture. Also, by starting with sucrose, 1.34 mol of H{sub 2}/mol of sucrose was obtained if GI was present in the reaction mixture.

  2. [Sucrose reward promotes rats' motivation for cocaine].

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Qing; LE, Qiu-Min; Yu, Xiang-Chen; Ma, Lan; Wang, Fei-Fei

    2016-06-25

    Caloric diet, such as fat and sugar intake, has rewarding effects, and has been indicated to affect the responses to addictive substances in animal experiments. However, the possible association between sucrose reward and the motivation for addictive drugs remains to be elucidated. Thus, we carried out behavioral tests after sucrose self-administration training to determine the effects of sucrose experience on rats' motivation for cocaine, locomotor sensitivity to cocaine, basal locomotor activity, anxiety level, and associative learning ability. The sucrose-experienced (sucrose) group exhibited higher lever press, cocaine infusion and break point, as well as upshift of cocaine dose-response curve in cocaine self-administration test, as compared with the control (chow) group. Additionally, despite similar locomotor activity in open field test and comparable score in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference, the sucrose group showed higher cocaine-induced locomotor sensitivity as compared with the chow group. The anxiety level and the performance in vocal-cue induced fear memory were similar between these two groups in elevated plus maze and fear conditioning tests, respectively. Taken together, our work indicates that sucrose experience promotes the rats' motivation for cocaine. PMID:27350195

  3. Functional Analysis of Arabidopsis Sucrose Transporters

    SciTech Connect

    John M. Ward

    2009-03-31

    Sucrose is the main photosynthetic product that is transported in the vasculature of plants. The long-distance transport of carbohydrates is required to support the growth and development of net-importing (sink) tissues such as fruit, seeds and roots. This project is focused on understanding the transport mechanism sucrose transporters (SUTs). These are proton-coupled sucrose uptake transporters (membrane proteins) that are required for transport of sucrose in the vasculature and uptake into sink tissues. The accomplishments of this project included: 1) the first analysis of substrate specificity for any SUT. This was accomplished using electrophysiology to analyze AtSUC2, a sucrose transporter from companion cells in Arabidopsis. 2) the first analysis of the transport activity for a monocot SUT. The transport kinetics and substrate specificity of HvSUT1 from barley were studied. 3) the first analysis of a sucrose transporter from sugarcane. and 4) the first analysis of transport activity of a sugar alcohol transporter homolog from plants, AtPLT5. During this period four primary research papers, funded directly by the project, were published in refereed journals. The characterization of several sucrose transporters was essential for the current effort in the analysis of structure/function for this gene family. In particular, the demonstration of strong differences in substrate specificity between type I and II SUTs was important to identify targets for site-directed mutagenesis.

  4. Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Dianpeng; Sung, Shijean, S.; Black, C.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

  5. Sucrose metabolism in lima bean seeds.

    PubMed

    Xu, D P; Sung, S J; Black, C C

    1989-04-01

    Developing and germinating lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus var Cangreen) seeds were used for testing the sucrose synthase pathway, to examine the competition for uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi), and to identify adaptive and maintenance-type enzymes in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In developing seeds, sucrose breakdown was dominated by the sucrose synthase pathway; but in the seedling embryos, both the sucrose synthase pathway and acid invertase were active. UDPase activity was low and seemingly insufficient to compete for UDP during sucrose metabolism in seed development or germination. In contrast, both an acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase were active in seed development and germination. The set of adaptive enzymes identified in developing seeds were sucrose synthase, PPi-dependent phosphofructokinase, plus acid and alkaline pyrophosphatase; and, the adaptive enzymes identified in germinating seeds included the same set of enzymes plus acid invertase. The set of maintenance enzymes identified during development, in the dry seed, and during germination were UDP-glucopyrophosphorylase, neutral invertase, ATP and UTP-dependent fructokinase, glucokinase, phosphoglucomutase, ATP and UTP-dependent phosphofructokinase and sucrose-P synthase.

  6. Complete sucrose hydrolysis by heat-killed recombinant Pichia pastoris cells entrapped in calcium alginate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An ideal immobilized biocatalyst for the industrial-scale production of invert sugar should stably operate at elevated temperatures (60-70°C) and high sucrose concentrations (above 60%, w/v). Commercial invertase from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is thermolabile and suffers from substrate inhibition. Thermotoga maritima β-fructosidase (BfrA) is the most thermoactive and thermostable sucrose-hydrolysing enzyme so far identified and allows complete inversion of the substrate in highly concentrated solutions. Results In this study, heat-killed Pichia pastoris cells bearing N-glycosylated BfrA in the periplasmic space were entrapped in calcium alginate beads. The immobilized recombinant yeast showed maximal sucrose hydrolysis at pH 5–7 and 90°C. BfrA was 65% active at 60°C and had no activity loss after incubation without the substrate at this temperature for 15 h. Complete inversion of cane sugar (2.04 M) at 60°C was achieved in batchwise and continuous operation with respective productivities of 4.37 and 0.88 gram of substrate hydrolysed per gram of dry beads per hour. The half-life values of the biocatalyst were 14 and 20 days when operated at 60°C in the stirred tank and the fixed-bed column, respectively. The reaction with non-viable cells prevented the occurrence of sucrose fermentation and the formation of by-products. Six-month storage of the biocatalyst in 1.46 M sucrose (pH 5.5) at 4°C caused no reduction of the invertase activity. Conclusions The features of the novel thermostable biocatalyst developed in this study are more attractive than those of immobilized S. cerevisiae cells for application in the enzymatic manufacture of inverted sugar syrup in batch and fixed-bed reactors. PMID:24943124

  7. [Sorting oleaginous yeast by using optical manipulation and Raman spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Da; Chen, Liang; Meng, Ling-Jing; Liu, Jun-Xian; Wang, Gui-Wen

    2011-04-01

    Extensive research has been carried out in an effort to screen the oleaginous microorganisms. Here, Raman spectroscopy and laser tweezers were used to sort oleaginous yeast from mixed yeast cells. The preprocessing of subtracted background, 17 points S-G smoothing filter, polynomial fitting baseline correction and vector normalization were performed and the main features information of intracellular substances from the Raman spectroscopy of yeast cells was extracted by combining principal component analysis. Based on the distinguished composition of oleaginous yeast and non-oleaginous different yeast, a sorting model was established. The test yeast cell in optical trapping was distinguished real-time by the model referring to its Raman spectra. The cells distinguished as oleaginous yeast were collected by means of optical manipulation. The sorted oleaginous yeast cells were verified by microbial culture and Sudan black B test. The result illustrates that Raman spectroscopy combined with optical manipulation is an effective technique for sorting oleaginous yeast and other economic microorganisms.

  8. A specific sucrose phosphatase from plant tissues

    PubMed Central

    Hawker, J. S.; Hatch, M. D.

    1966-01-01

    1. A phosphatase that hydrolyses sucrose phosphate (phosphorylated at the 6-position of fructose) was isolated from sugar-cane stem and carrot roots. With partially purified preparations fructose 6-phosphate, glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1-phosphate, glucose 1-phosphate and fructose 1,6-diphosphate are hydrolysed at between 0 and 2% of the rate for sucrose phosphate. 2. The activity of the enzyme is increased fourfold by the addition of Mg2+ ions and inhibited by EDTA, fluoride, inorganic phosphate, pyrophosphate, Ca2+ and Mn2+ ions. Sucrose (50mm) reduces activity by 60%. 3. The enzyme exhibits maximum activity between pH6·4 and 6·7. The Michaelis constant for sucrose phosphate is between 0·13 and 0·17mm. 4. At least some of the specific phosphatase is associated with particles having the sedimentation properties of mitochondria. 5. A similar phosphatase appears to be present in several other plant species. PMID:4290548

  9. 21 CFR 172.869 - Sucrose oligoesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is produced by interesterification of sucrose with methyl esters of fatty acids derived from... incorporated by reference, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the methods may...

  10. 21 CFR 172.869 - Sucrose oligoesters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... It is produced by interesterification of sucrose with methyl esters of fatty acids derived from... incorporated by reference, in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies of the methods may...

  11. Intracellular sucrose communicates metabolic demand to sucrose transporters in developing pea cotyledons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuchan; Chan, Katie; Wang, Trevor L; Hedley, Cliff L; Offler, Christina E; Patrick, John W

    2009-01-01

    Mechanistic inter-relationships in sinks between sucrose compartmentation/metabolism and phloem unloading/translocation are poorly understood. Developing grain legume seeds provide tractable experimental systems to explore this question. Metabolic demand by cotyledons is communicated to phloem unloading and ultimately import by sucrose withdrawal from the seed apoplasmic space via a turgor-homeostat mechanism. What is unknown is how metabolic demand is communicated to cotyledon sucrose transporters responsible for withdrawing sucrose from the apoplasmic space. This question was explored here using a pea rugosus mutant (rrRbRb) compromised in starch biosynthesis compared with its wild-type counterpart (RRRbRb). Sucrose influx into cotyledons was found to account for 90% of developmental variations in their absolute growth and hence starch biosynthetic rates. Furthermore, rr and RR cotyledons shared identical response surfaces, indicating that control of transporter activity was likely to be similar for both lines. In this context, sucrose influx was correlated positively with expression of a sucrose/H(+) symporter (PsSUT1) and negatively with two sucrose facilitators (PsSUF1 and PsSUF4). Sucrose influx exhibited a negative curvilinear relationship with cotyledon concentrations of sucrose and hexoses. In contrast, the impact of intracellular sugars on transporter expression was transporter dependent, with expression of PsSUT1 inhibited, PsSUF1 unaffected, and PsSUF4 enhanced by sugars. Sugar supply to, and sugar concentrations of, RR cotyledons were manipulated using in vitro pod and cotyledon culture. Collectively the results obtained showed that intracellular sucrose was the physiologically active sugar signal that communicated metabolic demand to sucrose influx and this transport function was primarily determined by PsSUT1 regulated at the transcriptional level.

  12. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    PubMed

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  13. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA.

  14. PmSUC3: characterization of a SUT2/SUC3-type sucrose transporter from Plantago major.

    PubMed

    Barth, Inga; Meyer, Stefan; Sauer, Norbert

    2003-06-01

    Higher plants possess medium-sized gene families that encode plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporters. For several plant species, it has been shown that at least one of these genes (e.g., AtSUC3 in Arabidopsis and LeSUT2 in tomato) differs from all other family members in several features, such as the length of the open reading frame, the number of introns, and the codon usage bias. For these reasons, and because two of these proteins did not rescue a yeast mutant defective in sucrose utilization, it had been speculated that this subgroup of transporters might have sensor functions. Here, we describe the detailed functional characterization and cellular localization of PmSUC3, the orthologous transporter from the Plantago major transporter family. The PmSUC3 protein is localized in the sieve elements of the Plantago phloem and mediates the energy-dependent transport of sucrose and maltose. In contrast to the situation in solanaceous plants, PmSUC3 is not colocalized with PmSUC2, the source-specific, phloem-loading sucrose transporter of Plantago. Moreover, PmSUC3 also was identified in sieve elements of sink leaves and in several nonphloem cells and tissues. Arguments for and against a potential sensor function for this type of sucrose transporter are presented, and the role of this type of transporter in the regulation of sucrose fluxes is discussed.

  15. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA. PMID:27282997

  16. Sucrose and ABA regulate starch biosynthesis in maize through a novel transcription factor, ZmEREB156.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huanhuan; Xie, Sidi; Xiao, Qianlin; Wei, Bin; Zheng, Lanjie; Wang, Yongbin; Cao, Yao; Zhang, Xiangge; Long, Tiandan; Li, Yangping; Hu, Yufeng; Yu, Guowu; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Huang, Zhi; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Yubi

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is not only the carbon source for starch synthesis, but also a signal molecule. Alone or in coordination with ABA, it can regulate the expression of genes involved in starch synthesis. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, maize endosperms were collected from Zea mays L. B73 inbred line 10 d after pollination and treated with sucrose, ABA, or sucrose plus ABA at 28 °C in the dark for 24 h. RNA-sequence analysis of the maize endosperm transcriptome revealed 47 candidate transcription factors among the differentially expressed genes. We therefore speculate that starch synthetic gene expression is regulated by transcription factors induced by the combination of sucrose and ABA. ZmEREB156, a candidate transcription factor, is induced by sucrose plus ABA and is involved in starch biosynthesis. The ZmEREB156-GFP-fused protein was localized in the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, and ZmEREB156 protein possessed strong transcriptional activation activity. Promoter activity of the starch-related genes Zmsh2 and ZmSSIIIa increased after overexpression of ZmEREB156 in maize endosperm. ZmEREB156 could bind to the ZmSSIIIa promoter but not the Zmsh2 promoter in a yeast one-hybrid system. Thus, ZmEREB156 positively modulates starch biosynthetic gene ZmSSIIIa via the synergistic effect of sucrose and ABA. PMID:27282997

  17. Identification of sucrose binding, membrane proteins using a photolyzable sucrose analog. [P. saccharophila

    SciTech Connect

    Ripp, K.G.; Liu, D.F.; Viitanen, P.; Hitz, W.D.

    1986-04-01

    The sucrose derivative 6'-deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-4-azido)benzamidosucrose (6'-HABS) was prepared from sucrose (via 6'-deoxy-6'-aminosucrose) and 4-amino-salicylic acid. 6'-HABS is a competitive inhibitor of sucrose influx into protoplasts from developing soybean cotyledons and of sucrose binding to membranes from the bacteria P. saccharophila. The Ki for inhibition in the soybean protoplasts was 75..mu..M. 6'-Deoxy-6'-(2-hydroxy-3-/sup 125/Iodo-4-azido)benzamidosucrose was prepared by lactoperoxidase iodination of 6'-HABS. Upon photolysis in the presence of membranes from P saccharophila, label from the photoprobe is incorporated into a sucrose inducible polypeptide of mass 84 KD in SDS-PAGE. The polypeptide is protected from labeling by the inclusion of sucrose in the photolysis mixture. Photolysis conditions which lead to specific labeling of the sucrose protectable polypeptide in bacterial membranes also give sucrose protectable labeling of a 66 KD polypeptide in microsomal preparations made from developing soybeans. The possibility that this is a sucrose transporting protein is being tested.

  18. Modulation of Intestinal Inflammation by Yeasts and Cell Wall Extracts: Strain Dependence and Unexpected Anti-Inflammatory Role of Glucan Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jawhara, Samir; Habib, Khalid; Maggiotto, François; Pignede, Georges; Vandekerckove, Pascal; Maes, Emmanuel; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Fontaine, Thierry; Guerardel, Yann; Poulain, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts and their glycan components can have a beneficial or adverse effect on intestinal inflammation. Previous research has shown that the presence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (Sb) reduces intestinal inflammation and colonization by Candida albicans. The aim of this study was to identify dietary yeasts, which have comparable effects to the anti-C. albicans and anti-inflammatory properties of Sb and to assess the capabilities of yeast cell wall components to modulate intestinal inflammation. Mice received a single oral challenge of C. albicans and were then given 1.5% dextran-sulphate-sodium (DSS) for 2 weeks followed by a 3-day restitution period. S. cerevisiae strains (Sb, Sc1 to Sc4), as well as mannoprotein (MP) and β-glucan crude fractions prepared from Sc2 and highly purified β-glucans prepared from C. albicans were used in this curative model, starting 3 days after C. albicans challenge. Mice were assessed for the clinical, histological and inflammatory responses related to DSS administration. Strain Sc1-1 gave the same level of protection against C. albicans as Sb when assessed by mortality, clinical scores, colonization levels, reduction of TNFα and increase in IL-10 transcription. When Sc1-1 was compared with the other S. cerevisiae strains, the preparation process had a strong influence on biological activity. Interestingly, some S. cerevisiae strains dramatically increased mortality and clinical scores. Strain Sc4 and MP fraction favoured C. albicans colonization and inflammation, whereas β-glucan fraction was protective against both. Surprisingly, purified β-glucans from C. albicans had the same protective effect. Thus, some yeasts appear to be strong modulators of intestinal inflammation. These effects are dependent on the strain, species, preparation process and cell wall fraction. It was striking that β-glucan fractions or pure β-glucans from C. albicans displayed the most potent anti-inflammatory effect in the DSS model. PMID

  19. Structural, thermal, functional, antioxidant & antimicrobial properties of β-d-glucan extracted from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cereviseae)-Effect of γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Asma Ashraf; Gani, Adil; Masoodi, F A; Amin, Furheen; Wani, Idrees Ahmed; Khanday, Firdous Ahmad; Gani, Asir

    2016-04-20

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of γ-irradiation (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 & 50kGy) on the structural, functional, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of yeast β-d-glucan. The samples were characterized by ATR-FTIR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the thermal properties were studied using DSC. There was a decrease in the average molecular weight of β-d-glucan as the irradiation dose increased. The functional properties of irradiated yeast β-d-glucan were largely influenced by the action of gamma radiation like swelling power and viscosity decreases with increase in the irradiation dose while as fat binding capacity, emulsifying properties, foaming properties and bile acid binding capacity shows an increasing trend. All the antioxidant properties carried out using six different assays increased significantly (p≤0.05) in a dose dependent manner. The antibacterial activity of yeast β-d-glucan also showed an increasing trend with increase in the irradiation dose from 5 to 50kDa. PMID:26876872

  20. Studies on the 'osmophilic' yeast saccharomyces rouxii and an obligate osmophilic mutant.

    PubMed

    Koh, T Y

    1975-05-01

    An obilagte osmophilic mutant (strain BI/4) of Saccharomyces rouxii has been isolated that fails to grow at osmotic pressures corresponding to 20 per cent (w/v) sucrose or less. In 30 percent sucrose the yeast is filamentous and grows slowly. In 40percent sucrose it is mainly filamentous and has over twice the normal diameter. In 60 percentsucrose it grows in the yeast form with a growth rate twic that of the cultrue in 40 per cent sucrose. This mutant is lysed by a suddren drop in the osmotic pressure of the environment. Cell enveoples of the parent strain contained glucose and manose in the ratio I.2; Iand contained 3-8percent (w/v) hexosamine, whereas the envelopes of the mutatn contained 0-8 percent hexosaime. Cell envelopes of the mutant grown in 40 per cent sucrose contained glucose and mannose in the ratioI.9; I, wheras for envelopes of the yeast grown in 60 percent sucrose the ratio was I.2; I. Neutral lipids from whole cells and those from the envelopes of the mutant strain generally contained more unsaturated fatty acids than the corresponding fractions from the parent strain.

  1. Production and characterization of a novel yeast extracellular invertase activity towards improved dibenzothiophene biodesulfurization.

    PubMed

    Arez, Bruno F; Alves, Luís; Paixão, Susana M

    2014-11-01

    The main goal of this work was the production and characterization of a novel invertase activity from Zygosaccharomyces bailii strain Talf1 for further application to biodesulfurization (BDS) in order to expand the exploitable alternative carbon sources to renewable sucrose-rich feedstock. The maximum invertase activity (163 U ml(-1)) was achieved after 7 days of Z. bailii strain Talf1 cultivation at pH 5.5-6.0, 25 °C, and 150 rpm in Yeast Malt Broth with 25 % Jerusalem artichoke pulp as inducer substrate. The optimum pH and temperature for the crude enzyme activity were 5.5 and 50 °C, respectively, and moreover, high stability was observed at 30 °C for pH 5.5-6.5. The application of Talf1 crude invertase extract (1 %) to a BDS process by Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B at 30 °C and pH 7.5 was carried out through a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) approach in which 10 g l(-1) sucrose and 250 μM dibenzothiophene were used as sole carbon and sulfur sources, respectively. Growth and desulfurization profiles were evaluated and compared with those of BDS without invertase addition. Despite its lower stability at pH 7.5 (loss of activity within 24 h), Talf1 invertase was able to catalyze the full hydrolysis of 10 g l(-1) sucrose in culture medium into invert sugar, contributing to a faster uptake of the monosaccharides by strain 1B during BDS. In SSF approach, the desulfurizing bacterium increased its μmax from 0.035 to 0.070 h(-1) and attained a 2-hydroxybiphenyl productivity of 5.80 μM/h in about 3 days instead of 7 days, corresponding to an improvement of 2.6-fold in relation to the productivity obtained in BDS process without invertase addition.

  2. Screening of novel yeast inulinases and further application to bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Susana M; Teixeira, Pedro D; Silva, Tiago P; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Alves, Luís

    2013-09-25

    Inulin is a carbohydrate composed of linear chains of β-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is one of the most interesting materials among unconventional and renewable raw materials, with levels of inulin reaching 50-80% of dry matter. Inulin or inulin-rich materials can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce glucose and fructose syrups that can be used in bioprocesses. In this study, several microbial strains were isolated and their ability to inulinase biosynthesis was evaluated. The novel yeast strain Talf1, identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, was the best inulinase producer, attaining 8.67 U/ml of inulinase activity when JA juice was used as the inducer substrate. Z. bailii strain Talf1 and/or its enzymatic crude extract were further applied for bioethanol production and biodesulfurization (BDS) processes, using inulin and JA juice as carbon source. In a consolidated bioprocessing for ethanol production from 200 g/l inulin, Z. bailii strain Talf1 was able to produce 67 g/l of ethanol. This ethanol yield was improved in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, with the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 and the Talf1 inulinases, achieving a production of 78 g/l ethanol. However, the highest ethanol yield (∼48%) was obtained in a SSF process from JA juice (∼130 g/l fermentable sugars), where the S. cerevisiae produced 63 g/l ethanol. Relatively to the dibenzothiophene BDS tests, the Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B achieved a desulfurization rate of 4.8 μM/h within a SSF process using Talf1 inulinases and JA juice, highlighting the potential of JA as a less expensive alternative carbon source. These results showed the high potential of Z. bailii strain Talf1 inulinases as a versatile tool for bioprocesses using inulin-rich materials.

  3. Screening of novel yeast inulinases and further application to bioprocesses.

    PubMed

    Paixão, Susana M; Teixeira, Pedro D; Silva, Tiago P; Teixeira, Alexandra V; Alves, Luís

    2013-09-25

    Inulin is a carbohydrate composed of linear chains of β-2,1-linked D-fructofuranose molecules terminated by a glucose residue through a sucrose-type linkage at the reducing end. Jerusalem artichoke (JA) is one of the most interesting materials among unconventional and renewable raw materials, with levels of inulin reaching 50-80% of dry matter. Inulin or inulin-rich materials can be actively hydrolyzed by microbial inulinases to produce glucose and fructose syrups that can be used in bioprocesses. In this study, several microbial strains were isolated and their ability to inulinase biosynthesis was evaluated. The novel yeast strain Talf1, identified as Zygosaccharomyces bailii, was the best inulinase producer, attaining 8.67 U/ml of inulinase activity when JA juice was used as the inducer substrate. Z. bailii strain Talf1 and/or its enzymatic crude extract were further applied for bioethanol production and biodesulfurization (BDS) processes, using inulin and JA juice as carbon source. In a consolidated bioprocessing for ethanol production from 200 g/l inulin, Z. bailii strain Talf1 was able to produce 67 g/l of ethanol. This ethanol yield was improved in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process, with the ethanologenic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 and the Talf1 inulinases, achieving a production of 78 g/l ethanol. However, the highest ethanol yield (∼48%) was obtained in a SSF process from JA juice (∼130 g/l fermentable sugars), where the S. cerevisiae produced 63 g/l ethanol. Relatively to the dibenzothiophene BDS tests, the Gordonia alkanivorans strain 1B achieved a desulfurization rate of 4.8 μM/h within a SSF process using Talf1 inulinases and JA juice, highlighting the potential of JA as a less expensive alternative carbon source. These results showed the high potential of Z. bailii strain Talf1 inulinases as a versatile tool for bioprocesses using inulin-rich materials. PMID:23419675

  4. Effect of neem leaf extract and neem oil on Penicillium growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Mossini, Simone A G; Arrotéia, Carla C; Kemmelmeier, Carlos

    2009-09-01

    In vitro trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of Azadirachtaindica (neem) extracts on mycelial growth, sporulation, morphology and ochratoxin A production by P. verrucosum and P. brevicompactum. The effect of neem oil extract from seeds and leaf was evaluated at 0.125; 0.25 and 0.5% and 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL, respectively, in Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium. Ochratoxin A production was evaluated by a thin-layer chromatography technique. Oil extracts exhibited significant (p ≤ 0.05) reduction of growth and sporulation of the fungi. No inhibition of ochratoxin A production was observed. Given its accessibility and low cost, neem oil could be implemented as part of a sustainable integrated pest management strategy for plant disease, as it has been shown to be fungitoxic by inhibition of growth and sporulation. PMID:22069528

  5. High power density yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguli, Rahul

    Microbial fuel cells leverage whole cell biocatalysis to convert the energy stored in energy-rich renewable biomolecules such as sugar, directly to electrical energy at high efficiencies. Advantages of the process include ambient temperature operation, operation in natural streams such as wastewater without the need to clean electrodes, minimal balance-of-plant requirements compared to conventional fuel cells, and environmentally friendly operation. These make the technology very attractive as portable power sources and waste-to-energy converters. The principal problem facing the technology is the low power densities compared to other conventional portable power sources such as batteries and traditional fuel cells. In this work we examined the yeast catalyzed microbial fuel cell and developed methods to increase the power density from such fuel cells. A combination of cyclic voltammetry and optical absorption measurements were used to establish significant adsorption of electron mediators by the microbes. Mediator adsorption was demonstrated to be an important limitation in achieving high power densities in yeast-catalyzed microbial fuel cells. Specifically, the power densities are low for the length of time mediator adsorption continues to occur. Once the mediator adsorption stops, the power densities increase. Rotating disk chronoamperometry was used to extract reaction rate information, and a simple kinetic expression was developed for the current observed in the anodic half-cell. Since the rate expression showed that the current was directly related to microbe concentration close to the electrode, methods to increase cell mass attached to the anode was investigated. Electrically biased electrodes were demonstrated to develop biofilm-like layers of the Baker's yeast with a high concentration of cells directly connected to the electrode. The increased cell mass did increase the power density 2 times compared to a non biofilm fuel cell, but the power density

  6. Assessment of Extracts from Red Yeast Rice for Herb-Drug Interaction by in-vitro and in-vivo assays

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Wai To; Subramaniam, G.; Lee, Joel; Loh, Heng Meng; Leung, Pak Ho Henry

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) is made by fermenting the yeast Monascus purpureus over rice. It is a source of natural red food colorants, a food garnish and a traditional medication. Results of the current study demonstrated that polar fractions of the RYR preparations contained herbal-drug interaction activity, which if left unremoved, enhanced P-glycoprotein activity and inhibited the major drug metabolizing cytochromes P450, i,e, CYP 1A2, 2C9 and 3A4. The data from Caco-2 cell absorption and animal model studies further demonstrated that the pharmacokinetic modulation effect by RYR preparations containing the polar fractions (“untreated” preparation) was greater than that from RYR preparations with the polar fractions removed (“treated” preparation). The data indicates a potential for herb-drug interactions to be present in RYR commonly sold as nutritional supplements when the polar fractions are not removed and this should be taken into consideration when RYR is consumed with medications, including verapamil. PMID:22389767

  7. [The determination of glucose, sucrose and fructose by the method of capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Yakuba, Yu F; Markovsky, M G

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities of different regimes of micellar capillary electrophoresis using negative polarity and alkaline electrolyte for determination of glucose, sucrose, fructose in extracts of vegetative organs of plants and products of fruits and grapes processing have been studied. A comparative evaluation of the limits of detection of glucose, sucrose, fructose for developed electrolytes have been performed, the advantages and disadvantages of techniques have been discussed. It is recommended to use an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.5% potassium sorbate, 0.62% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and 0.02% potassium hydroxide. The analyzed components were detected at 254 nm. The sample was dosed hydrodynamically (30 mbar, 5 sec). Negative voltage 16 kV is recommended, current--54 ± 4 µA, capillary thermostating at 24 °C is applied, the analysis time--15 min. The detection limits for fructose and glucose is 0.03 g/dm3 to 0.07 g of sucrose/dm3. Linearity is stored for each component to 5.0 g/dm 3 inclusive. Electrophoretic mobility of carbohydrates was (10(-4) sm2V(-1)sec(-1)): fructose--3.12, glucose--3.03, sucrose--2.74. Approximate time of release: glucose--13 min, sucrose--13.5 min, fructose--12.5 min. The developed options for mass concentration determining of mono- and disaccharides provide complete separation of the components. Anions, glycerol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and butylene isomers do not affect the analysis results. PMID:26402948

  8. [The determination of glucose, sucrose and fructose by the method of capillary electrophoresis].

    PubMed

    Yakuba, Yu F; Markovsky, M G

    2015-01-01

    The possibilities of different regimes of micellar capillary electrophoresis using negative polarity and alkaline electrolyte for determination of glucose, sucrose, fructose in extracts of vegetative organs of plants and products of fruits and grapes processing have been studied. A comparative evaluation of the limits of detection of glucose, sucrose, fructose for developed electrolytes have been performed, the advantages and disadvantages of techniques have been discussed. It is recommended to use an aqueous electrolyte containing 0.5% potassium sorbate, 0.62% cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, and 0.02% potassium hydroxide. The analyzed components were detected at 254 nm. The sample was dosed hydrodynamically (30 mbar, 5 sec). Negative voltage 16 kV is recommended, current--54 ± 4 µA, capillary thermostating at 24 °C is applied, the analysis time--15 min. The detection limits for fructose and glucose is 0.03 g/dm3 to 0.07 g of sucrose/dm3. Linearity is stored for each component to 5.0 g/dm 3 inclusive. Electrophoretic mobility of carbohydrates was (10(-4) sm2V(-1)sec(-1)): fructose--3.12, glucose--3.03, sucrose--2.74. Approximate time of release: glucose--13 min, sucrose--13.5 min, fructose--12.5 min. The developed options for mass concentration determining of mono- and disaccharides provide complete separation of the components. Anions, glycerol, ethylene glycol, propylene glycol and butylene isomers do not affect the analysis results.

  9. [Riboflavin transport in cells of riboflavin-dependent yeast mutants].

