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Sample records for yeast-like fungi candida

  1. New staining methods for yeast like fungi under special consideration of human pathogenic fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulitsch-Fuchs, Astrid; Treiber, Fritz; Grasser, Erik; Buzina, Walter; Rosker, Christian

    2010-11-01

    A new method for in-cellular staining of yeast like fungi with Oregon Green and SYTOX Green is presented enabling their detection as well as the observation of cellular details via confocal laser scanning microscopy. Fluorochromes play an important role in many scientific disciplines including medicine, cell biology and botany. For the visualisation of fungal cell walls Calcofluor White is the flourochrome of choice. The necessity of an UV laser for its excitation makes it unpracticable for daily use. Safranin O, DAPI, 2NBDG, Ethidium Bromide and Acridin-orange are commonly used stains for nuclei in fugal microscopy. The attention was given to the possibility of using the differences in staining patterns to distinguish certain pathogenic yeast species e.g. Candida albicans and Candida krusei. Our results show that high quality microscopy of yeast like organisms can readily be achieved by the use of two suitable fluorochromes.

  2. [Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Kułak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed.

  3. [Yeast-like fungi in the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    PubMed

    Kowalewska, Beata; Kawko, Małgorzata; Zorena, Katarzyna; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the frequency of fungal infections in human populations has increased considerably. The most common type offungus attacking the human organism is Candida albicans. Yeast-like fungi occur naturally in the oral cavity, intestines, vagina, or skin, however in amounts not dangerous to human health. The studies so far have shown that patients with diabetes type 1 (T1DM) to a large degree are exposed to complications related to fungal infections. A substantial growth of fungi observed in diabetic patients may unfavorably affect metabolic compensation, and lead to increased demand for insulin, as well as to the difficult to cure symptom infections. The weaker the immune resistance in patients with diabetes, the greater the risk of ailments related to candidiasis. The article contains a review of recent literature regarding the problems related to occurrence of yeast-like fungi in digestive tract of children with diabetes type 1. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  4. Distribution of yeast-like fungi at a university hospital in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ece, Gulfem

    2014-12-01

    The increased life span has led to application of more invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment of particularly immunosuppressed individuals. This situation drew more attention to fungal infections due to existence of yeast-like fungi. Candida infections have increased due to transplant in patients, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays, and invasive procedures. Recently, identification of yeast-like fungi as well as antifungal susceptibility test has been gaining more importance. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of yeast-like fungi strains isolated from blood, urine, wound and respiratory specimens, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine University Hospital. The 262 yeast strains (of 13860 clinical specimens), isolated during 30.05.2012-20.05.2013, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, were included in this study. Blood, wound, respiratory (sputum, tracheal secretion), and urine specimens were cultivated on blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 24-48 hours at 37°C. The isolates were cultivated on CHROMagar Candida and Cornmeal Tween 80 medium for identification. Besides, the automatized Vitek version 2.0 system was used for identification of the yeast strains as well as the antifungal susceptibility of blood culture strains. A total of 262 strains, isolated from the Anesthesiology and Reanimation Unit, as well as from the departments of Hematology, Urology, Infectious Diseases, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Ear Nose and Throat, were included in this study. The most common isolated yeast-like species was Candida albicans. C. parapsilosis was the most common yeast-like fungus isolated from blood cultures. All the blood culture strains were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole. Candida strains isolated from newborns, elderly patients, and intensive care patients

  5. Distribution of Yeast-Like Fungi at a University Hospital in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Ece, Gulfem

    2014-01-01

    Background: The increased life span has led to application of more invasive procedures for diagnosis and treatment of particularly immunosuppressed individuals. This situation drew more attention to fungal infections due to existence of yeast-like fungi. Candida infections have increased due to transplant in patients, prolonged intensive care unit (ICU) stays, and invasive procedures. Recently, identification of yeast-like fungi as well as antifungal susceptibility test has been gaining more importance. Objectives: In our study, we aimed to evaluate the distribution of yeast-like fungi strains isolated from blood, urine, wound and respiratory specimens, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine University Hospital. Materials and Methods: The 262 yeast strains (of 13860 clinical specimens), isolated during 30.05.2012-20.05.2013, which were sent from various departments of Izmir University School of Medicine to Medical Microbiology Laboratory, were included in this study. Blood, wound, respiratory (sputum, tracheal secretion), and urine specimens were cultivated on blood agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar and incubated for 24-48 hours at 37°C. The isolates were cultivated on CHROMagar Candida and Cornmeal Tween 80 medium for identification. Besides, the automatized Vitek version 2.0 system was used for identification of the yeast strains as well as the antifungal susceptibility of blood culture strains. Results: A total of 262 strains, isolated from the Anesthesiology and Reanimation Unit, as well as from the departments of Hematology, Urology, Infectious Diseases, Gynecology and Obstetrics, and Ear Nose and Throat, were included in this study. The most common isolated yeast-like species was Candida albicans. C. parapsilosis was the most common yeast-like fungus isolated from blood cultures. All the blood culture strains were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole and voriconazole. Conclusions: Candida strains

  6. Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

    2007-03-01

    Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent.

  7. Extracellular Polysaccharides Produced by Yeasts and Yeast-Like Fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bogaert, Inge N. A.; de Maeseneire, Sofie L.; Vandamme, Erick J.

    Several yeasts and yeast-like fungi are known to produce extracellular polysaccharides. Most of these contain D-mannose, either alone or in combination with other sugars or phosphate. A large chemical and structural variability is found between yeast species and even among different strains. The types of polymers that are synthesized can be chemically characterized as mannans, glucans, phosphoman-nans, galactomannans, glucomannans and glucuronoxylomannans. Despite these differences, almost all of the yeast exopolysaccharides display some sort of biological activity. Some of them have already applications in chemistry, pharmacy, cosmetics or as probiotic. Furthermore, some yeast exopolysaccharides, such as pullulan, exhibit specific physico-chemical and rheological properties, making them useful in a wide range of technical applications. A survey is given here of the production, the characteristics and the application potential of currently well studied yeast extracellular polysaccharides.

  8. Repeat-Associated Fission Yeast-Like Regional Centromeres in the Ascomycetous Budding Yeast Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gautam; Sankaranarayanan, Sundar Ram; Guin, Krishnendu; Thattikota, Yogitha; Padmanabhan, Sreedevi; Siddharthan, Rahul; Sanyal, Kaustuv

    2016-01-01

    The centromere, on which kinetochore proteins assemble, ensures precise chromosome segregation. Centromeres are largely specified by the histone H3 variant CENP-A (also known as Cse4 in yeasts). Structurally, centromere DNA sequences are highly diverse in nature. However, the evolutionary consequence of these structural diversities on de novo CENP-A chromatin formation remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of centromeres, as the binding sites of four evolutionarily conserved kinetochore proteins, in the human pathogenic budding yeast Candida tropicalis. Each of the seven centromeres comprises a 2 to 5 kb non-repetitive mid core flanked by 2 to 5 kb inverted repeats. The repeat-associated centromeres of C. tropicalis all share a high degree of sequence conservation with each other and are strikingly diverged from the unique and mostly non-repetitive centromeres of related Candida species—Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis, and Candida lusitaniae. Using a plasmid-based assay, we further demonstrate that pericentric inverted repeats and the underlying DNA sequence provide a structural determinant in CENP-A recruitment in C. tropicalis, as opposed to epigenetically regulated CENP-A loading at centromeres in C. albicans. Thus, the centromere structure and its influence on de novo CENP-A recruitment has been significantly rewired in closely related Candida species. Strikingly, the centromere structural properties along with role of pericentric repeats in de novo CENP-A loading in C. tropicalis are more reminiscent to those of the distantly related fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Taken together, we demonstrate, for the first time, fission yeast-like repeat-associated centromeres in an ascomycetous budding yeast. PMID:26845548

  9. Saccharomycotina and Taphrinomycotina: the yeasts and yeast-like fungi of the Ascomycota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The phylum Ascomycota has been resolved into three major phylogenetic lineages: the subphyla Saccharomycotina (e.g., Saccharomyces, Pichia, Candida), Taphrinomycotina (e.g., Protomyces, Taphrina, Pneumocystis), and the Pezizomycotina (e.g., Aspergillus, Neurospora, Peziza). We discuss the ecology, ...

  10. Salt-induced changes in lipid composition and membrane fluidity of halophilic yeast-like melanized fungi.

    PubMed

    Turk, Martina; Méjanelle, Laurence; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Grimalt, Joan O; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Plemenitas, Ana

    2004-02-01

    The halophilic melanized yeast-like fungi Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, and the halotolerant Aureobasidium pullulans, isolated from salterns as their natural environment, were grown at different NaCl concentrations and their membrane lipid composition and fluidity were examined. Among sterols, besides ergosterol, which was the predominant one, 23 additional sterols were identified. Their total content did not change consistently or significantly in response to raised NaCl concentrations in studied melanized fungi. The major phospholipid classes were phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, followed by anionic phospholipids. The most abundant fatty acids in phospholipids contained C16 and C18 chain lengths with a high percentage of C18:2Delta9,12. Salt stress caused an increase in the fatty acid unsaturation in the halophilic H. werneckii and halotolerant A. pullulans but a slight decrease in halophilic P. triangularis. All the halophilic fungi maintained their sterol-to-phospholipid ratio at a significantly lower level than did the salt-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae and halotolerant A. pullulans. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy measurements showed that the membranes of all halophilic fungi were more fluid than those of the halotolerant A. pullulans and salt-sensitive S. cerevisiae, which is in good agreement with the lipid composition observed in this study.

  11. Black yeasts-like fungi isolated from dialysis water in hemodialysis units.

    PubMed

    Figel, Izabel Cristina; Marangoni, Paulo Roberto Dantas; Tralamazza, Sabina Moser; Vicente, Vânia Aparecida; Dalzoto, Patrícia do Rocio; do Nascimento, Mariana Machado Fidelis; de Hoog, G Sybren; Pimentel, Ida Chapaval

    2013-06-01

    Hemodialysis in patients with chronic renal failure promotes the removal of toxic substances, water, and minerals from the body and often takes place in specialized clinics. Microbial contamination of dialysis fluid is a serious problem in therapy. One of the sources of contamination is the water used to prepare the dialysate. In Brazil, legislation regulating the microbiological quality of water for dialysis does not cover waterborne microbes such as Pseudomonas, mycobacteria, and fungi. The aim of the present study was to quantify, isolate, and identify fungi present in water systems in six hemodialysis units in Curitiba, Paraná state, Brazil. Fungi were analyzed by surface plating and membrane filtration. Isolates were identified by morphology, while the dematiaceous fungi were identified by sequencing the rDNA ITS region. It was found that 66 % of the samples presented fungi, while black fungi were present in 46 % of all samples. Twenty-eight isolates from treated water for dialysis and dialysate were identified by sequencing and were found to be Exophiala pisciphila, E. cancerae, E. equina, and Rhinocladiella similis. The presence of dematiaceous fungi may pose a risk for debilitated hospitalized patients.

  12. Yeast and yeast-like fungi associated with dry indehiscent fruits of Nothofagus nervosa in Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Natalia V; Mestre, M Cecilia; Marchelli, Paula; Fontenla, Sonia B

    2012-04-01

    Nothofagus nervosa (Raulí) is a native tree species that yields valuable timber. It was overexploited in the past and is currently included in domestication and conservation programs. Several research programs have focused on the characterization of epiphytic microorganisms because it has been demonstrated that they can affect plant-pathogen interactions and/or promote plant growth. Although the microbial ecology of leaves has been well studied, less is known about microorganisms occurring on seeds and noncommercial fruits. In this work, we analyzed the yeast and yeast-like fungi present on N. nervosa fruits destined for the propagation of this species, as well as the effects of fruit preservation and seed dormancy-breaking processes on fungal diversity. Morphological and molecular methods were used, and differences between fungal communities were analyzed using a similarity index. A total of 171 isolates corresponding to 17 species were recovered, most of which belong to the phylum Ascomycota. The majority of the species develop mycelia, produce pigments and mycosporines, and these adaptation strategies are discussed. It was observed that the preservation process considerably reduced yeast and yeast-like fungal diversity. This is the first study concerning microbial communities associated with this ecologically and economically important species, and the information presented is relevant to domestication programs. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. MALDI-TOF MS as a tool to identify foodborne yeasts and yeast-like fungi.

    PubMed

    Quintilla, Raquel; Kolecka, Anna; Casaregola, Serge; Daniel, Heide M; Houbraken, Jos; Kostrzewa, Markus; Boekhout, Teun; Groenewald, Marizeth

    2018-02-02

    Since food spoilage by yeasts causes high economic losses, fast and accurate identifications of yeasts associated with food and food-related products are important for the food industry. In this study the efficiency of the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify food related yeasts was evaluated. A CBS in-house MALDI-TOF MS database was created and later challenged with a blinded test set of 146 yeast strains obtained from food and food related products. Ninety eight percent of the strains were correctly identified with log score values>1.7. One strain, Mrakia frigida, gained a correct identification with a score value<1.7. Two strains could not be identified at first as they represented a mix of two different species. These mixes were Rhodotorula babjevae with Meyerozyma caribbica and Clavispora lusitaniae with Debaryomyces hansenii. After separation, all four species could be correctly identified with scores>1.7. Ambiguous identifications were observed due to two incorrect reference mass spectra's found in the commercial database BDAL v.4.0, namely Candida sake DSM 70763 which was re-identified as Candida oleophila, and Candida inconspicua DSM 70631 which was re-identified as Pichia membranifaciens. MALDI-TOF MS can distinguish between most of the species, but for some species complexes, such as the Kazachstania telluris and Mrakia frigida complexes, MALDI-TOF MS showed limited resolution and identification of sibling species was sometimes problematic. Despite this, we showed that the MALDI-TOF MS is applicable for routine identification and validation of foodborne yeasts, but a further update of the commercial reference databases is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. No effect of yeast-like fungi on lipid metabolism and vascular endothelial growth factor level in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Zorena, Katarzyna; Kowalewska, Beata; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-12-12

    The objective of the research was to investigate vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels in the context of lipid metabolism and amount of yeast-like fungi colonizing the digestive tract in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study included 45 children with T1DM and 27 age- and sex-matched healthy control subjects. In the study sample 33 T1DM patients were administered insulin pump therapy and 12 T1DM patients were administered multiple daily injections with insulin pen devices. All T1DM patients were free of micro- and macrovascular complications. In T1DM patients and healthy controls biochemical tests were performed and measurements of yeast-like fungi colonizing the alimentary tract were conducted. Moreover all study subjects had their serum VEGF levels measured with ELISA test. The subgroup of children and adolescents with T1DM and yeast-like fungus colony number 10^ 3 CFU/g was shown statistically significantly lower HbA1c levels, and lower but not statistically significantly total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and VEGF levels versus T1DM patients with the amount of yeast-like fungi 10^ 6 CFU/g. Moreover higher HDL levels were observed in this subgroup versus T1DM patients with the amount of yeast-like fungi 10^ 6 CFU/g although the difference was not statistically significant. Our study has shown no influence of yeast-like fungi on lipid metabolism and VEGF level in children and adolescents with T1DM. Comprehensive treatment of T1DM patients and intensive insulin therapy with help of personal insulin pumps can reduce or prevent the development of long-term diabetic complications. Further studies in this field are needed.

  15. Environmental isolation of black yeast-like fungi involved in human infection

    PubMed Central

    Vicente, V.A.; Attili-Angelis, D.; Pie, M.R.; Queiroz-Telles, F.; Cruz, L.M.; Najafzadeh, M.J.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zhao, J.; Pizzirani-Kleiner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The present study focuses on potential agents of chromoblastomycosis and other endemic diseases in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil. Using a highly selective protocol for chaetothyrialean black yeasts and relatives, environmental samples from the living area of symptomatic patients were analysed. Additional strains were isolated from creosote-treated wood and hydrocarbon-polluted environments, as such polluted sites have been supposed to enhance black yeast prevalence. Isolates showed morphologies compatible with the traditional etiological agents of chromoblastomycosis, e.g. Fonsecaea pedrosoi and Phialophora verrucosa, and of agents of subcutaneous or systemic infections like Cladophialophora bantiana and Exophiala jeanselmei. Some agents of mild disease were indeed encountered. However, molecular analysis proved that most environmental strains differed from known etiologic agents of pronounced disease syndromes: they belonged to the same order, but mostly were undescribed species. Agents of chromoblastomycosis and systemic disease thus far are prevalent on the human host. The hydrocarbon-polluted environments yielded yet another spectrum of chaetothyrialean fungi. These observations are of great relevance because they allow us to distinguish between categories of opportunists, indicating possible differences in pathogenicity and virulence. PMID:19287536

  16. The influence of ortho- and para-diphenoloxidase substrates on pigment formation in black yeast-like fungi

    PubMed Central

    Yurlova, N.A.; de Hoog, G.S.; Fedorova, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    Dothideaceous black yeast-like fungi (BYF) are known to synthesise DHN-melanin that is inhibited by the systemic fungicide tricyclazole. The final step of the DHN melanin pathway is the conjoining of 1,8-DHN molecules to form the melanin polymer. There are several candidate enzymes for this step, including phenoloxidases such as tyrosinase and laccases, peroxidases, and perhaps also catalases. We analysed the type polyphenoloxidases that are involved in biosynthesis of BYF melanins. For that purpose we used substrates of o-diphenoloxidases (EC 1.10.3.1.): 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvic acid, L-β-phenyllactic acid, tyrosine, pyrocatechol, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and homogentisic acid, as well as substrates of p-diphenoloxidases (EC 1.10.3.2.): syringaldazine, resorcinol, p-phenylenediamine, phloroglucinol, guaiacol and pyrogallic acid. Fourteen strains of black yeasts originating from different natural biotopes were investigated. The tested strains could be divided into four groups based on their ability to produce dark pigments when cultivated on aromatic substrates of o- and on p-diphenoloxidases. It was established that syringaldazine, pyrogallic acid and 4-hydrophenyl-pyruvic acid, β-phenyllactic acid optimally promote melanin biosynthesis. Average intensity of pigmentation of all strains studied was minimal when guaiacol was used as a substrate. The present investigation indicates that the melanisation process may involve more enzymes and more substrates than those commonly recognised. Black yeasts are likely to contain a multipotent polyphenoloxidase. PMID:19287525

  17. [Sensitivity of fungi in the genus Candida to antimicrobial preparations].

    PubMed

    Paliĭ, G K; Ivanova, S A

    1986-03-01

    Sensitivity of 50 Candida fungus strains isolated from patients with chronic intestine diseases was studied with respect to amphotericin B, levorin, enteroseptol, intestopan and decamethoxin. The rate of forming resistant variants of the strains with respect to decamethoxin and development of their cross resistance to levorin was estimated. It was shown that decamethoxin was the most active antifungal drug among the drugs tested. Estimation of sensitivity of the Candida strains to enteroseptol and intestopan revealed that the fungicidal concentration of enteroseptol for 78 per cent of the strains ranged within 3.9-7.8 micrograms/ml. It was demonstrated that development of resistance to decamethoxin in the strains of Candida albicans was slow and did not reach high levels. No cross resistance between decamethoxin and levorin was detected.

  18. Grazing preference and utilization of soil fungi by Folsomia candida (Collembola)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedenec, Petr; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Soil fungi are important food resources for soil fauna. Here we ask whether the collembolan Folsomia candida shows selectivity in grazing between four saprophytic fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Absidia glauca, and Cladosporium herbarum), whether grazing preference corresponds to effects on collembolan reproduction, and whether the effects of fungi on grazing and reproduction depends on the fungal substrate, which included three kinds of litter (Alnus glutinosa, Salix caprea, and Quercus robur) and one kind of agar (yeast extract). On agar, Cladosporium herbarum and Absidia glauca were the most preferred fungi and supported the highest collembolan reproduction. On fungal-colonized litter, grazing preference was more affected by litter type than by fungal species whereas collembolan reproduction was affected by both litter type and fungal species. On fungal-colonized litter, the litter type that was most preferred for grazing did not support the highest reproduction, i.e., there was an inconsistency between food preference and suitability. Alder and willow were preferred over oak for grazing, but alder supported the least reproduction.

  19. Azole drugs are imported by facilitated diffusion in Candida albicans and other pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Mansfield, Bryce E; Oltean, Hanna N; Oliver, Brian G; Hoot, Samantha J; Leyde, Sarah E; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; White, Theodore C

    2010-09-30

    Despite the wealth of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of action and the mechanisms of resistance to azole antifungals, very little is known about how the azoles are imported into pathogenic fungal cells. Here the in-vitro accumulation and import of Fluconazole (FLC) was examined in the pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. In energized cells, FLC accumulation correlates inversely with expression of ATP-dependent efflux pumps. In de-energized cells, all strains accumulate FLC, suggesting that FLC import is not ATP-dependent. The kinetics of import in de-energized cells displays saturation kinetics with a K(m) of 0.64 μM and V(max) of 0.0056 pmol/min/10⁸ cells, demonstrating that FLC import proceeds via facilitated diffusion through a transporter rather than passive diffusion. Other azoles inhibit FLC import on a mole/mole basis, suggesting that all azoles utilize the same facilitated diffusion mechanism. An analysis of related compounds indicates that competition for azole import depends on an aromatic ring and an imidazole or triazole ring together in one molecule. Import of FLC by facilitated diffusion is observed in other fungi, including Cryptococcus neoformans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Candida krusei, indicating that the mechanism of transport is conserved among fungal species. FLC import was shown to vary among Candida albicans resistant clinical isolates, suggesting that altered facilitated diffusion may be a previously uncharacterized mechanism of resistance to azole drugs.

  20. [Influence of slime production and adhesion of Candida sp. on biofilm formation].

    PubMed

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Smolak, Przemysław; Wróblewska, Joanna; Gospodarek, Eugenia

    2011-01-01

    The increase of fungal infections in recent years is connected with the progress in medicine. The vast usage of biomaterials is an inseparable element of contemporary medicine but it also leads to development of infections. Yeast-like fungi Candida albicans are still the main pathogen of candidiasis. The ability to slime production and adhesion to polystyrene of Candida sp. on different surfaces can cause to form biofilm on surfaces of biomaterials used in production of catheters, drains and prosthesis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of slime production and adhesion to polystyrene, of Candida sp. on biofilm formation on different biomaterials. 50 strains of Candida sp. were examined. They isolated from ill to Clinics of Anesthesiology and Intensive Therapy University Hospital No 1 of dr. A. Jurasza in Bydgoszcz. The ability to slime production was evaluated by Christensen method in modification Davenport and Branchini methods. The adhesion to polystyrene was evaluated by Richards et el method. The ability to produce biofilm biomaterials by the studied fungi was measured after 72 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C on different biomaterials. Yeast-like fungi Candida sp. fabricating slime and adhesion forming frequently biofilm on surface researched of biomaterials. Influence of chosen biological specificity ascertain on the ability to produce biofilm on surfaces of siliconized latex and polyvinylchloride.

  1. [Survivability of Candida fungi and workpost safety in the university mycological laboratory].

    PubMed

    Ejdys, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    To ensure the security for persons using the laboratory for research purposes it was decided to determine the influence of the number of employees and the time of their work on the survivability and vitality of Candida albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis. Working time and the number of people in the room were monitored. Temperature and air relative humidity were checked. Every two weeks the vitality and survivability of fungi were assessed with the technique of intravital coloring in methylene blue. During the observation of the examined species no 100% mortality was noted. After half a year of observation, the percentage of living cells in the smear did not exceed 10%. The greatest fluctuations in the survivability and its lowest value (5%) were found in C. albicans in the drop. The mortality rate in similar trials did not exceed 30% in C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis isolates. To secure the protection of employees one should limit the number of people entering the laboratory, use face masks, refresh archival isolate, and monitor hygiene procedures twice a year, depending on the frequency of changing objects and research team.

  2. Identification of virulence determinants of the human pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans by proteomics.

    PubMed

    Kniemeyer, Olaf; Schmidt, André D; Vödisch, Martin; Wartenberg, Dirk; Brakhage, Axel A

    2011-06-01

    Both fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus can cause a number of life-threatening systemic infections in humans. The commensal yeast C. albicans is one of the main causes of nosocomial fungal infectious diseases, whereas the filamentous fungus A. fumigatus has become one of the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogens. Early diagnosis of these fungal infections is challenging, only a limited number of antifungals for treatment are available, and the molecular details of pathogenicity are hardly understood. The completion of both the A. fumigatus and C. albicans genome sequence provides the opportunity to improve diagnosis, to define new drug targets, to understand the functions of many uncharacterised proteins, and to study protein regulation on a global scale. With the application of proteomic tools, particularly two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC/MS-based methods, a comprehensive overview about the proteins of A. fumigatus and C. albicans present or induced during environmental changes and stress conditions has been obtained in the past 5 years. However, for the discovery of further putative virulence determinants, more sensitive and targeted proteomic methods have to be applied. Here, we review the recent proteome data generated for A. fumigatus and C. albicans that are related to factors required for pathogenicity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity of Candida spp. and Klebsiella spp. Isolated from the Denture Plaque of COPD Patients.

    PubMed

    Przybyłowska, D; Piskorska, K; Gołaś, M; Sikora, M; Swoboda-Kopeć, E; Kostrzewa-Janicka, J; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E

    2017-01-01

    Yeast-like fungi and gram-negative bacilli are the most frequent potential pathogens of the respiratory tract isolated from the denture plaque of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Dominant species among yeast-like fungi are Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. Significant frequency is also exhibited by Klebsiella pneumoniae and Klebsiella oxytoca. The purpose of this study was to analyze genetic diversity of the strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and Klebsiella spp. present in patients in stable phases of COPD. The analysis was conducted by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method on clinical strains isolated from patients with COPD and control patients in overall good health. Forty one strains of Candida albicans, 12 of Candida tropicalis, as well as 9 strains of K. pneumoniae and 7 of K. oxytoca were scrutinized. The dominant species in clinical material from COPD patients was Candida albicans with a substantial degree of variations of genetic profiles. On the basis of affinity analysis, 19 genetic types were identified within this strain. An analysis of the banding patterns among C. tropicalis strains indicated the existence of 6 genetic types. A considerable diversity of genetic profiles among Klebsiella spp. also was established. The genotype diversity of Klebsiella spp. strains may indicate the endogenic character of the majority of infections, regardless of the therapy applied for the underlying condition.

  4. Quantitative evaluation of fungi of the genus Candida in the feces of adult patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes - a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gosiewski, Tomasz; Salamon, Dominika; Szopa, Magdalena; Sroka, Agnieszka; Malecki, Maciej T; Bulanda, Malgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal tract microbiota, particularly bacterial microflora, seem to have a different qualitative and quantitative composition in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) mellitus cases as compared to non-diabetic individuals. So far, there are no data from diabetes research concerning the prevalence of fungi, particularly the most common genus, i.e. Candida, which are important components of human colon microflora. We aimed to examine whether there are quantitative changes of Candida fungi in the feces of patients with T1DM and T2DM as compared to healthy controls. Overall, we included 44 diabetic patients (27 patients with T1DM and 17 with T2DM) as well as 17 healthy, non-diabetic controls. Feces and blood samples were collected from all study individuals. DNA was isolated from fecal samples and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) was applied in order to determine the number of fungal cells. Statistical association with selected clinical and biochemical features was examined. There was a difference in the amount of Candida in the feces among the three examined groups (p = 0.007). Candida spp. populations in T1DM and T2DM subjects were larger as compared to controls (p = 0.017 and p = 0.037, respectively). However, no difference was found between T1DM and T2DM. No association was identified between the quantity of fungi and examined patients' characteristics, except for negative correlation with blood lipid parameters in T2DM group. Candida fungi appear to be more prevalent in the feces of patients with T1DM and T2DM. Their amount seems to be associated with serum lipids in T2DM patients. This initial finding requires further confirmation.

  5. Competition assays and physiological experiments of soil and phyllosphere yeasts identify Candida subhashii as a novel antagonist of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Hilber-Bodmer, Maja; Schmid, Michael; Ahrens, Christian H; Freimoser, Florian M

    2017-01-05

    While recent advances in next generation sequencing technologies have enabled researchers to readily identify countless microbial species in soil, rhizosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes, the biological functions of the majority of these species are unknown. Functional studies are therefore urgently needed in order to characterize the plethora of microorganisms that are being identified and to point out species that may be used for biotechnology or plant protection. Here, we used a dual culture assay and growth analyses to characterise yeasts (40 different isolates) and their antagonistic effect on 16 filamentous fungi; comprising plant pathogens, antagonists, and saprophytes. Overall, this competition screen of 640 pairwise combinations revealed a broad range of outcomes, ranging from small stimulatory effects of some yeasts up to a growth inhibition of more than 80% by individual species. On average, yeasts isolated from soil suppressed filamentous fungi more strongly than phyllosphere yeasts and the antagonistic activity was a species-/isolate-specific property and not dependent on the filamentous fungus a yeast was interacting with. The isolates with the strongest antagonistic activity were Metschnikowia pulcherrima, Hanseniaspora sp., Cyberlindnera sargentensis, Aureobasidium pullulans, Candida subhashii, and Pichia kluyveri. Among these, the soil yeasts (C. sargentensis, A. pullulans, C. subhashii) assimilated and/or oxidized more di-, tri- and tetrasaccharides and organic acids than yeasts from the phyllosphere. Only the two yeasts C. subhashii and M. pulcherrima were able to grow with N-acetyl-glucosamine as carbon source. The competition assays and physiological experiments described here identified known antagonists that have been implicated in the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi in the past, but also little characterised species such as C. subhashii. Overall, soil yeasts were more antagonistic and metabolically versatile than yeasts from

  6. Fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fungi are seldom encountered in the archaeological record of foodstuffs but there are exceptions, especially for yeast. Excavated vessels contained identifiable residues of fermented beverages. Ancient ovens allow inferences on leavened breads. Mesopotamian clay tablets contain references to truffle...

  7. Yeast-like microorganisms in the scale insect Kermes quercus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccomorpha: Kermesidae). Newly acquired symbionts?

    PubMed

    Podsiadło, Elżbieta; Michalik, Katarzyna; Michalik, Anna; Szklarzewicz, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    Scale insects, like other plant sap-consumers, are host to symbiotic microorganisms which provide them with the substances missing from their diet. In contrast to most scale insects, Kermes quercus (Linnaeus) was regarded as asymbiotic. Our histological and ultrastructural observations show that in the body of the feeding stages of K. quercus collected in two locations (Warsaw and Cracow), numerous yeast-like microorganisms occur. These microorganisms were localized in the cytoplasm of fat body cells. The yeast-like microorganisms were observed neither in other organs of the host insect nor in the eggs. These microorganisms did not cause any damage to the structure of the ovaries and the course of oogenesis of the host insect. The females infected by them produced about 1300 larvae. The lack of these microorganisms in the cytoplasm of eggs indicates that they are not transmitted transovarially from mother to offspring. Molecular analyses indicated that the microorganisms which reside in the body of K. quercus are closely related to the entomopathogenic fungi Cordyceps and Ophiocordyceps, which belong to the Sordariomycetes class within the Ascomycota. The role of yeast-like microorganisms to their host insects remains unknown; however, it has been suggested that they may represent newly acquired symbionts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Features of adhesion of anaerobic periodontopathogenic bacteria and Candida albicans fungi to experimental samples of basis dental plastic depending on surface roughness and polishing method].

    PubMed

    Tsarev, V N; Ippolitov, E V; Trefilov, A G; Arutiunov, S D; Pivovarov, A A

    2014-01-01

    Study the main surface parameters of milled polyacrylic materials using atomic force microscopy and primary microbial adhesion of periodontopathogenic group bacteria and Candida albicans fungi taking into consideration the method of sample polishing. Studied samples: mill-treated without polishing (control); ergobox polished; polished in dental laboratory conditions; polished by a rubber brush in dentists' office. Microbial strains belonging to periodontopathogenic species (clinical isolates) that had been isolated from periodontal pockets of periodontitis patients: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Streptococcus sanguis, C. albicans fungi were used for modelling experiments of primary adhesion of microbes to the material samples. S. sanguis had the highest degree of adhesion to polymer after milling, P. gingivalis, C. albicans--medium, F. nucleatum--low. A significant reduction of adhesion is observed during polishing in dental laboratory conditions or ergobox, less significant--during polishing in dental office. The data obtained allow to make a conclusion that the samples from polymer materials for preparation of prosthesis basis have varying degree of intensity of microbial adhesion of members of periodontopathogenic microflora and C. albicans fungi that depends on the polishing method, that accordingly determined the differences in colonization resistance against formation of microbial biofilm during polymer use in clinical conditions. . ,

  9. High Interleukin-12 Levels May Prevent an Increase in the Amount of Fungi in the Gastrointestinal Tract during the First Years of Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Kowalewska, Beata; Szmigiero-Kawko, Małgorzata; Wąż, Piotr; Myśliwiec, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the research was to investigate serum levels of interleukin-12 (IL12) in relation to percentage of yeast-like fungi colonies residing in the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). The study involved 83 children and adolescents, including 53 T1DM patients and 30 healthy control subjects. In the studied population biochemical tests were performed and yeast-like fungi were identified in the faeces. Moreover, IL12 absorbance was measured and measurements of Candida albicans IgG and IgM antibodies were performed with microplate reader ChroMate 4300 (Awareness Technology, Inc., USA) at wavelength λ = 450 nm. In the group of T1DM children and adolescents with disease duration ≤ 2 years, high levels of IL12 were found with lower percentage of yeast-like fungal colonies versus T1DM patients with disease duration > 2 years and ≤5 years, as well as versus T1DM patients with disease duration > 5 years. Additionally, serum levels of IL12 were found to be decreasing by 18.1 pg/ml with each year of diabetes duration. IL12 serum levels were also found to be decreasing by 52.9 pg/ml with each 1% increase in HbA1c. We suggest that high IL12 levels can inhibit infection with yeast-like fungi colonizing the gastrointestinal tract in children and adolescents with T1DM. Further studies are needed to confirm the antifungal activity of IL12. PMID:28127111

  10. [Multicenter Prospective Observational Study of Fungal Keratitis--Identification and Susceptibility Test of Fungi].

    PubMed

    Sunada, Atsuko; Asari, Seishi; Inoue, Yoshitsugu; Ohashi, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu; Fukuda, Masahiko; Sotozono, Chie; Hatano, Hiroshi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Araki-Sasaki, Kaoru; Hoshi, Saichi; Yaguchi, Takashi; Makimura, Koichi; Yokokura, Shunji; Mochizuki, Kiyofumi; Monden, Yu; Nejima, Ryohei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the causative fungi of fungal keratitis in Japan and their drug susceptibility. Identification and antifungal susceptibility test for 8 drugs (micafungin, amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, miconazole and pimaricin) were performed using isolated fungi from patients with fungal keratitis treated at 27 facilities in Japan between November 1, 2011 and October 31, 2013. Fungal strains were detected in 72 (50.7%) out of 142 samples. The major isolates were Fusarium spp. (18), Candida parapsilosis (12), C. albicans (11) and Alternaria spp. (6), in all, fungi of 31 species were identified by gene analysis. In the yeast-like fungi, susceptibility rates were evident for more than 80% in voriconazole, pimaricin, flucytosine, micafungin, amphotericin B and fluconazole. In filamentous fungi, the susceptibility rate was less than 50% except for PMR (90%). Fusarium spp., which were susceptible to amphotericin B and pimaricin, showed lower susceptibility rates compared with other genera. Although various genera and species of fungi cause fungal keratitis, the obtained drug susceptibility data in this study demonstrates the different susceptibility patterns among the major isolates (Fusarium spp., C. parapsilosis, C. albicans and other groups). This is important evidence useful for fungal keratitis treatment.

  11. Insect symbiosis: derivation of yeast-like endosymbionts within an entomopathogenic filamentous lineage.

    PubMed

    Suh, S O; Noda, H; Blackwell, M

    2001-06-01

    Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects often are restricted to specific hosts and are essential to the host's survival. For example, in planthoppers (Homoptera: Delphacidae), endosymbionts function in sterol utilization and nitrogen recycling for the hosts. Our study, designed to investigate evolutionary changes in the YLS lineage involved in the planthopper association, strongly suggests an origin of the YLSs from within the filamentous ascomycetes (Euascomycetes), not the true yeasts (Saccharomycetes), as their morphology might indicate. During divergence of the planthopper YLSs, dramatic changes would have occurred in the insect-fungus interaction and the fungal morphology that have previously been undescribed in filamentous ascomycetes. Phylogenetic trees were based on individual and combined data sets of 2.6 kb of the nuclear small- and large-subunit ribosomal RNA genes for YLSs from three rice planthoppers (Laodelphax striatellus, Nilaparvata lugens, and Sogatella furcifera) compared with 56 other fungi. Parsimony analysis placed the planthopper YLSs within Cordyceps (Euascomycetes: Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae), a genus of filamentous insects and a few fungal pathogenic ascomycetes. Another YLS species restricted to the aphid Hamiltonaphis styraci (Homoptera: Aphididae) was a sister taxon to the planthopper YLSS: Filamentous insect pathogens (Metarhizium and Beauveria) specific to the same species of insect hosts as the YLSs also formed lineages within the Clavicipitaceae, but these were distinct from the clade comprising YLS species. Trees constrained to include the YLSs in families of the Hypocreales other than the Clavicipitaceae were rejected by the Kishino-Hasegawa test. In addition, the results of this study support a hypothesis of two independent origins of insect-associated YLSs from among filamentous ascomycetes: the planthopper YLSs in the Clavicipitaceae and the YLSs associated with anobiid beetles (Symbiotaphrina species). Several lineages of

  12. Screening protocol for Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Land, G; Burke, J; Shelby, C; Rhodes, J; Collett, J; Bennett, I; Johnson, J

    1996-01-01

    A screening test has been developed for the presumptive identification of Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata from other common clinical isolates of yeast-like fungi. An interlaboratory comparison of a protocol consisting of morphology on cornmeal Tween 80 agar and trehalose fermentation at 42 degrees C was successful in differentiating T. glabrata from other taxa that are frequent or possible clinical isolates. The screening results for 517 clinical yeast isolates, 241 of which were T. glabrata, were compared with their final identification via commercial systems (API20C Yeast Identification System [bioMERIEUX, Hazelwood, Mo.] and Rapid Yeast Identification Panel [Dade Microscan, Sacramento, Calif.]). The trehalose screening test has a sensitivity and a specificity of 97.8 and 95.8%, respectively, and a positive predictive value of 97.4% and a negative predictive value of 96.5%. Overall, the trehalose screen had an efficiency rating of 93.9% for ruling in or out T. glabrata. Since T. glabrata represents a substantial part of the workload in a clinical laboratory, a significant reduction in direct and indirect costs should be realized. PMID:8862605

  13. Chemical constituents of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don essential oil and their antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, filamentous fungi and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Djihane, Bouzid; Wafa, Nouioua; Elkhamssa, Soltani; Pedro, De Haro Juan; Maria, Angeles Esteban; Mohamed Mihoub, Zerroug

    2017-07-01

    The aerial parts of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) G. Don were subjected to hydrodistillation to obtain essential oils which had been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and tested for antimicrobial activity against 12 bacteria, two yeasts and four fungi by agar diffusion method. The essential oil yielded 0.44% (v/w) and 67 compounds accounting for 99.24% of the oil were identified with a high content of oxygenated sesquiterpenes (61.42%). The most oxygenated sesquiterpene compounds were α-Cedrene (13.61%), α-Curcumene (11.41%), Geranyl acetate (10.05%), Limonene (6.07%), Nerol (5.04%), Neryl acetate (4.91%) and α-Pinene (3.78%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was assayed by using the disk diffusion method on Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, Micrococcus luteus ATCC 4698, Klebsiella pneumonia ATCC 4352, Enterococcus cereus ATCC 2035, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 12228, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 9372, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 49452, Proteus mirabilis ATCC 35659, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313 and yeasts Candida albicans ATCC 10231, Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 9763 and fungi, Fusarium solani var. coeruleum , Aspergillus niger , Alternaria alternata , Ascochyta rabiei . H. italicum inhibited the growth of all the tested microorganisms except three bacteria, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumonia ATCC 4352 and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313. The most sensitive bacterium was E. cereus ATCC 2035 with minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of 0.79 μg ml -1 . A minimum fungistatic and fungicide concentration of 6.325 μg ml -1 and 12.65 μg ml -1 respectively was obtained with C. albicans ATCC 10231 and S. cerevisiae ATCC 9763. However the four fungi were more resistant with fungistatic minimum concentration ranging from 6.325 μg ml -1 to 50.6 μg ml -1 and a fungicide minimum concentration of 50

  14. Candida Species From Eye Infections: Drug Susceptibility, Virulence Factors, and Molecular Characterization.

    PubMed

    Ranjith, Konduri; Sontam, Bhavani; Sharma, Savitri; Joseph, Joveeta; Chathoth, Kanchana N; Sama, Kalyana C; Murthy, Somasheila I; Shivaji, Sisinthy

    2017-08-01

    To determine the type of Candida species in ocular infections and to investigate the relationship of antifungal susceptibility profile to virulence factors. Fifty isolates of yeast-like fungi from patients with keratitis, endophthalmitis, and orbital cellulitis were identified by Vitek-2 compact system and DNA sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rRNA gene, followed by phylogenetic analysis for phenotypic and genotypic identification, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentration of six antifungal drugs was determined by E test/microbroth dilution methods. Phenotypic and genotypic methods were used to determine the virulence factors. Phylogenetic analysis showed the clustering of all isolates into eight distinct groups with a major cluster formed Candida parapsilosis (n = 21), which was the most common species by both Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing. Using χ2 test no significant difference was noted between the techniques except that Vitek 2 did not identify C. viswanathii, C. orthopsilosis, and two non-Candida genera. Of 43 tested Candida isolates high susceptibility to amphotericin B (39/43, 90.6%) and natamycin (43/43, 100%) was noted. While none of the isolates produced coagulase, all produced esterase and catalase. The potential to form biofilm was detected in 23/43 (53.4%) isolates. Distribution of virulence factors by heat map analysis showed difference in metabolic activity of biofilm producers from nonbiofilm producers. Identified by Vitek 2 and DNA sequencing methods C. parapsilosis was the most common species associated with eye infections. Irrespective of the virulence factors elaborated, the Candida isolates were susceptible to commonly used antifungal drugs such as amphotericin B and natamycin.

  15. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry proteomic phenotyping of clinically relevant fungi.

    PubMed

    Putignani, Lorenza; Del Chierico, Federica; Onori, Manuela; Mancinelli, Livia; Argentieri, Marta; Bernaschi, Paola; Coltella, Luana; Lucignano, Barbara; Pansani, Laura; Ranno, Stefania; Russo, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Federici, Giorgio; Menichella, Donato

    2011-03-01

    Proteomics is particularly suitable for characterising human pathogens with high life cycle complexity, such as fungi. Protein content and expression levels may be affected by growth states and life cycle morphs and correlate to species and strain variation. Identification and typing of fungi by conventional methods are often difficult, time-consuming and frequently, for unusual species, inconclusive. Proteomic phenotypes from MALDI-TOF MS were employed as analytical and typing expression profiling of yeast, yeast-like species and strain variants in order to achieve a microbial proteomics population study. Spectra from 303 clinical isolates were generated and processed by standard pattern matching with a MALDI-TOF Biotyper (MT). Identifications (IDs) were compared to a reference biochemical-based system (Vitek-2) and, when discordant, MT IDs were verified with genotyping IDs, obtained by sequencing the 25-28S rRNA hypervariable D2 region. Spectra were converted into virtual gel-like formats, and hierarchical clustering analysis was performed for 274 Candida profiles to investigate species and strain typing correlation. MT provided 257/303 IDs consistent with Vitek-2 ones. However, amongst 26/303 discordant MT IDs, only 5 appeared "true". No MT identification was achieved for 20/303 isolates for incompleteness of database species variants. Candida spectra clustering agreed with identified species and topology of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis specific dendrograms. MT IDs show a high analytical performance and profiling heterogeneity which seems to complement or even outclass existing typing tools. This variability reflects the high biological complexity of yeasts and may be properly exploited to provide epidemiological tracing and infection dispersion patterns.

  16. Appearance of colonies of Prototheca on CHROMagar Candida medium.

    PubMed

    Casal, M; Linares, M J; Solís, F; Rodríguez, F C

    1997-01-01

    The microorganisms capable of producing opportunist infections include the yeast-like organisms of the genus Candida, and the unicellular algae of the genus Prototheca, which share common features and can, therefore, lead to confusion. Their colonies are almost identical and they grow in the same culture media used routinely in mycology. CHROMagar Candida is a new chromogenic differential isolation medium that facilitates the presumptive differentiation of some of the most clinically important yeast-like organisms. To our knowledge, the use of CHROMagar Candida with Prototheca spp. has not been reported in the literature. This report describes the growth of 151 strains of Prototheca on CHROMagar Candida compared to the growth of a total of 326 well-characterized yeast organisms of the genera Candida, Cryptococcus, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, and Saccharomyces. It is clinically relevant to note that algae of the genus Prototheca (P. wickerhamii, P. zopfii, and P. stagnora) and of the genus Candida parapsilosis produced similar cream-colored colonies on CHROMagar Candida medium. Based on their growth on CHROMagar, a new species of Candida is described, C. zeylanoides, which has blue-green colonies. The colonies of two species of Trichosporon are also differentiated: the blue-green colonies of T. beigelii and the pink colonies of T. capitatum.

  17. Proanthocyanidin-rich extracts from cranberry fruit (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) selectively inhibit the growth of human pathogenic fungi Candida spp. and Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kunal D; Scarano, Frank J; Kondo, Miwako; Hurta, Robert A R; Neto, Catherine C

    2011-12-28

    Cranberry ( Vaccinium macrocarpon ) has been shown in clinical studies to reduce infections caused by Escherichia coli and other bacteria, and proanthocyanidins are believed to play a role. The ability of cranberry to inhibit the growth of opportunistic human fungal pathogens that cause oral, skin, respiratory, and systemic infections has not been well-studied. Fractions from whole cranberry fruit were screened for inhibition of five Candida species and Cryptococcus neoformans , a causative agent of fungal meningitis. Candida glabrata , Candida lusitaniae , Candida krusei , and Cryptococcus neoformans showed significant susceptibility to treatment with cranberry proanthocyanidin fractions in a broth microdilution assay, with minimum inhibitory concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of subfractions detected epicatechin oligomers of up to 12 degrees of polymerization. Those containing larger oligomers caused the strongest inhibition. This study suggests that cranberry has potential as an antifungal agent.

  18. Characterization of Osmotolerant Yeasts and Yeast-Like Molds from Apple Orchards and Apple Juice Processing Plants in China and Investigation of Their Spoilage Potential.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huxuan; Hu, Zhongqiu; Long, Fangyu; Niu, Chen; Yuan, Yahong; Yue, Tianli

    2015-08-01

    Yeasts and yeast-like fungal isolates were recovered from apple orchards and apple juice processing plants located in the Shaanxi province of China. The strains were evaluated for osmotolerance by growing them in 50% (w/v) glucose. Of the strains tested, 66 were positive for osmotolerance and were subsequently identified by 26S or 5.8S-ITS ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequencing. Physiological tests and RAPD-PCR analysis were performed to reveal the polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species. Further, the spoilage potential of the 66 isolates was determining by evaluating their growth in 50% to 70% (w/v) glucose and measuring gas generation in 50% (w/v) glucose. Thirteen osmotolerant isolates representing 9 species were obtained from 10 apple orchards and 53 target isolates representing 19 species were recovered from 2 apple juice processing plants. In total, members of 14 genera and 23 species of osmotolerant isolates including yeast-like molds were recovered from all sources. The commonly recovered osmotolerant isolates belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Hanseniaspora uvarum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Candida tropicalis, and Pichia kudriavzevii. The polymorphism of isolates belonging to the same species was limited to 1 to 3 biotypes. The majority of species were capable of growing within a range of glucose concentration, similar to sugar concentrations found in apple juice products with a lag phase from 96 to 192 h. Overall, Z. rouxii was particularly the most tolerant to high glucose concentration with the shortest lag phase of 48 h in 70% (w/v) glucose and the fastest gas generation rate in 50% (w/v) glucose. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  19. Yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with fruits and blossoms of different fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Vadkertiová, Renáta; Molnárová, Jana; Vránová, Dana; Sláviková, Elena

    2012-12-01

    Yeasts are common inhabitants of the phyllosphere, but our knowledge of their diversity in various plant organs is still limited. This study focused on the diversity of yeasts and yeast-like organisms associated with matured fruits and fully open blossoms of apple, plum, and pear trees, during 2 consecutive years at 3 localities in southwest Slovakia. The occurrence of yeasts and yeast-like organisms in fruit samples was 2½ times higher and the yeast community more diverse than that in blossom samples. Only 2 species (Aureobasidium pullulans and Metschnikowia pulcherrima) occurred regularly in the blossom samples, whereas Galactomyces candidus, Hanseniaspora guilliermondii, Hanseniaspora uvarum, M. pulcherrima, Pichia kluyveri, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were the most frequently isolated species from the fruit samples. The ratio of the number of samples where only individual species were present to the number of samples where 2 or more species were found (consortium) was counted. The occurrence of individual species in comparison with consortia was much higher in blossom samples than in fruit samples. In the latter, consortia predominated. Aureobasidium pullulans, M. pulcherrima, and S. cerevisiae, isolated from both the fruits and blossoms, can be considered as resident yeast species of various fruit tree species cultivated in southwest Slovakia localities.

  20. Distribution and abundance of fungi in the soils of Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Connell, L.; Redman, R.; Craig, S.; Rodriguez, R.

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of culturable fungi in Taylor Valley, Antarctica was assessed in terms of soil habitat. Soil transects throughout the valley revealed differential habitat utilization between filamentous and non-filamentous (yeast and yeast-like) fungi. In addition, there were significant differences in species distribution patterns with respect to soil pH, moisture, distance from marine coastline, carbon, chlorophyll a, salinity, elevation and solar inputs. Filamentous fungal abundance is most closely associated with habitats having higher pH, and soil moistures. These close associations were not found with yeast and yeast-like fungi demonstrating that yeast and yeast-like fungi utilize a broader range of habitat. An intensive survey of the Victoria Land is necessary to gain a better understanding of their role in soil functioning and nutrient cycling processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biodegradation and bioconversion of coals by fungi. Quarterly progress report No. 1, October 1-December 31, 1985. [Candida sp. and T. versicolor

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, B.

    1985-01-01

    Following a month-long start-up period during which the principal investigator traveled to several sites of lignite outcrops to collect samples, efforts were begun to isolate new strains of coal-bioconverting fungal strains. Out of about thirty different organisms isolated from weathered samples of three different types of lignite, three isolates exhibited biosolubilization of the one lignite tested to date. These organisms have not yet been identified but they appear to be new strains of lignite-degrading fungi. We have observed that degree of biosolubilization varies among apparently similar samples of the same lignite. Weathered lignite is more readily solubilized than is previouslymore » unexposed lignite, but even tests on weathered coal have not been consistently repeatable. We have begun experiments designed to identify one or more factors of weathering which render coal more readily attacked by fungi. We hope to establish methods whereby consistently repeatable assays can be performed on bioconversion of coals. 2 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.« less

  2. Discussion of teleomorphic and anamorphic Ascomycetous yeasts and yeast-like taxa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship of ascomycetous yeasts with other members of the ascomycete fungi (Ascomycota) has been controversial for over 100 years. Because yeasts are morphologically simple, it was proposed that they represent primitive forms of ascomycetes (e.g., Guilliermond 1912). Alternatively, the ide...

  3. Candida Infections and Human Defensins.

    PubMed

    Polesello, Vania; Segat, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio; Zupin, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    Candida species infections are an important worldwide health issue since they do not only affect immunocompromised patients but also healthy individuals. The host developed different mechanisms of protection against Candida infections; specifically the immune system and the innate immune response are the first line of defence. Defensis are a group of antimicrobial peptides, components of the innate immunity, produced at mucosal level and known to be active against bacteria, virus but also fungi. The aim of the current work was to review all previous studies in literature that analysed defensins in the context of Candida spp. infections, in order to investigate and clarify the exact mechanisms of defensins anti-fungal action. Several studies were identified from 1985 to 2017 (9 works form years 1985 to 1999, 44 works ranging from 2000 to 2009 and 35 from 2010 to 2017) searched in two electronic databases (PubMed and Google Scholar). The main key words used for the research were "Candida", "Defensins"," Innate immune system","fungi". The findings of the reviewed studies highlight the pivotal role of defensins antimicrobial peptides in the immune response against Candida infections, since they are able to discriminate host cell from fungi: defensins are able to recognize the pathogens cell wall (different in composition from the human ones), and to disrupt it through membrane permeabilization. However, further research is needed to explain completely defensins' mechanisms of action to fight C. albicans (and other Candida spp.) infections, being the information fragmentary and only in part elucidated. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Effects of nitrogen availability on polymalic acid biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongkang; Song, Xiaodan; Zhang, Yongjun; Wang, Bochu; Zou, Xiang

    2016-08-22

    Polymalic acid (PMA) is a novel polyester polymer that has been broadly used in the medical and food industries. Its monomer, L-malic acid, is also a potential C4 platform chemical. However, little is known about the mechanism of PMA biosynthesis in the yeast-like fungus, Aureobasidium pullulans. In this study, the effects of different nitrogen concentration on cell growth and PMA biosynthesis were investigated via comparative transcriptomics and proteomics analyses, and a related signaling pathway was also evaluated. A high final PMA titer of 44.00 ± 3.65 g/L (49.9 ± 4.14 g/L of malic acid after hydrolysis) was achieved in a 5-L fermentor under low nitrogen concentration (2 g/L of NH4NO3), which was 18.3 % higher yield than that obtained under high nitrogen concentration (10 g/L of NH4NO3). Comparative transcriptomics profiling revealed that a set of genes, related to the ribosome, ribosome biogenesis, proteasome, and nitrogen metabolism, were significantly up- or down-regulated under nitrogen sufficient conditions, which could be regulated by the TOR signaling pathway. Fourteen protein spots were identified via proteomics analysis, and were found to be associated with cell division and growth, energy metabolism, and the glycolytic pathway. qRT-PCR further confirmed that the expression levels of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthetic pathway (GLK, CS, FUM, DAT, and MCL) and the TOR signaling pathway (GS, TOR1, Tap42, and Gat1) were upregulated due to nitrogen limitation. Under rapamycin stress, PMA biosynthesis was obviously inhibited in a dose-dependent manner, and the transcription levels of TOR1, MCL, and DAT were also downregulated. The level of nitrogen could regulate cell growth and PMA biosynthesis. Low concentration of nitrogen was beneficial for PMA biosynthesis, which could upregulate the expression of key genes involved in the PMA biosynthesis pathway. Cell growth and PMA biosynthesis might be mediated by the TOR signaling pathway in

  5. Genetic susceptibility to Candida infections

    PubMed Central

    Smeekens, Sanne P; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Netea, Mihai G

    2013-01-01

    Candida spp. are medically important fungi causing severe mucosal and life-threatening invasive infections, especially in immunocompromised hosts. However, not all individuals at risk develop Candida infections, and it is believed that genetic variation plays an important role in host susceptibility. On the one hand, severe fungal infections are associated with monogenic primary immunodeficiencies such as defects in STAT1, STAT3 or CARD9, recently discovered as novel clinical entities. On the other hand, more common polymorphisms in genes of the immune system have also been associated with fungal infections such as recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis and candidemia. The discovery of the genetic susceptibility to Candida infections can lead to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, as well as to the design of novel immunotherapeutic strategies. This review is part of the review series on host-pathogen interactions. See more reviews from this series. PMID:23629947

  6. Absence of Photoreactivating Enzyme in Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea, and Candida tropicalis

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Glendon R.; Sarachek, Alvin

    1974-01-01

    In vitro assays demonstrate photoreactivating enzyme activity in extracts of Candida pseudotropicalis but not in extracts of Candida albicans, Candida stellatoidea, or Candida tropicalis. PMID:4604052

  7. Use of the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis as a cell factory to produce a Pleurotus ostreatus hydrophobin.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hanyu; Liu, Dongmei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ren, Danfeng; Zheng, Liesheng; Chen, Liguo; Ma, Aimin

    2017-08-01

    To obtain hydrophobin, a Class I hydrophobin gene, Po.hyd from Pleurotus ostreatus, was transformed into the yeast-like cells of Tremella fuciformis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The hydrophobin Po.HYD from P. ostreatus was heterogeneously expressed by the yeast-like cells of T. fuciformis. Plasmids harboring the Po.hyd gene driven by endogenous glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter were transformed by A. tumefaciens. The integration and expression of the rPo.HYD in the T. fuciformis cells were confirmed by PCR, Southern blot, fluorescence microscopy and quantitative real-time PCR. SDS-PAGE demonstrated that the rPo.HYD was extracted with the expected MW of 14 kDa. The yield of purified rPo.HYD was 0.58 mg/g dry wt. The protein, with its ability to stabilize oil droplets, exhibited a better emulsifying activity than the typical food emulsifiers Tween 20 and sodium caseinate. Tremella fuciformis can be used as a cell factory to produce hydrophobin on a large scale for the food industry.

  8. Candida krusei and Candida glabrata reduce the filamentation of Candida albicans by downregulating expression of HWP1 gene.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Patrícia Pimentel; Freire, Fernanda; Rossoni, Rodnei Dennis; Junqueira, Juliana Campos; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2017-07-01

    Pathogenicity of Candida albicans is associated with its capacity switch from yeast-like to hyphal growth. The hyphal form is capable to penetrate the epithelial surfaces and to damage the host tissues. Therefore, many investigations have focused on mechanisms that control the morphological transitions of C. albicans. Recently, certain studies have showed that non-albicans Candida species can reduce the capacity of C. albicans to form biofilms and to develop candidiasis in animal models. Then, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of Candida krusei and Candida glabrata on the morphogenesis of C. albicans. Firstly, the capacity of reference and clinical strains of C. albicans in forming hyphae was tested in vitro. After that, the expression of HWP1 (hyphal wall protein 1) gene was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (polymerase chain reaction) assay. For both reference and clinical strains, a significant inhibition of the hyphae formation was observed when C. albicans was incubated in the presence of C. krusei or C. glabrata compared to the control group composed only by C. albicans. In addition, the culture mixed of C. albicans-C. krusei or C. albicans-C. glabrata reduced significantly the expression of HWP1 gene of C. albicans in relation to single cultures of this specie. In both filamentation and gene expression assays, C. krusei showed the higher inhibitory activity on the morphogenesis of C. albicans compared to C. glabrata. C. krusei and C. glabrata are capable to reduce the filamentation of C. albicans and consequently decrease the expression of the HWP1 gene.

  9. Fungi that Infect Humans.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Julia R; Hube, Bernhard; Puccia, Rosana; Casadevall, Arturo; Perfect, John R

    2017-06-01

    Fungi must meet four criteria to infect humans: growth at human body temperatures, circumvention or penetration of surface barriers, lysis and absorption of tissue, and resistance to immune defenses, including elevated body temperatures. Morphogenesis between small round, detachable cells and long, connected cells is the mechanism by which fungi solve problems of locomotion around or through host barriers. Secretion of lytic enzymes, and uptake systems for the released nutrients, are necessary if a fungus is to nutritionally utilize human tissue. Last, the potent human immune system evolved in the interaction with potential fungal pathogens, so few fungi meet all four conditions for a healthy human host. Paradoxically, the advances of modern medicine have made millions of people newly susceptible to fungal infections by disrupting immune defenses. This article explores how different members of four fungal phyla use different strategies to fulfill the four criteria to infect humans: the Entomophthorales, the Mucorales, the Ascomycota, and the Basidiomycota. Unique traits confer human pathogenic potential on various important members of these phyla: pathogenic Onygenales comprising thermal dimorphs such as Histoplasma and Coccidioides ; the Cryptococcus spp. that infect immunocompromised as well as healthy humans; and important pathogens of immunocompromised patients- Candida , Pneumocystis , and Aspergillus spp. Also discussed are agents of neglected tropical diseases important in global health such as mycetoma and paracoccidiomycosis and common pathogens rarely implicated in serious illness such as dermatophytes. Commensalism is considered, as well as parasitism, in shaping genomes and physiological systems of hosts and fungi during evolution.

  10. Effects of fungicides on the yeast-like symbiotes and their host, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    PubMed

    Shentu, Xu-Ping; Li, Dan-Ting; Xu, Jian-Feng; She, Liang; Yu, Xiao-Ping

    2016-03-01

    Yeast-like symbiotes (YLS) are endosymbionts that are closely related to the growth, development and reproduction of their host, the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens Stål (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). In order to understand the relationship between the population of YLS in BPH cells and the survival rate of BPH, eight different fungicides were applied to rice plants infested by BPH, and the number of YLS and mortality of BPH were determined. Three of the fungicides, 27% toyocamycin & tetramycin P & tetrin B & tetramycin A, 0.01% trichodermin, and 75% trifloxystrobin & tebuconazole WG, were found to significantly reduce the number of YLS in BPH, subsequently causing a high mortality of BPH. The three fungicides were each mixed with a commonly used insecticide-imidacloprid, and the fungicide/insecticide mixtures could cause a marked reduction in YLS number in BPH, resulting in a significantly higher mortality of BPH than did the imidacloprid alone. The mixture of 27% toyocamycin & tetramycin P & tetrin B & tetramycin A with imidacloprid showed the best inhibitory effect on BPH population. Our study demonstrated a high dependence of the BPH survival rate on the number of YLS harbored in BPH fat-body cells. It implies that using specific fungicides as an additive to imidacloprid for controlling BPH could be a novel way to enhance the efficacy of insecticide, minimizing the use of imidacloprid in paddy fields. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-Candida activity of Mentha arvensis and Turnera ulmifolia.

    PubMed

    Santos, Karla K A; Matias, Edinardo F F; Souza, Celestina E S; Tintino, Saulo R; Braga, Maria F B M; Guedes, Glaucia M M; Nogueira, Lavouisier F B; Morais, Edson C; Costa, José G M; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M

    2012-03-01

    Candidiasis is the most frequent infection by opportunistic fungi, frequently caused by Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei. Mentha arvensis L. is a herbaceous plant that occurs throughout South America and is used as a tea and in the folk medicine. Turnera ulmifolia L. is already known to be of medicinal value. Ethanol extracts from M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia were assayed for antifungal activity against strains of C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. No clinically relevant antifungal activity was demonstrated by the extracts; however, a potentiation effect was observed when the extracts were applied with metronidazole against C. tropicalis. M. arvensis and T. ulmifolia could represent a source of natural products with modifying antifungal activity.

  12. Candida, fluorescent stain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a fluorescent stain of Candida. Candida is a yeast (fungus) that causes mild disease, but in immunocompromised individuals it may cause life-threatening illness. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  13. Prevalence of Candida albicans and non-albicans isolates from vaginal secretions: comparative evaluation of colonization, vaginal candidiasis and recurrent vaginal candidiasis in diabetic and non-diabetic women.

    PubMed

    Gunther, Luciene Setsuko Akimoto; Martins, Helen Priscila Rodrigues; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Abreu, André Luelsdorf Pimenta de; Consolaro, Marcia Edilaine Lopes; Svidzinski, Terezinha Inez Estivalet

    2014-01-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is caused by abnormal growth of yeast-like fungi on the female genital tract mucosa. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are more susceptible to fungal infections, including those caused by species of Candida. The present study investigated the frequency of total isolation of vaginal Candida spp., and its different clinical profiles - colonization, VVC and recurrent VVC (RVVC) - in women with DM type 2, compared with non-diabetic women. The cure rate using fluconazole treatment was also evaluated. Cross-sectional study conducted in the public healthcare system of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. The study involved 717 women aged 17-74 years, of whom 48 (6.7%) had DM type 2 (mean age: 53.7 years), regardless of signs and symptoms of VVC. The yeasts were isolated and identified using classical phenotypic methods. In the non-diabetic group (controls), total vaginal yeast isolation occurred in 79 (11.8%) women, and in the diabetic group in 9 (18.8%) (P = 0.000). The diabetic group showed more symptomatic (VVC + RVVC = 66.66%) than colonized (33.33%) women, and showed significantly more colonization, VVC and RVVC than seen among the controls. The mean cure rate using fluconazole was 75.0% in the diabetic group and 86.7% in the control group (P = 0.51). We found that DM type 2 in Brazilian women was associated with yeast colonization, VVC and RVVC, and similar isolation rates for C. albicans and non-albicans species. Good cure rates were obtained using fluconazole in both groups.