    PubMed

    Sibirnyĭ, A A; Shavlovskiĭ, G M; Ksheminskaia, G P; Orlovskaia, A G

    1977-01-01

    Riboflavin was transported at a high rate into yeast cells of Pichia guilliermondii and Schwanniomyces occidentalis mutants capable of growth in a medium containing low concentrations of riboflavin, and having multiple susceptibility to some antibiotics and antimetabolites. Sucrose and sodium azide inhibited transport of riboflavin. Other riboflavin dependent mutants of Pichia guilliermondii, Pichia ohmeri, Torulopsis candida, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also growing in media containing low concentrations of riboflavin, were not capable of its active transport. PMID:329070

  10. Evaluation of dairy cattle manure as a supplement to improve net energy gain in fermentative hydrogen production from sucrose.

    PubMed

    Perera, Karnayakage Rasika J; Nirmalakhandan, Nagamany

    2011-09-01

    This study evaluated fermentative biohydrogen production from sucrose supplemented with dairy cattle manure at different sucrose:manure ratios. Hydrogen yields found in this study (2.9-5.3M hydrogen/M sucrose) at ambient temperature are higher than literature results obtained at mesophilic temperatures. This study demonstrated that dairy cattle manure could serve as a buffering agent to maintain recommended pH levels; as a nutrient source to provide the required nutrients for hydrogen production; as a seed to produce hydrogen from sucrose; and as a co-substrate to improve the hydrogen yield. Based on an analysis of the net energy gain, it is concluded that positive net energy gains can be realized with non-thermal pretreatment and/or by combining dark fermentation with anaerobic digestion or microbial fuel cells to extract additional energy from the aqueous products of dark fermentation.

  11. Analysis of Protein Oligomeric Species by Sucrose Gradients.

    PubMed

    Tenreiro, Sandra; Macedo, Diana; Marijanovic, Zrinka; Outeiro, Tiago Fleming

    2016-01-01

    Protein misfolding, aggregation, and accumulation are a common hallmark in various neurodegenerative diseases. Invariably, the process of protein aggregation is associated with both a loss of the normal biological function of the protein and a gain of toxic function that ultimately leads to cell death. The precise origin of protein cytotoxicity is presently unclear but the predominant theory posits that smaller oligomeric species are more toxic than larger aggregated forms. While there is still no consensus on this subject, this is a central question that needs to be addressed in order to enable the design of novel and more effective therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the development and utilization of approaches that allow the biochemical characterization of the formed oligomeric species in a given cellular or animal model will enable the correlation with cytotoxicity and other parameters of interest.Here, we provide a detailed description of a low-cost protocol for the analysis of protein oligomeric species from both yeast and mammalian cell lines models, based on their separation according to sedimentation velocity using high-speed centrifugation in sucrose gradients. This approach is an adaptation of existing protocols that enabled us to overcome existing technical issues and obtain reliable results that are instrumental for the characterization of the types of protein aggregates formed by different proteins of interest in the context of neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:27613047

  12. Functional analysis of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in sugarcane (Saccharum) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Verma, A K; Upadhyay, S K; Verma, P C; Solomon, S; Singh, S B

    2011-03-01

    Sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS; EC 2.4.1.14) and sucrose synthase (SS; EC 2.4.1.13) are key enzymes in the synthesis and breakdown of sucrose in sugarcane. The activities of internodal SPS and SS, as well as transcript expression were determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR at different developmental stages of high and low sucrose accumulating sugarcane cultivars. SPS activity and transcript expression was higher in mature internodes compared with immature internodes in all the studied cultivars. However, high sugar cultivars showed increased transcript expression and enzyme activity of SPS compared to low sugar cultivars at all developmental stages. SS activity was higher in immature internodes than in mature internodes in all cultivars; SS transcript expression showed a similar pattern. Our studies demonstrate that SPS activity was positively correlated with sucrose and negatively correlated with hexose sugars. However, SS activity was negatively correlated with sucrose and positively correlated with hexose sugars. The present study opens the possibility for improvement of sugarcane cultivars by increasing expression of the respective enzymes using transgene technology.

  13. Induction of Sucrose Utilization Genes from Bifidobacterium lactis by Sucrose and Raffinose

    PubMed Central

    Trindade, Marla I.; Abratt, Valerie R.; Reid, Sharon J.

    2003-01-01

    The probiotic organism Bifidobacterium lactis was isolated from a yoghurt starter culture with the aim of analyzing its use of carbohydrates for the development of prebiotics. A sucrose utilization gene cluster of B. lactis was identified by complementation of a gene library in Escherichia coli. Three genes, encoding a sucrose phosphorylase (ScrP), a GalR-LacI-type transcriptional regulator (ScrR), and a sucrose transporter (ScrT), were identified by sequence analysis. The scrP gene was expressed constitutively from its own promoter in E. coli grown in complete medium, and the strain hydrolyzed sucrose in a reaction that was dependent on the presence of phosphates. Primer extension experiments with scrP performed by using RNA isolated from B. lactis identified the transcriptional start site 102 bp upstream of the ATG start codon, immediately adjacent to a palindromic sequence resembling a regulator binding site. In B. lactis, total sucrase activity was induced by the presence of sucrose, raffinose, or oligofructose in the culture medium and was repressed by glucose. RNA analysis of the scrP, scrR, and scrT genes in B. lactis indicated that expression of these genes was influenced by transcriptional regulation and that all three genes were similarly induced by sucrose and raffinose and repressed by glucose. Analysis of the sucrase activities of deletion constructs in heterologous E. coli indicated that ScrR functions as a positive regulator. PMID:12513973

  14. Sham-feeding response of rats to Polycose and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Nissenbaum, J W; Sclafani, A

    1987-01-01

    Adult female rats were fitted with gastric fistulas and maintained at 85% of their ad lib body weight. Their real-feeding (fistula closed) and sham-feeding (fistula open) responses to polysaccharide (Polycose) and sucrose solutions were measured during 30 min/day one-bottle tests. The rats consumed similar amounts of a 1% Polycose solution during real- and sham-feeding tests, but their sham-intakes of 4%, 16% and 32% Polycose solutions greatly exceeded their real-intakes of these solutions. Similar results were obtained with sucrose solutions. The rats sham-fed more Polycose than sucrose at the 1% and 4% concentrations, while their sham-intakes of the 16% and 32% Polycose and sucrose solutions were comparable. In subsequent two-solution sham-feeding tests, the rats preferred 1% Polycose to 1% sucrose, but preferred sucrose to Polycose at 4%, 16% and 32% concentrations. These preference results indicate that rats find Polycose more palatable than sucrose at low concentrations, but sucrose more palatable at high concentrations. In addition, the findings that the rats preferred 4% sucrose to 4% Polycose in the two-bottle test, but sham-fed more 4% Polycose than 4% sucrose in the one-bottle tests, suggest that sucrose is more "orally-satiating" than is Polycose. These results provide further evidence for qualitative differences in the tastes of sucrose and polysaccharide. They also indicate that the amount of solution sham-fed does not necessarily reflect the palatability of the solution.

  15. Activation of sucrose transport in defoliated Lolium perenne L.: an example of apoplastic phloem loading plasticity.

    PubMed

    Berthier, Alexandre; Desclos, Marie; Amiard, Véronique; Morvan-Bertrand, Annette; Demmig-Adams, Barbara; Adams, William W; Turgeon, Robert; Prud'homme, Marie-Pascale; Noiraud-Romy, Nathalie

    2009-07-01

    The pathway of carbon phloem loading was examined in leaf tissues of the forage grass Lolium perenne. The effect of defoliation (leaf blade removal) on sucrose transport capacity was assessed in leaf sheaths as the major carbon source for regrowth. The pathway of carbon transport was assessed via a combination of electron microscopy, plasmolysis experiments and plasma membrane vesicles (PMVs) purified by aqueous two-phase partitioning from the microsomal fraction. Results support an apoplastic phloem loading mechanism. Imposition of an artificial proton-motive force to PMVs from leaf sheaths energized an active, transient and saturable uptake of sucrose (Suc). The affinity of Suc carriers for Suc was 580 microM in leaf sheaths of undefoliated plants. Defoliation induced a decrease of K(m) followed by an increase of V(max). A transporter was isolated from stubble (including leaf sheaths) cDNA libraries and functionally expressed in yeast. The level of L.perenne SUcrose Transporter 1 (LpSUT1) expression increased in leaf sheaths in response to defoliation. Taken together, the results indicate that Suc transport capacity increased in leaf sheaths of L. perenne in response to leaf blade removal. This increase might imply de novo synthesis of Suc transporters, including LpSUT1, and may represent one of the mechanisms contributing to rapid refoliation. PMID:19520670

  16. Production and application of a rare disaccharide using sucrose phosphorylase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kenji; Yoshihara, Akihide; Furumoto, Toshio; Takata, Goro

    2015-06-01

    Sucrose phosphorylase (SPase) from Leuconostoc mesenteroides exhibited activity towards eight ketohexoses, which behaved as D-glucosyl acceptors, and α-D-glucose-1-phosphate (G1P), which behaved as a donor. All eight of these ketohexoses were subsequently transformed into the corresponding d-glucosyl-ketohexoses. Of the eight ketohexoses evaluated in the current study, d-allulose behaved as the best substrate for SPase, and the resulting d-glucosyl-d-alluloside product was found to be a non-reducing sugar with a specific optical rotation of [α]D(20) + 74.36°. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside was identified as α-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-allulofuranoside by NMR analysis. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside exhibited an inhibitory activity towards an invertase from yeast with a Km value of 50 mM, where it behaved as a competitive inhibitor with a Ki value of 9.2 mM. D-Glucosyl-D-alluloside was also successfully produced from sucrose using SPase and D-tagatose 3-epimerase. This process also allowed for the production of G1P from sucrose and d-allulose from D-fructose, which suggested that this method could be used to prepare d-glucosyl-d-alluloside without the need for expensive reagents such as G1P and d-allulose. PMID:25499751

  17. Vaginal Yeast Infections (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Vaginal Yeast Infections KidsHealth > For Teens > Vaginal Yeast Infections Print ... side effect of taking antibiotics. What Is a Yeast Infection? A yeast infection is a common infection ...

  18. Translocation of labelled sucrose: A student exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Photosynthetic carbohydrates from the leaves are exported through the phloem to growing tips, roots, flowers and fruits. If sucrose labelled with {sup 14}C is applied to the leaves of bean plants, the pathway for sugar movement may be readily observed by autoradiography. Students apply the labelled sucrose during class time and return the next day to press their plants. During the next class, the pressed and dried plants are placed against X-ray film and left in the dark for four weeks. the film is then developed, examined for presence of label and compared to the pressed plants. Source to sink movement is clearly illustrated and information about the mechanism of phloem transport and loading is gained through experimental treatments, which include blocking the phloem pathway and inhibiting energy production.

  19. Vaginal Yeast Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... t diagnose this condition by a person’s medical history and physical examination. They usually diagnose yeast infection by examining vaginal secretions under a microscope for evidence of yeast. Treatment Various antifungal vaginal ...

  20. Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Xylose-extracted Corncob Residue by SSF Using Inhibitor- and Thermal-tolerant Yeast Clavispora NRRL Y-50339

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Xylose-extracted corncob residue, a byproduct of the xylose-producing industry using corncobs, is an abundant potential energy resource for cellulosic ethanol production. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) is considered an ideal one-step process for conversion of lignocellulosic b...

  1. Withanolides and Sucrose Esters from Physalis neomexicana.

    PubMed

    Cao, Cong-Mei; Wu, Xiaoqing; Kindscher, Kelly; Xu, Liang; Timmermann, Barbara N

    2015-10-23

    Four withanolides (1-4) and two sucrose esters (5, 6) were isolated from the aerial parts of Physalis neomexicana. The structures of 1-6 were elucidated through a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Cytotoxicity studies of the isolates revealed that 2 inhibited human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7) with IC50 values of 1.7 and 6.3 μM, respectively.

  2. Comparison of melibiose utilizing baker's yeast strains produced by genetic engineering and classical breeding.

    PubMed

    Vincent, S F; Bell, P J; Bissinger, P; Nevalainen, K M

    1999-02-01

    Yeast strains currently used in the baking industry cannot fully utilize the trisaccharide raffinose found in beet molasses due to the absence of melibiase (alpha-galactosidase) activity. To overcome this deficiency, the MEL1 gene encoding melibiase enzyme was introduced into baker's yeast by both classical breeding and recombinant DNA technology. Both types of yeast strains were capable of vigorous fermentation in the presence of high levels of sucrose, making them suitable for the rapidly developing Asian markets where high levels of sugar are used in bread manufacture. Melibiase expression appeared to be dosage-dependent, with relatively low expression sufficient for complete melibiose utilization in a model fermentation system.

  3. Role of Sucrose in Gamma-irradiated Chrysanthemum Cut Flowers.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, K; Kikuchi, O K; Todoriki, S; Hosoda, H; Hayashi, T

    1998-01-01

    Vase solution containing 2% sucrose prevented the deterioration of chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflorum Kitamura) cut flowers induced by gamma-rays at 750 Gy. Glucose, fructose, and sucrose in florets and leaves of irradiated chrysanthemums decreased more rapidly than those of unirradiated ones, when the cut chrysanthemums were held in a vase solution without sucrose. The sugar contents of florets and leaves and the respiratory rate of irradiated chrysanthemums held with sucrose remained at higher levels than those of unirradiated ones. Incorporation of (14)C from [(14)C]sucrose into CO2 was increased by irradiation. Incorporation of [α-(32)P]dTTP into trichloroacetic acid (TCA) insoluble substances in florets was increased by irradiation and by exogenous sucrose supply. These results suggest that sucrose in a vase solution was used as a respiratory substrate and facilitated the repair of radiation-induced damage, resulting in the extension of longevity of irradiated chrysanthemums.

  4. Alcohol production from Jerusalem artichoke using yeasts with inulinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Guiraud, J.P.; Daurelles, J.; Galzy, P.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to show that yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol from the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). The results show that a fermentable extract can be easily obtained from the Jerusalem artichoke even under cold conditions. Yeasts with inulinase activity can be used to produce ethanol with good profitability. 19 refs.

  5. "Fungal elicitors combined with a sucrose feed significantly enhance triterpene production of a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension".

    PubMed

    Kümmritz, Sibylle; Louis, Marilena; Haas, Christiane; Oehmichen, Franz; Gantz, Stephanie; Delenk, Hubertus; Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2016-08-01

    Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are plant secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological properties. To reach reasonable productivities with plant cell suspension cultures, elicitation is a widely used strategy. Within the presented work, the effects of different elicitors on growth and production of OA and UA in a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension culture were examined. Beside commonly used elicitors like jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract, the influence of medium filtrates of the endophytic fungi Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens was investigated. The best eliciting effects were achieved with JA and fungal medium filtrates. Both increased the triterpene content by approximately 70 %. Since JA showed significant growth inhibition, the volumetric triterpene yield did not increase. But, adding fungal filtrates increased the volumetric triterpene yield by approximately 70 % to 32.6 mgOA l(-1) and 65.9 mgUA l(-1) for T. virens compared to the control with 19.4 mgOA l(-1) and 33.3 mgUA l(-1). An elicitation strategy combining fungal medium filtrate of T. virens with sucrose feeding significantly enhanced cell dry weight concentration to 22.2 g l(-1) as well as triterpene content by approximately 140 %. In total, this led to an approximately 500 % increase of volumetric triterpene yield referring to the control with final values of 112.9 mgOA l(-1) and 210.4 mgUA l(-1). Despite the doubled cultivation duration, productivities of 6.7 mgOA l(-1) day(-1) and 12.4 mgUA l(-1) day(-1) were reached. These results demonstrate methods by which increased productivities of triterpenes can be achieved to attain yields competing with intact plants. PMID:26971493

  6. "Fungal elicitors combined with a sucrose feed significantly enhance triterpene production of a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension".

    PubMed

    Kümmritz, Sibylle; Louis, Marilena; Haas, Christiane; Oehmichen, Franz; Gantz, Stephanie; Delenk, Hubertus; Steudler, Susanne; Bley, Thomas; Steingroewer, Juliane

    2016-08-01

    Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acid (UA) are plant secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological properties. To reach reasonable productivities with plant cell suspension cultures, elicitation is a widely used strategy. Within the presented work, the effects of different elicitors on growth and production of OA and UA in a Salvia fruticosa cell suspension culture were examined. Beside commonly used elicitors like jasmonic acid (JA) and yeast extract, the influence of medium filtrates of the endophytic fungi Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens was investigated. The best eliciting effects were achieved with JA and fungal medium filtrates. Both increased the triterpene content by approximately 70 %. Since JA showed significant growth inhibition, the volumetric triterpene yield did not increase. But, adding fungal filtrates increased the volumetric triterpene yield by approximately 70 % to 32.6 mgOA l(-1) and 65.9 mgUA l(-1) for T. virens compared to the control with 19.4 mgOA l(-1) and 33.3 mgUA l(-1). An elicitation strategy combining fungal medium filtrate of T. virens with sucrose feeding significantly enhanced cell dry weight concentration to 22.2 g l(-1) as well as triterpene content by approximately 140 %. In total, this led to an approximately 500 % increase of volumetric triterpene yield referring to the control with final values of 112.9 mgOA l(-1) and 210.4 mgUA l(-1). Despite the doubled cultivation duration, productivities of 6.7 mgOA l(-1) day(-1) and 12.4 mgUA l(-1) day(-1) were reached. These results demonstrate methods by which increased productivities of triterpenes can be achieved to attain yields competing with intact plants.

  7. Behavioral economics of concurrent ethanol-sucrose and sucrose reinforcement in the rat: effects of altering variable-ratio requirements.

    PubMed Central

    Petry, N M; Heyman, G M

    1995-01-01

    These experiments examined the own-price and cross-price elasticities of a drug (ethanol mixed with 10% sucrose) and a nondrug (10% sucrose) reinforcer. Rats were presented with ethanol-sucrose and sucrose, both available on concurrent independent variable-ratio (VR) 8 schedules of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the variable ratio for the ethanol mix was systematically raised to 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, and 30, while the variable ratio for sucrose remained at 8. Five of the 6 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding at some of the increments and defended baseline levels of ethanol intake. However, the rats eventually ceased ethanol-reinforced responding at the highest variable ratios. Sucrose-reinforced responding was not systematically affected by the changes in variable ratio for ethanol mix. In Experiment 2, the variable ratio for sucrose was systematically increased while the ethanol-sucrose response requirement remained constant. The rats decreased sucrose-reinforced responding and increased ethanol-sucrose-reinforced responding, resulting in a two- to 10-fold increase in ethanol intake. Experiment 3 examined the substitutability of qualitatively identical reinforcers: 10% sucrose versus 10% sucrose. Increases in variable-ratio requirements at the preferred lever resulted in a switch in lever preference. Experiment 4 examined whether 10% ethanol mix substituted for 5% ethanol mix, with increasing variable-ratio requirements of the 5% ethanol. All rats eventually responded predominantly for the 10% ethanol mix, but total amount of ethanol consumed per session did not systematically change. In Experiment 5, the variable-ratio requirements for both ethanol and sucrose were simultaneously raised to VR 120; 7 of 8 rats increased ethanol-reinforced responding while decreasing sucrose-reinforced responding. These data suggest that, within this ethanol-induction procedure and within certain parameters, demand for ethanol-sucrose was relatively inelastic, and sucrose

  8. Sucrose secreted by the engineered cyanobacterium and its fermentability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Yangkai; Luo, Quan; Liang, Feiyan; Lu, Xuefeng

    2016-10-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 (Syn7942), synthesizes sucrose as the only compatible solute under salt stress. A series of engineered Syn7942 strains for sucrose production were constructed. The overexpression of the native sps (encoding a natively fused protein of sucrose phosphate synthase SPS and sucrose phosphate phosphatase SPP) in Syn7942 wild type caused a 93% improvement of sucrose productivity. The strain FL130 co-overexpressing sps and cscB (encoding a sucrose transporter) exhibited a 74% higher extracellular sucrose production than that overexpressing cscB only. Both results showed the significant improvement of sucrose productivity by the double functional protein SPS-SPP. Afterwards, FL130 was cultivated under a modified condition, and the cell-free culture medium containing 1.5 g L-1 sucrose was pre-treated with an acid hydrolysis technique. Cultivated with the neutralized hydrolysates as the starting media, two widely used microorganisms, Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, showed a comparable growth with that in the control media supplemented with glucose. These results clearly demonstrated that the cell-free culture of sucrose-secreting cyanobacteria can be applied as starting media in microbial cultivation.

  9. Sucrose and Warmth for Analgesia in Healthy Newborns: An RCT

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Elizabeth; Zageris, Danielle; Heilman, Keri J.; Porges, Stephen W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Increasing data suggest that neonatal pain has long-term consequences. Nonpharmacologic techniques (sucrose taste, pacifier suckling, breastfeeding) are effective and now widely used to combat minor neonatal pain. This study examined the analgesic effect of sucrose combined with radiant warmth compared with the taste of sucrose alone during a painful procedure in healthy full-term newborns. METHODS: A randomized, controlled trial included 29 healthy, full-term newborns born at the University of Chicago Hospital. Both groups of infants were given 1.0 mL of 25% sucrose solution 2 minutes before the vaccination, and 1 group additionally was given radiant warmth from an infant warmer before the vaccination. We assessed pain by comparing differences in cry, grimace, heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia), and heart rate between the groups. RESULTS: The sucrose plus warmer group cried and grimaced for 50% less time after the vaccination than the sucrose alone group (P < .05, respectively). The sucrose plus warmer group had lower heart rate and heart rate variability (ie, respiratory sinus arrhythmia) responses compared with the sucrose alone group (P < .01), reflecting a greater ability to physiologically regulate in response to the painful vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of sucrose and radiant warmth is an effective analgesic in newborns and reduces pain better than sucrose alone. The ready availability of this practical nonpharmacologic technique has the potential to reduce the burden of newborn pain. PMID:25687147

  10. A detailed analysis of sucrose drinking in the rat.

    PubMed

    Spector, A C; Smith, J C

    1984-07-01

    The present report represents an initial attempt to examine and quantify the eating and drinking patterns of rats presented with water, laboratory chow, and sucrose solution for 23 hours. The concentration of the sucrose solution was systematically increased (0.10 M, 0.25 M, 0.5 M, 1.0 M) with a single concentration being presented to rats in four-day blocks. As has been previously shown, total intake (ml) of sucrose solution increased with concentration to a peak at 0.25 M and then decreased with further rises in concentration. Calories consumed from sucrose monotonically increased with concentration, reaching a maximum at 0.50 M. As calories consumed from sucrose increased with rising concentration, chow intake monotonically decreased. This compensatory decrease in chow intake was primarily attributable to decreases in nighttime chow consumption when the concentration of sucrose available was less than or equal to 0.25 M; when the concentration was greater than 0.25 M, further reductions in chow intake occurred during the day. Moreover, the decrease in chow intake was due solely to a reduction in the number of chow bouts. As the concentration of sucrose increased, the day-to-night ratio of sucrose intake approached unity. Bout volume increased with concentration to a broad peak spanning 0.25-0.5 M, and then decreased with 1.0 M. Bout duration changed with sucrose concentration such that the bout drinking rate (ml/min) was seen to monotonically increase, reaching a stable maximum at 0.5 M. Since the caloric intake per sucrose bout progressively increased with each rise in concentration, the asymptotic portion of the curve describing calories consumed from sucrose was attributable to alterations in sucrose bout number and not sucrose bout size.

  11. Kinetic model of sucrose accumulation in maturing sugarcane culm tissue.

    PubMed

    Uys, Lafras; Botha, Frederik C; Hofmeyr, Jan-Hendrik S; Rohwer, Johann M

    2007-01-01

    Biochemically, it is not completely understood why or how commercial varieties of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) are able to accumulate sucrose in high concentrations. Such concentrations are obtained despite the presence of sucrose synthesis/breakdown cycles (futile cycling) in the culm of the storage parenchyma. Given the complexity of the process, kinetic modelling may help to elucidate the factors governing sucrose accumulation or direct the design of experimental optimisation strategies. This paper describes the extension of an existing model of sucrose accumulation (Rohwer, J.M., Botha, F.C., 2001. Analysis of sucrose accumulation in the sugar cane culm on the basis of in vitro kinetic data. Biochem. J. 358, 437-445) to account for isoforms of sucrose synthase and fructokinase, carbon partitioning towards fibre formation, and the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase (PFK), pyrophosphate-dependent PFK and aldolase. Moreover, by including data on the maximal activity of the enzymes as measured in different internodes, a growth model was constructed that describes the metabolic behaviour as sugarcane parenchymal tissue matures from internodes 3-10. While there was some discrepancy between modelled and experimentally determined steady-state sucrose concentrations in the cytoplasm, steady-state fluxes showed a better fit. The model supports a hypothesis of vacuolar sucrose accumulation against a concentration gradient. A detailed metabolic control analysis of sucrose synthase showed that each isoform has a unique control profile. Fructose uptake by the cell and sucrose uptake by the vacuole had a negative control on the futile cycling of sucrose and a positive control on sucrose accumulation, while the control profile for neutral invertase was reversed. When the activities of these three enzymes were changed from their reference values, the effects on futile cycling and sucrose accumulation were amplified. The model can be run online at the JWS Online

  12. Production of d-Mannitol and Glycerol by Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshiyuki

    1968-01-01

    D-Mannitol has not so far been known as a major product of sugar metabolism by yeasts. Three yeast strains, a newly isolated yeast from soy-sauce mash, Torulopsis versatilis, and T. anomala, were found to be good mannitol producers. Under optimal conditions, the isolate produced mannitol at good yield of 30% of the sugar consumed. Glucose, fructose, mannose, galactose, maltose, glycerol, and xylitol were suitable substrates for mannitol formation. High concentrations of yeast extract, Casamino Acids, NaCl, and KCl in media affected significantly the mannitol yield, whereas high levels of inorganic phosphate did not show any detrimental effect. PMID:5749751

  13. Kinetics of sucrose crystallization in whey protein films.

    PubMed

    Dangaran, Kirsten L; Krochta, John M

    2006-09-20

    The kinetics of sucrose crystallization in whey protein isolate (WPI) films was studied at 25 degrees C in four different relative humidity environments: 23, 33, 44, and 53%. The effects of protein matrix, crystallization inhibitors, and storage environment on the rate constants of sucrose crystallization were determined using the Avrami model of crystallization. It was found that a cross-linked, denatured whey protein (WP) matrix more effectively hindered sucrose crystallization than a protein matrix of native WP. The crystallization inhibitors tested were lactose, raffinose, modified starch (Purity 69), and polyvinylpyrrolidone (Plasdone C15). Raffinose and modified starch were determined to be the more effective inhibitors of sucrose crystallization. At lower relative humidities (23, 33, and 44%), the cross-linked protein matrix played a more important role in sucrose crystallization than the inhibitors. As relative humidity increased (53%), the crystallization inhibitors were more central to controlling sucrose crystallization in WPI films.

  14. Optimisation of methodology for enumeration of xerophilic yeasts from foods.

    PubMed

    Andrews, S; de Graaf, H; Stamation, H

    1997-04-01

    Xerophilic yeasts grow in intermediate moisture foods (aw, 0.65-0.85) such as sugar syrups, fruit concentrates, jams and brines. Non-osmophilic yeasts are enumerated by diluting in 0.1% peptone and then plated onto media such as malt extract or glucose yeast extract agar. In the presence of moulds the yeasts are enumerated in dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC). These procedures were demonstrated to be unsatisfactory for the enumeration of xerophilic yeasts in low aw foods. Investigations using pure cultures of xerophilic yeasts as well as naturally contaminated apple juice concentrates and glacé cherries have shown that a reduced aw diluent, in particular 30% w/w glycerol in combination with tryptone 10% glucose yeast extract agar (TGY) optimises the recovery of the yeasts, especially sublethally injured cells. The inclusion of sodium chloride in either the diluents or the culture media was not necessary to optimise the recovery of D. hansenii growing in 20% sodium chloride broths.

  15. Yeast improves resistance to environmental challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alphamune™, a yeast extract antibiotic alternative, was added at either 1 lb/ton or 2 lb/ton to a turkey starter diet. Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of Alphamune™ on gut maturation of 7 and 21 day old poults. Sections from the mid-point of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum of each ...

  16. Effect of salt on the response of birds to sucrose

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, J.G.; Maller, O.

    1973-01-01

    The preference of male red-winged blackbirds for solutions of sucrose and sucrose with 0.03 M sodium chloride was tested, using a two-bottle choice test. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that the birds were indifferent to 0.03 M NaCl in water. Both control and experimental animals exhibited indifference to the solutions at the lowest concentration and aversion at the highest. The data suggest that the added sodium chloride makes the sucrose stimulus more discriminable.

  17. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking.

  18. Improvement of stress tolerance and leavening ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions by overexpression of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xue; Zhang, Cui-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Feng, Bing; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2015-03-16

    During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast cells are exposed to multiple baking-associated stresses, such as elevated high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. There is a high demand for baker's yeast strains that could withstand these stresses with high leavening ability. The SNR84 gene encodes H/ACA snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA), which is known to be involved in pseudouridylation of the large subunit rRNA. However, the function of the SNR84 gene in baker's yeast coping with baking-associated stresses remains unclear. In this study, we explored the effect of SNR84 overexpression on baker's yeast which was exposed to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses. These results suggest that overexpression of the SNR84 gene conferred tolerance of baker's yeast cells to high-temperature, high-sucrose and freeze-thaw stresses and enhanced their leavening ability in high-sucrose and freeze-thaw dough. These findings could provide a valuable insight for breeding of novel stress-resistant baker's yeast strains that are useful for baking. PMID:25555226

  19. Sucrose metabolism in halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    PubMed

    But, Sergey Y; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose accumulation has been observed in some methylotrophic bacteria utilizing methane, methanol, or methylated amines as a carbon and energy source. In this work, we have investigated the biochemical pathways for sucrose metabolism in the model halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The genes encoding sucrose-phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (Spp), fructokinase (FruK), and amylosucrase (Ams) were co-transcribed and displayed similar expression levels. Functional Spp and Ams were purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Spp exhibited high affinity for sucrose-6-phosphate and stayed active at very high levels of sucrose (K i  = 1.0 ± 0.6 M). The recombinant amylosucrase obeyed the classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the reactions of sucrose hydrolysis and transglycosylation. As a result, the complete metabolic network for sucrose biosynthesis and re-utilization in the non-phototrophic organism was reconstructed for the first time. Comparative genomic studies revealed analogous gene clusters in various Proteobacteria, thus indicating that the ability to produce and metabolize sucrose is widespread among prokaryotes.

  20. Sucrose and KF quenching system for solution phase parallel synthesis.

    PubMed

    Chavan, Sunil; Watpade, Rahul; Toche, Raghunath

    2016-01-01

    The KF, sucrose (table sugar) exploited as quenching system in solution phase parallel synthesis. Excess of electrophiles were covalently trapped with hydroxyl functionality of sucrose and due to polar nature of sucrose derivative was solubilize in water. Potassium fluoride used to convert various excess electrophilic reagents such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, isocyanates to corresponding fluorides, which are less susceptible for hydrolysis and subsequently sucrose traps these fluorides and dissolves them in water thus removing them from reaction mixture. Various excess electrophilic reagents such as acid chlorides, sulfonyl chlorides, and isocyanates were quenched successfully to give pure products in excellent yields. PMID:27462506

  1. Sucrose metabolism in halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z.

    PubMed

    But, Sergey Y; Khmelenina, Valentina N; Reshetnikov, Alexander S; Mustakhimov, Ildar I; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Trotsenko, Yuri A

    2015-04-01

    Sucrose accumulation has been observed in some methylotrophic bacteria utilizing methane, methanol, or methylated amines as a carbon and energy source. In this work, we have investigated the biochemical pathways for sucrose metabolism in the model halotolerant methanotroph Methylomicrobium alcaliphilum 20Z. The genes encoding sucrose-phosphate synthase (Sps), sucrose-phosphate phosphatase (Spp), fructokinase (FruK), and amylosucrase (Ams) were co-transcribed and displayed similar expression levels. Functional Spp and Ams were purified after heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Recombinant Spp exhibited high affinity for sucrose-6-phosphate and stayed active at very high levels of sucrose (K i  = 1.0 ± 0.6 M). The recombinant amylosucrase obeyed the classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the reactions of sucrose hydrolysis and transglycosylation. As a result, the complete metabolic network for sucrose biosynthesis and re-utilization in the non-phototrophic organism was reconstructed for the first time. Comparative genomic studies revealed analogous gene clusters in various Proteobacteria, thus indicating that the ability to produce and metabolize sucrose is widespread among prokaryotes. PMID:25577257

  2. Polysome profile analysis--yeast.

    PubMed

    Pospísek, Martin; Valásek, Leos

    2013-01-01

    More than one 80S monosome can translate an mRNA molecule at a time producing polysomes. The most widely used method to separate 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits from 80S monosomes and polysomes is a high-velocity centrifugation of whole cell extracts in linear sucrose gradients. This polysome profile analysis technique has been routinely used to monitor translational fitness of cells under a variety of physiological conditions, to investigate functions of initiation factors involved in translation, to reveal defects in ribosome biogenesis, to determine roles of 5' UTR structures on mRNA translatability, and more recently for examination of miRNA-mediated translational repression (see an application of this protocol on Polysome analysis for determining mRNA and ribosome association in Saccharomyces cerevisiae).

  3. Highly Efficient Fructooligosaccharides Production by an Erythritol-Producing Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica Displaying Fructosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lebin; An, Jin; Li, Lijuan; Wang, Hengwei; Liu, Dawen; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hairong; Deng, Zixin

    2016-05-18

    Currently, fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are industrially transformed from sucrose by purified enzymes or fungi cells. However, these methods are expensive and time-consuming. An economical approach to producing FOS using erythritol-producing yeast cells was described in this study. Fructosyltransferase from Aspergillus oryzae was displayed on the cell surface of Yarrowia lipolytica, resulting in an engineered strain capable of transforming sucrose to FOS. An amount of 480 g/L FOS was produced within 3 h in a solution of 800 g/L sucrose and 5 g/L cells (dry cell weight, DCW) at pH 6.0 and 60 °C, with a yield of 60% of total sucrose and a productivity of 160 g/(L·h). The yeast pastes from the erythritol industry can be repeatedly used as the whole-cell catalysts at least 10 times by this newly developed approach. This efficient method is attractive for the large-scale production of FOS from sucrose. PMID:27124471

  4. Aqueous Extract of Annona macroprophyllata: A Potential α-Glucosidase Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Brindis, F.; González-Trujano, M. E.; González-Andrade, M.; Aguirre-Hernández, E.; Villalobos-Molina, R.

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α-glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α-glucosidase with an IC50 = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a Ki = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (Ki = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature. PMID:24298552

  5. Aqueous extract of Annona macroprophyllata: a potential α-glucosidase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Brindis, F; González-Trujano, M E; González-Andrade, M; Aguirre-Hernández, E; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2013-01-01

    Annona genus contains plants used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, an aqueous extract prepared from Annona macroprophyllata (Annonaceae, also known as A. diversifolia) leaves was evaluated on both the activity of yeast α -glucosidase (an in vitro assay) and sucrose tolerance in Wistar rats. The results have shown that the aqueous extract from A. macroprophyllata inhibits the yeast α -glucosidase with an IC₅₀ = 1.18 mg/mL, in a competitive manner with a K(i) = 0.97 mg/mL, a similar value to that of acarbose (K(i) = 0.79 mg/mL). The inhibitory activity of A. macroprophyllata was reinforced by its antihyperglycemic effect, at doses of 100, 300, and 500 mg/kg in rats. Chromatographic analysis identified the flavonoids rutin and isoquercitrin in the most polar fractions of A. macroprophyllata crude extract, suggesting that these flavonoids are part of the active constituents in the plant. Our results support the use of A. macroprophyllata in Mexican folk medicine to control postprandial glycemia in people with diabetes mellitus, involving active constituents of flavonoid nature.

  6. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis IV. The Identity and Sequence of the Intermediates in Sucrose Synthesis

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, M.; Benson, A.

    1948-12-14

    The synthesis of sucrose from C{sup 14}0{sub 2} by green algae has been investigated and the intermediates separated by the method of paper chromatography. It is shown that sucrose is the first free sugar appearing during photosynthesis. It is apparently formed by condensation of the glucose-I-phosphate and a fructose phosphate. A series of radioautographs of paper chromatograms of extracts from plants which have photosynthesized for different periods of time has been prepared. The results indicate that 2-phosphoglyceric acid is the first product synthesized from C0{sub 2} during photosynthesis.

  7. Functional characterization of sucrose phosphorylase and scrR, a regulator of sucrose metabolism in Lactobacillus reuteri.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Januana S; Abdi, Reihaneh; Su, Marcia Shu-Wei; Schwab, Clarissa; Gänzle, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    Lactobacillus reuteri harbours alternative enzymes for sucrose metabolism, sucrose phosphorylase, fructansucrases, and glucansucrases. Sucrose phosphorylase and fructansucrases additionally contribute to raffinose metabolism. Glucansucrases and fructansucrases produce exopolysaccharides as alternative to sucrose hydrolysis. L. reuteri LTH5448 expresses a levansucrase (ftfA) and sucrose phosphorylase (scrP), both are inducible by sucrose. This study determined the contribution of scrP to sucrose and raffinose metabolism in L. reuteri LTH5448, and elucidated the role of scrR in regulation sucrose metabolism. Disruption of scrP and scrR was achieved by double crossover mutagenesis. L. reuteri LTH5448, LTH5448ΔscrP and LTH5448ΔscrR were characterized with respect to growth and metabolite formation with glucose, sucrose, or raffinose as sole carbon source. Inactivation of scrR led to constitutive transcription of scrP and ftfA, demonstrating that scrR is negative regulator. L. reuteri LTH5448 and the LTH5448ΔscrP or LTH5448ΔscrR mutant strains did not differ with respect to glucose, sucrose or raffinose utilization. However, L. reuteri LTH5448ΔscrP produced more levan, indicating that the lack of sucrose phosphorylase is compensated by an increased metabolic flux through levansucrase. In conclusion, the presence of alternate pathways for sucrose and raffinose metabolism and their regulation indicate that these substrates, which are abundant in plants, are preferred carbohydrate sources for L. reuteri. PMID:24010626

  8. Sucrose Phosphate Synthase and Acid Invertase as Determinants of Sucrose Concentration in Developing Muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Natalie L.; Huber, Steven C.; Pharr, D. Mason

    1989-01-01

    Fruits of orange-fleshed and green-fleshed muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were harvested at different times throughout development to evaluate changes in metabolism which lead to sucrose accumulation, and to determine the basis of differences in fruit sucrose accumulation among genotypes. Concentrations of sucrose, raffinose saccharides, hexoses and starch, as well as activities of the sucrose metabolizing enzymes sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) (EC 2.4.1.14), sucrose synthase (EC 2.4.1.13), and acid and neutral invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) were measured. Sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities were relatively low (1.7 ± 0.3 micromole per hour per gram fresh weight and 2.2 ± 0.2, respectively) and changed little throughout fruit development. Acid invertase activity decreased during fruit development, (from as high as 40 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) in unripe fruit, to undetectable activity in mature, ripened fruits, while SPS activity in the fruit increased (from 7 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight) to as high as 32 micromoles per hour per gram fresh weight. Genotypes which accumulated different amounts of sucrose had similar acid invertase activity but differed in SPS activity. Our results indicate that both acid invertase and SPS are determinants of sucrose accumulation in melon fruit. However, the decline in acid invertase appears to be a normal function of fruit maturation, and is not the primary factor which determines sucrose accumulation. Rather, the capacity for sucrose synthesis, reflected in the activity of SPS, appears to determine sucrose accumulation, which is an important component of fruit quality. PMID:16667212

  9. Inhibition by natural dietary substances of gastrointestinal absorption of starch and sucrose in rats and pigs: 1. Acute studies.

    PubMed

    Preuss, Harry G; Echard, Bobby; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney

    2007-08-06

    Rapid gastrointestinal absorption of refined carbohydrates (CHO) is linked to perturbed glucose-insulin metabolism that is, in turn, associated with many chronic health disorders. We assessed the ability of various natural substances, commonly referred to as "CHO blockers," to influence starch and sucrose absorption in vivo in ninety-six rats and two pigs. These natural enzyme inhibitors of amylase/sucrase reportedly lessen breakdown of starches and sucrose in the gastrointestinal tract, limiting their absorption. To estimate absorption, groups of nine SD rats were gavaged with water or water plus rice starch and/or sucrose; and circulating glucose was measured at timed intervals thereafter. For each variation in the protocol a total of at least nine different rats were studied with an equal number of internal controls on three different occasions. The pigs rapidly drank CHO and inhibitors in their drinking water. In rats, glucose elevations above baseline over four hours following rice starch challenge as estimated by area-under-curve (AUC) were 40%, 27%, and 85% of their internal control after ingesting bean extract, hibiscus extract, and l-arabinose respectively in addition to the rice starch. The former two were significantly different from control. L-Arabinose virtually eliminated the rising circulating glucose levels after sucrose challenge, whereas hibiscus and bean extracts were associated with lesser decreases than l-arabinose that were still significantly lower than control. The glucose elevations above baseline over four hours in rats receiving sucrose (AUC) were 51%, 43% and 2% of control for bean extract, hibiscus extract, and L-arabinose, respectively. Evidence for dose-response of bean and hibiscus extracts is reported. Giving the natural substances minus CHO challenge caused no significant changes in circulating glucose concentrations, indicating no major effects on overall metabolism. A formula combining these natural products significantly

  10. Sucrose transport and phloem unloading in stem of Vicia faba: possible involvement of a sucrose carrier and osmotic regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Aloni, B.; Wyse, R.E.; Griffith, S.

    1986-06-01

    After pulse labeling of a source leaf with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, stem sections of Vicia faba plants were cut and the efflux characteristics of /sup 14/C-labeled sugars into various buffered solutions were determined. Radiolabeled sucrose was shown to remain localized in the phloem and adjacent phloem parenchyma tissues after a 2-hour chase. Therefore, sucrose leakage from stem segments prepared following a 75-minute chase period was assumed to be characteristic of phloem unloading. The efflux of /sup 14/C assimilates from the phloem was enhanced by 1 millimolar p-chloromercuribenzene sulfonic acid (PCMBS) and by 5 micromolar carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenly hydrazone (CCCP). However, PCMBS inhibited and CCCP enhanced general leakage of nonradioactive sugars from the stem segments. Sucrose at concentrations of 50 millimolar in the free space increased efflux of (/sup 14/C)sucrose, presumably through an exchange mechanism. This exchange was inhibited by PCMBS and abolished by 0.2 molar mannitol. Increasing the osmotic concentration of the efflux medium with mannitol reduced (/sup 14/C)sucrose efflux. However, this inhibition seems not to be specific to sucrose unloading since leakage of total sugars, nonlabeled sucrose, glucose, and amino acids from the bulk of the tissue was reduced in a similar manner. The data suggest that phloem unloading in cut stem segments is consistent with passive efflux of sucrose from the phloem to the apoplast and that sucrose exchange via a membrane carrier may be involved.

  11. Compartmentation of sucrose during radial transfer in mature sorghum culm

    PubMed Central

    Tarpley, Lee; Vietor, Donald M

    2007-01-01

    Background The sucrose that accumulates in the culm of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and other large tropical andropogonoid grasses can be of commercial value, and can buffer assimilate supply during development. Previous study conducted with intact plants showed that sucrose can be radially transferred to the intracellular compartment of mature ripening sorghum internode without being hydrolysed. In this study, culm-infused radiolabelled sucrose was traced between cellular compartments and among related metabolites to determine if the compartmental path of sucrose during radial transfer in culm tissue was symplasmic or included an apoplasmic step. This transfer path was evaluated for elongating and ripening culm tissue of intact plants of two semidwarf grain sorghums. The metabolic path in elongating internode tissue was also evaluated. Results On the day after culm infusion of the tracer sucrose, the specific radioactivity of sucrose recovered from the intracellular compartment of growing axillary-branch tissue was greater (nearly twice) than that in the free space, indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through symplasmic routes. In contrast, the sucrose specific radioactivity in the intracellular compartment of the mature (ripening) culm tissue was probably less (about 3/4's) than that in free space indicating that sucrose was preferentially transferred through routes that included an apoplasmic step. In growing internodes of the axillary branch of sorghum, the tritium label initially provided in the fructose moiety of sucrose molecules was largely (81%) recovered in the fructose moiety, indicating that a large portion of sucrose molecules is not hydrolysed and resynthesized during radial transfer. Conclusion During radial transfer of sucrose in ripening internodes of intact sorghum plants, much of the sucrose is transferred intact (without hydrolysis and resynthesis) and primarily through a path that includes an apoplasmic step. In

  12. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  13. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  14. Isolation of Circular DNA from a Mitochondrial Fraction from Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Clark-Walker, G. D.

    1972-01-01

    Breakage and fractionation of respiratory competent yeast in the presence of ethidium bromide, and subsequent centrifugation of a detergent lysate of the mitochondrial fraction by the dye-buoyant-density technique, results in the isolation of closed-circular DNA. After removal of bound dye, this DNA has two components when analyzed by equilibrium buoyant density in the analytical ultracentrifuge. A minor component has a buoyant density of 1.684 g/cm3, which is characteristic of mitochondrial DNA, but the major component has a buoyant density of 1.701 g/cm3. This species of DNA is also present in yeast that have been mutagenized to respiratory deficiency in the presence of the highest concentration of ethidium bromide compatible with cell growth. The closed-circular DNA of buoyant density 1.701 g/cm3, and free of linear DNA, is associated with the sole particulate band obtained on sucrose gradient centrifugation of a mitochondrial preparation from respiratory-deficient cells. Two particulate bands are obtained on sucrose gradient centrifugation of a mitochondrial preparation from respiratory-competent cells, the upper band containing DNA of buoyant density 1.701 g/cm3 and the lower band DNA of buoyant density 1.684 g/cm3. The suggestion is advanced, in view of the reputed sedimentation behaviour of yeast peroxisomes, that the closed-circular DNA of buoyant density 1.701 g/cm3 may be located in peroxisomes. Images PMID:4551142

  15. Quillajasides A and B: New Phenylpropanoid Sucrose Esters from the Inner Bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christiane; Conrad, Jürgen; Steingass, Christof B; Beifuss, Uwe; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-10-14

    The phenolic composition of freshly prepared aqueous extracts of the inner bark of Quillaja saponaria Molina was compared to that of commercially available Quillaja extracts, which are currently used as emulsifiers in foods and cosmetics. Major phenolics in both extracts were (+)-piscidic acid and several p-coumaroyl sucrose esters. Among the latter, two new compounds were isolated and characterized: α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside A) and β-d-apif-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→4)-α-l-rhap-(1→3)-(4-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-α-d-glup-(1→2)-(3-O-(E)-p-coumaroyl)-β-d-fruf (quillajaside B). In addition, a putative biosynthetic pathway of at least 20 structurally related p-coumaroyl sucrose esters was tentatively identified. Besides their antioxidant activity and their potential function as substrate for enzymatic browning reactions, the new compounds are highly characteristic for both the inner bark of Q. saponaria and commercial extracts derived therefrom. Consequently, they might serve as authenticity markers for the detection of Quillaja extracts in food and cosmetic formulations. PMID:26375986

  16. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material.

  17. Production of freeze-dried yeast culture for the brewing of traditional sorghum beer, tchapalo.

    PubMed

    N'Guessan, Florent K; Coulibaly, Hermann W; Alloue-Boraud, Mireille W A; Cot, Marlène; Djè, Koffi Marcellin

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a well-known dehydration method widely used to preserve microorganisms. In order to produce freeze-dried yeast starter culture for the brewing purpose of African sorghum beer, we tested protective agents (sucrose, glucose, glycerol) in combination with support materials (millet, maize, sorghum, and cassava flours) at 1:1 ratio (v/v). The yeast strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae F 12-7 and Candida tropicalis C 0-7 previously isolated from sorghum beer were used in a mixed culture at a ratio of 2:1 (C. tropicalis/S. cerevisiae). After the freeze-drying, the residual water contents were between 0.78 -2.27%, 0.55 -4.09%, and 0.40-2.61%, respectively, with sucrose, glucose and glycerol. The dried yeasts viabilities were between 4.0% and 10.6%. Among the protective agents used, sucrose was found to be the best protectant giving cell viabilities of 8.4-10.6%. Considering the support materials, millet flour was the best support after drying. When the freeze-dried yeast powders were stored at 4°C and room temperature (25-28°C) for up to 3 months, the survival rates were the highest with cassava flour as the support material. PMID:26788308

  18. Putative role of the H(+)/sucrose symporter SLC45A3 as an osmolyte transporter in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Vitavska, Olga; Edemir, Bayram; Wieczorek, Helmut

    2016-08-01

    The solute carrier family 45 a3 member (SLC45A3), known also as prostein, has been implicated with prostate cancer and the regulation of lipid metabolism in oligodendrocytes. Recently, we expressed SLC45A3 in yeast cells and characterised it as a proton-coupled sucrose symporter. However, the physiological functions of SLC45A3 were still unknown. Here, we report that SLC45A3 occurs in the kidney and is highly expressed in the medullary collecting duct (IMCD), a part of the kidney responsible for final urine concentration and faced to hyperosmotic environment. Moreover, messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of endogenous SLC45A3 in rat IMCD cells as well as in NRK52E cells increased up to four-fold under hyperosmotic conditions at 600 mOsmol/kg. Using NRK52E cells as an experimental model, we investigated the proton-coupled sugar transport and found that the uptake of sucrose or glucose was enhanced by hyperosmolarity. Down-regulation of expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) decreased the osmotically inducible part of sucrose uptake and confirmed the involvement of SLC45A3 in this process. Furthermore, we observed an up to four-fold elevation of sucrose uptake triggered by hyperosmolarity across the apical membrane of NRK52E cells, while uptake across the basolateral membrane was not affected. Due to this finding, we conclude that SLC45A3 may occur at the luminal side of kidney epithelial cells and thus may take up solutes from the tubular fluid. Altogether, we show that SLC45A3 is a novel sugar transporter in kidney and hypothesise that the disaccharide sucrose, and probably the monosaccharides glucose and fructose, may serve as compatible osmolytes in urine. PMID:27228996

  19. Functionality of Inulin as a Sucrose Replacer in Cookie Baking

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inulin was evaluated as a sucrose replacer for healthy cookie production with benefits of low glycemic impact and prebiotic soluble fiber. Sucrose (as a reference) and three inulin products of different concentrations (as soluble fibers) were used to explore the effects of sugar-replacer type on so...

  20. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  1. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  2. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  3. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD..., peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling. (d) Sucrose fatty acid esters...

  4. A Novel Production Method for High-Fructose Glucose Syrup from Sucrose-Containing Biomass by a Newly Isolated Strain of Osmotolerant Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2016-04-28

    One osmotolerant strain from among 44 yeast isolates was selected based on its growth abilities in media containing high concentrations of sucrose. This selected strain, named SKENNY, was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions and partial D1/D2 large-subunit domains of the 26S ribosomal RNA. SK-ENNY was utilized to produce high-fructose glucose syrup (HFGS) from sucrose-containing biomass. Conversion rates to HFGS from 310-610 g/l of pure sucrose and from 75-310 g/l of sugar beet molasses were 73.5-94.1% and 76.2-91.1%, respectively. In the syrups produced, fructose yields were 89.4-100% and 96.5-100% and glucose yields were 57.6-82.5% and 55.3-79.5% of the theoretical values for pure sucrose and molasses sugars, respectively. This is the first report of employing M. guilliermondii for production of HFGS from sucrose-containing biomass. PMID:26718465

  5. A Novel Production Method for High-Fructose Glucose Syrup from Sucrose-Containing Biomass by a Newly Isolated Strain of Osmotolerant Meyerozyma guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Sadat Mohammad Rezq; Kodaki, Tsutomu

    2016-04-28

    One osmotolerant strain from among 44 yeast isolates was selected based on its growth abilities in media containing high concentrations of sucrose. This selected strain, named SKENNY, was identified as Meyerozyma guilliermondii by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer regions and partial D1/D2 large-subunit domains of the 26S ribosomal RNA. SK-ENNY was utilized to produce high-fructose glucose syrup (HFGS) from sucrose-containing biomass. Conversion rates to HFGS from 310-610 g/l of pure sucrose and from 75-310 g/l of sugar beet molasses were 73.5-94.1% and 76.2-91.1%, respectively. In the syrups produced, fructose yields were 89.4-100% and 96.5-100% and glucose yields were 57.6-82.5% and 55.3-79.5% of the theoretical values for pure sucrose and molasses sugars, respectively. This is the first report of employing M. guilliermondii for production of HFGS from sucrose-containing biomass.

  6. Studies on methanol - oxidizing yeast. III. Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Volfová, O

    1975-01-01

    Oxidation of methanol, formaldehyde and formic acid was studied in cells and cell-free extract of the yeast Candida boidinii No. 11Bh. Methanol oxidase, an enzyme oxidizing methanol to formaldehyde, was formed inducibly after the addition of methanol to yeast cells. The oxidation of methanol by cell-free extract was dependent on the presence of oxygen and independent of any addition of nicotine-amide nucleotides. Temperature optimum for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde was 35 degrees C, pH optimum was 8.5. The Km for methanol was 0.8mM. The cell-free extract exhibited a broad substrate specificity towards primary alcohols (C1--C6). The activity of methanol oxidase was not inhibited by 1mM KCN, EDTA or monoiodoacetic acid. The strongest inhibitory action was exerted by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Both the cells and the cell-free extract contained catalase which participated in the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde; the enzyme was constitutively formed by the yeast. The pH optimum for the degradation of H2O2 was in the same range as the optimum for methanol oxidation, viz. at 8.5. Catalase was more resistant to high pH than methanol oxidase. The cell-free extract contained also GSH-dependent NAD-formaldehyde dehydrogenase with Km = 0.29mM and NAD-formate dehydrogenase with Km = 55mM. PMID:240764

  7. Sucrose behenate as a crystallization enhancer for soft fats.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Maria Aliciane Fontenele; da Silva, Thaís Lomonaco Teodoro; Ribeiro, Ana Paula Badan; Chiu, Ming Chih; Gonçalves, Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo

    2016-02-01

    The addition of sucrose behenate for the modification of the physical properties of soft fats, such as soybean oil-based interesterified fat, refined palm oil, and palm mid fraction was studied. The addition of sucrose behenate was verified to affect the crystalline network of fats, changing the hardness and solids profile. The isothermal crystallization behaviors of the fat blends with 1% sucrose behenate were analyzed at 20 and 25 °C. Temperature had a greater effect on the speed of crystallization (k) than the presence of the emulsifier. Sucrose behenate did, however, influence the crystallization mechanism, with changes observed in the Avrami exponent (n). These changes were also observed in the microstructure of the fats. Changes in the polymorphic behavior were observed with the addition of sucrose behenate, such as a possible delay in the α → β transition for interesterified fat, and the initial formation of the β polymorph in palm oil.

  8. SUT Sucrose and MST Monosaccharide Transporter Inventory of the Selaginella Genome

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Sylvie; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2012-01-01

    Most metazoa use hexose transporters to acquire hexoses from their diet and as a transport form for distributing carbon and energy within their bodies; insects use trehalose, and plants use sucrose as their major form for translocation. Plant genomes contain at least three families of mono- and disaccharide transporters: monosaccharide/polyol transporters that are evolutionary closely related to the yeast and human glucose transporters, sucrose transporters of the SUT family, which similar to the hexose transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily, but share only minimal amino acid sequence homology with the hexose transporters, and the family of SWEET sugar transporters conserved between animals and plants. Recently, the genome sequence of the spikemoss Selaginella has been determined. In order to study the evolution of sugar transport in plants, we carefully annotated of the complement of sugar transporters in Selaginella. We review the current knowledge regarding sugar transport in spikemoss and provide phylogenetic analyses of the complement of MST and SUT homologs in Selaginella (and Physcomitrella). PMID:22645575

  9. Multisite phosphorylation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.; Huber, S.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase is phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro on serine residues. Phosphorylation of SPS in vivo yields twelve major phosphopeptides after a tryptic digest and two dimensional mapping. The in vivo labeling of three of these SPS P-peptides is reduced in illuminated leaves where the extracted enzyme is activated relative to that of dark leaves. Two of these inhibitory sites are phosphorylated as well when SPS is inactivated in vitro using ({sup 32}P)ATP. In vivo phosphorylation of two other sites is enhanced during mannose feeding of the leaves (in light or dark) which produces the highest activation state of SPS. Overall, the results confirm that light-dark regulation of SPS activity occurs as a result of regulatory seryl-phosphorylation and involves a balance between phosphorylation of sites which inhibit or stimulate activity. Regulation of the SPS protein kinase that inhibits activity is relatively unaffected by phosphate but inhibited by G1c 6-P (IC{sub 50}{approx}5 mM), which may explain the control of SPS activation state by light-dark signals.

  10. Cryptococcus friedmannii, a new species of yeast from the Antarctic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1985-01-01

    Cryptococcus friedmannii Vishniac sp. nov. from an Antarctic cryptoendolithic community is a psychrophilic basidioblastomycete characterized by cream-colored colonies of cells with smooth, layered walls, budding monopolarly, producing amylose and extracellular proteinase, utilizing nitrate and D-alanine (inter alia) as nitrogen sources and L-arabinose, arbutin, cellobiose, D-glucuronate, maltose, melezitose, salicin, soluble starch, trehalose, and D-xylose as carbon sources. This species differs from all other basidiomycetous yeasts in possessing the following combination of characters: amylose production (positive), assimilation of cellobiose (positive), D-galactose (negative), myo-inositol (negative), D-mannitol (negative), and sucrose (negative).

  11. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast by reducing sucrase activity in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Feng, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Er; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Jia; Pi, Li; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Leavening ability in sweet dough is required for the commercial applications of baker's yeast. This property depends on many factors, such as glycolytic activity, sucrase activity, and osmotolerance. This study explored the importance of sucrase level on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Furthermore, the baker's yeast strains with varying sucrase activities were constructed by deleting SUC2, which encodes sucrase or replacing the SUC2 promoter with the VPS8/TEF1 promoter. The results verify that the sucrase activity negatively affects the leavening ability of baker's yeast strains under high-sucrose conditions. Based on a certain level of osmotolerance, sucrase level plays a significant role in the fermentation performance of baker's yeast, and appropriate sucrase activity is an important determinant for the leavening property of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Therefore, modification on sucrase activity is an effective method for improving the leavening properties of baker's yeast in sweet dough. This finding provides guidance for the breeding of industrial baker's yeast strains for sweet dough leavening. The transformants BS1 with deleted SUC2 genetic background provided decreased sucrase activity (a decrease of 39.3 %) and exhibited enhanced leavening property (an increase of 12.4 %). Such a strain could be useful for industrial applications.

  12. Enhanced leavening properties of baker's yeast by reducing sucrase activity in sweet dough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui-Ying; Lin, Xue; Feng, Bing; Liu, Xiao-Er; Bai, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Jia; Pi, Li; Xiao, Dong-Guang

    2016-07-01

    Leavening ability in sweet dough is required for the commercial applications of baker's yeast. This property depends on many factors, such as glycolytic activity, sucrase activity, and osmotolerance. This study explored the importance of sucrase level on the leavening ability of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Furthermore, the baker's yeast strains with varying sucrase activities were constructed by deleting SUC2, which encodes sucrase or replacing the SUC2 promoter with the VPS8/TEF1 promoter. The results verify that the sucrase activity negatively affects the leavening ability of baker's yeast strains under high-sucrose conditions. Based on a certain level of osmotolerance, sucrase level plays a significant role in the fermentation performance of baker's yeast, and appropriate sucrase activity is an important determinant for the leavening property of baker's yeast in sweet dough. Therefore, modification on sucrase activity is an effective method for improving the leavening properties of baker's yeast in sweet dough. This finding provides guidance for the breeding of industrial baker's yeast strains for sweet dough leavening. The transformants BS1 with deleted SUC2 genetic background provided decreased sucrase activity (a decrease of 39.3 %) and exhibited enhanced leavening property (an increase of 12.4 %). Such a strain could be useful for industrial applications. PMID:27041690

  13. Stepwise increase of resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yechun; Halls, Coralie; Zhang, Juan; Matsuno, Michiyo; Zhang, Yansheng; Yu, Oliver

    2011-09-01

    Resveratrol is a unique, natural polyphenolic compound with diverse health benefits. In the present study, we attempted to improve resveratrol biosynthesis in yeast by different methods of metabolic engineering. We first mutated and then re-synthesized tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) by replacing the bacteria codons with yeast-preferred codons, which increased translation and improved p-coumaric acid and resveratrol biosynthesis drastically. We then demonstrated that low-affinity, high-capacity bacterial araE transporter could enhance resveratrol accumulation, without transporting resveratrol directly. Yeast cells carrying the araE gene produced up to 2.44-fold higher resveratrol than control cells. For commercial applications, resveratrol biosynthesis was detected in sucrose medium and fresh grape juice using our engineered yeast cells. In collaboration with the Chaumette Winery of Missouri, we were able to produce resveratrol-containing white wines, with levels comparable to the resveratrol levels found in most red wines.