  14. [National Trends in the Distribution of Candida Species Causing Candidemia in Japan from 2003 to 2014].

    PubMed

    Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamada, Koichi; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Tateda, Kazuhiro; Maesaki, Shigefumi; Takesue, Yoshio; Tomono, Kazunori; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Miyazaki, Yoshitsugu; Kamei, Katsuhiko; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Niki, Yoshitiho; Yoshida, Minoru; Sei, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-01

    The Epidemiological Investigation Committee for Human Mycoses in Japan performed a retrospective epidemiological survey of candidemia and causative Candida species. Data from 2003 to 2014 were collected from 10 Japanese university hospitals. A total of 328,318 blood cultures were included. The prevalence of fungi in all cultures and in positive cultures were 0.58±0.09% and 4.46±0.66%, respectively. Among the results that were positive for Candida species (N=1,921), Candida albicans was the most common species (39.5%) and was followed by Candida parapsilosis (23.3%), Candida glabrata (13.2%), Candida tropicalis (7.1%), Candida krusei (3.2%), and others (13.7%). During the last 6 years, the frequency of C. albicans has significantly decreased in Japan, while that of C. glabrata has increased. Additional surveys are needed to continuously monitor the trends in the distribution of candidemia.

  15. Candida in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Rao, Pooja; Tarai, Bansidhar; Shivaprakash, Mandya Rudramurthy; Wig, Jaidev

    2007-01-01

    A Candida infection of the pancreas, which previously was considered extremely unusual, has been increasingly reported in recent years. The present study was conducted with the aim of performing a cohort analysis of our patients with acute pancreatitis to find out the incidence, sites, and species of Candida involvement; and to evaluate the risk factors, severity, and course of illness of such patients. A total of 335 patients with acute pancreatitis were investigated for a possible Candida infection of the pancreas from January 2000 to May 2003. The clinical records of all those patients who were positive for Candida spp. isolation from pancreatic tissue were analyzed. The clinical records of 32 more cases, randomly selected from the patients who were investigated for candidal pancreatitis but were negative for Candida spp., were also analyzed in order to compare their findings with those patients with a true Candida infection of the pancreas. A true or possible Candida infection was observed in 41 (12.2%) of those 335 patients and Candida tropicalis was the most common isolate (43.9%). Candida spp. were isolated from pancreatic necrotic tissue in 22 (6.6%) patients (true infection). A possible Candida infection (positive drain fluid effluents at least twice, without any Candida isolation from pre/per operative samples from pancreas) was seen in 19 (5.7%) patients. Candida was also isolated exclusively from the blood in another 19 patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. A risk factor analysis showed that patients with severe injury to the pancreas, on prophylactic fluconazole, and after surgical intervention were significantly more prone to develop a Candida infection. Patients with a Candida superinfection also had a significantly increased hospital stay and higher mortality. This study thus emphasizes the important role of Candida infection in patients with acute pancreatitis and demonstrates the need for early attention.

  16. [Fungi in the gut - the gut mycobiome].

    PubMed

    Hof, Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Many different fungi, including yeasts and molds, can be found in the intestinal tract of humans constituting the gut mycobiome. In case the bacterial flora is altered, the fungal flora may react inversely. By a so-called fungal diet, however, the composition of the mycobiome can hardly be influenced. Whereas some fungi are only transiently present in the gut after oral uptake, others, such as Candida, Saccharomyces, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, Geotrichum, amongst others, are members of the residential, autochthonous gut flora. Some of these fungi exert beneficial effects, for example by synthesizing useful materials. Rhodotorula can produce fatty acids and carotenoids. Others are able to metabolize toxic compounds, for example mycotoxins as well as procarcinogenic items in food. Toxins, as well as pathogenic bacteria, can be bound to mannans on the surface of fungi und can consequently be exported. Some fungi are said to exert probiotic activities. Certain fungal constituents, such as glucans, may even stimulate the immune system. On the other hand, some fungi cannot only colonize the gut asymptomatically but can also be noxious under certain conditions when, for example, the bacterial flora is disturbed. By means of their virulence factors, they can damage the gut epithelium and even penetrate into the Mukosa inducing inflammation, They can also aggravate chronic inflammatory processes. Fungi play a role in the development of obesity. Lastly, fungi in the gut represent a reservoir from which they may spread to other sites when the conditions are favorable. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Candida Biofilms: Development, Architecture, and Resistance

    PubMed Central

    CHANDRA, JYOTSNA; MUKHERJEE, PRANAB K.

    2015-01-01

    Intravascular device–related infections are often associated with biofilms (microbial communities encased within a polysaccharide-rich extracellular matrix) formed by pathogens on the surfaces of these devices. Candida species are the most common fungi isolated from catheter-, denture-, and voice prosthesis–associated infections and also are commonly isolated from contact lens–related infections (e.g., fungal keratitis). These biofilms exhibit decreased susceptibility to most antimicrobial agents, which contributes to the persistence of infection. Recent technological advances have facilitated the development of novel approaches to investigate the formation of biofilms and identify specific markers for biofilms. These studies have provided extensive knowledge of the effect of different variables, including growth time, nutrients, and physiological conditions, on biofilm formation, morphology, and architecture. In this article, we will focus on fungal biofilms (mainly Candida biofilms) and provide an update on the development, architecture, and resistance mechanisms of biofilms. PMID:26350306

  18. In Vitro Activities of Terbinafine against Cutaneous Isolates of Candida albicans and Other Pathogenic Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Ryder, Neil S.; Wagner, Sonja; Leitner, Ingrid

    1998-01-01

    Terbinafine is active in vitro against a wide range of pathogenic fungi, including dermatophytes, molds, dimorphic fungi, and some yeasts, but earlier studies indicated that the drug had little activity against Candida albicans. In contrast, clinical studies have shown topical and oral terbinafine to be active in cutaneous candidiasis and Candida nail infections. In order to define the anti-Candida activity of terbinafine, we tested the drug against 350 fresh clinical isolates and additional strains by using a broth dilution assay standardized according to the guidelines of the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) M27-A assay. Terbinafine was found to have an MIC of 1 μg/ml for reference C. albicans strains. For 259 clinical isolates, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates are inhibited (MIC50) of terbinafine was 1 μg/ml (fluconazole, 0.5 μg/ml), and the MIC90 was 4 μg/ml (fluconazole, 1 μg/ml). Terbinafine was highly active against Candida parapsilosis (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and showed potentially interesting activity against isolates of Candida dubliniensis, Candida guilliermondii, Candida humicola, and Candida lusitaniae. It was not active against the Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, and Candida tropicalis isolates in this assay. Cryptococcus laurentii and Cryptococcus neoformans were highly susceptible to terbinafine, with MICs of 0.06 to 0.25 μg/ml. The NCCLS macrodilution assay provides reproducible in vitro data for terbinafine against Candida and other yeasts. The MICs for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis are compatible with the known clinical efficacy of terbinafine in cutaneous infections, while the clinical relevance of its activities against the other species has yet to be determined. PMID:9593126

  19. Candida Berkhout (1923)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter describes the 314 species assigned to the genus Candida and is to be published in the Yeasts, A Taxonomic Study, 5th edition. Ascomycete yeasts that do not form ascosporic state are assigned to the genus Candida, which is a highly polyphyletic taxonomic form genus. Assigned species in...

  20. Candida ethanolica n. sp.

    PubMed

    Rybárová, J; Stros, F; Kocková-Kratochvílová, A

    1980-01-01

    A new yeast, Candida ethanolica, isolated from industrial fodder yeast cultivated on synthetic ethanol as the only source of carbon, originally designated III-5 and III-6, is described. This species differs from all recently accepted Candida species in not assimilating nitrate, not producing urease and not fermenting sugars.

  1. Candida infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Baddley, J W; Benjamin, D K; Patel, M; Miró, J; Athan, E; Barsic, B; Bouza, E; Clara, L; Elliott, T; Kanafani, Z; Klein, J; Lerakis, S; Levine, D; Spelman, D; Rubinstein, E; Tornos, P; Morris, A J; Pappas, P; Fowler, V G; Chu, V H; Cabell, C

    2008-07-01

    Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore the epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2,716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis-Prospective Cohort Study (ICE-PCS). Patients were enrolled and the data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. We noted that patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p < 0.001), short-term indwelling catheters (p < 0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infections (p < 0.001). The reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2%, p = 0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p = 0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p = 0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p = 0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE.

  2. Candida Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Baddley, John W.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Patel, Mukesh; Miró, José; Athan, Eugene; Barsic, Bruno; Bouza, Emilio; Clara, Liliana; Elliott, Tom; Kanafani, Zeina; Klein, John; Lerakis, Stamatios; Levine, Donald; Spelman, Denis; Rubinstein, Ethan; Tornos, Pilar; Morris, Arthur J.; Pappas, Paul; Fowler, Vance G.; Chu, Vivian H.; Cabell, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Candida infective endocarditis (IE) is uncommon but often fatal. Most epidemiologic data are derived from small case series or case reports. This study was conducted to explore epidemiology, treatment patterns, and outcomes of patients with Candida IE. Methods We compared 33 Candida IE cases to 2716 patients with non-fungal IE in the International Collaboration on Endocarditis - Prospective Cohort Study. Patients were enrolled and data collected from June 2000 until August 2005. Results Patients with Candida IE were more likely to have prosthetic valves (p<0.001), short term indwelling catheters (p<0.0001), and have healthcare-associated infection (p<0.001). Reasons for surgery differed between the two groups: myocardial abscess (46.7% vs. 22.2% p=0.026) and persistent positive blood cultures (33.3% vs. 9.9%, p=0.003) were more common among those with Candida IE. Mortality at discharge was higher in patients with Candida IE (30.3%) when compared to non-fungal cases (17%, p=0.046). Among Candida patients, mortality was similar in patients who received combination surgical and antifungal therapy versus antifungal therapy alone (33.3% vs. 27.8%, p=0.26). New antifungal drugs, particularly echinocandins, were used frequently. Conclusions These multi-center data suggest distinct epidemiologic features of Candida IE when compared to non-fungal cases. Indications for surgical intervention are different and mortality is increased. Newer antifungal treatment options are increasingly used. Large, multi-center studies are needed to help better define Candida IE. PMID:18283504

  3. Filamentous Fungi.

    PubMed

    Powers-Fletcher, Margaret V; Kendall, Brian A; Griffin, Allen T; Hanson, Kimberly E

    2016-06-01

    Filamentous mycoses are often associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Prompt diagnosis and aggressive treatment are essential for good clinical outcomes in immunocompromised patients. The host immune response plays an essential role in determining the course of exposure to potential fungal pathogens. Depending on the effectiveness of immune response and the burden of organism exposure, fungi can either be cleared or infection can occur and progress to a potentially fatal invasive disease. Nonspecific cellular immunity (i.e., neutrophils, natural killer [NK] cells, and macrophages) combined with T-cell responses are the main immunologic mechanisms of protection. The most common potential mold pathogens include certain hyaline hyphomycetes, endemic fungi, the Mucorales, and some dematiaceous fungi. Laboratory diagnostics aimed at detecting and differentiating these organisms are crucial to helping clinicians make informed decisions about treatment. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of the medically important fungal pathogens, as well as to discuss the patient characteristics, antifungal-therapy considerations, and laboratory tests used in current clinical practice for the immunocompromised host.

  4. Metal ions may suppress or enhance cellular differentiation in Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Joe J; Ceri, Howard; Yerly, Jerome; Rabiei, Maryam; Hu, Yaoping; Martinuzzi, Robert; Turner, Raymond J

    2007-08-01

    Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis are polymorphic fungi that develop antimicrobial-resistant biofilm communities that are characterized by multiple cell morphotypes. This study investigated cell type interconversion and drug and metal resistance as well as community organization in biofilms of these microorganisms that were exposed to metal ions. To study this, Candida biofilms were grown either in microtiter plates containing gradient arrays of metal ions or in the Calgary Biofilm Device for high-throughput susceptibility testing. Biofilm formation and antifungal resistance were evaluated by viable cell counts, tetrazolium salt reduction, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy in conjunction with three-dimensional visualization. We discovered that subinhibitory concentrations of certain metal ions (CrO(4)(2-), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ag(+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Pb(2+), AsO(2)(-), and SeO(3)(2-)) caused changes in biofilm structure by blocking or eliciting the transition between yeast and hyphal cell types. Four distinct biofilm community structure types were discerned from these data, which were designated "domed," "layer cake," "flat," and "mycelial." This study suggests that Candida biofilm populations may respond to metal ions to form cell-cell and solid-surface-attached assemblages with distinct patterns of cellular differentiation.

  5. Fungi in the healthy human gastrointestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E.; Suhr, Mallory J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology. The gut mycobiome appears less stable than the bacterial microbiome, and is likely subject to environmental factors. PMID:27736307

  6. Fungi in the healthy human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hallen-Adams, Heather E; Suhr, Mallory J

    2017-04-03

    Many species of fungi have been detected in the healthy human gut; however, nearly half of all taxa reported have only been found in one sample or one study. Fungi capable of growing in and colonizing the gut are limited to a small number of species, mostly Candida yeasts and yeasts in the family Dipodascaceae (Galactomyces, Geotrichum, Saprochaete). Malassezia and the filamentous fungus Cladosporium are potential colonizers; more work is needed to clarify their role. Other commonly-detected fungi come from the diet or environment but either cannot or do not colonize (Penicillium and Debaryomyces species, which are common on fermented foods but cannot grow at human body temperature), while still others have dietary or environmental sources (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation agent and sometime probiotic; Aspergillus species, ubiquitous molds) yet are likely to impact gut ecology. The gut mycobiome appears less stable than the bacterial microbiome, and is likely subject to environmental factors.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of mucocutaneous immunity against Candida and Staphylococcus species.

    PubMed

    Maródi, László; Cypowyj, Sophie; Tóth, Beáta; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2012-11-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are key components of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic microorganisms. Recent research on primary immunodeficiency disorders and the identification of patients carrying germline mutations in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5B have highlighted the role of human STATs in host defense against various viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 disrupt various cytokine pathways that control mucocutaneous immunity against Candida species, especially Candida albicans, and Staphylococcus species, especially Staphylococcus aureus. Here we consider inborn errors of immunity arising from mutations in either STAT1 or STAT3 that affect mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococcus species. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular mechanisms of mucocutaneous immunity against Candida and Staphylococci

    PubMed Central

    Maródi, László; Cypowyj, Sophie; Tóth, Beáta; Chernyshova, Liudmyla; Puel, Anne; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are key components of the innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic microorganisms. Recent research on primary immunodeficiency disorders and the identification of patients carrying germline mutations in STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5B have highlighted the role of human STATs in host defense against various viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Mutations in STAT1 and STAT3 may disrupt various cytokine pathways that control mucocutaneous immunity against Candida species, especially Candida albicans, and Staphylococci, especially Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we consider inborn errors of immunity arising from mutations in either STAT1 or STAT3 that affect mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and Staphylococci. PMID:23040277

  9. Candida glabrata Biofilms: How Far Have We Come?

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Célia F.; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Silva, Sónia; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Infections caused by Candida species have been increasing in the last decades and can result in local or systemic infections, with high morbidity and mortality. After Candida albicans, Candida glabrata is one of the most prevalent pathogenic fungi in humans. In addition to the high antifungal drugs resistance and inability to form hyphae or secret hydrolases, C. glabrata retain many virulence factors that contribute to its extreme aggressiveness and result in a low therapeutic response and serious recurrent candidiasis, particularly biofilm formation ability. For their extraordinary organization, especially regarding the complex structure of the matrix, biofilms are very resistant to antifungal treatments. Thus, new approaches to the treatment of C. glabrata’s biofilms are emerging. In this article, the knowledge available on C. glabrata’s resistance will be highlighted, with a special focus on biofilms, as well as new therapeutic alternatives to control them. PMID:29371530

  10. [Correlation between clinical characteristics and mycological tests in the vulvovaginitis by Candida].

    PubMed

    Buitrón García, Rafael; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Amancio Chassin, Octavio; Basurto Kuba, Erich; Araiza, Javier; Romero Cabello, Raúl

    2007-02-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Candida sp is one of the most frequent infections. To culture and to identify the fungi related to clinical manifestations of patients based on a suspected diagnosis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. A prospective, transversal and comparative study was performed on 181 women older than 18 years with vulvovaginitis by Candida sp. A correlation was made between the clinical characteristics of this entity and mycological tests such as direct examination and cultures. The direct exam or fresh vaginal exam and cervical sample was positive for the different microscopic forms of Candida (blastoconidia, pseudohyphye or pseudomycelia) in 60.8% (110 women); at the same time that cultures were positive for Candida sp in 51.9% (94 patients). The direct examination and the cultures of vaginal and cervical exudate are mandatory tests for diagnosis of Candida sp in women with vulvovaginitis.

  11. A case of Candida guilliermondii abortion in an Arab mare

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Lepri, Elvio; Coletti, Mauro; Casagrande Proietti, Patrizia; Agnetti, Francesco; Crotti, Silvia; Pitzurra, Lucia; Del Sero, Andrea; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Ascending infections of equine uterus frequently result in placentitis and abortions; most of these infections are bacterial and are less commonly due to fungi. This report describes an abortion case in an Arab mare due to Candida guilliermondii that was diagnosed via cytological, histological, cultural and biomolecular assays. The histological lesions found were severe necrotizing placentitis associated with fetal pneumonia. To our knowledge this is the first case of C. guilliermondii abortion reported in equine species. PMID:24707460

  12. Identification of fungi in shotgun metagenomics datasets

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Paul D.; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Higgins, Desmond G.

    2018-01-01

    Metagenomics uses nucleic acid sequencing to characterize species diversity in different niches such as environmental biomes or the human microbiome. Most studies have used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify bacteria. However, the decreasing cost of sequencing has resulted in a gradual shift away from amplicon analyses and towards shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Shotgun metagenomic data can be used to identify a wide range of species, but have rarely been applied to fungal identification. Here, we develop a sequence classification pipeline, FindFungi, and use it to identify fungal sequences in public metagenome datasets. We focus primarily on animal metagenomes, especially those from pig and mouse microbiomes. We identified fungi in 39 of 70 datasets comprising 71 fungal species. At least 11 pathogenic species with zoonotic potential were identified, including Candida tropicalis. We identified Pseudogymnoascus species from 13 Antarctic soil samples initially analyzed for the presence of bacteria capable of degrading diesel oil. We also show that Candida tropicalis and Candida loboi are likely the same species. In addition, we identify several examples where contaminating DNA was erroneously included in fungal genome assemblies. PMID:29444186

  13. Mixed Fungal Lung Infection with Aspergillus Fumigatus and Candida Albicans in a Immunocomprimised Patient: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Vipparti, Haritha

    2014-01-01

    The frequency of invasive, opportunistic mycoses has increased significantly over the past 2 decades. In the immune-compromised host, many fungi, including species of fungi typically considered non-pathogenic, have the potential to cause serious morbidity and mortality. Here we report a rare case of mixed fungal infection of the lung with Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus in a patient on prolonged steroid therapy. PMID:24959447

  14. The immune response against Candida spp. and Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Pérez-García, Luis A; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the main causative agent of systemic candidiasis, a condition with high mortality rates. The study of the interaction between C. albicans and immune system components has been thoroughly studied and nowadays there is a model for the anti-C. albicans immune response; however, little is known about the sensing of other pathogenic species of the Candida genus. Sporothrix schenckii is the causative agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis, and thus far there is limited information about its interaction with the immune system. In this paper, we review the most recent information about the immune sensing of species from genus Candida and S. schenckii. Thoroughly searches in scientific journal databases were performed, looking for papers addressing either Candida- or Sporothrix-immune system interactions. There is a significant advance in the knowledge of non-C. albicans species of Candida and Sporothrix immune sensing; however, there are still relevant points to address, such as the specific contribution of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) for sensing by different immune cells and the immune receptors involved in such interactions. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Cheilitis as a variation of Candida-associated lesions.

    PubMed

    Terai, H; Shimahara, M

    2006-05-01

    Occasionally, the clinical diagnosis of Candida-associated lesion is difficult because of a variety of its clinical manifestations. There have been a few reports on Candida-associated lip lesion except angular cheilitis. In this paper, we investigate the relation of Candida in persistent lesions of the lip. The present study includes consecutive nine patients with persistent erosive lip lesion. For each patient the age at presentation, gender, duration of the disease, other symptoms or signs, complete medical history and prior treatment or medications for the symptom were obtained. Then, mycological examination and the direct cytologic examination were performed. The reported average duration of the disease was 7 months. Six of nine patients had received prior treatments with topical steroids at the other clinic, which failed to resolve their symptoms. Six of nine patients had a predisposing factor for candidiasis. In the culture examination, Candida albicans were isolated in seven patients (77.8%). Five of nine patients received the direct cytologic examination, and four of them revealed pseudohyphae of fungi. The anti-fungal treatment was miconazol gel 25 mg four times per day, and average duration of the treatment was 2 weeks. The outcome was as follows: complete remission in five, remarkable response in two and no response in two. Our results suggested that one form of the varieties of Candida-associated lesions might be considered in the case of lip lesion with unknown origin that was persistent and ineffective to the topical steroids treatment.

  16. Cell wall proteome of pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Karkowska-Kuleta, Justyna; Kozik, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    A fast development of a wide variety of proteomic techniques supported by mass spectrometry coupled with high performance liquid chromatography has been observed in recent years. It significantly contributes to the progress in research on the cell wall, very important part of the cells of pathogenic fungi. This complicated structure composed of different polysaccharides, proteins, lipids and melanin, plays a key role in interactions with the host during infection. Changes in the set of the surface-exposed proteins under different environmental conditions provide an effective way for pathogens to respond, adapt and survive in the new niches of infection. This work summarizes the current state of knowledge on proteins, studied both qualitatively and quantitatively, and found within the cell wall of fungal pathogens for humans, including Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and other medically important fungi. The described proteomic studies involved the isolation and fractionation of particular sets of proteins of interest with various techniques, often based on differences in their linkages to the polysaccharide scaffold. Furthermore, the proteinaceous contents of extracellular vesicles ("virulence bags") of C. albicans, C. neoformans, Histoplasma capsulatum and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis are compared, because their production can partially explain the problem of non-classical protein secretion by fungi. The role assigned to surface-exposed proteins in pathogenesis of fungal infections is enormously high, thus justifying the need for further investigation of cell wall proteomes.

  17. Neuroinfections caused by fungi.

    PubMed

    Góralska, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna; Dzikowiec, Magdalena

    2018-05-21

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (FIs-CNS) have become significantly more common over the past 2 decades. Invasion of the CNS largely depends on the immune status of the host and the virulence of the fungal strain. Infections with fungi cause a significant morbidity in immunocompromised hosts, and the involvement of the CNS may lead to fatal consequences. One hundred and thirty-five articles on fungal neuroinfection in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases were selected for review using the following search words: "fungi and CNS mycoses", CNS fungal infections", "fungal brain infections", " fungal cerebritis", fungal meningitis", "diagnostics of fungal infections", and "treatment of CNS fungal infections". All were published in English with the majority in the period 2000-2018. This review focuses on the current knowledge of the epidemiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of selected FIs-CNS. The FIs-CNS can have various clinical presentations, mainly meningitis, encephalitis, hydrocephalus, cerebral abscesses, and stroke syndromes. The etiologic factors of neuroinfections are yeasts (Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida spp., Trichosporon spp.), moniliaceous moulds (Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp.), Mucoromycetes (Mucor spp., Rhizopus spp.), dimorphic fungi (Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides spp., Histoplasma capsulatum), and dematiaceous fungi (Cladophialophora bantiana, Exophiala dermatitidis). Their common route of transmission is inhalation or inoculation from trauma or surgery, with subsequent hematogenous or contiguous spread. As the manifestations of FIs-CNS are often non-specific, their diagnosis is very difficult. A fast identification of the etiological factor of neuroinfection and the application of appropriate therapy are crucial in preventing an often fatal outcome. The choice of effective drug depends on its extent of CNS penetration and spectrum of activity. Pharmaceutical formulations of amphotericin B

  18. The Relation between Oral Candida Load and Bacterial Microbiome Profiles in Dutch Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kraneveld, Eefje A.; Buijs, Mark J.; Bonder, Marc J.; Visser, Marjolein; Keijser, Bart J. F.; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no evidence-based ecological measures for prevention of overgrowth and subsequent infection by fungi in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge on fungal–bacterial ecological interactions. Salivary Candida abundance of 82 Dutch adults aged 58–80 years was established relative to the bacterial load by quantitative PCR analysis of the Internal Transcribed (ITS) region (Candida) and 16S rDNA gene (bacteria). The salivary microbiome was assessed using barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial hypervariable regions V5–V7 of 16S rDNA. Sequencing data was preprocessed by denoising and chimera removal, clustered in Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and assigned to taxonomy. Both OTU-based (PCA, diversity statistics) and phylogeny-based analyses (UniFrac, PCoA) were performed. Saliva of Dutch older adults contained 0–4 × 108 CFU/mL Candida with a median Candida load of 0.06%. With increased Candida load the diversity of the salivary microbiome decreased significantly (p<0.001). Increase in the Candida load correlated positively with class Bacilli, and negatively with class Fusobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidia. Microbiomes with high Candida load were less diverse and had a distinct microbial composition towards dominance by saccharolytic and acidogenic bacteria - streptococci. The control of the acidification of the oral environment may be a potential preventive measure for Candida outgrowth that should be evaluated in longitudinal clinical intervention trials. PMID:22900048

  19. The relation between oral Candida load and bacterial microbiome profiles in Dutch older adults.

    PubMed

    Kraneveld, Eefje A; Buijs, Mark J; Bonder, Marc J; Visser, Marjolein; Keijser, Bart J F; Crielaard, Wim; Zaura, Egija

    2012-01-01

    Currently there are no evidence-based ecological measures for prevention of overgrowth and subsequent infection by fungi in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge on fungal-bacterial ecological interactions. Salivary Candida abundance of 82 Dutch adults aged 58-80 years was established relative to the bacterial load by quantitative PCR analysis of the Internal Transcribed (ITS) region (Candida) and 16S rDNA gene (bacteria). The salivary microbiome was assessed using barcoded pyrosequencing of the bacterial hypervariable regions V5-V7 of 16S rDNA. Sequencing data was preprocessed by denoising and chimera removal, clustered in Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) and assigned to taxonomy. Both OTU-based (PCA, diversity statistics) and phylogeny-based analyses (UniFrac, PCoA) were performed. Saliva of Dutch older adults contained 0-4 × 10(8) CFU/mL Candida with a median Candida load of 0.06%. With increased Candida load the diversity of the salivary microbiome decreased significantly (p<0.001). Increase in the Candida load correlated positively with class Bacilli, and negatively with class Fusobacteria, Flavobacteria, and Bacteroidia. Microbiomes with high Candida load were less diverse and had a distinct microbial composition towards dominance by saccharolytic and acidogenic bacteria--streptococci. The control of the acidification of the oral environment may be a potential preventive measure for Candida outgrowth that should be evaluated in longitudinal clinical intervention trials.

  20. Comparative effect of propolis of honey bee and some herbal extracts on Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz

    2017-03-01

    To determine the effect of propolis on Candida albicans and to compare it with the effects of some other herbal extracts and antibiotics on this pathogenic fungi. The extracts of propolis, Thymus vulgaris, Caryophillium aromaticus, Echinophora platyloba, Allium cepa and Cinnamomum zeylanicum were prepared and the antifungi effects of the extracts were examined on Candida albicans ATCC10231 using disc-diffusion assay and micro-broth dilution. The minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) as well as inhibition zone were evaluated and the anti fungi effects of herbal extracts were compared with amphotricin B and nystatin at the times of 24, 48 and 72 h. Data analysis was performed using t test. Obtained results showed that propolis extract with MIC 90 and MFC equal to 39 and 65 μg/mL, respectively, possess the highest antifungal activity when compared with other studied extracts. The extracts of Allium cepa and Thymus vulgaris, with MFC of 169 and 137 μg/mL, respectively, showed the lowest effects on the fungi. Also nystatin and amphotricin B yielded better effects on the tested fungi compared with the effects of all studied extracts on Candida albicans. Propolis extract is effective in controlling Candida albicans. However, the issue requires further investigation on samples in animals and performing toxicological examinations.

  1. Performance of Candida ID, a New Chromogenic Medium for Presumptive Identification of Candida Species, in Comparison to CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Willinger, Birgit; Hillowoth, Cornelia; Selitsch, Brigitte; Manafi, Mammad

    2001-01-01

    Candida ID agar allows identification of Candida albicans and differentiation of other Candida species. In comparison with CHROMagar Candida, we evaluated the performance of this medium directly from 596 clinical specimens. In particular, detection of C. albicans after 24 h of incubation was easier on Candida ID (sensitivity, 96.8%) than on CHROMagar (sensitivity, 49.6%). PMID:11574621

  2. Candida/Candida biofilms. First description of dual-species Candida albicans/C. rugosa biofilm.

    PubMed

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Pires, Regina Helena; Cunha, Aline Oliveira; Pereira, Cristiane Aparecida Martins; Singulani, Junya de Lacorte; Abrão, Fariza; Moraes, Thais de; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2016-04-01

    Denture liners have physical properties that favour plaque accumulation and colonization by Candida species, irritating oral tissues and causing denture stomatitis. To isolate and determine the incidence of oral Candida species in dental prostheses, oral swabs were collected from the dental prostheses of 66 patients. All the strains were screened for their ability to form biofilms; both monospecies and dual-species combinations were tested. Candida albicans (63 %) was the most frequently isolated microorganism; Candida tropicalis (14 %), Candida glabrata (13 %), Candida rugosa (5 %), Candida parapsilosis (3 %), and Candida krusei (2 %) were also detected. The XTT assay showed that C. albicans SC5314 possessed a biofilm-forming ability significantly higher (p < 0.001) than non-albicans Candida strains, after 6 h 37 °C. The total C. albicans CFU from a dual-species biofilm was less than the total CFU of a monospecies C. albicans biofilm. In contrast to the profuse hyphae verified in monospecies C. albicans biofilms, micrographies showed that the C. albicans/non-albicans Candida biofilms consisted of sparse yeast forms and profuse budding yeast cells that generated a network. These results suggested that C. albicans and the tested Candida species could co-exist in biofilms displaying apparent antagonism. The study provide the first description of C. albicans/C. rugosa mixed biofilm. Copyright © 2016 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Description of Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. for placement of Candida auringiensis, Candida salmanticensis and Candida tartarivorans.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2016-07-01

    DNA sequence analyses have demonstrated that species of the polyphyletic anamorphic ascomycete genus Candida may be members of described teleomorphic genera, members of the Candida tropicalis clade upon which the genus Candida is circumscribed, or members of isolated clades that represent undescribed genera. From phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from nuclear large subunit rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II, Candida auringiensis (NRRL Y-17674(T), CBS 6913(T)), Candida salmanticensis (NRRL Y-17090(T), CBS 5121(T)), and Candida tartarivorans (NRRL Y-27291(T), CBS 7955(T)) were shown to be members of an isolated clade and are proposed for reclassification in the genus Groenewaldozyma gen. nov. (MycoBank MB 815817). Neighbouring taxa include species of the Wickerhamiella clade and Candida blankii.

  4. Candida and the paediatric lung.

    PubMed

    Pasqualotto, Alessandro C

    2009-12-01

    Although systemic candidosis is common in hospitalised children, Candida involvement of lung parenchyma is rare and usually perceived only at autopsy. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence regarding lung involvement in Candida infections, with special attention to paediatric patients. Primary Candida pneumonia is rare and usually associated with aspiration of oropharyngeal contents. The majority of cases of Candida pneumonia are secondary to haematological dissemination of Candida organisms from a distant site, usually the gastrointestinal tract or the skin. The diagnosis of pulmonary candidosis is difficult because there is no specific clinical or radiological presentation. In addition, the presence of Candida in sputum or other respiratory specimens mostly represents contamination. A definitive diagnosis of Candida pneumonia requires histopathologic proof of lung invasion in association with inflammation. Children can also be affected by pulmonary allergic reactions caused by Candida species. Treatment of Candida pneumonia is essentially the same as for candidaemia. Preliminary evidence suggests that patients with severe asthma sensitised to Candida species may also benefit from antifungal drugs.

  5. Chemical ecology of fungi.

    PubMed

    Spiteller, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  6. Hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy detects autofluorescent factors that can be exploited as a diagnostic method for Candida species differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Graus, Matthew S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    Fungi in the Candida genus are the most common fungal pathogens. They not only cause high morbidity and mortality but can also cost billions of dollars in healthcare. To alleviate this burden, early and accurate identification of Candida species is necessary. However, standard identification procedures can take days and have a large false negative error. The method described in this study takes advantage of hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy, which enables the capability to quickly and accurately identify and characterize the unique autofluorescence spectra from different Candida species with up to 84% accuracy when grown in conditions that closely mimic physiologicalmore » conditions.« less

  7. Hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy detects autofluorescent factors that can be exploited as a diagnostic method for Candida species differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graus, Matthew S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Fungi in the Candida genus are the most common fungal pathogens. They not only cause high morbidity and mortality but can also cost billions of dollars in healthcare. To alleviate this burden, early and accurate identification of Candida species is necessary. However, standard identification procedures can take days and have a large false negative error. The method described in this study takes advantage of hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy, which enables the capability to quickly and accurately identify and characterize the unique autofluorescence spectra from different Candida species with up to 84% accuracy when grown in conditions that closely mimic physiological conditions.

  8. Hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy detects autofluorescent factors that can be exploited as a diagnostic method for Candida species differentiation

    DOE PAGES

    Graus, Matthew S.; Neumann, Aaron K.; Timlin, Jerilyn A.

    2017-01-05

    Fungi in the Candida genus are the most common fungal pathogens. They not only cause high morbidity and mortality but can also cost billions of dollars in healthcare. To alleviate this burden, early and accurate identification of Candida species is necessary. However, standard identification procedures can take days and have a large false negative error. The method described in this study takes advantage of hyperspectral confocal fluorescence microscopy, which enables the capability to quickly and accurately identify and characterize the unique autofluorescence spectra from different Candida species with up to 84% accuracy when grown in conditions that closely mimic physiologicalmore » conditions.« less

  9. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida...

  10. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida...

  11. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.160 Candida guilliermondii. The food additive Candida... the following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida...

  12. The Candida Pathogenic Species Complex

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Siobhán A.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    Candida species are the most common causes of fungal infection. Approximately 90% of infections are caused by five species: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, and Candida krusei. Three (C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis) belong to the CTG clade, in which the CTG codon is translated as serine and not leucine. C. albicans remains the most commonly isolated but is decreasing relative to the other species. The increasing incidence of C. glabrata is related to its reduced susceptibility to azole drugs. Genome analysis suggests that virulence in the CTG clade is associated with expansion of gene families, particularly of cell wall genes. Similar independent processes took place in the C. glabrata species group. Gene loss and expansion in an ancestor of C. glabrata may have resulted in preadaptations that enabled pathogenicity. PMID:25183855

  13. Antifungal activity of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Chee, Hee Youn; Lee, Min Hee

    2007-12-01

    Antifungal activities of clove essential oil and its volatile vapour against dermatophytic fungi including Candida albicans, Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum were investigated. Both clove essential oil and its volatile vapour strongly inhibit spore germination and mycelial growth of the dermatophytic fungi tested. The volatile vapour of clove essential oil showed fungistatic activity whereas direct application of clove essential oil showed fungicidal activity.

  14. Mucoralean fungi for sustainable production of bioethanol and biologically active molecules.

    PubMed

    Satari, Behzad; Karimi, Keikhosro

    2018-02-01

    Mucoralean fungi are suitable microorganisms for the sustainable production of food, fodder, and fuels from inexpensive natural resources. Ethanol-producing Mucorales are particularly advantageous for second-generation ethanol production in comparison to the conventional ethanolic yeasts and bacteria. They are able to ferment a wide range of sugars to a range of valuable products, while they are typically resistance against the inhibitors available in different substrates, including untreated lignocellulosic hydrolysates. In addition to a high ethanol yield, the fungi produce several commercially valuable by-products, including chitosan, microbial oil (mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids), and protein. Moreover, the fungal extracts can replace the expensive nutrients required in fermentation. Besides, their morphologies can be altered from filamentous to yeast like and are adjustable based on the process requirement. The focus of this review is on applying Mucorales in producing ethanol and the biomass by-products thereof.

  15. Antibiosis of vineyard ecosystem fungi against food-borne microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Carolina; Moreno-Arribas, M Victoria; Bartolomé, Begoña; Salazar, Óscar; Vicente, M Francisca; Bills, Gerald F

    2011-12-01

    Fermentation extracts from fungi isolated from vineyard ecosystems were tested for antimicrobial activities against a set of test microorganisms, including five food-borne pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus EP167, Acinetobacter baumannii (clinically isolated), Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, Escherichia coli O157:H7 (CECT 5947) and Candida albicans MY1055) and two probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum LCH17 and Lactobacillus brevis LCH23). A total of 182 fungi was grown in eight different media, and the fermentation extracts were screened for antimicrobial activity. A total of 71 fungi produced extracts active against at least one pathogenic microorganism, but not against any probiotic bacteria. The Gram-positive bacterium S. aureus EP167 was more susceptible to antimicrobial fungi broth extracts than Gram-negative bacteria and pathogenic fungi. Identification of active fungi based on internal transcribed spacer rRNA sequence analysis revealed that species in the orders Pleosporales, Hypocreales and Xylariales dominated. Differences in antimicrobial selectivity were observed among isolates from the same species. Some compounds present in the active extracts were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial metabolites produced by vineyard ecosystem fungi may potentially limit colonization and spoilage of food products by food-borne pathogens, with minimal effect on probiotic bacteria. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [Fungi isolated from the vagina and their susceptibility to antifungals].

    PubMed

    Macura, Anna B; Skóra, Magdalena

    2012-06-01

    Because of the presence of various fungi and changes in their spectrum in the mycosis of vagina it is necessary to perform periodic overviews including testing their susceptibility to antifungal agents. The objective of the study was to evaluate susceptibility of the fungi isolated from vaginas to antifungal drugs and to analyse the fungi responsible for vaginal mycosis in patients referred during a 7-year study The study was carried out in a group of patients suspected of vaginal mycosis between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2011. An analysis of the fungi isolated from their vaginas was performed. The susceptibility of the fungi to six antifungals (5-fluorocytosine, amphotericin B, miconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole) was evaluated using a semiquantitative Fungitest. A total of 4775 mycological test results were evaluated. Fungi were present in 30.6% of the material. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated fungal species (80.2%), followed by C. glabrata (5.8%), and S. cerevisiae (5.5%). Itraconazole turned out to be the least effective drug. C. krusei. was the species most resistant to antifungals, including fluconazole. 1. C. albicans is the species most frequently isolated from a vagina. It is highly susceptible to azoles, the antimycotics generally used in the treatment of vaginal mycosis. 2. Out of the azoles under study ketoconazole was the most active against fungi in vitro while itraconazole was the least active. 3. The Candida non-albicans species, and particularly C. krusei, are less susceptible to antimycotics. 4. Amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine are most effective against Candida strains and S. cerevisiae, however they are not used in the treatment of vaginal mycosis because of their high toxicity

  17. Hichrom candida agar for identification of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Baradkar, V P; Mathur, M; Kumar, S

    2010-01-01

    Chromogenic media are frequently used in direct and rapid identification of yeasts because different Candida species produce unique colors on these media. We used 60 isolates of Candida species including 30 C. albicans, 10 C. parapsilosis, 11 C. glabrata, five C. tropicalis, and four C. dubliniensis, isolated from various clinical specimens, to evaluate the performance of HiChrome Candida agar. These strains had been identified by germ tube test, morphology on cornmeal agar, chlamydospore formation on tobacco agar and sugar assimilation tests. The sensitivity and specificity results were: C. albicans (96.55 and 96.42%); C. parapsilosis (80 and 98.03%), C. glabrata (90.90 and 88.23%), C. tropicalis (100 and 100%) and C. dubliniensis (60 and 96.55%) respectively. HiChrom Candida agaris medium has been useful and capable of presumptive, rapid identification of Candida species within 48 hours.

  18. Candida Parapsilosis and Candida Guillermondii: Emerging Pathogens in Nail Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Fich, Felix; Abarzúa-Araya, Alvaro; Pérez, Mario; Nauhm, Yalile; León, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis of the fingernails and toenails is generally caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. Toenail mycoses involve mainly dermatophytes but when Candida is also involved, the strain most commonly isolated worldwide is C. albicans. Aims: To determine Candida strains prevailing in onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, observational and descriptive study of fungal cultures retrieved from the registry of the microbiology laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica was performed. Specimens obtained from patients attending the healthcare network between December 2007 and December 2010 was analyzed. Statistical Analysis: A descriptive statistical analysis was performed. Results: Candida was retrieved from 467 of 8443 specimens (52% fingernails and 48% toenails). Cultures were negative in 5320 specimens (63.6%). Among Candida-positive cultures, parapsilosis was the most commonly isolated strain with 202 cases (43.3%). While isolates of Candida guillermondii were 113 (24.2%), those of Candida albicans were 110 (23.6%), those of spp. were 20 (4.3%) and there were 22 cases of other isolates (4.71%). Among the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida, 136 (29,1%) were men and 331 (70,9%) were women. All patients were older than 18 years old. Clinical files were available for only 169 of the 467 patients with positive cultures for Candida. For those, age, gender, underlying illnesses and use of immunossupresive agents during the trial was reviewed. Conclusions: The present study shows that both C. parapsilosis as well as C. guillermondii appear as emerging pathogens that would be in fact taking the place of C. albicans as the most commonly isolated pathogen in patients with Candida onychomycosis. The relative percentage of C parapsilosis increases every year. Identification of Candida strains as etiological agents of nail candidiasis becomes relevant to the management both nail as well as systemic candidiasis, in view of the

  19. Candida spp. and gingivitis in children with nephrotic syndrome or type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Pyrżak, Beata; Dąbkowska, Maria; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Miszkurka, Grażyna; Rogozińska, Izabela; Swoboda-Kopeć, Ewa; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kalińska, Angelika; Piróg, Anna; Mizerska-Wasiak, Małgorzata; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria

    2015-05-08

    Diabetes and Nephrotic syndrome (NS) promote plaque-related gingivitis and yeast-like fungal infections. The study assesses the impact of Candida spp. and general disease- or treatment-related factors on plaque-related gingivitis severity in children and adolescents with Nephrotic syndrome /diabetes. Body mass index (BMI), BMI standard deviation score, and oral cavity (Plaque Index--PLI, Gingival Index--GI, mucosa status, presence and Candida enzymatic activity) were assessed in 96 patients (32 with NS: 30- immunosuppressive treatment, 35--type 1 diabetes, and 29 generally healthy), aged; 3-18 years. Laboratory included cholesterol and triglyceride measurements; in diabetic subjects- glycated haemoglobin, in NS: total protein, albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, haematocrit, white cell count, urinary protein excretion. Medical records supplied information on disease duration and treatment. A statistical analysis was performed; Kendall Tau coefficient, chi-square test, t-test, and multiple regression analysis ( P < 0.05). Candida spp. often occurred in healthy patients, but oral candidiasis was found only in the NS and diabetes groups (9.37% and 11.43%). Gingivitis occurred more frequently in patients with NS/diabetes. Gingivitis severity was correlated with PLI, age, and yeast enzyme activity in NS--to with immunosuppressive treatment with >1 drug, drug doses, treatment duration, lipid disorders, and BMI; in diabetes, with blood glucose and glycated haemoglobin >8%. Poor hygiene control is the main cause of gingivitis. Gingivitis severity is most likely related to age, lipid disorders and increase in body mass. Candida spp., in uncompensated diabetes and in those using immunosuppressive treatment, might intensify plaque-related gingivitis.

  20. Candida Infections of Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Kojic, Erna M.; Darouiche, Rabih O.

    2004-01-01

    The number of indwelling medical devices is escalating, and an increasing proportion of device-related infections are being caused by Candida spp. Candida spp. produce biofilms on synthetic materials, which facilitates adhesion of the organisms to devices and renders them relatively refractory to medical therapy. Management of device-related Candida infections can be challenging. Removal of the infected device is generally needed to establish cure of Candida infections of medical devices. However, since the pathogenesis of Candida bloodstream infection is complicated, more studies are necessary to determine the role of catheter exchange in patients with both gastrointestinal tract mucositis and indwelling catheters. The medical and economic impact of these infections is enormous. PMID:15084500

  1. Search for correlation between symptoms and signs of changes in the oral mucosa and presence of fungi.

    PubMed

    Kurnatowska, A J

    2001-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship between the symptoms and signs of oral mucosal changes and the presence of fungi. The investigation comprised 235 subjects. Fungi were detected in the oral cavities of 196 of these subjects. The fungi belonged to different species of the genus Candida. A significant correlation was found between the presence of fungi in the oral cavity and the existence of burning sensation, xerostomia, dysgeusia and non-idiopathic bleeding from the surface of the oral mucosa. A similar correlation was observed between the fungal colonization and atrophic changes, as well as reddened oral mucosa with lesions, ulceration and keratotic problems.

  2. Management of Candida guilliermondii joint infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, Antonello; Maggio, Chiara; Moretti, Giulia; Crovace, Alberto; Stefanetti, Valentina; Straubinger, Reinhard Konrad; Passamonti, Fabrizio

    2016-07-08

    Candida spp. are dimorphic fungi in the family Cryptococcaceae. Infections with Candida spp. are usually rare conditions in dogs, but immunocompromised patients have a higher risk for developing invasive candidal infections. A 5-year-old male Boxer, positive to Leishmania infantum, was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Perugia, Italy for examination of a non-weight bearing left hind limb lameness of a duration of at least 3 months. During this period, treatment involved systemic anti-inflammatory medications and intra-articular corticosteroid administration. On presentation, clinical examination and radiographic findings were suggestive of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. To support this diagnosis a stifle arthroscopy was performed: it confirmed a partial rupture of cranial cruciate ligament. Samples culture of synovial fluid and membrane was routinely collected as well, and revealed Candida guilliermondii joint infection. Treatment for the C. guilliermondii joint infection involved systemic anti-fungal therapy, joint lavage and intra-articular administration of antifungal drugs. Lameness improved markedly during this treatment, but lameness did not resolve completely, probably due to cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. Tibial tuberosity advancement (TTA) was chosen in order to treat stifle instability and was performed 4 weeks following cessation of treatment of the C. guilliermondii joint infection. Six month after TTA the dog showed a completely recovery with no lameness. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of Candida spp. joint infection reported in dogs. The cause of the progression of the joint C. guilliermondii infection remains unclear but it may be associated with leishmaniasis or intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Treatment with systemic and intra-articular anti-fungal therapies was successful. In the evaluation of hind limb lameness in a chronically

  3. Commensal Fungi Recapitulate the Protective Benefits of Intestinal Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tony T; Shao, Tzu-Yu; Ang, W X Gladys; Kinder, Jeremy M; Turner, Lucien H; Pham, Giang; Whitt, Jordan; Alenghat, Theresa; Way, Sing Sing

    2017-12-13

    Commensal intestinal microbes are collectively beneficial in preventing local tissue injury and augmenting systemic antimicrobial immunity. However, given the near-exclusive focus on bacterial species in establishing these protective benefits, the contributions of other types of commensal microbes remain poorly defined. Here, we show that commensal fungi can functionally replace intestinal bacteria by conferring protection against injury to mucosal tissues and positively calibrating the responsiveness of circulating immune cells. Susceptibility to colitis and influenza A virus infection occurring upon commensal bacteria eradication is efficiently overturned by mono-colonization with either Candida albicans or Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The protective benefits of commensal fungi are mediated by mannans, a highly conserved component of fungal cell walls, since intestinal stimulation with this moiety alone overrides disease susceptibility in mice depleted of commensal bacteria. Thus, commensal enteric fungi safeguard local and systemic immunity by providing tonic microbial stimulation that can functionally replace intestinal bacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex and the Imperfect Fungi.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Paul S; Kück, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures. We then describe specific studies that led to the discovery of mating and sex in certain Candida , Aspergillus , Penicillium , and Trichoderma species and discuss the implications of sex including the beneficial exploitation of the sexual cycle. We next consider whether there might be any truly asexual fungal species. We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. Finally, we argue that fungal species should not be thought of as simply asexual or sexual, but rather as being composed of isolates on a continuum of sexual fertility.

  5. Diagnostic utility of melanin production by fungi: study on tissue sections and culture smears with Masson-Fontana stain.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Challa; Shantveer, G Uppin; Umabala, Pamidi; Lakshmi, Vemu

    2014-01-01

    Dematiaceous fungi appear brown in tissue section due to melanin in their cell walls. When the brown color is not seen on routine H and E and culture is not available, differentiation of dematiaceous fungi from other fungi is difficult on morphology alone. To study if melanin production by dematiaceous fungi can help differentiate them from other types of fungi. Fifty tissue sections of various fungal infections and 13 smears from cultures of different species of fungi were stained with Masson Fontana stain to assess melanin production. The tissue sections included biopsies from 26 culture-proven fungi and 24 biopsies of filamentous fungi diagnosed on morphology alone with no culture confirmation. All culture-proven dematiaceous fungi and Zygomycetes showed strong positivity in sections and culture smears. Aspergillus sp showed variable positivity and intensity. Cryptococcus neoformans showed strong positivity in tissue sections and culture smears. Tissue sections of septate filamentous fungi (9/15), Zygomycetes (4/5), and fungi with both hyphal and yeast morphology (4/4) showed positivity for melanin. The septate filamentous fungi negative for melanin were from biopsy samples of fungal sinusitis including both allergic and invasive fungal sinusitis and colonizing fungal balls. Melanin is produced by both dematiaceous and non-dematiaceous fungi. Masson-Fontana stain cannot reliably differentiate dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi like Aspergillus sp; however, absence of melanin in the hyphae may be used to rule out dematiaceous fungi from other filamentous fungi. In the differential diagnosis of yeast fungi, Cryptococcus sp can be differentiated from Candida sp by Masson-Fontana stain in tissue sections.

  6. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings

    PubMed Central

    Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J.; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Background: Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. Materials and Methods: One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. Results: The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Conclusion: Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases. PMID:23901339

  7. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Maryam; Bayat, Mansour; Hashemi, Seyed J; Zia, Mohammadali; Pestechian, Nader

    2013-01-01

    Invasive fungal infections cause considerable morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised hosts. Pigeon droppings could especially be a potential carrier in the spread of pathogenic yeasts and mold fungi into the environment. The objective of this study was to isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi from pigeon droppings. One hundred twenty samples of pigeon droppings were suspended 1:10 in saline solution and then cultured. Identification of C. neoformans was performed on bird seed agar, presence of a capsule on India ink preparation, urease production on urea agar medium and RapID yeast plus system. The identification of candida species was based on micro-morphological analysis on corn meal-Tween 80 agar, RapID yeast plus system and growth in CHROMagar candida. The identification of other fungi was based on macromorphologic, microscopic, biochemical and physiological characteristics. The highest frequency of yeasts and mold fungi were observed in Candida albicans 6.6% and Penicillium spp. 25%. The frequency rate of C. neoformans isolation was 2.5%. Several types of fungi are present in pigeon droppings that can spread in environment and transmit to children and elderly as well as immunocompromised patients who are at increased risk of contracting opportunistic diseases.

  8. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases.

    PubMed

    Bradford, L Latéy; Ravel, Jacques

    2017-04-03

    Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome.

  9. The vaginal mycobiome: A contemporary perspective on fungi in women's health and diseases

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of what is known about fungi in the human vagina has come from culture-based studies and phenotypic characterization of single organisms. Though valuable, these approaches have masked the complexity of fungal communities within the vagina. The vaginal mycobiome has become an emerging field of study as genomics tools are increasingly employed and we begin to appreciate the role these fungal communities play in human health and disease. Though vastly outnumbered by its bacterial counterparts, fungi are important constituents of the vaginal ecosystem in many healthy women. Candida albicans, an opportunistic fungal pathogen, colonizes 20% of women without causing any overt symptoms, yet it is one of the leading causes of infectious vaginitis. Understanding its mechanisms of commensalism and patho-genesis are both essential to developing more effective therapies. Describing the interactions between Candida, bacteria (such as Lactobacillus spp.) and other fungi in the vagina is funda-mental to our characterization of the vaginal mycobiome. PMID:27657355

  10. SALT WATER FUNGI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    strates Investigation of actinomycetales occurring in the marine environment Concurrent related mycological research program Systematics of pelagic fungi Biology and ecology of marine yeasts Concurrent bacteriological research programs

  11. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species.

    PubMed

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-10-29

    The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37 degrees C. The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar.

  12. Performance of CHROMAGAR candida and BIGGY agar for identification of yeast species

    PubMed Central

    Yücesoy, Mine; Marol, Serhat

    2003-01-01

    Background The importance of identifying the pathogenic fungi rapidly has encouraged the development of differential media for the presumptive identification of yeasts. In this study two differential media, CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar, were evaluated for the presumptive identification of yeast species. Methods A total number of 270 yeast strains including 169 Candida albicans, 33 C. tropicalis, 24 C. glabrata, 18 C. parapsilosis, 12 C. krusei, 5 Trichosporon spp., 4 C. kefyr, 2 C. lusitaniae, 1 Saccharomyces cerevisiae and 1 Geotrichum candidum were included. The strains were first identified by germ tube test, morphological characteristics on cornmeal tween 80 agar and Vitek 32 and API 20 C AUX systems. In parallel, they were also streaked onto CHROMagar Candida and bismuth sulphite glucose glycine yeast agar plates. The results were read according to the color, morphology of the colonies and the existance of halo around them after 48 hours of incubation at 37°C. Results The sensitivity and specificity values for C. albicans strains were found to be 99.4, 100% for CHROMagar Candida and 87.0, 75.2% for BiGGY agar, respectively. The sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida to identify C. tropicalis, C. glabrata and C. krusei ranged between 90.9 and 100% while the specificity was 100%. The sensitivity rates for BiGGY agar were 66.6 and 100% while the specificity values were found to be 95.4 and 100% for C. tropicalis and C. krusei, respectively. Conclusions It can be concluded that the use of CHROMagar Candida is an easy and reliable method for the presumptive identification of most commonly isolated Candida species especially C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei. The lower sensitivity and specificity of BiGGY agar to identify commonly isolated Candida species potentially limits the clinical usefulness of this agar. PMID:14613587

  13. A new assay based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism of homocitrate synthase gene fragments for Candida species identification.

    PubMed

    Szemiako, Kasjan; Śledzińska, Anna; Krawczyk, Beata

    2017-08-01

    Candida sp. have been responsible for an increasing number of infections, especially in patients with immunodeficiency. Species-specific differentiation of Candida sp. is difficult in routine diagnosis. This identification can have a highly significant association in therapy and prophylaxis. This work has shown a new application of the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (t-RFLP) method in the molecular identification of six species of Candida, which are the most common causes of fungal infections. Specific for fungi homocitrate synthase gene was chosen as a molecular target for amplification. The use of three restriction enzymes, DraI, RsaI, and BglII, for amplicon digestion can generate species-specific fluorescence labeled DNA fragment profiles, which can be used to determine the diagnostic algorithm. The designed method can be a cost-efficient high-throughput molecular technique for the identification of six clinically important Candida species.

  14. The problems of urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women.

    PubMed

    Tomczak, Hanna; Szałek, Edyta; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2014-08-29

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) in women are a growing clinical concern. The most frequent risk factors of UTIs with fungal aetiology in women are: antibiotic therapy (especially broad-spectrum antibiotics), immunosuppressive therapy, diabetes, malnutrition, pregnancy, and frequent intercourse. The aim of the study was to analyse urinary tract infections with Candida spp. aetiology in women hospitalised at the Clinical Hospital in Poznań, Poland, between 2009 and 2011. The investigations revealed that as many as 71% of positive urine cultures with Candida fungi came from women. The following fungi were most frequently isolated from the patients under analysis: C. albicans (47%), C. glabrata (31%), C. tropicalis (6%), C. krusei (3%). In order to diagnose a UTI the diagnosis cannot be based on a single result of a urine culture. Due to the small number of antifungal drugs and high costs of treatment, antifungal drugs should be applied with due consideration and care.

  15. Premature delivery due to intrauterine Candida infection that caused neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ito, Fumitake; Okubo, Tomoharu; Yasuo, Tadahiro; Mori, Taisuke; Iwasa, Koichi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Kitawaki, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Congenital cutaneous candidiasis is a very rare disease with less than 100 cases published in the medical literature. Neonates having this disease present with systemic skin lesions caused by intrauterine Candida infections. We present a case of threatened premature delivery due to Candida chorioamnionitis, which caused both maternal postpartum endometritis and neonatal congenital cutaneous candidiasis. A 34-year-old woman who was admitted for fetal membrane bulging at 20 weeks of gestation underwent McDonald cervical cerclage. We diagnosed threatened premature delivery due to intrauterine infection; therefore, we terminated the gestation by cesarean section at 24 weeks of gestation. Fungi-like yeast was detected in infantile gastric juice. Histopathological findings of the placenta revealed that Candida albicans mycelium invaded the placenta, chorioamniotic membrane and umbilical cord. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2012 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  16. Candida Species Biofilms’ Antifungal Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Sónia; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Araújo, Daniela; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana

    2017-01-01

    Candida infections (candidiasis) are the most prevalent opportunistic fungal infection on humans and, as such, a major public health problem. In recent decades, candidiasis has been associated to Candida species other than Candida albicans. Moreover, biofilms have been considered the most prevalent growth form of Candida cells and a strong causative agent of the intensification of antifungal resistance. As yet, no specific resistance factor has been identified as the sole responsible for the increased recalcitrance to antifungal agents exhibited by biofilms. Instead, biofilm antifungal resistance is a complex multifactorial phenomenon, which still remains to be fully elucidated and understood. The different mechanisms, which may be responsible for the intrinsic resistance of Candida species biofilms, include the high density of cells within the biofilm, the growth and nutrient limitation, the effects of the biofilm matrix, the presence of persister cells, the antifungal resistance gene expression and the increase of sterols on the membrane of biofilm cells. Thus, this review intends to provide information on the recent advances about Candida species biofilm antifungal resistance and its implication on intensification of the candidiasis. PMID:29371527

  17. Investigating Colonization of the Healthy Adult Gastrointestinal Tract by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fofanova, Tatiana Y.; Stewart, Christopher J.; Nash, Andrea K.; Wong, Matthew C.; Gesell, Jonathan R.; Auchtung, Jennifer M.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Petrosino, Joseph F.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT A wide diversity of fungi have been detected in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the potential to provide or influence important functions. However, many of the fungi most commonly detected in stool samples are also present in food or the oral cavity. Therefore, to recognize which gut fungi are likely to have a sustained influence on human health, there is a need to separate transient members of the GI tract from true colonizers. To identify colonizing fungi, the eukaryotic rRNA operon’s second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was sequenced from the stool, saliva, and food of healthy adults following consumption of different controlled diets. Unlike most bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the only fungal ITS2 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in stool DNA across multiple diets were also present in saliva and/or food. Additional analyses, including culture-based approaches and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, ITS2 cDNA, and DNA extracted using alternative methods, failed to detect additional fungi. Two abundant fungi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, were examined further in healthy volunteers. Saccharomyces became undetectable in stool when a S. cerevisiae-free diet was consumed, and the levels of C. albicans in stool were dramatically reduced by more frequent cleaning of teeth. Extremely low fungal abundance, the inability of fungi to grow under conditions mimicking the distal gut, and evidence from analysis of other public datasets further support the hypothesis that fungi do not routinely colonize the GI tracts of healthy adults. IMPORTANCE We sought to identify the fungi that colonize healthy GI tracts and that have a sustained influence on the diverse functions of the gut microbiome. Instead, we found that all fungi in the stool of healthy volunteers could be explained by their presence in oral and dietary sources and that our results, together with those from other analyses, support the model that there is little or no

  18. Investigating Colonization of the Healthy Adult Gastrointestinal Tract by Fungi.

    PubMed

    Auchtung, Thomas A; Fofanova, Tatiana Y; Stewart, Christopher J; Nash, Andrea K; Wong, Matthew C; Gesell, Jonathan R; Auchtung, Jennifer M; Ajami, Nadim J; Petrosino, Joseph F

    2018-01-01

    A wide diversity of fungi have been detected in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract with the potential to provide or influence important functions. However, many of the fungi most commonly detected in stool samples are also present in food or the oral cavity. Therefore, to recognize which gut fungi are likely to have a sustained influence on human health, there is a need to separate transient members of the GI tract from true colonizers. To identify colonizing fungi, the eukaryotic rRNA operon's second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) was sequenced from the stool, saliva, and food of healthy adults following consumption of different controlled diets. Unlike most bacterial 16S rRNA genes, the only fungal ITS2 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detected in stool DNA across multiple diets were also present in saliva and/or food. Additional analyses, including culture-based approaches and sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene, ITS2 cDNA, and DNA extracted using alternative methods, failed to detect additional fungi. Two abundant fungi, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans, were examined further in healthy volunteers. Saccharomyces became undetectable in stool when a S. cerevisiae-free diet was consumed, and the levels of C. albicans in stool were dramatically reduced by more frequent cleaning of teeth. Extremely low fungal abundance, the inability of fungi to grow under conditions mimicking the distal gut, and evidence from analysis of other public datasets further support the hypothesis that fungi do not routinely colonize the GI tracts of healthy adults. IMPORTANCE We sought to identify the fungi that colonize healthy GI tracts and that have a sustained influence on the diverse functions of the gut microbiome. Instead, we found that all fungi in the stool of healthy volunteers could be explained by their presence in oral and dietary sources and that our results, together with those from other analyses, support the model that there is little or no

  19. Description of Diutina gen. nov., Diutina siamensis, f.a. sp. nov., and reassignment of Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida ranongensis, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae to the genus Diutina.

    PubMed

    Khunnamwong, Pannida; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Limtong, Savitree; Lachance, Marc-André

    2015-12-01

    Three strains (DMKU-RE28, DMKU-RE43T and DMKU-RE123) of a novel anamorphic yeast species were isolated from rice leaf tissue collected in Thailand. DNA sequence analysis demonstrated that the species forms a sister pair with Candida ranongensis CBS 10861T but differs by 24-30 substitutions in the LSU rRNA gene D1/D2 domains and 30-35 substitutions in the ITS region. A phylogenetic analysis based on both the small and the large rRNA gene subunits confirmed this connection and demonstrated the presence of a clade that also includes Candida catenulata, Candida mesorugosa, Candida neorugosa, Candida pseudorugosa, Candida rugosa and Candida scorzettiae. The clade is not closely affiliated to any known teleomorphic genus, and forms a well-separated lineage from currently recognized genera of the Saccharomycetales. Hence, the genus Diutina gen. nov. is proposed to accommodate members of the clade, including Diutina siamensis f.a. sp. nov. and the preceding seven Candida species. The type strain is DMKU-RE43T ( = CBS 13388T = BCC 61183T = NBRC 109695T).

  20. Fungi in the cystic fibrosis lung: bystanders or pathogens?

    PubMed

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H; McElvaney, Noel G

    2014-07-01

    Improvement to the life expectancy of people with cystic fibrosis (PWCF) brings about novel challenges including the need for evaluation of the role of fungi in the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung. To determine if such organisms represent bystanders or pathogens affecting clinical outcomes we review the existing knowledge from a clinical, biochemical, inflammatory and immunological perspective. The prevalence and importance of fungi in the CF airway has likely been underestimated with the most frequently isolated filamentous fungi being Aspergillus fumigatus and Scedosporium apiospermum and the major yeast Candida albicans. Developing non-culture based microbiological methods for fungal detection has improved both our classification and understanding of their clinical consequences including localized, allergic and systemic infections. Cross-kingdom interaction between bacteria and fungi are discussed as is the role of biofilms further affecting clinical outcome. A combination of host and pathogen-derived factors determines if a particular fungus represents a commensal, colonizer or pathogen in the setting of CF. The underlying immune state, disease severity and treatment burden represent key host variables whilst fungal type, form, chronicity and virulence including the ability to evade immune recognition determines the pathogenic potential of a specific fungus at a particular point in time. Further research in this emerging field is warranted to fully elucidate the spectrum of disease conferred by the presence of fungi in the CF airway and the indications for therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Candida albicans Biofilms and Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Clarissa J.; Johnson, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, microbial cells (including bacteria, archaea, and fungi) greatly outnumber host cells. Candida albicans is the most prevalent fungal species of the human microbiota; this species asymptomatically colonizes many areas of the body, particularly the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. Alterations in host immunity, stress, resident microbiota, and other factors can lead to C. albicans overgrowth, causing a wide range of infections, from superficial mucosal to hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. To date, most studies of C. albicans have been carried out in suspension cultures; however, the medical impact of C. albicans (like that of many other microorganisms) depends on its ability to thrive as a biofilm, a closely packed community of cells. Biofilms are notorious for forming on implanted medical devices, including catheters, pacemakers, dentures, and prosthetic joints, which provide a surface and sanctuary for biofilm growth. C. albicans biofilms are intrinsically resistant to conventional antifungal therapeutics, the host immune system, and other environmental perturbations, making biofilm-based infections a significant clinical challenge. Here, we review our current knowledge of biofilms formed by C. albicans and closely related fungal species. PMID:26488273

  2. Candida famata (Debaryomyces hansenii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibirny, Andriy A.; Voronovsky, Andriy Y.

    Debaryomyces hansenii (teleomorph of asporogenous strains known as Candida famata ) belongs to the group of so named ‘ flavinogenic yeasts ’ capable of riboflavin oversynthesis during starvation for iron. Some strains of C. famata belong to the most flavinogenic organisms known (accumulate 20 mg of riboflavin in 1 ml of the medium) and were used for industrial production of riboflavin in USA for long time. Many strains of D. hansenii are characterized by high salt tolerance and are used for ageing of cheeses whereas some others are able to convert xylose to xylitol, anti-caries sweetener. Transformation system has been developed for D. hansenii. It includes collection of host recipient strains, vectors with complementation and dominant markers and several transformation protocols based on protoplasting and electroporation. Besides, methods of multicopy gene insertion and insertional mutagenesis have been developed and several strong constitutive and regulatable promoters have been cloned. All structural genes of riboflavin synthesis and some regulatory genes involved in this process have been identified. Genome of D. hansenii has been sequenced in the frame of French National program ‘Genolevure’ and is opened for public access

  3. Performance of Chromogenic Candida agar and CHROMagar Candida in recovery and presumptive identification of monofungal and polyfungal vaginal isolates.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Kadri; Ilkit, Macit; Ates, Aylin; Turac-Bicer, Aygul; Demirhindi, Hakan

    2010-02-01

    Chromogenic Candida agar (OCCA) is a novel medium facilitating isolation and identification of Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei, as well as indicating polyfungal population in clinical samples. We compare the performance of OCCA, to CHROMagar Candida (CAC) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar (SCA). Vaginal swab samples from 392 women were simultaneously inoculated onto three study media. A total of 161 (41.1%) were found to be positive for fungi of which 140 (87%) were monofungal, and 21 (13%) polyfungal. One-hundred and fifty-seven samples (97.5%) were positive on CAC, 156 (96.9%) on OCCA, 148 (91.9%) on SCA and 144 (89.4%) samples were positive on all three media. The yeasts were identified by conventional methods including germ tube test, microscopic morphology on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar, and the commercial API 20C AUX. The 182 isolates were C. albicans (n = 104), C. glabrata (n = 51), C. krusei (n = 7), C. tropicalis (n = 5), C. famata (n = 3), C. kefyr (n = 3), C. zeylanoides (n = 3), C. colliculosa (n = 2), and other species of Candida (n = 4). Among the 21 polyfungal populations, 20 (95.2%) were detected in OCCA, 14 (66.7%) in CAC, and 13 (61.9%) in CAC and OCCA (P <0.05). Most polyfungal populations (47.6%) yielded C. albicans + C. glabrata. The efficiency of both chromogenic media for C. albicans was >or=92.9% at 72 h. OCCA is more efficient and reliable for rapidly identifying C. albicans and polyfungal populations than CAC. However, CAC is more efficient for identifying C. krusei and C. tropicalis. A chromogenic agar with a higher isolation rate of yeasts and better detection of polyfungal populations than SCA, is suggested as a medium of first choice when available.

  4. Liquid and vapour-phase antifungal activities of essential oils against Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida.

    PubMed

    Mandras, Narcisa; Nostro, Antonia; Roana, Janira; Scalas, Daniela; Banche, Giuliana; Ghisetti, Valeria; Del Re, Simonetta; Fucale, Giacomo; Cuffini, Anna Maria; Tullio, Vivian

    2016-08-30

    The management of Candida infections faces many problems, such as a limited number of antifungal drugs, toxicity, resistance of Candida to commonly antifungal drugs, relapse of Candida infections, and the high cost of antifungal drugs. Though azole antifungal agents and derivatives continue to dominate as drugs of choice against Candida infections, there are many available data referring to the anticandidal activity of essential oils. Since we have previous observed a good antimicrobial activity of some essential oils against filamentous fungi, the aim of this study was to extend the research to evaluate the activity of the same oils on Candida albicans, C.glabrata and C.tropicalis clinical strains, as well as the effects of related components. Essential oils selection was based both on ethnomedicinal use and on proved antibacterial and/or antifungal activity of some of these oils. Fluconazole and voriconazole were used as reference drugs. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC) of essential oils (thyme red, fennel, clove, pine, sage, lemon balm, and lavender) and their major components were investigated by the broth microdilution method (BM) and the vapour contact assay (VC). Using BM, pine oil showed the best activity against all strains tested, though C.albicans was more susceptible than C.glabrata and C.tropicalis (MIC50-MIC90 = 0.06 %, v/v). On the contrary, sage oil displayed a weak activity (MIC50-MIC90 = 1 %, v/v). Thyme red oil (MIC50-MIC90 ≤ 0.0038 %, v/v for C.albicans and C.tropicalis, and 0.0078- < 0.015 %, v/v for C.glabrata), followed by lemon balm, lavender and sage were the most effective by VC. Carvacrol and thymol showed the highest activity, whereas linalyl acetate showed the lowest activity both by two methods. α-pinene displayed a better activity by BM than VC. Results show a good activity of essential oils, mainly thymus red and pine oils, and their components carvacrol

  5. [Candida biofilm-related infections].

    PubMed

    Del Pozo, José Luis; Cantón, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    The number of biomedical devices (intravascular catheters, heart valves, joint replacements, etc.) that are implanted in our hospitals has increased exponentially in recent years. Candida species are pathogens which are becoming more significant in these kinds of infections. Candida has two forms of development: planktonic and in biofilms. A biofilm is a community of microorganisms which adhere to a surface and are enclosed by an extracellular matrix. This form of development confers a high resistance to the antimicrobial agents. This is the reason why antibiotic treatments usually fail and biomedical devices may have to be removed in most cases. Unspecific adhesion mechanisms, the adhesion-receptor systems, and an intercellular communication system called quorum sensing play an essential role in the development of Candida biofilms. In general, the azoles have poor activity against Candida biofilms, while echinocandins and polyenes show a greater activity. New therapeutic strategies need to be developed due to the high morbidity and mortality and high economic costs associated with these infections. Most studies to date have focused on bacterial biofilms. The knowledge of the formation of Candida biofilms and their composition is essential to develop new preventive and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Adaptive Immunity to Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Wüthrich, Marcel; Deepe, George S.; Klein, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Only a handful of the more than 100,000 fungal species on our planet cause disease in humans, yet the number of life-threatening fungal infections in patients has recently skyrocketed as a result of advances in medical care that often suppress immunity intensely. This emerging crisis has created pressing needs to clarify immune defense mechanisms against fungi, with the ultimate goal of therapeutic applications. Herein, we describe recent insights in understanding the mammalian immune defenses deployed against pathogenic fungi. The review focuses on adaptive immune responses to the major medically important fungi and emphasizes how dendritic cells and subsets in various anatomic compartments respond to fungi, recognize their molecular patterns, and signal responses that nurture and shape the differentiation of T cell subsets and B cells. Also emphasized is how the latter deploy effector and regulatory mechanisms that eliminate these nasty invaders while also constraining collateral damage to vital tissue. PMID:22224780

  7. Genomic Encyclopedia of Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Grigoriev, Igor

    Genomes of fungi relevant to energy and environment are in focus of the Fungal Genomic Program at the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI). Its key project, the Genomics Encyclopedia of Fungi, targets fungi related to plant health (symbionts, pathogens, and biocontrol agents) and biorefinery processes (cellulose degradation, sugar fermentation, industrial hosts), and explores fungal diversity by means of genome sequencing and analysis. Over 150 fungal genomes have been sequenced by JGI to date and released through MycoCosm (www.jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a fungal web-portal, which integrates sequence and functional data with genome analysis tools for user community. Sequence analysis supportedmore » by functional genomics leads to developing parts list for complex systems ranging from ecosystems of biofuel crops to biorefineries. Recent examples of such parts suggested by comparative genomics and functional analysis in these areas are presented here.« less

  8. In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of a Novel Antifungal Small Molecule against Candida Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Kwok Yong; Wang, Yu; Yang, Dan; Samaranayake, Lakshman Perera

    2014-01-01

    Candida is the most common fungal pathogen of humans worldwide and has become a major clinical problem because of the growing number of immunocompromised patients, who are susceptible to infection. Moreover, the number of available antifungals is limited, and antifungal-resistant Candida strains are emerging. New and effective antifungals are therefore urgently needed. Here, we discovered a small molecule with activity against Candida spp. both in vitro and in vivo. We screened a library of 50,240 small molecules for inhibitors of yeast-to-hypha transition, a major virulence attribute of Candida albicans. This screening identified 20 active compounds. Further examination of the in vitro antifungal and anti-biofilm properties of these compounds, using a range of Candida spp., led to the discovery of SM21, a highly potent antifungal molecule (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.2 – 1.6 µg/ml). In vitro, SM21 was toxic to fungi but not to various human cell lines or bacterial species and was active against Candida isolates that are resistant to existing antifungal agents. Moreover, SM21 was relatively more effective against biofilms of Candida spp. than the current antifungal agents. In vivo, SM21 prevented the death of mice in a systemic candidiasis model and was also more effective than the common antifungal nystatin at reducing the extent of tongue lesions in a mouse model of oral candidiasis. Propidium iodide uptake assay showed that SM21 affected the integrity of the cell membrane. Taken together, our results indicate that SM21 has the potential to be developed as a novel antifungal agent for clinical use. PMID:24465737

  9. Oral administration of live- or heat-killed Candida albicans worsened cecal ligation and puncture sepsis in a murine model possibly due to an increased serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan.

    PubMed

    Panpetch, Wimonrat; Somboonna, Naraporn; Bulan, Dewi Embong; Issara-Amphorn, Jiraphorn; Finkelman, Malcolm; Worasilchai, Navaporn; Chindamporn, Ariya; Palaga, Tanapat; Tumwasorn, Somying; Leelahavanichkul, Asada

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans is the most common fungus in the human intestinal microbiota but not in mice. To make a murine sepsis model more closely resemble human sepsis and to explore the role of intestinal C. albicans, in the absence of candidemia, in bacterial sepsis, live- or heat-killed C. albicans was orally administered to mice at 3h prior to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A higher mortality rate of CLP was demonstrated with Candida-administration (live- or heat-killed) prior to CLP. Fecal Candida presented only in experiments with live-Candida administration. Despite the absence of candidemia, serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG) was higher in CLP with Candida-administration than CLP-controls (normal saline administration) at 6h and/or 18h post-CLP. Interestingly, fluconazole attenuated the fecal Candida burden and improved survival in mice with live-Candida administration, but not CLP-control. Microbiota analysis revealed increased Bacteroides spp. and reduced Lactobacillus spp. in feces after Candida administration. Additionally, synergy in the elicitation of cytokine production from bone marrow-derived macrophages, in vitro, was demonstrated by co-exposure to heat-killed E. coli and BG. In conclusion, intestinal abundance of fungi and/or fungal-molecules was associated with increased bacterial sepsis-severity, perhaps through enhanced cytokine elicitation induced by synergistic responses to molecules from gut-derived bacteria and fungi. Conversely, reducing intestinal fungal burdens decreased serum BG and attenuated sepsis in our model.

  10. Clonal reproduction in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, John W.; Hann-Soden, Christopher; Branco, Sara; Sylvain, Iman; Ellison, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    Research over the past two decades shows that both recombination and clonality are likely to contribute to the reproduction of all fungi. This view of fungi is different from the historical and still commonly held view that a large fraction of fungi are exclusively clonal and that some fungi have been exclusively clonal for hundreds of millions of years. Here, we first will consider how these two historical views have changed. Then we will examine the impact on fungal research of the concept of restrained recombination [Tibayrenc M, Ayala FJ (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109 (48):E3305–E3313]. Using animal and human pathogenic fungi, we examine extrinsic restraints on recombination associated with bottlenecks in genetic variation caused by geographic dispersal and extrinsic restraints caused by shifts in reproductive mode associated with either disease transmission or hybridization. Using species of the model yeast Saccharomyces and the model filamentous fungus Neurospora, we examine intrinsic restraints on recombination associated with mating systems that range from strictly clonal at one extreme to fully outbreeding at the other and those that lie between, including selfing and inbreeding. We also consider the effect of nomenclature on perception of reproductive mode and a means of comparing the relative impact of clonality and recombination on fungal populations. Last, we consider a recent hypothesis suggesting that fungi thought to have the most severe intrinsic constraints on recombination actually may have the fewest. PMID:26195774

  11. Differentiation of Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, and Candida krusei by FT-IR and chemometrics by CHROMagar™ Candida.

    PubMed

    Wohlmeister, Denise; Vianna, Débora Renz Barreto; Helfer, Virginia Etges; Calil, Luciane Noal; Buffon, Andréia; Fuentefria, Alexandre Meneghello; Corbellini, Valeriano Antonio; Pilger, Diogo André

    2017-10-01

    Pathogenic Candida species are detected in clinical infections. CHROMagar™ is a phenotypical method used to identify Candida species, although it has limitations, which indicates the need for more sensitive and specific techniques. Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analytical vibrational technique used to identify patterns of metabolic fingerprint of biological matrixes, particularly whole microbial cell systems as Candida sp. in association of classificatory chemometrics algorithms. On the other hand, Soft Independent Modeling by Class Analogy (SIMCA) is one of the typical algorithms still little employed in microbiological classification. This study demonstrates the applicability of the FT-IR-technique by specular reflectance associated with SIMCA to discriminate Candida species isolated from vaginal discharges and grown on CHROMagar™. The differences in spectra of C. albicans, C. glabrata and C. krusei were suitable for use in the discrimination of these species, which was observed by PCA. Then, a SIMCA model was constructed with standard samples of three species and using the spectral region of 1792-1561cm -1 . All samples (n=48) were properly classified based on the chromogenic method using CHROMagar™ Candida. In total, 93.4% (n=45) of the samples were correctly and unambiguously classified (Class I). Two samples of C. albicans were classified correctly, though these could have been C. glabrata (Class II). Also, one C. glabrata sample could have been classified as C. krusei (Class II). Concerning these three samples, one triplicate of each was included in Class II and two in Class I. Therefore, FT-IR associated with SIMCA can be used to identify samples of C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei grown in CHROMagar™ Candida aiming to improve clinical applications of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Candida asparagi sp. nov., Candida diospyri sp. nov. and Candida qinlingensis sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui-Zhong; Jia, Jian-Hua; Wang, Qi-Ming; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2004-07-01

    Among ascomycetous yeasts that were isolated from several nature reserve areas in China, three anamorphic strains isolated from soil (QL 5-5T) and fruit (QL 21-2T and SN 15-1T) were revealed, by conventional characterization and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on internal transcribed spacer and large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 region sequencing, to represent three novel species in the genus Candida. Candida qinlingensis sp. nov. (type strain, QL 5-5T=AS 2.2524T=CBS 9768T) was related closely to a teleomorphic species, Williopsis pratensis. The close relatives of Candida diospyri sp. nov. (type strain, QL 21-2T=AS 2.2525T=CBS 9769T) are Candida friedrichii and Candida membranifaciens. Candida asparagi sp. nov. (type strain, SN 15-1T=AS 2.2526T=CBS 9770T) forms a clade with Candida fructus.

  13. Detection of Fungi from an Indoor Environment using Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Method.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Takako; Yamazaki, Takashi; Yo, Ayaka; Tone, Kazuya; Mahdi Alshahni, Mohamed; Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Makimura, Koichi

    2017-01-01

     Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a useful DNA detection method with high specificity and sensitivity. The LAMP reaction is carried out within a short time at a constant temperature without the need for thermal cycling. We developed a LAMP primer set for detecting a wide range of fungi by aligning the sequences of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Candida albicans (Ascomycota), Cryptococcus neoformans (Basidiomycota), and Mucor racemosus (Mucorales). The threshold of C. albicans rDNA as template with our LAMP primer set was in the range of 10-100 copies per a reaction. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between colony forming units (CFU) and LAMP detection rate using the LAMP method for environmental fungi. The LAMP method should be a useful means of detecting fungi in indoor environments, disaster areas, or even in confined manned spacecraft to prevent allergies or infections caused by fungi.

  14. Synthetic arylquinuclidine derivatives exhibit antifungal activity against Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Kelly; Fernandes Rodrigues, Juliany Cola; Cammerer, Simon; Urbina, Julio A; Gilbert, Ian; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2011-01-21

    Sterol biosynthesis is an essential pathway for fungal survival, and is the biochemical target of many antifungal agents. The antifungal drugs most widely used to treated fungal infections are compounds that inhibit cytochrome P450-dependent C14α-demethylase (CYP51), but other enzymes of this pathway, such as squalene synthase (SQS) which catalyses the first committed step in sterol biosynthesis, could be viable targets. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of SQS inhibitors on Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis strains. Ten arylquinuclidines that act as SQS inhibitors were tested as antiproliferative agents against three ATCC strains and 54 clinical isolates of Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilopsis. Also, the morphological alterations induced in the yeasts by the experimental compounds were evaluated by fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy. The most potent arylquinuclidine derivative (3-[1'-{4'-(benzyloxy)-phenyl}]-quinuclidine-2-ene) (WSP1267) had a MIC50 of 2 μg/ml for all species tested and MIC90 varying from 4 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml. Ultrathin sections of C. albicans treated with 1 μg/ml of WSP1267 showed several ultrastructural alterations, including (a) loss of cell wall integrity, (b) detachment of the plasma membrane from the fungal cell wall, (c) accumulation of small vesicles in the periplasmic region, (d) presence of large electron-dense vacuoles and (e) significantly increased cell size and cell wall thickness. In addition, fluorescence microscopy of cells labelled with Nile Red showed an accumulation of lipid droplets in the cytoplasm of treated yeasts. Nuclear staining with DAPI revealed the appearance of uncommon yeast buds without a nucleus or with two nuclei. Taken together, our data demonstrate that arylquinuclidine derivatives could be useful as lead compounds for the rational synthesis of new antifungal drugs.

  15. Urinary tract infections and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Behzadi, Payam; Behzadi, Elham; Ranjbar, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract candidiasis is known as the most frequent nosocomial fungal infection worldwide. Candida albicans is the most common cause of nosocomial fungal urinary tract infections; however, a rapid change in the distribution of Candida species is undergoing. Simultaneously, the increase of urinary tract candidiasis has led to the appearance of antifungal resistant Candida species. In this review, we have an in depth look into Candida albicans uropathogenesis and distribution of the three most frequent Candida species contributing to urinary tract candidiasis in different countries around the world. For writing this review, Google Scholar -a scholarly search engine- (http://scholar.google.com/) and PubMed database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/) were used. The most recently published original articles and reviews of literature relating to the first three Candida species causing urinary tract infections in different countries and the pathogenicity of Candida albicans were selected and studied. Although some studies show rapid changes in the uropathogenesis of Candida species causing urinary tract infections in some countries, Candida albicans is still the most important cause of candidal urinary tract infections. Despite the ranking of Candida albicans as the dominant species for urinary tract candidiasis, specific changes have occurred in some countries. At this time, it is important to continue the surveillance related to Candida species causing urinary tract infections to prevent, control and treat urinary tract candidiasis in future.

  16. Integrated inference and evaluation of host–fungi interaction networks

    PubMed Central

    Remmele, Christian W.; Luther, Christian H.; Balkenhol, Johannes; Dandekar, Thomas; Müller, Tobias; Dittrich, Marcus T.

    2015-01-01

    Fungal microorganisms frequently lead to life-threatening infections. Within this group of pathogens, the commensal Candida albicans and the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus are by far the most important causes of invasive mycoses in Europe. A key capability for host invasion and immune response evasion are specific molecular interactions between the fungal pathogen and its human host. Experimentally validated knowledge about these crucial interactions is rare in literature and even specialized host–pathogen databases mainly focus on bacterial and viral interactions whereas information on fungi is still sparse. To establish large-scale host–fungi interaction networks on a systems biology scale, we develop an extended inference approach based on protein orthology and data on gene functions. Using human and yeast intraspecies networks as template, we derive a large network of pathogen–host interactions (PHI). Rigorous filtering and refinement steps based on cellular localization and pathogenicity information of predicted interactors yield a primary scaffold of fungi–human and fungi–mouse interaction networks. Specific enrichment of known pathogenicity-relevant genes indicates the biological relevance of the predicted PHI. A detailed inspection of functionally relevant subnetworks reveals novel host–fungal interaction candidates such as the Candida virulence factor PLB1 and the anti-fungal host protein APP. Our results demonstrate the applicability of interolog-based prediction methods for host–fungi interactions and underline the importance of filtering and refinement steps to attain biologically more relevant interactions. This integrated network framework can serve as a basis for future analyses of high-throughput host–fungi transcriptome and proteome data. PMID:26300851

  17. Candida biofilms: is adhesion sexy?

    PubMed

    Soll, David R

    2008-08-26

    The development of Candida albicans biofilms requires two types of adhesion molecule - the Als proteins and Hwp1. Mutational analyses have recently revealed that these molecules play complementary roles, and their characteristics suggest that they may have evolved from primitive mating agglutinins.

  18. Candida infection of the skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... Candida is also the most frequent cause of vaginal yeast infections. These infections are common and often occur with ... or ointments may be used to treat a yeast infection of the skin, mouth, or vagina. You may need to take antifungal medicine by ...

  19. Candida lusitaniae causing fatal meningitis.

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, P. S.; Durairaj, P.; Padhye, A. A.

    1993-01-01

    Fatal meningitis due to Candida lusitaniae in a 35 year old previously healthy man is described. C. lusitaniae is an opportunistic fungal pathogen reported infrequently in the English literature. This is the third case report of meningitis and the first fatal infection in an adult from Central India due to C. lusitaniae known to the authors. PMID:8290437

  20. Candida infections among neutropenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Foroughifar, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systemic candidiasis is a major complication in neutropenic cancer patients undergoing treatment. Most systemic fungal infections emerge from endogenous microflora so the aim of the present study was to identify Candida species isolated from the different regions of body in neutropenic patients in compare with the control group. Methods: A total of 309 neutropenic cancer patients and 584 patients without cancer (control group) entered in the study. Molecular identification of clinical isolates was performed by PCR-RFLP technique. Results: Twenty-two out of 309 patients had candidiasis (7.1%). Male to female ratio was 1/1 and age ranged from 23 to 66 years. Colorectal cancer and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were the most common cancers. Candida albicans was the most prevalent Candida species among neutropenic patients (50%) and control group (57.9%). Mortality rate in cancer patients was 13.6% in comparison with control group (5.2%). Conclusion: Since candidiasis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neutropenic patients, precise identification of Candida species by molecular techniques can be useful for the appropriate selection of antifungal drugs particularly in high risk patients. PMID:27386056

  1. Genetically Engineering Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Zhao, H; Lovett, B; Fang, W

    2016-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been developed as environmentally friendly alternatives to chemical insecticides in biocontrol programs for agricultural pests and vectors of disease. However, mycoinsecticides currently have a small market share due to low virulence and inconsistencies in their performance. Genetic engineering has made it possible to significantly improve the virulence of fungi and their tolerance to adverse conditions. Virulence enhancement has been achieved by engineering fungi to express insect proteins and insecticidal proteins/peptides from insect predators and other insect pathogens, or by overexpressing the pathogen's own genes. Importantly, protein engineering can be used to mix and match functional domains from diverse genes sourced from entomopathogenic fungi and other organisms, producing insecticidal proteins with novel characteristics. Fungal tolerance to abiotic stresses, especially UV radiation, has been greatly improved by introducing into entomopathogens a photoreactivation system from an archaean and pigment synthesis pathways from nonentomopathogenic fungi. Conversely, gene knockout strategies have produced strains with reduced ecological fitness as recipients for genetic engineering to improve virulence; the resulting strains are hypervirulent, but will not persist in the environment. Coupled with their natural insect specificity, safety concerns can also be mitigated by using safe effector proteins with selection marker genes removed after transformation. With the increasing public concern over the continued use of synthetic chemical insecticides and growing public acceptance of genetically modified organisms, new types of biological insecticides produced by genetic engineering offer a range of environmentally friendly options for cost-effective control of insect pests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nematode-Trapping Fungi.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiangzhi; Xiang, Meichun; Liu, Xingzhong

    2017-01-01

    Nematode-trapping fungi are a unique and intriguing group of carnivorous microorganisms that can trap and digest nematodes by means of specialized trapping structures. They can develop diverse trapping devices, such as adhesive hyphae, adhesive knobs, adhesive networks, constricting rings, and nonconstricting rings. Nematode-trapping fungi have been found in all regions of the world, from the tropics to Antarctica, from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. They play an important ecological role in regulating nematode dynamics in soil. Molecular phylogenetic studies have shown that the majority of nematode-trapping fungi belong to a monophyletic group in the order Orbiliales (Ascomycota). Nematode-trapping fungi serve as an excellent model system for understanding fungal evolution and interaction between fungi and nematodes. With the development of molecular techniques and genome sequencing, their evolutionary origins and divergence, and the mechanisms underlying fungus-nematode interactions have been well studied. In recent decades, an increasing concern about the environmental hazards of using chemical nematicides has led to the application of these biological control agents as a rapidly developing component of crop protection.

  3. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef.

  4. Fungi from interior organs of free-living small mammals in Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Hubálek, Z; Rosický, B; Otcenásek, M

    1980-01-01

    A total of 308 fungi was isolated from interior organs (lungs, spleen, liver) of 529 small mammals belonging to 21 species, 7 families and 3 orders (Insectivora, Chiroptera, Rodentia), some of these being potentially pathogenic to vertebrates (e.g. Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Geotrichum candidum, Mucor pusillus, Rhizopus arrhizus). In one vole (Microtus arvalis) captured in South Moravia, adiaspiromycosis (Emmonsia crescens) was demonstrated. Comparison of mycoflora of hair and that of interior organs of wild small mammals revealed that out of the total number of isolates the following fungi were represented in a higher proportion from visceral organs than from the hair: Aspergillus (A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. repens), Aureobasidium (A. pullulans), Candida, Cladosporium (C. herbarum), Cryptococcus, Fusarium, Gliocladium (G. deliquescens), Helminthosporium, Kloeckera, Mucor (M. fragilis, M. hiemalis, M. pusillus), Paecilomyces marquandii, Penicillium (P. purpurogenum), Phoma, Rhizopus arrhizus, Scopulariopsis (S. candida, S. koningii) and Torulopsis.

  5. [Significance of identification of fungi in gastric juice of patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit].

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-wen; Wu, Ming; Li, Ying; Zeng, Jing-jing; Li, Ming-li; He, Yun; Li, Dan-hui; Cui, Man-li

    2012-02-01

    To investigate the direct relationship and significance between the pH value of gastric juice and positive fungi in culture critical patients with artificial airway in intensive care unit (ICU) by analyzing and identifying the type of fungi and their sensitivity to antifungal therapy. A prospective study was conducted.One hundred and sixty patients (between December, 2008 and October, 2011) with artificial airway lasting longer than 48 hours were studied in the ICU at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shenzhen University. The gastric juice specimens were collected through a nasogastric tube, their pH values were measured using precise litmus paper. These samples were divided into six groups according to their pH values: pH ≤ 2.0, pH 2.1-3.0, pH 3.1-4.0, pH 4.1-5.0, pH 5.1-6.0 and pH 6.1-7.0, and then fungi were cultured in these specimens with different pH values. Susceptibility of different fungicide drugs were also investigated. The susceptibility of fungi to gastric juice with different pH values was also investigated. The relationship between 28-day survival rate and the presence of fungi in gastric juice was analyzed in order to analyze the relationship of the presence of fungi in gastric juice and clinical outcome. (1) No fungal growth was found in the gastric juice with pH value lower than 4.0, and the positive rate of fungal culture was significantly increased when the pH value of gastric juice raised. (2) The positive rate of fungal growth was 27.9% (55/197), in which, the positive rate of Candida and non-Candida fungi was 38.2% (21/55) and 61.8% (34/55) respectively, and the difference was significant statistically [χ(2) = 4.16, P < 0.05]. (3) The fungal positive rate was 40.0% (22/55) and 60.0% (33/55) respectively, in survivors (102 cases) and non-survivors (58 cases). The percentage of Candida infection and non-Candida infection was 54.5% (12/22) and 45.5% (10/22) respectively, in survivors, and it was 27.3% (9/33) and 72.7% (24/33), respectively, in

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of chitinase genes from Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    McCreath, K J; Specht, C A; Robbins, P W

    1995-03-28

    Chitinase (EC 3.2.1.14) is an important enzyme for the remodeling of chitin in the cell wall of fungi. We have cloned three chitinase genes (CHT1, CHT2, and CHT3) from the dimorphic human pathogen Candida albicans. CHT2 and CHT3 have been sequenced in full and their primary structures have been analyzed: CHT2 encodes a protein of 583 aa with a predicted size of 60.8 kDa; CHT3 encodes a protein of 567 aa with a predicted size of 60 kDa. All three genes show striking similarity to other chitinase genes in the literature, especially in the proposed catalytic domain. Transcription of CHT2 and CHT3 was greater when C. albicans was grown in a yeast phase as compared to a mycelial phase. A transcript of CHT1 could not be detected in either growth condition.

  7. Glutathione protects Candida albicans against horseradish volatile oil.

    PubMed

    Bertóti, Regina; Vasas, Gábor; Gonda, Sándor; Nguyen, Nhat Minh; Szőke, Éva; Jakab, Ágnes; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2016-10-01

    Horseradish essential oil (HREO; a natural mixture of different isothiocyanates) had strong fungicide effect against Candida albicans both in volatile and liquid phase. In liquid phase this antifungal effect was more significant than those of its main components allyl, and 2-phenylethyl isothiocyanate. HREO, at sublethal concentration, induced oxidative stress which was characterized with elevated superoxide content and up-regulated specific glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. Induction of specific glutathione S-transferase activities as marker of glutathione (GSH) dependent detoxification was also observed. At higher concentration, HREO depleted the GSH pool, increased heavily the superoxide production and killed the cells rapidly. HREO and the GSH pool depleting agent, 1-chlore-2,4-dinitrobenzene showed strong synergism when they were applied together to kill C. albicans cells. Based on all these, we assume that GSH metabolism protects fungi against isothiocyanates. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. The Diversity and Distribution of Fungi on Residential Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Rachel I.; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W.; Bruns, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. “Weedy” genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents’ foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea). Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear – to varying degrees – to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins of the

  9. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachel I; Miletto, Marzia; Taylor, John W; Bruns, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea). Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins of the indoor

  10. Heteroresistance and fungi.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriella F; Santos, Daniel A

    2017-09-01

    The concept of heteroresistance refers to the heterogeneous susceptibility to an antimicrobial drug in a microorganism population, meaning that some clones may be resistant and others are susceptible. This phenomenon has been widely studied in bacteria, but little attention has been given to its expression in fungi. We review the available literature on heteroresistance in fungi and invite the reader to recognise this phenomenon as a fungal mechanism to adapt to environmental stress, which may interfere both in resistance and virulence. Finally, heteroresistance may explain the treatment failures to eradicate mycosis in some patients treated with a seemingly appropriate antifungal. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Proteomics of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yonghyun; Nandakumar, M P; Marten, Mark R

    2007-09-01

    Proteomic analysis, defined here as the global assessment of cellular proteins expressed in a particular biological state, is a powerful tool that can provide a systematic understanding of events at the molecular level. Proteomic studies of filamentous fungi have only recently begun to appear in the literature, despite the prevalence of these organisms in the biotechnology industry, and their importance as both human and plant pathogens. Here, we review recent publications that have used a proteomic approach to develop a better understanding of filamentous fungi, highlighting sample preparation methods and whole-cell cytoplasmic proteomics, as well as subproteomics of cell envelope, mitochondrial and secreted proteins.

  12. Comparative Evolution of Morphological Regulatory Functions in Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Lackey, Erika; Vipulanandan, Geethanjali; Childers, Delma S.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological transitions play an important role in virulence and virulence-related processes in a wide variety of pathogenic fungi, including the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. While environmental signals, transcriptional regulators, and target genes associated with C. albicans morphogenesis are well-characterized, considerably little is known about morphological regulatory mechanisms and the extent to which they are evolutionarily conserved in less pathogenic and less filamentous non-albicans Candida species (NACS). We have identified specific optimal filament-inducing conditions for three NACS (C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii), which are very limited, suggesting that these species may be adapted for niche-specific filamentation in the host. Only a subset of evolutionarily conserved C. albicans filament-specific target genes were induced upon filamentation in C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. guilliermondii. One of the genes showing conserved expression was UME6, a key filament-specific regulator of C. albicans hyphal development. Constitutive high-level expression of UME6 was sufficient to drive increased filamentation as well as biofilm formation and partly restore conserved filament-specific gene expression in both C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis, suggesting that evolutionary differences in filamentation ability among pathogenic Candida species may be partially attributed to alterations in the expression level of a conserved filamentous growth machinery. In contrast to UME6, NRG1, an important repressor of C. albicans filamentation, showed only a partly conserved role in controlling NACS filamentation. Overall, our results suggest that C. albicans morphological regulatory functions are partially conserved in NACS and have evolved to respond to more specific sets of host environmental cues. PMID:23913541

  13. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  14. Fun with Fungi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, John W.

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on activities with fungi that may provoke the curiosity of early adolescents and increase their enjoyment and understanding of a vast, important portion of botany. Some of the activities may be conducted during the winter months when most fieldwork ceases. (PR)

  15. Occurrence and diversity of Candida genus in marine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lin; Chi, Zhenming; Yue, Lixi; Chi, Zhe; Zhang, Dechao

    2008-11-01

    A total of 317 yeast isolates from seawater, sediments, mud of salterns, guts of marine fishes and marine algae were obtained. The results of routine identification and molecular characterization showed that six isolates among these marine yeasts belonged to Candida genus as Candida intermedia for YA01a, Candida parapsilosis for 3eA2, Candida quercitrusa for JHSb, Candia rugosa for wl8, Candida zeylanoides for TJY13a, and Candida membranifaciens for W14-3. Isolates YA01a ( Candida intermedia), wl8 ( Candida rugosa), 3eA2 ( Candida parapsilosis), and JHSb ( Candida quercitrusa) were found producing cell-bound lipase, while isolate W14-3 ( Candida membranifaciens) producing riboflavin. These marine yeast Candida spp. seem to have wide potential applications in biotechnology.

  16. Antimicrobial activity and biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Cui, Jin-Long; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum were categorized into 11 taxa and 23 fungal endophytes in D. thyrsiflorum were grouped into 11 genera, respectively. Fusarium was the dominant species of the two Dendrobium species in common. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of fermentation broth of these fungi was explored using agar diffusion test. 10 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum and 11 in D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among 6 pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus). Out of the fungal endophytes isolated from D. devonianum and D. thyrsiflorum, Phoma displayed strong inhibitory activity (inhibition zones in diameter >20 mm) against pathogens. Epicoccum nigrum from D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antibacterial activity even stronger than ampicillin sodium. Fusarium isolated from the two Dendrobium species was effective against the pathogenic bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. The study reinforced the assumption that endophytic fungi isolated from different Dendrobium species could be of potential antibacterial or antifungal resource.

  17. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Livério, Harisson Oliveira; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; de Freitas, Roseli Santos; Nishikaku, Angela; de Souza, Ana Clara; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Domaneschi, Carina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species. PMID:28423089

  18. Phenotypic and genotypic detection of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis strains isolated from oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Livério, Harisson Oliveira; Ruiz, Luciana da Silva; Freitas, Roseli Santos de; Nishikaku, Angela; Souza, Ana Clara de; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Domaneschi, Carina

    2017-04-13

    The aim of this study was to assess a collection of yeasts to verify the presence of Candida dubliniensis among strains isolated from the oral mucosa of AIDS pediatric patients which were initially characterized as Candida albicans by the traditional phenotypic method, as well as to evaluate the main phenotypic methods used in the discrimination between the two species and confirm the identification through genotypic techniques, i.e., DNA sequencing. Twenty-nine samples of C. albicans isolated from this population and kept in a fungi collection were evaluated and re-characterized. In order to differentiate the two species, phenotypic tests (Thermotolerance tests, Chromogenic medium, Staib agar, Tobacco agar, Hypertonic medium) were performed and genotypic techniques using DNA sequencing were employed for confirmation of isolated species. Susceptibility and specificity were calculated for each test. No phenotypic test alone was sufficient to provide definitive identification of C. dubliniensis or C. albicans, as opposed to results of molecular tests. After amplification and sequencing of specific regions of the 29 studied strains, 93.1% of the isolates were identified as C. albicans and 6.9% as C. dubliniensis. The Staib agar assay showed a higher susceptibility (96.3%) in comparison with other phenotypic techniques. Therefore, genotypic methods are indispensable for the conclusive identification and differentiation between these species.

  19. Ultraviolet Microscopy of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Balish, Edward; Svihla, George

    1966-01-01

    Balish, Edward (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Ill.), and George Svihla. Ultraviolet microscopy of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 92:1812–1820. 1966.—Yeast and mycelial strains of Candida albicans were grown in medium supplemented with sulfur amino acids in an effort to determine factors that control the morphology and pathogenicity of the organism. Ultraviolet microscopy revealed a greater concentration of S-adenosylmethionine in the vacuoles of the mycelial phase than in those of yeast phases. Supplementation with amino acids greatly increased the concentration of S-adenosylmethionine in the mycelial phase, and made these cells more sensitive to the lytic action of snail gut enzymes than two yeast phase strains. This indicates a difference in cell wall structure that may be related to the pathogenicity of the mycelial phase. Images PMID:5958110

  20. [Distribution of Candida species in vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium].

    PubMed

    Gültekin, Berna; Yazici, Vesile; Aydin, Neriman

    2005-07-01

    Identification of Candida species is important to guide treatment in vulvovaginal candidiasis which is seen frequently and needs long-term therapy due to recurrence. The aim of this study was to determine the species distribution of Candida isolated from vaginal specimens and evaluation of CHROMagar Candida medium in the laboratory diagnosis. Samples from 80 patients who were clinically diagnosed as vaginitis have been analysed in our laboratory. Colonies appeared on CHROMagar Candida media after 48 hours of incubation at 35 degrees C were evaluated for their colors and characteristics. Candida strains were identified by germ tube test, growth on corn meal Tween 80 agar and when necessary also by API 20 C AUX commercial kit. A total of 84 Candida strains were isolated from 80 patients. Two different Candida species have been isolated from four (5%) of the samples. Among Candida strains isolated, 45 (53.6%) were C. albicans, 29 (34.5%) C. glabrata, 7 (8.3%) C. krusei, and 3 (3.6%) C. kefyr. All of the C. albicans and six of the seven C. krusei isolates have been identified correctly by CHROMagar Candida medium. These results showed that C. albicans is still the most frequently isolated species from vaginal samples. It was concluded that CHROMagar Candida medium is useful for identification of colonies due to frequently seen Candida species and also in differentiation of multiple Candida species grown on the same culture.

  1. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis , and Candida parapsilosis , highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed.

  2. Candida Biofilms: Threats, Challenges, and Promising Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cavalheiro, Mafalda; Teixeira, Miguel Cacho

    2018-01-01

    Candida species are fungal pathogens known for their ability to cause superficial and systemic infections in the human host. These pathogens are able to persist inside the host due to the development of pathogenicity and multidrug resistance traits, often leading to the failure of therapeutic strategies. One specific feature of Candida species pathogenicity is their ability to form biofilms, which protects them from external factors such as host immune system defenses and antifungal drugs. This review focuses on the current threats and challenges when dealing with biofilms formed by Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis, highlighting the differences between the four species. Biofilm characteristics depend on the ability of each species to produce extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and display dimorphic growth, but also on the biofilm substratum, carbon source availability and other factors. Additionally, the transcriptional control over processes like adhesion, biofilm formation, filamentation, and EPS production displays great complexity and diversity within pathogenic yeasts of the Candida genus. These differences not only have implications in the persistence of colonization and infections but also on antifungal resistance typically found in Candida biofilm cells, potentiated by EPS, that functions as a barrier to drug diffusion, and by the overexpression of drug resistance transporters. The ability to interact with different species in in vivo Candida biofilms is also a key factor to consider when dealing with this problem. Despite many challenges, the most promising strategies that are currently available or under development to limit biofilm formation or to eradicate mature biofilms are discussed. PMID:29487851

  3. Candida endophthalmitis after heroin abuse.

    PubMed

    Malecaze, F; Arne, J L; Bec, P; Séguéla, J P; Linas, M D; Recco, P; Béssières, M H

    1985-11-01

    Three cases of ocular candidosis involving heroin abusers have been observed in 1983 in Toulouse department of ophthalmology. These three patients had used iranian brown heroin. Twenty similar cases have been published in these last years. This new pathology can be explained on two reasons. The first is that the drug abusers have some immunity pertubation; however, immunity exploration in these patients does not reveal any immunodeficiency. The second reason, certainly more important, is the method of using heroin. The diagnosis of Candida endophthalmitis of course based on clinical context must be proved by biological tests. Candida albicans is never identified in aqueous humor. For this reason, it seems very interesting to detect anti-candida antibodies in aqueous humor. It has been used as methods of dosage laser Nephelemetry for IgG and immunofluorescence for candidosis antibodies. The criterion used is similar to the toxoplasmosis coefficient established by Desmonts (3). In two cases, this test was the only way that permits us to have certitude of candidosis ocular diagnosis. Otherwise the observations show that anterior chamber punction is more significant when there is an anterior uveitis.

  4. Transformation in fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Fincham, J R

    1989-01-01

    Transformation with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) now appears to be possible with all fungal species, or at least all that can be grown in culture. This field of research is at present dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two filamentous members of the class Ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, with substantial contributions also from fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and another filamentous member of the class Ascomycetes, Podospora anserina. However, transformation has been demonstrated, and will no doubt be extensively used, in representatives of most of the main fungal classes, including Phycomycetes, Basidiomycetes (the order Agaricales and Ustilago species), and a number of the Fungi Imperfecti. The list includes a number of plant pathogens, and transformation is likely to become important in the analysis of the molecular basis of pathogenicity. Transformation may be maintained either by using an autonomously replicating plasmid as a vehicle for the transforming DNA or through integration of the DNA into the chromosomes. In S. cerevisiae and other yeasts, a variety of autonomously replicating plasmids have been used successfully, some of them designed for use as shuttle vectors for Escherichia coli as well as for yeast transformation. Suitable plasmids are not yet available for use in filamentous fungi, in which stable transformation is dependent on chromosomal integration. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, integration of transforming DNA is virtually always by homology; in filamentous fungi, in contrast, it occurs just as frequently at nonhomologous (ectopic) chromosomal sites. The main importance of transformation in fungi at present is in connection with gene cloning and the analysis of gene function. The most advanced work is being done with S. cerevisiae, in which the virtual restriction of stable DNA integration to homologous chromosome loci enables gene disruption and gene replacement to be carried out with greater

  5. Effects of temperature and glucose limitation on coal solubilization by Candida ML13

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.

    1991-04-01

    Biological processing has received considerable attention in recent years as a technology for the utilization of low-ranked coals. Several fungi and actinomycetes have been shown to liquefy highly oxidized coal in pure culture under aerobic conditions. This report describes the optimization of cultural conditions for coal solubilization by Candida sp. ML13, an organism originally isolated from a naturally weathered coal seam. Coal solubilization by surface cultures of Candida sp. has previously been demonstrated. The author describes here the elicitation of the activity in submerged cultures as well as the effect of carbohydrate concentration, carbon source, temperature, and agitation rate onmore » coal solubilization by this organism.« less

  6. Antimicrobial Decapeptide KSL-W Attenuates Candida albicans Virulence by Modulating Its Effects on Toll-Like Receptor, Human Beta-Defensin, and Cytokine Expression by Engineered human Oral Mucosa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-02

    against phytopathogenic fungi that cause postharvest decay in fruits . Mol Plant Microbe Interact 2000;13:837–46. [28] Montesinos E, Antimicrobial peptides...inactivated KSL-W did not affect epithelial cell proliferation (Fig. 2). 3.3. KSL-W pre-treatment reduced Candida growth in the infected oral mucosa tissue...against fungi , such as C. albi- cans, remains to be determined. Oral candidiasis is associatedwith gingival tissuewhere epithe- lial cells are the primary

  7. The APSES family proteins in fungi: Characterizations, evolution and functions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Su, Hao; Zhou, Jing; Feng, Huihua; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Yang, Jinkui

    2015-08-01

    The APSES protein family belongs to transcriptional factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class, the originally described members (APSES: Asm1p, Phd1p, Sok2p, Efg1p and StuAp) are used to designate this group of proteins, and they have been identified as key regulators of fungal development and other biological processes. APSES proteins share a highly conserved DNA-binding domain (APSES domain) of about 100 amino acids, whose central domain is predicted to form a typical bHLH structure. Besides APSES domain, several APSES proteins also contain additional domains, such as KilA-N and ankyrin repeats. In recent years, an increasing number of APSES proteins have been identified from diverse fungi, and they involve in numerous biological processes, such as sporulation, cellular differentiation, mycelial growth, secondary metabolism and virulence. Most fungi, including Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Candida albicans, Fusarium graminearum, and Neurospora crassa, contain five APSES proteins. However, Cryptococcus neoformans only contains two APSES proteins, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae contains six APSES proteins. The phylogenetic analysis showed the APSES domains from different fungi were grouped into four clades (A, B, C and D), which is consistent with the result of homologous alignment of APSES domains using DNAman. The roles of APSES proteins in clade C have been studied in detail, while little is known about the roles of other APSES proteins in clades A, B and D. In this review, the biochemical properties and functional domains of APSES proteins are predicted and compared, and the phylogenetic relationship among APSES proteins from various fungi are analyzed based on the APSES domains. Moreover, the functions of APSES proteins in different fungi are summarized and discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Nuclear movement in fungi.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xin

    2017-12-11

    Nuclear movement within a cell occurs in a variety of eukaryotic organisms including yeasts and filamentous fungi. Fungal molecular genetic studies identified the minus-end-directed microtubule motor cytoplasmic dynein as a critical protein for nuclear movement or orientation of the mitotic spindle contained in the nucleus. Studies in the budding yeast first indicated that dynein anchored at the cortex via its anchoring protein Num1 exerts pulling force on an astral microtubule to orient the anaphase spindle across the mother-daughter axis before nuclear division. Prior to anaphase, myosin V interacts with the plus end of an astral microtubule via Kar9-Bim1/EB1 and pulls the plus end along the actin cables to move the nucleus/spindle close to the bud neck. In addition, pushing or pulling forces generated from cortex-linked polymerization or depolymerization of microtubules drive nuclear movements in yeasts and possibly also in filamentous fungi. In filamentous fungi, multiple nuclei within a hyphal segment undergo dynein-dependent back-and-forth movements and their positioning is also influenced by cytoplasmic streaming toward the hyphal tip. In addition, nuclear movement occurs at various stages of fungal development and fungal infection of plant tissues. This review discusses our current understanding on the mechanisms of nuclear movement in fungal organisms, the importance of nuclear positioning and the regulatory strategies that ensure the proper positioning of nucleus/spindle. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Direct Isolation of Candida spp. from Blood Cultures on the Chromogenic Medium CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Lynn L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Dooley, David P.

    2003-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a selective and differential chromogenic medium that has been shown to be useful for identification of Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and perhaps Candida glabrata. Colony morphology and color have been well defined when CHROMagar Candida has been used to isolate yeast directly from clinical specimens, including stool, urine, respiratory, vaginal, oropharyngeal, and esophageal sources. Direct isolation of yeast on CHROMagar Candida from blood cultures has not been evaluated. We evaluated whether the color and colony characteristics produced by Candida spp. on CHROMagar Candida were altered when yeasts were isolated directly from blood cultures. Fifty clinical isolates of Candida were inoculated into aerobic and anaerobic blood culture bottles and incubated at 35°C in an automated blood culture system. When growth was detected, an aliquot was removed and plated onto CHROMagar Candida. As a control, CHROMagar Candida plates were inoculated with the same isolate of yeast grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar simultaneously. No significant difference was detected in color or colony morphology between the blood and control isolates in any of the tested organisms. All C. albicans (n = 12), C. tropicalis (n = 12), C. glabrata (n = 9), and C. krusei (n = 5) isolates exhibited the expected species-specific colony characteristics and color, whether isolated directly from blood or from control cultures. CHROMagar Candida can be reliably used for direct isolation of yeast from blood cultures. Direct isolation could allow mycology laboratories to more rapidly identify Candida spp., enable clinicians to more quickly make antifungal agent selections, and potentially decrease patient morbidity and mortality. PMID:12791890

  10. The hydrolytic enzymes produced by fungi strains isolated from the sand and soil of recreational areas

    PubMed

    Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wójcik, Anna; Błaszkowska, Joanna; Góralska, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16). In addition, 13 biotypes characteristic of particular species of fungi were defined. Most strains could be categorized as biotypes C2 – 39.5% and A – 26%. The examined fungal strains isolated from recreational areas have selected biochemical characteristics i.e. production of hydrolases, which demonstrate their pathogenicity. They produce a number of enzymes which are also present in strains isolated from patients with mycoses, including: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11) and alkaline phosphatase (e1). The biotypes identified in the course of this study (A, B3, B4, C1, C6 and D3) have been also reported in cases of fungal infection. Therefore, the fungi present in the sand and soil of recreational have pathogenic properties and are possible factors of fungal infection among children.

  11. Toxins of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yu, Jiujiang; Ehrlich, Kenneth C

    2002-01-01

    Mycotoxins are low-molecular-weight secondary metabolites of fungi. The most significant mycotoxins are contaminants of agricultural commodities, foods and feeds. Fungi that produce these toxins do so both prior to harvest and during storage. Although contamination of commodities by toxigenic fungi occurs frequently in areas with a hot and humid climate (i.e. conditions favorable for fungal growth), they can also be found in temperate conditions. Production of mycotoxins is dependent upon the type of producing fungus and environmental conditions such as the substrate, water activity (moisture and relative humidity), duration of exposure to stress conditions and microbial, insect or other animal interactions. Although outbreaks of mycotoxicoses in humans have been documented, several of these have not been well characterized, neither has a direct correlation between the mycotoxin and resulting toxic effect been well established in vivo. Even though the specific modes of action of most of the toxins are not well established, acute and chronic effects in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, including humans have been reported. The toxicity of the mycotoxins varies considerably with the toxin, the animal species exposed to it, and the extent of exposure, age and nutritional status. Most of the toxic effects of mycotoxins are limited to specific organs, but several mycotoxins affect many organs. Induction of cancer by some mycotoxins is a major concern as a chronic effect of these toxins. It is nearly impossible to eliminate mycotoxins from the foods and feed in spite of the regulatory efforts at the national and international levels to remove the contaminated commodities. This is because mycotoxins are highly stable compounds, the producing fungi are ubiquitous, and food contamination can occur both before and after harvest. Nevertheless, good farm management practices and adequate storage facilities minimize the toxin contamination problems. Current research is

  12. Molecular identification of fungi found on decomposed human bodies in forensic autopsy cases.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Patrick; Dannaoui, Eric; Gehl, Axel; Felske-Zech, Heike; Birngruber, Christoph G; Dettmeyer, Reinhard B; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2015-07-01

    To investigate which fungi can be found during forensic autopsies, a PubMed literature review was done in regard to fungal growth on decomposed human bodies. Unfortunately, the existing data is limited and not all fungi were identified to the species level. We, therefore, collected skin samples with macroscopically visible fungal growth from 23 autopsy cases in Germany and identified the fungi to the species level by molecular methods. The identified species included Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, which pose an allergenic risk, especially to persons with underlying lung diseases. Because safety standards are lacking, we recommend the use of respiratory protection during exhumations and forensic autopsies, when fungal growth is noted. With regard to the future, a database was set up which could possibly be used as a forensic tool to determine the time of death.

  13. Candida kashinagacola sp. nov., C. pseudovanderkliftii sp. nov. and C. vanderkliftii sp. nov., three new yeasts from ambrosia beetle-associated sources.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Rikiya; Suzuki, Motofumi; Benno, Yoshimi; Futai, Kazuyoshi

    2008-10-01

    Three new yeast species, Candida kashinagacola (JCM 15019(T) = CBS 10903(T)), C. pseudovanderkliftii (JCM 15025(T) = CBS 10904(T)), and C. vanderkliftii (JCM 15029(T) = CBS 10905(T)) are described on the basis of comparison of nucleotide sequences of large subunit ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region (LSU rDNA D1/D2). The nearest assigned species of the three new species was Candida llanquihuensis. Candida kashinagacola and C. pseudovanderkliftii differed from C. llanquihuensis by 3.8% nucleotide substitution of the region, while C. vanderkliftii did by 4.4%. Three new species differed in a number of physiological and growth characteristics from any previously assigned species and from one another. A phylogenetic tree based on the sequences of LSU rDNA D1/D2 showed that these new species together with Candida sp. ST-246, Candida sp. JW01-7-11-1-4-y2, Candida sp. BG02-7-20-001A-2-1 and C. llanquihuensis form a clade near Ambrosiozyma species. The new species did not assimilate methanol as a sole source of carbon, which supported the monophyly of these non methanol-assimilating species which are closely related to the methylotrophic yeasts. Candida kashinagacola was frequently isolated from the beetle galleries of Platypus quercivorus in three different host trees (Quercus serrata, Q. laurifolia and Castanopsis cuspidata) located in the sourthern part of Kyoto, Japan, thus indicating that this species may be a primary ambrosia fungus of P. quercivorus. On the other hand, C. pseudovanderkliftii and C. vanderkliftii were isolated only from beetle galleries in Q. laurifolia. Candida vanderkliftii was isolated from beetle gallery of Platypus lewisi as well as those of P. quercivorus. Candida pseudovanderkliftii and C. vanderkliftii are assumed to be auxiliary ambrosia fungi of P. quercivorus.

  14. Growth of Candida albicans hyphae.

    PubMed

    Sudbery, Peter E

    2011-08-16

    The fungus Candida albicans is often a benign member of the mucosal flora; however, it commonly causes mucosal disease with substantial morbidity and in vulnerable patients it causes life-threatening bloodstream infections. A striking feature of its biology is its ability to grow in yeast, pseudohyphal and hyphal forms. The hyphal form has an important role in causing disease by invading epithelial cells and causing tissue damage. This Review describes our current understanding of the network of signal transduction pathways that monitors environmental cues to activate a programme of hypha-specific gene transcription, and the molecular processes that drive the highly polarized growth of hyphae.

  15. [Water fungi occurence in the River Supraśl-bath Jurowce near Białystok].

    PubMed

    Kiziewicz, Bozena; Kozłowska, Mariola; Godlewska, Anna; Muszyńvska, Elzbieta; Mazalska, Bozenna

    2004-01-01

    Studies on the occurrence of aquatic fungi in the bathing sites of the Supraśl River in Jurowce village were collected in years 2000-2003. Hydrochemical analysis was performed using standard methods. Bait method was used to isolate the fungi. In the Supraśl River at Jurowce village 36 fungi species were identified, among them fish pathogens Achlya orion, Aphanomyces laevis, Dictyuchus monosporus, Saprolegnia ferax, Saprolegnia monoica, S. parasitica, human pathogens Aspergillus flavus, Candida albicans, Lagenidium humanum, Penicillium mycetomagenum, Rhizophydium keratinophilum and Trichosporon cutaneum, phytopathogens Achlya racemosa, Phytophthora gonapodoides, Pythium butleri, P. myriotylum and P. debaryanum. Physicochemical parameters of waters in Supraśl River-bathing sites had no important effect on the occurrence of fungi.

  16. Multiple rare opportunistic and pathogenic fungi in persistent foot skin infection.

    PubMed

    Chan, Giek Far; Sinniah, Sivaranjini; Idris, Tengku Idzzan Nadzirah Tengku; Puad, Mohamad Safwan Ahmad; Abd Rahman, Ahmad Zuhairi

    2013-03-01

    Persistent superficial skin infection caused by multiple fungi is rarely reported. Recently, a number of fungi, both opportunistic and persistent in nature were isolated from the foot skin of a 24-year old male in Malaysia. The fungi were identified as Candida parapsilosis, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Phoma spp., Debaryomyces hansenii, Acremonium spp., Aureobasidium pullulans and Aspergillus spp., This is the first report on these opportunistic strains were co-isolated from a healthy individual who suffered from persistent foot skin infection which was diagnosed as athlete's foot for more than 12 years. Among the isolated fungi, C. parapsilosis has been an increasingly common cause of skin infections. R. mucilaginosa and D. hansenii were rarely reported in cases of skin infection. A. pullulans, an emerging fungal pathogen was also being isolated in this case. Interestingly, it was noted that C. parapsilosis, R. mucilaginosa, D. hansenii and A. pullulans are among the common halophiles and this suggests the association of halotolerant fungi in causing persistent superficial skin infection. This discovery will shed light on future research to explore on effective treatment for inhibition of pathogenic halophiles as well as to understand the interaction of multiple fungi in the progress of skin infection.

  17. Use of restriction fragment length polymorphism to identify Candida species, related to onychomycosis

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Rasoul; Badiee, Parisa; Badali, Hamid; Abastabar, Mahdi; Safa, Ahmad Hosseini; Hadipour, Mahboubeh; Yazdani, Hajar; Heshmat, Farnaz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Onychomycosis is one of the most common clinical forms of fungal infections due to both filamentous fungi and yeasts. The genus of Candida is one of the most prominent causes of onychomycosis in all around the world. Although Candida albicans is still the most frequent cause of nail infections, use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents has led to a shift in the etiology of C. albicans to non-albicans species. The aim of the present study is rapid and precise identification of candida species isolated from nail infection by using of PCR-RFLP technique. Materials and Methods: A total of 360 clinical yeast strains were collected from nail infections in Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted using FTA; cards. ITS1-5.8SrDNA-ITS2 region was amplified using universal primers and subsequently products were digested with the restriction enzyme MspI. For identification of newly described species (C. parapsilosis complex), the SADH gene was amplified, followed by digestion with Nla III restriction enzyme. Results: Candida albicans was the most commonly isolated species (41.1%), followed by C. parapsilosis (21.4%), C. tropicalis (12.8%), C. kefyr (9.4%), C. krusei (5.5%), C. orthopsilosis (4.1%), C. glabrata (2.8%), C. guilliermondii (1.4%), C. rugosa (0.8%), and C. lusitaniae (0.5%). Patients in the age groups of 51-60 and 81-90 years had the highest and lowest distribution of positive specimens, respectively. Conclusion: Rapid and precise identification of Candida species from clinical specimens lead to appropriate therapeutic plans. PMID:26015921

  18. Isolation frequency of Candida present on the surfaces of mobile phones and handsx.

    PubMed

    Kordecka, Anna; Krajewska-Kułak, Elżbieta; Łukaszuk, Cecylia; Kraszyńska, Bogumiła; Kułak, Wojciech

    2016-06-01

    It is known that mobile phones may play a role in microorganism transmission. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the number of Candida genera/species isolated from samples collected from the surfaces of mobile phones and the hands of the staff as well as the preferred health-related behavior. The mycological evaluation included 175 mobile telephones and the hands of staff members at the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. We used the Count-Tact(TM) applicator, with CandiSelect (Bio-Rad). Self-administered questionnaire was used to gather data on mobile phones disinfection practices. Assessment of the preferred health-related behavior was based on The Multidemensional Health Locus of Control Scale (MHLC). Out of 175 mobile phones, 131 (74.9 %) were colonized. Candida glabrata, C. albicans and C.krusei were isolated more frequently from the hand as well as phone surface. The mean number of Candida colonies was higher in samples collected from hand surfaces than mobile phone surfaces. No significant correlation was found between the preferred health-related behavior and the frequency of washing hands, the way of using a mobile phone, the number of colonies or the isolation frequency for the fungi collected from the surface of the phones and hands of their owners. Only 19.4 % of the participants cleaned the surface of their phones. The prevalence of mobile phone contamination by Candida is high in the University Hospital in Białystok, Poland. Candida albicans, C. glabrata, and C. krusei were the dominant species in the samples collected from mobile phones and hands. These results pose the need to develop guidelines for mobile phone disinfection.

  19. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials

    PubMed Central

    Pravin Charles, M. V.; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-01-01

    Background: In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. Conclusions: We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing. PMID:26109791

  20. Performance of chromogenic media for Candida in rapid presumptive identification of Candida species from clinical materials.

    PubMed

    Pravin Charles, M V; Kali, Arunava; Joseph, Noyal Mariya

    2015-06-01

    In perspective of the worldwide increase in a number of immunocompromised patients, the need for identification of Candida species has become a major concern. The development of chromogenic differential media, introduced recently, facilitate rapid speciation. However, it can be employed for routine mycology workup only after an exhaustive evaluation of its benefit and cost effectiveness. This study was undertaken to evaluate the benefit and cost effectiveness of chromogenic media for speciation of Candida clinical isolates. Sputum samples of 382 patients were screened for the presence of Candida spp. by Gram stain and culture on sabouraud dextrose agar. Candida species were identified using Gram stain morphology, germ tube formation, cornmeal agar with Tween-80, sugar fermentation tests and morphology on HiCrome Candida differential agar. All the Candida isolates were inoculated on HiCrome Candida agar (HiMedia, Mumbai, India). The sensitivity and specificity of HiCrome agar for identification of Candida albicans were 90% and 96.42%, respectively whereas sensitivity and specificity of carbohydrate fermentation test were 86.67% and 74.07%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity values of HiCrome agar for detection of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis and Candida glabrata were above 90%. We found HiCrome agar has high sensitivity and specificity comparable to that of the conventional method. In addition, use of this differential media could significantly cut down the turnaround time as well as cost of sample processing.

  1. Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Sachu, Arun; Mohan, Karthika; Vinod, Vivek; Dinesh, Kavitha; Karim, Shamsul

    Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37°C and 42°C after 24 and 48h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24h while at 48h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42°C. We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Daniela; Henriques, Mariana; Silva, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Fei; Snyder, John Hugh; Shi, Huan-Bin; Lu, Jian-Ping; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy is a conserved cellular process that degrades cytoplasmic constituents in vacuoles. Plant pathogenic fungi develop special infection structures and/or secrete a range of enzymes to invade their plant hosts. It has been demonstrated that monitoring autophagy processes can be extremely useful in visualizing the sequence of events leading to pathogenicity of plant pathogenic fungi. In this review, we introduce the molecular mechanisms involved in autophagy. In addition, we explore the relationship between autophagy and pathogenicity in plant pathogenic fungi. Finally, we discuss the various experimental strategies available for use in the study of autophagy in plant pathogenic fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Fusarium and other opportunistic hyaline fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter focuses on those fungi that grow in tissue in the form of hyaline or lightly colored septate hyphae. These fungi include Fusarium and other hyaline fungi. Disease caused by hyaline fungi is referred to as hyalohyphomycosis. Hyaline fungi described in this chapter include the anamorphic,...