  14. A study of ethanol tolerance in yeast.

    PubMed

    D'Amore, T; Panchal, C J; Russell, I; Stewart, G G

    1990-01-01

    The ethanol tolerance of yeast and other microorganisms has remained a controversial area despite the many years of study. The complex inhibition mechanism of ethanol and the lack of a universally accepted definition and method to measure ethanol tolerance have been prime reasons for the controversy. A number of factors such as plasma membrane composition, media composition, mode of substrate feeding, osmotic pressure, temperature, intracellular ethanol accumulation, and byproduct formation have been shown to influence the ethanol tolerance of yeast. Media composition was found to have a profound effect upon the ability of a yeast strain to ferment concentrated substrates (high osmotic pressure) and to ferment at higher temperatures. Supplementation with peptone-yeast extract, magnesium, or potassium salts has a significant and positive effect upon overall fermentation rates. An intracellular accumulation of ethanol was observed during the early stages of fermentation. As fermentation proceeds, the intracellular and extracellular ethanol concentrations become similar. In addition, increases in osmotic pressure are associated with increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol. However, it was observed that nutrient limitation, not increased intracellular accumulation of ethanol, is responsible to some extent for the decreases in growth and fermentation activity of yeast cells at higher osmotic pressure and temperature.

  15. GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS profiling of sucrose esters from Nicotiana tabacum and N. rustica.

    PubMed

    Haliński, Łukasz P; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been applied for the first time to the analysis of the sucrose esters from the surface of Nicotiana L. leaves. The profiles obtained for the model plant N. tabacum were similar to those from the gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis. The most reproducible results were obtained using a dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) matrix. The main advantage of this method is that crude plant extracts can be analysed without sample clean-up. GC-MS analysis of Aztec tobacco (N. rustica) extracts revealed the presence of three types of sucrose esters. All identified compounds had three C4-C8 acyl chains substituting the glucose moiety, while the fructose part of the molecule was substituted with 0, 1, or 2 acetyl groups. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the sucrose ester fraction revealed the presence of compounds not eluting from a GC column. Combining the data from both GC-MS and MALDI-TOF MS experiments, we obtained a full sucrose ester profile, which is based on the molecular weight of the compounds and on the number of acyl chains in the molecule. PMID:23923618

  16. [Determination of riboflavin kinase activity in yeast].

    PubMed

    Shavlovsky, G M; Kashchenko, V E

    1975-01-01

    It is established that the main reason of the riboflavin kinase (RFK, EC 2.7.1.26) low specific activity in the cell-free extracts of the yeast Pichia guillermondii Wickerham ATCC 9058 is the presence of alkaline phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.1), effectively destructing flaven mononucleotide. By chromatography of the cell-free extracts of P. guillermondii on DEAE-Sephadex A-50, CM-Sphadex C-50, CM-cellulose, Sephadexes G-75 and G-100 RFK and alkaline phosphatase may be separated completely. Any of these procedures results in a several times increase of the RFK activity as compared with the initial preparation. One failed to obtain a similar effect by fractionation of the extracts with amminium sulphate and by hydroxylapatite chromatography. A simple method is developed for determining the activity of RFK in the cell-free extracts of yeast on the basis of negative adsorption of this enzyme on DEAE-Sephadex A-50. A selective inhibition of alkaline phosphatase by ions Be2+ and F- yields a less satisfactory result. The data are presented on the PFK activity of certain species of flavinogenic (Pichia guillermondii, Torulopsis camdida) and non-flavinogenic (Pichia ohmeri, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cervisiae) yeast. PMID:174262

  17. Immunogenicity of Ribosomal Preparations from Yeast Cells of Histoplasma capsulatum

    PubMed Central

    Feit, Carl; Tewari, Ram P.

    1974-01-01

    Protective immunity was elicited by immunization of mice with ribosomal preparations from yeast cells of Histoplasma capsulatum. Ribosomes from disrupted cells were isolated by differential centrifugation using sodium dodecyl sulfate. These preparations contained 55% protein and 45% ribonucleic acid and sedimented as a single peak with a sedimentation coefficient of 77S on sucrose density gradient analysis. Mice immunized subcutaneously with ribosomes, with or without adjuvant, were challenged intravenously with 8 × 106 yeast cells of H. capsulatum. Significant protection was induced by ribosomes and was greatly enhanced by adjuvants. Protection measured by 30-day survival compared favorably with the immunoprotection assessed by absence of lung lesions and negative spleen cultures. Treatment of ribosomes with ribonuclease before immunization reduced protection by 85%, whereas trypsin and Pronase reduced the protection by 50 to 55%. These findings indicate that both intact ribosomal ribonucleic acid and protein are necessary for maximal immunogenicity of Histoplasma ribosomes. PMID:16558095

  18. Functional Relationship between Sucrose and a Cariogenic Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian-Na; Jung, Ji-Eun; Dang, Minh-Huy; Kim, Mi-Ah; Yi, Ho-Keun; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose is an important dietary factor in cariogenic biofilm formation and subsequent initiation of dental caries. This study investigated the functional relationships between sucrose concentration and Streptococcus mutans adherence and biofilm formation. Changes in morphological characteristics of the biofilms with increasing sucrose concentration were also evaluated. S. mutans biofilms were formed on saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs in culture medium containing 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, or 40% (w/v) sucrose. The adherence (in 4-hour biofilms) and biofilm composition (in 46-hour biofilms) of the biofilms were analyzed using microbiological, biochemical, laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscopic, and scanning electron microscopic methods. To determine the relationships, 2nd order polynomial curve fitting was performed. In this study, the influence of sucrose on bacterial adhesion, biofilm composition (dry weight, bacterial counts, and water-insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) content), and acidogenicity followed a 2nd order polynomial curve with concentration dependence, and the maximum effective concentrations (MECs) of sucrose ranged from 0.45 to 2.4%. The bacterial and EPS bio-volume and thickness in the biofilms also gradually increased and then decreased as sucrose concentration increased. Furthermore, the size and shape of the micro-colonies of the biofilms depended on the sucrose concentration. Around the MECs, the micro-colonies were bigger and more homogeneous than those at 0 and 40%, and were surrounded by enough EPSs to support their structure. These results suggest that the relationship between sucrose concentration and cariogenic biofilm formation in the oral cavity could be described by a functional relationship. PMID:27275603

  19. Expression of the PmSUC1 sucrose carrier gene from Plantago major L. is induced during seed development.

    PubMed

    Gahrtz, M; Schmelzer, E; Stolz, J; Sauer, N

    1996-01-01

    A cDNA clone of the plasma membrane sucrose-H+ symporter PmSUC1 from Plantago major L. has been isolated and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The PmSUC1 protein was characterized in transgenic yeast and in proteoliposomes with an artificial proton-motive-force (pmf) generator. PmSUC1 catalyzes the active uptake of sucrose or maltose in the presence of pmf and is sensitive to uncouplers. Unlike the extremely pH-dependent PmSUC2 sucrose-H+ symporter, PmSUC1 is relatively insensitive to changes of the extracellular pH. In leaves and petioles of P. major, expression of PmSUC1 mRNA is restricted to the vascular system. The important new feature about PmSUC1 is that the highest mRNA levels are found in non-vascular tissue of P. major flowers where the gene is transiently expressed during the early stages of seed development. In situ hybridization experiments show that PmSUC1 is expressed only in young ovules; the putative physiological role of PmSUC1 is discussed.

  20. Characteristics of Sucrose Transport through the Sucrose-Specific Porin ScrY Studied by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liping; Bertelshofer, Franziska; Greiner, Günther; Böckmann, Rainer A.

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose-specific porin (ScrY) is a transmembrane protein that allows for the uptake of sucrose under growth-limiting conditions. The crystal structure of ScrY was resolved before by X-ray crystallography, both in its uncomplexed form and with bound sucrose. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics of the transport mechanism of ScrY. To date, there has not yet been any clear demonstration for sucrose transport through the ScrY. Here, the dynamics of the ScrY trimer embedded in a phospholipid bilayer as well as the characteristics of sucrose translocation were investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The potential of mean force (PMF) for sucrose translocation through the pore showed two main energy barriers within the constriction region of ScrY. Energy decomposition allowed to pinpoint three aspartic acids as key residues opposing the passage of sucrose, all located within the L3 loop. Mutation of two aspartic acids to uncharged residues resulted in an accordingly modified electrostatics and decreased PMF barrier. The chosen methodology and results will aid in the design of porins with modified transport specificities. PMID:26913282

  1. A yeast transcription system for the 5S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Keulen, H; Thomas, D Y

    1982-01-01

    A cell-free extract of yeast nuclei that can specifically transcribe cloned yeast 5S rRNA genes has been developed. Optima for transcription of 5S rDNA were determined and conditions of extract preparation leading to reproducible activities and specificities established. The major in vitro product has the same size and oligonucleotide composition as in vivo 5S rRNA. The in vitro transcription extract does not transcribe yeast tRNA genes. The extract does increase the transcription of tRNA genes packaged in chromatin. Images PMID:7145700

  2. Vaginal yeast infection

    MedlinePlus

    Medicines to treat vaginal yeast infections are available as creams, ointments, vaginal tablets or suppositories and oral tablets. Most can be bought without needing to see your provider. Treating yourself at home is probably OK if: Your ...

  3. Single yeast cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Heimo; Kohlwein, Sepp D

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic imaging techniques play a pivotal role in the life sciences. Here we describe labeling and imaging methods for live yeast cell imaging. Yeast is an excellent reference organism for biomedical research to investigate fundamental cellular processes, and has gained great popularity also for large-scale imaging-based screens. Methods are described to label live yeast cells with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes or GFP-tagged proteins, and how cells are maintained viable over extended periods of time during microscopy. We point out common pitfalls and potential microscopy artifacts arising from inhomogeneous labeling and depending on cellular physiology. Application and limitation of bleaching techniques to address dynamic processes in the yeast cell are described.

  4. Effect of vanadate on proton-sucrose cotransport in Ricinus cotyledons

    SciTech Connect

    Vreugdenhil, D.; Spanswick, R.M.

    1987-07-01

    The effects of orthovanadate on the uptake of sucrose by Ricinus cotyledons and on sucrose-coupled proton influx were measured in order to gain insight into the relationship to the plasma membrane proton pump. Vanadate had no effect on short-term sucrose uptake. In long-term experiments (> 30 min) sucrose uptake was progressively inhibited, but only at high external sucrose concentrations. Vanadate did not affect proton efflux pumping in the absence of sucrose and neither did it change the initial rate of sucrose-coupled proton influx. However, it enhanced the maximal level of sucrose-induced alkalization of the medium at all sucrose concentrations tested. This is interpreted as an inhibiting effect of vanadate on the proton pump that recycles protons during sucrose-proton cotransport. The sensitivity towards vanadate indicates that this proton pump is an ATPase. A second proton-translocating system, that is insensitive to vanadate, is postulated to function in the absence of sucrose.

  5. Nitrile Metabolizing Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalla, Tek Chand; Sharma, Monica; Sharma, Nitya Nand

    Nitriles and amides are widely distributed in the biotic and abiotic components of our ecosystem. Nitrile form an important group of organic compounds which find their applications in the synthesis of a large number of compounds used as/in pharmaceutical, cosmetics, plastics, dyes, etc>. Nitriles are mainly hydro-lyzed to corresponding amide/acid in organic chemistry. Industrial and agricultural activities have also lead to release of nitriles and amides into the environment and some of them pose threat to human health. Biocatalysis and biotransformations are increasingly replacing chemical routes of synthesis in organic chemistry as a part of ‘green chemistry’. Nitrile metabolizing organisms or enzymes thus has assumed greater significance in all these years to convert nitriles to amides/ acids. The nitrile metabolizing enzymes are widely present in bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Yeasts metabolize nitriles through nitrilase and/or nitrile hydratase and amidase enzymes. Only few yeasts have been reported to possess aldoxime dehydratase. More than sixty nitrile metabolizing yeast strains have been hither to isolated from cyanide treatment bioreactor, fermented foods and soil. Most of the yeasts contain nitrile hydratase-amidase system for metabolizing nitriles. Transformations of nitriles to amides/acids have been carried out with free and immobilized yeast cells. The nitrilases of Torulopsis candida>and Exophiala oligosperma>R1 are enantioselec-tive and regiospecific respectively. Geotrichum>sp. JR1 grows in the presence of 2M acetonitrile and may have potential for application in bioremediation of nitrile contaminated soil/water. The nitrilase of E. oligosperma>R1 being active at low pH (3-6) has shown promise for the hydroxy acids. Immobilized yeast cells hydrolyze some additional nitriles in comparison to free cells. It is expected that more focus in future will be on purification, characterization, cloning, expression and immobilization of nitrile metabolizing

  6. Modeling brewers' yeast flocculation

    PubMed

    van Hamersveld EH; van der Lans RG; Caulet; Luyben

    1998-02-01

    Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  7. Yeast Biomass Production in Brewery's Spent Grains Hemicellulosic Hydrolyzate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Luís C.; Carvalheiro, Florbela; Lopes, Sónia; Neves, Ines; Gírio, Francisco M.

    Yeast single-cell protein and yeast extract, in particular, are two products which have many feed, food, pharmaceutical, and biotechnological applications. However, many of these applications are limited by their market price. Specifically, the yeast extract requirements for culture media are one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes for several top value chemicals in a biorefinery framework. A potential biotechnical solution is the production of yeast biomass from the hemicellulosic fraction stream. The growth of three pentose-assimilating yeast cell factories, Debaryomyces hansenii, Kluyveromyces marxianus, and Pichia stipitis was compared using non-detoxified brewery's spent grains hemicellulosic hydrolyzate supplemented with mineral nutrients. The yeasts exhibited different specific growth rates, biomass productivities, and yields being D. hansenii as the yeast species that presented the best performance, assimilating all sugars and noteworthy consuming most of the hydrolyzate inhibitors. Under optimized conditions, D. hansenii displayed a maximum specific growth rate, biomass yield, and productivity of 0.34 h-1, 0.61 g g-1, and 0.56 g 1-1 h-1, respectively. The nutritional profile of D. hansenii was thoroughly evaluated, and it compares favorably to others reported in literature. It contains considerable amounts of some essential amino acids and a high ratio of unsaturated over saturated fatty acids.

  8. Microwave-synthesized magnetic chitosan microparticles for the immobilization of yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Safarik, Ivo; Pospiskova, Kristyna; Maderova, Zdenka; Baldikova, Eva; Horska, Katerina; Safarikova, Mirka

    2015-01-01

    An extremely simple procedure has been developed for the immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells on magnetic chitosan microparticles. The magnetic carrier was prepared using an inexpensive, simple, rapid, one-pot process, based on the microwave irradiation of chitosan and ferrous sulphate at high pH. Immobilized yeast cells have been used for sucrose hydrolysis, hydrogen peroxide decomposition and the adsorption of selected dyes. PMID:24753015

  9. Forces in yeast flocculation.

    PubMed

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N; Dufrêne, Yves F

    2015-02-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion ("flocculation") is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  10. Forces in yeast flocculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Beaussart, Audrey; Vincent, Stéphane P.; Abellán Flos, Marta; Hols, Pascal; Lipke, Peter N.; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    In the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, cell-cell adhesion (``flocculation'') is conferred by a family of lectin-like proteins known as the flocculin (Flo) proteins. Knowledge of the adhesive and mechanical properties of flocculins is important for understanding the mechanisms of yeast adhesion, and may help controlling yeast behaviour in biotechnology. We use single-molecule and single-cell atomic force microscopy (AFM) to explore the nanoscale forces engaged in yeast flocculation, focusing on the role of Flo1 as a prototype of flocculins. Using AFM tips labelled with mannose, we detect single flocculins on Flo1-expressing cells, showing they are widely exposed on the cell surface. When subjected to force, individual Flo1 proteins display two distinct force responses, i.e. weak lectin binding forces and strong unfolding forces reflecting the force-induced extension of hydrophobic tandem repeats. We demonstrate that cell-cell adhesion bonds also involve multiple weak lectin interactions together with strong unfolding forces, both associated with Flo1 molecules. Single-molecule and single-cell data correlate with microscale cell adhesion behaviour, suggesting strongly that Flo1 mechanics is critical for yeast flocculation. These results favour a model in which not only weak lectin-sugar interactions are involved in yeast flocculation but also strong hydrophobic interactions resulting from protein unfolding.

  11. Sucrose responsiveness, learning success, and task specialization in ants.

    PubMed

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-07-16

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness, behavioral specialization, and appetitive olfactory learning in ants, including reproductive castes. We show that castes of the ant Camponotus aethiops differ in their responsiveness to sucrose and in their learning success in olfactory conditioning experiments in which sucrose is used as reward. Olfactory learning was better in foragers than in nurses, in agreement with their higher sucrose responsiveness. Interindividual variation in stimulus responsiveness and in learning may be, therefore, a crucial factor for division of labor in social insects.

  12. Sucrose substitutes and their role in caries prevention.

    PubMed

    Matsukubo, Takashi; Takazoe, Ichiro

    2006-06-01

    Many non- or low-cariogenic sucrose substitutes are currently available and are found as ingredients of a variety of candy, chewing gum, and drinks. Recently the role of sugar alcohols in promoting remineralisation of enamel has attracted much attention. Thus, the dental profession needs to understand the general characteristics and features of sugar substitutes to provide advice on oral health to patients as well as the general public. There are two critical requirements for sucrose substitutes, namely, being nutritionally appropriate and not being detrimental to the overall general health of the individual. The use of a greater variety of confectionary containing sucrose substitutes and the development of new substitutes with high nutritional value are essential in the battle against caries. In this paper we review in detail the characteristics of sucrose substitutes currently in use, their role in caries prevention and promotion of oral health.

  13. Preference for Sucrose Solutions Modulates Taste Cortical Activity in Humans.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Piques, Agnès; Mouillot, Thomas; Gigot, Vincent; Meillon, Sophie; Leloup, Corinne; Penicaud, Luc; Brondel, Laurent

    2016-09-01

    High time resolution is required to reliably measure neuronal activity in the gustatory cortex in response to taste stimuli. Hedonic aspects of gustatory processing have never been explored using gustatory evoked potentials (GEPs), a high-time-resolution technique. Our aim was to study cerebral processing of hedonic taste in humans using GEPs in response to sucrose solutions in subjects with different ratings of pleasantness regarding sucrose. In this exploratory study, 30 healthy volunteers were randomly stimulated with 3 sucrose solutions. The sucrose stimulus was presented to the tongue for 1s 20 times. GEPs were recorded from 9 cortical sites with EEG sensors at Cz, Fz, Pz, C3, C4, F3, F4, Fp1, and Fp2 (10/20 system). The main result was that subjects who preferred the high-concentration (20g/100mL) sucrose solution had higher GEP amplitudes on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes than did subjects who preferred the low-concentration (5g/100mL) or the moderate-concentration (10g/100mL) solutions regardless of stimulus intensity. The difference in P1N1 amplitude on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to sucrose preference of the subjects was described with stronger significance with stimulation by the 20 g-sucrose solution than by the 5 and 10g sucrose solutions. Using the reliable and safe GEP technique, we provide an original demonstration of variability of the gustatory response on the Pz, Cz, and Fz electrodes according to a sweet preference in humans. Further studies are needed to correlate the electric signal recorded by surface electrodes to the neural generator. PMID:27235187

  14. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%.

  15. Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Cowles, Richard S; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Holdcraft, Robert; Loeb, Gregory M; Elsensohn, Johanna E; Hesler, Steven P

    2015-04-01

    The addition of sucrose to insecticides targeting spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura), enhanced lethality in laboratory, semifield, and field tests. In the laboratory, 0.1% sucrose added to a spray solution enhanced spotted wing drosophila feeding. Flies died 120 min earlier when exposed to spinosad residues at label rates enhanced with sucrose. Added sucrose reduced the LC50 for dried acetamiprid residues from 82 to 41 ppm in the spray solution. Laboratory bioassays of spotted wing drosophila mortality followed exposure to grape and blueberry foliage and/or fruit sprayed and aged in the field. On grape foliage, the addition of 2.4 g/liter of sugar with insecticide sprays resulted in an 11 and 6% increase of spotted wing drosophila mortality at 1 and 2 d exposures to residues, respectively, averaged over seven insecticides with three concentrations. In a separate experiment, spinetoram and cyantraniliprole reduced by 95-100% the larval infestation of blueberries, relative to the untreated control, 7 d after application at labeled rates when applied with 1.2 g/liter sucrose in a spray mixture, irrespective of rainfall; without sucrose infestation was reduced by 46-91%. Adding sugar to the organically acceptable spinosyn, Entrust, reduced larval infestation of strawberries by >50% relative to without sugar for five of the six sample dates during a season-long field trial. In a small-plot field test with blueberries, weekly applications in alternating sprays of sucrose plus reduced-risk insecticides, spinetoram or acetamiprid, reduced larval infestation relative to the untreated control by 76%; alternating bifenthrin and phosmet (without sucrose) reduced infestation by 65%. PMID:26470175

  16. Effect of sucrose-containing snacks on blood glucose control.

    PubMed

    Wise, J E; Keim, K S; Huisinga, J L; Willmann, P A

    1989-06-01

    To determine whether ingestion of sucrose-containing snacks would affect blood glucose (BG) control, 16 subjects with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus participated in a 5-day double-blind study at a diabetes camp. Eight subjects in the sucrose group ate sucrose-sweetened snacks twice a day, and 8 subjects in the control group ingested snacks that were sweetened with aspartame. The percentage of total daily calories derived from added sucrose was 7% for the sucrose group and 1% for the control group. Metabolic control was assessed by daily capillary BG measurements obtained before meals and the bedtime snack and by determination of serum fructosamine (F) concentrations on arrival at camp (day 0) and after 5 days on the study protocol (day 5). No significant difference was seen between the groups on day 0 (sucrose group [mean +/- SD]: BG 9.9 +/- 3.6 mM, F 3.54 +/- 0.38 mM; control group: BG 9.1 +/- 2.8 mM, F 3.74 +/- 0.71 mM) or day 5 (sucrose group: BG 8.8 +/- 2.6 mM, F 2.94 +/- 0.32 mM; control group: BG 7.4 +/- 2.8 mM, F 2.92 +/- 0.59 mM). We conclude that ingestion of sucrose, added to snacks in an amount up to 7% of total energy intake, does not adversely affect short-term BG control.

  17. New antiinflammatory sucrose esters in the natural sticky coating of tomatillo (Physalis philadelphica), an important culinary fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuan-Rui; Khan, Wajid; Bakht, Jehan; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2016-04-01

    Tomatillo is a popular culinary fruit. The sticky material on its surface, consumed as part of the fruit, has never been investigated. Chemical characterization of sticky material on tomatillo fruits yielded five new sucrose esters, as confirmed by spectroscopic methods. The solvent extract of the sticky material from the whole fresh fruit and pure isolates showed antiinflammatory activity as confirmed by in vitro cyclooxygenase enzymes inhibitory assays. Five sucrose esters isolated at 100 μg/mL (153.8, 138.8, 136.2, 141.6 and 138.8 μM, respectively) inhibited cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 enzymes by 50%. The cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activity of extract and isolates at 100 μg/mL was similar to non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs aspirin, ibuprofen and naproxen, used as positive controls in the assay at 108, 12 and 15 μg/mL (600, 60 and 60 μM), respectively.

  18. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  19. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  20. Identification and characterization of the three homeologues of a new sucrose transporter in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sucrose transporters (SUTs) play important roles in regulating the translocation of assimilates from source to sink tissues. Identification and characterization of new SUTs in economically important crops such as wheat provide insights into their role in determining seed yield. To date, however, only one SUT of wheat has been reported and functionally characterized. The present study reports the isolation and characterization of a new SUT, designated as TaSUT2, and its homeologues (TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D) in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Results TaSUT2A and TaSUT2B genes each encode a protein with 506 amino acids, whereas TaSUT2D encodes a protein of 508 amino acids. The molecular mass of these proteins is predicted to be ~ 54 kDA. Topological analysis of the amino acid sequences of the three homeologues revealed that they contain 12 transmembrane spanning helices, which are described as distinct characteristic features of glycoside-pentoside-hexuronide cation symporter family that includes all known plant SUTs, and a histidine residue that appears to be localized at and associated conformationally with the sucrose binding site. Yeast SUSY7/ura3 strain cells transformed with TaSUT2A, TaSUT2B and TaSUT2D were able to uptake sucrose and grow on a medium containing sucrose as a sole source of carbon; however, our subcellular localization study with plant cells revealed that TaSUT2 is localized to the tonoplast. The expression of TaSUT2 was detected in the source, including flag leaf blade, flag leaf sheath, peduncle, glumes, palea and lemma, and sink (seed) tissues. The relative contributions of the three genomes of wheat to the total expression of TaSUT2 appear to differ with tissues and developmental stages. At the cellular level, TaSUT2 is expressed mainly in the vein of developing seeds and subepidermal mesophyll cells of the leaf blade. Conclusion This study demonstrated that TaSUT2 is a new wheat SUT protein. Given that TaSUT2 is

  1. Astaxanthinogenesis in the yeast Phaffia rhodozyma - optimization of low-cost culture media and yeast cell-wall lysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.D.; Baron, M.; Guimaraes, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Astaxanthin is a diketo-dihydroxy-carotenoid produced by Phaffia rhodozyma, a basidiomicetous yeast. A low-cost fermentation medium consisting of raw sugarcane juice and urea was developed to exploit the active sucrolytic/urelolytic enzyme apparatus inherent to the yeast. As compared to the beneficial effect of 0.1 g% urea, a ready nitrogen source, mild phosphoric pre inversion of juice sucrose to glucose and fructose, promptly fermentable carbon sources, resulted in smaller benefits. Corn steep liquor (CSL) was found to be a valuable supplement for both yeast biomass yield (9.2 g dry cells/L) and astaxanthin production (1.3 mg/g cells). Distillery effluent (vinace), despite only a slightly positive effect on yeast growth, allowed for the highest pigment productivity (1.9 mg/g cells). Trace amounts of Ni{sup 2} (1 mg/L, as a cofactor for urease) resulted in controversial effects, namely, biomass decrease and astaxanthin increase, with no effect on the release (and uptake) of ammonium ion from urea. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Responding for sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement: effects of sucrose concentration and wheel-running reinforcer duration.

    PubMed Central

    Belke, Terry W; Hancock, Stephanie D

    2003-01-01

    Six male albino rats were placed in running wheels and exposed to a fixed-interval 30-s schedule of lever pressing that produced either a drop of sucrose solution or the opportunity to run for a fixed duration as reinforcers. Each reinforcer type was signaled by a different stimulus. In Experiment 1, the duration of running was held constant at 15 s while the concentration of sucrose solution was varied across values of 0, 2.5. 5, 10, and 15%. As concentration decreased, postreinforcement pause duration increased and local rates decreased in the presence of the stimulus signaling sucrose. Consequently, the difference between responding in the presence of stimuli signaling wheel-running and sucrose reinforcers diminished, and at 2.5%, response functions for the two reinforcers were similar. In Experiment 2, the concentration of sucrose solution was held constant at 15% while the duration of the opportunity to run was first varied across values of 15, 45, and 90 s then subsequently across values of 5, 10, and 15 s. As run duration increased, postreinforcement pause duration in the presence of the wheel-running stimulus increased and local rates increased then decreased. In summary, inhibitory aftereffects of previous reinforcers occurred when both sucrose concentration and run duration varied; changes in responding were attributable to changes in the excitatory value of the stimuli signaling the two reinforcers. PMID:12822690

  3. A novel ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuyong; Li, Steve Lianghong; Chang, Linda Dongxia; Kapanadze, Theo

    2015-01-26

    A novel, specific and sensitive bioanalytical method has been developed for the determination of sucrose octasulfate (SOS) in dog plasma and urine using ion-pair reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray triple quadruple mass spectrometry (IPRP-UPLC ESI MS/MS). (13)C-labeled sucrose octasulfate-(13)C12 sodium salt is used as the internal standard. 200 μL of plasma or serum sample is extracted using weak anion exchange solid phase cartridge. In this method, a polar amide column is employed for the liquid chromatograph (LC) separation while the diethylamine and formic acid buffer is used as the ion-pairing reagent. The low limitation of quantitation of sucrose octasulfate is 0.20 ng on the column with a signal to noise ratio larger than 50. Parameters such as linearity, accuracy and precision have been validated in full compliance with the FDA guidelines for the bioanalytical method development and validation. A linear regression model fit the calibration curve very well with R>0.99. The bias and coefficient of variation of all levels of QCs are within the range of 15%. The selectivity, matrix effect and stabilities of analytes in solution and matrix have also been evaluated and the results met the acceptance criteria according to the guidelines. Based on these results, the method has qualified to analyze sucrose octasulfate in dog plasma for clinic research. This method has been applied to 1000 preclinical samples.

  4. A Preliminary Study of the Human Brain Response to Oral Sucrose and its Association with Recent Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Kareken, David A.; Dzemidzic, Mario; Oberlin, Brandon G.; Eiler, William J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Background A preference for sweet tastes has been repeatedly shown to be associated with alcohol preference in both animals and humans. In this study, we tested the extent to which recent drinking is related to blood oxygen dependent (BOLD) activation from an intensely sweet solution in orbitofrontal areas known to respond to primary rewards. Methods Sixteen right-handed, non-treatment seeking, healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years; 75% male) were recruited from the community. All underwent a taste test using a range of sucrose concentrations, as well as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during pseudorandom, event-driven stimulation with water and a 0.83M concentration of sucrose in water. Results [Sucrose > Water] provoked significant BOLD activation in primary gustatory cortex and amygdala, as well as in the right ventral striatum and in bilateral orbitofrontal cortex. Drinks/drinking day correlated significantly with the activation as extracted from the left orbital area (r = 0.52, p = 0.04 after correcting for a bilateral comparison). Using stepwise multiple regression, the addition of rated sucrose-liking accounted for significantly more variance in drinks/drinking day than did left orbital activation alone (multiple R= 0.79, p = 0.002). Conclusions Both the orbitofrontal response to an intensely sweet taste, as well as rated liking of that taste, accounted for significant variance in drinking behavior. The brain response to sweet tastes may be an important phenotype of alcoholism risk. PMID:23841808

  5. Stubborn vaginal yeast infections.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Fungi, which along with plants and animals comprise a distinct group in the classification of living things, break down and recycle organic matter. One sub-group with over 600 varieties consists of microscopic, single-celled yeasts. Of the genus Candida, the species Candida albicans accounts for 94% of all cases of fungal vaginitis. Yeasts thrive in human bodies as either beneficial or pathogenic agents. Even when they are an innocuous presence in a healthy human body, they are always poised to create opportunistic infections in susceptible individuals. Candida has been known to infect every organ of the body, but its ability to cause infection depends upon the presence of a sufficient amount of fungal organisms or generally reduced resistance or both. Often use of modern medical drugs such as oral contraceptives, antibiotics, or immunosuppressant drugs can trigger an infection. The symptoms of vaginal infection are vaginal itching, inflammation, and swelling; a burning sensation; and a white, cheesy discharge. Yeast infections can occur in females of all ages (although they are most common in women of child-bearing age) and prompt a large percentage of trips to the gynecologist. Recurrence is common, and each occurrence is harder to eradicate. Often frustrated women turn to alternative therapies. Successful treatment depends upon reducing the yeast population in the body, building up the beneficial bacteria population, limiting and controlling yeast triggers, and strengthening overall health. PMID:12318962

  6. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  7. Development and Validation of an In-House Database for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization–Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry-Based Yeast Identification Using a Fast Protein Extraction Procedure

    PubMed Central

    De Carolis, Elena; Vella, Antonietta; Vaccaro, Luisa; Torelli, Riccardo; Posteraro, Patrizia; Ricciardi, Walter; Posteraro, Brunella

    2014-01-01

    In recent studies evaluating the usefulness of the matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based identification of yeasts for the routine diagnosis of fungal infections, preanalytical sample processing has emerged as a critical step for reliable MALDI-TOF MS outcomes, especially when the Bruker Daltonics Biotyper software was used. In addition, inadequate results often occurred due to discrepancies between the methods used for clinical testing and database construction. Therefore, we created an in-house MALDI-TOF MS library using the spectra from 156 reference and clinical yeast isolates (48 species in 11 genera), which were generated with a fast sample preparation procedure. After a retrospective validation study, our database was evaluated on 4,232 yeasts routinely isolated during a 6-month period and fast prepared for MALDI-TOF MS analysis. Thus, 4,209 (99.5%) of the isolates were successfully identified to the species level (with scores of ≥2.0), with 1,676 (39.6%) having scores of >2.3. For the remaining 23 (0.5%) isolates, no reliable identification (with scores of <1.7) was obtained. Interestingly, these isolates were almost always from species uniquely represented or not included in the database. As the MALDI-TOF MS results were, except for 23 isolates, validated without additional phenotypic or molecular tests, our proposed strategy can enhance the rapidity and accuracy of MALDI-TOF MS in identifying medically important yeast species. However, while continuous updating of our database will be necessary to enrich it with more strains/species of new and emerging yeasts, the present in-house MALDI-TOF MS library can be made publicly available for future multicenter studies. PMID:24554755

  8. Yeast killer systems.

    PubMed Central

    Magliani, W; Conti, S; Gerloni, M; Bertolotti, D; Polonelli, L

    1997-01-01

    The killer phenomenon in yeasts has been revealed to be a multicentric model for molecular biologists, virologists, phytopathologists, epidemiologists, industrial and medical microbiologists, mycologists, and pharmacologists. The surprisingly widespread occurrence of the killer phenomenon among taxonomically unrelated microorganisms, including prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens, has engendered a new interest in its biological significance as well as its theoretical and practical applications. The search for therapeutic opportunities by using yeast killer systems has conceptually opened new avenues for the prevention and control of life-threatening fungal diseases through the idiotypic network that is apparently exploited by the immune system in the course of natural infections. In this review, the biology, ecology, epidemiology, therapeutics, serology, and idiotypy of yeast killer systems are discussed. PMID:9227858

  9. Genetics of Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Amparo; Fernández-Espinar, M. Teresa; Belloch, Carmela

    The use of yeasts in biotechnology processes dates back to ancient days. Before 7000 BC, beer was produced in Sumeria. Wine was made in Assyria in 3500 BC, and ancient Rome had over 250 bakeries, which were making leavened bread by 100 BC. And milk has been made into Kefyr and Koumiss in Asia for many centuries (Demain, Phaff, & Kurtzman, 1999). However, the importance of yeast in the food and beverage industries was only realized about 1860, when their role in food manufacturing became evident.

  10. Expression analysis of genes associated with sucrose accumulation in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) varieties differing in content and time of peak sucrose storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sucrose synthesis/accumulation in sugarcane is a complex process involving many genes and regulatory sequences that control biochemical events in source-sink tissues. Among these, sucrose synthase (SuSy), sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS), soluble acid (SAI) and cell-wall invertase (CWI) are importan...

  11. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric; Suominen, Pirkko

    2010-12-07

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains. ##STR00001##

  12. Microbiological Characteristics and Physiological Functionality of New Records of Yeasts from Wild Flowers in Yokjido, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Se-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Two new yeast records, Cryptococcus adeliensis YJ19-2 and Cryptococcus uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 were screened from 60 yeasts strains that were isolated and identified from wild flowers in Yokjido, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. The morphological and cultural characteristics of the newly recorded yeasts and the physiological functionalities of the supernatants and cell-free extracts obtained from their cultures were investigated. The two newly recorded yeasts did not form ascospores and pseudomycelia. They also grew well in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose broth. C. uzbekistanensis YJ10-4 grew in a vitamin-free medium and was also tolerant to sugar and salt. Antihypertensive angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the supernatant from C. adeliensis YJ19-2 was high (71.8%) and its cell-free extract also showed very high (81.2%) antidiabetic á-glucosidase inhibitory activity. PMID:25071392

  13. Preparation and performance of immobilized yeast cells in columns containing no inert carrier. [Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiao, H.Y.; Chiang, L.C.; Yang, C.M.; Chen, L.F.; Tsao, G.T.

    1983-02-01

    Schizosaccharomyes pombe was cultivated in a medium of glucose (10 g/l), malt extract (3 g/l), yeast extract (3 g/l), and bactopeptone (5 g/l) to form flocs. More than 95% of the cell population were flocculated. Variation in glucose concentration (from 10 to 11 g/l) did not affect flocculation. Yeast extract helped induce flocculation. Application of the immobilized yeast for the continuous production of ethanol was tested in a column reactor. Soft yeast flocs (50-200 mesh) underwent morphological changes to heavy particles (0.1-9.3 cm diameter) after continuously being fed with fresh substrates in the column. Productivity as high as 87 g EtOH/l/hour was obtained when a 150 g/l glucose medium was fed. The performance of this yeast reactor was stable over a two-month period. The ethanol yield was 97% of the theoretical maximum based upon glucose consumed. (Refs. 16).

  14. The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-11-15

    The effect of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on lifespan and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. The supplementation of the growth medium with R. rosea extract decreased survival of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, but increased viability and reproduction success of yeast cells in stationary phase. The extract did not significantly affect catalase activity and decreased SOD activity in chronologically aged yeast population. These results suggest that R. rosea acts as a stressor for S. cerevisiae cells, what sensitizes yeast cells to oxidative stress at exponential phase, but induces adaptation in stationary phase cells demonstrating the positive effect on yeast survival without activation of major antioxidant enzymes.

  15. The golden root, Rhodiola rosea, prolongs lifespan but decreases oxidative stress resistance in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Bayliak, Maria M; Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2011-11-15

    The effect of aqueous extract from R. rosea root on lifespan and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been studied. The supplementation of the growth medium with R. rosea extract decreased survival of exponentially growing S. cerevisiae cells under H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative stress, but increased viability and reproduction success of yeast cells in stationary phase. The extract did not significantly affect catalase activity and decreased SOD activity in chronologically aged yeast population. These results suggest that R. rosea acts as a stressor for S. cerevisiae cells, what sensitizes yeast cells to oxidative stress at exponential phase, but induces adaptation in stationary phase cells demonstrating the positive effect on yeast survival without activation of major antioxidant enzymes. PMID:21802922

  16. The theoretical shape of sucrose crystals from energy calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saska, Michael; Myerson, Allan S.

    1983-05-01

    The surface energies of individual crystallographic faces of crystalline sucrose were calculated using two forms of the 6-exp (Buckingham) potential. Hydrogen bond energies were calculated as a sum of O-H, O…H and O…O interactions where the Lippincott-Schroeder short-range potential was used for O-H and O…H pairs and the 6-exp potential for the non-bonded O…O interactions. Assuming that the surface energy equals half of the cohesive energy of the crystal, the attachment and surface energies of most of the faces found on as sucrose crystal were calculated. A computer program was written to draw the theoretical shape of crystals given the positions (central distances) of its faces. The resulting sucrose shapes are elongated along the c-axis. It is argued that the c-axis elongated habit is an intrinsic shape for vapor grown sucrose crystals (if realizable) and it is suggested that the usual shapes of solution grown sucrose crystals can be explained in terms of solvent (water) adsorption.

  17. Pharmaceutical micro-particles give amorphous sucrose higher physical stability.

    PubMed

    Hellrup, Joel; Mahlin, Denny

    2011-05-16

    The aim of this study was to explore how pharmaceutical micro-sized filler particles affect the amorphous stability of sucrose in sucrose/filler particle composites produced by freeze-drying. Focus was put on the filler particles' properties crystallinity, hygroscopicity, hydrophobicity, and surface area, and their influence on physical stability of the amorphous phase. The micro-sized filler particles were examined with Blaine permeametry, gas adsorption, pycnometry, gravimetric vapour sorption, X-ray diffraction, and light microscopy before composites of sucrose and micro-sized filler particles were prepared by freeze-drying. The stability of the composites was examined with X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and microcalorimetry. All composites were amorphous and showed higher stability compared to pure amorphous sucrose, which was evident from a delay in heat and moisture-induced crystallization. However, calcium carbonate and oxazepam micro-sized filler particles lost their ability to stabilize the amorphous sucrose when exposed to humidity. The dry glass transition temperature (T(g)) was higher for the composites, indicating the stabilization was mediated by a reduced molecular mobility of the amorphous phase. PMID:21356288

  18. Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Chi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Ji-Zhou; Zhou, Jun-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Song; Zhang, Bao-Lan; Ma, Ali; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-11-30

    Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions.

  19. Adverse effects of sucrose-rich diets on uraemic rats.

    PubMed

    Laouari, D; Kleinknecht, C; Burtin, M; Hinglais, N; Lacour, B; Landais, P; Broyer, M

    1990-01-01

    The nature of carbohydrate may affect the tolerance and progression of uraemia. The effects of three diets differing only in their carbohydrate source: namely corn starch (C), glucose (G) or sucrose (S) were examined. Study 1 examined the effects of the three carbohydrate diets on unilaterally nephrectomised control rats and severely uraemic rats. The three carbohydrates produced similar nutritional effects in uninephrectomised rats, whereas sucrose rapidly induced anorexia, stunting and slightly accelerated renal damage in uraemia. Study 2 examined the long-term effects of the three carbohydrates in moderate uraemia under conditions of high and identical carbohydrate intakes. Hyperphagic Zucker uraemic rats (F rats) received a daily allotment of each diet plus pure carbohydrate. Lean uraemic rats (L rats) received the same dietary allotment without the carbohydrate supplement. The F rats fed sucrose showed greater morbidity and mortality but little renal deterioration. Their plasma triglycerides increased dramatically. The L rats fed sucrose had the greatest urinary protein, the least creatinine clearance and the most severe renal damage. Thus, sucrose-rich but not glucose-rich diets have two adverse effects in uraemia: a deterioration in nutritional status, perhaps related to abnormal fructose utilisation, and a long-term effect on the kidney, resulting in accelerated renal deterioration.

  20. SUCROSE SYNTHASE: ELUCIDATION OF COMPLEX POST-TRANSLATIONAL REGULATORY MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven C. Huber

    2009-05-12

    Studies have focused on the enzyme sucrose synthase, which plays an important role in the metabolism of sucrose in seeds and tubers. There are three isoforms of SUS in maize, referred to as SUS1, SUS-SH1, and SUS2. SUS is generally considered to be tetrameric protein but recent evidence suggests that SUS can also occur as a dimeric protein. The formation of tetrameric SUS is regulated by sucrose concentration in vitro and this could also be an important factor in the cellular localization of the protein. We found that high sucrose concentrations, which promote tetramer formation, also inhibit the binding of SUS1 to actin filaments in vitro. Previously, high sucrose concentrations were shown to promote SUS association with the plasma membrane. The specific regions of the SUS molecule involved in oligomerization are not known, but we identified a region of the SUS1 moelcule by bioinformatic analysis that was predicted to form a coiled coil. We demonstrated that this sequence could, in fact, self-associate as predicted for a coiled coil, but truncation analysis with the full-length recombinant protein suggested that it was not responsible for formation of dimers or tetramers. However, the coiled coil may function in binding of other proteins to SUS1. Overall, sugar availability may differentially influence the binding of SUS to cellular structures, and these effects may be mediated by changes in the oligomeric nature of the enzyme.

  1. Sucrose metabolism gene families and their biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Ye; Chi, Yun-Hua; Wang, Ji-Zhou; Zhou, Jun-Xia; Cheng, Yan-Song; Zhang, Bao-Lan; Ma, Ali; Vanitha, Jeevanandam; Ramachandran, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Sucrose, as the main product of photosynthesis, plays crucial roles in plant development. Although studies on general metabolism pathway were well documented, less information is available on the genome-wide identification of these genes, their expansion and evolutionary history as well as their biological functions. We focused on four sucrose metabolism related gene families including sucrose synthase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose phosphate phosphatase and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase. These gene families exhibited different expansion and evolutionary history as their host genomes experienced differentiated rates of the whole genome duplication, tandem and segmental duplication, or mobile element mediated gene gain and loss. They were evolutionarily conserved under purifying selection among species and expression divergence played important roles for gene survival after expansion. However, we have detected recent positive selection during intra-species divergence. Overexpression of 15 sorghum genes in Arabidopsis revealed their roles in biomass accumulation, flowering time control, seed germination and response to high salinity and sugar stresses. Our studies uncovered the molecular mechanisms of gene expansion and evolution and also provided new insight into the role of positive selection in intra-species divergence. Overexpression data revealed novel biological functions of these genes in flowering time control and seed germination under normal and stress conditions. PMID:26616172

  2. Effect of sucrose on the metabolic disposition of aspartame.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Brummel, M C; Persoon, T J; Filer, L J; Bell, E F; Ziegler, E E

    1990-08-01

    Twelve normal adult subjects ingested a beverage providing 0.136 mmol aspartame/kg body wt on 2 different days. On 1 study day the beverage provided only aspartame, on the other the beverage provided both aspartame and 3.51 mmol sucrose/kg body wt. The high mean plasma phenylalanine concentrations were similar after administration of aspartame alone (158 +/- 28.9 mumol/L, mean +/- SD) and administration of aspartame plus sucrose (134 +/- 44.1 mumol/L). Evaluation of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for phenylalanine also showed no significant difference between groups (197 +/- 49.1 vs 182 +/- 28.3 mumol.L-1.h for aspartame alone and aspartame plus sucrose, respectively). Similarly, the high mean ratio of phenylalanine to large neutral amino acids (Phe:LNAA) in plasma did not differ significantly (0.265 +/- 0.046 for aspartame alone, 0.275 +/- 0.107 for aspartame plus sucrose). However, there was a small but significant difference between groups for the 4-h AUC values for plasma Phe:LNAA. The simultaneous ingestion of sucrose with aspartame had only minor effects on aspartame's metabolic disposition.

  3. The Mode of Sucrose Degradation in Potato Tubers Determines the Fate of Assimilate Utilization

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Stephanus J.; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    Cytosolic (U-IN-2) or apoplasmic (U-IN-1) targeting of yeast invertase in potato tubers leads to a reduction in sucrose and an increase in glucose content, but specific phenotypical changes are dependent on the subcellular targeting of the enzyme. Cytosolic expression leads to a more severe phenotype with the most striking aspects being reduced starch content and increased respiration. Despite extensive research, the regulatory mechanisms leading to these changes remain obscure. Recent technological advancements regarding potato transcriptional and genomic research presented us with the opportunity to revisit these lines and perform detailed gene expression analysis, in combination with extensive metabolic profiling, to identify regulatory networks underlying the observed changes. Our results indicate that in both genotypes reduced UDP-glucose production is associated with a reduced expression of cell wall biosynthetic genes. In addition, U-IN-1 tubers are characterized by elevated expression of senescence-associated genes, coupled to reduced expression of genes related to photosynthesis and the cytoskeleton. We provide evidence that increased respiration, observed specifically in U-IN-2 tubers, might be due to sugar signaling via released trehalose-6-phosphate inhibition of the SnRK1 complex. In both genotypes, expression of the plastidic glucose-6-phosphate transporter (GPT) is significantly down-regulated. This leads to a shift in the cytosolic to plastidic glucose-6-phosphate ratio and hence might limit starch synthesis but also the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. This might explain the observed changes in several additional plastid localized pathways, most notably reduced expression of fatty acid biosynthetic genes and an accumulation of shikimate. Interestingly, a strict negative correlation between invertase and GPT expression could be observed in a wide range of potato tubers. This reciprocal regulation may be part of a more general switch controlling

  4. Conversion of pentoses by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.S.; Claypool, T.A.; Maun, C.M.; Mccracken, L.D.; Tsao, G.T.; Ueng, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    The utilization and conversion of D-xylose, D-xyulose, L-arabinose, and xylitol by yeast strains have been investigated with the following results: 1) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylose and produce polyols, ethanol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products formed varies with the yeast strains used. The most commonly detected product is xylitol. 2) The majority of yeasts tested utilize D-xylulose aerobically and fermentatively to produce ethanol, xylitol D-arabitol, and organic acids. The type and amount of products varies depending upon the yeast strains used. 3) Xylitol is a poor carbon and energy source for most yeasts tested. Some yeast strains produce small amounts of ethanol from xylitol. 4) Most yeast strains utilize L-arabinose, and L-arabitol is the common product. Small amounts of ethanol are also produced by some yeast strains. 5) Of the four substrates examined, D-xylulose was the preferred substrate, followed by D-xylose, L-arabinose, and xylitol. 6) Mutant yeast strains that exhibit different metabolic product patterns can be induced and isolated from Candida sp. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and other yeasts. These mutant strains can be used for ethanol production from D-xylose as well as for the study of metabolic regulation of pentose utilization in yeasts.

  5. Biodegradation and decolorization of melanoidin solutions by manganese peroxidase yeasts.

    PubMed

    Mahgoub, Samir; Tsioptsias, Costas; Samaras, Petros

    2016-01-01

    The ability of selected manganese peroxidase (MnP) yeast strains, isolated from the mixed liquor of an activated sludge bioreactor treating melanoidins wastewater, was investigated in this work, aiming to examine the degradation potential of melanoidins, in the presence or absence of nutrients. Ten yeast strains were initially isolated from the mixed liquor; four yeast strains (Y1, Y2, Y3 and Y4) were selected for further studies, based on their tolerance towards synthetic melanoidins (SMs) degradation and MnP activity onto solid agar medium. The Y1 strain exhibited almost 98% homology to Candida glabrata yeast, based on 28S rRNA identification studies. During experiments carried out using SM at 30 °C, the four isolated yeast cultures showed a noticeable organic matter reduction and decolorization capacity reaching up to 70% within 2-5 days. However, the corresponding yeast cultures grown in glucose peptone yeast extract medium using real melanoidin wastewater at 30°C showed lower organic matter and color removal capacity, reaching about 60% within 2-5 days. Nevertheless, it was found that the removal of real and synthetic melanoidins could be carried out by these strains under non-aseptic conditions, without requiring further addition of nutrients. PMID:27191565

  6. Sugarcane bagasse hydrolysis using yeast cellulolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Souza, Angelica Cristina de; Carvalho, Fernanda Paula; Silva e Batista, Cristina Ferreira; Schwan, Rosane Freitas; Dias, Disney Ribeiro

    2013-10-28

    Ethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic biomass is emerging as one of the most important technologies for sustainable development. To use this biomass, it is necessary to circumvent the physical and chemical barriers presented by the cohesive combination of the main biomass components, which hinders the hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose into fermentable sugars. This study evaluated the hydrolytic capacity of enzymes produced by yeasts, isolated from the soils of the Brazilian Cerrado biome (savannah) and the Amazon region, on sugarcane bagasse pre-treated with H2SO4. Among the 103 and 214 yeast isolates from the Minas Gerais Cerrado and the Amazon regions, 18 (17.47%) and 11 (5.14%) isolates, respectively, were cellulase-producing. Cryptococcus laurentii was prevalent and produced significant β- glucosidase levels, which were higher than the endo- and exoglucanase activities. In natura sugarcane bagasse was pre-treated with 2% H2SO4 for 30 min at 150oC. Subsequently, the obtained fibrous residue was subjected to hydrolysis using the Cryptococcus laurentii yeast enzyme extract for 72 h. This enzyme extract promoted the conversion of approximately 32% of the cellulose, of which 2.4% was glucose, after the enzymatic hydrolysis reaction, suggesting that C. laurentii is a good β-glucosidase producer. The results presented in this study highlight the importance of isolating microbial strains that produce enzymes of biotechnological interest, given their extensive application in biofuel production.

  7. Analysis of mitogen-activated protein kinase activity in yeast.

    PubMed

    Elion, Elaine A; Sahoo, Rupam

    2010-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases play central roles in transmitting extracellular and intracellular information in a wide variety of situations in eukaryotic cells. Their activities are perturbed in a large number of diseases, and their activating kinases are currently therapeutic targets in cancer. MAPKs are highly conserved among all eukaryotes. MAPKs were first cloned from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast has five MAPKs and one MAPK-like kinase. The mating MAPK Fus3 is the best characterized yeast MAPK. Members of all subfamilies of human MAPKs can functionally substitute S. cerevisiae MAPKs, providing systems to use genetic approaches to study the functions of either yeast or human MAPKs and to identify functionally relevant amino acid residues that enhance or reduce the effects of therapeutically relevant inhibitors and regulatory proteins. Here, we describe an assay to measure Fus3 activity in immune complexes prepared from S. cerevisiae extracts. The assay conditions are applicable to other MAPKs, as well. PMID:20811996

  8. Yeast cells proliferation on various strong static magnetic fields and temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otabe, E. S.; Kuroki, S.; Nikawa, J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ooba, T.; Kiso, K.; Hayashi, H.

    2009-03-01

    The effect of strong magnetic fields on activities of yeast cells were investigated. Experimental yeast cells were cultured in 5 ml of YPD(Yeast extract Peptone Dextrose) for the number density of yeast cells of 5.0 ±0.2 x 106/ml with various temperatures and magnetic fields up to 10 T. Since the yeast cells were placed in the center of the superconducting magnet, the effect of magnetic force due to the diamagnetism and magnetic gradient was negligibly small. The yeast suspension was opened to air and cultured in shaking condition. The number of yeast cells in the yeast suspension was counted by a counting plate with an optical microscope, and the time dependence of the number density of yeast cells was measured. The time dependence of the number density of yeast cells, ρ, of initial part is analyzed in terms of Malthus equation as given by ρ = ρo exp(kt), where k is the growth coefficient. It is found that, the growth coefficient under the magnetic field is suppressed compared with the control. The growth coefficient decreasing as increasing magnetic field and is saturated at about 5 T. On the other hand, it is found that the suppression of growth of yeast cells by the magnetic field is diminished at high temperatures.

  9. Opportunistic Pathogenic Yeasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Uma

    Advances in medical research, made during the last few decades, have improved the prophylactic, diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities for variety of infections/diseases. However, many of the prophylactic and therapeutic procedures have been seen in many instances to exact a price of host-vulnerability to an expanding group of opportunistic pathogens and yeasts are one of the important members in it. Fortunately amongst the vast majority of yeasts present in nature only few are considered to have the capability to cause infections when certain opportunities predisposes and these are termed as ‘opportunistic pathogenic yeasts.’ However, the term ‘pathogenic’ is quite tricky, as it depends of various factors of the host, the ‘bug’ and the environment to manifest the clinical infection. The borderline is expanding. In the present century with unprecedented increase in number of immune-compromised host in various disciplines of health care settings, where any yeast, which has the capability to grow at 37 ° C (normal body temperature of human), can be pathogenic and cause infection in particular situation

  10. Taste preference thresholds for Polycose, maltose, and sucrose in rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1987-01-01

    The taste preference thresholds of adult female rats for polysaccharide (Polycose), maltose, and sucrose were compared. The nondeprived animals were given 24-hr two-bottle preference tests (saccharide solution vs. water) and, starting at 0.008%, the saccharide concentration was increased daily. The rats first preferred the Polycose solution to water at 0.01% (0.0001 M), the maltose solution to water at 0.09% (0.0025 M), and the sucrose solution to water at 0.09% (0.0026 M). Thus, on a molar basis the rats' Polycose threshold was 25 to 26 times lower than their maltose and sucrose threshold. It was postulated that the low taste threshold for polysaccharides allows the rat to detect starch which, unlike sugar, is very low in solubility.

  11. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.

  12. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  13. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael

    2014-10-02

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-{angstrom} resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets.

  14. The Structure of Sucrose Synthase-1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and Its Functional Implications*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yi; Anderson, Spencer; Zhang, Yanfeng; Garavito, R. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Sucrose transport is the central system for the allocation of carbon resources in vascular plants. During growth and development, plants control carbon distribution by coordinating sites of sucrose synthesis and cleavage in different plant organs and different cellular locations. Sucrose synthase, which reversibly catalyzes sucrose synthesis and cleavage, provides a direct and reversible means to regulate sucrose flux. Depending on the metabolic environment, sucrose synthase alters its cellular location to participate in cellulose, callose, and starch biosynthesis through its interactions with membranes, organelles, and cytoskeletal actin. The x-ray crystal structure of sucrose synthase isoform 1 from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtSus1) has been determined as a complex with UDP-glucose and as a complex with UDP and fructose, at 2.8- and 2.85-Å resolutions, respectively. The AtSus1 structure provides insights into sucrose catalysis and cleavage, as well as the regulation of sucrose synthase and its interactions with cellular targets. PMID:21865170

  15. Deregulation of Sucrose-Controlled Translation of a bZIP-Type Transcription Factor Results in Sucrose Accumulation in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Shin; Yang, Seung Hwan; Zhu, XuJun; Imai, Ryozo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Kusano, Tomonobu

    2012-01-01

    Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S - stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open reading frame (SC-uORF) found in the AtbZIP11 transcript. The SIRT is reported for 4 other genes belonging to the group of S bZIP in Arabidopsis. Tobacco tbz17 is phylogenetically closely related to AtbZIP11 and carries a putative SC-uORF in its 5′-leader region. Here we demonstrate that tbz17 exhibits SIRT mediated by its SC-uORF in a manner similar to genes belonging to the S bZIP group of the Arabidopsis genus. Furthermore, constitutive transgenic expression of tbz17 lacking its 5′-leader region containing the SC-uORF leads to production of tobacco plants with thicker leaves composed of enlarged cells with 3–4 times higher sucrose content compared to wild type plants. Our finding provides a novel strategy to generate plants with high sucrose content. PMID:22457737

  16. Dietary sucrose enhances intestinal lactase gene expression in euthyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Kuranuki, Sachi; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2006-10-01

    It is postulated that dietary carbohydrates and thyroid hormones are major regulators for expression of the lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) gene in rat jejunum. In this study, we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones and dietary sucrose on LPH gene expression and lactase activity in starved rats. Firstly, animals at 8 wk of age were fed a low-starch diet (5.5% energy as cornstarch) or high-starch diet (71% energy as cornstarch) for 7 d (experiment 1). The mRNA level of LPH as well as lactase activity significantly decreased in rats fed the low-starch diet as compared to those fed the high-starch diet. To investigate the effects of thyroid hormone status, the animals previously fed the low-starch diet were starved for 3 d, and half of the animals were given intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 microg/ 100 g body weight triiodothyronine (T3) twice daily (experiment 2). The LPH mRNA level and lactase activity were elevated by starvation for 3 d, but they were repressed by the injection of T3 during starvation. To investigate the effects of dietary sucrose in starved rats, they were force-fed a sucrose diet for 6 h (experiment 3). The LPH gene expression and lactase activity were up-regulated by force-feeding a sucrose diet, only when the animals were kept in euthyroid status by daily T3 administrations. In contrast, the sucrase-isomaltase mRNA levels and sucrase activity were unaffected by force-feeding the sucrose diet for both T3-treated and untreated starved rats. Our work suggests that dietary sucrose is capable of enhancing lactase gene expression in starved rats when they have a sustainable thyroid hormone level.

  17. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2014-09-23

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  18. L-arabinose fermenting yeast

    DOEpatents

    Zhang, Min; Singh, Arjun; Suominen, Pirkko; Knoshaug, Eric; Franden, Mary Ann; Jarvis, Eric

    2013-02-12

    An L-arabinose utilizing yeast strain is provided for the production of ethanol by introducing and expressing bacterial araA, araB and araD genes. L-arabinose transporters are also introduced into the yeast to enhance the uptake of arabinose. The yeast carries additional genomic mutations enabling it to consume L-arabinose, even as the only carbon source, and to produce ethanol. A yeast strain engineered to metabolize arabinose through a novel pathway is also disclosed. Methods of producing ethanol include utilizing these modified yeast strains.

  19. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Videlier, Mathieu; Camadro, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bottom-up shotgun MS-based proteomics is an extremely powerful and simple tool to provide high quality quantitative analyses of the yeast proteome with only microgram amounts of total protein. Although the experimental design of this approach is rather straightforward and does not require the modification of growth conditions, proteins or peptides, several factors must be taken into account to benefit fully from the power of this method. Key factors include the choice of an appropriate method for the preparation of protein extracts, careful evaluation of the instrument design and available analytical capabilities, the choice of the quantification method (intensity-based vs. spectral count), and the proper manipulation of the selected quantification algorithm. The elaboration of this robust workflow for data acquisition, processing, and analysis provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the yeast proteome. PMID:26483028

  20. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics in Yeast.