  5. Mitochondrial Cochaperone Mge1 Is Involved in Regulating Susceptibility to Fluconazole in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Demuyser, Liesbeth; Swinnen, Erwin; Fiori, Alessandro; Herrera-Malaver, Beatriz; Vestrepen, Kevin; Van Dijck, Patrick

    2017-07-18

    MGE1 encodes a yeast chaperone involved in Fe-S cluster metabolism and protein import into the mitochondria. In this study, we identified MGE1 as a multicopy suppressor of susceptibility to the antifungal fluconazole in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We demonstrate that this phenomenon is not exclusively dependent on the integrity of the mitochondrial DNA or on the presence of the drug efflux pump Pdr5. Instead, we show that the increased dosage of Mge1 plays a protective role by retaining increased amounts of ergosterol upon fluconazole treatment. Iron metabolism and, more particularly, Fe-S cluster formation are involved in regulating this process, since the responsible Hsp70 chaperone, Ssq1, is required. Additionally, we show the necessity but, by itself, insufficiency of activating the iron regulon in establishing the Mge1-related effect on drug susceptibility. Finally, we confirm a similar role for Mge1 in fluconazole susceptibility in the pathogenic fungi Candida glabrata and Candida albicans IMPORTANCE Although they are mostly neglected compared to bacterial infections, fungal infections pose a serious threat to the human population. While some of them remain relatively harmless, infections that reach the bloodstream often become lethal. Only a few therapies are available, and resistance of the pathogen to these drugs is a frequently encountered problem. It is thus essential that more research is performed on how these pathogens cope with the treatment and cause recurrent infections. Baker's yeast is often used as a model to study pathogenic fungi. We show here, by using this model, that iron metabolism and the formation of the important iron-sulfur clusters are involved in regulating susceptibility to fluconazole, the most commonly used antifungal drug. We show that the same process likely also occurs in two of the most regularly isolated pathogenic fungi, Candida glabrata and Candida albicans . Copyright © 2017 Demuyser et al.

  6. Soybean toxin (SBTX), a protein from soybeans that inhibits the life cycle of plant and human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Morais, Janne Keila S; Gomes, Valdirene M; Oliveira, José Tadeu A; Santos, Izabela S; Da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Oliveira, Henrique P; Sousa, Daniele O B; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2010-10-13

    Soybean toxin (SBTX) is a 44 kDa glycoprotein that is lethal to mice (LD(50) = 5.6 mg/kg). This study reports the toxicity of SBTX on pathogenic fungi and yeasts and the mechanism of its action. SBTX inhibited spore germination of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium herguei and was toxic to Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Kluyveromyces marxiannus , Pichia membranifaciens, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In addition, SBTX hampered the growth of C. albicans and K. marxiannus and inhibited the glucose-stimulated acidification of the incubation medium by S. cerevisiae, suggesting that SBTX interferes with intracellular proton transport to the external medium. Moreover, SBTX caused cell-wall disruption, condensation/shrinkage of cytosol, pseudohyphae formation, and P. membranifaciens and C. parapsilosis cell death. SBTX is toxic to fungi at concentrations far below the dose lethal to mice and has potential in the design of new antifungal drugs or in the development of transgenic crops resistant to pathogens.

  7. Microwave sterilization of Candida on underwear fabric. A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, E.G. Jr.; Phillips, L.E.

    1988-05-01

    Candida-contaminated underwear might not be sterilized by ordinary laundering. The effectiveness of microwaving against Candida albicans on fabric was therefore determined. Swatches of Candida-impregnated cotton underpants fabric were subjected to domestic microwaving at the high setting for up to 30 minutes. If the fabric was microwaved dry, the Candida organisms survived. If the fabric was moistened, sterilization occurred within five minutes. Microwaving wet, freshly laundered cotton underpants should sterilize residual Candida and reduce the risk of reinfection.

  8. Phytochemicals as Inhibitors of Candida Biofilm.

    PubMed

    Raut, Jayant Shankar; Karuppayil, Sankunny Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Candida biofilm and associated infections is a serious threat to the large population of immunocompromised patients. Biofilm growth on prosthetic devices or host tissue shows reduced sensitivity to antifungal agents and persists as a reservoir of infective cells. Options for successful treatment of biofilm associated Candida infections are restricted because most of the available antifungal drugs fail to eradicate biofilms. Various plant actives are known to possess interesting antifungal properties. To explore and review the potential of phytochemicals as a novel strategy against Candida biofilms is the intent of present article. Thorough literature search is performed to identify Candida biofilm inhibitors of plant origin. An account of efficacy of selected phytochemicals is presented taking into consideration their biofilm inhibitory concentrations. This review discusses biofilm formation by Candida species, their involvement in human infections, and associated drug resistance. It gives insight into the biofilm inhibitory potential of various phytochemicals. Based on the available reports including the work done in our laboratory, several plant extracts, essential oils and phytomolecules have been identified as excellent inhibitors of biofilms of C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NACS). Selected phytochemicals which exhibit activities at low concentrations without displaying toxicity to host are potential therapeutic agents against biofilm associated Candida infections. In vivo testing in animal models and clinical trials in humans are required to be taken up seriously to propose few of the phytochemicals as candidate drug molecules.

  9. Postantifungal effect of caspofungin against the Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis clades.

    PubMed

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Eraso, Elena; Quindós, Guillermo

    2016-10-01

    Killing and postantifungal effects could be relevant for the selection of optimal dosing schedules. This study aims to compare time-kill and postantifungal effects with caspofungin on Candida albicans (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida africana) and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis) clades. In the postantifungal effect experiments, strains were exposed to caspofungin for 1 h at concentrations 0.12-8 μg/mL. Time-kill experiments were conducted at the same concentrations. Caspofungin exhibited a significant and prolonged postantifungal effect (>37 h) with 2 μg/mL against the most strains of C. albicans clade. Against the C. parapsilosis clade, the postantifungal effect was <12 h at 8 μg/mL, except for two strains. Caspofungin was fungicidal against C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. metapsilosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Azole Antifungal Resistance in Candida albicans and Emerging Non-albicans Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Whaley, Sarah G.; Berkow, Elizabeth L.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Nishimoto, Andrew T.; Barker, Katherine S.; Rogers, P. David

    2017-01-01

    Within the limited antifungal armamentarium, the azole antifungals are the most frequent class used to treat Candida infections. Azole antifungals such as fluconazole are often preferred treatment for many Candida infections as they are inexpensive, exhibit limited toxicity, and are available for oral administration. There is, however, extensive documentation of intrinsic and developed resistance to azole antifungals among several Candida species. As the frequency of azole resistant Candida isolates in the clinical setting increases, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms of such resistance in order to both preserve and improve upon the azole class of antifungals for the treatment of Candida infections. This review examines azole resistance in infections caused by C. albicans as well as the emerging non-albicans Candida species C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. glabrata and in particular, describes the current understanding of molecular basis of azole resistance in these fungal species. PMID:28127295

  11. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: effect on matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D R; Silva, S; Negri, M; Gorup, L F; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different silver nanoparticles (SN) concentrations on the matrix composition and structure of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. Candida biofilms were developed in 6-well microtiter plates during 48 h. After, these biofilms were exposed to 13.5 or 54 μg SN ml(-1) for 24 h. Then, extracellular matrices were extracted from biofilms and analysed chemically in terms of proteins, carbohydrates and DNA. To investigate the biofilm structure, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and epifluorescence microscopy were used. SN interfered with the matrix composition of Candida biofilms tested in terms of protein, carbohydrate and DNA, except for the protein content of C. albicans biofilm. By SEM, Candida biofilms treated with SN revealed structural differences, when compared with the control groups. Further, SN showed a trend of agglomeration within the biofilms. Epifluorescence microscopy images suggest that SN induced damage on cell walls of the Candida isolates tested. In general, irrespective of concentration, SN affected the matrix composition and structure of Candida biofilms and these findings may be related to the mechanisms of biocide action of SN. This study reveals new insights about the behaviour of SN when in contact with Candida biofilms. SN may contribute to the development of therapies to prevent or control Candida infections. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. Antibiofilm activity of carboxymethyl chitosan on the biofilms of non-Candida albicans Candida species.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yulong; Leonhard, Matthias; Moser, Doris; Schneider-Stickler, Berit

    2016-09-20

    Although most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, non-C. albicans Candida species have been isolated in increasing numbers in patients. In this study, we determined the inhibition of carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) on single and mixed species biofilm of non-albicans Candida species, including Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida glabrata. Biofilm by all tested species in microtiter plates were inhibited nearly 70%. CM-chitosan inhibited mixed species biofilm in microtiter plates and also on medical materials surfaces. To investigate the mechanism, the effect of CM-chitosan on cell viability and biofilm growth was employed. CM-chitosan inhibited Candida planktonic growth as well as adhesion. Further biofilm formation was inhibited with CM-chitosan added at 90min, 12h or 24h after biofilm initiation. CM-chitosan was not only able to inhibit the metabolic activity of Candida cells, but was also active upon the establishment and the development of biofilms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Dose-dependent effect of lysozyme upon Candida albicans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    Sebaa, Sarra; Hizette, Nicolas; Boucherit-Otmani, Zahia; Courtois, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the in vitro effect of lysozyme (0–1,000 µg/ml) on Candida albicans (C. albicans) biofilm development. Investigations were conducted on C. albicans ATCC 10231 and on 10 clinical isolates from dentures. Strains were cultured aerobically at 37°C in Sabouraud broth. Yeast growth was evaluated by turbidimetry. Biofilm biomass was quantified on a polystyrene support by crystal violet staining and on acrylic surfaces by counts of colony forming units. Lysozyme affected biofilm formation to a greater extent than it affected growth. For the ATCC 10231 reference strain, lysozyme acted as a biofilm promotor on polystyrene at the highest concentration tested (1,000 µg/ml, non-physiological). When the reference strain was investigated on acrylic resin support, lysozyme acted as a significant biofilm promotor on rough resin, but less on smooth resin. The attached biomass in the presence of physiological concentrations of lysozyme (10–30 µg/ml) was significantly decreased compared with the hypothetical value of 100% using a one-sample t-test, but a comparison between the different lysozyme conditions using analysis of variance and post hoc tests did not reveal significant differences. In 10 wild strains, different patterns of biofilm formation on polystyrene were observed in the presence of lysozyme. Some strains, characterized by large amounts of biofilm formation in the presence of 1,000 µg/ml lysozyme, were poor biofilm producers at low concentrations of lysozyme. In contrast, some strains that were poor biofilm producers with a high lysozyme concentration were more inhibited by low concentrations of lysozyme. The present study emphasizes the need to develop strategies for biofilm control based on in vitro experiments, and to implement these in clinical trials prior to approval of hygiene products enriched with exocrine proteins, such as lysozyme. Further studies will extend these investigations to other Candida species, and to fungi

  14. Diversity of spoilage fungi associated with various French dairy products.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Lucille; Valence, Florence; Pawtowski, Audrey; Auhustsinava-Galerne, Lizaveta; Frotté, Nicolas; Baroncelli, Riccardo; Deniel, Franck; Coton, Emmanuel; Mounier, Jérôme

    2017-01-16

    Yeasts and molds are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Yet, few studies have investigated the diversity of spoilage fungi encountered in dairy products. In the present study, 175 isolates corresponding to 105 from various spoiled dairy products and 70 originating from dairy production environments, were identified using sequencing of the ITS region, the partial β-tubulin, calmodulin and/or EFα genes, and the D1-D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Among the 41 species found in spoiled products, Penicillium commune and Penicillium bialowiezense were the most common filamentous fungi, representing around 10% each of total isolates while Meyerozyma guilliermondii and Trichosporon asahii were the most common yeasts (4.8% each of total isolates). Several species (e.g. Penicillium antarcticum, Penicillium salamii and Cladosporium phyllophilum) were identified for the first time in dairy products or their environment. In addition, numerous species were identified in both spoiled products and their corresponding dairy production environment suggesting that the latter acts as a primary source of contamination. Secondly, the resistance to chemical preservatives (sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, potassium sorbate and natamycin) of 10 fungal isolates representative of the observed biodiversity was also evaluated. Independently of the fungal species, natamycin had the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (expressed in gram of preservative/l), followed by potassium sorbate, sodium benzoate and calcium propionate. In the tested conditions, Cladosporium halotolerans and Didymella pinodella were the most sensitive fungi while Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida parapsilosis were the most resistant towards the tested preservatives. This study provides interesting information on the occurrence of fungal contaminants in dairy products and environments that may help developing

  15. THE ROLE FUNGI AND YEAST IN MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION

    SciTech Connect

    Brigmon, R.; Abe, M.; Johnson, B.

    Fungi and yeast have been characterized as important components in the bioremediation of organic contaminants in soil and water including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs); however, research into their ability to metabolize these compounds in extreme environments has been limited. In this work forty-three fungi and yeasts were isolated from a PAH-contaminated sludge waste lagoon in Poland. The lagoon was part of a monitored natural attenuation (MNA) study where natural reduction of PAHs and associated toxicity over time in non-disturbed areas of the sludge lagoon indicated MNA activity. The microorganisms were initially isolated on minimal medium containing naphthalene as the sole carbonmore » and energy source. Fungal isolates were then maintained on MEA and identified based on microscopic examination and BIOLOG{reg_sign}. The analysis identified several of the fungal isolates as belonging to the genera Penicillium, Paecilomyces, Aspergillus, and Eupenicillium. Yeasts included Candida parapsilosis and C. fluvialitis. Further microbial characterization revealed that several isolates were capable of rowing on acidified media of pH 4, 3, and 2.5. Over twenty percent of the fungi demonstrated growth as low as pH 2.5. Of the 43 isolates examined, 24 isolates exhibited growth at 5 C. Nine of the fungal isolates exhibiting growth at 5 C were then examined for metabolic activity using a respirometer testing metabolic activity at pH 3. Microcosm studies confirmed the growth of the fungi on PAH contaminated sediment as the sole carbon and energy source with elevated metabolic rates indicating evidence of MNA. Our findings suggest that many of the Poland fungal isolates may be of value in the bioremediation processes in acidic waste sites in northern climates typical of Northern Europe.« less

  16. Fluconazole resistance in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, C A; Pye, G W; Troke, P F; Johnson, E M; Warnock, D W

    1993-01-01

    We report a case of infection with Candida glabrata in which the organism became resistant to fluconazole and in which pre- and posttreatment isolates were available for comparison. The organism was cross-resistant to ketoconazole and itraconazole, in common with other azole-resistant yeasts. Fluconazole was a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (P-450DM) in lysates of cells from both susceptible and resistant cultures (50% inhibitory concentration, 0.2 microM), indicating that resistance was unrelated to changes in P-450DM. Instead, it appeared to arise from a permeability barrier to fluconazole, since resistant cells were unable to take up radiolabelled drug. PMID:8239613

  17. In vitro modification of Candida albicans invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Fontenla de Petrino, S E; de Jorrat, M E; Sirena, A; Valdez, J C; Mesón, O

    1986-05-01

    Candida albicans produces germ-tubes (GT) when it is incubated in animal or human serum. This dimorphism is responsible for its invasive ability. The purpose of the present paper is (1) to evaluate the ability of rat peritoneal macrophages to inhibit GT production of ingested Candida albicans, obtained from immunized rats and then activated in vitro with Candida-induced lymphokines; (2) to determinate any possible alteration of phagocytic and candidacidal activities. The phagocytes were obtained from rats immunized with viable C. albicans. Some of them were exposed to Candida-induced lymphokines in order to activate the macrophages in vitro. The monolayers of activated, immune and normal macrophages were infected with a C. albicans suspension during 4 hr. Activated macrophages presented not only the highest phagocytic and candidacidal activities but a noticeable inhibition of GT formation and incremented candidacidal activity.

  18. 21 CFR 173.160 - Candida guilliermondii.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and...: (a) The food additive is the enzyme system of the viable organism Candida guilliermondii and its...

  19. Candida Pneumonia in Intensive Care Unit?

    PubMed Central

    Schnabel, Ronny M.; Linssen, Catharina F.; Guion, Nele; van Mook, Walther N.; Bergmans, Dennis C.

    2014-01-01

    It has been questioned if Candida pneumonia exists as a clinical entity. Only histopathology can establish the definite diagnosis. Less invasive diagnostic strategies lack specificity and have been insufficiently validated. Scarcity of this pathomechanism and nonspecific clinical presentation make validation and the development of a clinical algorithm difficult. In the present study, we analyze whether Candida pneumonia exists in our critical care population. We used a bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimen database that we have built in a structural diagnostic approach to ventilator-associated pneumonia for more than a decade consisting of 832 samples. Microbiological data were linked to clinical information and available autopsy data. We searched for critically ill patients with respiratory failure with no other microbiological or clinical explanation than exclusive presence of Candida species in BAL fluid. Five cases could be identified with Candida as the likely cause of pneumonia. PMID:25734099

  20. Antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan against clinical isolates of Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Alburquenque, Claudio; Bucarey, Sergio A; Neira-Carrillo, Andrónico; Urzúa, Blanca; Hermosilla, Germán; Tapia, Cecilia V

    2010-12-01

    Chitosan is a natural polymer derived from chitin, a structural component of fungi, insects and shrimp, which exerts antimicrobial effects against bacteria and fungi. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antifungal activity of low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC), and the potential synergy between chitosan and a currently used antifungal drug, fluconazole. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of chitosan and fluconazole against 105 clinical Candida isolates were measured by the broth microdilution method. LMWC exhibited a significant antifungal activity, inhibiting over 89.9% of the clinical isolates examined (68.6% of which was completely inhibited). The species included several fluconazole-resistant strains and less susceptible species such as C. glabrata, which was inhibited at a concentration of 4.8 mg/l LMWC. Although some strains were susceptible at pH 7.0, a greater antifungal activity of LMWC was observed at pH 4.0. There was no evidence of a synergistic effect of the combination of LMWC and fluconazole at pH 7.0. This is the first report in which the antifungal activity of LMWC was investigated with clinical Candida strains. The use of LMWC as an antifungal compound opens new therapeutic perspectives, as the low toxicity of LMWC in humans supports its use in new applications in an environment of pH 4.0-4.5, such as a topical agent for vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  1. Candida vaginitis during contraceptive use: the influence of methods, antifungal susceptibility and virulence patterns.

    PubMed

    Güzel, A B; Küçükgöz-Güleç, U; Aydin, M; Gümral, R; Kalkanci, A; Ilkit, M

    2013-11-01

    No consensus exists about whether contraceptives cause an increased risk of vaginitis, including vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC). We investigated 495 women (252 who used contraceptives; 243 who did not) for the presence of VVC. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed for five antifungal agents and for boric acid, and three virulence factors were also examined. We recovered 129 (26.1%) monofungal populations from vaginal samples of women with acute VVC (AVVC, n = 18), symptomatic recurrent VVC (RVVC, n = 22) and asymptomatic RVVC (n = 28), as well as of other contraceptive users who carried Candida in their vaginas (n = 61). It is important to note that the women who had VVC used the same contraceptive methods (p > 0.05). Candida albicans was the most common species isolated (45%), followed by C. glabrata (40.3%). Most of the vaginal yeast isolates exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration levels for the five antifungals tested. However, this was not the case for boric acid. In addition, the yeast fungi that was derived from the AVVC and RVVC patients showed higher amounts of haemolytic activity than the yeast fungi found among the controls (p < 0.05). The use of contraception does not predispose women to VVC (p > 0.05). Also, both host- and organism-related factors were required to achieve optimal clinical treatment for VVC.

  2. The oxidative stress response of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Briones-Martin-Del-Campo, Marcela; Orta-Zavalza, Emmanuel; Juarez-Cepeda, Jacqueline; Gutierrez-Escobedo, Guadalupe; Cañas-Villamar, Israel; Castaño, Irene; De Las Peñas, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Organisms have evolved different strategies to respond to oxidative stress generated as a by-product of aerobic respiration and thus maintain the redox homeostasis within the cell. In particular, fungal pathogens are exposed to reactive oxygen species (ROS) when they interact with the phagocytic cells of the host which are the first line of defense against fungal infections. These pathogens have co-opted the enzymatic (catalases, superoxide dismutases (SODs), and peroxidases) and non-enzymatic (glutathione) mechanisms used to maintain the redox homeostasis within the cell, to resist oxidative stress and ensure survival within the host. Several virulence factors have been related to the response to oxidative stress in pathogenic fungi. The opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida glabrata (C. glabrata) is the second most common cause of candidiasis after Candida albicans (C. albicans). C. glabrata has a well defined oxidative stress response (OSR), which include both enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. C. glabrata OSR is controlled by the well-conserved transcription factors Yap1, Skn7, Msn2 and Msn4. In this review, we describe the OSR of C. glabrata, what is known about its core elements, its regulation and how C. glabrata interacts with the host. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Antifungal activity of the clove essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum on Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte species.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Eugénia; Vale-Silva, Luís; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Lígia

    2009-11-01

    The composition and antifungal activity of clove essential oil (EO), obtained from Syzygium aromaticum, were studied. Clove oil was obtained commercially and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The EO analysed showed a high content of eugenol (85.3 %). MICs, determined according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols, and minimum fungicidal concentration were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the clove oil and its main component, eugenol, against Candida, Aspergillus and dermatophyte clinical and American Type Culture Collection strains. The EO and eugenol showed inhibitory activity against all the tested strains. To clarify its mechanism of action on yeasts and filamentous fungi, flow cytometric and inhibition of ergosterol synthesis studies were performed. Propidium iodide rapidly penetrated the majority of the yeast cells when the cells were treated with concentrations just over the MICs, meaning that the fungicidal effect resulted from an extensive lesion of the cell membrane. Clove oil and eugenol also caused a considerable reduction in the quantity of ergosterol, a specific fungal cell membrane component. Germ tube formation by Candida albicans was completely or almost completely inhibited by oil and eugenol concentrations below the MIC values. The present study indicates that clove oil and eugenol have considerable antifungal activity against clinically relevant fungi, including fluconazole-resistant strains, deserving further investigation for clinical application in the treatment of fungal infections.

  4. Toxigenic Fungi in Food

    PubMed Central

    Davis, N. D.; Wagener, R. E.; Dalby, D. K.; Morgan-Jones, G.; Diener, U. L.

    1975-01-01

    Forty-five fungal isolates from moldy supermarket foods were tested for toxicity to brine shrimp, and twenty-two of these isolates were subsequently tested for toxicity to chicken embryos. Highly toxigenic fungi were Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a bakery product, Fusarium oxysporum from carrots, F. solani from cabbage, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium corylophilum from bread, P. cyclopium and P. herquei from corn meal, P. lanosum from onions, P. steckii from chocolate syrup, Penicillium sp. from jelly, and Rhizopus nigricans isolates from sweet potato, applesauce, and strawberries. Approximately one-third of the fungal cultures were moderately to highly toxigenic to brine shrimp and chicken embryos, while several additional cultures were slightly toxigenic. PMID:1147614

  5. Inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms.

    PubMed

    Kaomongkolgit, Ruchadaporn; Jamdee, Kusuma

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the inhibitory effect of alpha-mangostin on Candida biofilms. Candida species including Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, and Candida glabrata were tested. Candida biofilms were formed in flat-bottomed 96-well microtiter plates. The metabolic activity of cells within biofilms was quantified using the XTT assay. The results demonstrated that alpha-mangostin showed a significant anti-biofilm effect on both developing biofilms and preformed biofilms of Candida species. It may be concluded that alpha-mangostin could be an anti-biofilm agent against Candida species. Further in vivo investigations are needed to uncover the therapeutic values of this medicinal plant.

  6. Comparative evaluation of effectiveness of sodium dichloroisocyanurate and calcium hydroxide against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Kurian, Jacob; Bolla, Nagesh; Damaraju, Bhargavi

    2012-09-01

    Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated fungi from the oral cavity. It is the most infective to various intracanal medicaments and is considered as invasive yeast. Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) which is used as a disinfectant and as a biocide in treating potable water has similar action to that of sodium hypochlorite against microbes. The aim of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide and NaDCC against Candida albicans. After obtaining the stock cultures of Candida, the isolates were divided into six groups which were exposed to different concentrations of NaDCC and calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)₂. Group 1 consisted of the isolates which were subdivided into three groups, subjected to three different concentrations of NaDCC. Group 2 also consisted of three subgroups exposed to three different concentrations of Ca(OH)₂. Group three consisted of three subgroups which were exposed to three different concentrations of combinations of both NaDCC and Ca(OH)₂. The results of the present study show that calcium hydroxide was totally ineffective at all concentrations and NaDCC was effective and also the combination of both was shown to be effective. NaDCC alone was effective at all concentrations and the combination with Ca(OH)₂ was found to be less effective. Ca(OH)₂ was totally ineffective.

  7. Bacteria and Candida yeasts in inflammations of the oral mucosa in children with secondary immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Daszkiewicz, Marta; Krasuska-Sławińska; Dembowska-Bagińska, Bozena; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Daszkiewicz, Paweł; Fronc, Beata; Semczuk, Katarzyna

    2012-08-01

    Oral microbial flora and a damaged oral mucosa may increase the risk of bacteriemia, fungemia and complications in immunocompromised patients. Assessment of presence: bacteria and Candida spp. in different oral lesions, and the incidence of bacteremia in the case of a damaged mucosa in transplant recipients and patients receiving anti-tumour chemotherapy. Forty-five patients – 18 months to 18 years of life, were included (20 – organ recipients, 14– anti-tumour chemotherapy, 11 – control group). Clinical, oral mucosa examination focused on the type, severity and site of lesions, and microbiology assessed the presence of bacteria and fungi in the material from lesions. Blood cultures were performed in ten immunocompromised patients with manifestations of systemic infection. The control material consisted of blood cultures made prior to the onset of oral lesions and after 4–6 weeks following their remission in a diagnosed bacteremia. The statistical analysis was performed. In the subjects with secondary immunodeficiency, among other coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), Candidia spp. were more frequent. In cancer patients, mucositis was associated with Candida spp., Streptococcus spp. Organ recipients with stomatitis exhibited the presence of CoNS, Streptococcus viridians and other. Oral lesions in the control group contained Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Neisseria spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. In 30% of immunocompromised patients, oral lesions were accompanied by bacteremia. A correlation has been found between oral lesions and the presence of S. aureus in patients without secondary immunodeficiency, and of CoNS, Enterococcus spp., Candida spp. in immunocompromised patients.

  8. [Ascitic peritonitis due to Candida albicans].

    PubMed

    Suárez, A; Otero, L; Navascués, C A; Menéndez, M T; Román, F J; García, R; Saro, C; Rodríguez, A

    1994-09-01

    We report a case of spontaneous peritonitis due to Candida albicans, in a diabetic patient with alcoholic liver cirrhosis, ascites, gastrointestinal bleeding from esophageal varices, sepsis, renal failure and encephalopathy. These factors, added to prolonged antibiotic therapy and instrumental manipulations, could have resulted in the colonization by Candida, usually described in secondary peritonitis, but perhaps underdiagnosed in cirrhotic patients with spontaneous peritonitis and severe multiorgan failure.

  9. Multigene phylogeny and taxonomic revision of yeasts and related fungi in the Ustilaginomycotina.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q-M; Begerow, D; Groenewald, M; Liu, X-Z; Theelen, B; Bai, F-Y; Boekhout, T

    2015-06-01

    The subphylum Ustilaginomycotina (Basidiomycota, Fungi) comprises mainly plant pathogenic fungi (smuts). Some of the lineages possess cultivable unicellular stages that are usually classified as yeast or yeast-like species in a largely artificial taxonomic system which is independent from and largely incompatible with that of the smut fungi. Here we performed phylogenetic analyses based on seven genes including three nuclear ribosomal RNA genes and four protein coding genes to address the molecular phylogeny of the ustilaginomycetous yeast species and their filamentous counterparts. Taxonomic revisions were proposed to reflect this phylogeny and to implement the 'One Fungus = One Name' principle. The results confirmed that the yeast-containing classes Malasseziomycetes, Moniliellomycetes and Ustilaginomycetes are monophyletic, whereas Exobasidiomycetes in the current sense remains paraphyletic. Four new genera, namely Dirkmeia gen. nov., Kalmanozyma gen. nov., Golubevia gen. nov. and Robbauera gen. nov. are proposed to accommodate Pseudozyma and Tilletiopsis species that are distinct from the other smut taxa and belong to clades that are separate from those containing type species of the hitherto described genera. Accordingly, new orders Golubeviales ord. nov. with Golubeviaceae fam. nov. and Robbauerales ord. nov. with Robbaueraceae fam. nov. are proposed to accommodate the sisterhood of Golubevia gen. nov. and Robbauera gen. nov. with other orders of Exobasidiomycetes. The majority of the remaining anamorphic yeast species are transferred to corresponding teleomorphic genera based on strongly supported phylogenetic affinities, resulting in the proposal of 28 new combinations. The taxonomic status of a few Pseudozyma species remains to be determined because of their uncertain phylogenetic positions. We propose to use the term pro tempore or pro tem. in abbreviation to indicate the single-species lineages that are temporarily maintained.

  10. Antifungal Drug Susceptibility of Candida Species Isolated from HIV-Positive Patients Recruited at a Public Hospital in São Luís, Maranhão, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Terças, Ana L G; Marques, Sirlei G; Moffa, Eduardo B; Alves, Márcia B; de Azevedo, Conceição M P S; Siqueira, Walter L; Monteiro, Cristina A

    2017-01-01

    Oropharyngeal candidiasis is the most common fungal infection in hospitalized patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Its progression results in invasive infections, which are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to quickly and accurately identify Candida spp. from oral mucosa of AIDS patients recruited at Presidente Vargas Hospital, in São Luís city, Brazil and to evaluate the sensitivity profile of these fungi to antifungals by using an automated system. Isolates were collected from oropharyngeal mucosa of 52 hospitalized AIDS patients, under anti-viral and antifungal therapies. Patients were included in research if they were HIV-positive, above 18 years of age and after obtaining their written consent. CHROMagar ® Candida and the automated ViteK-2 ® system were used to isolate and identify Candida spp., respectively. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed using the ViteK-2 ® system, complemented with the Etest ® , using the drugs amphotericin B, fluconazole, flucytosine, and voriconazole. Oropharyngeal candidiasis had a high prevalence in these hospitalized AIDS patients (83%), and the most prevalent species was Candida albicans (56%). Antifungal susceptibility test showed that 64.7% of the Candida spp. were susceptible, 11.8% were dose-dependent sensitive, and 23.5% were resistant. All the Candida krusei and Candida famata isolates and two of Candida glabrata were resistant to fluconazole. Most of AIDS patients presented oropharyngeal candidiasis and C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species. The results showed high variability in resistance among isolated species and indicates the need to identify the Candida spp. involved in the infection and the need to test antifungal susceptibility as a guide in drug therapy in patients hospitalized with AIDS. This is the first relate about AIDS patients monitoring in a public hospital in São Luís concerning the precise identification and

  11. Epidemiology of echinocandin resistance in Candida

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Nina T.; Chiller, Tom M.; Lockhart, Shawn R.

    2018-01-01

    Echinocandins are the newest antifungal agents approved for use in treating Candida infections in the US. They act by interfering with 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase and therefore disrupt cell wall production and lead to Candida cell death. There is no intrinsic resistance to echinocandins among Candida species, and isolates from historic collections archived before the release of the echinocandins show no resistance. Resistance to the echinocandins remains low among most Candida species and ranges overall from 0–1%. Among isolates of Candida glabrata, the proportion of resistant isolates is higher and has been reported to be as high as 13.5% in at least one hospital. Antifungal resistance is due to specific amino acid mutations in the Fksp subunit(s) of the 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase protein which are localized to one of two hotspots. These mutations are being recognized in isolates from patients who have failed echinocandin therapy, and often lead to a poor outcome. While the future looks bright for the echinocandins against most Candida species, C. glabrata remains a species of concern and resistance rates of C. glabrata to the echinocandins should be monitored closely. PMID:29780439

  12. Epidemiology of echinocandin resistance in Candida.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Nina T; Chiller, Tom M; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2014-12-01

    Echinocandins are the newest antifungal agents approved for use in treating Candida infections in the US. They act by interfering with 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase and therefore disrupt cell wall production and lead to Candida cell death. There is no intrinsic resistance to echinocandins among Candida species, and isolates from historic collections archived before the release of the echinocandins show no resistance. Resistance to the echinocandins remains low among most Candida species and ranges overall from 0-1%. Among isolates of Candida glabrata , the proportion of resistant isolates is higher and has been reported to be as high as 13.5% in at least one hospital. Antifungal resistance is due to specific amino acid mutations in the Fksp subunit(s) of the 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase protein which are localized to one of two hotspots. These mutations are being recognized in isolates from patients who have failed echinocandin therapy, and often lead to a poor outcome. While the future looks bright for the echinocandins against most Candida species, C. glabrata remains a species of concern and resistance rates of C. glabrata to the echinocandins should be monitored closely.

  13. Diagnosis of filamentous fungi on tissue sections by immunohistochemistry using anti-aspergillus antibody.

    PubMed

    Challa, Sundaram; Uppin, Shantveer G; Uppin, Megha S; Pamidimukkala, Umabala; Vemu, Lakshmi

    2015-06-01

    Identification based on histology alone has limitations as Aspergillus species share morphology with other filamentous fungi. Differentiation of Aspergillus species from hyalohyphomycetes and dematiaceous fungi is important as the antifungal susceptibility varies among different species and genera. Given these problems, ancillary techniques are needed to increase specificity. Our aim was to study the utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) with anti-Aspergillus antibody in the identification of Aspergillus species and to differentiate them from other filamentous fungi. Fifty formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue sections including 47 from cases of culture proven filamentous fungi, 3 from colonies of cultures of hyalohyphomycetes, and 11 smears from cultures were subjected to IHC studies using polyclonal rabbit anti-Aspergillus antibody (Abcam, UK) after antigen retrieval. The IHC on tissue sections was positive in 88% cases involving culture proven Aspergillus species. There was no cross reactivity with Mucorales species, Candida species, dematiaceous fungi and hyalohyphomycetes. Hence immunohistochemistry can be used as an ancillary technique for the diagnosis of Aspergillus species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. The mating type-like loci of Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Yáñez-Carrillo, Patricia; Robledo-Márquez, Karina A; Ramírez-Zavaleta, Candy Y; De Las Peñas, Alejandro; Castaño, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Candida glabrata, a haploid and opportunistic fungal pathogen that has not known sexual cycle, has conserved the majority of the genes required for mating and cell type identity. The C. glabrata genome contains three mating-type-like loci called MTL1, MTL2 and MTL3. The three loci encode putative transcription factors, a1, α1 and α2 that regulate cell type identity and sexual reproduction in other fungi like the closely related Saccharomyces cerevisiae. MTL1 can contain either a or α information. MTL2, which contains a information and MTL3 with α information, are relatively close to two telomeres. MTL1 and MTL2 are transcriptionally active, while MTL3 is subject to an incomplete silencing nucleated at the telomere that depends on the silencing proteins Sir2, Sir3, Sir4, yKu70/80, Rif1, Rap1 and Sum1. C. glabrata does not seem to maintain cell type identity, as cell type-specific genes are expressed regardless of the type (or even absence) of mating information. These data highlight important differences in the control of mating and cell type identity between the non-pathogenic yeast S. cerevisiae and C. glabrata, which might explain the absence of a sexual cycle in C. glabrata. The fact that C. glabrata has conserved the vast majority of the genes involved in mating might suggest that some of these genes perhaps have been rewired to control other processes important for the survival inside the host as a commensal or as a human pathogen. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Beyond Candida albicans: Mechanisms of immunity to non-albicans Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Whibley, Natasha; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    The fungal genus Candida encompasses numerous species that inhabit a variety of hosts, either as commensal microbes and/or pathogens. Candida species are a major cause of fungal infections, yet to date there are no vaccines against Candida or indeed any other fungal pathogen. Our knowledge of immunity to Candida mainly comes from studies on C. albicans, the most frequent species associated with disease. However, non-albicans Candida (NAC) species also cause disease and their prevalence is increasing. Although research into immunity to NAC species is still at an early stage, it is becoming apparent that immunity to C. albicans differs in important ways from non-albicans species, with important implications for treatment, therapy and predicted demographic susceptibility. This review will discuss the current understanding of immunity to NAC species in the context of immunity to C. albicans, and highlight as-yet unanswered questions. PMID:26276374

  16. Immunological relatedness among Candida albicans and other pathogenic Candida species.

    PubMed Central

    Hector, R F; Lyon, F L; Domer, J E

    1981-01-01

    Membrane-mitochondrial (butanol-hot phosphate-buffered saline) and cytosol (soluble cytoplasmic substances) extracts from seven pathogenic species of Candida were used in in vivo and in vitro immunological assays to study antigenic similarities among the strains with respect to C. albicans. Mice were sensitized with C. albicans serotype A for footpad testing or to provide cells for lymphocyte stimulation assays, and guinea pigs were immunized with whole cells or butanol-hot phosphate-buffered saline extracts of C. albicans to obtain antisera for immunodiffusion assays. When extracts from each of the seven species were used in the assays, they consistently segregated, as determined by statistical or subjective analyses, into three groups. Extracts of C. albicans serotype A or B and C. stellatoidea were the most immunologically reactive in all assays, indicating close similarities between those two species, whereas extracts of C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis elicited only moderate responses. Extracts from C. krusei, C. guilliermondii, and C. pseudotropicalis were hypo- or nonreactive in the assays, indicating a low level of antigenic relatedness to C. albicans. Images PMID:7037643

  17. Thinking beyond the Common Candida Species: Need for Species-Level Identification of Candida Due to the Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris.

    PubMed

    Lockhart, Shawn R; Jackson, Brendan R; Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Pappas, Peter G; Chiller, Tom

    2017-12-01

    Candida species are one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections. Because much of the treatment for Candida infections is empirical, some institutions do not identify Candida to species level. With the worldwide emergence of the multidrug-resistant species Candida auris , identification of Candida to species level has new clinical relevance. Species should be identified for invasive candidiasis isolates, and species-level identification can be considered for selected noninvasive isolates to improve detection of C. auris . Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y.; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G.

    2016-01-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly (p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei, C. glabrata, and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species. PMID:28154488

  19. Antifungal Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria Strains Isolated from Natural Honey against Pathogenic Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Bulgasem, Bulgasem Y; Lani, Mohd Nizam; Hassan, Zaiton; Wan Yusoff, Wan Mohtar; Fnaish, Sumaya G

    2016-12-01

    The role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in honey as antifungal activity has received little attention and their mechanism of inhibitory of fungi is not fully understood. In this study, LAB were isolated from honey samples from Malaysia, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. Twenty-five isolates were confirmed LAB by catalase test and Gram staining, and were screened for antifungal activity. Four LAB showed inhibitory activity against Candida spp. using the dual agar overlay method. And they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum HS isolated from Al-Seder honey, Lactobacillus curvatus HH isolated from Al-Hanon honey, Pediococcus acidilactici HC isolated from Tualang honey and Pediococcus pentosaceus HM isolated from Al-Maray honey by the 16S rDNA sequence. The growth of Candida glabrata ATCC 2001 was strongly inhibited (>15.0 mm) and (10~15 mm) by the isolates of L. curvatus HH and P. pentosaceus HM, respectively. The antifungal activity of the crude supernatant (cell free supernatant, CFS) was evaluated using well diffusion method. The CFS showed high antifungal activity against Candida spp. especially The CFS of L. curvatus HH was significantly ( p < 0.05) inhibited growth of C. glabrata ATCC 2001, C. parapsilosis ATCC 2201, and C. tropicalis ATCC 750 with inhibitory zone 22.0, 15.6, and 14.7 mm, respectively. While CFS of P. pentosaceus HM was significantly ( p < 0.05) effective against C. krusei , C. glabrata , and C. albicans with inhibition zone 17.2, 16.0, and 13.3 mm, respectively. The results indicated that LAB isolated from honey produced compounds which can be used to inhibit the growth of the pathogenic Candida species.

  20. Candida alocasiicola sp. nov., Candida hainanensis sp. nov., Candida heveicola sp. nov. and Candida musiphila sp. nov., novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Jia, Jian-Hua; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2008-08-01

    In a taxonomic study on the ascomycetous yeasts isolated from plant materials collected in tropical forests in Yunnan and Hainan Provinces, southern China, four strains isolated from tree sap (YJ2E(T)) and flowers (YF9E(T), YWZH3C(T) and YYF2A(T)) were revealed to represent four undescribed yeast species. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit (26S) rRNA gene D1/D2 domain sequences showed that strain YJ2E(T) was located in a clade together with Candida haemulonii and C. pseudohaemulonii. Strain YF9E(T) was most closely related to C. azyma and strain YWZH3C(T) to C. sorbophila and C. spandovensis. Strain YYF2A(T) was clustered in a clade containing small-spored Metschnikowia species and related anamorphic Candida species. The new strains differed from their closely related described species by more than 10% mismatches in the D1/D2 domain. No sexual states were observed for the four strains on various sporulation media. The new species are therefore assigned to the genus Candida and described as Candida alocasiicola sp. nov. (type strain, YF9E(T) = AS 2.3484(T) = CBS 10702(T)), Candida hainanensis sp. nov. (type strain, YYF2A(T) = AS 2.3478(T) = CBS 10696(T)), Candida heveicola sp. nov. (type strain, YJ2E(T) = AS 2.3483(T) = CBS 10701(T)) and Candida musiphila sp. nov. (type strain, YWZH3C(T) = AS 2.3479(T) = CBS 10697(T)).

  1. Animal Toxicity of Phytopathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Main, C. E.; Hamilton, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twelve genera of phytopathogenic fungi comprising 27 species previously reported to produce phytotoxins were tested concurrently for animal and plant toxicity. There appeared to be no direct relationship between plant and animal toxicity. PMID:5059620

  2. Fungi: Strongmen of the Underground.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrell, Patricia D.; Morrell, Jeffrey J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents an activity that stresses the role of fungi and decomposers, highlights the rapidity by which they complete this process, and allows students to experiment with ways to control the rate of decomposition. (CCM)

  3. Phenotypic characterization of Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans grown under simulated microgravity using a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Takashi; Yoshimoto, Maki; Nishiyama, Yayoi; Okubo, Yoichiro; Makimura, Koichi

    2012-07-01

    The living and working environments of spacecraft become progressively contaminated by a number of microorganisms. A large number of microorganisms, including pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are fungi, have been found in the cabins of space stations. However, it is not known how the characteristics of microorganisms change in the space environment. To predict how a microgravity environment might affect fungi, and thus how their characteristics could change on board spacecraft, strains of the pathogenic fungi Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans were subjected to on-ground tests in a simulated microgravity environment produced by a three-dimensional (3D) clinostat. These fungi were incubated and cultured in a 3D clinostat in a simulated microgravity environment. No positive or negative differences in morphology, asexual reproductive capability, or susceptibility to antifungal agents were observed in cultures grown under simulated microgravity compared to those grown in normal earth gravity (1 G). These results strongly suggest that a microgravity environment, such as that on board spacecraft, allows growth of potentially pathogenic fungi that can contaminate the living environment for astronauts in spacecraft in the same way as they contaminate residential areas on earth. They also suggest that these organisms pose a similar risk of opportunistic infections or allergies in astronauts as they do in people with compromised immunity on the ground and that treatment of fungal infections in space could be the same as on earth. © 2012 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Aliphatic hydrocarbons of the fungi.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Review of studies of aliphatic hydrocarbons which have been recently detected in the spores of phytopathogenic fungi, and are found to be structurally very similar to the alkanes of higher plants. It appears that the hydrocarbon components of the few mycelial and yeast forms reported resemble the distribution found in bacteria. The occurence and distribution of these compounds in the fungi is discussed. Suggested functional roles of fungal spore alkanes are presented.

  5. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  6. Centromeres of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kristina M; Galazka, Jonathan M; Phatale, Pallavi A; Connolly, Lanelle R; Freitag, Michael

    2012-07-01

    How centromeres are assembled and maintained remains one of the fundamental questions in cell biology. Over the past 20 years, the idea of centromeres as precise genetic loci has been replaced by the realization that it is predominantly the protein complement that defines centromere localization and function. Thus, placement and maintenance of centromeres are excellent examples of epigenetic phenomena in the strict sense. In contrast, the highly derived "point centromeres" of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives are counter-examples for this general principle of centromere maintenance. While we have learned much in the past decade, it remains unclear if mechanisms for epigenetic centromere placement and maintenance are shared among various groups of organisms. For that reason, it seems prudent to examine species from many different phylogenetic groups with the aim to extract comparative information that will yield a more complete picture of cell division in all eukaryotes. This review addresses what has been learned by studying the centromeres of filamentous fungi, a large, heterogeneous group of organisms that includes important plant, animal and human pathogens, saprobes, and symbionts that fulfill essential roles in the biosphere, as well as a growing number of taxa that have become indispensable for industrial use.

  7. Centromeres of filamentous fungi

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kristina M.; Galazka, Jonathan M.; Phatale, Pallavi A.; Connolly, Lanelle R.; Freitag, Michael

    2012-01-01

    How centromeres are assembled and maintained remains one of the fundamental questions in cell biology. Over the past 20 years the idea of centromeres as precise genetic loci has been replaced by the realization that it is predominantly the protein complement that defines centromere localization and function. Thus, placement and maintenance of centromeres are excellent examples of epigenetic phenomena in the strict sense. In contrast, the highly derived “point centromeres” of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and its close relatives are counterexamples for this general principle of centromere maintenance. While we have learned much in the past decade, it remains unclear if mechanisms for epigenetic centromere placement and maintenance are shared amongst various groups of organisms. For that reason it seems prudent to examine species from many different phylogenetic groups with the aim to extract comparative information that will yield a more complete picture of cell division in all eukaryotes. This review addresses what has been learned by studying the centromeres of filamentous fungi, a large, heterogeneous group of organisms that includes important plant, animal and human pathogens, saprobes and symbionts that fulfill essential roles in the biosphere, as well as a growing number of taxa that have become indispensable for industrial use. PMID:22752455

  8. Cross-kingdom interactions: Candida albicans and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Peters, Brian M; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-10-01

    Bacteria and fungi are found together in a myriad of environments and particularly in a biofilm, where adherent species interact through diverse signaling mechanisms. Yet, despite billions of years of coexistence, the area of research exploring fungal-bacterial interactions, particularly within the context of polymicrobial infections, is still in its infancy. However, reports describing a multitude of wide-ranging interactions between the fungal pathogen Candida albicans and various bacterial pathogens are on the rise. An example of a mutually beneficial interaction is coaggregation, a phenomenon that takes place in oral biofilms where the adhesion of C. albicans to oral bacteria is considered crucial for its colonization of the oral cavity. In contrast, the interaction between C. albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is described as being competitive and antagonistic in nature. Another intriguing interaction is that occurring between Staphylococcus aureus and C. albicans, which although not yet fully characterized, appears to be initially synergistic. These complex interactions between such diverse and important pathogens would have significant clinical implications if they occurred in an immunocompromised host. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of adhesion and signaling involved in fungal-bacterial interactions may lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for impeding microbial colonization and development of polymicrobial disease. © 2009 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal Activity of Decyl Gallate against Several Species of Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    de Paula e Silva, Ana Carolina Alves; Costa-Orlandi, Caroline Barcelos; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; Sangalli-Leite, Fernanda; de Oliveira, Haroldo Cesar; da Silva, Julhiany de Fátima; Rossi, Suélen Andrea; Benaducci, Tatiane; Wolf, Vanessa Gonçalves; Regasini, Luis Octávio; Petrônio, Maicon Segalla; Silva, Dulce Helena Siqueira; Bolzani, Vanderlan S.; Mendes-Giannini, Maria José Soares

    2014-01-01

    This work aims to demonstrate that the gallic acid structure modification to the decyl gallate (G14) compound contributed to increase the antifungal activity against several species of pathogenic fungi, mainly, Candida spp., Cryptococcus spp., Paracoccidioides spp., and Histoplasma capsulatum, according to standardized microdilution method described by Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) documents. Moreover this compound has a particularly good selectivity index value, which makes it an excellent candidate for broad-spectrum antifungal prototype and encourages the continuation of subsequent studies for the discovery of its mechanism of action. PMID:25505923

  10. Plasticity of Candida albicans Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Karla J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Candida albicans, the most pervasive fungal pathogen that colonizes humans, forms biofilms that are architecturally complex. They consist of a basal yeast cell polylayer and an upper region of hyphae encapsulated in extracellular matrix. However, biofilms formed in vitro vary as a result of the different conditions employed in models, the methods used to assess biofilm formation, strain differences, and, in a most dramatic fashion, the configuration of the mating type locus (MTL). Therefore, integrating data from different studies can lead to problems of interpretation if such variability is not taken into account. Here we review the conditions and factors that cause biofilm variation, with the goal of engendering awareness that more attention must be paid to the strains employed, the methods used to assess biofilm development, every aspect of the model employed, and the configuration of the MTL locus. We end by posing a set of questions that may be asked in comparing the results of different studies and developing protocols for new ones. This review should engender the notion that not all biofilms are created equal. PMID:27250770

  11. Candida dajiaensis sp. nov., Candida yuanshanicus sp. nov., Candida jianshihensis sp. nov., and Candida sanyiensis sp. nov., four anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from soil in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Young, Shuh-Sen; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Lee, Ching-Fu

    2008-08-01

    Nine anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast strains belonging to the Pichia anomala clade were recovered from forest soil in 2006 in Taiwan. The nine yeast strains represent four novel yeast species based on the sequences of their D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene and their physiological characteristics. The scientific names of Candida dajiaensis sp. nov., Candida yuanshanicus sp. nov., Candida jianshihensis sp. nov., and Candida sanyiensis sp. nov. are proposed for these novel yeast species. The type strains are C. dajiaensis SM11S03(T) (=CBS 10590(T)=BCRC 23099(T)), C. yuanshanicus SY3S02(T) (=CBS 10589(T)=BCRC 23100(T)), C. jianshihensis SM8S04(T) (=CBS 10591(T)=BCRC 23096(T)), and C. sanyiensis SA1S06(T) (=CBS 10592(T)=BCRC 23094(T)). Sequence analysis of the D1/D2 of the LSU rRNA gene revealed that the three species, C. dajiaensis, C. yuanshanicus and Pichia onychis, shared a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree, C. jianshihensis is phylogenetically related to Candida ulmi and Pichia alni, and the phylogenetically closest relative of C. sanyiensis is Pichia populi.

  12. Candida in saliva of Brazilian hemophilic patients.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claudio Maranhão; Pires, Fábio Ramôa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira Pizzigatti; di Hipólito Júnior, Osvaldo; Almeida, Oslei Paes de

    2004-12-01

    Hemophilia is a common hereditary hemorrhagic disorder, however little is known about the oral microflora of hemophilic patients. The aim of this study was to quantify the Candida and identify its species in non-stimulated saliva of hemophilic patients, and consider its relationship with clinical factors influencing Candida carriage. This study comprised evaluation of 86 hemophilic patients of the Hematology Center/UNICAMP and 43 healthy subjects as controls. All patients were submitted to anamnesis, intraoral examination and unstimulated saliva collection. Candida counts and species identification were performed in salivary samples. Candida was present in 64% of the hemophilic patients and in 44% of the healthy controls. C. albicans represented 65% and 68% of the isolated species, in hemophiliacs and control group respectively, and C. tropicalis was the second most common species in both groups. These results indicate that hemophilic patients carry Candida more frequently and in higher counts than healthy controls, independently of oral clinical parameter considered, as viral infections, complete dentures, transfusions of hemoderivatives, and salivary flow.

  13. Prevalence of Candida albicans, Candida dubliniensis and Candida africana in pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginal candidiasis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mucci, María Josefina; Cuestas, María Luján; Landanburu, María Fernanda; Mujica, María Teresa

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is a vulvovaginitis commonly diagnosed in gynecology care. In recent years, the taxonomy of the most important pathogenic Candida species, such as Candida albicans have undergone significant changes. This study examined the prevalence of C. albicans, Candida africana, and Candida dubliniensis in vaginal specimens from 210 pregnant women suffering from vulvovaginitis or having asymptomatic colonization. Phenotypic and molecular methods were used for the identification of the species. During the studied period, 55 isolates of Candida or other yeasts were obtained from specimens collected from 52 patients suffering from vulvovaginitis (24.8%). C. albicans was the predominant Candida species in 42 isolates (80.7%), either alone or in combination with other species of the genus (5.7%, n=3). Additionally, nine isolates of C. albicans (50%) were obtained from asymptomatic patients (n=18). C. dubliniensis was the causative agent in 2 (3.8%) cases of VVC, and was also isolated in one asymptomatic patient. Molecular assays were carried out using specific PCR to amplify the ACT1-associated intron sequence of C. dubliniensis. The amplification of the HWP1 gene also correctly identified isolates of the species C. albicans and C. dubliniensis. No C. africana was isolated in this work. Some C. albicans isolates were either homozygous or heterozygous at the HWP1 locus. The distribution of heterozygous and homozygous C. albicans isolates at the HWP1 locus was very similar among patients suffering from VVC and asymptomatic patients (p=0.897). The presence of C. albicans and C. dubliniensis, and the absence of C. africana in pregnant is noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Micología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida species isolated from urine culture.

    PubMed

    Toka Özer, Türkan; Durmaz, Süleyman; Yula, Erkan

    2016-09-01

    Candida spp. are the most common opportunistic mycosis worldwide. Although Candida albicans is the most common cause of urinary tract infections, the frequency of non-albicans Candida species is increasing with common use of antifungal in the prophylaxis and treatment. This may lead to difficulties in treatment. Antifungal tests should be applied with identification of species for effective treatment. In this study, identification of Candida species isolated from urine culture and investigation of susceptibility of these strains to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole was aimed. In this study, 58 Candida strains isolated from urine cultures at Osmaniye State Hospital between January 2012 and April 2013 were included. Urine culture and antifungal susceptibility tests were applied. Incidence rate of Candida spp. was determined as C. albicans (56.9%), Candida glabrata (20.6%), Candida tropicalis (10.3%), Candida parapsilosis (7%), Candida krusei (3.4%), Candida kefyr (1.8%). Most of the isolates were susceptible to amphotericin B, flucytosine, fluconazole, voriconazole. Twenty three (39.7%) Candida strains were isolated from internal medical branches and Intensive Care Unit and 12 (20.6%) from the Surgical Medical Branches. C. albicans and C. glabrata species were isolated most frequently as a candiduria factor in this hospital between January 2012 and April 2013. The analysis of antifungal susceptibility profile shows no significant resistance to antifungals. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ras-Mediated Signal Transduction and Virulence in Human Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Fortwendel, Jarrod R.

    2013-01-01

    Signal transduction pathways regulating growth and stress responses are areas of significant study in the effort to delineate pathogenic mechanisms of fungi. In-depth knowledge of signal transduction events deepens our understanding of how a fungal pathogen is able to sense changes in the environment and respond accordingly by modulation of gene expression and re-organization of cellular activities to optimize fitness. Members of the Ras protein family are important regulators of growth and differentiation in eukaryotic organisms, and have been the focus of numerous studies exploring fungal pathogenesis. Here, the current data regarding Ras signal transduction are reviewed for three major pathogenic fungi: Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Particular emphasis is placed on Ras-protein interactions during control of morphogenesis, stress response and virulence. PMID:24855584

  16. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  17. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  18. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida, Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus from the Asia and Western Pacific region: data from the SENTRY antifungal surveillance program (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Pfaller, Michael A; Messer, Shawn A; Jones, Ronald N; Castanheira, Mariana

    2015-09-01

    The SENTRY Antifungal Surveillance Program monitors global susceptibility rates of newer and established antifungal agents. We report the in vitro activity of seven antifungal agents against 496 contemporary clinical isolates of yeasts and molds. The isolates were obtained from 20 laboratories in the Asia-Western Pacific (APAC) region during 2010 through 2012. Anidulafungin, caspofungin, micafungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole were susceptibility tested using CLSI methods and species-specific interpretive criteria. Sequencing of fks hot spots was performed for echinocandin-resistant strains. Isolates included 13 species of Candida (n=460), 5 species of non-Candida yeasts (21), 5 species of Aspergillus (11) and 4 other molds. Echinocandin resistance was uncommon among eight species of Candida and was only detected in three isolates of Candida glabrata, two from Australia harboring mutations in fks1 (F625S) and fks2 (S663P). Resistance to the azoles was much more common and was observed among all species with the exception of Candida dubliniensis. Fluconazole resistance rates observed with C. glabrata (6.8%) was comparable to that seen with Candida parapsilosis (5.7%) and Candida tropicalis (3.6%). Cross resistance among the triazoles was seen with each of these three species. The mold-active azoles and the echinocandins were all active against isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus. Azole resistance was not detected among the isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans. Antifungal resistance is uncommon among isolates of fungi causing invasive fungal infections in the APAC region. As in other regions of the world, emerging resistance to the echinocandins among invasive isolates of C. glabrata bears close monitoring.

  19. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton.

    PubMed

    Surdu, Lilioara; Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes.

  20. The Improvement of the Resistance to Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale of Some Woven Fabrics Based on Cotton

    PubMed Central

    Stelescu, Maria Daniela; Manaila, Elena; Nicula, Gheorghe; Iordache, Ovidiu; Dinca, Laurentiu Christian; Berechet, Mariana-Daniela; Vamesu, Mariana; Gurau, Dana

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the improvement of the antimicrobial character of woven fabrics based on cotton. The woven fabrics were cleaned in oxygen plasma and treated by padding with silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles. The existence of silver and titanium on woven fabrics was evidenced by electronic microscope images (SEM, EDAX) and by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The antimicrobial tests were performed with two fungi: Candida albicans and Trichophyton interdigitale. The obtained antimicrobial effect was considerably higher compared to the raw fabrics. Treatment of dyed fabrics with a colloidal solution based on silver chloride and titanium dioxide particles does not considerably influence colour resistance of dyes. PMID:25276112

  1. Evaluation of a Reformulated CHROMagar Candida

    PubMed Central

    Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann; Brenner, Troy M.; Romagnoli, Mark; Baqui, A. A. M. A.; Merz, William G.; Falkler, William A.; Meiller, Timothy F.

    2001-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida is a differential culture medium for the isolation and presumptive identification of clinically important yeasts. Recently the medium was reformulated by Becton Dickinson. This study was designed to evaluate the performance of the new formula of CHROMagar against the original CHROMagar Candida for recovery, growth, and colony color with stock cultures and with direct plating of clinical specimens. A total of 90 stock yeast isolates representing nine yeast species, including Candida dubliniensis, as well as 522 clinical specimens were included in this study. No major differences were noted in growth rate or colony size between the two media for most of the species. However, all 10 Candida albicans isolates evaluated consistently gave a lighter shade of green on the new CHROMagar formulation. In contrast, all 26 C. dubliniensis isolates gave the same typical dark green color on both media. A total of 173 of the 522 clinical specimens were positive for yeast, with eight yeast species recovered. The recovery rates for each species were equivalent on both media, with no consistent species-associated differences in colony size or color. Although both media were comparable in performance, the lighter green colonies of C. albicans isolates on the new CHROMagar made it easier to differentiate between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis isolates. In conclusion, the newly formulated Becton Dickinson CHROMagar Candida medium is as equally suited as a differential medium for the presumptive identification of yeast species and for the detection of multiple yeast species in clinical specimens as the original CHROMagar Candida medium. PMID:11326038

  2. Prevalence and susceptibility profile of Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis: results from population-based surveillance of candidemia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Lopez, A; Alastruey-Izquierdo, A; Rodriguez, D; Almirante, B; Pahissa, A; Rodriguez-Tudela, J L; Cuenca-Estrella, M

    2008-04-01

    We describe the prevalences and susceptibility profiles of two recently described species, Candida metapsilosis and Candida orthopsilosis, related to Candida parapsilosis in candidemia. The prevalences of these species (1.7% for C. metapsilosis and 1.4% for C. orthopsilosis) are significant. Differences observed in their susceptibility profiles could have therapeutic importance.

  3. Melanized Fungi in Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Revankar, Sanjay G.; Sutton, Deanna A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary: Melanized or dematiaceous fungi are associated with a wide variety of infectious syndromes. Many are soil organisms and are generally distributed worldwide, though certain species appear to have restricted geographic ranges. Though they are uncommon causes of disease, melanized fungi have been increasingly recognized as important pathogens, with most reports occurring in the past 20 years. The spectrum of diseases with which they are associated has also broadened and includes allergic disease, superficial and deep local infections, pneumonia, brain abscess, and disseminated infection. For some infections in immunocompetent individuals, such as allergic fungal sinusitis and brain abscess, they are among the most common etiologic fungi. Melanin is a likely virulence factor for these fungi. Diagnosis relies on careful microscopic and pathological examination, as well as clinical assessment of the patient, as these fungi are often considered contaminants. Therapy varies depending upon the clinical syndrome. Local infection may be cured with excision alone, while systemic disease is often refractory to therapy. Triazoles such as voriconazole, posaconazole, and itraconazole have the most consistent in vitro activity. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis and optimal treatment of these uncommon infections. PMID:20930077

  4. Lectins in human pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Gallegos, Belém; Martínez, Ruth; Pérez, Laura; Del Socorro Pina, María; Perez, Eduardo; Hernández, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins widely distributed in nature. They constitute a highly diverse group of proteins consisting of many different protein families that are, in general, structurally unrelated. In the last few years, mushroom and other fungal lectins have attracted wide attention due to their antitumour, antiproliferative and immunomodulatory activities. The present mini-review provides concise information about recent developments in understanding lectins from human pathogenic fungi. A bibliographic search was performed in the Science Direct and PubMed databases, using the following keywords "lectin", "fungi", "human" and "pathogenic". Lectins present in fungi have been classified; however, the role played by lectins derived from human pathogenic fungi in infectious processes remains uncertain; thus, this is a scientific field requiring more research. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012). Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. What Defines the "Kingdom" Fungi?

    PubMed

    Richards, Thomas A; Leonard, Guy; Wideman, Jeremy G

    2017-06-01

    The application of environmental DNA techniques and increased genome sequencing of microbial diversity, combined with detailed study of cellular characters, has consistently led to the reexamination of our understanding of the tree of life. This has challenged many of the definitions of taxonomic groups, especially higher taxonomic ranks such as eukaryotic kingdoms. The Fungi is an example of a kingdom which, together with the features that define it and the taxa that are grouped within it, has been in a continual state of flux. In this article we aim to summarize multiple lines of data pertinent to understanding the early evolution and definition of the Fungi. These include ongoing cellular and genomic comparisons that, we will argue, have generally undermined all attempts to identify a synapomorphic trait that defines the Fungi. This article will also summarize ongoing work focusing on taxon discovery, combined with phylogenomic analysis, which has identified novel groups that lie proximate/adjacent to the fungal clade-wherever the boundary that defines the Fungi may be. Our hope is that, by summarizing these data in the form of a discussion, we can illustrate the ongoing efforts to understand what drove the evolutionary diversification of fungi.

  6. Thailandins A and B, New Polyene Macrolactone Compounds Isolated from Actinokineospora bangkokensis Strain 44EHW(T), Possessing Antifungal Activity against Anthracnose Fungi and Pathogenic Yeasts.

    PubMed

    Intra, Bungonsiri; Greule, Anja; Bechthold, Andreas; Euanorasetr, Jirayut; Paululat, Thomas; Panbangred, Watanalai

    2016-06-29

    Two new polyene macrolactone antibiotics, thailandins A, 1, and B, 2, were isolated from the fermentation broth of rhizosphere soil-associated Actinokineospora bangkokensis strain 44EHW(T). The new compounds from this strain were purified using semipreparative HPLC and Sephadex LH-20 gel filtration while following an antifungal activity guided fractionation. Their structures were elucidated through spectroscopic techniques including UV, HR-ESI-MS, and NMR. These compounds demonstrated broad spectrum antifungal activity against fungi causing anthracnose disease (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides DoA d0762, Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes DoA c1060, and Colletotrichum capsici DoA c1511) as well as pathogenic yeasts (Candida albicans MT 2013/1, Candida parasilopsis DKMU 434, and Cryptococcus neoformans MT 2013/2) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging between 16 and 32 μg/mL. This is the first report of polyene antibiotics produced by Actinokineospora species as bioactive compounds against anthracnose fungi and pathogenic yeast strains.

  7. Propolis: a potential natural product to fight Candida species infections.

    PubMed

    Tobaldini-Valerio, Flávia K; Bonfim-Mendonça, Patricia S; Rosseto, Helen C; Bruschi, Marcos L; Henriques, Mariana; Negri, Melyssa; Silva, Sonia; Svidzinski, Terezinha Ie

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of propolis against Candida species planktonic cells and its counterpart's biofilms. The MIC values, time-kill curves and filamentation form inhibition were determined in Candida planktonic cells. The effect of propolis on Candida biofilms was assessed through quantification of CFUs. MIC values, ranging from 220 to 880 µg/ml, demonstrated higher efficiency on C. albicans and C. parapsilosis than on C. tropicalis cells. In addition, propolis was able to prevent Candida species biofilm's formation and eradicate their mature biofilms, coupled with a significant reduction on C. tropicalis and C. albicans filamentation. Propolis is an inhibitor of Candida virulence factors and represents an innovative alternative to fight candidiasis.