    PubMed

    Léger, Thibaut; Garcia, Camille; Videlier, Mathieu; Camadro, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Label-free bottom-up shotgun MS-based proteomics is an extremely powerful and simple tool to provide high quality quantitative analyses of the yeast proteome with only microgram amounts of total protein. Although the experimental design of this approach is rather straightforward and does not require the modification of growth conditions, proteins or peptides, several factors must be taken into account to benefit fully from the power of this method. Key factors include the choice of an appropriate method for the preparation of protein extracts, careful evaluation of the instrument design and available analytical capabilities, the choice of the quantification method (intensity-based vs. spectral count), and the proper manipulation of the selected quantification algorithm. The elaboration of this robust workflow for data acquisition, processing, and analysis provides unprecedented insight into the dynamics of the yeast proteome.

  1. Avocado Oil Supplementation Modifies Cardiovascular Risk Profile Markers in a Rat Model of Sucrose-Induced Metabolic Changes

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M. Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24719499

  2. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, M Guadalupe; Melo-Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of avocado oil administration on biochemical markers of cardiovascular risk profile in rats with metabolic changes induced by sucrose ingestion. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: a control group (CG; basic diet), a sick group (MC; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (MCao, MCac, and MCas; basic diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil and avocado oil extracted by centrifugation or using solvent, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, low- and high-density lipoproteins (LDL, HDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), lactic dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein concentration were analyzed. Avocado oil reduces TG, VLDL, and LDL levels, in the LDL case significantly so, without affecting HDL levels. An effect was exhibited by avocado oil similar to olive oil, with no significant difference between avocado oil extracted either by centrifugation or solvent in myocardial injury biochemical indicators. Avocado oil decreased hs-CRP levels, indicating that inflammatory processes were partially reversed. These findings suggested that avocado oil supplementation has a positive health outcome because it reduces inflammatory events and produces positive changes in the biochemical indicators studied, related to the development of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Method for converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A.; Volponi, Joanne V.; Ingersoll, David; Walker, Andrew

    2009-07-07

    Disclosed is an apparatus and method for continuously converting sucrose to .beta.-D-glucose. The method comprises a three-stage enzymatic reactor in which an aqueous solution of sucrose is first converted into a solution of fructose and .alpha.-D-glucose by passing it through a porous, packed column containing an inert media on which invertase is immobilized. This solution is then sent through a second packed column containing glucose isomerase and finally a third packed column containing mutarotase. Solution temperature and pH are adjusted to maximize glucose output.

  4. Sucrose: A Prospering and Sustainable Organic Raw Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Siegfried; Rose, Thomas; Moser, Matthias

    Sucrose (α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-fructofuranoside) is an inexpensive chemical produced by sugar cane and sugar beet cultivation. Chemical and/or biochemical transformations convert it into highly valuable synthetic intermediates such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), bioethylene, 1,2-propylene glycol and levulinic acid. Sucrose can also be converted into biodegradable polymers such as polyesters and polyurethanes, as well as into novel carbohydrates such as isomaltulose, trehalulose, inulin, levan, Neo-amylose, and dextran, highly valuable additives for food and cosmetics and materials for separation and purification technologies.

  5. Amperometric biosensors for determination of glucose, maltose, and sucrose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawicki, Ignacy; Filipiak, Marian; Jarzyna, Marta; Laskowska, Janina

    1995-06-01

    In the presented paper there are reported some results of the author's research on membranes containing glucose oxidase (GOx), enzymes hydrolyzing maltose and sucrose and on biosensors equipped with these membranes. The results relate to ways of extending the linear range of glucose sensors, influence of composition of the membranes on levels of the output signals of maltose and sucrose (saccharose) sensors, temperature dependence of the sensor's response and on disturbing effects of glucose in the sample on accuracy of determination of the disaccharides.

  6. Does sucrose or aspartame cause hyperactivity in children?

    PubMed

    Kanarek, R B

    1994-05-01

    Anecdotal evidence has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between sugar intake and hyperactive behavior. To assess this hypothesis, a recent study using a range of behavioral and cognitive measures evaluated the effects of diets high in sucrose, aspartame, and saccharin on the performance of school-aged children believed to be sensitive to sugar, and preschool children. Although intakes exceeded average dietary levels, neither sucrose nor aspartame negatively affected behavior. Taken together with previous work, these results indicate that sugar is not a major cause of hyperactivity.

  7. Anharmonicity and hydrogen bonding in electrooptic sucrose crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostak, M. M.; Giermańska, J.

    1990-03-01

    The polarized absorption spectra of the sucrose crystal in the 5300 - 7300 cm -1 region have been measured. The assignments of all the eight OH stretching overtones are proposed and their mechanical anharmonicities are estimated. The discrepancies from the oriented gas model (OGM) in the observed relative band intensities, especially of the -CH vibrations, are assumed to be connected with vibronic couplings enhanced by the helical arrangement of molecules joined by hydrogen bondings. It seems that this kind of interactions might be important for the second harmonic generation (SHG) by the sucrose crystal.

  8. Distribution of sucrose around the mouth and its clearance after a sucrose mouthrinse or consumption of three different foods.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, L M; Dawes, C

    1994-01-01

    The distribution of sucrose in whole saliva and in saliva from seven different regions of the mouth was determined in 10 subjects over the 10-min period following the chewing of a doughnut, sucking on a mint candy, the drinking of orange juice, or use of a 10% sucrose mouthrinse. With all products, the sucrose was distributed non-uniformly, with particularly low concentrations on the lingual surfaces of the lower incisors and the facial surfaces of the upper molars. Clearance was also most rapid from these sites. Since the depth and duration of a Stephan curve in dental plaque is influenced by the sugar concentration to which the plaque is exposed, the results, together with previous results on salivary film velocity in different regions of the mouth, help to provide an explanation for the site-specificity of smooth-surface caries and of supragingival calculus deposition. PMID:8033187

  9. The effect of sucrose on unfrozen water and syneresis of acidified sodium caseinate-xanthan gels.

    PubMed

    Braga, A L M; Cunha, R L

    2005-07-01

    The influence of the ingredients of acidified Na caseinate-xanthan-sucrose gels on thermophysical properties and syneresis of the gels was studied. Sucrose concentration affected all of the gel equilibrium properties and the rate of syneresis. The positive effect of sucrose on syneresis and unfrozen water (UFW) values was attributed to different effects. The amount of UFW was governed mainly by the colligative properties of sucrose whereas the equilibrium syneresis behaviour was associated with the changes in network dynamics caused by the kosmotropic properties of sucrose. The latter could enhance xanthan-sucrose association or favour xanthan-protein interactions.

  10. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae.

  11. Yeast diversity of Ghanaian cocoa bean heap fermentations.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Heide-Marie; Vrancken, Gino; Takrama, Jemmy F; Camu, Nicholas; De Vos, Paul; De Vuyst, Luc

    2009-08-01

    The fermentation of the Theobroma cacao beans, involving yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, and acetic acid bacteria, has a major influence on the quality of the resulting cocoa. An assessment of the microbial community of cocoa bean heap fermentations in Ghana resulted in 91 yeast isolates. These were grouped by PCR-fingerprinting with the primer M13. Representative isolates were identified using the D1/D2 region of the large subunit rRNA gene, internal transcribed spacer sequences and partial actin gene sequences leading to the detection of 15 species. Properties of importance for cocoa bean fermentation, namely sucrose, glucose, and citrate assimilation capacity, pH-, ethanol-, and heat-tolerance, were examined for selected isolates. Pichia kudriavzevii (Issatchenkia orientalis), Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Hanseniaspora opuntiae formed the major components of the yeast community. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was identified conclusively for the first time from cocoa fermentations. Among the less frequently encountered species, Candida carpophila, Candida orthopsilosis, Kodamaea ohmeri, Meyerozyma (Pichia) caribbica, Pichia manshurica, Saccharomycodes ludwigii, and Yamadazyma (Pichia) mexicana were not yet documented from this substrate. Hanseniaspora opuntiae was preferably growing during the earlier phase of fermentation, reflecting its tolerance to low pH and its citrate-negative phenotype, while no specific temporal distribution was recognized for P. kudriavzevii and S. cerevisiae. PMID:19473277

  12. Binding kinetics of magnetic nanoparticles on latex beads and yeast cells studied by magnetorelaxometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eberbeck, Dietmar; Bergemann, Christian; Hartwig, Stefan; Steinhoff, Uwe; Trahms, Lutz

    2005-03-01

    The ion exchange mediated binding of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) to modified latex spheres and yeast cells was quantified using magnetorelaxometry. By fitting subsequently recorded relaxation curves, the kinetics of the binding reactions was extracted. The signal of MNP with weak ion exchanger groups bound to latex and yeast cells scales linearly with the concentration of latex beads or yeast cells whereas that of MNP with strong ion exchanger groups is proportional to the square root of concentration. The binding of the latter leads to a much stronger aggregation of yeast cells than the former MNP.

  13. Fast simultaneous analysis of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Daniel; Donangelo, Carmen Marino; Farah, Adriana

    2008-10-15

    A rapid liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose in coffee was developed and validated. The method involved extraction with hot water, clarification with basic lead acetate and membrane filtration, followed by chromatographic separation using a Spherisorb(®) S5 ODS2, 5μm chromatographic column and gradient elution with 0.3% aqueous formic acid/methanol at a flow rate of 0.2mL/min. The electrospray ionization source was operated in the negative mode to generate sucrose ions and in the positive mode to generate caffeine, trigonelline and nicotinic acid ions. Ionization suppression of all analytes was found due to matrix effect. Calibrations curves prepared in green and roasted coffee extracts were linear with r(2)>0.999. Roasted coffee was spiked and recoveries ranged from 93.0% to 105.1% for caffeine, from 85.2% to 116.2% for trigonelline, from 89.6% to 113.5% for nicotinic acid and from 94.1% to 109.7% for sucrose. Good repeatibilities (RSD<5%) were found for all analytes in the matrix. The limit of detection (LOD), calculated on the basis of signal-to-noise ratios of 3:1, was 11.9, 36.4, 18.5 and 5.0ng/mL for caffeine, trigonelline, nicotinic acid and sucrose, respectively. Analysis of 11 coffee samples (regular or decaffeinated green, ground roasted and instant) gave results in agreement with the literature. The method showed to be suitable for different types of coffee available in the market thus appearing as a fast and reliable alternative method to be used for routine coffee analysis. PMID:26047298

  14. Plasmolysis of Escherichia coli B-r with sucrose.

    PubMed

    Scheie, P O

    1969-05-01

    Escherichia coli B/r cells were plasmolyzed in sucrose solutions and observed under phase contrast. The prevalence of plasmolysis under various conditions was noted, and the degree of plasmolysis was categorized as slight, extensive, or severe. The presence of ions reduced the prevalence of plasmolysis. Survival curves showed that extensive plasmolysis was not lethal to colony-forming ability.

  15. A complete characterization of the vibrational spectra of sucrose.

    PubMed

    Brizuela, Alicia Beatriz; Bichara, Laura Cecilia; Romano, Elida; Yurquina, Alisia; Locatelli, Silvano; Brandán, Silvia Antonia

    2012-11-01

    We combined experimental vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR-Raman) and ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) to predict the structural and vibrational properties of sucrose in solid phase. The structural properties of sucrose, such as the bond order, possible charge-transfer, and the topological properties of the glucopyran and glucofuran rings were studied by means of the Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) and Atoms in Molecules theory (AIM) investigation. For a complete assignment of the infrared and Raman spectra, the density functional theory (DFT) calculations were combined with Pulay's Scaled Quantum Mechanics Force Field (SQMFF) methodology in order to fit the theoretical frequency values to the experimental ones. An agreement between theoretical and available experimental results was found. A complete assignment of the 129 normal vibration modes for sucrose was performed. Five very intense characteristic bands in the infrared spectrum of sucrose at 3391, 3339, 1069, 1053, and 991 cm(-1) were assigned, the first two to the OH stretching modes while the other ones to C-O stretching modes. PMID:22878022

  16. Aging and Information Seeking: Patterns in Sampling of Sucrose Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapira, N.; Kushnir, T.

    1985-01-01

    Explored age-related strategies of information seeking and decision making. Young and old female participants (N=38) engaged in detecting the presence of sucrose in solutions of various concentrations. Compared to young people, the aged sampled more and had a higher detection threshold, indicating higher requirements for information. (BH)

  17. 21 CFR 172.859 - Sucrose fatty acid esters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sucrose fatty acid esters. 172.859 Section 172.859 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... (honeydew and cantaloupe), papaya, peaches, pears, pineapples, and plums to retard ripening and spoiling....

  18. Reducing sucrose loss in sugar beet storage with fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root rots in sugar beet storage can lead to multi-million dollar losses because of reduced sucrose recovery. Thus, studies were conducted to establish better chemical control options and a better understanding of the fungi involved in the rot complex. A water check and three fungicides (Mertect, Pro...

  19. Synthesis of carbon-13 enriched disaccharides: lactose and sucrose

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, T.E.; Unkefer, P.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Ehler, D.S.

    1986-05-01

    Disaccharides can be prepared enzymatically and by chemical synthesis. Lactose enriched with carbon-13 at C-1 can be synthesized by reacting K/sup 13/CN with a sugar having a one fewer carbon than the desired product. Thus, a mixture of 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)glucose ((1-/sup 13/C)lactose) and 4-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-(1-/sup 13/C)mannose can be synthesized from 3-O-..beta..-D-galactopyranosyl-D-arabinose and K/sup 13/CN. (/sup 13/C)Sucrose is conveniently prepared in gram quantities from D-(/sup 13/C)fructose and UDP-glucose in a reaction catalyzed by the enzyme sucrose synthetase. This reaction proceeds smoothly at 25/sup 0/ over a period of hours to give an equilibrium mixture which can be separated chromatographically. The glucose portion of sucrose can be labeled using enzymatically-prepared UDP-(/sup 13/C)glucose. Labeled sucrose is important for the preparation of labeled starches to be used for structural and metabolic studies.

  20. Sucrose Responsiveness, Learning Success, and Task Specialization in Ants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Margot; Rolland, Uther; Giurfa,, Martin; d'Ettorre, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Social insects possess remarkable learning capabilities, which are crucial for their ecological success. They also exhibit interindividual differences in responsiveness to environmental stimuli, which underlie task specialization and division of labor. Here we investigated for the first time the relationships between sucrose responsiveness,…

  1. Regulation of sucrose synthesis in water stressed leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Daie, J.; Aloni, B. )

    1991-05-01

    Alteration in carbon metabolism and carbohydrate partitioning occur in drought stressed plants. Some species accumulate large quantities of starch in the chloroplast, which may be used to support sucrose synthesis under conditions of limited carbon supply. The authors monitored chemical partitioning of carbon between sugars and starch and the activity of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and fructose 1,6 bisphosphatase (FBPase) in the source leaves of water stressed tomatoes. Plants were stressed by withdrawing water for 10 days and rewatered for recovery. Water potential dropped from {minus}0.8 to {minus}2.2MPA in 10 days, but recovered to control level 2 days after rewatering. Photosynthetic rates as measured by the activity of Rubisco followed similar patterns to those of water potential. After 10 days, leaf starch levels decreased to less than 50% of control. Sucrose levels did not increase significantly, but hexose levels increased 3-4 fold during the stress period, and decreased to control levels 1 day after rewatering. FBPase activity decreased and SPS activity increased under stress conditions. Upon rewatering, the activity of FBPase and SPS returned to control levels. Presence of large quantities of hexose and activation of SPS in stressed leaves suggested that additional sucrose synthesized under stress was hydrolyzed to hexoses, presumably due to enhanced invertase activity.

  2. [Importance of sucrose in cognitive functions: knowledge and behavior].

    PubMed

    Zamora Navarro, Salvador; Pérez Llamas, Francisca

    2013-07-01

    Sucrose is not present in the internal milieu as such, so it is physically impossible that it may have a direct influence on cognitive functions, behaviour and knowledge. However, during the digestive process, disaccharides are released into monosaccharides, in the case of sucrose into glucose and fructose, which reach the liver via the portal vein. Finally, they go into bloodstream in the form of glucose and in some cases as very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL). Brain needs almost exclusively a constant supply of glucose from the bloodstream. Adult brain requires about 140 g of glucose per day, which represents up to a 50% of total carbohydrates consumed daily in the diet. The consumption of a food or beverage enriched with sucrose has been associated with improved mental alertness, memory, reaction time, attention and ability to solve mathematical problems, as well as a reduction in the feeling of fatigue, both in healthy individuals and patients with Alzheimer disease. An adequate nutrition of brain contributes to structural and functional integrity of neurons. It has been shown that in major mental illnesses such as schizophrenia, depression and Alzheimer's disease, nutritional deficiencies at cellular level are implicated. At present, several studies highlight the need to improve understanding of the processes involved in the deterioration of cognitive functions and mechanisms through which, the nutritive components of the diet, particularly the sucrose, may modulate such functions.

  3. Sucrose in the dynamics of the carious process.

    PubMed

    Newbrun, E

    1982-03-01

    The conclusion that sugar consumption and caries are related is inescapable. Studies of the dynamics of sucrose metabolism by cariogenic organisms, investigations of experimental caries in animals and clinical observations of the inter-relationship of dietary sucrose intake and caries experience all provide compelling evidence that the proportion of sucrose in a food is one important determinant of its cariogenicity. Accordingly, better labelling of foods and beverages to disclose the concentration (percentage by weight or volume) of sucrose and other sugars would help consumers in choosing products less likely to cause caries. Journals, particularly professional ones, should refrain from publishing potentially misleading or distorted advertisements concerning foods. Because of the multifactorial nature of caries aetiology, the fact that humans eat a mixed diet and evidence that the sequence of eating various foods may affect their cariogenic potential, it is most unlikely that any one test of cariogenicity could be reliable. It may be possible to use a combination of tests to gain meaningful information on the cariogenicity of foods.

  4. Effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior of hyperactive boys.

    PubMed

    Wolraich, M; Milich, R; Stumbo, P; Schultz, F

    1985-04-01

    A challenge design was used in two separate studies to investigate the effects of sucrose ingestion on the behavior and learning of hyperactive boys. In both studies, 16 boys were admitted to a clinical research center for 3 successive days, on each of which they were given a sucrose-free diet. On day 1, baseline levels on the learning tasks were established; on days 2 and 3 a challenge drink of either sucrose 1.75 gm/kg or a placebo (aspartame in equivalent sweetness) was presented, in a counterbalanced order. In the first study the challenge drink was administered 1 hour after lunch; in the second study it was given in the morning after an overnight fast. On days 2 and 3 of both studies, 37 behavioral (playroom observation and examiner ratings) and cognitive (learning and memory tasks) measures were collected, starting 1/2 hour after ingestion of the drink. The results of both studies revealed no differences between the boys' performance on the two challenge days. These findings undermine the hypothesis that sucrose plays a major role in accounting for the inappropriate behavior of hyperactive boys.

  5. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  6. Purification and characterization of a highly selective sucrose isomerase from Erwinia rhapontici NX-5.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ben; Li, Sha; Xu, Hong; Feng, Xiao-Hai; Cai, Heng; Ye, Qi

    2011-06-01

    A highly selective sucrose isomerase (SIase) was purified to homogeneity from the cell-free extract of Erwinia rhapontici NX-5 with a recovery of 27.7% and a fold purification of 213.6. The purified SIase showed a high specific activity of 427.1 U mg(-1) with molecular weight of 65.6 kDa. The K (m) for sucrose was 222 mM while V (max) was 546 U mg(-1). The optimum pH and temperature for SIase activity were 6.0 and 30 °C, respectively. The purified SIase was stable in the temperature range of 10-40 °C and retained 65% of the enzyme activity after 2 weeks' storage at 30 °C. The SIase activity was enhanced by Mg(2+) and Mn(2+), inhibited by Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Co(2+), completely inhibited by Hg(2+) and Ag(2+). The purified SIase was strongly inhibited by SDS, while partially inhibited by dimethylformamide, tetrahydrofuran, and PMSF. Additionally, glucose and fructose acted as competitive inhibitors for purified SIase.

  7. Investigating polymorphisms in membrane-associated transporter protein SLC45A2, using sucrose transporters as a model.

    PubMed

    Reinders, Anke; Ward, John M

    2015-07-01

    Solute carrier family 45 member 2 encodes the melanosomal membrane protein, membrane-associated transporter protein (MATP), of unknown function, that is required for normal melanin synthesis. The present study analyzed the effects of two human MATP mutations, D93N, which causes oculocutaneous albinism 4 (OCA4), and L374F, which is correlated with light pigmentation in European populations. Corresponding mutations were produced in the related and well-characterized sucrose transporter from rice, OsSUT1, and transport activity was measured by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes, in addition to 14C-sucrose uptake in yeast. The mutation corresponding to D93N resulted in a complete loss of transport activity. The mutation corresponding to L374F resulted in a 90% decrease in transport activity, although the substrate affinity was unaffected. The results indicated that the D93N mutation causes OCA4 as a result of loss of MATP transport activity, and that the F374 allele confers significantly lower transport activity than L374. PMID:25760657

  8. The genetics of a putative social trait in natural populations of yeast

    PubMed Central

    Bozdag, G O; Greig, D

    2014-01-01

    The sharing of secreted invertase by yeast cells is a well-established laboratory model for cooperation, but the only evidence that such cooperation occurs in nature is that the SUC loci, which encode invertase, vary in number and functionality. Genotypes that do not produce invertase can act as ‘cheats’ in laboratory experiments, growing on the glucose that is released when invertase producers, or ‘cooperators’, digest sucrose. However, genetic variation for invertase production might instead be explained by adaptation of different populations to different local availabilities of sucrose, the substrate for invertase. Here we find that 110 wild yeast strains isolated from natural habitats, and all contained a single SUC locus and produced invertase; none were ‘cheats’. The only genetic variants we found were three strains isolated instead from sucrose-rich nectar, which produced higher levels of invertase from three additional SUC loci at their subtelomeres. We argue that the pattern of SUC gene variation is better explained by local adaptation than by social conflict. PMID:25169714

  9. Immunoprecipitation and Characterization of Membrane Protein Complexes from Yeast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parra-Belky, Karlett; McCulloch, Kathryn; Wick, Nicole; Shircliff, Rebecca; Croft, Nicolas; Margalef, Katrina; Brown, Jamie; Crabill, Todd; Jankord, Ryan; Waldo, Eric

    2005-01-01

    In this undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment, the vacuolar ATPase protein complex is purified from yeast cell extracts by doing immunoprecipitations under nondenaturing conditions. Immunoprecipitations are performed using monoclonal antibodies to facilitate data interpretation, and subunits are separated on the basis of their molecular…

  10. Glutathione Production in Yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachhawat, Anand K.; Ganguli, Dwaipayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Kasturia, Neha; Thakur, Anil; Kaur, Hardeep; Kumar, Akhilesh; Yadav, Amit

    Glutathione, γ -glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine, is the most abundant non-protein thiol found in almost all eukaryotic cells (and in some prokaryotes). The tripeptide, which is synthesized non-ribosomally by the consecutive action of two soluble enzymes, is needed for carrying out numerous functions in the cell, most important of which is the maintenance of the redox buffer. The cycle of glutathione biosynthesis and degradation forms part of the γ -glutamyl cycle in most organisms although the latter half of the pathway has not been demonstrated in yeasts. Our current understanding of how glutathione levels are controlled at different levels in the cell is described. Several different routes and processes have been attempted to increase commercial production of glutathione using both yeast and bacteria. In this article we discuss the history of glutathione production in yeast. The current bottlenecks for increased glutathione production are presented based on our current understanding of the regulation of glutathione homeostasis, and possible strategies for overcoming these limitations for further enhancing and improving glutathione production are discussed

  11. New insight into the catalytic properties of rice sucrose synthase.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chiao; Hsiang, Erh-Chieh; Yang, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ai-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuS), which catalyzes the reversible conversion of sucrose and uridine diphosphate (UDP) into fructose and UDP-glucose, is a key enzyme in sucrose metabolism in higher plants. SuS belongs to family 4 of the glycosyltransferases (GT4) and contains an E-X7-E motif that is conserved in members of GT4 and two other GT families. To gain insight into the roles of this motif in rice sucrose synthase 3 (RSuS3), the two conserved glutamate residues (E678 and E686) in this motif and a phenylalanine residue (F680) that resides between the two glutamate residues were changed by site-directed mutagenesis. All mutant proteins maintained their tetrameric conformation. The mutants E686D and F680Y retained partial enzymatic activity and the mutants E678D, E678Q, F680S, and E686Q were inactive. Substrate binding assays indicated that UDP and fructose, respectively, were the leading substrates in the sucrose degradation and synthesis reactions of RSuS3. Mutations on E678, F680, and E686 affected the binding of fructose, but not of UDP. The results indicated that E678, F680, and E686 in the E-X7-E motif of RSuS3 are essential for the activity of the enzyme and the sequential binding of substrates. The sequential binding of the substrates implied that the reaction catalyzed by RSuS can be controlled by the availability of fructose and UDP, depending on the metabolic status of a tissue.

  12. Sucrose Diffusion in Decellularized Heart Valves for Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangping; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Goecke, Tobias; Ramm, Robert; Harder, Michael; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres; Wolkers, Willem Frederik

    2015-09-01

    Decellularized heart valves can be used as starter matrix implants for heart valve replacement therapies in terms of guided tissue regeneration. Decellularized matrices ideally need to be long-term storable to assure off-the-shelf availability. Freeze-drying is an attractive preservation method, allowing storage at room temperature in a dried state. However, the two inherent processing steps, freezing and drying, can cause severe damage to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and the overall tissue histoarchitecture and thus impair biomechanical characteristics of resulting matrices. Freeze-drying therefore requires a lyoprotective agent that stabilizes endogenous structural proteins during both substeps and that forms a protective glassy state at room temperature. To estimate incubation times needed to infiltrate decellularized heart valves with the lyoprotectant sucrose, temperature-dependent diffusion studies were done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Glycerol, a cryoprotective agent, was studied for comparison. Diffusion of both protectants was found to exhibit Arrhenius behavior. The activation energies of sucrose and glycerol diffusion were found to be 15.9 and 37.7 kJ·mol(-1), respectively. It was estimated that 4 h of incubation at 37°C is sufficient to infiltrate heart valves with sucrose before freeze-drying. Application of a 5% sucrose solution was shown to stabilize acellular valve scaffolds during freeze-drying. Such freeze-dried tissues, however, displayed pores, which were attributed to ice crystal damage, whereas vacuum-dried scaffolds in comparison revealed no pores after drying and rehydration. Exposure to a hygroscopic sucrose solution (80%) before freeze-drying was shown to be an effective method to diminish pore formation in freeze-dried ECMs: matrix structures closely resembled those of control samples that were not freeze-dried. Heart valve matrices were shown to be in a glassy state after drying, suggesting that they can

  13. Sucrose Diffusion in Decellularized Heart Valves for Freeze-Drying.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shangping; Oldenhof, Harriëtte; Goecke, Tobias; Ramm, Robert; Harder, Michael; Haverich, Axel; Hilfiker, Andres; Wolkers, Willem Frederik

    2015-09-01

    Decellularized heart valves can be used as starter matrix implants for heart valve replacement therapies in terms of guided tissue regeneration. Decellularized matrices ideally need to be long-term storable to assure off-the-shelf availability. Freeze-drying is an attractive preservation method, allowing storage at room temperature in a dried state. However, the two inherent processing steps, freezing and drying, can cause severe damage to extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins and the overall tissue histoarchitecture and thus impair biomechanical characteristics of resulting matrices. Freeze-drying therefore requires a lyoprotective agent that stabilizes endogenous structural proteins during both substeps and that forms a protective glassy state at room temperature. To estimate incubation times needed to infiltrate decellularized heart valves with the lyoprotectant sucrose, temperature-dependent diffusion studies were done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Glycerol, a cryoprotective agent, was studied for comparison. Diffusion of both protectants was found to exhibit Arrhenius behavior. The activation energies of sucrose and glycerol diffusion were found to be 15.9 and 37.7 kJ·mol(-1), respectively. It was estimated that 4 h of incubation at 37°C is sufficient to infiltrate heart valves with sucrose before freeze-drying. Application of a 5% sucrose solution was shown to stabilize acellular valve scaffolds during freeze-drying. Such freeze-dried tissues, however, displayed pores, which were attributed to ice crystal damage, whereas vacuum-dried scaffolds in comparison revealed no pores after drying and rehydration. Exposure to a hygroscopic sucrose solution (80%) before freeze-drying was shown to be an effective method to diminish pore formation in freeze-dried ECMs: matrix structures closely resembled those of control samples that were not freeze-dried. Heart valve matrices were shown to be in a glassy state after drying, suggesting that they can

  14. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  15. Yeasts associated with the infrabuccal pocket and colonies of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, M E; Morrell, J J

    2004-01-01

    After scanning electron microscopy indicated that the infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants (Camponotus vicinus) contained numerous yeast-like cells, yeast associations were examined in six colonies of carpenter ants from two locations in Benton County in western Oregon. Samples from the infrabuccal-pocket contents and worker ant exoskeletons, interior galleries of each colony, and detritus and soil around the colonies were plated on yeast-extract/ malt-extract agar augmented with 1 M hydrochloric acid and incubated at 25 C. Yeasts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and physiological attributes with the BIOLOG(®) microbial identification system. Yeast populations from carpenter ant nest material and material surrounding the nest differed from those obtained from the infrabuccal pocket. Debaryomyces polymorphus was isolated more often from the infrabuccal pocket than from other material. This species has also been isolated from other ant species, but its role in colony nutrition is unknown.