  8. [Presumptive identification of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts: usefulness of Brilliance Candida Agar].

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Claudia; López, Mónica; Arechavala, Alicia; Perrone, María Del Carmen; Guelfand, Liliana; Bianchi, Mario

    2010-06-30

    Fungal infections caused by yeasts have increased during the last decades and invasive forms represent a serious problem for human health. Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from clinical samples. However, other emerging yeast pathogens are increasingly responsible for mycotic infections, and some of them are resistant to some antifungal drugs. Consequently, it is necessary to have methods that can provide a rapid presumptive identification at species level. Numerous chromogenic agar media have been shown to be of value as diagnostic tools. We have compared a chromogenic medium, Brilliance Candida Agar, with CHROMagar Candida, the chromogenic medium most used in our country. A multicentre study was conducted in 16 Hospitals belonging to the Mycology Net of Buenos Aires City Government. A total of 240 yeast isolates were included in this research. The new chromogenic agar showed results very similar to those obtained with CHROMagar Candida. Copyright 2009 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Toxicity profile of choline chloride-based deep eutectic solvents for fungi and Cyprinus carpio fish.

    PubMed

    Juneidi, Ibrahim; Hayyan, Maan; Mohd Ali, Ozair

    2016-04-01

    An investigation on the toxicological assessment of 10 choline chloride (ChCl)-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs) towards four fungi strains and Cyprinus carpio fish was conducted. ChCl was combined with materials from different chemical groups such as alcohols, sugars, acids and others to form DESs. The study was carried out on the individual DES components, their aqueous mixture before DES formation and their formed DESs. The agar disc diffusion method was followed to investigate their toxicity on four fungi strains selected as a model of eukaryotic microorganisms (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspergillus niger, Lentinus tigrinus and Candida cylindracea). Among these DESs, ChCl:ZnCl2 exhibited the highest inhibition zone diameter towards the tested fungi growth in vitro, followed by the acidic group (malonic acid and p-toluenesulfonic acid). Another study was conducted to test the acute toxicity and determine the lethal concentration at 50 % (LC50) of the same DESs on C. carpio fish. The inhibition range and LC50 of DESs were found to be different from their individual components. DESs were found to be less toxic than their mixture or individual components. The LC50 of ChCl:MADES is much higher than that of ChCl:MAMix. Moreover, the DESs acidic group showed a lower inhibition zone on fungi growth. Thus, DESs should be considered as new components with different physicochemical properties and toxicological profiles, and not merely compositions of compounds.

  10. Antimicrobial activity of filamentous fungi isolated from highly antibiotic-contaminated river sediment

    PubMed Central

    Svahn, K. Stefan; Göransson, Ulf; El-Seedi, Hesham; Bohlin, Lars; Larsson, D.G. Joakim; Olsen, Björn; Chryssanthou, Erja

    2012-01-01

    Background Filamentous fungi are well known for their production of substances with antimicrobial activities, several of which have formed the basis for the development of new clinically important antimicrobial agents. Recently, environments polluted with extraordinarily high levels of antibiotics have been documented, leading to strong selection pressure on local sentinel bacterial communities. In such microbial ecosystems, where multidrug-resistant bacteria are likely to thrive, it is possible that certain fungal antibiotics have become less efficient, thus encouraging alternative strategies for fungi to compete with bacteria. Methods In this study, sediment of a highly antibiotic-contaminated Indian river was sampled in order to investigate the presence of cultivable filamentous fungi and their ability to produce substances with antimicrobial activity. Results Sixty one strains of filamentous fungi, predominantly various Aspergillus spp. were identified. The majority of the Aspergillus strains displayed antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. Bioassay-guided isolation of the secondary metabolites of A. fumigatus led to the identification of gliotoxin. Conclusion This study demonstrated proof of principle of using bioassay-guided isolation for finding bioactive molecules. PMID:22957125

  11. Endophytic fungi from Myrcia guianensis at the Brazilian Amazon: distribution and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Dos Banhos, Elissandro Fonseca; de Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima; de Andrade, Juliano Camurça; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca) had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg.mL(-1) against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 μg.mL(-1) against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics.

  12. Endophytic fungi from Myrcia guianensis at the Brazilian Amazon: Distribution and bioactivity

    PubMed Central

    dos Banhos, Elissandro Fonseca; de Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima; de Andrade, Juliano Camurça; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca) had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg.mL−1 against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 μg.mL−1 against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics. PMID:24948926

  13. Pathogenic Fungi Regulate Immunity by Inducing Neutrophilic Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rieber, Nikolaus; Singh, Anurag; Öz, Hasan; Carevic, Melanie; Bouzani, Maria; Amich, Jorge; Ost, Michael; Ye, Zhiyong; Ballbach, Marlene; Schäfer, Iris; Mezger, Markus; Klimosch, Sascha N.; Weber, Alexander N.R.; Handgretinger, Rupert; Krappmann, Sven; Liese, Johannes; Engeholm, Maik; Schüle, Rebecca; Salih, Helmut Rainer; Marodi, Laszlo; Speckmann, Carsten; Grimbacher, Bodo; Ruland, Jürgen; Brown, Gordon D.; Beilhack, Andreas; Loeffler, Juergen; Hartl, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    Summary Despite continuous contact with fungi, immunocompetent individuals rarely develop pro-inflammatory antifungal immune responses. The underlying tolerogenic mechanisms are incompletely understood. Using both mouse models and human patients, we show that infection with the human pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans induces a distinct subset of neutrophilic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which functionally suppress T and NK cell responses. Mechanistically, pathogenic fungi induce neutrophilic MDSCs through the pattern recognition receptor Dectin-1 and its downstream adaptor protein CARD9. Fungal MDSC induction is further dependent on pathways downstream of Dectin-1 signaling, notably reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation as well as caspase-8 activity and interleukin-1 (IL-1) production. Additionally, exogenous IL-1β induces MDSCs to comparable levels observed during C. albicans infection. Adoptive transfer and survival experiments show that MDSCs are protective during invasive C. albicans infection, but not A. fumigatus infection. These studies define an innate immune mechanism by which pathogenic fungi regulate host defense. PMID:25771792

  14. Proteome Studies of Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, Scott E.; Panisko, Ellen A.

    2011-04-20

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide breadth of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, non-gel basedmore » proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of different variations on the general method and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a “baseline” for proteomic studies of fungi.« less

  15. Proteome studies of filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Baker, Scott E; Panisko, Ellen A

    2011-01-01

    The continued fast pace of fungal genome sequence generation has enabled proteomic analysis of a wide variety of organisms that span the breadth of the Kingdom Fungi. There is some phylogenetic bias to the current catalog of fungi with reasonable DNA sequence databases (genomic or EST) that could be analyzed at a global proteomic level. However, the rapid development of next generation sequencing platforms has lowered the cost of genome sequencing such that in the near future, having a genome sequence will no longer be a time or cost bottleneck for downstream proteomic (and transcriptomic) analyses. High throughput, nongel-based proteomics offers a snapshot of proteins present in a given sample at a single point in time. There are a number of variations on the general methods and technologies for identifying peptides in a given sample. We present a method that can serve as a "baseline" for proteomic studies of fungi.

  16. Frequency of Candida albicans in Patients with Funguria.

    PubMed

    Jamil, Sana; Jamil, Naz; Saad, Uzma; Hafiz, Saleem; Siddiqui, Sualleha

    2016-02-01

    To determine the frequency of Candida albicansin patients with funguria. Descriptive cross-sectional study. Department of Microbiology, Sindh Institute of Urology and Transplantation, from July to December 2012. Patients’ urine samples with fungus/Candida were included. Candida albicans was identified by the production of tubular structures (germ tubes) on microscopy as per standard procedure followed by inoculation on Chrom agar (Oxoid) and Corn Meal-Tween 80 agar (Oxoid). The identification of other non-albicans Candidaspecies was also done both microscopically and macroscopically as per standard procedure. Out of the 289 isolates, 204 (70.6%) were male patients and 85 (29.4%) were female patients, with 165 (57.1%) from the out-patients and 124 (42.9%) from the in-patients. Five species of Candidawere found to be prevalent including 87 (30.1%) Candida albicans, 176 (60.9%) Candida tropicalis, 14 (4.8%) Candida parapsilosis, 8 (2.8%) Candida glabrata and 4 (1.4%) Candida lusitaniae. Majority of patients with funguria were aged above 50 years (60.2%). In the present study, 30.1% patients with funguria had Candida albicans. The most frequently isolated species was Candida tropicalis(60.9%), followed by other non-albicansCandida. This study has shown the emergence of non-albicans Candidaas a major cause of candiduria.

  17. Decreased Killing Activity of Micafungin Against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr in the Presence of Human Serum.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Qasem; Kovács, Renátó; Kardos, Gábor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Kardos, Tamás; Bozó, Aliz; Majoros, László

    2017-09-01

    Currently, echinocandins are first-line drugs for treatment of invasive candidiasis. However, data on how serum influences killing activity of echinocandins against uncommon Candida species are limited. Therefore, the killing activity of micafungin in RPMI-1640 and in 50% serum was compared against Candida guilliermondii, Candida lusitaniae, and Candida kefyr. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranges in RPMI-1640 were 0.5-1, 0.12-0.25, and 0.06-0.12 mg/L, respectively. In 50% serum, MICs increased 32- to 256-fold. In RPMI-1640 ≥ 0.25, ≥4, and 32 mg/L micafungin was fungicidal against all four C. kefyr (≤4.04 hours), two of three C. lusitaniae (≤16.10 hours), and two of three C. guilliermondii (≤12.30 hours), respectively. In 50% serum, all three species grew at ≤4 mg/L. Micafungin at 16-32 mg/L was fungicidal against all C. kefyr isolates (≤3.03 hours) and at 32 mg/L was fungistatic against one of three C. lusitaniae isolates. Two C. lusitaniae isolates and all three C. guilliermondii grew at all tested concentrations. Adding human serum to susceptibility test media drew attention to loss of fungicidal or fungistatic activity of micafungin in the presence of serum proteins, which is not predicted by MICs in case of C. kefyr and C. lusitaniae in RPMI-1640. Our results strongly suggest that micafungin and probably other echinocandins should be used with caution against rare Candida species.

  18. Comparative Study of the Effects of Fluconazole and Voriconazole on Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida rugosa Biofilms.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Priya; Jamal, Farida; Pei, Chong Pei; Othman, Fauziah; Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Ng, Kee Peng

    2018-06-01

    Infections by non-albicans Candida species are a life-threatening condition, and formation of biofilms can lead to treatment failure in a clinical setting. This study was aimed to demonstrate the in vitro antibiofilm activity of fluconazole (FLU) and voriconazole (VOR) against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa with diverse antifungal susceptibilities to FLU and VOR. The antibiofilm activities of FLU and VOR in the form of suspension as well as pre-coatings were assessed by XTT [2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction assay. Morphological and intracellular changes exerted by the antifungal drugs on Candida cells were examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of the antibiofilm activities showed that FLU drug suspension was capable of killing C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa at minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4× MIC FLU and 256× MIC FLU, respectively. While VOR MICs ranging from 2× to 32× were capable of killing the biofilms of all Candida spp tested. The antibiofilm activities of pre-coated FLU were able to kill the biofilms at ¼× MIC FLU and ½× MIC FLU for C. parapsilosis and C. rugosa strains, respectively. While pre-coated VOR was able to kill the biofilms, all three Candida sp at ½× MIC VOR. SEM and TEM examinations showed that FLU and VOR treatments exerted significant impact on Candida cell with various degrees of morphological changes. In conclusion, a fourfold reduction in MIC 50 of FLU and VOR towards ATCC strains of C. glabrata, C. rugosa and C. rugosa clinical strain was observed in this study.

  19. Oral Mycobiome Analysis of HIV-Infected Patients: Identification of Pichia as an Antagonist of Opportunistic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Retuerto, Mauricio; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Brown, Robert E.; Jurevic, Richard; Salata, Robert A.; Lederman, Michael M.; Gillevet, Patrick M.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral microbiota contribute to health and disease, and their disruption may influence the course of oral diseases. Here, we used pyrosequencing to characterize the oral bacteriome and mycobiome of 12 HIV-infected patients and matched 12 uninfected controls. The number of bacterial and fungal genera in individuals ranged between 8–14 and 1–9, among uninfected and HIV-infected participants, respectively. The core oral bacteriome (COB) comprised 14 genera, of which 13 were common between the two groups. In contrast, the core oral mycobiome (COM) differed between HIV-infected and uninfected individuals, with Candida being the predominant fungus in both groups. Among Candida species, C. albicans was the most common (58% in uninfected and 83% in HIV-infected participants). Furthermore, 15 and 12 bacteria-fungi pairs were correlated significantly within uninfected and HIV-infected groups, respectively. Increase in Candida colonization was associated with a concomitant decrease in the abundance of Pichia, suggesting antagonism. We found that Pichia spent medium (PSM) inhibited growth of Candida, Aspergillus and Fusarium. Moreover, Pichia cells and PSM inhibited Candida biofilms (P = .002 and .02, respectively, compared to untreated controls). The mechanism by which Pichia inhibited Candida involved nutrient limitation, and modulation of growth and virulence factors. Finally, in an experimental murine model of oral candidiasis, we demonstrated that mice treated with PSM exhibited significantly lower infection score (P = .011) and fungal burden (P = .04) compared to untreated mice. Moreover, tongues of PSM-treated mice had few hyphae and intact epithelium, while vehicle- and nystatin-treated mice exhibited extensive fungal invasion of tissue with epithelial disruption. These results showed that PSM was efficacious against oral candidiasis in vitro and in vivo. The inhibitory activity of PSM was associated with secretory protein/s. Our findings provide the

  20. [Predacious nematode-destroying fungi].

    PubMed

    Czygier, M; Boguś, M I

    2001-01-01

    Gastrointestinal nematodes are considered a serious economic problem affecting the livestock industry around the world. Current methods of their control, relaying mainly on organic drugs, are not sustainable because parasites develop resistance to anthelmintic and bacause of increasing public concern about chemicals residues in livestock products and environment. Nematode-trapping fungi offer a very promissing, nonchemotherapeutic approach to nematode parasite control. Their potential in preventing nematodosis is well documented. In this paper we outline the present knowlege on mechanisms involved in trapping and killing nematodes by the predacious nematode-destroying fungi.

  1. In Vitro Fungicidal Activities of Anidulafungin, Caspofungin, and Micafungin against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis Evaluated by Time-Kill Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Alonso, Sandra; Jauregizar, Nerea; Cantón, Emilia; Eraso, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Anidulafungin, caspofungin, and micafungin killing activities against Candida glabrata, Candida bracarensis, and Candida nivariensis were evaluated by the time-kill methodology. The concentrations assayed were 0.06, 0.125, and 0.5 μg/ml, which are achieved in serum. Anidulafungin and micafungin required between 13 and 26 h to reach the fungicidal endpoint (99.9% killing) against C. glabrata and C. bracarensis. All echinocandins were less active against C. nivariensis. PMID:25801575

  2. New Chromogenic Agar Medium for the Identification of Candida spp.

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Venitia M.; Miles, R. J.; Price, R. G.; Midgley, G.; Khamri, W.; Richardson, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    A new chromogenic agar medium (Candida diagnostic agar [CDA]) for differentiation of Candida spp. is described. This medium is based on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Oxoid CM41) and contains (per liter) 40.0 g of glucose, 10.0 g of mycological peptone, and 15.0 g of agar along with a novel chromogenic glucosaminidase substrate, ammonium 4-{2-[4-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-3-methoxyphenyl]-vinyl}-1-(propan-3-yl-oate)-quinolium bromide (0.32 g liter−1). The glucosaminidase substrate in CDA was hydrolyzed by Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, yielding white colonies with deep-red spots on a yellow transparent background after 24 to 48 h of incubation at 37°C. Colonies of Candida tropicalis and Candida kefyr were uniformly pink, and colonies of other Candida spp., including Candida glabrata and Candida parapsilosis, were white. CDA was evaluated by using 115 test strains of Candida spp. and other clinically important yeasts and was compared with two commercially available chromogenic agars (Candida ID agar [bioMerieux] and CHROMagar Candida [CHROMagar Company Ltd.]). On all three agars, colonies of C. albicans were not distinguished from colonies of C. dubliniensis. However, for the group containing C. albicans plus C. dubliniensis, both the sensitivity and the specificity of detection when CDA was used were 100%, compared with values of 97.6 and 100%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida and 100 and 96.8%, respectively, with Candida ID agar. In addition, for the group containing C. tropicalis plus C. kefyr, the sensitivity and specificity of detection when CDA was used were also 100%, compared with 72.7 and 98.1%, respectively, with CHROMagar Candida. Candida ID agar did not differentiate C. tropicalis and C. kefyr strains but did differentiate members of a broader group (C. tropicalis, C. kefyr, Candida lusitaniae plus Candida guilliermondii); the sensitivity and specificity of detection for members of this group were 94.7 and 93

  3. Complementation and Genetic Recombination in Candida lipolytica

    PubMed Central

    Bassel, John; Warfei, Jean; Mortimer, Robert

    1971-01-01

    Nutritional requirements were introduced into wild-type, heterothallic strains of Candida lipolytica by exposing the cells to X rays. Complementing hybrids were recovered from mixtures of the auxotrophic strains, and genetic recombination was observed in individually isolated ascospores from the hybrid strains. PMID:5122814

  4. Development of DNA probes for Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, L.L.; Hudson, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    An attempt was made to produce DNA probes that could be used as a rapid and efficient means of detecting candidiasis (invasive Candida infection) in immunocompromised patients. Whole DNA from Candida albicans was digested with restriction endonuclease, and the resulting fragments were randomly cloned into a plasmid vector. Several recombinant plasmids were evaluated for cross-hybridization to various other Candida species, other fungal DNAs, and to nonfungal DNAs. Cross reactions were observed between the probes and different yeasts, but none with unrelated DNAs. Some recombinants were genus-specific, and two of these were applied to the analysis of C. albicans growth curves.more » It became evident that, although both /sup 32/P- and biotin-labelled probes could be made quite sensitive, a possible limitation in their diagnostic potential was the poor liberation of Candida DNA from cells. Thus, better methods of treatment of clinical specimens will be required before such probes will be useful in routine diagnosis.« less

  5. Corneal anesthetic abuse and Candida keratitis.

    PubMed

    Chern, K C; Meisler, D M; Wilhelmus, K R; Jones, D B; Stern, G A; Lowder, C Y

    1996-01-01

    Topical corneal anesthetic abuse is a self-inflicted injury, causing profound corneal morbidity. Superimposed infection is an important complicating factor. The authors report four patients with confirmed topical anesthetic abuse of the cornea, in whom Candida keratitis developed. A retrospective review of the medical records of four patients with confirmed topical corneal anesthetic abuse and fungal keratitis. A 21-year-old woman, two 28-year-old women, and a 35-year-old man were included in the study. All these patients sustained a corneal injury, prompting the chronic use of topical anesthetics (0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride in 3 patients, and 0.5% tetracaine hydrochloride and 0.4% benoxinate hydrochloride in the other). Corneal findings included epithelial defects in all patients, focal infiltrate in one patient, and ring-shaped stromal infiltrate in three patients. Topical anesthetic was discontinued, all patients initially were treated empirically with antibacterial agents, and three patients received topical corticosteroids. Subsequent corneal cultures grew Candida spp, Candida albicans specifically in three patients, and local and systemic antifungal therapy was started. Corneas in two patients re-epithelialized; a conjunctival flap was performed on another patient with a descemetocele; and the remaining patient was lost to follow-up, although repeat fungal cultures yielded no growth. Corneal superinfection with Candida may occur during topical anesthetic abuse. Therapy includes discontinuation of the anesthetic and institution of antifungal therapy.

  6. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... description for Candida lipolytica variety lipolytica listed in “The Yeasts—A Toxonomic Study,” 2d Ed. (1970... equivalent). Activate as follows: Slurry 900 grams of silica gel reagent with 2 liters of purified water in a 3-liter beaker. Cool the mixture and pour into a 80 × 900 chromatographic column with coarse fritted...

  7. 21 CFR 173.165 - Candida lipolytica.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... description for Candida lipolytica variety lipolytica listed in “The Yeasts—A Toxonomic Study,” 2d Ed. (1970... equivalent). Activate as follows: Slurry 900 grams of silica gel reagent with 2 liters of purified water in a 3-liter beaker. Cool the mixture and pour into a 80 × 900 chromatographic column with coarse fritted...

  8. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov., two ascosporic yeast species isolated from the gut of beetles.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong-Cheng; Xu, Long-Long; Zhang, Lin; Hui, Feng-Li

    2015-10-01

    Four yeast strains were isolated from the gut of beetles collected on Baotianman Mountain and People's Park of Nanyang in Henan Province, China. These strains produced unconjugated asci with one or two ellipsoidal to elongate ascospores in a persistent ascus. Phylogenetic analysis of the D1/D2 domains of the LSU rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates represent two novel sexual species in the Candida/Lodderomyces clade. Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. was located in a statistically well-supported branch together with Candida maltosa. Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. formed a subclade with its closest relative Candida viswanathii supported by a strong bootstrap value. The two novel species were distinguished from their most closely related described species, Candida maltosa and Candida viswanathii, in the D1/D2 LSU rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences and in phenotypic traits. The type strain of Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. is NYNU 14719T ( = CBS 13915T = CICC 33052T), and the type strain of Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. is NYNU 14772T ( = CBS 13916T = CICC 33053T). The MycoBank numbers for Candida baotianmanensis sp. nov. and Candida pseudoviswanathii sp. nov. are MB 812621 and MB 812622.

  9. Marine Fungi: Their Ecology and Molecular Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Jones, Meredith D. M.; Leonard, Guy; Bass, David

    2012-01-01

    Fungi appear to be rare in marine environments. There are relatively few marine isolates in culture, and fungal small subunit ribosomal DNA (SSU rDNA) sequences are rarely recovered in marine clone library experiments (i.e., culture-independent sequence surveys of eukaryotic microbial diversity from environmental DNA samples). To explore the diversity of marine fungi, we took a broad selection of SSU rDNA data sets and calculated a summary phylogeny. Bringing these data together identified a diverse collection of marine fungi, including sequences branching close to chytrids (flagellated fungi), filamentous hypha-forming fungi, and multicellular fungi. However, the majority of the sequences branched with ascomycete and basidiomycete yeasts. We discuss evidence for 36 novel marine lineages, the majority and most divergent of which branch with the chytrids. We then investigate what these data mean for the evolutionary history of the Fungi and specifically marine-terrestrial transitions. Finally, we discuss the roles of fungi in marine ecosystems.

  10. [Fungi isolated from the stool in patients with gastrointestinal disorders in 2005 - 2009].

    PubMed

    Macura, Anna B; Witalis, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    The mycological examination of 2242 stool specimens sampled form patients with non-specific gastrointestinal tract ailments was focused on the spectrum of fungal species isolated in culture, the frequency of isolation of the particular species high enough to indicate microbiological imbalance in the gut flora as well as evaluation of the fungal susceptibility to the antifungal agents. Fungal presence was detected in 61.5% of the specimens tested. The fungal flora isolated was as follows: C. albicans 70.9% of the isolates, Candida non-albicans 20.8% (including C krusei 3.40%, C. parapsilosis 1.88%, C. glabrata 1.59%), other genera 8.34% (including S. cerevisiae 5.58%, Geotrichum sp. 1.16%, and Trichosporon sp. 1.01%). The results of semiquantitative evaluation of the intensity of growth of the fungi isolated from the stool revealed that imbalance in the gut flora occured in 20.8% of the cases. Candida strains tested using Fungitest were less susceptible to azoles than to amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine. Decreased susceptibiliy or resistance to antimycotics was relatively often found among Candida non-albicans strains.

  11. Consumption of sweetened beverages as a risk factor of colonization of oral cavity by fungi - eating habits of university students.

    PubMed

    Lll, Katarzyna Góralska; Klimczak, Alina; Rachubiński, Paweł; Jagłowska, Aleksandra; Kwapiszewska, Aleksandra

    2015-01-01

    Foods rich in sugar are an excellent substrate for the microorganisms that inhabit the initial sections of the gastrointestinal tract, and one of the most commonly available sources of sugar is the sweetened drink. Students represent an interesting sub-population; the large number of classes and associated stress levels promote fixing of unhealthy behaviors, e.g. tendency to consume a lot of sweetened drinks, for example cola-type or energetic drinks. Aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the amount of sugar consumed in beverages and the prevalence of fungi in the oral cavity. The investigated material consisted of oral washings. Participants completed original questionnaire regarding beverages consumed. The relationship between the consumption of sweetened beverages and risk of the presence of fungi in the oral cavity was determined. Fungi were isolated from 68.1% of examined subjects. Seven species of the genus Candida were observed. Higher prevalence of fungi was seen in the oral cavity of subjects who declared consumption of beverages containing sugar. 37.8% of respondents were found to consume with beverages doses of sugar exceeding the recommended daily requirement. Significantly greater prevalence of oral cavity fungi was noted in those exceeding the recommended GDA (76.3%), compared to of those who were not (68.7%). There were positive correlations between occurrence of fungi and consumption of sweetened carbonated drinks or adding sugar to coffee and tea. The addition of sugar to coffee/tea and sugar consumption above the recommended daily amount significantly increases the risk of colonization of the oral cavity by fungi. Students, due to invalid nutritional habits especially excessive consumption of beverages containing large amounts of sugar, belong to a group with a predisposition to the occurrence of fungi in the oral cavity.

  12. [INVESTIGATION ON ANTIFUNGAL SUSCEPTIBILITY OF CANDIDA YEASTS IN PREGNANT PATIENTS WITH CONFIRMED VULVOVAGINAL CANDIDIASIS AND THEIR NEWBORNS.

    PubMed

    Chokoeva, A; Kouzmanov, A; Ivanova, Z; Zisova, L; Amalie, G; Petleshkova, P; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Ts; Krasteva, M; Uchikova, E

    patients with VVC immediately before birth (n = 22, 91.67 +/- 0.06%). Positive Candida colonization was detected in 14 (58.33%) of their newborns (n = 24), as no statistically significant difference was established, depending on the mode of delivery. The investigated antifungal susceptibility with test Fungifast (ELITech Microbiology Reagents), found 100% sensitivity of Candida albicans to Amphotericin B, Flucytosin and Voriconazole. Intermediate susceptibility to Itraconazole was found in 6 of 23 (26%) maternal isolates, and 5 of 23 (22%) isolates were moderately sensitive to Fluconazole. Candida krusei showed complete resistance to Fluconazole and Itraconazole. Within the group of antifungals for topical application (Econazole, Ketoconazole, Miconazole, Nystatin), the results established that 100% of the studied fungi were sensitive to Nystatin, while within the groups of azoles for vaginal and topical use - C.krusei was 100% resistant, as the sensitivity of C. albicans varied between 60-80%. Conclusion Our recommendation, based on the esablished results is that in pregnant with uncomplicated VVC as a first-line therapy should be considered the group of vaginal azoles and Nystatin, while the systemic therapy should be considered carefully and only after the firSt trimester. In cases of oral and intestinal candidiasis in neonatology, we recommend a therapy with minimal absorbable antifungals as Nystatin and miconazole (amphotericin B is available in our country), while systemic antifungal should be initiated only as a second choice. The exact etiological diagnosis is especially important because in our country there is a tendency for increased incidence of non-albicans fungus resistant to therapy, and that changes the therapeutic behavior.

  13. Conservation of Mannan Synthesis in Fungi of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota Reveals a Broad Diagnostic Target.

    PubMed

    Burnham-Marusich, Amanda R; Hubbard, Breeana; Kvam, Alexander J; Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene; Green, Heather R; Soukup, Eric; Limper, Andrew H; Kozel, Thomas R

    2018-01-01

    Ascomycetes and zygomycetes account for the majority of (i) fungi responsible for cutaneous, subcutaneous, and invasive human fungal infections, (ii) plant fungal pathogens, (iii) fungi that threaten global biodiversity, (iv) fungal agents of agricultural spoilage, and (v) fungi in water-damaged buildings. Rapid recognition of fungal infection (or contamination) enables early treatment (or remediation). A bioinformatics search found homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mnn9p present in members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota phyla and absent in members of the Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota. Mnn9p is a component of the yeast mannan polymerization complex and is necessary for α-1,6 mannan production. A monoclonal antibody (2DA6) was produced that was reactive with purified mannans of Mucor , Rhizopus , Aspergillus , Fusarium , and Candida species. Experimentation using a 2DA6 antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and extracts of fungi from the four phyla found agreement between the presence or absence of Mnn9p homologues and production or lack of production of mannan reactive with 2DA6. Studies of cell extracts from yeast mannan mutants identified α-1,6 mannan as the epitope recognized by 2DA6. To translate this finding into a point-of-use diagnostic, a 2DA6 lateral flow immunoassay was constructed that detected mannan in (i) extracts of dermatophytes and fungi that produce trauma-related infection and (ii) tissue from plants infected with Grosmannia clavigera or Sclerotium cepivorum These studies (i) revealed that the conservation of α-1,6-linked mannan in fungi of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota can be exploited as a broad diagnostic target and (ii) have provided a means to detect that target in an immunoassay platform that is well suited for clinic or field use. IMPORTANCE A key question asked when faced with an infection, an infestation, or environmental damage is whether it is a fungus. Identification of fungi as the cause of the

  14. Conservation of Mannan Synthesis in Fungi of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota Reveals a Broad Diagnostic Target

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Breeana; Kvam, Alexander J.; Gates-Hollingsworth, Marcellene; Green, Heather R.; Soukup, Eric; Limper, Andrew H.; Kozel, Thomas R.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ascomycetes and zygomycetes account for the majority of (i) fungi responsible for cutaneous, subcutaneous, and invasive human fungal infections, (ii) plant fungal pathogens, (iii) fungi that threaten global biodiversity, (iv) fungal agents of agricultural spoilage, and (v) fungi in water-damaged buildings. Rapid recognition of fungal infection (or contamination) enables early treatment (or remediation). A bioinformatics search found homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mnn9p present in members of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota phyla and absent in members of the Chytridiomycota and Basidiomycota. Mnn9p is a component of the yeast mannan polymerization complex and is necessary for α-1,6 mannan production. A monoclonal antibody (2DA6) was produced that was reactive with purified mannans of Mucor, Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Candida species. Experimentation using a 2DA6 antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and extracts of fungi from the four phyla found agreement between the presence or absence of Mnn9p homologues and production or lack of production of mannan reactive with 2DA6. Studies of cell extracts from yeast mannan mutants identified α-1,6 mannan as the epitope recognized by 2DA6. To translate this finding into a point-of-use diagnostic, a 2DA6 lateral flow immunoassay was constructed that detected mannan in (i) extracts of dermatophytes and fungi that produce trauma-related infection and (ii) tissue from plants infected with Grosmannia clavigera or Sclerotium cepivorum. These studies (i) revealed that the conservation of α-1,6-linked mannan in fungi of the Zygomycota and Ascomycota can be exploited as a broad diagnostic target and (ii) have provided a means to detect that target in an immunoassay platform that is well suited for clinic or field use. IMPORTANCE A key question asked when faced with an infection, an infestation, or environmental damage is whether it is a fungus. Identification of fungi as the cause of the

  15. The mPEG-PCL Copolymer for Selective Fermentation of Staphylococcus lugdunensis Against Candida parapsilosis in the Human Microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Ming-Shan; Wang, Yanhan; Marito, Shinta; Huang, Stephen; Lin, Wan-Zhen; Gangoiti, Jon A; Barshop, Bruce A; Hyun, Choi; Lee, Woan-Ruah; Sanford, James A; Gallo, Richard L; Ran, Yuping; Chen, Wan-Tzu; Huang, Chun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Fa; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Many human skin diseases, such as seborrheic dermatitis, potentially occur due to the over-growth of fungi. It remains a challenge to develop fungicides with a lower risk of generating resistant fungi and non-specifically killing commensal microbes. Our probiotic approaches using a selective fermentation initiator of skin commensal bacteria, fermentation metabolites or their derivatives provide novel therapeutics to rein in the over-growth of fungi. Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) bacteria and Candida parapsilosis (C. parapsilosis) fungi coexist in the scalp microbiome. S. lugdunensis interfered with the growth of C. parapsilosis via fermentation. A methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (mPEG-PCL) copolymer functioned as a selective fermentation initiator of S. lugdunensis, selectively triggering the S. lugdunensis fermentation to produce acetic and isovaleric acids. The acetic acid and its pro-drug diethyleneglycol diacetate (Ac-DEG-Ac) effectively suppressed the growth of C. parapsilosis in vitro and impeded the fungal expansion in the human dandruff. We demonstrate for the first time that S. lugdunensis is a skin probiotic bacterium that can exploit mPEG-PCL to yield fungicidal short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The concept of bacterial fermentation as a part of skin immunity to re-balance the dysbiotic microbiome warrants a novel avenue for studying the probiotic function of the skin microbiome in promoting health. PMID:28111598

  16. [Activity of butenafine against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Pang, Guang-ren; Zhao, Dong-qing; Gao, Chuan-wen; Zhou, Lu-tan; Sun, Sheng-tao; Wang, Bing-liang; Chen, Zu-ji

    2010-01-01

    To investigate antifungal activity of butenafine in comparison with that of natamycin, amphotericin B and fluconazole against ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi in vitro. It was an experimental study. Susceptibility tests were performed against 260 isolates of ocular pathogenic filamentous fungi by broth dilution antifungal susceptibility test of filamentous fungi approved by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A document. The isolates included Fusarium spp. (136), Aspergillus spp. (98), Alternaria alternata (9), Curvularia lunata (3), and unusual ocular pathogens (14). Final concentration ranged from 0.008 to 16.000 mg/L for butenafine, from 0.031 to 16.000 mg/L for amphotericin B and natamycin, and from 0.5 to 256.0 mg/L for fluconazole. Following incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined according to the CLSI M38-A document. For amphotericin B and natamycin, the MIC was defined as the lowest drug concentration that prevented any discernible growth. For butenafine and fluconazole, the MIC was defined as the lowest concentration in which an approximately 75% reduction compared to the growth of the control was observed. Candida parapsilosis ATCC22019 was used as quality control strains to validated the results. Mean MIC and MIC range, the MIC at which 50% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(50)) and the MIC at which 90% of the isolates tested were inhibited (MIC(90)), were provided for all the isolates tested by using descriptive statistical analysis with the statistical SPSS package (version 13.0). MIC(90) of butenafine, natamycin, amphotericin B and fluconazole were 4, 8, 2 and 512 mg/L for Fusarium spp., respectively; 0.063, 32.000, 2.000 and 256.000 mg/L for Aspergillus spp., respectively; 0.5, 8.0, 2.0 and 128.0 mg/L for Alternaria alternate, respectively; 0.125, 2.000, 0.500 and 4.000 mg/L for Curvularia lunata, respectively; and 1, 4, 1 and 256 mg/L for unusual ocular pathogens

  17. Fungi as a Source of Food.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Joëlle; Dequin, Sylvie; Giraud, Tatiana; Le Tacon, François; Marsit, Souhir; Ropars, Jeanne; Richard, Franck; Selosse, Marc-André

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we review some of the best-studied fungi used as food sources, in particular, the cheese fungi, the truffles, and the fungi used for drink fermentation such as beer, wine, and sake. We discuss their history of consumption by humans and the genomic mechanisms of adaptation during artificial selection.

  18. Bioactive terpenes from marine-derived fungi.

    PubMed

    Elissawy, Ahmed M; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Ebada, Sherif S; Singab, AbdelNasser B; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-03

    Marine-derived fungi continue to be a prolific source of secondary metabolites showing diverse bioactivities. Terpenoids from marine-derived fungi exhibit wide structural diversity including numerous compounds with pronounced biological activities. In this review, we survey the last five years' reports on terpenoidal metabolites from marine-derived fungi with particular attention on those showing marked biological activities.

  19. ER stress response mechanisms in the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata and their roles in virulence

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Taiga; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis is critical for numerous aspects of cell physiology. Eukaryotic cells respond to the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER (ER stress) by activating the unfolded protein response (UPR), an intracellular signaling pathway that adjusts the folding capacity of the ER. Recent studies of several pathogenic fungi have revealed that the UPR is important for antifungal resistance and virulence; therefore, the pathway has attracted much attention as a potential therapeutic target. While the UPR is highly conserved among eukaryotes, our group recently discovered that the pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata lacks the typical fungal UPR, but possesses alternative mechanisms to cope with ER stress. This review summarizes how C. glabrata responds to ER stress and discusses the impacts of ER quality control systems on antifungal resistance and virulence. PMID:24335436

  20. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: regulation by the precursors inositol and choline.

    PubMed Central

    Klig, L S; Friedli, L; Schmid, E

    1990-01-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway (G. M. Carman and S. A. Henry, Annu. Rev. Biochem. 58:636-669, 1989). The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline. Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed. Images PMID:2198258

  1. Allicin enhances the oxidative damage effect of amphotericin B against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    An, MaoMao; Shen, Hui; Cao, YongBing; Zhang, JunDong; Cai, Yun; Wang, Rui; Jiang, YuanYing

    2009-03-01

    Amphotericin B (AmB) is the gold standard of antifungal treatment for the most severe invasive mycoses. In addition to the interaction of AmB with ergosterol in the fungi cell membrane, several studies have demonstrated oxidative damage involved in the fungicidal activity of AmB. In this study, allicin, an allyl sulphur compound from garlic, was shown to enhance significantly the effect of AmB against Candida albicans in vitro and in vivo, although allicin did not exert a fungicidal effect. Further study first demonstrated that allicin-mediated oxidative damage, such as phospholipid peroxidation in the plasma membrane, via influencing the defence of C. albicans against oxidative damage may be the cause of the synergistic interaction between allicin and AmB. We envision that a combination of AmB with allicin may prove to be a promising strategy for the therapy of disseminated candidiasis.

  2. Chemical screening identifies filastatin, a small molecule inhibitor of Candida albicans adhesion, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Fazly, Ahmed; Jain, Charu; Dehner, Amie C; Issi, Luca; Lilly, Elizabeth A; Ali, Akbar; Cao, Hong; Fidel, Paul L; Rao, Reeta P; Kaufman, Paul D

    2013-08-13

    Infection by pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans, begins with adhesion to host cells or implanted medical devices followed by biofilm formation. By high-throughput phenotypic screening of small molecules, we identified compounds that inhibit adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene. Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition, induction of the hyphal-specific HWP1 promoter, biofilm formation on silicone elastomers, and pathogenesis in a nematode infection model as well as alters fungal morphology in a mouse mucosal infection assay. We term this compound filastatin based on its strong inhibition of filamentation, and we use chemical genetic experiments to show that it acts downstream of multiple signaling pathways. These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of multiple aspects of fungal pathogenesis.

  3. Chemical screening identifies filastatin, a small molecule inhibitor of Candida albicans adhesion, morphogenesis, and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fazly, Ahmed; Jain, Charu; Dehner, Amie C.; Issi, Luca; Lilly, Elizabeth A.; Ali, Akbar; Cao, Hong; Fidel, Paul L.; P. Rao, Reeta; Kaufman, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Infection by pathogenic fungi, such as Candida albicans, begins with adhesion to host cells or implanted medical devices followed by biofilm formation. By high-throughput phenotypic screening of small molecules, we identified compounds that inhibit adhesion of C. albicans to polystyrene. Our lead candidate compound also inhibits binding of C. albicans to cultured human epithelial cells, the yeast-to-hyphal morphological transition, induction of the hyphal-specific HWP1 promoter, biofilm formation on silicone elastomers, and pathogenesis in a nematode infection model as well as alters fungal morphology in a mouse mucosal infection assay. We term this compound filastatin based on its strong inhibition of filamentation, and we use chemical genetic experiments to show that it acts downstream of multiple signaling pathways. These studies show that high-throughput functional assays targeting fungal adhesion can provide chemical probes for study of multiple aspects of fungal pathogenesis. PMID:23904484

  4. Phospholipid biosynthesis in Candida albicans: Regulation by the precursors inositol and choline

    SciTech Connect

    Klig, L.S.; Friedli, L.; Schmid, E.

    1990-08-01

    Phospholipid metabolism in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans was examined. The phospholipid biosynthetic pathways of C. albicans were elucidated and were shown to be similar to those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, marked differences were seen between these two fungi in the regulation of the pathways in response to exogenously provided precursors inositol and choline. In S. cerevisiae, the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine via methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine appears to be regulated in response to inositol and choline; provision of choline alone does not repress the activity of this pathway. The same pathway in C. albicans responds to the exogenous provision of choline.more » Possible explanations for the observed differences in regulation are discussed.« less

  5. Dynamics of Mixed- Candida Species Biofilms in Response to Antifungals.

    PubMed

    Vipulanandan, G; Herrera, M; Wiederhold, N P; Li, X; Mintz, J; Wickes, B L; Kadosh, D

    2018-01-01

    Oral infections caused by Candida species, the most commonly isolated human fungal pathogen, are frequently associated with biofilms. Although Candida albicans is the predominant organism found in patients with oral thrush, a biofilm infection, there is an increasing incidence of oral colonization and infections caused by non- albicans Candida species, including C. glabrata, C. dubliniensis, and C. tropicalis, which are frequently more resistant to antifungal treatment. While single-species Candida biofilms have been well studied, considerably less is known about the dynamics of mixed- Candida species biofilms and how these dynamics are altered by antifungal treatment. To address these questions, we developed a quantitative polymerase chain reaction-based approach to determine the precise species composition of mixed- Candida species biofilms formed by clinical isolates and laboratory strains in the presence and absence of clinically relevant concentrations of 3 commonly used antifungals: fluconazole, caspofungin, and amphotericin B. In monospecies biofilms, fluconazole exposure favored growth of C. glabrata and C. tropicalis, while caspofungin generally favored significant growth of all species to a varying degree. Fluconazole was not effective against preformed mixed- Candida species biofilms while amphotericin B was potent. As a general trend, in mixed- Candida species biofilms, C. albicans lost dominance in the presence of antifungals. Interestingly, presence in mixed versus monospecies biofilms reduced susceptibility to amphotericin B for C. tropicalis and C. glabrata. Overall, our data suggest that antifungal treatment favors the growth of specific non- albicans Candida species in mixed- Candida species biofilms.

  6. Comparison of proteolytic activity of Candida sp. strains depending on their origin.

    PubMed

    Modrzewska, B; Kurnatowski, P; Khalid, K

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate the proteolytic activity of various Candida strains isolated from the oral cavity of persons without clinical symptoms of fungal infection, outpatients with oral cavity disorders and patients hospitalized due to head and neck tumors. A secondary aim was to confirm the presence of secreted aspartyl protease (SAP) genes in the isolated strains and then to compare it depending on the fungal species. Material consisted of 134 fungal strains that were analysed by a modified Staib method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with the use of specific primer pairs. The greatest proteolytic activity of fungi was observed at pH 3.5. The proteolysis were the strongest for strains isolated from dental patients and the weakest from persons without changes in the oral cavity. In total, 61.9% of the strains exhibited the presence of at least one of the SAP1-3 genes in all examined groups, SAP1 being the most common; SAP4-6 genes were not observed. All genes were more frequent in the strains isolated from the dental patients than from other groups. SAP1-3 genes were present in Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. humicola and C. lipolytica, but were not noted in other isolated species. The lowest activity of proteolytic enzymes and the least number of aspartyl protease genes are observed among strains isolated from patients without clinical symptoms of mycosis. SAP1-3 genes are most frequently detected in the strains isolated from the oral cavity; their presence varies depending on the species of the fungi. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) reduces damage to reconstituted human tissues infected with Candida species by inhibiting extracellular fungal lipases

    PubMed Central

    Trofa, David; Agovino, Mariangela; Stehr, Frank; Schäfer, Wilhelm; Rykunov, Dmitry; Fiser, András; Hamari, Zsuzsanna; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.; Gácser, Attila

    2009-01-01

    A reconstituted human tissue model was used to mimic Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis infection in order to investigate the protective effects of acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA). We found that therapeutic concentrations of ASA reduced tissue damage in the in vitro infection model. We further evaluated the lipase inhibitory effects of ASA by investigating the growth of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis and C. parapsilosis lipase negative (Δcplip1-2/Δcplip1-2) mutants in a lipid rich minimal medium supplemented with olive oil and found that a therapeutic concentration of ASA inhibited the growth of wild type fungi. The lipase inhibitors quinine and ebelactone B were also shown to reduce growth and protect against tissue damage from Candida species, respectively. A lipolytic activity assay also showed that therapeutic concentrations of ASA inhibited C. antarctica and C. cylindracea purified lipases obtained through a commercial kit. The relationship between ASA and lipase was characterized through a computed structural model of the Lipase-2 protein from C. parapsilosis in complex with ASA. The results suggest that development of inhibitors of fungal lipases could result in broad-spectrum therapeutics, especially since fungal lipases are not homologous to their human analogues. PMID:19703582

  8. Suppression of polymorphonuclear (PMN) and monocyte-mediated inhibition of Candida albicans growth by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Djeu, J.Y.; Parapanios, A.; Halkias, D.

    This study was an in vitro attempt to identify the effector cells responsible for growth inhibition of the opportunistic fungus, candida albicans, and to determine if THC or another marijuana derivatives, 11-hydroxyTHC, would adversely affect their function. Using a 24h radiolabel assay, the authors found that growth inhibition of C. albicans was primarily mediated by PMN and monocytes that could be isolated normal human peripheral blood. Both effector cell types caused almost complete inhibition of Candida growth at effector/target ratio of 300/1 and inhibition was often still seen at 30/1-. Incubation of PMN, PBL, or monocytes for 1 hr atmore » 37C with THC or 11-hydroxyTHC caused a marked suppression of function in all 3 cell populations. Maximal suppression was obtained with 7.5-10..mu..g/ml of the drugs in medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) or with 2-4..mu..g/ml in 1% FBS. These drug concentrations did not affect lymphoid cell viability or candida growth in the absence of lymphoid effector cells. Marijuana derivatives, therefore, are doubly dangerous in that opportunistic fungi such as C. albicans can grow in their presence while the effector cells that control fungal growth are readily inactivated.« less

  9. Large-scale production and isolation of Candida biofilm extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Zarnowski, Robert; Sanchez, Hiram; Andes, David R

    2016-12-01

    The extracellular matrix of biofilm is unique to the biofilm lifestyle, and it has key roles in community survival. A complete understanding of the biochemical nature of the matrix is integral to the understanding of the roles of matrix components. This knowledge is a first step toward the development of novel therapeutics and diagnostics to address persistent biofilm infections. Many of the assay methods needed for refined matrix composition analysis require milligram amounts of material that is separated from the cellular components of these complex communities. The protocol described here explains the large-scale production and isolation of the Candida biofilm extracellular matrix. To our knowledge, the proposed procedure is the only currently available approach in the field that yields milligram amounts of biofilm matrix. This procedure first requires biofilms to be seeded in large-surface-area roller bottles, followed by cell adhesion and biofilm maturation during continuous movement of the medium across the surface of the rotating bottle. The formed matrix is then separated from the entire biomass using sonication, which efficiently removes the matrix without perturbing the fungal cell wall. Subsequent filtration, dialysis and lyophilization steps result in a purified matrix product sufficient for biochemical, structural and functional assays. The overall protocol takes ∼11 d to complete. This protocol has been used for Candida species, but, using the troubleshooting guide provided, it could be adapted for other fungi or bacteria.

  10. Adherence of Candida sp. to host tissues and cells as one of its pathogenicity features.

    PubMed

    Modrzewska, Barbara; Kurnatowski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Candida sp. cells to adhere to the mucosal surfaces of various host organs as well as synthetic materials is an important pathogenicity feature of those fungi which contributes to the development of infection. This property varies depending on the species of the fungus and is the greatest for C. albicans. The process of adhesion depends on plenty of factors related to the fungal and host cells as well as environmental conditions. The main adhesins present on the fungal cell wall are: Als, Epa, Hwp1, but also Eap1, Sun41, Csh1 and probably Hyr1; for adhesion significant are also secreted aspartyl proteases Sap. Various researchers specify a range of genes which contribute to adhesion, such as: CZF1, EFG1, TUP1, TPK1, TPK2, HGC1, RAS1, RIM101, VPS11, ECM1, CKA2, BCR1, BUD2, RSR1, IRS4, CHS2, SCS7, UBI4, UME6, TEC1 and GAT2. Influence for adherence have also heat shock proteins Hsp70, Mediator Middle domain subunit Med31 and morphological transition. Among factors affecting adhesion related to host cells it is necessary to mention fibronectins and integrins (receptors for Candida sp. adhesins), type of epithelial cells, their morphology and differentiation phase. To a lesser degree influence on adhesion have non-specific factors and environmental conditions.

  11. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    PubMed

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  12. Rapid Identification of Candida Species by Using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy and a Statistical Classification Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Himmelreich, Uwe; Somorjai, Ray L.; Dolenko, Brion; Lee, Ok Cha; Daniel, Heide-Marie; Murray, Ronan; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Sorrell, Tania C.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from suspensions of clinically important yeast species of the genus Candida to characterize the relationship between metabolite profiles and species identification. Major metabolites were identified by using two-dimensional correlation NMR spectroscopy. One-dimensional proton NMR spectra were analyzed by using a staged statistical classification strategy. Analysis of NMR spectra from 442 isolates of Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. tropicalis resulted in rapid, accurate identification when compared with conventional and DNA-based identification. Spectral regions used for the classification of the five yeast species revealed species-specific differences in relative amounts of lipids, trehalose, polyols, and other metabolites. Isolates of C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata with unusual PCR fingerprinting patterns also generated atypical NMR spectra, suggesting the possibility of intraspecies discontinuity. We conclude that NMR spectroscopy combined with a statistical classification strategy is a rapid, nondestructive, and potentially valuable method for identification and chemotaxonomic characterization that may be broadly applicable to fungi and other microorganisms. PMID:12902244

  13. Inherited CARD9 deficiency in otherwise healthy children and adults with meningo-encephalitis and/or colitis caused by Candida

    PubMed Central

    Lanternier, Fanny; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Barbati, Elisa; Chaussade, Hélène; Koumar, Yatrika; Levy, Romain; Denis, Blandine; Brunel, Anne-Sophie; Martin, Sophie; Loop, Michèle; Peeters, Julie; de Selys, Ariel; Vanclaire, Jean; Vermylen, Christiane; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Chatzis, Olga; Liu, Luyan; Migaud, Mélanie; Pedergnana, Vincent; Desoubeaux, Guillaume; Jouvion, Gregory; Chretien, Fabrice; Darazam, Ilad Alavi; Schäffer, Alejandro A.; Netea, Mihai G.; De Bruycker, Jean-Jacques; Bernard, Louis; Reynes, Jacques; Amazrine, Noureddine; Abel, Laurent; Van der Linden, Dimitri; Harrison, Tom; Picard, Capucine; Lortholary, Olivier; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Puel, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Invasive infections of the central nervous system or digestive tract caused by commensal fungi of the genus Candida are rare and life-threatening. The known risk factors include acquired and inherited immunodeficiencies, with patients often displaying a history of multiple infections. Cases of meningo-encephalitis and/or colitis caused by Candida remain unexplained. We studied five previously healthy children and adults with unexplained invasive disease of the central nervous system, or the digestive tract, or both, caused by Candida spp. The patients were aged 39, 7, 17 37, and 26 years at the time of infection and were unrelated but each born to consanguineous parents of Turkish (two patients), Iranian, Moroccan or Pakistani origin. Meningo-encephalitis was isolated in three patients, associated with colitis in a fourth patient, and the fifth patient suffered from isolated colitis. Inherited CARD9 deficiency was recently reported in otherwise healthy patients with other forms of severe disease caused by Candida, Trichophyton, Phialophora, and Exophiala, including meningo-encephalitis, but not colitis, caused by Candida and Exophiala. We therefore sequenced CARD9 in the five patients. All were found to be homozygous for rare and deleterious mutant CARD9 alleles: R70W and Q289* for the three patients with isolated C. albicans meningo-encephalitis, R35Q for the patient with meningo-encephalitis and colitis caused by C. glabrata, and Q295* for the patient with C. albicans colitis. Regardless of their levels of mutant CARD9 protein, the patients’ monocyte-derived dendritic cells responded poorly to CARD9-dependent fungal agonists (curdlan, heat-killed C. albicans, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Exophiala dermatitidis). Invasive infections of the CNS or digestive tract caused by Candida in previously healthy children and even adults may be caused by inherited CARD9 deficiency. PMID:25702837

  14. Factors Supporting Cysteine Tolerance and Sulfite Production in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Hennicke, Florian; Grumbt, Maria; Lermann, Ulrich; Ueberschaar, Nico; Palige, Katja; Böttcher, Bettina; Jacobsen, Ilse D.; Staib, Claudia; Morschhäuser, Joachim; Monod, Michel; Hube, Bernhard; Hertweck, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The amino acid cysteine has long been known to be toxic at elevated levels for bacteria, fungi, and humans. However, mechanisms of cysteine tolerance in microbes remain largely obscure. Here we show that the human pathogenic yeast Candida albicans excretes sulfite when confronted with increasing cysteine concentrations. Mutant construction and phenotypic analysis revealed that sulfite formation from cysteine in C. albicans relies on cysteine dioxygenase Cdg1, an enzyme with similar functions in humans. Environmental cysteine induced not only the expression of the CDG1 gene in C. albicans, but also the expression of SSU1, encoding a putative sulfite efflux pump. Accordingly, the deletion of SSU1 resulted in enhanced sensitivity of the fungal cells to both cysteine and sulfite. To study the regulation of sulfite/cysteine tolerance in more detail, we screened a C. albicans library of transcription factor mutants in the presence of sulfite. This approach and subsequent independent mutant analysis identified the zinc cluster transcription factor Zcf2 to govern sulfite/cysteine tolerance, as well as cysteine-inducible SSU1 and CDG1 gene expression. cdg1Δ and ssu1Δ mutants displayed reduced hypha formation in the presence of cysteine, indicating a possible role of the newly proposed mechanisms of cysteine tolerance and sulfite secretion in the pathogenicity of C. albicans. Moreover, cdg1Δ mutants induced delayed mortality in a mouse model of disseminated infection. Since sulfite is toxic and a potent reducing agent, its production by C. albicans suggests diverse roles during host adaptation and pathogenicity. PMID:23417561

  15. Effect of serine-type protease of Candida spp. isolated from linear gingival erythema of HIV-positive children: critical factors in the colonization.

    PubMed

    Portela, Maristela B; Souza, Ivete P R; Abreu, Celina M; Bertolini, Martinna; Holandino, Carla; Alviano, Celuta S; Santos, André L S; Soares, Rosangela M A

    2010-11-01

      There are several kinds of oral soft tissue lesions that are common manifestations observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children; for example, linear gingival erythema (LGE) that is a distinctive fiery red band along the margin of the gingivae. The etiology and pathogenesis of LGE are questionable, but a candidal origin has been suggested. Proteases are key virulence attributes produced by a variety of pathogenic fungi, including Candida. The objective of the present study is to identify the protease production in Candida species including, C. albicans (n=5), C. dubliniensis (n=1) and C. tropicalis (n=1), isolated directly from typical LGE lesions observed in six HIV-positive children, and also to test the effect of a serine protease inhibitor on the interaction of Candida spp. and epithelial cells in vitro. The ability of Candida strains to release proteases in the culture supernatant fluids was visualized by gelatin-SDS-PAGE. Gel strips containing 30-fold concentrated supernatant (1.5×10(8) yeasts) were incubated at 37°C for 48 h in 50 mM sodium phosphate buffer, pH 5.5. The concentrated supernatants were also incubated with fibronectin, laminin, immunoglobulin G, bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin. The effect of serine protease inhibitor on the interaction of Candida spp. and epithelial cells (MA 104) was measured after pre-treatment of fungi with the inhibitor (phenylmethylsulphonyl fluoride, PMSF). All the extracellular proteases were completely inhibited by PMSF, identifying these activities as serine-type proteases. Interestingly, a common 62-kDa serine protease was observed in all Candida strains. The culture supernatants, rich in serine protease activities, cleaved several soluble proteinaceous substrates. Additionally, we demonstrated that pre-treatment of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis and C. tropicalis with PMSF diminished the interaction with epithelial cells. Collectively, our results show that Candida spp. isolated

  16. Yeast communities in Sphagnum phyllosphere along the temperature-moisture ecocline in the boreal forest-swamp ecosystem and description of Candida sphagnicola sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kachalkin, Aleksey V; Yurkov, Andrey M

    2012-06-01

    The effects of the temperature-moisture factors on the phylloplane yeast communities inhabiting Sphagnum mosses were studied along the transition from a boreal forest to a swamp biotope at the Central Forest State Biosphere Reserve (Tver region, Russia). We tested the hypothesis that microclimatic parameters affect yeast community composition and structure even on a rather small spatial scale. Using a conventional plating technique we isolated and identified by molecular methods a total of 15 species of yeasts. Total yeast counts and species richness values did not depend on environmental factors, although yeast community composition and structure did. On average, Sphagnum in the swamp biotope supported a more evenly structured yeast community. Relative abundance of ascomycetous yeasts was significantly higher on swamp moss. Rhodotorula mucilaginosa dominated in the spruce forest and Cryptococcus magnus was more abundant in the swamp. Our study confirmed the low occurrence of tremellaceous yeasts in the Sphagnum phyllosphere. Of the few isolated ascomycetous yeast and yeast-like species, some were differentiated from hitherto known species in physiological tests and phylogenetic analyses. We describe one of them as Candida sphagnicola and designate KBP Y-3887(T) (=CBS 11774(T) = VKPM Y-3566(T) = MUCL 53590(T)) as the type strain. The new species was registered in MycoBank under MB 563443.

  17. Candida transmission and sexual behaviors as risks for a repeat episode of Candida vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Reed, Barbara D; Zazove, Philip; Pierson, Carl L; Gorenflo, Daniel W; Horrocks, Julie

    2003-12-01

    To assess associations between female and male factors and the risk of recurring Candida vulvovaginitis. A prospective cohort study of 148 women with Candida vulvovaginitis and 78 of their male sexual partners was conducted at two primary care practices in the Ann Arbor, Michigan, area. Thirty-three of 148 women developed at least one further episode of Candida albicans vulvovaginitis within 1 year of follow-up. Cultures of Candida species from various sites of the woman (tongue, feces, vulva, and vagina) and from her partner (tongue, feces, urine, and semen) did not predict recurrences. Female factors associated with recurrence included recent masturbating with saliva (hazard ratio 2.66 [95% CI 1.17-6.06]) or cunnilingus (hazard ratio 2.94 [95% CI 1.12-7.68]) and ingestion of two or more servings of bread per day (p Candida species at various body locations of the male partner, are associated with recurrences of C. albicans vulvovaginitis.

  18. Role of tyrosol on Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Streptococcus mutans biofilms developed on different surfaces.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Arias, Laís Salomão; Fernandes, Renan Aparecido; Straioto, Fabiana Gouveia; Barros Barbosa, Débora; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo

    2017-02-01

    To assess the effect of tyrosol on the production of hydrolytic enzymes (by Candida biofilm cells) and acid (by Streptococcus mutans biofilms), as well as to quantify single and mixed biofilms of these species formed on acrylic resin (AR) and hydroxyapatite (HA). Candida and S. mutans biofilms were formed on AR and HA in the presence of tyrosol during 48 hours. Next, acid proteinase, phospholipase and hemolytic activities of Candida biofilm cells were determined, while acid production by S. mutans biofilms was assessed by pH determination. The effect of tyrosol on mature biofilms (96 hours) was evaluated through quantification of total biomass, metabolic activity, number of colony-forming units and composition of biofilms' extracellular matrix. Data were analyzed by one- and two-way ANOVA, followed by Tukey's and Holm-Sidak's tests (α = 0.05). Treatments with tyrosol were not able to significantly reduce hydrolytic enzymes and acid production by Candida and S. mutans. Tyrosol only significantly reduced the metabolic activity of single biofilms of Candida species. Tyrosol on its own had a limited efficacy against single and mixed-species oral biofilms. Its use as an alternative antimicrobial for topical therapies still demands more investigation.

  19. Fluconazole resistance in Candida species: a current perspective

    PubMed Central

    Berkow, Elizabeth L; Lockhart, Shawn R

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans and the emerging non-albicans Candida spp. have significant clinical relevance among many patient populations. Current treatment guidelines include fluconazole as a primary therapeutic option for the treatment of these infections, but it is only fungistatic against Candida spp. and both inherent and acquired resistance to fluconazole have been reported. Such mechanisms of resistance include increased drug efflux, alteration or increase in the drug target, and development of compensatory pathways for producing the target sterol, ergosterol. While many mechanisms of resistance observed in C. albicans are also found in the non-albicans species, there are also important and unexpected differences between species. Furthermore, mechanisms of fluconazole resistance in emerging Candida spp., including the global health threat Candida auris, are largely unknown. In order to preserve the utility of one of our fundamental antifungal drugs, fluconazole, it is essential that we fully appreciate the manner by which Candida spp. manifest resistance to it. PMID:28814889

  20. Evolutionary relationships among pathogenic Candida species and relatives.

    PubMed Central

    Barns, S M; Lane, D J; Sogin, M L; Bibeau, C; Weisburg, W G

    1991-01-01

    Small subunit rRNA sequences have been determined for 10 of the most clinically important pathogenic species of the yeast genus Candida (including Torulopsis [Candida] glabrata and Yarrowia [Candida] lipolytica) and for Hansenula polymorpha. Phylogenetic analyses of these sequences and those of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Kluyveromyces marxianus var. lactis, and Aspergillus fumigatus indicate that Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis, and C. viswanathii form a subgroup within the genus. The remaining significant pathogen, T. glabrata, falls into a second, distinct subgroup and is specifically related to S. cerevisiae and more distantly related to C. kefyr (psuedotropicalis) and K. marxianus var. lactis. The 18S rRNA sequence of Y. lipolytica has evolved rapidly in relation to the other Candida sequences examined and appears to be only distantly related to them. As anticipated, species of several other genera appear to bear specific relationships to members of the genus Candida. PMID:2007550

  1. Two new species of the genus Candida in the Zygoascus clade, Candida lundiana sp. nov. and Candida suthepensis sp. nov., isolated from raw honey in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Saksinchai, Sujinan; Suzuki, Motofumi; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ohkuma, Moriya; Chantawannakul, Panuwan

    2012-03-01

    During a survey of yeasts associated with raw honey collected in Thailand, two strains of the Zygoascus clade were isolated from the Asian cavity-nesting honeybee Apis cerana and the stingless bee Homotrigona fimbriata. Phylogeny based on 26S rDNA D1/D2 sequences placed these yeasts as members of a clade including Candida bituminiphila, Candida patagonica and Candida polysorbophila. The strains of the two novel species, CBS 12271(T) and CBS 12270(T), respectively, could be unquestionably distinguished from their relatives by rDNA sequences and other taxonomic characteristics. Therefore, the novel anamorphic species, Candida lundiana sp. nov. (type strain CBS 12271(T) = JCM 16823(T)) and Candida suthepensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 12270(T) = JCM 16822(T)) are described.

  2. Candida albicans importance to denture wearers. A literature review.

    PubMed

    Gleiznys, Alvydas; Zdanavičienė, Eglė; Žilinskas, Juozas

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic oral fungal infections have spred, especially in denture wearers. Denture stomatitis is a common inflammatory reaction, multifactorial etiology, which is usually associated with Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, due to its high virulence, ability to adhere and form biofilms on oral cavity tissues and denture surfaces. This article highlights the pathogenesis, clinical presentation, and management strategies of Candida-associated denture stomatitis commonly encountered in dental practice.