  16. Yeasts associated with the infrabuccal pocket and colonies of the carpenter ant Camponotus vicinus.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, M E; Morrell, J J

    2004-01-01

    After scanning electron microscopy indicated that the infrabuccal pockets of carpenter ants (Camponotus vicinus) contained numerous yeast-like cells, yeast associations were examined in six colonies of carpenter ants from two locations in Benton County in western Oregon. Samples from the infrabuccal-pocket contents and worker ant exoskeletons, interior galleries of each colony, and detritus and soil around the colonies were plated on yeast-extract/ malt-extract agar augmented with 1 M hydrochloric acid and incubated at 25 C. Yeasts were identified on the basis of morphological characteristics and physiological attributes with the BIOLOG(®) microbial identification system. Yeast populations from carpenter ant nest material and material surrounding the nest differed from those obtained from the infrabuccal pocket. Debaryomyces polymorphus was isolated more often from the infrabuccal pocket than from other material. This species has also been isolated from other ant species, but its role in colony nutrition is unknown. PMID:21148849

  17. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XIX. The Identification of Sucrose Phosphate in Sugar Beet Leaves

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Buchanan, J. G.

    1952-09-01

    The recognition and characterization of a sucrose phosphate as an intermediate in sucrose by synthesis by green plants is described. A tentative structure for this phosphate is proposed and its mode of formation suggested.

  18. The opioid system majorly contributes to preference for fat emulsions but not sucrose solutions in mice.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Okahashi, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Shigenobu; Okafuji, Yoko; Adachi, Shin-ichi; Tsuzuki, Satoshi; Inoue, Kazuo; Fushiki, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Rodents show a stronger preference for fat than sucrose, even if their diet is isocaloric. This implies that the preference mechanisms for fat and sucrose differ. To compare the contribution of the opioid system to the preference of fat and sucrose, we examined the effects of mu-, delta-, kappa-, and non-selective opioid receptor antagonists on the preference of sucrose and fat, assessed by a two-bottle choice test and a licking test, in mice naïve to sucrose and fat ingestion. Administration of non-selective and mu-selective opioid receptor antagonists more strongly inhibited the preference of fat than sucrose. While the preference of fat was reduced to the same level as water by the antagonist administration that of sucrose was still greater than water. Our results suggest that the preference of fat relies strongly on the opioid system, while that of sucrose is regulated by other mechanisms in addition to the opioid system.

  19. Production of alcohol from Jerusalem artichokes by yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Duvnjak, Z.; Kosaric, N.; Kliza, S.; Hayes, D.

    1982-11-01

    Various yeasts such as several strains of Saccharomyces diastaticus, S. cerevisiae, and Kluyveromyces fragilis were investigated for their ability to ferment the carbohydrates from Jerusalem artichokes to alcohol. Juice extracted from the artichokes was used as the fermentation substrate with and without prior hydrolysis of the carbohydrates. Fermentation was also carried out with raw artichokes without prior juice extraction. Results indicate that this raw material has good potential for fuel alcohol production by fermentation. (Refs. 15).

  20. Yeast and Mammalian Metallothioneins Functionally Substitute for Yeast Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamai, Katherine T.; Gralla, Edith B.; Ellerby, Lisa M.; Valentine, Joan S.; Thiele, Dennis J.

    1993-09-01

    Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase catalyzes the disproportionation of superoxide anion to hydrogen peroxide and dioxygen and is thought to play an important role in protecting cells from oxygen toxicity. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains lacking copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, which is encoded by the SOD1 gene, are sensitive to oxidative stress and exhibit a variety of growth defects including hypersensitivity to dioxygen and to superoxide-generating drugs such as paraquat. We have found that in addition to these known phenotypes, SOD1-deletion strains fail to grow on agar containing the respiratory carbon source lactate. We demonstrate here that expression of the yeast or monkey metallothionein proteins in the presence of copper suppresses the lactate growth defect and some other phenotypes associated with SOD1-deletion strains, indicating that copper metallothioneins substitute for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase in vivo to protect cells from oxygen toxicity. Consistent with these results, we show that yeast metallothionein mRNA levels are dramatically elevated under conditions of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrate that yeast metallothionein, purified or from whole-cell extracts, exhibits copper-dependent antioxidant activity. Taken together, these data suggest that both yeast and mammalian metallothioneins may play a direct role in the cellular defense against oxidative stress by functioning as antioxidants.

  1. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  2. Oleaginous yeasts from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Jiru, Tamene Milkessa; Abate, Dawit; Kiggundu, Nicholas; Pohl, Carolina; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2016-12-01

    Oleaginous microorganisms can produce high amounts of oil (>20 % of their biomass) under suitable cultivation conditions. In this research work 200 samples were collected from soil, plant surfaces (leaves, flowers and fruits), waste oils from traditional oil milling houses and dairy products (cheese, milk and yoghurt) in Ethiopia. Three hundred and forty yeast colonies were isolated from these samples. By applying Sudan III staining tests, 18 strains were selected as possible oleaginous yeasts. The 18 strains were identified and characterized for their lipid production as a feedstock for biodiesel production in the future. They were identified using morphological and physiological methods as well as sequencing the 3'end of the small-subunit rRNA gene, the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS; ITS 1, ITS 2 and the intervening 5.8S rRNA gene), and the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The 18 yeasts were identified as Cutaneotrichosporon curvatus (syn, Cryptococcus curvatus) (PY39), Rhodotorula kratochvilovae (syn, Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae) (SY89), Rhodotorula dairenensis (SY94) and Rhodotourula mucilaginosa (SY09, SY18, SY20, PY21, PY23, PY25, SY30, PY32, SY43, PY44, SY52, PY55, PY61, SY75 and PY86). Under nitrogen-limited cultivation conditions, R. mucilaginosa PY44 produced the highest biomass (15.10 ± 0.54 g/L), while R. mucilaginosa PY32 produced the lowest biomass (10.32 ± 0.18 g/L). The highest lipid yield of 6.87 ± 0.62 g/L and lipid content of 46.51 ± 0.70 % were attained by C. curvatus (syn, C. curvatus) PY39. On the other hand, R. mucilaginosa PY61 gave the lowest lipid yield (2.06 ± 0.52 g/L) and R. mucilaginosa SY52 gave the lowest lipid content of 16.99 ± 0.85 %. The results in this research work suggest that much more oleaginous yeasts can be isolated from Ethiopian environment. On the basis of their substantial lipid production abilities, the three oleaginous yeast strains PY39, SY89 and SY18 were selected and

  3. Cellulose Deficiency Is Enhanced on Hyper Accumulation of Sucrose by a H+-Coupled Sucrose Symporter.

    PubMed

    Yeats, Trevor H; Sorek, Hagit; Wemmer, David E; Somerville, Chris R

    2016-05-01

    In order to understand factors controlling the synthesis and deposition of cellulose, we have studied the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) double mutant shaven3 shaven3-like1 (shv3svl1), which was shown previously to exhibit a marked cellulose deficiency. We discovered that exogenous sucrose (Suc) in growth medium greatly enhances the reduction in hypocotyl elongation and cellulose content of shv3svl1 This effect was specific to Suc and was not observed with other sugars or osmoticum. Live-cell imaging of fluorescently labeled cellulose synthase complexes revealed a slowing of cellulose synthase complexes in shv3svl1 compared with the wild type that is enhanced in a Suc-conditional manner. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance confirmed a cellulose deficiency of shv3svl1 but indicated that cellulose crystallinity was unaffected in the mutant. A genetic suppressor screen identified mutants of the plasma membrane Suc/H(+) symporter SUC1, indicating that the accumulation of Suc underlies the Suc-dependent enhancement of shv3svl1 phenotypes. While other cellulose-deficient mutants were not specifically sensitive to exogenous Suc, the feronia (fer) receptor kinase mutant partially phenocopied shv3svl1 and exhibited a similar Suc-conditional cellulose defect. We demonstrate that shv3svl1, like fer, exhibits a hyperpolarized plasma membrane H(+) gradient that likely underlies the enhanced accumulation of Suc via Suc/H(+) symporters. Enhanced intracellular Suc abundance appears to favor the partitioning of carbon to starch rather than cellulose in both mutants. We conclude that SHV3-like proteins may be involved in signaling during cell expansion that coordinates proton pumping and cellulose synthesis. PMID:27013021

  4. Overexpression of sucrose transporter gene PbSUT2 from Pyrus bretschneideri, enhances sucrose content in Solanum lycopersicum fruit.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Fen; Qi, Xiao-Xiao; Huang, Xiao-San; Xu, Lin-Lin; Jin, Cong; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2016-08-01

    Sucrose transporters (SUTs) belong to the major facilitator superfamily. The function of SUTs has been intensively investigated in some higher plants, whereas that in pear fruit is unknown. In this study, the cloning and functional characterization of a sucrose transporter, PbSUT2, in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. cv. 'Yali') fruits are reported. PbSUT2 encoded a protein of 498 amino acid residues, and was localized in the plasma membrane of transformed onion epidermal cells and Arabidopsis protoplasts. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PbSUT2 belonged to the SUT4 clade. The phenotype of overexpression of PbSUT2 tomato plants included early flowering, higher fruit quantity and lower plant height. Overexpression of PbSUT2 in transgenic tomato plants led to increases in the net photosynthetic rate in leaves and sucrose content in mature fruit compared with wild-type tomato plants, and a decrease in the contents of glucose, fructose and total soluble sugars in mature fruits. These results suggested that PbSUT2 affected sucrose content in sinks and the flowering phase during tomato plant growth and development. PMID:27105422

  5. Transgene silencing of sucrose synthase in alfalfa stem vascular tissue by a truncated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase: sucrose synthase construct

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An important role of sucrose synthase (SUS, EC 2.4.1.13) in plants is to provide UDP-glucose needed for cellulose synthesis in cell walls. We examined if over-expressing SUS in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) would increase cellulose content of stem cell walls. Alfalfa plants were transformed with two ...

  6. Wine yeasts for the future.

    PubMed

    Fleet, Graham H

    2008-11-01

    International competition within the wine market, consumer demands for newer styles of wines and increasing concerns about the environmental sustainability of wine production are providing new challenges for innovation in wine fermentation. Within the total production chain, the alcoholic fermentation of grape juice by yeasts is a key process where winemakers can creatively engineer wine character and value through better yeast management and, thereby, strategically tailor wines to a changing market. This review considers the importance of yeast ecology and yeast metabolic reactions in determining wine quality, and then discusses new directions for exploiting yeasts in wine fermentation. It covers criteria for selecting and developing new commercial strains, the possibilities of using yeasts other than those in the genus of Saccharomyces, the prospects for mixed culture fermentations and explores the possibilities for high cell density, continuous fermentations.

  7. Wood impregnation of yeast lees for winemaking.

    PubMed

    Palomero, Felipe; Bertani, Paolo; Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Benito, Santiago; Morata, Antonio; Suárez-Lepe, José A

    2015-03-15

    This study develops a new method to produce more complex wines by means of an indirect diffusion of wood aromas from yeast cell-walls. An exogenous lyophilized biomass was macerated with an ethanol wood extract solution and subsequently dried. Different times were used for the adsorption of polyphenols and volatile compounds to the yeast cell-walls. The analysis of polyphenols and volatile compounds (by HPLC/DAD and GC-MS, respectively) demonstrate that the adsorption/diffusion of these compounds from the wood to the yeast takes place. Red wines were also aged with Saccharomyces cerevisiae lees that had been impregnated with wood aromas and subsequently dried. Four different types of wood were used: chestnut, cherry, acacia and oak. Large differences were observed between the woods studied with regards to their volatile and polyphenolic profiles. Sensory evaluations confirmed large differences even with short-term contact between the wines and the lees, showing that the method could be of interest for red wine making. In addition, the results demonstrate the potential of using woods other than oak in cooperage.

  8. Assessment of Sugar Components and Genes Involved in the Regulation of Sucrose Accumulation in Peach Fruit.

    PubMed

    Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Zheng, Hongyu; Peng, Qian; Jiang, Quan; Wang, Huiliang; Fang, Ting; Liao, Liao; Wang, Lu; He, Huaping; Han, Yuepeng

    2016-09-01

    Soluble sugar contents in mature fruits of 45 peach accessions were quantified using gas chromatography analysis. Sucrose is the predominant sugar in mature fruit, followed by glucose and fructose, which have similar concentrations. Overall, sucrose metabolism and accumulation are crucial determinants of sugar content in peach fruit, and there is a wide range of sucrose concentrations among peach genotypes. To understand the mechanisms regulating sucrose accumulation in peach fruit, expression profiles of genes involved in sucrose metabolism and transport were compared among four genotypes. Two sucrose-cleaving enzyme genes (SUS4 and NINV8), one gene involved in sucrose resynthesis (SPS3), and three sugar transporter genes (SUT2, SUT4, and TMT2) were prevalently expressed in peach fruit, and their expression levels are significantly correlated with sucrose accumulation. In contrast, the VAINV genes responsible for sucrose cleavage in the vacuole were weakly expressed in mature fruit, suggesting that the sucrose-cleaving reaction is not active in the vacuole of sink cells of mature peach fruit. This study suggests that sucrose accumulation in peach fruit involves the coordinated interaction of genes related to sucrose cleavage, resynthesis, and transport, which could be helpful for future peach breeding. PMID:27537219

  9. Aspects of sucrose transport in stem parenchyma of sweet sorghum. [Sorghum bicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Lingle, S.E.

    1987-08-01

    Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a sucrose-storing crop with a storage tissue anatomically similar to that of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.). However, recent evidence suggests that sweet sorghum may be biochemically different from sugarcane. /sup 14/C-sucrose uptake was studied in excised tissue discs from fully-elongated internodes of Rio sweet sorghum. Washout studies gave results consistent with a 3 compartment system. After 3 hours of uptake, most of the /sup 14/C was found in the vacuole compartment, and was determined by HPLC to be sucrose. Total sucrose uptake consisted of a PCMBS-sensitive (active) and a PCMBS-insensitive (passive) component. Active sucrose uptake had a pH optimum of 4.5. Total sucrose uptake was negatively correlated with the internal sucrose content of the tissue. Fructosyl-labelled /sup 14/C-sucrose was not randomized during uptake, suggesting that sucrose cleavage is not a requirement for sucrose uptake in sweet sorghum. This data suggests that in sweet sorghum, sucrose is transported intact by a specific carrier, as opposed to the sucrose-cleavage-and-resynthesis transport system that apparently operates in sugarcane.

  10. Reinforcement Value and Substitutability of Sucrose and Wheel Running: Implications for Activity Anorexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belke, Terry W.; Duncan, Ian D.; Pierce, W. David

    2006-01-01

    Choice between sucrose and wheel-running reinforcement was assessed in two experiments. In the first experiment, ten male Wistar rats were exposed to concurrent VI 30 s VI 30 s schedules of wheel-running and sucrose reinforcement. Sucrose concentration varied across concentrations of 2.5, 7.5, and 12.5%. As concentration increased, more behavior…

  11. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast.

  12. Improvement of fermentation ability under baking-associated stress conditions by altering the POG1 gene expression in baker's yeast.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Haitani, Yutaka; Hashida, Keisuke; Oshiro, Satoshi; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    During the bread-making process, yeast cells are exposed to many types of baking-associated stress. There is thus a demand within the baking industry for yeast strains with high fermentation abilities under these stress conditions. The POG1 gene, encoding a putative transcription factor involved in cell cycle regulation, is a multicopy suppressor of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae E3 ubiquitin ligase Rsp5 mutant. The pog1 mutant is sensitive to various stresses. Our results suggested that the POG1 gene is involved in stress tolerance in yeast cells. In this study, we showed that overexpression of the POG1 gene in baker's yeast conferred increased fermentation ability in high-sucrose-containing dough, which is used for sweet dough baking. Furthermore, deletion of the POG1 gene drastically increased the fermentation ability in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress, which would be a useful characteristic for frozen dough baking. Thus, the engineering of yeast strains to control the POG1 gene expression level would be a novel method for molecular breeding of baker's yeast. PMID:23800735

  13. Isolation and characterization of Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3, a novel riboflavin-producing marine yeast.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenmin; Wang, Xianghong; Ju, Liang; Chi, Zhe; Guo, Ning

    2008-01-01

    We found that the marine yeast strain W14-3 isolated from seawater of China Eastern Sea could produce riboflavin. It is interesting to observe that the marine yeast strain produced a large amount of riboflavin in the medium containing xylose, sucrose, galactose and maltose under the conditions of vigorous shaking. The yeast strain was found to belong to Candida membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie based on the results of routine and molecular identification. The protein sequences deduced from the partial genes encoding GTP cyclohydrolase II and 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone-4-phosphate synthase in the yeast exhibited high identity with those of the corresponding enzymes for riboflavin biosynthesis in other yeasts. Fe(3+) available in the medium repressed riboflavin production and expression of the genes responsible for riboflavin biosynthesis in the yeast. The results have evidenced that a riboflavin synthesis pathway indeed existed in the yeast. This is the first study to report that C. membranifaciens subsp. flavinogenie W14-3 from the marine environment could produce riboflavin. PMID:18262398

  14. Effect of Dietary Intake of Avocado Oil and Olive Oil on Biochemical Markers of Liver Function in Sucrose-Fed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma. Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M.; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α-amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α-amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil. PMID:24860825

  15. Effect of dietary intake of avocado oil and olive oil on biochemical markers of liver function in sucrose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Zarrabal, Octavio; Nolasco-Hipolito, Cirilo; Aguilar-Uscanga, Ma Guadalupe; Melo Santiesteban, Guadalupe; Hayward-Jones, Patricia M; Barradas-Dermitz, Dulce Ma

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic changes, along with cardiovascular and hepatic factors, are associated with the development of diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity. We evaluated the effect of avocado oil supplementation (centrifuged and solvent extracted), compared with olive oil, upon the hepatic function in sucrose-fed rats. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: control (basal diet), a sucrose-fed group (basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution), and three other groups (S-OO, S-AOC, and S-AOS, indicating basal diet plus 30% sucrose solution plus olive oil OO, avocado oil extracted by centrifugation AOC or using solvent AOS, resp.). Glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, globulin, direct bilirubin, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, cholinesterase, and α -amylase concentrations were determined and avocado oil effect on them was studied. In some cases the induced metabolic alteration significantly affected total protein and bilirubin levels and also had a highly significant effect on α -amylase levels. AOC and AOS exhibited effects similar to those of olive oil, according to the nonsignificant difference in fatty acid profile observed by other authors. Avocado oil consumption could be beneficial in the control of altered metabolic profile illnesses as it presents effects on hepatic function biochemical markers similar to olive oil.

  16. New Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast displaying enhanced resistance to freezing.

    PubMed

    Codón, Antonio C; Rincón, Ana M; Moreno-Mateos, Miguel A; Delgado-Jarana, Jesús; Rey, Manuel; Limón, Carmen; Rosado, Ivan V; Cubero, Beatriz; Peñate, Xenia; Castrejón, Francisco; Benítez, Tahía

    2003-01-15

    Three procedures were used to obtain new Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts with increased storage stability at -20, 4, 22, and 30 degrees C. The first used mitochondria from highly ethanol-tolerant wine yeast, which were transferred to baker's strains. Viability of the heteroplasmons was improved shortly after freezing. However, after prolonged storage, viability dramatically decreased and was accompanied by an increase in the frequency of respiratory-deficient (petite) mutant formation. This indicated that mitochondria were not stable and were incompatible with the nucleus. The strains tested regained their original resistance to freezing after recovering their own mitochondria. The second procedure used hybrid formation after protoplast fusion and isolation on selective media of fusants from baker's yeast meiotic products resistant to parafluorphenylalanine and cycloheximide, respectively. No hybrids were obtained when using the parentals, probably due to the high ploidy of the baker's strains. Hybrids obtained from nonisogenic strains manifested in all cases a resistance to freezing intermediate between those of their parental strains. Hybrids from crosses between meiotic products of the same strain were always more sensitive than their parentals. The third method was used to develop baker's yeast mutants resistant to 2-deoxy-d-glucose (DOG) and deregulated for maltose and sucrose metabolism. Mutant DOG21 displayed a slight increase in trehalose content and viability both in frozen doughs and during storage at 4 and 22 degrees C. This mutant also displayed a capacity to ferment, under laboratory conditions, both lean and sweet fresh and frozen doughs. For industrial uses, fermented lean and sweet bakery products, both from fresh and frozen doughs obtained with mutant DOG21, were of better quality with regard to volume, texture, and organoleptic properties than those produced by the wild type.

  17. Protein phosphorylation as a mechanism for regulation of spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L.A.; Huber, S.C. )

    1989-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation has been identified as a mechanism for the light-dark regulation of spinach sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) activity, previously shown to involve some type of covalent modification of the enzyme. The 120 kD subunit of SPS in extracts of light-treated leaves was labeled with {sup 32}P in the presence of ({gamma}-{sup 32}P) ATP. In this in vitro system, {sup 32}P incorporation into light-activated SPS was dependent upon ATP and magnesium concentrations as well as time, and was closely paralleled by inactivation of the enzyme. The soluble protein kinase involved in the interconversion of SPS between activated and deactivated forms may be specific for SPS as it co-purifies with SPS during partial purification of the enzyme. The kinase appears not to be calcium activated and no evidence has been obtained for metabolite control of SPS phosphorylation/inactivation.

  18. New phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose from Polygonum hydropiper and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Kiem, Phan Van; Nhiem, Nguyen Xuan; Cuong, Nguyen Xuan; Hoa, Tran Quynh; Huong, Hoang Thanh; Huong, Le Mai; Minh, Chau Van; Kim, Young Ho

    2008-11-01

    By various chromatographic methods, two new phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose named hidropiperosides A (1) and B (2), and three known compounds as vanicosides A (3), B (4), and E (5) were isolated from the methanolic extract of the whole plant of Polygonum hydropiper L. (Polygonaceae). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D-and 2D-NMR experiments, as well as ESI-MS analysis. All the isolated compounds were tested for their antioxidant activity in the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay system. Among them, compounds 2 and 3 showed significant antioxidant activity with their SC(50) values of 23.4 and 26.7 microg/mL, respectively.

  19. 21 CFR 172.896 - Dried yeasts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) may be safely used in food provided the total folic acid content of the yeast does not exceed 0.04 milligram per gram of yeast (approximately 0.008 milligram of pteroyglutamic acid per gram of yeast)....

  20. Genomics and the making of yeast biodiversity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yeasts are unicellular fungi that do not form fruiting bodies. Although the yeast lifestyle has evolved multiple times, most known species belong to the subphylum Saccharomycotina (syn. Hemiascomycota, hereafter yeasts). This diverse group includes the premier eukaryotic model system, Saccharomyces ...

  1. A new naphthaquinone antibiotic from a new species of yeast.

    PubMed

    Flegel, T W; Meevootisom, V; Thebtaranonth, Y; Qi-Tai, Z; Clardy, J

    1984-04-01

    A fusiform yeast producing limited pseudomycelium and limited true mycelium on malt extract agar has been isolated. This non-fermentative yeast has hyaline cell walls but produces a thick, black oily exudate which is water insoluble and gives the colony a smooth black lacquered appearance. On the basis of morphology and physiology, this organism is distinctive enough to warrant the designation of a new genus. During stationary phase of cultures on chemically defined medium, a deep red substance is produced which has strong antibiotic activity against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro. The substance has been identified as a new natural naphthaquinone of the empirical formula C16H16O7 . PMID:6725143

  2. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-03-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience, and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and are modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability, and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose, but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension, and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

  3. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradient sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.

  4. Size-separation of silver nanoparticles using sucrose gradient centrifugation

    DOE PAGES

    Suresh, Anil K.; Pelletier, Dale A.; Moon, Ji Won; Phelps, Tommy; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2015-08-28

    Size and shape distributions of nanoparticles can drastically contribute to the overall properties of nanoparticles, thereby influencing their interaction with different chemotherapeutic molecules, biological organisms and or materials and cell types. Therefore, to exploit the proper use of nanoparticles for various biomedical and biosensor applications, it is important to obtain well-separated monodispersed nanoparticles. However, gaining precise control over the morphological characteristics of nanoparticles during their synthesis is often a challenging task. Consequently, post-synthesis separation of nanoparticles is necessary. In the present study, we demonstrate the successful one-pot post-synthesis separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles to near modispersities using sucrose density gradientmore » sedimentation. The separation of the nanoparticles was evidenced based on optical confirmation, and spectrophotometric and transmission electron microscopy measurements. Our results clearly demonstrate the facile separation of anisotropic silver nanoparticles using sucrose density gradient sedimentation and can enable the use of nanoparticles for various biomedical applications.« less

  5. Polysome analysis and RNA purification from sucrose gradients.

    PubMed

    Mašek, Tomáš; Valášek, Leoš; Pospíšek, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Velocity separation of translation complexes in linear sucrose gradients is the ultimate method for both analysis of the overall fitness of protein synthesis as well as for detailed investigation of physiological roles played by individual factors of the translational machinery. Polysome profile analysis is a frequently performed task in translational control research that not only enables direct monitoring of the efficiency of translation but can easily be extended with a wide range of downstream applications such as Northern and Western blotting, genome-wide microarray analysis or qRT-PCR. This chapter provides a basic overview of the polysome profile analysis technique and the RNA isolation procedure from sucrose gradients. We also discuss possible experimental pitfalls of data normalization, describe main alternatives of the basic protocol and outline a novel application of denaturing RNA electrophoresis in several steps of polysome profile analysis.

  6. Sucrose solution freezing studied by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mahdjoub, Rachid; Chouvenc, Pierre; Seurin, Marie José; Andrieu, Julien; Briguet, André

    2006-03-20

    Ice formation of a 20% w/v sucrose solution was monitored during the freezing process by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An original experimental setup was designed with oil as a cooling fluid that allows accurate control of the temperature. The NMR signal intensity of particular sampled volumes was observed during the entire cooling period, from 0 to -50 degrees C, showing a peak characteristic to a transition before the loss of the signal. Moreover, spatial ice distribution of the frozen matrix was observed by high resolution MRI with an isotropic resolution of 78x78x78microm(3). MRI has proved to be a novel technique for determining the glass transition temperature of frozen sucrose solutions, in the concentration range where calorimetric measurements are not feasible. PMID:16430876

  7. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly. PMID:22405204

  8. Streptococcus mutans in a wild, sucrose-eating rat population.

    PubMed

    Coykendall, A L; Specht, P A; Samol, H H

    1974-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans, an organism implicated in dental caries and not previously found outside of man and certain laboratory animals, was isolated from the mouths of wild rats which ate sugar cane. The strains isolated fermented mannitol and sorbitol, and failed to grow in 6.5% NaCl or at 45 C. They formed in vitro plaques on nichrome wires when grown in sucrose broth. They also stored intracellular polysaccharide which could be catabolized by washed, resting cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid reassociations revealed two genetic types. One type shared extensive deoxyribonucleic acid base sequences with S. mutans strains HS6 and OMZ61, two members of a genetic type found in man and laboratory hamsters. The other type seemed unrelated to any S. mutans genetic type previously encountered. It is concluded that the ecological triad of tooth-sucrose-S. mutans is not a phenomenon unique to man and experimental animals. PMID:4601769

  9. Taste pathways that mediate accumbens dopamine release by sapid sucrose.

    PubMed

    Hajnal, Andras; Norgren, Ralph

    2005-03-16

    Although it has been associated with the release of dopamine in the forebrain, reward remains a conundrum in neuroscience. Sucrose is inherently rewarding and its sensory message reaches the brain via the gustatory system. In rodents, the central gustatory system bifurcates in the pontine parabrachial nuclei, one arm forming a standard thalamocortical axis, the other distributing widely in the limbic forebrain. We report here that lesions of the gustatory thalamus fail to affect dopamine overflow during sucrose licking (149+/-5% vs. 149+/-4% for controls). Similar damage to the parabrachial nuclei, which severs the limbic taste projection, substantially reduces dopamine release from the nucleus accumbens (121+/-4% vs. 168+/-9% for sham operated controls; p<0.02). This represents the first demonstration that the affective character of a sensory stimulus might separate from the thalamocortical system as early as the second central synapse. PMID:15763573

  10. Dopaminergic modulation of sucrose acceptance behavior in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Marella, Sunanda; Mann, Kevin; Scott, Kristin

    2012-03-01

    For an animal to survive in a constantly changing environment, its behavior must be shaped by the complex milieu of sensory stimuli it detects, its previous experience, and its internal state. Although taste behaviors in the fly are relatively simple, with sugars eliciting acceptance behavior and bitter compounds avoidance, these behaviors are also plastic and are modified by intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as hunger and sensory stimuli. Here, we show that dopamine modulates a simple taste behavior, proboscis extension to sucrose. Conditional silencing of dopaminergic neurons reduces proboscis extension probability, and increased activation of dopaminergic neurons increases extension to sucrose, but not to bitter compounds or water. One dopaminergic neuron with extensive branching in the primary taste relay, the subesophageal ganglion, triggers proboscis extension, and its activity is altered by satiety state. These studies demonstrate the marked specificity of dopamine signaling and provide a foundation to examine neural mechanisms of feeding modulation in the fly.

  11. Electrons trapped in single crystals of sucrose: Induced spin densities

    SciTech Connect

    Box, H.C.; Budzinski, E.E.; Freund, H.G. )

    1990-07-01

    Electrons are trapped at intermolecular sites in single crystals of sucrose {ital X} irradiated at 4.2 K. The coupling tensors for the hyperfine couplings between the electron and surrounding protons have been deduced from electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) data. Electron spin densities at nearby hydroxy protons are positive, whereas spin densities at the more remote protons of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms are negative. The origin of these negative spin densities is discussed.

  12. Electrons trapped in single crystals of sucrose: Induced spin densities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Box, Harold C.; Budzinski, Edwin E.; Freund, Harold G.

    1990-07-01

    Electrons are trapped at intermolecular sites in single crystals of sucrose X irradiated at 4.2 K. The coupling tensors for the hyperfine couplings between the electron and surrounding protons have been deduced from electron-nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) data. Electron spin densities at nearby hydroxy protons are positive, whereas spin densities at the more remote protons of carbon-bound hydrogen atoms are negative. The origin of these negative spin densities is discussed.