  3. Candida infection in oral leukoplakia: an unperceived public health problem.

    PubMed

    Dilhari, Ayomi; Weerasekera, Manjula M; Siriwardhana, Anusha; Maheshika, Oshanthi; Gunasekara, Chinthika; Karunathilaka, Sunil; Nagahawatte, Ajith; Fernando, Neluka

    2016-10-01

    The study aimed to determine the proportion, known risk factors and etiology for Candida infection in leukoplakia lesions among patients with oral leukoplakia attending the Oral and Maxillofacial Clinic at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Sri Lanka. Eighty clinically suspected oral leukoplakia patients were included. Two oral swabs each, from leukoplakia patients: one swab from the lesion and the other one from the contralateral unaffected corresponding area (as a control) were collected. Direct microscopy and culture followed by colony count and phenotypic identification were performed to identify pathogenic Candida species. Candida infection was seen in 47% of patients with oral leukoplakia. Candida albicans (94.7%) was the most common Candida species followed by Candida tropicalis (5.3%). Majority of Candida-infected lesions were seen in the buccal mucosa region. Alteration of taste (p = 0.021), having other oral lesions (p = 0.008), angular cheilitis (p = 0.024) and periodontitis (p = 0.041) showed a significant association with Candida-associated leukoplakia. Increasing age showed a significant tendency for Candida infection (p = 0.020). Smoking (p = 0.026) and betel-quid chewing (p = 0.006) were also found to be significantly associated, although alcohol consumption alone did not show a significant association. Oral leukoplakia patients who had all three habits: alcohol consumption, smoking and betel-quid chewing had a significant association with Candida infection (p = 0.004). Patients who had a combination of risk factors: smoking, betel-quid chewing and alcohol consumption were seen to have a significant association with Candida infection. Further betel-quid chewing alone and smoking singly was also significantly associated with Candida infection in oral leukoplakia.

  4. Visualization of interaction between inorganic nanoparticles and bacteria or fungi

    PubMed Central

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Hotowy, Anna; Szeliga, Jacek; Mitura, Stanislaw; Mitura, Katarzyna; Grodzik, Marta; Orlowski, Piotr; Sokolowska, Aleksandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of self-assemblies of diamond (nano-D), silver (nano-Ag), gold (nano-Au), and platinum (nano-Pt) nanoparticles with Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria) and Candida albicans (fungi), to determine the possibility of constructing microorganism–nanoparticle vehicles. Methods Hydrocolloids of individual nanoparticles were added to suspensions of S. aureus and C. albicans. Immediately after mixing, the samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Results Visualization of the morphologic interaction between the nanoparticles and microorganisms showed that nano-D, which are dielectrics and exhibit a positive zeta potential, were very different from the membrane potentials of microorganisms, and uniformly surrounded the microorganisms, without causing visible damage and destruction of cells. All metal nanoparticles with negative zeta potential had cell damaging properties. Nano-Ag showed the properties of self-organization with the cells, disintegrating the cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes, and releasing a substance (probably cytoplasm) outside the cell. Arrangement of nano-Au with microorganisms did not create a system of self-organization, but instead a “noncontact” interaction between the nanoparticles and microorganisms was observed to cause damage to fungal cells. Nano-Pt caused both microorganisms to release a substance outside the cell and disintegrated the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall. Conclusion Nano-Ag, nano-Au, and nano-Pt (all metal nanoparticles) are harmful to bacteria and fungi. In contrast, nano-D bind closely to the surface of microorganisms without causing visible damage to cells, and demonstrating good self-assembling ability. The results indicate that both microorganisms could be used as potential carriers for nano-D. PMID:21270959

  5. Dermatophyte and non dermatophyte fungi in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khaled, Jamal M.; Golah, Hammed A; Khalel, Abdulla S.; Alharbi, Naiyf S.; Mothana, Ramzi A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are a scientific label for a group of three genera (Microsporum, Epidermophyton and Trichophyton) of fungus that causes skin disease in animals and humans. Conventional methods for identification of these fungi are rapid and simple but are not accurate comparing to molecular methods. Objective This study aimed to isolate human pathogenic dermatophytes which cause dermatophytosis in Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia and to identify these fungi by using conventional and molecular methods. Methods The study was conducted in Medical Complex, Riyadh and King Saud University. Samples of infected skin, hairs and nails were collected from 112 patients. Diagnosis of skin infections, direct microscopic test, isolation and identification of dermatophytes by conventional and molecular methods were carried out. Results The results indicated that the tinea capitis infection had the highest prevalence among the patients (22.3%) while Tinea barbae had the lowest. In this study the identified dermatophyte isolates belong to nine species as Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton verrucosum, Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton schoenleinii, Trichophyton concentricum, Microsporum canis, Microsporum audouinii and Epidermophyton floccosum which cause skin infections were isolated during this study. Non dermatophyte isolates included 5 isolates from Aspergillus spp. 4 isolates from Acremonium potronii and 15 isolates from Candida spp. M. canis were the most common species (25% of isolated dermatophytes). Out of the 52 dermatophyte isolates identified by conventional methods, there were 45 isolates identified by the molecular method. Conclusions The results concluded that approximately M. canis caused a quarter of dermatophyte cases, tinea capitis infection was prevalent and the molecular method was more accurate than conventional methods. PMID:26288566

  6. Visualization of interaction between inorganic nanoparticles and bacteria or fungi.

    PubMed

    Chwalibog, André; Sawosz, Ewa; Hotowy, Anna; Szeliga, Jacek; Mitura, Stanislaw; Mitura, Katarzyna; Grodzik, Marta; Orlowski, Piotr; Sokolowska, Aleksandra

    2010-12-06

    The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate the morphologic characteristics of self-assemblies of diamond (nano-D), silver (nano-Ag), gold (nano-Au), and platinum (nano-Pt) nanoparticles with Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria) and Candida albicans (fungi), to determine the possibility of constructing microorganism-nanoparticle vehicles. Hydrocolloids of individual nanoparticles were added to suspensions of S. aureus and C. albicans. Immediately after mixing, the samples were inspected by transmission electron microscopy. Visualization of the morphologic interaction between the nanoparticles and microorganisms showed that nano-D, which are dielectrics and exhibit a positive zeta potential, were very different from the membrane potentials of microorganisms, and uniformly surrounded the microorganisms, without causing visible damage and destruction of cells. All metal nanoparticles with negative zeta potential had cell damaging properties. Nano-Ag showed the properties of self-organization with the cells, disintegrating the cell walls and cytoplasmic membranes, and releasing a substance (probably cytoplasm) outside the cell. Arrangement of nano-Au with microorganisms did not create a system of self-organization, but instead a "noncontact" interaction between the nanoparticles and microorganisms was observed to cause damage to fungal cells. Nano-Pt caused both microorganisms to release a substance outside the cell and disintegrated the cytoplasmic membrane and cell wall. Nano-Ag, nano-Au, and nano-Pt (all metal nanoparticles) are harmful to bacteria and fungi. In contrast, nano-D bind closely to the surface of microorganisms without causing visible damage to cells, and demonstrating good self-assembling ability. The results indicate that both microorganisms could be used as potential carriers for nano-D.

  7. Melaleuca alternifolia nanoparticles against Candida species biofilms.

    PubMed

    Souza, M E; Lopes, L Q S; Bonez, P C; Gündel, A; Martinez, D S T; Sagrillo, M R; Giongo, J L; Vaucher, R A; Raffin, R P; Boligon, A A; Santos, R C V

    2017-03-01

    Candida infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality on immunosuppressed patients. This growing trend has been associated with resistance to the antimicrobial therapy and the ability of microorganism to form biofilms. TTO oil is used as antimicrobial which shows antibiofilm activity against Candida species. However, it presents problems due to its poor solubility and high volatility. The present study aimed to evaluate in vitro antibiofilm activity of TTO nanoparticles against many Candida species. It was performed the characterization of the oil and nanoparticles. The levels of exopolysaccharides, proteins, and the biomass of biofilms were measured. The chromatographic profile demonstrated that the TTO oil is in accordance with ISO 4730 with major constituents of 41.9% Terpinen-4-ol, 20.1% of γ-Terpinene, 9,8% of α-Terpinene, and 6,0% of 1,8-Cineole. The TTO nanoparticles showed pH of 6.3, mean diameter of 158.2 ± 2 nm, polydispersion index of 0.213 ± 0.017, and zeta potential of -8.69 ± 0.80 mV. The addition of TTO and its nanoparticles represented a significant reduction of biofilm formed by all Candida species, as well as a reduction of proteins and exopolysaccharides levels. It was possible to visualize the reduction of biofilm in presence of TTO nanoparticles by Calcofluor White method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antifungal activity of novel synthetic peptides by accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disruption of cell wall against Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Indresh Kumar; Pathak, Sarika; Sharma, Monika; Sanwal, Hina; Chaudhary, Preeti; Tupe, Santosh; Deshpande, Mukund; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, we investigated the antifungal activity of two de novo designed, antimicrobial peptides VS2 and VS3, incorporating unnatural amino acid α,β-dehydrophenylalanine (ΔPhe). We observed that the low-hemolytic peptides could irreversibly inhibit the growth of various Candida species and multidrug resistance strains at MIC(80) values ranging from 15.62 μM to 250 μM. Synergy experiments showed that MIC(80) of the peptides was drastically reduced in combination with an antifungal drug fluconazole. The dye PI uptake assay was used to demonstrate peptide induced cell membrane permeabilization. Intracellular localization of the FITC-labeled peptides in Candida albicans was studied by confocal microscopy and FACS. Killing kinetics, PI uptake assay, and the intracellular presence of FITC-peptides suggested that growth inhibition is not solely a consequence of increased membrane permeabilization. We showed that entry of the peptide in Candida cells resulted in accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) leading to cell necrosis. Morphological alteration in Candida cells caused by the peptides was visualized by electron microscopy. We propose that de novo designed VS2 and VS3 peptides have multiple detrimental effects on target fungi, which ultimately result in cell wall disruption and killing. Therefore, these peptides represent a good template for further design and development as antifungal agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Proteomics of Plant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V.

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection. PMID:20589070

  10. Proteomics of plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    González-Fernández, Raquel; Prats, Elena; Jorrín-Novo, Jesús V

    2010-01-01

    Plant pathogenic fungi cause important yield losses in crops. In order to develop efficient and environmental friendly crop protection strategies, molecular studies of the fungal biological cycle, virulence factors, and interaction with its host are necessary. For that reason, several approaches have been performed using both classical genetic, cell biology, and biochemistry and the modern, holistic, and high-throughput, omic techniques. This work briefly overviews the tools available for studying Plant Pathogenic Fungi and is amply focused on MS-based Proteomics analysis, based on original papers published up to December 2009. At a methodological level, different steps in a proteomic workflow experiment are discussed. Separate sections are devoted to fungal descriptive (intracellular, subcellular, extracellular) and differential expression proteomics and interactomics. From the work published we can conclude that Proteomics, in combination with other techniques, constitutes a powerful tool for providing important information about pathogenicity and virulence factors, thus opening up new possibilities for crop disease diagnosis and crop protection.

  11. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants.

    PubMed

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM 17242(T)), Candida danieliae sp. nov. (CBS 8533(T)  = JCM 17247(T)), Candida robnettiae sp. nov. (CBS 8580(T)  = JCM 17243(T)) and Candida eppingiae sp. nov. (CBS 8586(T)  = JCM 17241(T)), isolated from plants in Thailand and Guyana, are proposed in this study.

  12. Intestinal colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xian-Hua; Tong, Qing-Ying

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To observe the relationship between intestinal lumen colonization with Candida albicans and mucosal secretory IgA (sIgA). METHODS: A total of 82 specific-pathogen-free mice were divided randomly into control and colonization groups. After Candida albicans were inoculated into specific-pathogen-free mice, the number of Candida albicans adhering to cecum and mucosal membrane was counted. The lymphocyte proliferation in Peyer’s patch and in lamina propria was shown by BrdU incorporation, while mucosal sIgA (surface membrane) isotype switch in Peyer’s patch was investigated. IgA plasma cells in lamina propria were observed by immunohistochemical staining. Specific IgA antibodies to Candida albicans were measured with ELISA. RESULTS: From d 3 to d 14 after Candida albicans gavaging to mice, the number of Candida albicans colonizing in lumen and adhering to mucosal membrane was sharply reduced. Candida albicans translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes occurred at early time points following gavage administration and disappeared at later time points. Meanwhile, the content of specific IgA was increased obviously. Proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes in lamina propria were also increased. CONCLUSION: Lymphocytes in lamina propria play an important role in intestinal mucosal immunity of specific-pathogen-free mice when they are first inoculated with Candida albicans. The decreasing number of Candida albicans in intestine is related to the increased level of specific IgA antibodies in the intestinal mucus. PMID:15237449

  13. Bacteria, fungi and protozoa paper

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Bacteria and fungi in source and treated drinking waterThis dataset is associated with the following publication:King , D., S. Pfaller , M. Donohue , S. Vesper , E. Villegas , M. Ware , S. Glassmeyer , M. Vogal, E. Furlong, and D. Kolpin. Microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the United States and implications for human health. SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT. Elsevier BV, AMSTERDAM, NETHERLANDS, 562: 987–995, (2016).

  14. Coprophilous fungi of the horse.

    PubMed

    Pointelli, E; Santa-maria, M A; Caretta, G

    1981-05-08

    A total of 1267 microfungi, including 35 Myxomycetes, were recorded from the fecal samples of the 60 horses; of these 395 were found on 20 saddle-horse feces, 363 on 20 race-horses and 509 on 20 working horses. Eighty two species representing 53 genera were recorded; of these 7 were Zygomycetes, 18 Ascomycetes, 1 Basidiomycetes and 25 Fungi Imperfecti: 2 Myxomycetes. Common coprophilous fungi are in decreasing order Pilobolus kleinii, Saccobolus depauperatus, Mucor hiemalis, Lasiobolus ciliatus, Podospora curvula, Petriella guttulata, M. circinelloides, Coprinus radiatus, Dictyostelium mucoroides, Sordaria fimicola, C. miser, C. stercorariusm, Acremonium sp., Coprotus granuliformis, Graphium putredinis, Iodophanus carneus, Chaetomium murorum, Podospora communis, P. inaequalis, P. setosa, Saccobolus versicolor and Cladosporium cucumerinum. Species of Myrothecium verrucaria, Actinomucor elegans, Kernia nitida, Spiculostilbella dendritica and Mucor parvispora were found exclusively in working-horses feces. Badhamia sp., Anixiopsis stercoraria, Echinobotryum state of D. stemonitis, Geotrichum candidum and Oidiodendron sp. were found only in saddle-horses feces. Chlamidomyces palmarum, Philocopra sp. were found exclusively in race-horses feces. Notes on infrequent or interesting fungi include Thamnostylum piriforme, Phialocephala dimorphospora, Rhopalomyces elegans and Spiculostilbella dendritica.

  15. Evolution of entomopathogenicity in fungi.

    PubMed

    Humber, Richard A

    2008-07-01

    The recent completions of publications presenting the results of a comprehensive study on the fungal phylogeny and a new classification reflecting that phylogeny form a new basis to examine questions about the origins and evolutionary implications of such major habits among fungi as the use of living arthropods or other invertebrates as the main source of nutrients. Because entomopathogenicity appears to have arisen or, indeed, have lost multiple times in many independent lines of fungal evolution, some of the factors that might either define or enable entomopathogenicity are examined. The constant proximity of populations of potential new hosts seem to have been a factor encouraging the acquisition or loss of entomopathogenicity by a very diverse range of fungi, particularly when involving gregarious and immobile host populations of scales, aphids, and cicadas (all in Hemiptera). An underlying theme within the vast complex of pathogenic and parasitic ascomycetes in the Clavicipitaceae (Hypocreales) affecting plants and insects seems to be for interkingdom host-jumping by these fungi from plants to arthropods and then back to the plant or on to fungal hosts. Some genera of Entomophthorales suggest that the associations between fungal pathogens and their insect hosts appear to be shifting away from pathogenicity and towards nonlethal parasitism.

  16. Effector proteins of rust fungi.

    PubMed

    Petre, Benjamin; Joly, David L; Duplessis, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Rust fungi include many species that are devastating crop pathogens. To develop resistant plants, a better understanding of rust virulence factors, or effector proteins, is needed. Thus far, only six rust effector proteins have been described: AvrP123, AvrP4, AvrL567, AvrM, RTP1, and PGTAUSPE-10-1. Although some are well established model proteins used to investigate mechanisms of immune receptor activation (avirulence activities) or entry into plant cells, how they work inside host tissues to promote fungal growth remains unknown. The genome sequences of four rust fungi (two Melampsoraceae and two Pucciniaceae) have been analyzed so far. Genome-wide analyses of these species, as well as transcriptomics performed on a broader range of rust fungi, revealed hundreds of small secreted proteins considered as rust candidate secreted effector proteins (CSEPs). The rust community now needs high-throughput approaches (effectoromics) to accelerate effector discovery/characterization and to better understand how they function in planta. However, this task is challenging due to the non-amenability of rust pathosystems (obligate biotrophs infecting crop plants) to traditional molecular genetic approaches mainly due to difficulties in culturing these species in vitro. The use of heterologous approaches should be promoted in the future.

  17. Candida detection system (CAND-TEC) to differentiate between Candida albicans colonization and disease.

    PubMed Central

    Fung, J C; Donta, S T; Tilton, R C

    1986-01-01

    Eighty-three serum specimens from 24 patients infected with Candida albicans were examined for circulating Candida protein antigens with the Candida Detection System (CAND-TEC; Ramco Laboratories, Inc., Houston, Tex.). The medical records of each patient were reviewed for clinical evidence of Candida colonization or disease, predisposing factors for infection, underlying illness, the presence of a contaminated indwelling venous catheter, intravenous amphotericin B therapy, and outcome. Forty-nine serum specimens with antigen titers of 1:2 or less were obtained either from colonized patients or at a time when disseminated disease was not yet clinically suspected. Except for five specimens from two colonized patients, one with a contaminated arterial line, the other specimens with titers of 1:8 or greater (n = 14) were obtained from patients who had been clinically diagnosed and treated for disseminated candidiasis. Serum specimens with titers of 1:4 were often from patients with deep-seated candidal infection but were not uniformly diagnostic; in this situation additional specimens should be tested for Candida antigen titers. Only 1 of 24 serum specimens from patients with no evidence of C. albicans infection had a Candida protein antigen titer of 1:8. With a 1:8 or greater titer as a criterion for dissemination, the sensitivity of the CAND-TEC system was 71%, with a specificity of 98%. If the 1:8 titer for the colonized patient with a contaminated arterial line is not considered a false-positive result, the CAND-TEC sensitivity was 83%. The latex agglutination assay appears to be a useful, rapid, and noninvasive means of laboratory diagnosis of systemic candidiasis. The recovery of C. albicans from at least three body sites may also be a useful predictor of disseminated disease. PMID:3533975

  18. Candida-streptococcal mucosal biofilms display distinct structural and virulence characteristics depending on growth conditions and hyphal morphotypes.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, M M; Xu, H; Sobue, T; Nobile, C J; Del Bel Cury, A A; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A

    2015-08-01

    Candida albicans and streptococci of the mitis group form communities in multiple oral sites, where moisture and nutrient availability can change spatially or temporally. This study evaluated structural and virulence characteristics of Candida-streptococcal biofilms formed on moist or semidry mucosal surfaces, and tested the effects of nutrient availability and hyphal morphotype on dual-species biofilms. Three-dimensional models of the oral mucosa formed by immortalized keratinocytes on a fibroblast-embedded collagenous matrix were used. Infections were carried out using Streptococcus oralis strain 34, in combination with a C. albicans wild-type strain, or pseudohyphal-forming mutant strains. Increased moisture promoted a homogeneous surface biofilm by C. albicans. Dual biofilms had a stratified structure, with streptococci growing in close contact with the mucosa and fungi growing on the bacterial surface. Under semidry conditions, Candida formed localized foci of dense growth, which promoted focal growth of streptococci in mixed biofilms. Candida biofilm biovolume was greater under moist conditions, albeit with minimal tissue invasion, compared with semidry conditions. Supplementing the infection medium with nutrients under semidry conditions intensified growth, biofilm biovolume and tissue invasion/damage, without changing biofilm structure. Under these conditions, the pseudohyphal mutants and S. oralis formed defective superficial biofilms, with most bacteria in contact with the epithelial surface, below a pseudohyphal mass, resembling biofilms growing in a moist environment. The presence of S. oralis promoted fungal invasion and tissue damage under all conditions. We conclude that moisture, nutrient availability, hyphal morphotype and the presence of commensal bacteria influence the architecture and virulence characteristics of mucosal fungal biofilms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A Fatal Case of Candida auris and Candida tropicalis Candidemia in Neutropenic Patient.

    PubMed

    Mohd Tap, Ratna; Lim, Teck Choon; Kamarudin, Nur Amalina; Ginsapu, Stephanie Jane; Abd Razak, Mohd Fuat; Ahmad, Norazah; Amran, Fairuz

    2018-06-01

    We report a fatal case of Candida auris that was involved in mixed candidemia with Candida tropicalis, isolated from the blood of a neutropenic patient. Identification of both isolates was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of internal transcribed spacer and D1/D2 domain of large subunit in rRNA gene. Antifungal susceptibility test by E-test method revealed that C. auris was resistant to amphotericin B, anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. On the other hand, C. tropicalis was sensitive to all antifungal tested. The use of chromogenic agar as isolation media is vital in detecting mixed candidemia.

  20. Tobacco Agar, a New Medium for Differentiating Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zia U.; Ahmad, Suhail; Mokaddas, Eiman; Chandy, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Isolates of Candida dubliniensis may be misidentified as Candida albicans in microbiological laboratories if only the germ tube and/or the chlamydospore test is used for identification to the species level. In this study, we have evaluated the efficacy of tobacco agar for the differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. On this medium at 28°C, all 30 C. dubliniensis isolates produced yellowish-brown colonies with hyphal fringes and abundant chlamydospores, whereas 54 C. albicans isolates formed smooth, white-to-cream-colored colonies with no chlamydospore production. This medium provides a simple tool for presumptive differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans. PMID:15472343

  1. Fungicidal activity of tioconazole in relation to growth phase of Candida albicans and Candida parapsilosis.

    PubMed Central

    Beggs, W H

    1984-01-01

    It was shown that tioconazole possesses an important property not shared by ketoconazole and miconazole, its well-known relatives in the imidazole group of antifungal drugs. At a concentration of 3.8 X 10(-5) M, tioconazole, like miconazole, caused rapid 2- to 3-log reductions in CFU per milliliter when added to late-logarithmic-phase Candida albicans or Candida parapsilosis cells. Only tioconazole, however, exerted similar reductions when added to diluted stationary-phase cultures. This growth-phase-independent lethal action has important clinical implications and may explain the superior performance of tioconazole, which was observed in earlier comparative drug studies. PMID:6097174

  2. Antifungal susceptibilities of Candida glabrata species complex, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis species complex and Candida tropicalis causing invasive candidiasis in China: 3 year national surveillance.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Meng; Fan, Xin; Chen, Sharon C-A; Wang, He; Sun, Zi-Yong; Liao, Kang; Chen, Shu-Lan; Yan, Yan; Kang, Mei; Hu, Zhi-Dong; Chu, Yun-Zhuo; Hu, Tie-Shi; Ni, Yu-Xing; Zou, Gui-Ling; Kong, Fanrong; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2015-03-01

    To define the antifungal susceptibility patterns of the most common non-albicans Candida spp. in China. We evaluated the susceptibilities to nine antifungal drugs of Candida parapsilosis species complex, Candida tropicalis, Candida glabrata species complex and Candida krusei isolates from patients with invasive candidiasis at 11 hospitals over 3 years. Isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS supplemented by DNA sequencing. MICs were determined by Sensititre YeastOne(TM) using current clinical breakpoints/epidemiological cut-off values to assign susceptibility (or WT), and by CLSI M44-A2 disc diffusion for fluconazole and voriconazole. Of 1072 isolates, 392 (36.6%) were C. parapsilosis species complex. C. tropicalis, C. glabrata species complex and C. krusei comprised 35.4%, 24.3% and 3.7% of the isolates, respectively. Over 99.3% of the isolates were of WT phenotype to amphotericin B and 5-flucytosine. Susceptibility/WT rates to azoles among C. parapsilosis species complex were ≥97.5%. However, 11.6% and 9.5% of C. tropicalis isolates were non-susceptible to fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively (7.1% were resistant to both). Approximately 14.3% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates (n = 258) were fluconazole resistant, and 11.6% of C. glabrata sensu stricto isolates were cross-resistant to fluconazole and voriconazole. All C. krusei isolates were susceptible/WT to voriconazole, posaconazole and itraconazole. Overall, 97.7%-100% of isolates were susceptible to caspofungin, micafungin and anidulafungin, but 2.3% of C. glabrata were non-susceptible to anidulafungin. There was no azole/echinocandin co-resistance. Disc diffusion and Sensititre YeastOne(TM) methods showed >95% categorical agreement for fluconazole and voriconazole. In summary, reduced azole susceptibility was seen among C. tropicalis. Resistance to echinocandins was uncommon. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  3. [Emerging pathogen: Candida kefyr (Kluvyeromyces marxianus)].

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Tuğba; Kalkancı, Ayşe

    2017-10-01

    In the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital Candida kefyr was isolated from different clinical samples as 5.3% in 2016 and in 2017 this rate increased to 9.3% which was nearly two-fold and this has drawn our attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the special characteristics, antifungal susceptibility and virulence properties of C.keyfr species. Germ tube, corn meal-tween 80 agar morphology and carbohydrate assimilation profiles on ID32C yeast identification system were used for the diagnosis of Candida species. In this study, DNA sequencing was performed using ITS1 and ITS4 primers amplifying fungal gene between 5.8S and 18S regions of rRNA. Antifungal susceptibility was performed using M27A microdilution method recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole and itraconazole were determined. MIC distribution, MIC50 and MIC90 values and geometric mean (GM) were detected. The existence of virulence factors caseinase, secreted aspartyl proteinase, esterase and phospholipase were investigated in vitro. A total of 865 Candida species were isolated from different clinical samples in the central microbiology laboratory of Gazi University Hospital in 2016. Among them, 46 (5.3%) were C.kefyr. In the first four months of 2017, 30 (9.3%) C.kefyr were identified among 320 Candida isolates. Ten isolates which have shown atypical morphology on corn meal agar were selected. Among these 10 isolates, nine of them were identified as C.kefyr by using ID32C system and DNA sequencing method. Amphotericin B MIC value was 2 µg/ml for one isolate, and fluconazole MIC value was 8 µg/ml for another isolate among 46 isolates. Among the 30 isolates of the year 2017, one of them presented MIC value for fluconazole as 8 µg/ml. No marked antifungal resistance was detected in our isolate group. Caseinase was positive in one C.kefyr isolate, and

  4. Use of CHROMagar Candida for the presumptive identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Sayyada Ghufrana; Hakim, Shazia Tabassum; Kazmi, Shahana Urooj

    2010-02-09

    Identification of yeast isolated from clinical specimens to the species level has become increasingly important. Ever-increasing numbers of immuno-suppressed patients, a widening range of recognized pathogens, and the discovery of resistance to antifungal drugs are contributing factors to this necessity. A total of 487 yeast strains were studied for the primary isolation and presumptive identification, directly from clinical specimen. Efficacy of CHROMagar Candida has been evaluated with conventional methods including morphology on Corn meal-tween 80 agar and biochemical methods by using API 20 C AUX. The result of this study shows that CHROMagar Candida can easily identify three species of Candida on the basis of colonial color and morphology, and accurately differentiate between them i.e. Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, and Candida krusei. The specificity and sensitivity of CHROMagar Candida for C. albicans calculated as 99%, for C. tropicalis calculated as 98%, and C. krusei it is 100%. The data presented supports the use of CHROMagar Candida for the rapid identification of Candida species directly from clinical specimens in resource-limited settings, which could be very helpful in developing appropriate therapeutic strategy and management of patients.

  5. NADPH Oxidase-Driven Phagocyte Recruitment Controls Candida albicans Filamentous Growth and Prevents Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Brothers, Kimberly M.; Gratacap, Remi L.; Barker, Sarah E.; Newman, Zachary R.; Norum, Ashley; Wheeler, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    Candida albicans is a human commensal and clinically important fungal pathogen that grows as both yeast and hyphal forms during human, mouse and zebrafish infection. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases play diverse roles in immunity, including their long-appreciated function as microbicidal oxidants. Here we demonstrate a non-traditional mechanistic role of NADPH oxidase in promoting phagocyte chemotaxis and intracellular containment of fungi to limit filamentous growth. We exploit the transparent zebrafish model to show that failed NADPH oxidase-dependent phagocyte recruitment to C. albicans in the first four hours post-infection permits fungi to germinate extracellularly and kill the host. We combine chemical and genetic tools with high-resolution time-lapse microscopy to implicate both phagocyte oxidase and dual-specific oxidase in recruitment, suggesting that both myeloid and non-myeloid cells promote chemotaxis. We show that early non-invasive imaging provides a robust tool for prognosis, strongly connecting effective early immune response with survival. Finally, we demonstrate a new role of a key regulator of the yeast-to-hyphal switching program in phagocyte-mediated containment, suggesting that there are species-specific methods for modulation of NADPH oxidase-independent immune responses. These novel links between ROS-driven chemotaxis and fungal dimorphism expand our view of a key host defense mechanism and have important implications for pathogenesis. PMID:24098114

  6. Growth, Morphogenesis, and Virulence of Candida albicans after Oral Inoculation in the Germ-Free and Conventional Chick1

    PubMed Central

    Balish, Edward; Phillips, A. W.

    1966-01-01

    Balish, Edward (Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y.), and A. W. Phillips. Growth, morphogenesis, and virulence of Candida albicans after oral inoculation in the germ-free and conventional chick. J. Bacteriol. 91:1736–1743. 1966.—The effects of intestinal bacteria on the multiplication, morphogenesis, and infectivity of Candida albicans in the alimentary tract were investigated by comparing results obtained in germ-free and conventional chicks after oral inoculation. This challenge resulted in the establishment of large numbers of the pathogen in the alimentary tract of each group of chicks; these numbers were increased in crop contents from challenged bacteria-free chicks wherein hyphae predominated over the yeast form. These animals also had lesions of the crop epithelium containing numerous hyphae and few yeast-like forms. In contrast, challenged conventional chicks receiving an adequate diet displayed no evidence of infection. Their alimentary tract contained the yeast form of C. albicans; no hyphae were seen. Although we found bacterial inhibition of C. albicans multiplication in the alimentary tract, this in itself did not seem to explain the resistance to intestinal candidiasis in our conventional chicks. We argued that this resistance to infection was due chiefly to the prevention of hyphal development in C. albicans by intestinal bacteria. C. albicans in the gut of our conventional chicks resulted in some increase in numbers of enterococci in contents from the crop. Increased pH values in contents from the gut of germ-free chicks were not clearly related to infection after challenge. The Eh of the above crop contents were only slightly decreased in the germ-free crop. Thus the Eh did not appear to be involved in susceptibility to infection. Invasion of the blood stream and kidneys of conventional chicks by the yeast form of C. albicans occurred in challenged animals receiving a purified diet which had been radiation-sterilized and stored for 6 months at

  7. Intestinal fungi contribute to development of alcoholic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, An-Ming; Inamine, Tatsuo; Hochrath, Katrin; Chen, Peng; Wang, Lirui; Llorente, Cristina; Bluemel, Sena; Hartmann, Phillipp; Xu, Jun; Koyama, Yukinori; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Torralba, Manolito G; Moncera, Kelvin; Beeri, Karen; Chen, Chien-Sheng; Freese, Kim; Hellerbrand, Claus; Lee, Serene Ml; Hoffman, Hal M; Mehal, Wajahat Z; Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe; Mutlu, Ece A; Keshavarzian, Ali; Brown, Gordon D; Ho, Samuel B; Bataller, Ramon; Stärkel, Peter; Fouts, Derrick E; Schnabl, Bernd

    2017-06-30

    Chronic liver disease with cirrhosis is the 12th leading cause of death in the United States, and alcoholic liver disease accounts for approximately half of all cirrhosis deaths. Chronic alcohol consumption is associated with intestinal bacterial dysbiosis, yet we understand little about the contribution of intestinal fungi, or mycobiota, to alcoholic liver disease. Here we have demonstrated that chronic alcohol administration increases mycobiota populations and translocation of fungal β-glucan into systemic circulation in mice. Treating mice with antifungal agents reduced intestinal fungal overgrowth, decreased β-glucan translocation, and ameliorated ethanol-induced liver disease. Using bone marrow chimeric mice, we found that β-glucan induces liver inflammation via the C-type lectin-like receptor CLEC7A on Kupffer cells and possibly other bone marrow-derived cells. Subsequent increases in IL-1β expression and secretion contributed to hepatocyte damage and promoted development of ethanol-induced liver disease. We observed that alcohol-dependent patients displayed reduced intestinal fungal diversity and Candida overgrowth. Compared with healthy individuals and patients with non-alcohol-related cirrhosis, alcoholic cirrhosis patients had increased systemic exposure and immune response to mycobiota. Moreover, the levels of extraintestinal exposure and immune response correlated with mortality. Thus, chronic alcohol consumption is associated with an altered mycobiota and translocation of fungal products. Manipulating the intestinal mycobiome might be an effective strategy for attenuating alcohol-related liver disease.

  8. Seasonal biodiversity of pathogenic fungi in farming air area. Case study.

    PubMed

    Plewa, Kinga; Lone, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    Poultry production proved to be a significant source of bioaerosols. The exposure to high concentration of microorganisms in the air can cause primarily irritations, infections, allergies, and toxic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seasonal biodiversity of airborne fungi in the poultry house, in the surrounding area, as well as to estimate health risk. Seasonal investigations were conducted in the spring, summer, autumn and winter 2010 in the poultry house located near Wrocław in Lower Silesia (Poland). The air samples were collected with the use of a Merck MAS-100 onto nutrient Sabouraud agar and were incubated for 5 days at 26 degrees C. Subsequently the colony-forming units (CFU) were determined. The identification of the isolated fungi was made in accordance with the standard procedures. In the summer and autumn when the weather conditions are most friendly for the spread and the development of numerous microorganisms, fungi were more abundant in the surrounding area than in early spring and winter, when both humidity and temperature were lower. The total of 26 species were analysed (10 in the poultry house and 17 in the surrounding areas). Among 12 fungal genera: Aspergillus, Penicilium, Alternaria, Exophiala, Mycelia sterilla, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Scopulariopsis, Chaetomium, Acremonium, Candida and Rhodotorula nearly everything occurred to be the potential respiratory allergens.

  9. Search for fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs in postmortem blood as potential indicators of postmortem fungal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge A; Strien, Juliane; Walther, Grit; Peters, Frank T

    2016-05-01

    Fungi colonizing cadavers are capable of drug metabolism and may thus change the metabolite pattern or concentration of drugs in forensic postmortem samples. The purpose of this study was to check for the presence of such changes by searching fungi-specific metabolites of four model drugs (amitriptyline, metoprolol, mirtazapine, and zolpidem) in decomposed postmortem blood samples from 33 cases involving these drugs. After isolation and identification of fungal strains present in the samples, each isolate was incubated in Sabouraud medium at 25°C for up to 120h with each model drug. One part of the supernatants was directly analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), another after liquid-liquid extraction with chlorobutane and concentration. From 21 out of 33 decomposed postmortem blood samples (64%) a total of 30 different strains could be isolated, one from the class of Ascomycete and the rest belonging to 15 species from 8 different genera (number of species): Aspergillus (2), Botrytis (1), Candida (8), Fusarium (1), Mucor (1), Penicillium (1), and Rodothorula (1). In the in vitro studies, these microorganisms were found capable of N-demethylation and N-oxidation of amitriptyline and mirtazapine, O-demethylation followed by side chain oxidation of metoprolol as well as hydroxylation of all four-model drugs. In two of the postmortem blood samples, from which the fungi Aspergillus jensenii, Candida parapsilosis. and Mucor circinelloides had been isolated, a fungi-specific hydroxy zolpidem metabolite was detected. The presence of this metabolite in postmortem samples likely indicates postmortem fungal biodegradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Candida species biofilm and Candida albicans ALS3 polymorphisms in clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Bruder-Nascimento, Ariane; Camargo, Carlos Henrique; Mondelli, Alessandro Lia; Sugizaki, Maria Fátima; Sadatsune, Terue; Bagagli, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decades, there have been important changes in the epidemiology of Candida infections. In recent years, Candida species have emerged as important causes of invasive infections mainly among immunocompromised patients. This study analyzed Candida spp. isolates and compared the frequency and biofilm production of different species among the different sources of isolation: blood, urine, vulvovaginal secretions and peritoneal dialysis fluid. Biofilm production was quantified in 327 Candida isolates obtained from patients attended at a Brazilian tertiary public hospital (Botucatu, Sao Paulo). C. albicans ALS3 gene polymorphism was also evaluated by determining the number of repeated motifs in the central domain. Of the 198 total biofilm-positive isolates, 72 and 126 were considered as low and high biofilm producers, respectively. Biofilm production by C. albicans was significantly lower than that by non-albicans isolates and was most frequently observed in C. tropicalis. Biofilm production was more frequent among bloodstream isolates than other clinical sources, in urine, the isolates displayed a peculiar distribution by presenting two distinct peaks, one containing biofilm-negative isolates and the other containing isolates with intense biofilm production. The numbers of tandem-repeat copies per allele were not associated with biofilm production, suggesting the evolvement of other genetic determinants. PMID:25763043

  11. Culture media profoundly affect Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis growth, adhesion and biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Weerasekera, Manjula M; Wijesinghe, Gayan K; Jayarathna, Thilini A; Gunasekara, Chinthika P; Fernando, Neluka; Kottegoda, Nilwala; Samaranayake, Lakshman P

    2016-11-01

    As there are sparse data on the impact of growth media on the phenomenon of biofilm development for Candida we evaluated the efficacy of three culture media on growth, adhesion and biofilm formation of two pathogenic yeasts, Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The planktonic phase yeast growth, either as monocultures or mixed cultures, in sabouraud dextrose broth (SDB), yeast nitrogen base (YNB), and RPMI 1640 was compared, and adhesion as well as biofilm formation were monitored using MTT and crystal violet (CV) assays and scanning electron microscopy. Planktonic cells of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and their 1:1 co-culture showed maximal growth in SDB. C. albicans/C. tropicalis adhesion was significantly facilitated in RPMI 1640 although the YNB elicited the maximum growth for C. tropicalis. Similarly, the biofilm growth was uniformly higher for both species in RPMI 1640, and C. tropicalis was the slower biofilm former in all three media. Scanning electron microscopy images tended to confirm the results of MTT and CV assay. Taken together, our data indicate that researchers should pay heed to the choice of laboratory culture media when comparing relative planktonic/biofilm growth of Candida. There is also a need for standardisation of biofilm development media so as to facilitate cross comparisons between laboratories.

  12. Plants’ Natural Products as Alternative Promising Anti-Candida Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Sameh; Alnajdy, Dina; El-Keblawy, Ali A.; Mosa, Kareem A.; Khoder, Ghalia; Noreddin, Ayman M.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a serious life-threatening pathogen, particularly with immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are considered as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in a broad range of immunocompromised patients. Candida infections are common in hospitalized patients and elderly people. The difficulty to eradicate Candida infections is owing to its unique switch between yeast and hyphae forms and more likely to biofilm formations that render resistance to antifungal therapy. Plants are known sources of natural medicines. Several plants show significant anti-Candida activities and some of them have lower minimum inhibitory concentration, making them promising candidates for anti-Candida therapy. However, none of these plant products is marketed for anti-Candida therapy because of lack of sufficient information about their efficacy, toxicity, and kinetics. This review revises major plants that have been tested for anti-Candida activities with recommendations for further use of some of these plants for more investigation and in vivo testing including the use of nanostructure lipid system. PMID:28989245

  13. Oral Candida colonization and candidiasis in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Bedair, Ahmad A; Darwazeh, Azmi M G; Al-Aboosi, Mustafa M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate oral Candida colonization and candidosis in a group of patients with psoriasis and controls. A total of 100 patients with psoriasis and matched controls underwent the concentrated oral rinse test for Candida isolation. Candida species were identified by the VITEK 2 Identification System. Categorical variables were evaluated using the χ(2) test. The median Candida count was compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Oral candidiasis was diagnosed in 3% of the patients with psoriasis. The Candida count and prevalence were significantly higher in the patients with psoriasis compared with controls (69% vs 44%, P < .001), but with no relationship to the severity or treatment of psoriasis. Oral Candida was significantly higher in late-onset (at age ≥30 years) compared with early-onset psoriasis (at age <30 years). Patients with psoriasis have increased oral Candida colonization and candidiasis. Further studies are needed to clarify the predisposing factor(s) for oral Candida in patients with psoriasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Candida vaccines development from point view of US patent application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-11-01

    Candidiasis is the fourth most common bloodstream infection in hospitalized patients in the United States. Moreover, the mortality rate from Candida infections remains high, even after treatment with antifungal therapy. Vaccination would be a promising strategy for prevention of invasive fungal infections. In order to examine the main trends in anticandidal vaccine patenting activity, we conducted an analysis for anticandidal vaccine patents. We find 190 issued patent and 940 patent application documents containing the keywords Candida and vaccine within claims in the USA. Candida vaccines development, as evidenced by the numbers of issued patents, has decreased since the year 2002. Furthermore, the number of patent applications in Candida vaccines may indicate the strength of engaged resources were also in the status of stagnation during 2005-2007 and even a decline in 2008. Academic and nonprofit research institutions not only account for a large share of Candida vaccines patents but also apply for patents continually. Based on this analysis, the strength of Candida vaccines resources seems to remain stagnant in recent years due to patent prosecution or technical barrier in the filed of Candida vaccines. Therefore, we consider that Candida vaccines technology to still be under development and the researchers are still looking for scientific breakthrough in the filed.

  15. A surprisingly large RNase P RNA in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    KACHOURI, RYM; STRIBINSKIS, VILIUS; ZHU, YANGLONG; RAMOS, KENNETH S.; WESTHOF, ERIC; LI, YONG

    2005-01-01

    We have found an extremely large ribonuclease P (RNase P) RNA (RPR1) in the human pathogen Candida glabrata and verified that this molecule is expressed and present in the active enzyme complex of this hemiascomycete yeast. A structural alignment of the C. glabrata sequence with 36 other hemiascomycete RNase P RNAs (abbreviated as P RNAs) allows us to characterize the types of insertions. In addition, 15 P RNA sequences were newly characterized by searching in the recently sequenced genomes Candida albicans, C. glabrata, Debaryomyces hansenii, Eremothecium gossypii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces waltii, Naumovia castellii, Saccharomyces kudriavzevii, Saccharomyces mikatae, and Yarrowia lipolytica; and by PCR amplification for other Candida species (Candida guilliermondii, Candida krusei, Candida parapsilosis, Candida stellatoidea, and Candida tropicalis). The phylogenetic comparative analysis identifies a hemiascomycete secondary structure consensus that presents a conserved core in all species with variable insertions or deletions. The most significant variability is found in C. glabrata P RNA in which three insertions exceeding in total 700 nt are present in the Specificity domain. This P RNA is more than twice the length of any other homologous P RNAs known in the three domains of life and is eight times the size of the smallest. RNase P RNA, therefore, represents one of the most diversified noncoding RNAs in terms of size variation and structural diversity. PMID:15987816

  16. [Mycorrhizal fungi diversity of Vaccinium uliginosum L].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuli; Yan, Wei

    2015-02-04

    The diversity of mycorrhizal fungi isolated from Vaccinium uliginosum L in the northern region of Daxing' anling mountains was examined for the first time. Morphology and ITS sequence analysis were used to identify the fungal communities. Six groups of fungi were isolated from Vaccinium uliginosum root samples: one belongs to Hymenoscyphus; one to Phialocephala; one to Lachnum; one to Cadophora; one to Marasmius and one to Mycena. Among them, 87. 10% belong to ascomycetes and 12.90% belong to Basidiomycotina. The diversity of fungi associated with Vaccinium uliginosum is abundant and the fungi are from heterogenous group.

  17. Synergistic mutual potentiation of antifungal activity of Zuccagnia punctata Cav. and Larrea nitida Cav. extracts in clinical isolates of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Butassi, Estefanía; Svetaz, Laura A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Feresin, Gabriela E; Tapia, Alejandro; Zacchino, Susana A

    2015-06-01

    Zuccagnia punctata Cav. (Fabaceae) and Larrea nitida Cav. (Zygophyllaceae) are indistinctly or jointly used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fungal-related infections. Although their dichloromethane (DCM) extract have demonstrated moderate antifungal activities when tested on their own, antifungal properties of combinations of both plants have not been assessed previously. The aim of this study was to establish with statistical rigor whether Z. punctata (ZpE) and L. nitida DCM extract (LnE) interact synergistically against the clinically important fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata and to characterize the most synergistic combinations. For synergism assessment, the statistical-based Boik's design was applied. Eight ZpE-LnE fixed-ratio mixtures were prepared from four different months of 1 year and tested against Candida strains. Lϕ (Loewe index) of each mixture at different fractions affected (ϕ) allowed for the finding of the most synergistic combinations, which were characterized by HPLC fingerprint and by the quantitation of the selected marker compounds. Lϕ and confidence intervals were determined in vitro with the MixLow method, once the estimated parameters from the dose-response curves of independent extracts and mixtures, were obtained. Markers (four flavonoids for ZpE and three lignans for LnE) were quantified in each extract and their combinations, with a valid HPLC-UV method. The 3D-HPLC profiles of the most synergistic mixtures were obtained by HPLC-DAD. Three over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE fixed-ratio mixtures displayed synergistic interactions at effect levels ϕ > 0.5 against C. albicans. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.62) mixture was 65.96 µg/ml (ZpE = 28%; LnE = 72%) containing 8 and 36% of flavonoids and lignans respectively. On the other hand, one over four IC50ZpE/IC50LnE mixtures displays synergistic interactions at ϕ > 0.5 against C. glabrata. The dosis of the most synergistic (Lϕ = 0.67) mixture was 168

  18. Candida glabrata olecranon bursitis treated with bursectomy and intravenous caspofungin.

    PubMed

    Skedros, John G; Keenan, Kendra E; Trachtenberg, Joel D

    2013-01-01

    Orthopedic surgeons are becoming more involved in the care of patients with septic arthritis and bursitis caused by yeast species. This case report involves a middle-aged immunocompromised female who developed a Candida glabrata septic olecranon bursitis that developed after she received a corticosteroid injection in the olecranon bursa for presumed aseptic bursitis. Candida (Torulopsis) glabrata is the second most frequently isolated Candida species from the bloodstream in the United States. Increased use of fluconazole and other azole antifungal agents as a prophylactic treatment for recurrent Candida albicans infections in immunocompromised individuals is one reason why there appears to be increased resistance of C. glabrata and other nonalbicans Candida (NAC) species to fluconazole. In this patient, this infection was treated with surgery (bursectomy) and intravenous caspofungin, an echinocandin. This rare infectious etiology coupled with this intravenous antifungal treatment makes this case novel among cases of olecranon bursitis caused by yeasts.

  19. Risk factors for fatal candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ming-Fang; Yang, Yun-Liang; Yao, Tzy-Jyun; Lin, Chin-Yu; Liu, Jih-Shin; Tang, Ran-Bin; Yu, Kwok-Woon; Fan, Yu-Hua; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Ho, Monto; Lo, Hsiu-Jung

    2005-01-01

    Background Invasive fungal infections, such as candidemia, caused by Candida species have been increasing. Candidemia is not only associated with a high mortality (30% to 40%) but also extends the length of hospital stay and increases the costs of medical care. Sepsis caused by Candida species is clinically indistinguishable from bacterial infections. Although, the clinical presentations of the patients with candidemia caused by Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC) are indistinguishable, the susceptibilities to antifungal agents of these species are different. In this study, we attempted to identify the risk factors for candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC in the hope that this may guide initial empiric therapy. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted during 1996 to 1999 at the Veterans General Hospital-Taipei. Results There were 130 fatal cases of candidemia, including 68 patients with C. albicans and 62 with NAC. Candidemia was the most likely cause of death in 55 of the 130 patients (42.3 %). There was no significant difference in the distribution of Candida species between those died of candidemia and those died of underlying conditions. Patients who had one of the following conditions were more likely to have C. albicans, age ≧ 65 years, immunosuppression accounted to prior use of steroids, leukocytosis, in the intensive care unit (ICU), and intravascular and urinary catheters. Patients who had undergone cancer chemotherapy often appeared less critically ill and were more likely to have NAC. Conclusion Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC may provide helpful clues to initiate empiric therapy for patients infected with C. albicans versus NAC. PMID:15813977

  20. Otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans

    PubMed Central

    Elayoubi, Fahd; Lachkar, Azeddine; Aabach, Ahmed; Chouai, Mohamed; Ghailan, Mohamed Rachid

    2016-01-01

    L’otite externe maligne est une ostéomyélite de la base du crane. Le Pseudomonas aeruginosa est le germe le plus incriminé. Cependant l’origine fongique n’est pas rare. Patiente âgée de 80 ans avait présenté une otalgie gauche persistante depuis deux mois malgré un traitement bien conduit. L’examen otologique mettait en évidence des signes inflammatoires au niveau du pavillon, une sténose du conduit avec des granulomes, et otorrhée d’allure purulente. Le scanner montrait un comblement otomastoïdien, un processus inflammatoire extensif des tissus pré et rétro-auriculaire et une lyse du tympanal. Vu l’absence d’amélioration un examen mycologique a été réalisé et qui a révélé la présence de Candida Albicans. Les cas d’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans sont rarement rapportés. L’origine fongique doit être suspecté devant la négativité des prélèvements bactériologiques et la non amélioration malgré un traitement antibiotique bien conduit, et confirmée par des prélèvements mycologiques parfois multiples. L’otite externe maligne à Candida Albicans est une infection rare potentiellement mortelle. PMID:28154677

  1. [Successful treatment of Candida meningitis with miconazole].

    PubMed

    Fukui, S; Tabata, H; Hayashi, H; Matsushima, Y

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents a case of successful treatment of candida meningitis with miconazole. A 55-year-old woman was admitted due to high fever, vomiting and urinary incontinence on November 11, 1986. Four months prior to this episode, she had been treated for a ruptured aneurysm with neck-clipping and V-P shunt for NPH. Candida albicans was cultured from her CSF. The shunt system was immediately removed and an Ommaya's reservoir was installed for external drainage and intrathecal administrations. Combination therapy (amphotericin B and flucytosine) was initiated. However, it was discontinued after ten days because of high fever and chills after intrathecal injection of amphotericin B. Treatment with miconazole intrathecally (10-90 mg/week, total 565 mg) and intravenously (200-1200 mg/day, total 70.4 g) was begun on November 23. Clinical and CSF findings were improved soon. No side effect of miconazole was observed. After V-P shunt revision, she was discharged without neurological deficit on March 12, 1987. Reports of mycosis in central nervous system are recently increasing, especially for candidosis. Cryptococcosis is noted frequently as an opportunistic infection of AIDS. The administration of amphotericin B and flucytosine has been the main therapy for mycotic meningitis. Unfortunately, however, Amphotericin B has many toxic effects, including renal dysfunction, and flucytosine can induce the emergent resistance. Miconazole has been used to successfully treat cryptococcosis, aspergillosis or coccidiosis, and was effective in our case of candida meningitis. Few side effects have been reported with its use. The intrathecal injection of miconazole is recommended for meningitis, because the drug is taken up minimally into CSF space after intravenous administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. A multispecies probiotic reduces oral Candida colonization in denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Karin H; Mayer, Marcia P A; Miyazima, Tatiana Y; Matsubara, Victor H; Silva, Eriques G; Paula, Claudete R; Campos, Tomie T; Nakamae, Atlas E M

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence of Candida infections has been rising with an increasingly aging population and a larger population of immunocompromised individuals. The use of probiotics may be an alternative approach to antifungal agents in the prevention and treatment of oral candidiasis. This study aimed to evaluate the short-term effect of probiotics in reducing the infection level of oral Candida in candidiasis-asymptomatic elderly denture wearers. In a double-blind randomized study, 59 denture wearers harboring Candida spp. in the oral cavity with no clinical symptoms were allocated into two groups: probiotic and placebo. All patients were instructed to clean the denture daily. The probiotic group poured a capsule containing lyophilized Lactobacillus rhamnosus HS111, Lactobacillus acidophillus HS101, and Bifidobacterium bifidum daily on the palatal surface of the maxillary denture, whereas the placebo group was submitted to the same regimen using placebo capsules. Candida spp. infection levels were evaluated in palate mucosa samples obtained before and after a 5-week experimental period. All patients harbored Candida in the palate mucosa at baseline. Fifty-five individuals completed the experimental period. The detection rate of Candida spp. was 92.0% in the placebo group after the experimental period, whereas it was reduced to 16.7% in the probiotic group. The reduction promoted by the probiotic regimen was independent of baseline characteristics such as Candida infection level and colonizing species, age of denture, and other variables. The probiotic product was effective in reducing the colonization of the oral cavity with Candida in candidiasis-asymptomatic elderly denture wearers, suggesting that this multispecies probiotic could be used to prevent oral candidiasis. Colonization of oral surfaces by Candida is considered a risk factor for invasive fungal infections. The use of a product with L. rhamnosus, L. acidophilus, and B. bifidum may represent an alternative

  3. Detecting Candida albicans in human milk.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Jimi Francis; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Heinig, M Jane; Lönnerdal, Bo; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2003-01-01

    Procedures for diagnosis of mammary candidosis, including laboratory confirmation, are not well defined. Lactoferrin present in human milk can inhibit growth of Candida albicans, thereby limiting the ability to detect yeast infections. The inhibitory effect of various lactoferrin concentrations on the growth of C. albicans in whole human milk was studied. The addition of iron to the milk led to a two- to threefold increase in cell counts when milk contained 3.0 mg of lactoferrin/ml and markedly reduced the likelihood of false-negative culture results. This method may provide the necessary objective support needed for diagnosis of mammary candidosis.

  4. Candida parapsilosis biofilm identification by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-12-22

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made.

  5. Candida parapsilosis Biofilm Identification by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Ota; Mlynariková, Katarina; Bernatová, Silvie; Ježek, Jan; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Šiler, Martin; Zemánek, Pavel; Růžička, Filip; Holá, Veronika; Mahelová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Colonies of Candida parapsilosis on culture plates were probed directly in situ using Raman spectroscopy for rapid identification of specific strains separated by a given time intervals (up to months apart). To classify the Raman spectra, data analysis was performed using the approach of principal component analysis (PCA). The analysis of the data sets generated during the scans of individual colonies reveals that despite the inhomogeneity of the biological samples unambiguous associations to individual strains (two biofilm-positive and two biofilm-negative) could be made. PMID:25535081

  6. Melittin induces apoptotic features in Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Cana; Lee, Dong Gun, E-mail: dglee222@knu.ac.kr

    2010-03-26

    Melittin is a well-known antimicrobial peptide with membrane-active mechanisms. In this study, it was found that Melittin exerted its antifungal effect via apoptosis. Candida albicans exposed to Melittin showed the increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, measured by DHR-123 staining. Fluorescence microscopy staining with FITC-annexin V, TUNEL and DAPI further confirmed diagnostic markers of yeast apoptosis including phosphatidylserine externalization, and DNA and nuclear fragmentation. The current study suggests that Melittin possesses an antifungal effect with another mechanism promoting apoptosis.

  7. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis.

  8. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis. PMID:26013555

  9. Antimicrobial Potential of Endophytic Fungi Derived from Three Seagrass Species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii

    PubMed Central

    Supaphon, Preuttiporn; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodocea serrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae), Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae) were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporum gypseum and Penicillium marneffei . Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C . serrulata , Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H . ovalis , and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T . hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses. PMID:23977310

  10. Antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi derived from three seagrass species: Cymodocea serrulata, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii.

    PubMed

    Supaphon, Preuttiporn; Phongpaichit, Souwalak; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Sakayaroj, Jariya

    2013-01-01

    Endophytic fungi from three commonly found seagrasses in southern Thailand were explored for their ability to produce antimicrobial metabolites. One hundred and sixty endophytic fungi derived from Cymodoceaserrulata (Family Cymodoceaceae), Halophilaovalis and Thalassiahemprichii (Family Hydrocharitaceae) were screened for production of antimicrobial compounds by a colorimetric broth microdilution test against ten human pathogenic microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, a clinical isolate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Candida albicans ATCC 90028 and NCPF 3153, Cryptococcus neoformans ATCC 90112 and ATCC 90113 and clinical isolates of Microsporumgypseum and Penicilliummarneffei. Sixty-nine percent of the isolates exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one test strain. Antifungal activity was more pronounced than antibacterial activity. Among the active fungi, seven isolates including Hypocreales sp. PSU-ES26 from C. serrulata, Trichoderma spp. PSU-ES8 and PSU-ES38 from H. ovalis, and Penicillium sp. PSU-ES43, Fusarium sp. PSU-ES73, Stephanonectria sp. PSU-ES172 and an unidentified endophyte PSU-ES190 from T. hemprichii exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against human pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of less than 10 µg/ml. The inhibitory extracts at concentrations of 4 times their MIC destroyed the targeted cells as observed by scanning electron microscopy. These results showed the antimicrobial potential of extracts from endophytic fungi from seagrasses.

  11. Synergism between hydrogen peroxide and seventeen acids against five agri-food-borne fungi and one yeast strain.

    PubMed

    Martin, H; Maris, P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 °C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. New anamorphic yeast species: Candida infanticola sp. nov., Candida polysorbophila sp. nov., Candida transvaalensis sp. nov. and Trigonopsis californica sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, Cletus P

    2007-08-01

    Three new species of Candida and a new species of Trigonopsis are described based on their recognition from phylogenetic analysis of gene sequences from large subunit ribosomal RNA, ITS1/ITS2 rRNA, mitochondrial small subunit rRNA and cytochrome oxidase II. Candida infanticola sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-17858, CBS 7922) was isolated from the ear of an infant in Germany and is closely related to Candida sorbophila. Candida polysorbophila sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27161, CBS 7317) is a member of the Zygoascus clade and was isolated in South Africa as a contaminant from an emulsion of white oil and polysorbate. Candida transvaalensis sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27140, CBS 6663) was obtained from forest litter, the Transvaal, South Africa, and forms an isolated clade with Candida santjacobensis. Trigonopsis californica sp. nov. (type strain NRRL Y-27307, CBS 10351) represents a contaminant from wine in California, and forms a well-supported clade with Trigonopsis cantarellii, Trigonopsis variabilis and Trigonopsis vinaria.

  13. Bioremediation of treated wood with fungi

    Treesearch

    Barbara L. Illman; Vina W. Yang

    2006-01-01

    The authors have developed technologies for fungal bioremediation of waste wood treated with oilborne or metal-based preservatives. The technologies are based on specially formulated inoculum of wood-decay fungi, obtained through strain selection to obtain preservative-tolerant fungi. This waste management approach provides a product with reduced wood volume and the...

  14. The interaction of fungi with dendritic cells: implications for Th immunity and vaccination.

    PubMed

    Claudia, Montagnoli; Bacci, Angela; Silvia, Bozza; Gaziano, Roberta; Spreca, Antonio; Romani, Luigina

    2002-09-01

    Human beings are continuously exposed to fungi, yet they rarely get fungal diseases. The delicate balance between the host and these otherwise harmless pathogens may turn into a parasitic relationship, resulting in the development of severe infections. The ability to reversibly switch between unicellular and filamentous forms, all of which can be found in infected tissues, is thought to be important for virulence. Efficient responses to the different forms of fungi require different mechanisms of immunity. Dendritic cells (DC) are uniquely able at decoding the fungus-associated information and translating it in qualitatively different T helper (Th) immune responses, in vitro and in vivo. Myeloid DC phagocytosed yeasts and hyphae of Candida albicans and conidia and hyphae of Aspergillus fumigatus, both in vitro and in vivo. Phagocytosis occurred through distinct phagocytic morphologies, involving the engagement and cooperativity of distinct recognition receptors. However, receptor engagement and cooperativity were greatly modified by opsonization. The engagement of distinct receptors translated into disparate downstream signaling events, ultimately affecting cytokine production and costimulation. In vivo studies confirmed that the choice of receptor and mode of entry of fungi into DC was responsible for Th polarization and patterns of susceptibility or resistance to infection. Adoptive transfer of different types of DC activated protective, nonprotective and regulatory T cells, ultimately affecting the outcome of infection. The conclusions are that the selective exploitation of receptors and mode of entry into DC may determine the full range of host's immune relationships with fungi and have important implications in the design of vaccine-based strategies.

  15. Mechanisms of Candida biofilm drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Taff, Heather T; Mitchell, Kaitlin F; Edward, Jessica A; Andes, David R

    2013-01-01

    Candida commonly adheres to implanted medical devices, growing as a resilient biofilm capable of withstanding extraordinarily high antifungal concentrations. As currently available antifungals have minimal activity against biofilms, new drugs to treat these recalcitrant infections are urgently needed. Recent investigations have begun to shed light on the mechanisms behind the profound resistance associated with the biofilm mode of growth. This resistance appears to be multifactorial, involving both mechanisms similar to conventional, planktonic antifungal resistance, such as increased efflux pump activity, as well as mechanisms specific to the biofilm lifestyle. A unique biofilm property is the production of an extracellular matrix. Two components of this material, β-glucan and extracellular DNA, promote biofilm resistance to multiple antifungals. Biofilm formation also engages several stress response pathways that impair the activity of azole drugs. Resistance within a biofilm is often heterogeneous, with the development of a subpopulation of resistant persister cells. In this article we review the molecular mechanisms underlying Candida biofilm antifungal resistance and their relative contributions during various growth phases. PMID:24059922

  16. Combinatorial stresses kill pathogenic Candida species

    PubMed Central

    Kaloriti, Despoina; Tillmann, Anna; Cook, Emily; Jacobsen, Mette; You, Tao; Lenardon, Megan; Ames, Lauren; Barahona, Mauricio; Chandrasekaran, Komelapriya; Coghill, George; Goodman, Daniel; Gow, Neil A. R.; Grebogi, Celso; Ho, Hsueh-Lui; Ingram, Piers; McDonagh, Andrew; De Moura, Alessandro P. S.; Pang, Wei; Puttnam, Melanie; Radmaneshfar, Elahe; Romano, Maria Carmen; Silk, Daniel; Stark, Jaroslav; Stumpf, Michael; Thiel, Marco; Thorne, Thomas; Usher, Jane; Yin, Zhikang; Haynes, Ken; Brown, Alistair J. P.

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microbes exist in dynamic niches and have evolved robust adaptive responses to promote survival in their hosts. The major fungal pathogens of humans, Candida albicans and Candida glabrata, are exposed to a range of environmental stresses in their hosts including osmotic, oxidative and nitrosative stresses. Significant efforts have been devoted to the characterization of the adaptive responses to each of these stresses. In the wild, cells are frequently exposed simultaneously to combinations of these stresses and yet the effects of such combinatorial stresses have not been explored. We have developed a common experimental platform to facilitate the comparison of combinatorial stress responses in C. glabrata and C. albicans. This platform is based on the growth of cells in buffered rich medium at 30°C, and was used to define relatively low, medium and high doses of osmotic (NaCl), oxidative (H 2O2) and nitrosative stresses (e.g., dipropylenetriamine (DPTA)-NONOate). The effects of combinatorial stresses were compared with the corresponding individual stresses under these growth conditions. We show for the first time that certain combinations of combinatorial stress are especially potent in terms of their ability to kill C. albicans and C. glabrata and/or inhibit their growth. This was the case for combinations of osmotic plus oxidative stress and for oxidative plus nitrosative stress. We predict that combinatorial stresses may be highly signif cant in host defences against these pathogenic yeasts. PMID:22463109

  17. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  18. Purification and characterization of antifungal phenazines from a fluorescent Pseudomonas strain FPO4 against medically important fungi.

    PubMed

    Gorantla, J N; Kumar, S Nishanth; Nisha, G V; Sumandu, A S; Dileep, C; Sudaresan, A; Kumar, M M Sree; Lankalapalli, R S; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2014-09-01

    The strain FPO4 was isolated from the rhizoplane of rice plant root and identified as a fluorescent Pseudomonas aeruginosa on the basis of 16S rDNA sequences and BLAST analysis. The extracellular metabolites produced by this strain were purified by silica gel column chromatography and isolated four pure compounds. Based on the spectral data the four compounds were identified as phenazin-1-ol, phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), 2-heptyl-3-hydroxyl-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS), and phenazine-1-carboxamide (PCN), respectively. Phenazin-1-ol and PCA were active against all the eight fungi tested. The highest activity of 4 μg/mL by PCA was recorded against Trichophyton rubrum, a human pathogen responsible for causing athlete's foot, jock itch, ringworm and fingernail fungus infections, followed by Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. The activity of phenazin-1-ol, PCA against Candida spp. was found to be better than the standard antifungal agent amphotericin B. Furthermore, the present study reports the antimicrobial activity of the purified phenazines on major human pathogen, T. rubrum for the first time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Occurrence of keratinophilic fungi on Indian birds.