  13. Sucrose synthase: A unique glycosyltransferase for biocatalytic glycosylation process development.

    PubMed

    Schmölzer, Katharina; Gutmann, Alexander; Diricks, Margo; Desmet, Tom; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (SuSy, EC 2.4.1.13) is a glycosyltransferase (GT) long known from plants and more recently discovered in bacteria. The enzyme catalyzes the reversible transfer of a glucosyl moiety between fructose and a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP) (sucrose+NDP↔NDP-glucose+fructose). The equilibrium for sucrose conversion is pH dependent, and pH values between 5.5 and 7.5 promote NDP-glucose formation. The conversion of a bulk chemical to high-priced NDP-glucose in a one-step reaction provides the key aspect for industrial interest. NDP-sugars are important as such and as key intermediates for glycosylation reactions by highly selective Leloir GTs. SuSy has gained renewed interest as industrially attractive biocatalyst, due to substantial scientific progresses achieved in the last few years. These include biochemical characterization of bacterial SuSys, overproduction of recombinant SuSys, structural information useful for design of tailor-made catalysts, and development of one-pot SuSy-GT cascade reactions for production of several relevant glycosides. These advances could pave the way for the application of Leloir GTs to be used in cost-effective processes. This review provides a framework for application requirements, focusing on catalytic properties, heterologous enzyme production and reaction engineering. The potential of SuSy biocatalysis will be presented based on various biotechnological applications: NDP-sugar synthesis; sucrose analog synthesis; glycoside synthesis by SuSy-GT cascade reactions. PMID:26657050

  14. New phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose from Polygonum lapathifolium.

    PubMed

    Takasaki, M; Kuroki, S; Kozuka, M; Konoshima, T

    2001-10-01

    Four new phenylpropanoid esters of sucrose, lapathosides A (1), B (2), C (3), and D (4), were isolated from the aerial parts of Polygonum lapathifolium together with known esters, vanicoside B (5) and hydropiperoside (6). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectral (1D and 2D NMR and MS) analysis. Lapathoside A (1) and vanicoside B (2) showed significant inhibitory effects on the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation by tumor-promoters.

  15. New and emerging yeast pathogens.

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, K C

    1995-01-01

    The most common yeast species that act as agents of human disease are Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, and Cryptococcus neoformans. The incidence of infections by other yeasts has increased during the past decade. The most evident emerging pathogens are Malassezia furfur, Trichosporon beigelii, Rhodotorula species, Hansenula anomala, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida krusei. Organisms once considered environmental contaminants or only industrially important, such as Candida utilis and Candida lipolytica, have now been implicated as agents of fungemia, onychomycosis, and systemic disease. The unusual yeasts primarily infect immunocompromised patients, newborns, and the elderly. The role of central venous catheter removal and antifungal therapy in patient management is controversial. The antibiograms of the unusual yeasts range from resistant to the most recent azoles and amphotericin B to highly susceptible to all antifungal agents. Current routine methods for yeast identification may be insufficient to identify the unusual yeasts within 2 days after isolation. The recognition of unusual yeasts as agents of sometimes life-threatening infection and their unpredictable antifungal susceptibilities increase the burden on the clinical mycology laboratory to pursue complete species identification and MIC determinations. Given the current and evolving medical practices for management of seriously ill patients, further evaluations of the clinically important data about these yeasts are needed. PMID:8665465

  16. Biofilm formation by Escherichia coli in hypertonic sucrose media.

    PubMed

    Kawarai, Taketo; Furukawa, Soichi; Narisawa, Naoki; Hagiwara, Chisato; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Yamasaki, Makari

    2009-06-01

    High osmotic environments produced by NaCl or sucrose have been used as reliable and traditional methods of food preservation. We tested, Escherichia coli as an indicator of food-contaminating bacterium, to determine if it can form biofilm in a hyperosmotic environment. E. coli K-12 IAM1264 did not form biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M NaCl. However, the bacterium formed biofilm in LB broth that contained 1 M sucrose, although the planktonic growth was greatly suppressed. The biofilm, formed on solid surfaces, such as titer-plate well walls and glass slides, solely around the air-liquid interface. Both biofilm forming cells and planktonic cells in the hypertonic medium adopted a characteristic, fat and filamentous morphology with no FtsZ rings, which are a prerequisite for septum formation. Biofilm forming cells were found to be alive based on propidium iodide staining. The presence of 1 M sucrose in the food environment is not sufficient to prevent biofilm formation by E. coli. PMID:19447340

  17. Diffusion of Trehalose and Sucrose in Aqueous Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feick, E.; von Meerwall, E.; Ekdawi, N.; de Pablo, J.

    2000-10-01

    Trehalose is emerging as superior substitute for sucrose in solution as a cryoprotectant, e. g., to preserve organs destined for transplantation. We have used the proton NMR pulsed-gradient spin-echo method between T = 30 and 85 deg. C to study the self-diffusion of solvent and solute in aqueous solutions of these molecules as function of their concentration, c. We find that both solute molecules diffuse substantially more slowly than water at corresponding c and T; that addition of water accelerates solute diffusion more rapidly than that of water; and that while at a given c and T water diffusion is insensitive to solute identity, trehalose diffusion is slower than sucrose diffusion. The latter effect increases with c, approaching a factor of two at the highest c. In these respects our results correspond closely to those of our extensive numerical simulations of these systems. Free-volume theory is employed to explore the cooperative kinetic interactions between solvent and solutes, and to account tentatively for part of the superiority of trehalose to sucrose as preservation agent. Differences in crystallization behavior also seem to be involved.

  18. Increasing sucrose concentrations promote phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in grapevine cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Maura; Righetti, Laura; Tassoni, Annalisa

    2011-02-15

    Vitis vinifera cell suspensions are a suitable model system to study the metabolic regulation of a large range of high valuable polyphenols that are important in understanding the physiology of the plant and for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and medical purposes. Increasing sucrose concentrations were found to promote cell growth and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in grape cell cultures obtained from cv. Barbera immature berries. This led to an intracellular accumulation and/or release into the media of specific polyphenol families (in particular, anthocyanins, catechins and stilbenes). This effect was partially correlated with a sucrose modulation of the transcription of some key biosynthetic enzymes, such as phenylalanine ammonia lyase, chalcone synthase, chalcone-flavanone isomerase and stilbene synthase. Total catechin amounts, both endogenous and released in the media, were increased in proportion to the sugar concentration, as were anthocyanin and stilbene production. Sugar treatment notably improved the endogenous accumulation and release in the culture media of resveratroloside, a resveratrol mono-glycoside, which is the most abundant stilbene found in grape cultures, especially in cv. Barbera. We hypothesize that high sucrose concentrations (exceeding those naturally-occurring in ripe berries) could play a role in plant defense via the induction of secondary metabolites, such as stilbenes.

  19. Sucrose-replacement by rebaudioside a in a model beverage.

    PubMed

    Majchrzak, Dorota; Ipsen, Annika; Koenig, Juergen

    2015-09-01

    Rebaudioside A (RA), a component of Stevia rebaudiana, is a non-caloric sweetener of natural origin, suitable to meet consumers' demand for sweet taste, but undesirable flavors were reported at high concentrations. Aim of this study was to create a model beverage (ice-tea) in which sucrose was replaced increasingly by RA to identify optimal sensory profile for consumer acceptance. Samples with 20 % and 40 % sucrose replacement by RA, respectively, showed very similar sensory profiles but were significantly higher in some flavor attributes, such as artificial sweetness, licorice-like and metallic, as well as in sweet and bitter aftertaste (p < 0.05) compared to the reference ice-tea. In both hedonic tests, preference and acceptance samples with RA have been judged as comparable to the reference despite perception of some undesirable notes. In view of the results of our study it can be stated that a replacement of 20 % or 40 % sucrose by RA in an ice-tea is achievable. PMID:26345024

  20. Orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose involves brain dopaminergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Schneider, L H

    1989-01-01

    The most convincing body of evidence supporting a role for brain dopaminergic mechanisms in sweet taste reward has been obtained using the sham-feeding rat. In rats prepared with a chronic gastric fistula and tested with the cannula open, intake is a direct function of the palatability of the solution offered as well as of the state of food deprivation. Because essentially none of the ingested fluid passes on to the intestine, negative postingestive feedback is eliminated. Thus, the relative orosensory/hedonic potency of the food determines and sustains the rate of sham intake; long periods of food deprivation are not required. In this way, the sham feeding of sweet solutions may be considered a form of oral self-stimulation behavior and afford a preparation through which the neurochemical and neuranatomical substrates of sweet taste reward may be identified. The results obtained in the series of experiments summarized in this paper clearly indicate that central D-1 and D-2 receptor mechanisms are critical for the orosensory self-stimulation by sucrose in the rat. In conclusion, I suggest that such investigations of the roles of brain dopaminergic mechanisms in the sucrose sham-feeding rat preparation may further our understanding of normal and aberrant attractions to sweet fluids in humans (see Cabanac, Drewnowski, and Halmi, this volume), as an innate, positive affective response of human neonates to sucrose and the sustained positive hedonic ratings for glucose when tasted but not when consumed have demonstrated. PMID:2699194

  1. Phage and Yeast Display.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Jared; Marasco, Wayne A

    2015-02-01

    Despite the availability of antimicrobial drugs, the continued development of microbial resistance--established through escape mutations and the emergence of resistant strains--limits their clinical utility. The discovery of novel, therapeutic, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) offers viable clinical alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of infectious diseases. Human mAb-based therapies are typically nontoxic in patients and demonstrate high specificity for the intended microbial target. This specificity prevents negative impacts on the patient microbiome and avoids driving the resistance of nontarget species. The in vitro selection of human antibody fragment libraries displayed on phage or yeast surfaces represents a group of well-established technologies capable of generating human mAbs. The advantage of these forms of microbial display is the large repertoire of human antibody fragments present during a single selection campaign. Furthermore, the in vitro selection environments of microbial surface display allow for the rapid isolation of antibodies--and their encoding genes--against infectious pathogens and their toxins that are impractical within in vivo systems, such as murine hybridomas. This article focuses on the technologies of phage display and yeast display, as these strategies relate to the discovery of human mAbs for the treatment and vaccine development of infectious diseases. PMID:26104550

  2. Effect of dietary copper and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, S.I.; Peterson, D.F.; Mason, P.A. KCOM, Kirksville, MO Air Force/SAM/RZP, Brooks AFB, TX )

    1991-03-11

    The severity of copper (Cu) deficiency in the rat is enhanced by dietary sucrose. Possible interactive effects of Cu status and sucrose on catecholamine concentrations in the adrenal medulla were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet were investigated in Cu deficient rats fed a diet containing either glucose or sucrose, as compared with respective Cu-adequate controls. Catecholamines were analyzed by an HPLC method using 3,4-dihydroxybenxylamine as the internal standard. Cu deficiency caused pronounced decreases in norepinephrine and epinephrine, with no significant effect on dopamine, as expressed in nmoles/mg tissue. Dietary sucrose showed no appreciable effect on catecholamines in the adrenal medulla. The adrenal glands were markedly enlarged in Cu-deficient rats, whether fed glucose or sucrose. Adrenal weights were not affected by dietary sucrose. Data indicate that the increased severity of copper deficiency due to sucrose feeding is not associated with changes in adrenal catecholamine output.

  3. Red yeast rice for dysipidemia.

    PubMed

    Shamim, Shariq; Al Badarin, Firas J; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lavie, Carl J; O'Keefe, James H

    2013-01-01

    Red yeast rice is an ancient Chinese food product that contains monacolins, chemical substances that are similar to statins in their mechanisms of action and lipid lowering properties. Several studies have found red yeast rice to be moderately effective at improving the lipid profile, particularly for lowering the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. One large randomized controlled study from China found that red yeast rice significantly improved risk of major adverse cardiovascular events and overall survival in patients following myocardial infarction. Thus, red yeast rice is a potentially useful over-the-counter cholesterol-lowering agent. However, many red yeast rice formulations are non-standardized and unregulated food supplements, and there is a need for further research and regulation of production.

  4. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes.

  5. Eighteen new oleaginous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Garay, Luis A; Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Cajka, Tomas; Chandra, Idelia; Shi, Sandy; Lin, Ting; German, J Bruce; Fiehn, Oliver; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L

    2016-07-01

    Of 1600 known species of yeasts, about 70 are known to be oleaginous, defined as being able to accumulate over 20 % intracellular lipids. These yeasts have value for fundamental and applied research. A survey of yeasts from the Phaff Yeast Culture Collection, University of California Davis was performed to identify additional oleaginous species within the Basidiomycota phylum. Fifty-nine strains belonging to 34 species were grown in lipid inducing media, and total cell mass, lipid yield and triacylglycerol profiles were determined. Thirty-two species accumulated at least 20 % lipid and 25 species accumulated over 40 % lipid by dry weight. Eighteen of these species were not previously reported to be oleaginous. Triacylglycerol profiles were suitable for biodiesel production. These results greatly expand the number of known oleaginous yeast species, and reveal the wealth of natural diversity of triacylglycerol profiles within wild-type oleaginous Basidiomycetes. PMID:27072563

  6. Interaction of Ddc1 and RPA with single-stranded/double-stranded DNA junctions in yeast whole cell extracts: Proteolytic degradation of the large subunit of replication protein A in ddc1Δ strains.

    PubMed

    Sukhanova, Maria V; D'Herin, Claudine; Boiteux, Serge; Lavrik, Olga I

    2014-10-01

    To characterize proteins that interact with single-stranded/double-stranded (ss/ds) DNA junctions in whole cell free extracts of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used [(32)P]-labeled photoreactive partial DNA duplexes containing a 3'-ss/ds-junction (3'-junction) or a 5'-ss/ds-junction (5'-junction). Identification of labeled proteins was achieved by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry peptide mass fingerprinting and genetic analysis. In wild-type extract, one of the components of the Ddc1-Rad17-Mec3 complex, Ddc1, was found to be preferentially photocrosslinked at a 3'-junction. On the other hand, RPAp70, the large subunit of the replication protein A (RPA), was the predominant crosslinking product at a 5'-junction. Interestingly, ddc1Δ extracts did not display photocrosslinking of RPAp70 at a 5'-junction. The results show that RPAp70 crosslinked to DNA with a 5'-junction is subject to limited proteolysis in ddc1Δ extracts, whereas it is stable in WT, rad17Δ, mec3Δ and mec1Δ extracts. The degradation of the RPAp70-DNA adduct in ddc1Δ extract is strongly reduced in the presence of the proteasome inhibitor MG 132. We also addressed the question of the stability of free RPA, using anti-RPA antibodies. The results show that RPAp70 is also subject to proteolysis without photocrosslinking to DNA upon incubation in ddc1Δ extract. The data point to a novel property of Ddc1, modulating the turnover of DNA binding proteins such as RPAp70 by the proteasome.

  7. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  8. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  9. Inactivation of highly activated spinach leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase by dephosphorylation. [Spinacia oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, J.L. ); Huber, S.C. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh ); Hite, D.R.C.; Outlaw, W.H. Jr. )

    1991-01-01

    Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf sucrose-phosphate synthase (SPS) can be phosphorylated and inactivated in vitro with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. Thus, it was surprising to find that SPS, extracted from leaves fed mannose in the light to highly activate the enzyme, could be inactivated in an ATP-independent manner when desalted crude extracts were preincubated at 25{degrees}C before assay. The spontaneous inactivation involved a loss in activity measured with limiting substrate concentrations in the presence of the inhibitor, Pi, without affecting maximum catalytic activity. The spontaneous inactivation was unaffected by exogenous carrier proteins and protease inhibitors, but was inhibited by inorganic phosphate, fluoride, and molybdate, suggesting that a phosphatase may be involved. Okadaic acid, a potent inhibitor of mammalian type 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, had no effect up to 5 micromolar. Inactivation was stimulated about twofold by exogenous Mg{sup 2+} and was relatively insensitive to Ca{sup 2+} and to pH over the range pH 6.5 to 8.5. Radioactive phosphate incorporated into SPS during labeling of excised leaves with ({sup 32}P)Pi (initially in the dark and then in the light with mannose) was lost with time when desalted crude extracts were incubated at 25 C, and the loss in radiolabel was substantially reduced by fluoride. These results provide direct evidence for action of an endogenous phosphatase(s) using SPS as substrate.

  10. Intermittent access to a sucrose solution for rats causes long-term increases in consumption.

    PubMed

    Eikelboom, Roelof; Hewitt, Randelle

    2016-10-15

    Intermittent access to palatable food can elevate consumption beyond an animal's immediate needs. If adult male rats (with ad lib access to food and water) are provided with a 4% sucrose solution, daily sucrose consumption is determined by the sucrose access schedule: access that is intermittent leads to high levels of consumption. In Experiment 1, sucrose solutions were first provided continuously or every second, third, or fourth day for 23.5h over 49days. Continuous-access sucrose consumption averaged 102g per day, while that for access every fourth day averaged 294g. Daily consumption averages for access every second and third day fell between these two extremes. When all rats were then given alternate-day access to sucrose for 24days in Phase II, the previously established consumption differences were maintained. Body weight was unaffected by sucrose access; rats adjusted their food consumption so that total calorie intake remained constant. In Experiment 2, compared to continuous 4% sucrose solution access, access every third day markedly elevated daily sucrose consumption after only four sucrose exposures. With this shorter Phase I, sucrose intake in the continuous group increased markedly when in Phase II all rats were given alternate day access. In Experiment 3, a lick-by-lick analysis of the difference in sucrose consumption between access every third day and continuous access revealed that all rats were consuming a similar number of sucrose meals; however, the meals were larger both in the first hour and over the whole 24h with intermittent access. This suggests a change in satiety as a mechanism underlying sucrose consumption difference. PMID:27394659

  11. Nitrosative stress and apoptosis in non-anemic healthy rats induced by intravenous iron sucrose similars versus iron sucrose originator.

    PubMed

    Toblli, Jorge E; Cao, Gabriel; Angerosa, Margarita

    2015-04-01

    Iron can both induce and inhibit nitrosative stress. Intracellular iron levels play an important role in nitric oxide (NO(•)) signaling mechanisms. Depending on various factors, such as the cell's redox state and transition metal levels, NO(•) generation may lead to lipid peroxidation and DNA damage as well as both anti- and pro-apoptotic effects. Administration of intravenous iron sucrose originator (IS(ORIG)) has been shown not to cause significant tyrosine nitration or significantly increased caspase 3 levels in non-anemic rats. In this study, the potential of several marketed iron sucrose similars (ISSs) to induce tyrosine nitration and caspase 3 expression in non-anemic rats was assessed. Although the physico-chemical properties of most of the analyzed ISSs complied with the United States Pharmacopeia for iron sucrose injection, all ISSs resulted in higher levels of tyrosine nitration and increased the expression of caspase 3 versus IS(ORIG). Moreover, significant differences were detected in tissue iron distribution between IS(ORIG)- and ISS-treated animals. In general, ISORIG resulted in higher levels of ferritin deposits versus ISSs whereas ISSs showed higher Prussian blue-stainable iron(III) deposits than IS(ORIG). This result suggests that some iron from ISSs bypassed the tightly regulated pathway through resident macrophages of the liver, spleen and bone marrow thus, ending up in the cellular compartment that favors oxidative and or nitrosative stress as well as apoptosis. The results also confirm that polynuclear iron(III)-oxyhydroxide carbohydrates, such as iron sucrose, cannot be fully characterized by physico-chemical methods alone.

  12. Recycling microbial lipid production wastes to cultivate oleaginous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobing; Jin, Guojie; Gong, Zhiwei; Shen, Hongwei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2015-01-01

    To reduce wastes and the costs of microbial lipid production, it is imperative to recycle resources, including spent cell mass, mineral nutrients and water. In the present study, lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was used as a model system to demonstrate resources recycling. It was found that the hydrolysates of spent cell mass were good media to support cell growth of various oleaginous yeasts. When serial repitching experiments were performed using 70g/L glucose and the hydrolysates alone as nutrients, it produced 16.6, 14.6 and 12.9g/L lipids, for three successive cycles, while lipid titre remained almost constant when spent water was also recycled. The cell mass hydrolysates could be used as equivalents to the mixture of yeast extract and peptone to support lipid production from corn stalk hydrolysates. Our results showed efficient recycling of lipid production wastes and should be helpful to advance microbial lipid technology. PMID:25459808

  13. Recycling microbial lipid production wastes to cultivate oleaginous yeasts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaobing; Jin, Guojie; Gong, Zhiwei; Shen, Hongwei; Bai, Fengwu; Zhao, Zongbao Kent

    2015-01-01

    To reduce wastes and the costs of microbial lipid production, it is imperative to recycle resources, including spent cell mass, mineral nutrients and water. In the present study, lipid production by the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides was used as a model system to demonstrate resources recycling. It was found that the hydrolysates of spent cell mass were good media to support cell growth of various oleaginous yeasts. When serial repitching experiments were performed using 70g/L glucose and the hydrolysates alone as nutrients, it produced 16.6, 14.6 and 12.9g/L lipids, for three successive cycles, while lipid titre remained almost constant when spent water was also recycled. The cell mass hydrolysates could be used as equivalents to the mixture of yeast extract and peptone to support lipid production from corn stalk hydrolysates. Our results showed efficient recycling of lipid production wastes and should be helpful to advance microbial lipid technology.

  14. Plant RNA processing: soybean pre-mRNA in a pea cell-free extract

    SciTech Connect

    Schuler, M.A.; Hanley, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    Using a pea cell-free extract they have demonstrated the splicing of an SP6 fusion transcript containing an intron derived from the soybean seed storage protein ..beta..-subunit gene. Intron 115 from the conglycinin gene was cloned into a SP6 vector and transcribed using standard recombinant DNA techniques. Incubation of radioactively labeled fusion transcripts in the cell-free system produced a number of products which were identified by primer extension and S1 nuclease analysis. All the products are linear RNA molecules. Lariat intermediates, similar to those found in the yeast and HeLa cell RNA processing systems, have not been detected. The linear RNA products detected in their plant in vitro processing system have various portions of the intron removed which suggests that alternative splice sites are used in processing of this plant intron due to activation of cryptic splice sites or creation of splice sites in the fusion construction. The kinetics of the reactions and parameters of the extract are similar to those determined for the HeLa cell system. Sucrose gradient analysis has demonstrated that the plant RNA products sedimented in a 30S particle, similar in size to that found for the spliceosome of the HeLa cell system.

  15. A sucrose transporter-interacting protein disulphide isomerase affects redox homeostasis and links sucrose partitioning with abiotic stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Eggert, Erik; Obata, Toshihiro; Gerstenberger, Anne; Gier, Konstanze; Brandt, Tobias; Fernie, Alisdair R; Schulze, Waltraud; Kühn, Christina

    2016-06-01

    Sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to various abiotic stresses suggests a specific role of this disaccharide for stress tolerance and adaptation. The high-affinity transporter StSUT1 undergoes substrate-induced endocytosis presenting the question as to whether altered sucrose accumulation in leaves in response to stresses is also related to enhanced endocytosis or altered activity of the sucrose transporter. StSUT1 is known to interact with several stress-inducible proteins; here we investigated whether one of the interacting candidates, StPDI1, affects its subcellular localization in response to stress: StPDI1 expression is induced by ER-stress and salt. Both proteins, StSUT1 and StPDI1, were found in the detergent resistant membrane (DRM) fraction, and this might affect internalization. Knockdown of StPDI1 expression severely affects abiotic stress tolerance of transgenic potato plants. Analysis of these plants does not reveal modified subcellular localization or endocytosis of StSUT1, but rather a disturbed redox homeostasis, reduced detoxification of reactive oxygen species and effects on primary metabolism. Parallel observations with other StSUT1-interacting proteins are discussed. The redox status in leaves seems to be linked to the sugar status in response to various stress stimuli and to play a role in stress tolerance. PMID:26670204

  16. Isolation and Identification of Yeasts from Wild Flowers Collected around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, and Characterization of the Unrecorded Yeast Bullera coprosmaensis.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Min; Hyun, Se-Hee; Lee, Hyang Burm; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Ha-Kun; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2015-09-01

    Several types of yeasts were isolated from wild flowers around Jangseong Lake in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea and identified by comparing the nucleotide sequences of the PCR amplicons for the D1/D2 variable domain of the 26S ribosomal DNA using Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) analysis. In total, 60 strains from 18 species were isolated, and Pseudozyma spp. (27 strains), which included Pseudozyma rugulosa (7 strains) and Pseudozyma aphidis (6 strains), was dominant species. Among the 60 strains, Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 represented a newly recorded yeast strain in Korea, and its microbiological characteristics were investigated. The yeast cell has an oval-shaped morphology measuring 1.4 × 1.7 µm in size. Bullera coprosmaensis JS00600 is an asporous yeast that exhibits no pseudomycelium formation. It grew well in vitamin-free medium as well as in yeast extract-malt extract broth and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose (YPD) broth, and it is halotolerant growing in 10% NaCl-containing YPD broth.

  17. Simple improvement in freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast with poly-gamma-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Yokoigawa, Kumio; Sato, Machiko; Soda, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    We examined the effect of poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA) on the freeze-tolerance of four types of commercial bakers' yeast (freeze-tolerant, osmotic-tolerant, low-temperature-sensitive, and ordinary bakers' yeasts). The survival ratio of ordinary bakers' yeast cells frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in a medium (0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% peptone, and 2% glucose: YPD medium) was improved by adding more than 1% PGA to the medium; the survival ratio increased from about 10% to more than 70%. All PGA preparations, which differed in average molecular mass (50, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, and 10,000 kDa), showed a similar cryoprotecive effect on the cells. Similar results were also obtained with other types of bakers' yeast, sake yeast and beer yeast. When the four types of bakers' yeast cell were frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in dough supplemented with more than 1% PGA, the cells (after freezing and thawing) showed higher leavening ability than those frozen in dough without PGA, irrespective of the molecular mass of PGA. Thus, PGA appears to protect bakers' yeast from lethal freeze injury, leading to a high leavening ability after freezing and thawing. PGA did not decrease the original leavening ability of the bakers' yeast, and was not decomposed by the yeast cells. PGA suppressed the decrease in leavening ability during a prolonged fermentation time, probably because PGA adsorbed inhibitory metabolites accumulated in the dough. PGA could prove useful for improving the freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast by its addition to dough.

  18. Simple improvement in freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast with poly-gamma-glutamate.

    PubMed

    Yokoigawa, Kumio; Sato, Machiko; Soda, Kenji

    2006-09-01

    We examined the effect of poly-gamma-glutamate (PGA) on the freeze-tolerance of four types of commercial bakers' yeast (freeze-tolerant, osmotic-tolerant, low-temperature-sensitive, and ordinary bakers' yeasts). The survival ratio of ordinary bakers' yeast cells frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in a medium (0.5% yeast extract, 0.5% peptone, and 2% glucose: YPD medium) was improved by adding more than 1% PGA to the medium; the survival ratio increased from about 10% to more than 70%. All PGA preparations, which differed in average molecular mass (50, 2,000, 4,000, 6,000, 8,000, and 10,000 kDa), showed a similar cryoprotecive effect on the cells. Similar results were also obtained with other types of bakers' yeast, sake yeast and beer yeast. When the four types of bakers' yeast cell were frozen at -30 degrees C for 3 d in dough supplemented with more than 1% PGA, the cells (after freezing and thawing) showed higher leavening ability than those frozen in dough without PGA, irrespective of the molecular mass of PGA. Thus, PGA appears to protect bakers' yeast from lethal freeze injury, leading to a high leavening ability after freezing and thawing. PGA did not decrease the original leavening ability of the bakers' yeast, and was not decomposed by the yeast cells. PGA suppressed the decrease in leavening ability during a prolonged fermentation time, probably because PGA adsorbed inhibitory metabolites accumulated in the dough. PGA could prove useful for improving the freeze-tolerance of bakers' yeast by its addition to dough. PMID:17046536

  19. Yeast identification in floral nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyauk, C.; Belisle, M.; Fukami, T.

    2009-12-01

    Nectar is such a sugar-rich resource that serves as a natural habitat in which microbes thrive. As a result, yeasts arrive to nectar on the bodies of pollinators such as hummingbirds and bees. Yeasts use the sugar in nectar for their own needs when introduced. This research focuses on the identification of different types of yeast that are found in the nectar of Mimulus aurantiacus (commonly known as sticky monkey-flower). Unopened Mimulus aurantiacus flower buds were tagged at Jasper Ridge and bagged three days later. Floral nectar was then extracted and plated on potato dextrose agar. Colonies on the plates were isolated and DNA was extracted from each sample using QIAGEN DNeasy Plant Mini Kit. The DNA was amplified through PCR and ran through gel electrophoresis. The PCR product was used to clone the nectar samples into an E.coli vector. Finally, a phylogenetic tree was created by BLAST searching sequences in GenBank using the Internal Transcribed Space (ITS) locus. It was found that 18 of the 50 identified species were Candida magnifica, 14 was Candida rancensis, 6 were Crytococcus albidus and there were 3 or less of the following: Starmella bombicola, Candida floricola, Aureobasidium pullulans, Pichia kluyvera, Metschnikowa cibodaserisis, Rhodotorua colostri, and Malassezia globosa. The low diversity of the yeast could have been due to several factors: time of collection, demographics of Jasper Ridge, low variety of pollinators, and sugar concentration of the nectar. The results of this study serve as a necessary first step for a recently started research project on ecological interactions between plants, pollinators, and nectar-living yeast. More generally, this research studies the use of the nectar-living yeast community as a natural microcosm for addressing basic questions about the role of dispersal and competitive and facilitative interactions in ecological succession.

  20. Evidence for the presence of a sucrose carrier in immature sugar beet tap roots. [Beta vulgaris L

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, R.; Daie, J.; Wyse, R. )

    1988-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine the path of phloem unloading and if a sucrose carrier was present in young sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) taproots. The approach was to exploit the characteristics of the sucrose analog, 1{prime}-fluorosucrose (F-sucrose) which is a poor substrate for acid invertase but is a substrate for sucrose synthase. Ten millimolar each of ({sup 3}H) sucrose and ({sup 14}C)F-sucrose were applied in a 1:1 ratio to an abraded region of an attached leaf for 6 hours. ({sup 14}C)F-sucrose was translocated and accumulated in the roots at a higher rate than ({sup 3}H)sucrose. This was due to ({sup 3}H)sucrose hydrolysis along the translocation path. Presence of ({sup 3}H)hexose and ({sup 14}C)F-sucrose in the root apoplast suggested apoplastic sucrose unloading with its subsequent hydrolysis. Labeled F-sucrose uptake by root tissue discs exhibited biphasic kinetics and was inhibited by unlabeled sucrose, indicating that immature roots have the ability for carrier-mediated sucrose transport from the apoplast. Collectively, in vivo and in vitro data indicate that despite sucrose hydrolysis by the wall-bound invertase, sucrose hydrolysis is not entirely essential for sugar accumulation in this tissue.