    PubMed

    Dixit, A K; Kushwaha, R K

    1991-01-01

    Keratinophilic fungi were isolated from feathers of most common Indian birds, viz. domestic chicken (Gallus domesticus), domestic pigeon (Columba livia), house sparrow (Passer domesticus), house crow (Corvus splendens), duck (Anas sp.), rose-ringed parakeet (Psittacula krameri). Out of 87 birds, 58 yielded 4 keratinophilic fungal genera representing 13 fungal species and one sterile mycelium. The isolated fungi were cultured on Sabouraud's dextrose agar at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Chrysosporium species were isolated on most of the birds. Chrysosporium lucknowense and Chrysosporium tropicum were the most common fungal species associated with these Indian birds. Maximum occurrence of fungi (47%) was recorded on domestic chickens and the least number of keratinophilic fungi was isolated from the domestic pigeon and duck. The average number of fungi per bird was found to be the 0.44.

  20. Antifungal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide in dental unit waterline disinfection.

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Jolanta

    2006-01-01

    The concentration and composition of fungal flora in dental unit waterlines (DUWL) were evaluated. For this purpose, water samples from unit reservoirs and high-speed handpieces, and biofilm samples from the waterline walls from units were collected. Subsequently, analogous samples from DUWL were taken before and after disinfection using agent containing hydrogen peroxide. In the examined samples, the yeast-like fungi Candida albicans and Candida curvata were found. The following species of mould were also identified: Aspergillus amstelodami, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus glaucus group, Aspergillus (=Eurotium herbariorum) repens, Citromyces spp., Geotrichum candidum, Penicillium (glabrum) frequentans, Penicillium pusillum, Penicillium turolense and Sclerotium sclerotiorum (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Before disinfection, Candida curvata and Candida albicans constituted the greatest proportion of the total fungi in the reservoirs water; in the water of handpieces--Candida albicans and Aspergillus glaucus group; and in the biofilm samples--Aspergillus glaucus group and Candida albicans. After disinfection, in all 3 kinds of samples, Candida albicans prevailed, constituting from 31.2-85.7 % of the total fungi. The application of agent containing hydrogen peroxide caused a significant decrease both in the number of total fungi and individual fungal species, which confirms the product effectiveness in fungal decontamination of DUWL.

  1. Chlorhexidine markedly potentiates the oxidants scavenging abilities of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Ginsburg, I; Koren, E; Feuerstein, O; Zogakis, I P; Shalish, M; Gorelik, S

    2015-10-01

    The oxidant scavenging ability (OSA) of catalase-rich Candida albicans is markedly enhanced by chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), polymyxin B, the bile salt ursodeoxycholate and by lysophosphatidylcholine, which all act as detergents facilitating the penetration of oxidants and their intracellular decomposition. Quantifications of the OSA of Candida albicans were measured by a highly sensitive luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay and by the Thurman's assay, to quantify hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The OSA enhancing activity by CHX depends to some extent on the media on which candida grew. The OSA of candida treated by CHX was modulated by whole human saliva, red blood cells, lysozyme, cationic peptides and by polyphenols. Concentrations of CHX, which killed over 95 % of Candida albicans cells, did not affect the cells' abilities to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS). The OSA of Candida cells treated by CHX is highly refractory to H2O2 (50 mM) but is strongly inhibited by hypochlorous acid, lecithin, trypan blue and by heparin. We speculate that similarly to catalase-rich red blood cells, Candida albicans and additional catalase-rich microbiota may also have the ability to scavenge oxidants and thus can protect catalase-negative anaerobes and facultative anaerobes cariogenic streptococci against peroxide and thus secure their survival in the oral cavity.

  2. Clinicopathologic assessment of Candida colonization of oral leukoplakia.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Reena; Rathod, G P

    2014-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common premalignant lesion of the oral mucosa. We studied the colonization of Candida in oral leukoplakia using direct microscopy, culture and histopathology to determine if there is a statistical correlation between Candida invasion and the clinical appearance and presence of epithelial dysplasia in leukoplakia. Samples were collected from 40 patients with oral leukoplakia and 21 controls. The swabs collected were used to inoculate Sabouraud's dextrose agar slant and for direct microscopy with Gram's stain. Culture growths were subjected to germ tube and corn meal agar tests to differentiate between Candida albicans and non-albicans groups. Biopsies were also done in all patients for histopathological confirmation; Gomori's methanamine silver stain was used to identify fungal invasion of lesional epithelium. Nineteen cases of leukoplakia showed Candida on direct smears, compared to 3 controls. Eighteen cases and one control showed growth of Candida on culture. Non-homogenous leukoplakia showed a higher positivity rate on microscopy and culture than homogenous lesions. All these correlations were statistically significant. Forty percent of leukoplakia cases were simultaneously positive for Candida on direct microscopy, culture and histopathologic evaluation. No significant difference was found between non-dysplastic and distinctly dysplastic lesions with respect to Candida detection on microscopy or culture.

  3. [Immobilization of Candida sp. lipase on resin D301].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanhua; Zhu, Kai; Liu, Hui; Han, Pingfang; Wei, Ping

    2009-12-01

    We immobilized Candida sp. lipase onto seven kinds of industrial adsorption and ion exchange resins. By determining the activity of each immobilized enzyme, the weakly basic anionic exchange resin of D301 showed the best results for the immobilization of Candida sp. lipase. Comparing the scanning electron micrographs of D301 with Novozym 435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B from Novo Nordisk Corp.), we selected D301 as a carrier for the immobilization of Candida sp. lipase. And we pretreated the resin D301 with the bifunctional agent glutaraldehyde and crosslinked it with Candida sp. lipase. The optimal conditions for the immobilization of Candida sp. lipase were as follows: 8 mL of the amount of 5% glutaraldehyde solution, five hours of the time pretreated D301 with glutaraldehyde, 1.0 g/L the concentration of Candida sp. lipase used, pH of the phosphate buffered, 6.0 and 10 hours of time for immobilization, respectively. The activity of immobilized enzyme was over 35 U/mg and the efficiency of immobilization was around 3.5 Ul(mg x h).

  4. Entomopathogenic Fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control. PMID:21901126

  5. Entomopathogenic fungi on Hemiberlesia pitysophila.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chengqun; Huang, Baoling; Qiao, Mengji; Wei, Jiguang; Ding, Bo

    2011-01-01

    Hemiberlesia pitysophila Takagi is an extremely harmful exotic insect in forest to Pinus species, including Pinus massoniana. Using both morphological taxonomy and molecular phylogenetics, we identified 15 strains of entomogenous fungi, which belong to 9 genera with high diversities. Surprisingly, we found that five strains that were classified as species of Pestalotiopsis, which has been considered plant pathogens and endophytes, were the dominant entomopathogenic fungus of H. pitysophila. Molecular phylogenetic tree established by analyzing sequences of ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer showed that entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. were similar to plant Pestalotiopsis, but not to other pathogens and endophytes of its host plant P. massoniana. We were the first to isolate entomopathogenic Pestalotiopsis spp. from H. pitysophila. Our findings suggest a potential and promising method of H. pitysophila bio-control.

  6. Insect Immunity to Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Lu, H-L; St Leger, R J

    2016-01-01

    The study of infection and immunity in insects has achieved considerable prominence with the appreciation that their host defense mechanisms share many fundamental characteristics with the innate immune system of vertebrates. Studies on the highly tractable model organism Drosophila in particular have led to a detailed understanding of conserved innate immunity networks, such as Toll. However, most of these studies have used opportunistic human pathogens and may not have revealed specialized immune strategies that have arisen through evolutionary arms races with natural insect pathogens. Fungi are the commonest natural insect pathogens, and in this review, we focus on studies using Metarhizium and Beauveria spp. that have addressed immune system function and pathogen virulence via behavioral avoidance, the use of physical barriers, and the activation of local and systemic immune responses. In particular, we highlight studies on the evolutionary genetics of insect immunity and discuss insect-pathogen coevolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fungi in neotropical epiphyte roots.

    PubMed

    Bermudes, D; Benzing, D H

    1989-01-01

    Roots of thirty-eight Ecuadoran vascular epiphytes, representing eleven angiosperm families, were examined for the presence of symbiotic microorganisms. Most orchid roots contained fungal endophytes like those that regularly infect terrestrial counterparts. Hyphae were also common in and on nonorchid roots, but assignments of these relationships to known mycorrhizal morphologies was not possible in all cases. Evidence of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) existed in a number of subjects while in Ericaceae and Campanulaceae a fungal association similar to the demateaceous surface fungi (DSF) described for alpine and prarie plants was usually present. Some associations were characterized by multicellular propagules on root surfaces. The significance of these findings and the factors likely to influence occurrence and consequences of root-fungus mutualisms in tropical forest canopies are discussed. Facts and considerations that could aid future inquiry on these systems are provided.

  8. Rapid identification of drug resistant Candida species causing recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Diba, Kambiz; Namaki, Atefeh; Ayatolahi, Haleh; Hanifian, Haleh

    2012-01-01

    Some yeast agents including Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata have a role in recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis. We studied the frequency of both common and recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis in symptomatic cases which were referred to Urmia Medical Sciences University related gynecology clinics using morphologic and molecular methods. The aim of this study was the identification of Candida species isolated from recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis cases using a rapid and reliable molecular method. Vaginal swabs obtained from each case, were cultured on differential media including cornmeal agar and CHROM agar Candida. After 48 hours at 37℃, the cultures were studied for growth characteristics and color production respectively. All isolates were identified using the molecular method of PCR - restriction fragment length polymorphism. Among all clinical specimens, we detected 19 ( 16 % ) non fungal agents, 87 ( 82.1 % ) yeasts and 2 ( 1.9 % ) multiple infections. The yeast isolates identified morphologically included Candida albicans ( n = 62 ), Candida glabrata ( n = 9 ), Candida tropicalis ( n = 8 ), Candida parapsilosis ( n = 8 ) and Candida guilliermondii and Candida krusei ( n = 1 each ). We also obtained very similar results for Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis as the most common clinical isolates, by using PCR - Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism. Use of two differential methods, morphologic and molecular, enabled us to identify most medically important Candida species which particularly cause recurrent vulvovaginal candidiasis.

  9. [Fungal (Candida) infections in the immunocompromised pediatric patient].

    PubMed

    Bruce Diemond, J; Lopez, C; Huerta Romano, F; Montiel Castillo, C

    2008-11-01

    Today, mycotic infections in immunocompromised patients are mainly caused by Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. The patients most sensitive to these infections are those with some kind of cell-mediated immunity quantitative or qualitative alteration (i.e., blood-related cancer, primary or secondary neutropenia, immunosuppressive disease or therapy, etc.). Candida infection in the immunosupressed patient comprises a wide range of serious diseases such as candidemia, chronic disseminated candididasis, endocarditis, meningitis and endophthalmitis. Therefore, infection by Candida spp. is considered secondary to the technological and medical advances which extend the life of patients with chronic diseases. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  10. Antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles in combination with nystatin and chlorhexidine digluconate against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas R; Silva, Sónia; Negri, Melyssa; Gorup, Luiz F; de Camargo, Emerson R; Oliveira, Rosário; Barbosa, Debora B; Henriques, Mariana

    2013-11-01

    Although silver nanoparticles (SN) have been investigated as an alternative to conventional antifungal drugs in the control of Candida-associated denture stomatitis, the antifungal activity of SN in combination with antifungal drugs against Candida biofilms remains unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal efficacy of SN in combination with nystatin (NYT) or chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata biofilms. The drugs alone or combined with SN were applied on mature Candida biofilms (48 h), and after 24 h of treatment their antibiofilm activities were assessed by total biomass quantification (by crystal violet staining) and colony forming units enumeration. The structure of Candida biofilms was analysed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The data indicated that SN combined with either NYT or CHG demonstrated synergistic antibiofilm activity, and this activity was dependent on the species and on the drug concentrations used. SEM images showed that some drug combinations were able to disrupt Candida biofilms. The results of this study suggest that the combination of SN with NYT or CHG may have clinical implications in the treatment of denture stomatitis. However, further studies are needed before recommending the use of these drugs safely in clinical situations. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Miltefosine inhibits Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida spp. biofilms and impairs the dispersion of infectious cells.

    PubMed

    Vila, Taissa; Ishida, Kelly; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; Rozental, Sonia

    2016-11-01

    Candida spp. can adhere to and form biofilms over different surfaces, becoming less susceptible to antifungal treatment. Resistance of biofilms to antifungal agents is multifactorial and the extracellular matrix (ECM) appears to play an important role. Among the few available antifungals for treatment of candidaemia, only the lipid formulations of amphotericin B (AmB) and the echinocandins are effective against biofilms. Our group has previously demonstrated that miltefosine has an important effect against Candida albicans biofilms. Thus, the aim of this work was to expand the analyses of the in vitro antibiofilm activity of miltefosine to non-albicans Candida spp. Miltefosine had significant antifungal activity against planktonic cells and the development of biofilms of C. albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida glabrata. The activity profile in biofilms was superior to fluconazole and was similar to that of AmB and caspofungin. Biofilm-derived cells with their ECM extracted became as susceptible to miltefosine as planktonic cells, confirming the importance of the ECM in the biofilm resistant behaviour. Miltefosine also inhibited biofilm dispersion of cells at the same concentration needed to inhibit planktonic cell growth. The data obtained in this work reinforce the potent inhibitory activity of miltefosine on biofilms of the four most pathogenic Candida spp. and encourage further studies for the utilisation of this drug and/or structural analogues on biofilm-related infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Candida krusei form mycelia along agar surfaces towards each other and other Candida species.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Jacob; Broeckling, Corey D; Lyons, Sarah

    2017-03-11

    Candida krusei has been known to exhibit communal interactions such as pellicle formation and crawling out of nutritional broth. We noticed another possible interaction on agar surfaces, where C. krusei yeast cells formed mycelia along agar surfaces toward each other. We report here the results of experiments to study this interaction. When C.krusei yeast cells are plated in parallel streaks, they form mycelia along agar surfaces toward other yeasts. They also detect the presence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata across agar surfaces, while the latter two react neither to their own kind, nor to C. krusei. Secreted molecule(s) are likely involved as C.krusei does not react to heat killed C. krusei. Timing and rate of mycelia formation across distances suggests that mycelia start forming when a secreted molecule(s) on agar surface reaches a certain concentration. We detected farnesol, tyrosol and tryptophol molecules that may be involved with mycelial formation, on the agar surfaces between yeast streaks. Unexpectedly the amounts detected between streaks were significantly higher than would have expected from additive amounts of two streaks. All three Candida species secreted these molecules. When tested on agar surface however, none of these molecules individually or combined induced mycelia formation by C. krusei. Our data confirms another communal interaction by C. krusei, manifested by formation of mycelia by yeast cells toward their own kind and other yeasts on agar surfaces. We detected secretion of farnesol, tyrosol and tryptophol by C. krusei but none of these molecules induced this activity on agar surface making it unlikely that they are the ones utilized by this yeast for this activity.

  13. Silver colloidal nanoparticles: antifungal effect against adhered cells and biofilms of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, D R; Gorup, L F; Silva, S; Negri, M; de Camargo, E R; Oliveira, R; Barbosa, D B; Henriques, M

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of silver nanoparticles (SN) against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata adhered cells and biofilms. SN (average diameter 5 nm) were synthesized by silver nitrate reduction with sodium citrate and stabilized with ammonia. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) tests were performed for C. albicans (n = 2) and C. glabrata (n = 2) grown in suspension following the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute microbroth dilution method. SN were applied to adhered cells (2 h) or biofilms (48 h) and after 24 h of contact their effect was assessed by enumeration of colony forming units (CFUs) and quantification of total biomass (by crystal violet staining). The MIC results showed that SN were fungicidal against all strains tested at very low concentrations (0.4-3.3 μg ml(-1)). Furthermore, SN were more effective in reducing biofilm biomass when applied to adhered cells (2 h) than to pre-formed biofilms (48 h), with the exception of C. glabrata ATCC, which in both cases showed a reduction ∼90%. Regarding cell viability, SN were highly effective on adhered C. glabrata and respective biofilms. On C. albicans the effect was not so evident but there was also a reduction in the number of viable biofilm cells. In summary, SN may have the potential to be an effective alternative to conventional antifungal agents for future therapies in Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  14. Purification and germination of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis chlamydospores cultured in liquid media.

    PubMed

    Citiulo, Francesco; Moran, Gary P; Coleman, David C; Sullivan, Derek J

    2009-10-01

    Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis are the only Candida sp. that have been observed to produce chlamydospores. The function of these large, thick-walled cells is currently unknown. In this report, we describe the production and purification of chlamydospores from these species in defined liquid media. Staining with the fluorescent dye FUN-1 indicated that chlamydospores are metabolically active cells, but that metabolic activity is undetectable in chlamydospores that are >30 days old. However, 5-15-day-old chlamydospores could be induced to produce daughter chlamydospores, blastospores, pseudohyphae and true hyphae depending on the incubation conditions used. Chlamydospores that were preinduced to germinate were also observed to escape from murine macrophages following phagocytosis, suggesting that these structures may be viable in vivo. Mycelium-attached and purified chlamydospores rapidly lost their viability in water and when subjected to dry stress, suggesting that they are unlikely to act as long-term storage structures. Instead, our data suggest that chlamydospores represent an alternative specialized form of growth by C. albicans and C. dubliniensis.

  15. Biophysical Effects of a Polymeric Biosurfactant in Candida krusei and Candida albicans Cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Gabriella Freitas; Dos Santos Pinto, Bruna Lorrana; Souza, Eliene Batista; Viana, José Lima; Zagmignan, Adrielle; Dos Santos, Julliana Ribeiro Alves; Santos, Áquila Rodrigues Costa; Tavares, Priscila Batista; Denadai, Ângelo Márcio Leite; Monteiro, Andrea Souza

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a polymeric biosurfactant produced by Trichosporon montevideense CLOA72 in the adhesion of Candida albicans and Candida krusei cells to human buccal epithelial cells and its interference in biofilm formation by these strains. The biofilm inhibition by biosurfactant (25 mg/mL) in C. krusei and C. albicans in polystyrene was reduced up to 79.5 and 85 %, respectively. In addition, the zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter of the yeasts altered as a function of the biosurfactant concentration added to the cell suspension. The changes in the cell surface characteristics and the interface modification can contribute to the inhibition of the initial adherence of yeasts cells to the surface. In addition, the analyses of the biofilm matrix and planktonic cell surfaces demonstrated differences in carbohydrate and protein concentrations for the two studied strains, which may contribute to the modulation of cell adhesion or consolidation of biofilms, especially in C. krusei. This study suggests a possible application of the of CLOA72 biosurfactant in inhibiting the adhesion and formation of biofilms on biological surfaces by yeasts of the Candida genus.

  16. Krüppel-like Factor 4 modulates interleukin-6 release in human dendritic cells after in vitro stimulation with Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Czakai, Kristin; Leonhardt, Ines; Dix, Andreas; Bonin, Michael; Linde, Joerg; Einsele, Hermann; Kurzai, Oliver; Loeffler, Jürgen

    2016-06-27

    Invasive fungal infections are associated with high mortality rates and are mostly caused by the opportunistic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans. Immune responses against these fungi are still not fully understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial players in initiating innate and adaptive immune responses against fungal infections. The immunomodulatory effects of fungi were compared to the bacterial stimulus LPS to determine key players in the immune response to fungal infections. A genome wide study of the gene regulation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) confronted with A. fumigatus, C. albicans or LPS was performed and Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) was identified as the only transcription factor that was down-regulated in DCs by both fungi but induced by stimulation with LPS. Downstream analysis demonstrated the influence of KLF4 on the interleukine-6 expression in human DCs. Furthermore, KLF4 regulation was shown to be dependent on pattern recognition receptor ligation. Therefore KLF4 was identified as a controlling element in the IL-6 immune response with a unique expression pattern comparing fungal and LPS stimulation.

  17. [Morphological and biochemical features of fungi isolated from patients with renal failure].

    PubMed

    Drozdowska, Agata

    2007-01-01

    Patients with renal failure are more frequently at risk of fungal infections than the healthy individuals. The aim of the study was: (1) Evaluation of the prevalence of fungi in biological materials obtained from different ontocenoses from patients with end-stage and chronic renal failure undergoing haemodialysis and conservative treatment, respectively. (2) Species determining of isolated fungal strains and evaluation their morphological and biochemical features with regard to biotyping. (3) Examining the connection between intraspecies features of fungal strains isolated from different ontocenoses of the same patient. The study group comprised 136 persons, including 56 patients with end-stage renal failure dialysed for the mean period of 36.2 (+/- 1.62) months--all patients were on chronic haemodialysis therapy (4 hours sessions, 3 times per week), 50 patients with chronic renal failure undergoing conservative treatment and 30 persons with the negative history of any renal disease--control group. At the moment of the evaluation and collection of samples all patients were in good condition, none of the patients revealed symptoms suggesting possible fungal infection. Material for mycological examinations included washings from the oral cavity and samples of urine and faeces. In order to evaluate morphological and biochemical features of fungi the following methods were applied: (1) macrocultures in solid Sabouraud medium, (2) direct microscopic slides, (3) API 20 C AUX test and (4) API ZYM test (bioMérieux). Totally 385 samples for mycological examinations were collected from different ontocenoses, from which 161 fungal strains were isolated and classified to 17 species from 5 genera. Most strains belonged to the genus Candida 96.9% and the most frequently occurring species was C. albicans (60.3%). Other species from this genus composed 39.7%, among which in 11.8% of cases C. parapsilosis was determined, and the following were: C. guilliermondii and C. humicola

  18. Advances in Genomics of Entomopathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Wang, J B; St Leger, R J; Wang, C

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are the commonest pathogens of insects and crucial regulators of insect populations. The rapid advance of genome technologies has revolutionized our understanding of entomopathogenic fungi with multiple Metarhizium spp. sequenced, as well as Beauveria bassiana, Cordyceps militaris, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis among others. Phylogenomic analysis suggests that the ancestors of many of these fungi were plant endophytes or pathogens, with entomopathogenicity being an acquired characteristic. These fungi now occupy a wide range of habitats and hosts, and their genomes have provided a wealth of information on the evolution of virulence-related characteristics, as well as the protein families and genomic structure associated with ecological and econutritional heterogeneity, genome evolution, and host range diversification. In particular, their evolutionary transition from plant pathogens or endophytes to insect pathogens provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence are acquired. Importantly, genomic resources have helped make entomopathogenic fungi ideal model systems for answering basic questions in parasitology, entomology, and speciation. At the same time, identifying the selective forces that act upon entomopathogen fitness traits could underpin both the development of new mycoinsecticides and further our understanding of the natural roles of these fungi in nature. These roles frequently include mutualistic relationships with plants. Genomics has also facilitated the rapid identification of genes encoding biologically useful molecules, with implications for the development of pharmaceuticals and the use of these fungi as bioreactors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Biodiversity of Fungi : Inventory and Monitoring Methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, G.M.; Bills, G.F.; Foster, M.S.

    2004-01-01

    Biodiversity of Fungi is essential for anyone collecting and/or monitoring any fungi. Fascinating and beautiful, fungi are vital components of nearly all ecosystems and impact human health and our economy in a myriad of ways. Standardized methods for documenting diversity and distribution have been lacking. An wealth of information, especially regrading sampling protocols, compiled by an international team of fungal biologists, make Biodiversity of Fungi an incredible and fundamental resource for the study of organismal biodiversity. Chapters cover everything from what is a fungus, to maintaining and organizing a permanent study collection with associated databases; from protocols for sampling slime molds to insect associated fungi; from fungi growing on and in animals and plants to mushrooms and truffles. The chapters are arranged both ecologically and by sampling method rather than by taxonomic group for ease of use. The information presented here is intended for everyone interested in fungi, anyone who needs tools to study them in nature including naturalists, land managers, ecologists, mycologists, and even citizen scientists and sophiscated amateurs. Fungi are among the most important organisms in the world; they play vital roles in ecosystem functions and have wide-ranging effects, both positive and negative, on humans and human-related activities. There are about 1.5 million species of fungi. The combination of fungal species and abundances in an ecosystem are often used as indicators of ecosystem health and as indicators of the effects of pollution and of different management and use plans. Because of their significance, it is important that these organisms be monitored. This book is the first comprehensive treatment of fungal inventory and monitoring, including standardized sampling protocols as well as information on study design, sample preservation, and data analysis.

  20. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of caffeic acid amides as synergists to sensitize fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans to fluconazole.

    PubMed

    Dai, Li; Zang, Chengxu; Tian, Shujuan; Liu, Wei; Tan, Shanlun; Cai, Zhan; Ni, Tingjunhong; An, Maomao; Li, Ran; Gao, Yue; Zhang, Dazhi; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    A series of caffeic acid amides were designed, synthesized, and their synergistic activity with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans was evaluated in vitro. The title caffeic acid amides 3-30 except 26 exhibited potent activity, and the subsequent SAR study was conducted. Compound 3, 5, 21, and 34c, at a concentration of 1.0 μg/ml, decreased the MIC₈₀ of fluconazole from 128.0 μg/ml to 1.0-0.5 μg/ml against the fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. This result suggests that the caffeic acid amides, as synergists, can sensitize drug-resistant fungi to fluconazole. The SAR study indicated that the dihydroxyl groups and the amido groups linking to phenyl or heterocyclic rings are the important pharmacophores of the caffeic acid amides.

  1. Relative Abundances of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in In Vitro Coculture Biofilms Impact Biofilm Structure and Formation.

    PubMed

    Olson, Michelle L; Jayaraman, Arul; Kao, Katy C

    2018-04-15

    Candida is a member of the normal human microbiota and often resides on mucosal surfaces such as the oral cavity or the gastrointestinal tract. In addition to their commensality, Candida species can opportunistically become pathogenic if the host microbiota is disrupted or if the host immune system becomes compromised. An important factor for Candida pathogenesis is its ability to form biofilm communities. The two most medically important species- Candida albicans and Candida glabrata -are often coisolated from infection sites, suggesting the importance of Candida coculture biofilms. In this work, we report that biofilm formation of the coculture population depends on the relative ratio of starting cell concentrations of C. albicans and C. glabrata When using a starting ratio of C. albicans to C. glabrata of 1:3, ∼6.5- and ∼2.5-fold increases in biofilm biomass were observed relative to those of a C. albicans monoculture and a C. albicans / C. glabrata ratio of 1:1, respectively. Confocal microscopy analysis revealed the heterogeneity and complex structures composed of long C. albicans hyphae and C. glabrata cell clusters in the coculture biofilms, and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) studies showed increases in the relative expression of the HWP1 and ALS3 adhesion genes in the C. albicans / C. glabrata 1:3 biofilm compared to that in the C. albicans monoculture biofilm. Additionally, only the 1:3 C. albicans / C. glabrata biofilm demonstrated an increased resistance to the antifungal drug caspofungin. Overall, the results suggest that interspecific interactions between these two fungal pathogens increase biofilm formation and virulence-related gene expression in a coculture composition-dependent manner. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans and Candida glabrata are often coisolated during infection, and the occurrence of coisolation increases with increasing inflammation, suggesting possible synergistic interactions between the two Candida species in

  2. Expression Plasmids for Use in Candida glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, Rebecca E.; Ren, Yuxia; Pan, Shih-Jung; Rotondo, Giuseppe; Peñas, Alejandro De Las; Iluore, Joseph; Cormack, Brendan P.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a series of CEN/ARS episomal plasmids containing different Candida glabrata promoters, allowing for a range of constitutive or regulated expression of proteins in C. glabrata. The set of promoters includes three constitutive promoters (EGD2pr, HHT2pr, PDC1pr), two macrophage/phagocytosis-induced promoters (ACO2pr, LYS21pr), and one nutritionally regulated promoter (MET3pr). Each promoter was cloned into two plasmid backbones that differ in their selectable marker, URA3, or the dominant-selectable NAT1 gene, which confers resistance to the drug nourseothricin. Expression from the 12 resulting plasmids was assessed using GFP as a reporter and flow cytometry or quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction to assess expression levels. Together this set of plasmids expands the toolkit of expression vectors available for use with C. glabrata. PMID:23934995

  3. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-01-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell. Images PMID:6752021

  4. Isolation of a variant of Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Buckley, H R; Price, M R; Daneo-Moore, L

    1982-09-01

    During the course of Candida albicans antigen production, a variant of this organism was encountered which did not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. Presented here are some of the characteristics of this variant. It produces hyphae at 25 degrees C on cornmeal agar and synthetic medium plus N-acetylglucosamine and Tween 80. At 37 degrees C, it does not produce hyphae on these media, although C. albicans normally does produce hyphae under these circumstances. In liquid synthetic medium, this variant does not produce hyphae at 37 degrees C. The variant strain was analyzed for DNA, RNA, protein content, and particle size. After 50 to 70 h in balanced exponential-phase growth, particle size distribution was narrow, and there were no differences in the DNA, RNA, or protein content per particle in the two strains. When balanced exponential-phase cultures were brought into stationary phase, both strains contained the same amount of DNA per cell.

  5. Occurrence of killer Candida glabrata clinical isolates

    PubMed Central

    Arroyo-Helguera, O; Penas Alejandro, De Las; Irene, Castaño

    2012-01-01

    In this work we characterized the occurrence of killer activity in 64 Candida glabrata clinical isolates under different conditions. We found that only 6.25 % of the clinical isolates tested were positive for killer activity against a Saccharomyces cerevisiae W303 sensitive strain. Sensitivity of killer activity to different values of pH and temperatures was analyzed. We found that the killer activity presented by all isolates was resistant to every pH and temperature tested, although optimal activity was found at a range of pH values from 4 to 7 and at 37°C. We did not observe extrachromosomal genetic elements associated with killer activity in any of the positive C. glabrata isolates. The killer effect was due to a decrease in viability and DNA fragmentation in sensitive yeast. PMID:24031902

  6. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Matthew Z; Bennett, Richard J

    2016-03-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, with Candida albicans being the most clinically relevant species. Candida albicans resides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation of C. albicans virulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and within Candida species), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein-DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics in C. albicans and discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Recurrent Candida albicans Ventriculitis Treated with Intraventricular Liposomal Amphotericin B

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Demet; Öcal Demir, Sevliya; Kadayifci, Eda Kepenekli; Türel, Özden; Soysal, Ahmet; Bakir, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Candida is rare but significant because of its high morbidity and mortality. When present, it is commonly seen among immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. Herein, we describe a case of a four-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who experienced recurrent Candida albicans meningitis. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous liposomal amphotericin B at first attack, but 25 days after discharge he was readmitted to hospital with symptoms of meningitis. Candida albicans was grown in CFS culture again and cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed ventriculitis. We administered liposomal amphotericin B both intravenously and intraventricularly and favorable result was achieved without any adverse effects. Intraventricular amphotericin B may be considered for the treatment of recurrent CNS Candida infections in addition to intravenous administration. PMID:26558119

  8. Budding off: bringing functional genomics to Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Matthew Z.

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are the most prevalent human fungal pathogens, with Candida albicans being the most clinically relevant species. Candida albicans resides as a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract but is a frequent cause of opportunistic mucosal and systemic infections. Investigation of C. albicans virulence has traditionally relied on candidate gene approaches, but recent advances in functional genomics have now facilitated global, unbiased studies of gene function. Such studies include comparative genomics (both between and within Candida species), analysis of total RNA expression, and regulation and delineation of protein–DNA interactions. Additionally, large collections of mutant strains have begun to aid systematic screening of clinically relevant phenotypes. Here, we will highlight the development of functional genomics in C. albicans and discuss the use of these approaches to addressing both commensalism and pathogenesis in this species. PMID:26424829

  9. Goodbye warts, hello vitiligo: Candida antigen-induced depigmentation.

    PubMed

    Wilmer, Erin N; Burkhart, Craig N; Morrell, Dean S

    2013-01-01

    Depigmentation after the use of topical immune modulators is a rare but reported event. Herein we present what is to our knowledge the first case of vitiligo at a site of Candida antigen injection. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. [Agents of otomycosis in Manisa region, Turkey, 1995-2011].

    PubMed

    Değerli, Kenan; Ecemiş, Talat; Günhan, Kıvanç; Başkesen, Tolga; Kal, Elçin

    2012-01-01

    Otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. However, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in Turkey is limited. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at Manisa region (located at western Anatolia of Turkey). A total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as otomycosis at Celal Bayar University Hospital, between February 1995 and July 2011, were included in the study. External ear swab samples from patients with suspicion of otomycosis have been evaluated by routine mycological methods. Identification of mold-like fungi was based on colony morphology and microscopic examination of fungal structure, whereas germ tube test, growth characteristics on cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and API 20C AUX (bio-Mérieux, France) system were used for the identification of yeast-like fungi. Of the samples, 28% (638/2279) were found positive by direct microscopy and 24% (544/2279) by culture methods. Among culture-positive cases the isolation rates of mold-like and yeast-like fungi were 66% (359/544) and 34% (185/544), respectively. The number of distribution of the molds were as follows; Aspergillus niger (180), Aspergillus fumigatus (95), Aspergillus terreus (32), Aspergillus flavus (23), Aspergillus spp. (14), Penicillium spp. (13), Trichophyton spp. (T.rubrum 1, T.mentagrophytes 1); while this distribution was as follows for the yeasts; Candida tropicalis (97), Candida albicans (39), Candida parapsilosis (21), Candida glabrata (19), Candida kefyr (4), C.guilliermondii (2), Candida krusei (1), Geotrichum candidum (1) and Trichosporon capitatum (1). It was notable that 96% (344/359) of mold-like fungi were Aspergillus spp., and 99% (183/185) of yeast-like fungi were Candida spp. The results of this study indicated that the most frequent agents of

  11. Candida andamanensis sp. nov., Candida laemsonensis sp. nov. and Candida ranongensis sp. nov., anamorphic yeast species isolated from estuarine waters in a Thai mangrove forest.

    PubMed

    Am-In, Somjit; Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn

    2011-02-01

    Five strains (RV5(T), RV140, R31(T), RS17 and RS28(T)) representing three novel anamorphic ascomycetous yeast species were isolated by membrane filtration from estuarine waters collected from a mangrove forest in Laem Son National Park, Ranong Province, Thailand, on different occasions. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region and phylogenetic analysis, three strains were found to represent two novel Candida species. Two strains (RV5(T) and RV140) represented a single novel species, for which the name Candida laemsonensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RV5(T) (=BCC 35154(T) =NBRC 105873(T) =CBS 11419(T)). Strain R31(T) was assigned to a novel species that was named Candida andamanensis sp. nov. (type strain R31(T) =BCC 25965(T) =NBRC 103862(T) =CBS 10859(T)). On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis, strains RS17 and RS28(T) represented another novel species of Candida, for which the name Candida ranongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RS28(T) (=BCC 25964(T) =NBRC 103861(T) =CBS 10861(T)).

  12. The photodynamic effect of methylene blue and toluidine blue on Candida albicans is dependent on medium conditions.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Gabriela Guimarães; Felipe, Monalisa Poliana; Costa, Maricilia Silva

    2009-10-01

    Due to the increased number of immunocompromised patients, the infections associated with the pathogen of the genus Candida and other fungi have increased dramatically. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) has been presented as a potential antimicrobial therapy, in a process that combines light and a photosensitizing drug, which promotes a phototoxic response by the treated cells. In this work, we studied the effects of the different medium conditions during PACT, using either methylene blue (MB) or toluidine blue (TB) on Candida albicans. The inhibition of the growth produced by PACT was decreased for different pH values (6.0, 7.0, and 8.0) in a buffered medium. The phototoxic effects were observed only in the presence of saline (not buffered medium). PACT was modulated by calcium in a different manner using either MB or TB. Also when using MB both verapamil or sodium azide were able to decrease the phototoxic effects on the C. albicans. These results show that PACT is presented as a new and promising antifungal therapy, however, new studies are necessary to understand the mechanism by which this event occurs.

  13. [Susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida sp. and biofilm formation].

    PubMed

    Ciok-Pater, Emilia; Białucha, Agata; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Ostafin, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the increase in frequency of fungal infections with Candida sp. was noticed. These infections are connected with ability of Candida sp. to form biofilm on surfaces of biomaterials used in medicine. Furthermore fungal infections make serious therapeutic problems because ofbiofilm resistance to antifungal agents actually. The aim of the study was to evaluate the susceptibility to antifungal agents of Candida sp. and their ability to form biofilm on different biomaterials. 50 strains of Candida sp. isolated from patients of University Hospital No. 1 of dr A. Jurasz in Bydgoszcz were examined. API Candida (bioMérieux) tests were used to identify Candida sp. strains. The susceptibility of the yeast strains to antifungal agents was evaluated by ATB FUNGUS 2 INT (bioMérieux) tests. The susceptibility of examined strains to voriconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin and anidulafungin was assessed by means ofEtests (AB BIODISK) method employing drug concentrations from 0,002 to 32 microg/ml. All analysed strains were susceptible to amphotericin B and caspofungin. Biofilm formation on different biomaterials (silicon, latex, polychloride vinyl, polypropylene, nylon) was measured after 72 hour incubation at 37 degrees C. All examined yeasts formed biofilm on all analysed biomaterials. The highest number of strains formed biofilm on surface of polychloride vinyl: 23 (92,0%) by C. albicans strains and 24 (96,0%) Candida non-albicans strains. The lowest number of the strains formed biofilm on the surface of nylon: 12 (48,0%) of C. albicans strains and 9 (36,0%) of Candida non-albicans strains. The studied strains resistant to azoles and anidulafungin display stronger ability to form biofilm on surfaces of all analysed biomaterials.

  14. The first cases of Candida auris candidaemia in Oman.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, Jalila; Hagen, Ferry; Al-Balushi, Zainab A M; de Hoog, G Sybren; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Meis, Jacques F; Al-Hatmi, Abdullah M S

    2017-09-01

    Candida auris has been recognised as a problematic healthcare-associated emerging yeast which is often misidentified as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Correct early identification of C. auris is important for appropriate antifungal treatment and implementing effective infection control measures. Here we report emergence of the first C. auris cases in Oman, initially misidentified as C. haemulonii. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Candida Glabrata Esophagitis: new case reports and management

    PubMed Central

    Macêdo, Danielle Patrícia Cerqueira; da Silva, Vanessa Karina Alves; de Almeida Farias, Aline Mary; de Melo, Luciana Resende Bandeira; Wilheim, Ana Botler; Neves, Rejane Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Candida esophagitis (CE) is a common opportunistic infection in the immunocompromised host. C. glabrata is rarely cited as agent of CE and has been underestimated due to lack of proper identification. In this study, two cases of C. glabrata esophagitis in AIDS and chagasic patients are reported. Diagnosis of Candida species should be considered an important key for the ideal choice of antifungal therapy against this mycosis. PMID:24031216

  16. Palmar and plantar pustulosis elicited by Candida antigen.

    PubMed

    Uehara, M

    1978-05-01

    Intracutaneous injection of Candida albicans was done on the forearm of 30 patients with palmar and plantar pustulosis. This induced an aggravation of pustular eruptions on the palms and soles in 11 (37%) of the 30 patients. The aggravation occurred only in those patients who had a positive delayed skin reaction to the Candida antigen. It is suggested that a delayed hypersensitivity inflammatory reaction somewhere in the body is attended with an aggravation of palmar plantar pustulosis.

  17. Otomastoiditis caused by Candida auris: Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyoung Il; An, Jin; Hwang, Jae Joon; Moon, Soo-Youn; Son, Jun Seong

    2017-08-01

    Fungal otomastoiditis is a rare disease, but can be fatal for immunocompromised patients. Recently, there have been increasing cases of otologic infection caused by Candida auris. Candida auris can be easily misdiagnosed for other species and treatment is difficult due to multidrug resistance. Clinician should be aware of this rare pathogen, and it should be treated with appropriate antifungal agent with surgical debridement. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Candida Arthritis: Analysis of 112 Pediatric and Adult Cases

    PubMed Central

    Gamaletsou, Maria N.; Rammaert, Blandine; Bueno, Marimelle A.; Sipsas, Nikolaos V.; Moriyama, Brad; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.; Roilides, Emmanuel; Zeller, Valerie; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J.; Miller, Andy O.; Petraitiene, Ruta; Lortholary, Olivier; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Candida arthritis is a debilitating form of deeply invasive candidiasis. However, its epidemiology, clinical manifestations, management, and outcome are not well understood. Methods. Cases of Candida arthritis were reviewed from 1967 through 2014. Variables included Candida spp in joint and/or adjacent bone, underlying conditions, clinical manifestations, inflammatory biomarkers, diagnostic imaging, management, and outcome. Results. Among 112 evaluable cases, 62% were males and 36% were pediatric. Median age was 40 years (range, <1–84 years). Most patients (65%) were not pharmacologically immunosuppressed. Polyarticular infection (≥3 joints) occurred in 31% of cases. Clinical manifestations included pain (82%), edema (71%), limited function (39%), and erythema (22%) with knees (75%) and hips (15%) most commonly infected. Median erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 62 mm/hr (10–141) and C reactive protein 26 mg/dL (0.5–95). Synovial fluid median white blood cell count was 27 500/µL (range, 100–220 000/µL) with 90% polymorphonuclear neutrophils (range, 24–98). Adjacent osteomyelitis was present in 30% of cases. Candida albicans constituted 63%, Candida tropicalis 14%, and Candida parapsilosis 11%. Most cases (66%) arose de novo, whereas 34% emerged during antifungal therapy. Osteolysis occurred in 42%, joint-effusion in 31%, and soft tissue extension in 21%. Amphotericin and fluconazole were the most commonly used agents. Surgical interventions included debridement in 25%, irrigation 10%, and drainage 12%. Complete or partial response was achieved in 96% and relapse in 16%. Conclusion. Candida arthritis mainly emerges as a de novo infection in usually non-immunosuppressed patients with hips and knees being most commonly infected. Localizing symptoms are frequent, and the most common etiologic agents are C albicans, C tropicalis, and C parapsilosis. Management of Candida arthritis remains challenging with a clear risk of relapse

  19. Rat Indwelling Urinary Catheter Model of Candida albicans Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Nett, Jeniel E.; Brooks, Erin G.; Cabezas-Olcoz, Jonathan; Sanchez, Hiram; Zarnowski, Robert; Marchillo, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Indwelling urinary catheters are commonly used in the management of hospitalized patients. Candida can adhere to the device surface and propagate as a biofilm. These Candida biofilm communities differ from free-floating Candida, exhibiting high tolerance to antifungal therapy. The significance of catheter-associated candiduria is often unclear, and treatment may be problematic considering the biofilm drug-resistant phenotype. Here we describe a rodent model for the study of urinary catheter-associated Candida albicans biofilm infection that mimics this common process in patients. In the setting of a functioning, indwelling urinary catheter in a rat, Candida proliferated as a biofilm on the device surface. Characteristic biofilm architecture was observed, including adherent, filamentous cells embedded in an extracellular matrix. Similar to what occurs in human patients, animals with this infection developed candiduria and pyuria. Infection progressed to cystitis, and a biofilmlike covering was observed over the bladder surface. Furthermore, large numbers of C. albicans cells were dispersed into the urine from either the catheter or bladder wall biofilm over the infection period. We successfully utilized the model to test the efficacy of antifungals, analyze transcriptional patterns, and examine the phenotype of a genetic mutant. The model should be useful for future investigations involving the pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, prevention, and drug resistance of Candida biofilms in the urinary tract. PMID:25183731

  20. [Characterisation of Candida sp. isolated from patients after abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Adámková, V; Vaňková, A; Ulrych, J; Matek, K

    2017-01-01

    Intraabdominal candidiasis (IAC) is the predominant type of invasive candidiasis after candidemia. The majority of epidemiological studies on Candida are focused only on bloodstream infections. Nevertheless, the role of blood cultures has limited application in patients with abdominal candidiasis. IAC, which includes peritonitis and intraabdominal abscesses, may occur in around 40% of patients following repeat gastrointestinal (GI) surgery or GI perforation. Retrospective analysis of culture isolates of Candida sp. from clinical specimens of patients after abdominal surgery. The study period was from January 1 to October 31, 2016. Our study of 33 patients with findings of Candida sp. from the abdominal cavity found a mortality of 15.2%, the most frequent strain being C. albicans and C. glabrata. All strains of Candida sp. were susceptible to echinocandins. Candida sp. is part of normal microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract and its isolation is often difficult to interpret. Unfortunately, the pathophysiologic importance of Candida isolation from the abdominal space is not completely clear in many clinical situations.Key words: invasive candidiasis intra-abdominal candidiasis laboratory diagnostics.

  1. Evolution and Application of Inteins in Candida species: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, José A. L.; Prandini, Tâmara H. R.; Castro, Maria da Conceiçao A.; Arantes, Thales D.; Giacobino, Juliana; Bagagli, Eduardo; Theodoro, Raquel C.

    2016-01-01

    Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species. Although absent in Candida albicans, these elements are present in different sizes, in some environmental Candida spp. and also in most of the non-albicans Candida spp. considered emergent opportunistic pathogens. Besides, the possible role of these inteins in yeast physiology was also discussed in the light of the recent findings on the importance of these elements as post-translational modulators of gene expression, reinforcing their relevance as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-albicans Candida infections, because, once the splicing of an intein is inhibited, its host protein, which is usually a housekeeping protein, becomes non-functional. PMID:27777569

  2. In vitro inhibitory activities of magnolol against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peiru; Fu, Jingya; Hua, Hong; Liu, Xiaosong

    2017-01-01

    Candida spp. cause various infections involving the skin, mucosa, deep tissues, and even life-threatening candidemia. They are regarded as an important pathogen of nosocomial bloodstream infection, with a high mortality rate. As a result of prolonged exposure to azoles, the therapeutic failure associated with azoles resistance has become a serious challenge in clinical situations. Therefore, novel, alternative antifungals are required urgently. In the present study, the CLSI M-27A broth microdilution method and the 2,3-Bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) reduction assay were used to evaluate the antifungal effects of magnolol against various standard Candida strains in planktonic mode and biofilm formation, respectively. The antifungal activity of magnolol was demonstrated in planktonic C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species, especially fluconazole-resistant Candida krusei , with the minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 10 to 40 μg/mL. The BMIC 90 (minimum concentration with 90% Candida biofilm inhibited) values of magnolol ranged from 20 to 160 μg/mL, whereas the BMIC 90 values of fluconazole were more than 128 μg/mL. As an alternative and broad-spectrum antifungal agent, magnolol might be of benefit to the treatment of refractory Candida infection.

  3. Candida and calcofluor white: Study in precancer and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rashmi Santosh; Ganvir, SM; Hazarey, VK

    2009-01-01

    Background: The interest in oral candidosis has waxed and waned from the period of Hippocrates. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic has certainly bolstered these figures on oral candidosis, with diabetes and oral cancer being no exception. A need for rapid detection of Candida is made possible by the use of Calcofluor - White (CFW) stain when examined under a fluorescence microscope. The present study was aimed at assessing the efficacy of CFW is compared to Gram stain and periodic acid Schiff (PAS) in detection of Candida in oral precancer and cancer. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of patients with precancer (n=45), cancer (n=45), and control group (n=45). Presence of Candida was confirmed by culture inoculation along with a germ tube and carbohydrate fermentation test. The cytopathological smears were analyzed by papanicolaou - CFW and Gram staining, whereas, tissue sections were stained by PAS and CFW staining. Results: Candida albicans was the predominant species identified. A highly significant association of Candida was seen more often in cancer than in precancer. Both in cytology and histopathology Candida detection by CFW was higher. In precancer it was 48.88% in smears and 40% in tissue sections, whereas, in cancer 60% in smears and 55.55% in histopathology. Conclusion: Among the various diagnostic tools used in the present study, the use of CFW is seen to be a simple, effective, rapid, and reliable method, both in cytopathology and histopathology. PMID:21886989

  4. [The relevance of Candida spp. in chronic periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Razina, I N; Chesnokova, M G; Nedoseko, V B

    The aim of the study was to assess the correlation of Candida spp. incidence in periodontal tissues with various clinical manifestations of chronic periodontal disease (CPD). Ninety patients with CPD were included in the study in which Candida spp. was evaluated in periodontal pockets content and gingival biopsy material. In severe CPD more Candida spp. were seen in gingival biopsy than in periodontal pockets (p=0.0006). Candida spp. incidence and quantity correlated directly with the disease grade showing incidence increase from 40 to 73.3% and quantity increase from 0.8±0.18 до 3.6±0.49 lg CFU/ml in light and severe CPD, correspondingly Candida spp. had statistically significant association with cyanotic gingival color (p=0.0018), tongue plaque and swelling (р=0.0042), lip exfoliation (р=0.0030), periodontal pockets depth >5 mm (р=0.0030), oral mucosa hyperemia (р=0.0157), alveolar bone destruction >1/2 of root length (р=0.0157). These data prove the relevance of Candida spp. and mycological assessment of gingival biopsy in CPD patients.

  5. Multidrug-Resistant Candida: Epidemiology, Molecular Mechanisms, and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Patterson, Thomas F

    2017-08-15

    Invasive Candida infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in hospitalized and immunocompromised or critically ill patients. A limited number of antifungal agents from only a few drug classes are available to treat patients with these serious infections. Resistance can be either intrinsic or acquired. Resistance mechanisms are not exchanged between Candida; thus, acquired resistance either emerges in response to an antifungal selection pressure in the individual patient or, more rarely, occur due to horizontal transmission of resistant strains between patients. Although multidrug resistance is uncommon, increasing reports of multidrug resistance to the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes have occurred in several Candida species, most notably Candida glabrata and more recently Candida auris. Drivers are overall antifungal use, subtherapeutic drug levels at sites of infection/colonization, drug sequestration in the biofilm matrix, and, in the setting of outbreaks, suboptimal infection control. Moreover, recent research suggests that DNA mismatch repair gene mutations may facilitate acquisition of resistance mutations in C. glabrata specifically. Diagnosis of antifungal-resistant Candida infections is critical to the successful management of patients with these infections. Reduction of unnecessary use of antifungals via antifungal stewardship is critical to limit multidrug resistance emergence. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Relationship between salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Wood, G J; Brightman, V J

    1995-09-01

    Seventy-one persons (48 women, 23 men; mean age, 51.76 years) were evaluated for salivary flow rates and Candida albicans counts. Each person was seen on three different occasions. Samples of unstimulated whole, chewing-stimulated whole, acid-stimulated parotid, and candy-stimulated parotid saliva were collected under standardized conditions. An oral rinse was also obtained and evaluated for Candida albicans counts. Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole flow rates were negatively and significantly (p < 0.001) related to the Candida counts. Unstimulated whole saliva significantly (p < 0.05) differed in persons with Candida counts of 0 versus <500 versus < or = 500. Chewing-stimulated saliva was significantly (p < 0.05) different in persons with 0 counts compared with those with a > or = 500 count. Differences in stimulated parotid flow rates were not significant among different levels of Candida counts. The results of this study reveal that whole saliva is a better predictor than parotid saliva in identification of persons with high Candida albicans counts.

  7. Peptide-Like Nylon-3 Polymers with Activity against Phylogenetically Diverse, Intrinsically Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Rank, Leslie A.; Walsh, Naomi M.; Lim, Fang Yun

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Understanding the dimensions of fungal diversity has major implications for the control of diseases in humans, plants, and animals and in the overall health of ecosystems on the planet. One ancient evolutionary strategy organisms use to manage interactions with microbes, including fungi, is to produce host defense peptides (HDPs). HDPs and their synthetic analogs have been subjects of interest as potential therapeutic agents. Due to increases in fungal disease worldwide, there is great interest in developing novel antifungal agents. Here we describe activity of polymeric HDP analogs against fungi from 18 pathogenic genera composed of 41 species and 72 isolates. The synthetic polymers are members of the nylon-3 family (poly-β-amino acid materials). Three different nylon-3 polymers show high efficacy against surprisingly diverse fungi. Across the phylogenetic spectrum (with the exception of Aspergillus species), yeasts, dermatophytes, dimorphic fungi, and molds were all sensitive to the effects of these polymers. Even fungi intrinsically resistant to current antifungal drugs, such as the causative agents of mucormycosis (Rhizopus spp.) and those with acquired resistance to azole drugs, showed nylon-3 polymer sensitivity. In addition, the emerging pathogens Pseudogymnoascus destructans (cause of white nose syndrome in bats) and Candida auris (cause of nosocomial infections of humans) were also sensitive. The three nylon-3 polymers exhibited relatively low toxicity toward mammalian cells. These findings raise the possibility that nylon-3 polymers could be useful against fungi for which there are only limited and/or no antifungal agents available at present. IMPORTANCE Fungi reside in all ecosystems on earth and impart both positive and negative effects on human, plant, and animal health. Fungal disease is on the rise worldwide, and there is a critical need for more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. Nylon-3 polymers are short, sequence random, poly

  8. Peptide-Like Nylon-3 Polymers with Activity against Phylogenetically Diverse, Intrinsically Drug-Resistant Pathogenic Fungi.

    PubMed

    Rank, Leslie A; Walsh, Naomi M; Lim, Fang Yun; Gellman, Samuel H; Keller, Nancy P; Hull, Christina M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the dimensions of fungal diversity has major implications for the control of diseases in humans, plants, and animals and in the overall health of ecosystems on the planet. One ancient evolutionary strategy organisms use to manage interactions with microbes, including fungi, is to produce host defense peptides (HDPs). HDPs and their synthetic analogs have been subjects of interest as potential therapeutic agents. Due to increases in fungal disease worldwide, there is great interest in developing novel antifungal agents. Here we describe activity of polymeric HDP analogs against fungi from 18 pathogenic genera composed of 41 species and 72 isolates. The synthetic polymers are members of the nylon-3 family (poly-β-amino acid materials). Three different nylon-3 polymers show high efficacy against surprisingly diverse fungi. Across the phylogenetic spectrum (with the exception of Aspergillus species), yeasts, dermatophytes, dimorphic fungi, and molds were all sensitive to the effects of these polymers. Even fungi intrinsically resistant to current antifungal drugs, such as the causative agents of mucormycosis ( Rhizopus spp.) and those with acquired resistance to azole drugs, showed nylon-3 polymer sensitivity. In addition, the emerging pathogens Pseudogymnoascus destructans (cause of white nose syndrome in bats) and Candida auris (cause of nosocomial infections of humans) were also sensitive. The three nylon-3 polymers exhibited relatively low toxicity toward mammalian cells. These findings raise the possibility that nylon-3 polymers could be useful against fungi for which there are only limited and/or no antifungal agents available at present. IMPORTANCE Fungi reside in all ecosystems on earth and impart both positive and negative effects on human, plant, and animal health. Fungal disease is on the rise worldwide, and there is a critical need for more effective and less toxic antifungal agents. Nylon-3 polymers are short, sequence random, poly

  9. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  10. Sterols of the fungi - Distribution and biosynthesis.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weete, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    The importance of sterols in the growth and reproduction in fungi is becoming increasingly apparent. This article concerns the composition and biosynthesis of ergosterol in these organisms. Comparison to plant and animal sterol formation are made.

  11. PHYSIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF THE MARINE FUNGI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report summarizes marine mycological research developed at the Institute of Marine Science, University of Miami, for the period September 1960... mycological research. Complete list of publications on marine fungi and yeasts is given. (Author)

  12. FPD: A comprehensive phosphorylation database in fungi.

    PubMed

    Bai, Youhuang; Chen, Bin; Li, Mingzhu; Zhou, Yincong; Ren, Silin; Xu, Qin; Chen, Ming; Wang, Shihua

    2017-10-01

    Protein phosphorylation, one of the most classic post-translational modification, plays a critical role in diverse cellular processes including cell cycle, growth, and signal transduction pathways. However, the available information about phosphorylation in fungi is limited. Here, we provided a Fungi Phosphorylation Database (FPD) that comprises high-confidence in vivo phosphosites identified by MS-based proteomics in various fungal species. This comprehensive phosphorylation database contains 62 272 non-redundant phosphorylation sites in 11 222 proteins across eight organisms, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium graminearum, Magnaporthe oryzae, Neurospora crassa, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and Cryptococcus neoformans. A fungi-specific phosphothreonine motif and several conserved phosphorylation motifs were discovered by comparatively analysing the pattern of phosphorylation sites in plants, animals, and fungi. Copyright © 2017 British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Candida laoshanensis sp. nov. and Candida qingdaonensis sp. nov., anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species isolated from decayed wood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shi-An; Li, Fu-Li; Bai, Feng-Yan

    2010-07-01

    During a study of newly isolated yeast strains utilizing d-xylose as sole carbon source, eight strains, isolated from decayed wood, were found to represent two novel anamorphic, ascomycetous yeast species based on sequence analysis of the 26S rDNA D1/D2 domain and internal transcribed spacer region, and phenotypic characterization. The names Candida laoshanensis sp. nov. (type strain MLRW 6-2(T)=AS 2.4030(T)=CBS 11389(T)) and Candida qingdaonensis sp. nov. (type strain MLRW 7-1(T)=AS 2.4031(T)=CBS 11390(T)) are proposed for these two novel species; the closest relatives of the two novel species are Candida pomicola and Candida marilandica, respectively.

  14. Fungi isolated from flue-cured tobacco inoculated in the field with storage fungi.

    PubMed

    Welty, R E

    1971-03-01

    Flue-cured tobacco inoculated in the field with A. amstelodami, A. flavus, A. ochraceus, A. repens, A. ruber, and a species of Penicillium was rarely invaded by these fungi. Regardless of inoculum, the predominant fungi reisolated from green tissue were species of Alternaria and Cladosporium. After curing, A. repens, A. niger, and species of Alternaria and a species of Penicillium were the most commonly isolated fungi. The fungus used as inoculum was not the predominant fungus reisolated from green or cured tissue. Conditions during handling and storage prior to marketing probably determine when storage fungi become associated with the leaf and which species becomes predominant.

  15. Antibacterial and Antifungal Compounds from Marine Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lijian; Meng, Wei; Cao, Cong; Wang, Jian; Shan, Wenjun; Wang, Qinggui

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews 116 new compounds with antifungal or antibacterial activities as well as 169 other known antimicrobial compounds, with a specific focus on January 2010 through March 2015. Furthermore, the phylogeny of the fungi producing these antibacterial or antifungal compounds was analyzed. The new methods used to isolate marine fungi that possess antibacterial or antifungal activities as well as the relationship between structure and activity are shown in this review. PMID:26042616

  16. Pectinolytic enzymes of anaerobic fungi.

    PubMed

    Kopecný, J; Hodrová, B

    1995-05-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes of four rumen fungi have been described. Three fungal species were monocentric Neocallimastix spp. H15, JL3 and OC2, and one isolate was a polycentric strain of Orpinomyces joyonii, A4. They differed in degree of pectin degradation and utilization. Only the strain Neocallimastix sp. H15 and partially Orpinomyces joyonii A4 were able to utilize pectin to a higher extent. The most important pectinolytic activity in all these isolates represented pectin lyase (EC 4.2.2.10) and polygalacturonase (EC 3.2.1.15). Their specific activities were in the range of 100-900 and 10-450 micrograms galacturonic acid h-1 mg protein-1 for pectin lyase and polygalacturonase, respectively. Polygalacturonase, located mainly in the endocellular fraction, was inhibited by calcium ions and had the main pH optimum at pH 6.0. All strains produced pectate lyase (EC 4.2.2.2). None of the strains tested produced pectinesterase (EC 3.1.1.11).

  17. Antibiotic management of lung infections in cystic fibrosis. II. Nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi.

    PubMed

    Chmiel, James F; Aksamit, Timothy R; Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Dasenbrook, Elliott C; Elborn, J Stuart; LiPuma, John J; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Waters, Valerie J; Ratjen, Felix A

    2014-10-01

    Airway infections are a key component of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Whereas the approach to common pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa is guided by a significant body of evidence, other infections often pose a considerable challenge to treating physicians. In Part I of this series on the antibiotic management of difficult lung infections, we discussed bacterial organisms including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, gram-negative bacterial infections, and treatment of multiple bacterial pathogens. Here, we summarize the approach to infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria, anaerobic bacteria, and fungi. Nontuberculous mycobacteria can significantly impact the course of lung disease in patients with CF, but differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult clinically as coinfection with other micro-organisms is common. Treatment consists of different classes of antibiotics, varies in intensity, and is best guided by a team of specialized clinicians and microbiologists. The ability of anaerobic bacteria to contribute to CF lung disease is less clear, even though clinical relevance has been reported in individual patients. Anaerobes detected in CF sputum are often resistant to multiple drugs, and treatment has not yet been shown to positively affect patient outcome. Fungi have gained significant interest as potential CF pathogens. Although the role of Candida is largely unclear, there is mounting evidence that Scedosporium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, beyond the classical presentation of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, can be relevant in patients with CF and treatment should be considered. At present, however there remains limited information on how best to select patients who could benefit from antifungal therapy.

  18. A Drug-Sensitive Genetic Network Masks Fungi from the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Robert T; Fink, Gerald R

    2006-01-01

    Fungal pathogens can be recognized by the immune system via their β-glucan, a potent proinflammatory molecule that is present at high levels but is predominantly buried beneath a mannoprotein coat and invisible to the host. To investigate the nature and significance of “masking” this molecule, we characterized the mechanism of masking and consequences of unmasking for immune recognition. We found that the underlying β-glucan in the cell wall of Candida albicans is unmasked by subinhibitory doses of the antifungal drug caspofungin, causing the exposed fungi to elicit a stronger immune response. Using a library of bakers' yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutants, we uncovered a conserved genetic network that is required for concealing β-glucan from the immune system and limiting the host response. Perturbation of parts of this network in the pathogen C. albicans caused unmasking of its β-glucan, leading to increased β-glucan receptor-dependent elicitation of key proinflammatory cytokines from primary mouse macrophages. By creating an anti-inflammatory barrier to mask β-glucan, opportunistic fungi may promote commensal colonization and have an increased propensity for causing disease. Targeting the widely conserved gene network required for creating and maintaining this barrier may lead to novel broad-spectrum antimycotics. PMID:16652171

  19. FUNGI ISOLATED FROM THE EXCRETA OF WILD BIRDS IN SCREENING CENTERS IN PELOTAS, RS, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mendes, Josiara Furtado; Albano, Ana Paula Neuschrank; Coimbra, Marco Antônio A.; de Ferreira, Gracialda Ferreira; Gonçalves, Carolina Lambrecht; Nascente, Patrícia da Silva; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2014-01-01

    The identification of the fungal species belonging to the healthy microflora in animals is a precondition for the recognition of pathological processes causing them. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of potentially pathogenic fungi in the feces of wild birds collected in Screening Centers. Samples were collected from the feces of 50 cages with different species of birds. The samples were processed according to the modified method STAIB and the plates incubated at 32 °C for up to ten days with daily observation for detection of fungal growth. The isolation of the following species was observed: Malassezia pachydermatis, Candida albicans, C. famata, C. guilliermondii, C. sphaerica, C. globosa, C. catenulata, C. ciferri, C. intermedia, Cryptococcus laurentii, Trichosporon asahii, Geotrichum klebahnii, Aspergillus spp., A. niger and Penicillium spp. Knowing the character of some opportunistic fungi is important in identifying them, facilitating the adoption of preventive measures, such as proper cleaning of cages, since the accumulation of excreta may indicate a risk for both health professionals and centers for screening public health. PMID:25351548

  20. Chemodiversity and biodiversity of fungi associated with the pine weevil Hylobius abietis.

    PubMed

    Azeem, Muhammad; Terenius, Olle; Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva; Nagahama, Kazuhiro; Nordenhem, Henrik; Nordlander, Göran; Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin

    2015-08-01

    The pine weevil Hylobius abietis is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforestation areas. Weevils lay eggs in the root bark or in the soil near roots of recently dead trees and cover the eggs with frass (feces combined with chewed bark), possibly to avoid conspecific egg predation. The aim of the present investigation focused on isolation, identification, and volatile production of fungi from pine-weevil feces and frass. Fungi were isolated from weevil frass and feces separately, followed by identification based on ITS sequencing. Fifty-nine isolates belonging to the genera Penicillium, Ophiostoma, Mucor, Leptographium, Eucasphaeria, Rhizosphaera, Debaryomyces, and Candida were identified. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by the fungal community and fungal isolates cultured on weevil-frass broth were identified by SPME-GCMS. Major VOCs emitted from the fungal community and pure isolates were species- and strain specific and included isopentylalcohol, styrene, 3-octanone, 6-protoilludene, methyl salicylate, 3-methylanisole, 2-methoxyphenol, and phenol. Some of these are known to influence the orientation of pine weevils when tested among highly attractive newly planted conifer seedlings. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Persistence of Pigment Production by Yeast Isolates Grown on CHROMagar Candida Medium

    PubMed Central

    Hospenthal, Duane R.; Murray, Clinton K.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Green, Judith A.; Dooley, David P.

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated the persistence of pigmentation in yeast isolates grown on the chromogenic medium CHROMagar Candida over 7 days. Candida, Cryptococcus, and Trichosporon isolates were inoculated alone or mixed onto duplicate sets of plates and incubated at 30 and 35°C. Candida albicans and Candida krusei were readily identified throughout the reading period, but Candida glabrata was difficult to differentiate from other species until the 3- or 4-day time point. Candida tropicalis produced colonies similar to those of rare Cryptococcus and Trichosporon species, and mixed cultures were often difficult to identify as such. PMID:12454192

  2. The frequency of sex in fungi

    PubMed Central

    James, Timothy Y.

    2016-01-01

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode. The proximate molecular mechanisms potentiating outcrossing and meiosis appear to be present in nearly all fungi, making them of little use for predicting outcrossing rates, but also suggesting the absence of true ancient asexual lineages. We review how population genetic methods can be used to estimate the frequency of sex in fungi and provide empirical data that support a mixed mode of reproduction in many species with rare to frequent sex in between rounds of mitotic reproduction. Finally, we highlight how these estimates might be affected by the fungus-specific mechanisms that evolved to reduce the costs of sexual and asexual reproduction. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction’. PMID:27619703

  3. The frequency of sex in fungi.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P S; James, Timothy Y

    2016-10-19

    Fungi are a diverse group of organisms with a huge variation in reproductive strategy. While almost all species can reproduce sexually, many reproduce asexually most of the time. When sexual reproduction does occur, large variation exists in the amount of in- and out-breeding. While budding yeast is expected to outcross only once every 10 000 generations, other fungi are obligate outcrossers with well-mixed panmictic populations. In this review, we give an overview of the costs and benefits of sexual and asexual reproduction in fungi, and the mechanisms that evolved in fungi to reduce the costs of either mode. The proximate molecular mechanisms potentiating outcrossing and meiosis appear to be present in nearly all fungi, making them of little use for predicting outcrossing rates, but also suggesting the absence of true ancient asexual lineages. We review how population genetic methods can be used to estimate the frequency of sex in fungi and provide empirical data that support a mixed mode of reproduction in many species with rare to frequent sex in between rounds of mitotic reproduction. Finally, we highlight how these estimates might be affected by the fungus-specific mechanisms that evolved to reduce the costs of sexual and asexual reproduction.This article is part of the themed issue 'Weird sex: the underappreciated diversity of sexual reproduction'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  4. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales

    PubMed Central

    Hubka, Vit; Thureborn, Olle; Lundberg, Johannes; Sallstedt, Therese; Wedin, Mats; Ivarsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota). They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role of fungi in the

  5. From the Tunnels into the Treetops: New Lineages of Black Yeasts from Biofilm in the Stockholm Metro System and Their Relatives among Ant-Associated Fungi in the Chaetothyriales.

    PubMed

    Réblová, Martina; Hubka, Vit; Thureborn, Olle; Lundberg, Johannes; Sallstedt, Therese; Wedin, Mats; Ivarsson, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    Rock-inhabiting fungi harbour species-rich, poorly differentiated, extremophilic taxa of polyphyletic origin. Their closest relatives are often well-known species from various biotopes with significant pathogenic potential. Speleothems represent a unique rock-dwelling habitat, whose mycobiota are largely unexplored. Isolation of fungi from speleothem biofilm covering bare granite walls in the Kungsträdgården metro station in Stockholm yielded axenic cultures of two distinct black yeast morphotypes. Phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequences from six nuclear loci, ITS, nuc18S and nuc28S rDNA, rpb1, rpb2 and β-tubulin, support their placement in the Chaetothyriales (Ascomycota). They are described as a new genus Bacillicladium with the type species B. lobatum, and a new species Bradymyces graniticola. Bacillicladium is distantly related to the known five chaetothyrialean families and is unique in the Chaetothyriales by variable morphology showing hyphal, meristematic and yeast-like growth in vitro. The nearest relatives of Bacillicladium are recruited among fungi isolated from cardboard-like construction material produced by arboricolous non-attine ants. Their sister relationship is weakly supported by the Maximum likelihood analysis, but strongly supported by Bayesian inference. The genus Bradymyces is placed amidst members of the Trichomeriaceae and is ecologically undefined; it includes an opportunistic animal pathogen while two other species inhabit rock surfaces. ITS rDNA sequences of three species accepted in Bradymyces and other undescribed species and environmental samples were subjected to phylogenetic analysis and in-depth comparative analysis of ITS1 and ITS2 secondary structures in order to study their intraspecific variability. Compensatory base change criterion in the ITS2 secondary structure supported delimitation of species in Bradymyces, which manifest a limited number of phenotypic features useful for species recognition. The role of fungi in the

  6. Antimicrobial activity of juniper berry essential oil (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae).

    PubMed

    Pepeljnjak, Stjepan; Kosalec, Ivan; Kalodera, Zdenka; Blazević, Nikola

    2005-12-01

    Juniper essential oil (Juniperi aetheroleum) was obtained from the juniper berry, and the GC/MS analysis showed that the main compounds in the oil were alpha-pinene (29.17%) and beta-pinene (17.84%), sabinene (13.55%), limonene (5.52%), and mircene (0.33%). Juniper essential oil was evaluated for the antimicrobial activity against sixteen bacterial species, seven yeast-like fungi, three yeast and four dermatophyte strains. Juniper essential oil showed similar bactericidal activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species, with MIC values between 8 and 70% (V/V), as well as a strong fungicidal activity against yeasts, yeast-like fungi and dermatophytes, with MIC values below 10% (V/V). The strongest fungicidal activity was recorded against Candida spp. (MIC from 0.78 to 2%, V/V) and dermatophytes (from 0.39 to 2%, V/V).

  7. Deletion of the Dynein Heavy-Chain Gene DYN1 Leads to Aberrant Nuclear Positioning and Defective Hyphal Development in Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Martin, R.; Walther, A.; Wendland, J.

    2004-01-01

    Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-associated minus-end-directed motor protein. CaDYN1 encodes the single dynein heavy-chain gene of Candida albicans. The open reading frames of both alleles of CaDYN1 were completely deleted via a PCR-based approach. Cadyn1 mutants are viable but grow more slowly than the wild type. In vivo time-lapse microscopy was used to compare growth of wild-type (SC5314) and dyn1 mutant strains during yeast growth and after hyphal induction. During yeast-like growth, Cadyn1 strains formed chains of cells. Chromosomal TUB1-GFP and HHF1-GFP alleles were used both in wild-type and mutant strains to monitor the orientation of mitotic spindles and nuclear positioning in C. albicans. In vivo fluorescence time-lapse analyses with HHF1-GFP over several generations indicated defects in dyn1 cells in the realignment of spindles with the mother-daughter axis of yeast cells compared to that of the wild type. Mitosis in the dyn1 mutant, in contrast to that of wild-type yeast cells, was very frequently completed in the mother cells. Nevertheless, daughter nuclei were faithfully transported into the daughter cells, resulting in only a small number of multinucleate cells. Cadyn1 mutant strains responded to hypha-inducing media containing l-proline or serum with initial germ tube formation. Elongation of the hyphal tubes eventually came to a halt, and these tubes showed a defect in the tipward localization of nuclei. Using a heterozygous DYN1/dyn1 strain in which the remaining copy was controlled by the regulatable MAL2 promoter, we could switch between wild-type and mutant phenotypes depending on the carbon source, indicating that the observed mutant phenotypes were solely due to deletion of DYN1. PMID:15590831

  8. Candida parapsilosis Protects Premature Intestinal Epithelial Cells from Invasion and Damage by Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Gonia, Sara; Archambault, Linda; Shevik, Margaret; Altendahl, Marie; Fellows, Emily; Bliss, Joseph M.; Wheeler, Robert T.; Gale, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Candida is a leading cause of late-onset sepsis in premature infants and is thought to invade the host via immature or damaged epithelial barriers. We previously showed that the hyphal form of Candida albicans invades and causes damage to premature intestinal epithelial cells (pIECs), whereas the non-hyphal Candida parapsilosis, also a fungal pathogen of neonates, has less invasion and damage abilities. In this study, we investigated the potential for C. parapsilosis to modulate pathogenic interactions of C. albicans with the premature intestine. While a mixed infection with two fungal pathogens may be expected to result in additive or synergistic damage to pIECs, we instead found that C. parapsilosis was able to protect pIECs from invasion and damage by C. albicans. C. albicans-induced pIEC damage was reduced to a similar extent by multiple different C. parapsilosis strains, but strains differed in their ability to inhibit C. albicans invasion of pIECs, with the inhibitory activity correlating with their adhesiveness for C. albicans and epithelial cells. C. parapsilosis cell-free culture fractions were also able to significantly reduce C. albicans adhesion and damage to pIECs. Furthermore, coadministration of C. parapsilosis cell-free fractions with C. albicans was associated with decreased infection and mortality in zebrafish. These results indicate that C. parapsilosis is able to reduce invasion, damage, and virulence functions of C. albicans. Additionally, the results with cellular and cell-free fractions of yeast cultures suggest that inhibition of pathogenic interactions between C. albicans and host cells by C. parapsilosis occurs via secreted molecules as well as by physical contact with the C. parapsilosis cell surface. We propose that non-invasive commensals can be used to inhibit virulence features of pathogens and deserve further study as a non-pharmacological strategy to protect the fragile epithelial barriers of premature infants. PMID:28382297

  9. Distribution of Candida albican genotype and Candida species is associated with the severity of vulvovagianl candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jun; Zong, Li-li; Mao, Ting; Huang, Yu-xing; Xu, Zheng-mei

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the distribution of pathogenic C.albican genotype and Candida species in association with the severity of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). Polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) of the internal transcribed spacer analysis was employed to identify the Candida species isolated from the vaginal secretions of 198 patients with acute VVC. SSCP and GeneScan analyses of microsatellite locus I polymorphism were used to determine the genotypes of the clinical isolates of C. albican associated with VVC. All the patients were scored for clinical signs and symptoms to evaluate the severity of VVC. A total of 198 Candida strains were isolated from VVC patients, including 140 (70.7%) C. albicans strains and 58 (29.3%) non-albicans strains. In the 95 patients with severe VVC and 103 with mild-moderate VVC, C.albican was detected in 62.1% and 76.6% of the patients, respectively (P=0.011). Thirty-eight microsatellite locus I genotypes were detected in 140 unrelated C. albican strains, among which the dominant genotypes 30-45 (44 strians, 31.43%) and 32-46 (23 strains, 16.43%) were the most common, followed by genotypes 30-46 (4 strains, 2.86%) and 32-47 (9 strains, 6.42%). The overall frequencies of the 4 genotypes were significantly higher in severe VVC than in mild-moderate VVC cases (77.9% vs 42.0%, P<0.001). C. albicans remains the most common pathogenic Candia species in patients with VVC, but the non-alibcans species seem more likely to cause severe VVC. The dominant genotypes of C. albicans with a tropism for the vagina are correlated to the severity of VVC.

  10. Usefulness of the Non-conventional Caenorhabditis elegans Model to Assess Candida Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Riveros, Marcelo; De-la-Pinta, Iker; Marcos-Arias, Cristina; Ezpeleta, Guillermo; Quindós, Guillermo; Eraso, Elena

    2017-10-01

    Invasive candidiasis is caused mainly by Candida albicans, but other Candida species have increasing etiologies. These species show different virulence and susceptibility levels to antifungal drugs. The aims of this study were to evaluate the usefulness of the non-conventional model Caenorhabditis elegans to assess the in vivo virulence of seven different Candida species and to compare the virulence in vivo with the in vitro production of proteinases and phospholipases, hemolytic activity and biofilm development capacity. One culture collection strain of each of seven Candida species (C. albicans, Candida dubliniensis, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida metapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis and Candida parapsilosis) was studied. A double mutant C. elegans AU37 strain (glp-4;sek-1) was infected with Candida by ingestion, and the analysis of nematode survival was performed in liquid medium every 24 h until 120 h. Candida establishes a persistent lethal infection in the C. elegans intestinal tract. C. albicans and C. krusei were the most pathogenic species, whereas C. dubliniensis infection showed the lowest mortality. C. albicans was the only species with phospholipase activity, was the greatest producer of aspartyl proteinase and had a higher hemolytic activity. C. albicans and C. krusei caused higher mortality than the rest of the Candida species studied in the C. elegans model of candidiasis.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) cultivar Avenger against pathogenic bacteria, phytopathogenic filamentous fungi and yeast.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Cano, R D; Salcedo-Hernández, R; López-Meza, J E; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show whether the edible part of broccoli has antibacterial and antifungal activity against micro-organism of importance in human health and vegetable spoilage, and to test if this effect was partially due to antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Crude extracts were obtained from florets and stems of broccoli cultivar Avenger and the inhibitory effect was demonstrated against pathogenic bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Proteus vulgaris), phytopathogenic fungi (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Asperigillus niger) and yeasts (Candida albicans and Rhodotorula sp.). It was shown that samples treated with proteolytic enzymes had a reduction of approximately 60% in antibacterial activity against Staph. xylosus, suggesting that proteinaceous compounds might play a role in the inhibitory effect. Antimicrobial components in crude extracts were thermoresistant and the highest activity was observed under acidic conditions. It was shown that antifungal activity of broccoli's crude extracts might not be attributed to chitinases. Organic broccoli cultivar Avenger has antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and phytophatogenic fungi. Data suggest that this effect is partially due to AMPs. Broccoli's crude extracts have activity not only against pathogenic bacteria but also against phytophatogenic fungi of importance in agriculture. We suggest for first time that the inhibitory effect is probably due to AMPs. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  12. N-acetylglucosamine sensing by a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase induces transcription via chromatin histone acetylation in fungi.

    PubMed

    Su, Chang; Lu, Yang; Liu, Haoping

    2016-10-03

    N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) exists ubiquitously as a component of the surface on a wide range of cells, from bacteria to humans. Many fungi are able to utilize environmental GlcNAc to support growth and induce cellular development, a property important for their survival in various host niches. However, how the GlcNAc signal is sensed and subsequently transduced is largely unknown. Here, we identify a gene that is essential for GlcNAc signalling (NGS1) in Candida albicans, a commensal and pathogenic yeast of humans. Ngs1 can bind GlcNAc through the N-terminal β-N-acetylglucosaminidase homology domain. This binding activates N-acetyltransferase activity in the C-terminal GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase domain, which is required for GlcNAc-induced promoter histone acetylation and transcription. Ngs1 is targeted to the promoters of GlcNAc-inducible genes constitutively by the transcription factor Rep1. Ngs1 is conserved in diverse fungi that have GlcNAc catabolic genes. Thus, fungi use Ngs1 as a GlcNAc-sensor and transducer for GlcNAc-induced transcription.

  13. N-acetylglucosamine sensing by a GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase induces transcription via chromatin histone acetylation in fungi

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Lu, Yang; Liu, Haoping

    2016-01-01

    N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) exists ubiquitously as a component of the surface on a wide range of cells, from bacteria to humans. Many fungi are able to utilize environmental GlcNAc to support growth and induce cellular development, a property important for their survival in various host niches. However, how the GlcNAc signal is sensed and subsequently transduced is largely unknown. Here, we identify a gene that is essential for GlcNAc signalling (NGS1) in Candida albicans, a commensal and pathogenic yeast of humans. Ngs1 can bind GlcNAc through the N-terminal β-N-acetylglucosaminidase homology domain. This binding activates N-acetyltransferase activity in the C-terminal GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase domain, which is required for GlcNAc-induced promoter histone acetylation and transcription. Ngs1 is targeted to the promoters of GlcNAc-inducible genes constitutively by the transcription factor Rep1. Ngs1 is conserved in diverse fungi that have GlcNAc catabolic genes. Thus, fungi use Ngs1 as a GlcNAc-sensor and transducer for GlcNAc-induced transcription. PMID:27694804

  14. Chronic vulvovaginal candidiasis: characteristics of women with Candida albicans, C glabrata and no candida.

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, A M; Foxman, B; Sobel, J D

    1995-01-01

    INTRODUCTION--Although as many as 5% of all women complain of chronic vulvovaginitis, little is known about these women. They may often be misdiagnosed and the role of vaginal yeast culture in diagnosing vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) among them has not been clearly defined. METHODS--To address these deficiencies, we tabulated initial diagnoses among new patients and conducted a medical record-based, unmatched case-control study among women reporting a history of chronic vulvovaginitis (four or more episodes in the past year) at a vulvovaginitis specialty clinic. Clinical presentation and medical history were compared for women who had a positive vaginal yeast culture for either Candida albicans or C glabrata, or who had a negative culture. RESULTS--One-third of the women had no apparent vulvovaginal disease at their initial visit. All women reported similar symptoms, except for an increased prevalence of painful sexual intercourse in women with C albicans (chi 2 p = 0.014 versus women with C glabrata and p < 0.001 versus women with no candida). Women with C glabrata were more likely to be non-white (chi 2 p = 0.071 compared with women with C albicans) and to report an underlying medical condition (chi 2 p < or = 0.001 versus both women with C albicans and women with no candida). Physical examination was normal only in women with no candida. C albicans cases were more likely to have positive potassium hydroxide microscopy (chi 2 p = 0.016) and a pH < or = 4.5 (chi 2 p = 0.011) than were C glabrata cases. CONCLUSIONS--These results suggest that reliance on symptoms and signs alone will result in significant misdiagnosis of chronic vulvovaginitis. Among women with VVC, subtle differences in clinical presentation do not reliably distinguish women with C albicans from those with C glabrata. Our study also indicates that vaginal yeast cultures, while not necessary for every patient, are valuable in confirming negative diagnoses, detecting microscopy false-negatives, and

  15. Prevalence of Candida dubliniensis among the stored vaginal Candida isolates in a Turkish hospital.

    PubMed

    Acikgoz, Z C; Sancak, B; Gamberzade, S; Misirlioglu, M

    2004-10-01

    In this study, 600 stored Candida species, isolated from vaginal samples of immunocompetent women, and phenotypically identified as C. albicans on the basis of a positive germ tube test, were screened for the presence of C. dubliniensis by three phenotypical methods. Only one strain (0.17%) failed to grow at 45 degrees C, and produced abundant chlamydospores on both the cornmeal-Tween 80 agar and the Staib agar. This strain was identified as C. dubliniensis by using the ID-32C kit (bioMerieux Vitek) and confirmed by DNA sequencing of internal transcript spacer (ITS) region.

  16. Disseminated Candida infection syndrome in heroin addicts--dominance of a single Candida albicans biotype.

    PubMed

    Odds, F C; Palacio-Hernanz, A; Cuadra, J; Sanchéz, J

    1987-05-01

    Among 21 intravenous heroin abusers with cutaneous and ocular manifestations of disseminated Candida infection, a single C. albicans strain type (serotype A, biotype 153/7) was isolated from skin lesions in 14 cases. This suggests that central contamination of the heroin with C. albicans is less likely to be the source of infection than an endogenous source, and that one particular strain type is either better adapted than others to grow in the lemon juice used as a heroin solvent, or more likely than others to cause the specific pathology seen in these patients.

  17. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI

    PubMed Central

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Materials and methods: Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species (Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens (Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. Results: All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum. The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in

  18. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANT EXTRACTS AGAINST PHYTOPATHOGENIC FUNGI.

    PubMed

    Mahlo, Salome Mamokone; Chauke, Hasani Richard; McGaw, Lyndy; Eloff, Jacobus

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used by many ethnic groups as a source of medicine for the treatment of various ailments in both humans and domestic animals. These plants produce secondary metabolites that have antimicrobial properties, thus screening of medicinal plants provide another alternative for producing chemical fungicides that are relatively non-toxic and cost-effective. Leaf extracts of selected South African plant species ( Bucida buceras, Breonadia salicina, Harpephyllum caffrum, Olinia ventosa, Vangueria infausta and Xylotheca kraussiana ) were investigated for activity against selected phytopathogenic fungi ( Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, Colletotricum gloeosporioides, Penicillium janthinellum, P. expansum, Trichoderma harzianum and Fusarium oxysporum ). These plant fungal pathogens causes major economic losses in fruit industry such as blue rot on nectaries and postharvest disease in citrus. Plant species were selected from 600 evaluated inter alia, against two animal fungal pathogens ( Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans ). Antioxidant activity of the selected plant extracts were investigated using a qualitative assay (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)). Bioautography assay was used to determine the number of antifungal compounds in plant extracts. All plant extracts were active against the selected plant phytopathogenic fungi. Moreover, Bucida buceras had the best antifungal activity against four of the fungi, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as low as 0.02 mg/ml and 0.08 mg/ml against P. expansum, P. janthinellum, T. harzianum and F. oxysporum . The plant extracts of five plant species did not possess strong antioxidant activity. However, methanol extract of X. kraussiana was the most active radical scavenger in the DPPH assay amongst the six medicinal plants screened. No antifungal compounds were observed in some of the plant extracts with good antifungal activity as shown in the microdilution assay, indicating

  19. First report of sporadic cases of Candida auris in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Parra-Giraldo, Claudia M; Valderrama, Sandra L; Cortes-Fraile, Gloria; Garzón, Javier R; Ariza, Beatriz E; Morio, Florent; Linares-Linares, Melva Y; Ceballos-Garzón, Andrés; de la Hoz, Alejandro; Hernandez, Catalina; Alvarez-Moreno, Carlos; Le Pape, Patrice

    2018-04-01

    Candida auris is a recently reported Candida species that is phenotypically similar to Candida haemulonii and related to hospital outbreaks. This organism can be misidentified as Candida haemulonii, Candida famata, Candida catenulata, or Rhodotorula glutinis by phenotypic approaches. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and DNA sequence analysis using internal transcribed spacer rDNA bar-coding provide an accurate identification. Three cases of C. auris infection in patients with risk factors for fungal infection (one admitted to the intensive care unit, one with lymphoma, and one with HIV; all three with previous antibiotic use) are reported; these infections were not epidemiologically related. Yeast isolates were recovered from blood, ocular secretion, and bronchoalveolar lavage and were misidentified as C. catenulata and Candida albicans by the phenotypic MicroScan method. The isolates were confirmed to be C. auris by means of MALDI-TOF MS and DNA sequence analysis. Antifungal susceptibility testing was performed on these C. auris isolates, which exhibited high minimum inhibitory concentrations to triazoles and amphotericin B. One patient survived and the other two died. Only one of these deaths was related to fungemia. C. auris is an emerging and opportunistic multidrug-resistant human pathogen. It is necessary to strengthen measures to achieve an accurate and quick identification and also to avoid its dissemination. This will require improvements in health and infection control measures, as well as the promotion of antifungal stewardship in healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhancement of clover growth by inoculation of P-solubilizing fungi and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

    PubMed

    Souchie, Edson L; Azcón, Rosario; Barea, Jose M; Silva, Eliane M R; Saggin-Júnior, Orivaldo J

    2010-09-01

    This study evaluated the synergism between several P-solubilizing fungi isolates and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve clover ( Trifolium pratense) growth in the presence of Araxá apatite. Clover was sown directly in plastic pots with 300g of sterilized washed sand, vermiculite and sepiolite 1:1:1 (v:v:v) as substrate, and grown in a controlled environment chamber. The substrate was fertilized with 3 g L(-1) of Araxá apatite. A completely randomized design, in 8×2 factorial scheme (eight P-solubilizing fungi treatments with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi)and four replicates were used. The P-solubilizing fungi treatments consisted of five Brazilian P-solubilizing fungi isolates (PSF 7, 9, 20, 21 and 22), two Spanish isolates ( Aspergillus niger and the yeast Yarowia lipolytica) and control (non-inoculated treatment). The greatest clover growth rate was recorded when Aspergillus niger and PSF 21 were co-inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Aspergillus niger, PSF 7 and PSF 21 were the most effective isolates on increasing clover growth in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Greater mycorrhizal colonization resulted in greater clover growth rate in most PSF treatments. PSF 7 was the best isolate to improve the establishment of mycorrhizal and rhizobia symbiosis.

  1. Phylogenomics of zygomycete fungi: impacts on a phylogenetic classification of Kingdom Fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The zygomycetous fungi (”zygomycetes”) mark the major transition from zoosporic life histories of the common ancestor of Fungi and the earliest diverging chytrid lineages (Chytridiomycota and Blastocladiomycota). Their ecological and economic importance range from the earliest documented symbionts o...

  2. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Paterson, Robert Russell M.; Lima, Nelson

    2017-01-01

    Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF) will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a) thermotolerant and (b) present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change. PMID:28218685

  3. Thermophilic Fungi to Dominate Aflatoxigenic/Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Food under Global Warming.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Robert Russell M; Lima, Nelson

    2017-02-17

    Certain filamentous fungi produce mycotoxins that contaminate food. Mycotoxin contamination of crops is highly influenced by environmental conditions and is already affected by global warming, where there is a succession of mycotoxigenic fungi towards those that have higher optimal growth temperatures. Aflatoxigenic fungi are at the highest limit of temperature although predicted increases in temperature are beyond that constraint. The present paper discusses what will succeed these fungi and represents the first such consideration. Aflatoxins are the most important mycotoxins and are common in tropical produce, much of which is exported to temperate regions. Hot countries may produce safer food under climate change because aflatoxigenic fungi will be inhibited. The same situation will occur in previously temperate regions where these fungi have recently appeared, although decades later. Existing thermotolerant and thermophilic fungi (TTF) will dominate, in contrast to the conventional mycotoxigenic fungi adapting or mutating, as it will be quicker. TTF produce a range of secondary metabolites, or potential mycotoxins and patulin which may become a new threat. In addition, Aspergillus fumigatus will appear more frequently, a serious human pathogen, because it is (a) thermotolerant and (b) present on crops: hence this is an even greater problem. An incubation temperature of 41 °C needs employing forthwith to detect TTF. Finally, TTF in crops requires study because of the potential for diseases in humans and animals under climate change.

  4. Comparison of CHROMagar, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, and polymerase chain reaction-fragment size for the identification of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Motamedi, Marjan; Jalalizand, Nilufar; Shokoohi, Gholam R; Charsizadeh, Arezu; Mirhendi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    The epidemiological alteration in the distribution of Candida species, as well as the significantly increasing trend of either intrinsic or acquired resistance of some of these fungi highlights the need for a reliable method for the identification of the species. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the methods facilitating the quick and precise identification of Candida species. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of CHROMagar, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and PCR-fragment size polymorphism (PCR-FSP) assays in the identification of Candida species to determine the benefits and limitations of these methods. This study was conducted on 107 Candida strains, including 20 standard strains and 87 clinical isolates. The identification of the isolates was accomplished by using CHROMagar as a conventional method. The PCR-RFLP assay was performed on the entire internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA), and the consequent enzymatic digestion was compared with PCR-FSP results in which ITS1 and ITS2 regions were separately PCR amplified. In both molecular assays, yeast identification was carried out through the specific electrophoretic profiles of the PCR products. According to the results, the utilization of CHROMagar resulted in the identification of 29 (33.3%) Candida isolates, while the PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP facilitated the identification of 83 (95.4%) and 80 (91.9%) clinical isolates, respectively. The obtained concordances between CHROMagar and PCR-RFLP, between CHROMagar and PCR-FSP, as well as between PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP were 0.23, 0.20, and 0.77, respectively. The recognition of the benefits and limitations of PCR methods allows for the selection of the most efficient technique for a fast and correct differentiation. The PCR-RFLP and PCR-FSP assays had satisfactory concordance. The PCR-FSP provides a rapid, technically simple, and cost-effective method for the identification of Candida species

  5. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  6. Detection of Candida species by nested PCR method in one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius).

    PubMed

    Parin, Ugur; Erbas, Goksel; Kirkan, Sukru; Savasan, Serap; Tugba Yuksel, H; Balat, Gamze

    2018-02-01

    Systemic fungal diseases are the infections caused by false treatment protocols and generally are not taken into consideration especially in the veterinary field. One-humped camels are found in the western side of the Aegean region of our country and bred for wrestling. The aim of this study is the application of diagnosing systemic fungi infection from camel blood samples by the PCR method. In this study, specific primers for DNA topoisomerase II gene sequences were used. As a result, a systemic fungal infection was detected by the nested PCR method from 10 (20%) out of 50 DNA samples taken from camels located on the western side of the Aegean region. In this study, 3 (30%) samples were identified as Candida albicans, 3 (30%) samples were identified as C. glabrata, and 4 (40%) samples were identified as C. parapsilosis. In conclusion, the 20% positive systemic fungal infection rate in one-humped camels observed in the present study showed that the systemic fungal infections are not taken into considerations in veterinary medicine. Further studies are suggested in order to obtain and to maintain extensive data for systemic fungal diseases in our country for one-humped camels.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa-Candida albicans Interactions: Localization and Fungal Toxicity of a Phenazine Derivative▿

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Jane; Sood, Arpana; Hogan, Deborah A.

    2009-01-01

    Phenazines are redox-active small molecules that play significant roles in the interactions between pseudomonads and diverse eukaryotes, including fungi. When Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans were cocultured on solid medium, a red pigmentation developed that was dependent on P. aeruginosa phenazine biosynthetic genes. Through a genetic screen in combination with biochemical experiments, it was found that a P. aeruginosa-produced precursor to pyocyanin, proposed to be 5-methyl-phenazinium-1-carboxylate (5MPCA), was necessary for the formation of the red pigmentation. The 5MPCA-derived pigment was found to accumulate exclusively within fungal cells, where it retained the ability to be reversibly oxidized and reduced, and its detection correlated with decreased fungal viability. Pyocyanin was not required for pigment formation or fungal killing. Spectral analyses showed that the partially purified pigment from within the fungus differed from aeruginosins A and B, two red phenazine derivatives formed late in P. aeruginosa cultures. The red pigment isolated from C. albicans that had been cocultured with P. aeruginosa was heterogeneous and difficult to release from fungal cells, suggesting its modification within the fungus. These findings suggest that intracellular targeting of some phenazines may contribute to their toxicity and that this strategy could be useful in developing new antifungals. PMID:19011064

  8. Multiple Origins of the Pathogenic Yeast Candida orthopsilosis by Separate Hybridizations between Two Parental Species.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Markus S; Martinez de San Vicente, Kontxi; Prandini, Tâmara H R; Hammel, Stephen; Higgins, Desmond G; Bagagli, Eduardo; Wolfe, Kenneth H; Butler, Geraldine

    2016-11-01

    Mating between different species produces hybrids that are usually asexual and stuck as diploids, but can also lead to the formation of new species. Here, we report the genome sequences of 27 isolates of the pathogenic yeast Candida orthopsilosis. We find that most isolates are diploid hybrids, products of mating between two unknown parental species (A and B) that are 5% divergent in sequence. Isolates vary greatly in the extent of homogenization between A and B, making their genomes a mosaic of highly heterozygous regions interspersed with homozygous regions. Separate phylogenetic analyses of SNPs in the A- and B-derived portions of the genome produces almost identical trees of the isolates with four major clades. However, the presence of two mutually exclusive genotype combinations at the mating type locus, and recombinant mitochondrial genomes diagnostic of inter-clade mating, shows that the species C. orthopsilosis does not have a single evolutionary origin but was created at least four times by separate interspecies hybridizations between parents A and B. Older hybrids have lost more heterozygosity. We also identify two isolates with homozygous genomes derived exclusively from parent A, which are pure non-hybrid strains. The parallel emergence of the same hybrid species from multiple independent hybridization events is common in plant evolution, but is much less documented in pathogenic fungi.

  9. Isobolographic Analysis of Pharmacodynamic Interactions between Antifungal Agents and Ciprofloxacin against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus▿

    PubMed Central

    Stergiopoulou, Theodouli; Meletiadis, Joseph; Sein, Tin; Papaioannidou, Paraskevi; Tsiouris, Ioannis; Roilides, Emmanuel; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Patients suffering from invasive mycoses often receive concomitant antifungal therapy and antibacterial agents. Assessment of pharmacodynamic interactions between antifungal and antibacterial agents is complicated by the absence of a common antifungal end point for both agents. Ciprofloxacin has no intrinsic antifungal activity but may interact with antifungal agents, since it inhibits DNA gyrase (topoisomerase II), which is abundant in fungi. We therefore employed isobolographic analysis adapted to incorporate a nonactive agent in order to analyze the potential in vitro interaction between the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin and several representative antifungal agents against Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus strains by using a microdilution checkerboard technique. In agreement with earlier in vitro studies, conventional fractional inhibitory concentration index analysis was unable to detect interactions between ciprofloxacin and antifungal agents. However, isobolographic analysis revealed significant pharmacodynamic interactions between antifungal agents and ciprofloxacin against C. albicans and A. fumigatus strains. Amphotericin B demonstrated concentration-dependent interactions for both species, with synergy (interaction indices, 0.14 to 0.81) observed at ciprofloxacin concentrations of <10.64 μg/ml. Synergy (interaction indices, 0.10 to 0.86) was also found for voriconazole and caspofungin against A. fumigatus. Isobolographic analysis may help to elucidate the pharmacodynamic interactions between antifungal and non-antifungal agents and to develop better management strategies against invasive candidiasis and aspergillosis. PMID:18299413

  10. Kinetic analysis of site-directed mutants of methionine synthase from Candida albicans

    SciTech Connect

    Prasannan, Priya; Suliman, Huda S.; Robertus, Jon D., E-mail: jrobertus@mail.utexas.edu

    2009-05-15

    Fungal methionine synthase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to create methionine. The enzyme, called Met6p in fungi, is required for the growth of the pathogen Candida albicans, and is consequently a reasonable target for antifungal drug design. In order to understand the mechanism of this class of enzyme, we created a three-dimensional model of the C. albicans enzyme based on the known structure of the homologous enzyme from Arabidopsis thaliana. A fusion protein was created and shown to have enzyme activity similar to the wild-type Met6p. Fusion proteins containing mutations at eight key sitesmore » were expressed and assayed in this background. The D614 carboxylate appears to ion pair with the amino group of homocysteine and is essential for activity. Similarly, D504 appears to bind to the polar edge of the folate and is also required for activity. Other groups tested have lesser roles in substrate binding and catalysis.« less

  11. Commensal Protection of Staphylococcus aureus against Antimicrobials by Candida albicans Biofilm Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Eric F.; Tsui, Christina; Kucharíková, Sona; Andes, David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Biofilm-associated polymicrobial infections, particularly those involving fungi and bacteria, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality and tend to be challenging to treat. Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus specifically are considered leading opportunistic fungal and bacterial pathogens, respectively, mainly due to their ability to form biofilms on catheters and indwelling medical devices. However, the impact of mixed-species biofilm growth on therapy remains largely understudied. In this study, we investigated the influence of C. albicans secreted cell wall polysaccharides on the response of S. aureus to antibacterial agents in biofilm. Results demonstrated significantly enhanced tolerance for S. aureus to drugs in the presence of C. albicans or its secreted cell wall polysaccharide material. Fluorescence confocal time-lapse microscopy revealed impairment of drug diffusion through the mixed biofilm matrix. Using C. albicans mutant strains with modulated cell wall polysaccharide expression, exogenous supplementation, and enzymatic degradation, the C. albicans-secreted β-1,3-glucan cell wall component was identified as the key matrix constituent providing the bacteria with enhanced drug tolerance. Further, antibody labeling demonstrated rapid coating of the bacteria by the C. albicans matrix material. Importantly, via its effect on the fungal biofilm matrix, the antifungal caspofungin sensitized the bacteria to the drugs. Understanding such symbiotic interactions with clinical relevance between microbial species in biofilms will greatly aid in overcoming the limitations of current therapies and in defining potential new targets for treating polymicrobial infections. PMID:27729510

  12. A fibronectin receptor on Candida albicans mediates adherence of the fungus to extracellular matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Klotz, S.A.; Smith, R.L.

    1991-03-01

    Binding of fibronectin, an extracellular matrix (ECM) protein, to Candida albicans was measured, and adherence of the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins, fibronectin, laminin, types I and IV collagen, and subendothelial ECM was studied. 125I-labeled fibronectin was inhibited from binding to the fungus by unlabeled human plasma fibronectin and by Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD), Gly-Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser-Pro (GRGESP), and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Thr-Pro (GRGDTP), but binding was not inhibited by Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser-Pro. Soluble fibronectin, RGD, GRGESP, and GRGDTP also inhibited fungal adherence to the individual immobilized ECM proteins in a complex pattern, but only soluble fibronectin (10(-7) M) inhibited fungal adherence to subendothelial ECM. Thus, C. albicans possessesmore » at least one type of cell surface receptor for binding soluble fibronectin that can be inhibited with peptides. This receptor apparently is used to bind the fungus to immobilized ECM proteins and to subendothelial ECM and may play a role in the initiation of disseminated disease by bloodborne fungi by providing for adherence of the microorganisms to ECM proteins.« less

  13. Candida parapsilosis as a Potent Biocontrol Agent against Growth and Aflatoxin Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, F; Zaini, F; Faramarzi, MA; Amini, M; Kordbacheh, P; Mahmoudi, M; Safara, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed stuff is a serious health problem and significant economic concerns. In the present study, the inhibitory effect of Candida parapsilosis IP1698 on mycelial growth and aflatoxin production in aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus species was investigated. Methods: Mycelial growth inhibitions of nine strains of aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species in the presence of C. parapsilosis investigated by pour plate technique at different pH, temperature and time of incubation. Reduction of aflatoxin was evaluated in co-cultured fungi in yeast extract sucrose broth after seven days of incubation using HPLC method. The data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. Results: The presence of the C. parapsilosis at different pH did not affect significantly the growth rate of Aspergillus isolates. On the other hand, temperature and time of incubation showed to be significantly effective when compared to controls without C. parapsilosis (P≤0.05). In aflatoxigenic strains, minimum percentage of reductions in total aflatoxin and B1, B2, G1, G2 fractions were 92.98, 92.54, 77.48, 54.54 and 72.22 and maximum percentage of reductions were 99.59, not detectable, 94.42, and not detectable in both G1 and G2, respectively. Conclusion: C. parapsilosis might employ as a good biocontrol agent against growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species PMID:23308351

  14. Assimilation of NAD(+) precursors in Candida glabrata.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Pan, Shih-Jung; Zupancic, Margaret L; Cormack, Brendan P

    2007-10-01

    The yeast pathogen Candida glabrata is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) auxotroph and its growth depends on the environmental supply of vitamin precursors of NAD(+). C. glabrata salvage pathways defined in this article allow NAD(+) to be synthesized from three compounds - nicotinic acid (NA), nicotinamide (NAM) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). NA is salvaged through a functional Preiss-Handler pathway. NAM is first converted to NA by nicotinamidase and then salvaged by the Preiss-Handler pathway. Salvage of NR in C. glabrata occurs via two routes. The first, in which NR is phosphorylated by the NR kinase Nrk1, is independent of the Preiss-Handler pathway. The second is a novel pathway in which NR is degraded by the nucleosidases Pnp1 and Urh1, with a minor role for Meu1, and ultimately converted to NAD(+) via the nicotinamidase Pnc1 and the Preiss-Handler pathway. Using C. glabrata mutants whose growth depends exclusively on the external NA or NR supply, we also show that C. glabrata utilizes NR and to a lesser extent NA as NAD(+) sources during disseminated infection.

  15. Candida innate immunity at the mucosa.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Jonathan P; Moyes, David L; Ho, Jemima; Naglik, Julian R

    2018-03-09

    The tremendous diversity in microbial species that colonise the mucosal surfaces of the human body is only now beginning to be fully appreciated. Distinguishing between the behaviour of commensal microbes and harmful pathogens that reside at mucosal sites in the body is a complex, and exquisitely fine-tuned process central to mucosal health. The fungal pathobiont Candida albicans is frequently isolated from mucosal surfaces with an asymptomatic carriage rate of approximately 60% in the human population. While normally a benign member of the microbiota, overgrowth of C. albicans often results in localised mucosal infection causing morbidity in otherwise healthy individuals, and invasive infection that often causes death in the absence of effective immune defence. C. albicans triggers numerous innate immune responses at mucosal surfaces, and detection of C. albicans hyphae in particular, stimulates the production of antimicrobial peptides, danger-associated molecular patterns and cytokines that function to reduce fungal burdens during infection. This review will summarise our current understanding of innate immune responses to C. albicans at mucosal surfaces. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Candida esophagitis in an immunocompetent pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Greenspoon, J S; Kivnick, S

    1993-01-01

    Nausea and vomiting are common during the first half of pregnancy and usually require only supportive measures. When symptoms are progressive and weight loss occurs, treatable causes should be sought by means of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. We report a case of an immunocompetent gravida with invasive Candida albicans esophagitis. The immunocompetent primigravida developed progressive nausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, and a 4.1 kg weight loss during the second trimester of pregnancy. Treatment with metoclopramide and cimetidine for presumed gastroesophageal reflux was not effective. The patient had normal T-cell CD4 and CD8 subsets and was human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody negative. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed C. albicans esophagitis which was treated with oral nystatin. The esophagitis had resolved completely when reassessed postpartum. The use of histamine(2) blockers is associated with an increased risk for fungal esophagitis and may have been a contributing cause in this case. Pregnant patients with persistent nausea, vomiting, and weight loss should be evaluated by endoscopy for fungal esophagitis.

  17. Farnesol-induced apoptosis in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Shirtliff, Mark E; Krom, Bastiaan P; Meijering, Roelien A M; Peters, Brian M; Zhu, Jingsong; Scheper, Mark A; Harris, Megan L; Jabra-Rizk, Mary Ann

    2009-06-01

    Farnesol, a precursor in the isoprenoid/sterol pathway, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing molecule produced by the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Farnesol is involved in the inhibition of germination and biofilm formation by C. albicans and can be cytotoxic at certain concentrations. In addition, we have shown that farnesol can trigger apoptosis in mammalian cells via the classical apoptotic pathways. In order to elucidate the mechanism behind farnesol cytotoxicity in C. albicans, the response to farnesol was investigated, using proteomic analysis. Global protein expression profiles demonstrated significant changes in protein expression resulting from farnesol exposure. Among the downregulated proteins were those involved in metabolism, glycolysis, protein synthesis, and mitochondrial electron transport and the respiratory chain, whereas proteins involved in folding, protection against environmental and oxidative stress, actin cytoskeleton reorganization, and apoptosis were upregulated. Cellular changes that accompany apoptosis (regulated cell death) were further analyzed using fluorescent microscopy and gene expression analysis. The results indicated reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial degradation, and positive terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) in the farnesol-exposed cells concurrent with increased expression of antioxidant-encoding and drug response genes. More importantly, the results demonstrated farnesol-induced upregulation of the caspase gene MCA1 and the intracellular presence of activated caspases. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that farnesol promotes apoptosis in C. albicans through caspase activation, implying an important physiological role for farnesol in the fungal cell life cycle with important implications for adaptation and survival.

  18. Triclosan Antagonizes Fluconazole Activity against Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, J.; Pinjon, E.; Oltean, H.N.; White, T.C.; Kelly, S.L.; Martel, C.M.; Sullivan, D.J.; Coleman, D.C.; Moran, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound commonly used in oral hygiene products. Investigation of its activity against Candida albicans showed that triclosan was fungicidal at concentrations of 16 mg/L. However, at subinhibitory concentrations (0.5-2 mg/L), triclosan antagonized the activity of fluconazole. Although triclosan induced CDR1 expression in C. albicans, antagonism was still observed in cdr1Δ and cdr2Δ strains. Triclosan did not affect fluconazole uptake or alter total membrane sterol content, but did induce the expression of FAS1 and FAS2, indicating that its mode of action may involve inhibition of fatty acid synthesis, as it does in prokaryotes. However, FAS2 mutants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to triclosan, and overexpression of both FAS1 and FAS2 alleles did not alter triclosan susceptibility. Unexpectedly, the antagonistic effect was specific for C. albicans under hypha-inducing conditions and was absent in the non-filamentous efg1Δ strain. This antagonism may be due to the membranotropic activity of triclosan and the unique composition of hyphal membranes. PMID:21972257

  19. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. Methods: The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. Results: According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a

  20. Essential Oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle: A Strategy to Combat Fungal Infections Caused by Candida Species.

    PubMed

    De Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Ramos, Matheus Aparecido Dos Santos; Spósito, Larissa; Castilho, Elza Maria; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Lopes, Érica De Oliveira; Zocolo, Guilherme Julião; Silva, Francisca Aliny Nunes; Soares, Tigressa Helena; Dos Santos, André Gonzaga; Bauab, Taís Maria; De Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo

    2016-08-09

    The incidence of fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida yeasts, has increased over the last two decades. However, the indicated therapy for fungal control has limitations. Hence, medicinal plants have emerged as an alternative in the search for new antifungal agents as they present compounds, such as essential oils, with important biological effects. Published data demonstrate important pharmacological properties of the essential oil of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle; these include anti-tumor, anti-nociceptive, and antibacterial activities, and so an investigation of this compound against pathogenic fungi is interesting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition and biological potential of essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. nardus focusing on its antifungal profile against Candida species. The EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Testing of the antifungal potential against standard and clinical strains was performed by determining the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill, inhibition of Candida albicans hyphae growth, and inhibition of mature biofilms. Additionally, the cytotoxicity was investigated by the IC50 against HepG-2 (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast) cell lines. According to the chemical analysis, the main compounds of the EO were the oxygen-containing monoterpenes: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol, and neral. The results showed important antifungal potential for all strains tested with MIC values ranging from 250 to 1000 μg/mL, except for two clinical isolates of C. tropicalis (MIC > 1000 μg/mL). The time-kill assay showed that the EO inhibited the growth of the yeast and inhibited hyphal formation of C. albicans strains at concentrations ranging from 15.8 to 1000 μg/mL. Inhibition of mature biofilms of strains of C. albicans, C. krusei and C. parapsilosis occurred at a concentration of 10× MIC. The values of the IC50

  1. Degradation of hop bitter acids by fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Huszcza, Ewa; Bartmanska, Agnieszka; Aniol, Miroslaw

    2008-07-01

    Nine fungal strains related to: Trametes versicolor, Nigrospora oryzae, Inonotus radiatus, Crumenulopsis sororia, Coryneum betulinum, Cryptosporiopsis radicicola, Fusarium equiseti, Rhodotorula glutinis and Candida parapsilosis were tested for their ability to degrade humulones and lupulones. The best results were obtained for T. versicolor culture, in which humulones and lupulones were fully degraded after 4 days of incubation in the dark or after 36 h in the light. The experiments were performed on a commercial hop extract and on sterilized spent hops.

  2. Three anamorphic yeast species Candida sanitii sp. nov., Candida sekii sp. nov. and Candida suwanaritii, three novel yeasts in the Saturnispora clade isolated in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Kaewwichian, Rungluk; Am-In, Somjit; Boonmak, Chanita; Jindamorakot, Sasitorn; Yongmanitchai, Wichien; Srisuk, Natana; Kawasaki, Hiroko; Nakase, Takashi

    2010-02-01

    Nine strains of three novel anamorphic yeast species were obtained from samples collected in Thailand including six strains (RV96, RV152, R14, RS9, RS58 and EA1) obtained from estuarine waters collected from two mangrove forests, one strain (ST84) from insect frass and two strains (SR16 and UB13) from forest soils. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, and the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit rRNA gene, the nine strains were found to represent three novel Candida species in the Saturnispora clade. Five strains (RV96, RV152, R14, RS9 and RS58) were assigned as a single novel species, which was named Candida sanitii sp. nov. The type strain is RV152(T) (BCC 25967(T)=NBRC 103864(T)=CBS 10864(T)). Strain EA1 was named as Candida suwanaritii sp. nov. The type strain is EA1(T) (BCC 29900(T)=NBRC 104877(T)=CBS 11021(T)). Three strains (ST84, SR16 and UB13) represented another novel species, for which Candida sekii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is ST84(T) (BCC 8320(T)=NBRC 105671(T)=CBS 10931(T)).

  3. Candida chanthaburiensis sp. nov., Candida kungkrabaensis sp. nov. and Candida suratensis sp. nov., three novel yeast species from decaying plant materials submerged in water of mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Limtong, Savitree; Yongmanitchai, Wichien

    2010-10-01

    In a taxonomic study of yeasts isolated from decaying plant materials submerged in water of mangrove forests in Thailand, three strains isolated from tree bark (EM33(T)), a fallen leaf (EM40(T)) and a detached branch (SM56(T)) were found to represent three novel yeast species. On the basis of morphological, biochemical, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, the sequence analysis of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit (LSU) rRNA gene, and the phylogenetic analysis, the three strains were assigned as three novel Candida species. They were named as Candida chanthaburiensis sp. nov. (type strain EM33(T) = BCC 23057(T) = NBRC 102176(T) = CBS 10926(T)), Candida kungkrabaensis sp. nov. (type strain EM40(T) = BCC 23060(T) = NBRC 102179(T) = CBS 10927(T)), and Candida suratensis sp. nov. (type strain SM56(T) = BCC 25961(T) = NBRC 103858(T) = CBS 10928(T)).

  4. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-03-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata.

  5. Candida glabrata Binding to Candida albicans Hyphae Enables Its Development in Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Tati, Swetha; Davidow, Peter; McCall, Andrew; Hwang-Wong, Elizabeth; Rojas, Isolde G.; Cormack, Brendan; Edgerton, Mira

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically. Mice were infected sublingually with C. albicans or C. glabrata individually, or with both species concurrently, to study their ability to cause OPC. Infection with C. glabrata alone resulted in negligible infection of tongues; however, colonization by C. glabrata was increased by co-infection or a pre-established infection with C. albicans. Furthermore, C. glabrata required C. albicans for colonization of tongues, since decreasing C. albicans burden with fluconazole also reduced C. glabrata. C. albicans hyphal wall adhesins Als1 and Als3 were important for in vitro adhesion of C. glabrata and to establish OPC. C. glabrata cell wall protein coding genes EPA8, EPA19, AWP2, AWP7, and CAGL0F00181 were implicated in mediating adhesion to C. albicans hyphae and remarkably, their expression was induced by incubation with germinated C. albicans. Thus, we found a near essential requirement for the presence of C. albicans for both initial colonization and establishment of OPC infection by C. glabrata. PMID:27029023

  6. Clinical Appearance of Oral Candida Infection and Therapeutic Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shankargouda; Rao, Roopa S.; Majumdar, Barnali; Anil, Sukumaran

    2015-01-01

    Candida species present both as commensals and opportunistic pathogens of the oral cavity. For decades, it has enthralled the clinicians to investigate its pathogenicity and to improvise newer therapeutic regimens based on the updated molecular research. Candida is readily isolated from the oral cavity, but simple carriage does not predictably result in development of an infection. Whether it remains as a commensal, or transmutes into a pathogen, is usually determined by pre-existing or associated variations in the host immune system. The candida infections may range from non-life threatening superficial mucocutaneous disorders to invasive disseminated disease involving multiple organs. In fact, with the increase in number of AIDS cases, there is a resurgence of less common forms of oral candida infections. The treatment after confirmation of the diagnosis should include recognizing and eliminating the underlying causes such as ill-fitting oral appliances, history of medications (antibiotics, corticosteroids, etc.), immunological and endocrine disorders, nutritional deficiency states and prolonged hospitalization. Treatment with appropriate topical antifungal agents such as amphotericin, nystatin, or miconazole usually resolves the symptoms of superficial infection. Occasionally, administration of systemic antifungal agents may be necessary in immunocompromised patients, the selection of which should be based upon history of recent azole exposure, a history of intolerance to an antifungal agent, the dominant Candida species and current susceptibility data. PMID:26733948

  7. Psoriasin, a novel anti-Candida albicans adhesin.

    PubMed

    Brauner, Annelie; Alvendal, Cathrin; Chromek, Milan; Stopsack, Konrad H; Ehrström, Sophia; Schröder, Jens M; Bohm-Starke, Nina

    2018-05-07

    Candida albicans belongs to the normal microbial flora on epithelial surfaces of humans. However, under certain, still not fully understood conditions, it can become pathogenic and cause a spectrum of diseases, from local infections to life-threatening septicemia. We investigated a panel of antimicrobial proteins and peptides (AMPs), potentially involved in mucosal immunity against this pathogen. Out of six studied AMPs, psoriasin was most up-regulated during a mucosal infection, an acute episode of recurrent Candida vulvovaginitis, although candidacidal activity has not been demonstrated. We here show that psoriasin binds to β-glucan, a basic component of the C. albicans cell wall, and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen to surfaces and increases IL-8 production by mucosal epithelial cells. In conclusion, we show a novel mechanism of action of psoriasin. By inhibiting C. albicans adhesion and by enhancing cytokine production, psoriasin contributes to the immune response against C. albicans. The antimicrobial peptide psoriasin is highly up-regulated during a local mucosal infection, Candida albicans vulvovaginitis. Psoriasin binds to β-glucan in the Candida albicans cell wall and thereby inhibits adhesion of the pathogen. Binding of psoriasin to Candida albicans induces an immune response by mucosal epithelial cells.

  8. Reduced adherence of Candida to silane-treated silicone rubber.

    PubMed

    Price, C L; Williams, D W; Waters, M G J; Coulthwaite, L; Verran, J; Taylor, R L; Stickler, D; Lewis, M A O

    2005-07-01

    Silicone rubber is widely used in the construction of medical devices that can provide an essential role in the treatment of human illness. However, subsequent microbial colonization of silicone rubber can result in clinical infection or device failure. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a novel silane-treated silicone rubber in inhibiting microbial adherence and material penetration. Test material was prepared by a combination of argon plasma discharge treatment and fluorinated silane coupling. Chemicophysical changes were then confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, contact-angle measurement, and atomic force microscopy. Two separate adherence assays and a material penetration assay assessed the performance of the new material against four strains of Candida species. Results showed a significant reduction (p < 0.01) of Candida albicans GDH 2346 adherence to silane-treated silicone compared with untreated controls. This reduction was still evident after the incorporation of saliva into the assay. Adherence inhibition also occurred with Candida tropicalis MMU and Candida krusei NCYC, although this was assay dependent. Reduced penetration of silane-treated silicone by Candida was evident when compared to untreated controls, plaster-processed silicone, and acrylic-processed silicone. To summarize, a novel silicone rubber material is described that inhibits both candidal adherence and material penetration. The clinical benefit and performance of this material remains to be determined. Copyright 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Candida spp. in oral cancer and oral precancerous lesions.

    PubMed

    Gall, Francesca; Colella, Giuseppe; Di Onofrio, Valeria; Rossiello, Raffaele; Angelillo, Italo Francesco; Liguori, Giorgio

    2013-07-01

    To assess the presence of Candida spp. in lesions of the oral cavity in a sample of patients with precancer or cancer of the mouth and evaluate the limitations and advantages of microbiological and histological methods, 103 subjects with precancerous or cancerous lesions and not treated were observed between 2007 and 2009. The presence of Candida in the lesions was analyzed by microbiological and histological methods. Cohen's k statistic was used to assess the agreement between culture method and staining techniques. Forty-eight (47%) patients had cancer and 55 (53%) patients had precancerous lesions. Candida spp. were isolated from 31 (30%) patients with cancerous lesions and 33 (32%) with precancerous lesions. C. albicans was the most frequent species isolated in the lesions. The k value showed a fair overall agreement for comparisons between culture method and PAS (0.2825) or GMS (0.3112). This study supports the frequent presence of Candida spp. in cancer and precancerous lesions of the oral cavity. Both microbiological investigations and histological techniques were reliable for detection of Candida spp. It would be desirable for the two techniques to be considered complementary in the detection of yeast infections in these types of lesions.

  10. Signs of chronic stress in women with recurrent candida vulvovaginitis.

    PubMed

    Ehrström, Sophia M; Kornfeld, Dan; Thuresson, Jessica; Rylander, Eva

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there is an association between recurrent vulvovaginal candida and chronic stress. Chronic stress affects the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, which influences the immune function. Recurrent candida vulvovaginitis is increasing. Women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida (n = 35) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 35) collected saliva for the analysis of cortisol. Hormone analyses of blood samples and vulvovaginal examinations were performed. A questionnaire was completed. Morning rise cortisol level was significantly blunted among patients compared with control subjects (P < .002). Mean levels of salivary cortisol were lower the first 45 minutes after awakening in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida, compared with control subjects. More patients than control subjects reported a history of condyloma, bacterial vaginosis, and herpes genitalis. No differences were seen between patients and control subjects regarding sexual hormone binding globulin, dihydroepiandrosterone, testosterone or Hemoglobin A1c. Morning rise salivary cortisol level is blunted in women with recurrent vulvovaginal candida, which indicates signs of chronic stress. The higher incidence of vulvovaginal infections in these women compared with control subjects may reflect impaired immunity, which may be due to chronic stress.

  11. In vitro effectiveness of anidulafungin against Candida sp. biofilms.

    PubMed

    Rosato, Antonio; Piarulli, Monica; Schiavone, Brigida Pia Immacolata; Catalano, Alessia; Carocci, Alessia; Carrieri, Antonio; Carone, Addolorata; Caggiano, Giuseppina; Franchini, Carlo; Corbo, Filomena; Montagna, Maria Teresa

    2013-12-01

    This study furnishes deeper insights to previous works on anidulafungin, demonstrating the potent activity against Candida strains planktonic cells and biofilms. Candida sp., associated with many biomaterial-related infections, give rise to infective pathologies typically associated with biofilm formation. We recently determined the in vitro antifungal activities of echinocandin anidulafungin in association with some antifungal drugs against some Candida strains in their planktonic states. A total of 11 Candida strains biofilms were tested in this study: six Candida albicans, three C. parapsilosis and two C. tropicalis. All yeast isolates and ATCC strains were stored at -20°C in glycerol stocks and were subcultured on antimicrobial agent-free Sabouraud dextrose agar plates. MIC endpoints were determined colorimetrically by using the indicator 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulphophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino)carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) with menadione as electron-coupling agent. The activity of anidulafungin was assessed using in vitro microbiological model relevant for clinical practice. Anidulafungin showed a strong activity in vitro against both planktonic and biofilms cells, and our study confirms that high anidulafungin concentrations might establish paradoxical growth effect in C. albicans and C. tropicalis biofilms.

  12. Candida strains from neonates in a special care baby unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, A M; Odds, F C; Evans, E G

    1992-01-01

    Carriage and acquisition of Candida spp and Candida albicans biotypes were studied among 163 neonates and 90 staff in a neonatal intensive care and surgical unit during a 17 week period. Twenty one neonates carried yeasts in the mouth, rectum or groin when first sampled, and a further 25 were positive later. C albicans accounted for 94.7% of 431 yeast isolates from neonates but only 67.4% of 43 isolates from staff. The first isolated C albicans biotype persisted in 13 babies monitored longitudinally. Simultaneous colonisation with two Candida spp was found in 2/46 neonates and 5/33 staff. The prevalence of candida was significantly higher among babies of gestational age less than 28 weeks (65%) than those of higher gestational age (26%). Oral and/or crural candida infection was observed in 14 of the babies but none developed deep seated candidosis. Routine antifungal prophylaxis did not affect the frequency of yeasts among the neonates. PMID:1536586

  13. Candida spp. in periodontal disease: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Janaina C O; Duque, Cristiane; Mariano, Flávia S; Peixoto, Iza T A; Höfling, José F; Gonçalves, Reginaldo B

    2010-06-01

    Although the main reservoir of Candida spp. is believed to be the buccal mucosa, these microorganisms can coaggregate with bacteria in subgingival biofilm and adhere to epithelial cells. Such interactions are associated with the capacity of Candida spp. to invade gingival conjunctive tissue, and may be important in the microbial colonization that contributes to progression of oral alterations caused by diabetes mellitus, some medications, and immunosuppressive diseases such as AIDS. In addition, immune deficiency can result in proliferation of Candida spp. and germination of forms that are more virulent and have a higher capacity to adhere to and penetrate cells in host tissues. The virulence factors of Candida spp. increase host susceptibility to proliferation of these microorganisms and are likely to be important in the study of periodontal disease. Herein, we briefly review the literature pertaining to the role of Candida spp. in periodontal disease, and consider the main virulence factors, the host immune response to these microorganisms, and the effect of concomitant immunosuppressive conditions.

  14. Entomopathogenic fungi for mosquito control: A review

    PubMed Central

    Scholte, Ernst-Jan; Knols, Bart G.J.; Samson, Robert A.; Takken, Willem

    2004-01-01

    Fungal diseases in insects are common and widespread and can decimate their populations in spectacular epizootics. Virtually all insect orders are susceptible to fungal diseases, including Dipterans. Fungal pathogens such as Lagenidium, Coelomomyces and Culicinomyces are known to affect mosquito populations, and have been studied extensively. There are, however, many other fungi that infect and kill mosquitoes at the larval and/or adult stage. The discovery, in 1977, of the selective mosquito-pathogenic bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner israelensis (Bti) curtailed widespread interest in the search for other suitable biological control agents. In recent years interest in mosquito-killing fungi is reviving, mainly due to continuous and increasing levels of insecticide resistance and increasing global risk of mosquito-borne diseases. This review presents an update of published data on mosquito-pathogenic fungi and mosquito-pathogen interactions, covering 13 different fungal genera. Notwithstanding the potential of many fungi as mosquito control agents, only a handful have been commercialized and are marketed for use in abatement programs. We argue that entomopathogenic fungi, both new and existing ones with renewed/improved efficacies may contribute to an expansion of the limited arsenal of effective mosquito control tools, and that they may contribute in a significant and sustainable manner to the control of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue and filariasis. PMID:15861235

  15. Comparative genome analysis of Basidiomycete fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Robert; Salamov, Asaf; Henrissat, Bernard

    Fungi of the phylum Basidiomycota (basidiomycetes), make up some 37percent of the described fungi, and are important in forestry, agriculture, medicine, and bioenergy. This diverse phylum includes symbionts, pathogens, and saprotrophs including the majority of wood decaying and ectomycorrhizal species. To better understand the genetic diversity of this phylum we compared the genomes of 35 basidiomycetes including 6 newly sequenced genomes. These genomes span extremes of genome size, gene number, and repeat content. Analysis of core genes reveals that some 48percent of basidiomycete proteins are unique to the phylum with nearly half of those (22percent) found in only one organism.more » Correlations between lifestyle and certain gene families are evident. Phylogenetic patterns of plant biomass-degrading genes in Agaricomycotina suggest a continuum rather than a dichotomy between the white rot and brown rot modes of wood decay. Based on phylogenetically-informed PCA analysis of wood decay genes, we predict that that Botryobasidium botryosum and Jaapia argillacea have properties similar to white rot species, although neither has typical ligninolytic class II fungal peroxidases (PODs). This prediction is supported by growth assays in which both fungi exhibit wood decay with white rot-like characteristics. Based on this, we suggest that the white/brown rot dichotomy may be inadequate to describe the full range of wood decaying fungi. Analysis of the rate of discovery of proteins with no or few homologs suggests the value of continued sequencing of basidiomycete fungi.« less

  16. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  17. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    PubMed

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Susceptibility of ectomycorrhizal fungi to soil heating.

    PubMed

    Kipfer, Tabea; Egli, Simon; Ghazoul, Jaboury; Moser, Barbara; Wohlgemuth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (EcM) fungi are an important biotic factor for successful tree recruitment because they enhance plant growth and alleviate drought stress of their hosts. Thus, EcM propagules are expected to be a key factor for forest regeneration after major disturbance events such as stand-replacing forest fires. Yet the susceptibility of soil-borne EcM fungi to heat is unclear. In this study, we investigated the heat tolerance of EcM fungi of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae). Soil samples of three soil depths were heated to the temperature of 45, 60 and 70 °C, respectively, and surviving EcM fungi were assessed by a bioassay using Scots pine as an experimental host plant. EcM species were identified by a combination of morphotyping and sequencing of the ITS region. We found that mean number of species per sample was reduced by the 60 and 70 °C treatment, but not by the 45 °C treatment. Species composition changed due to heat. While some EcM fungi species did not survive heating, the majority of species was also found in the heated samples. The most frequent species in the heat treatment were Rhizopogon roseolus, Cenococcum geophilum and several uni