Science.gov

Sample records for yielded significant findings

  1. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32... Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact § 51.32 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding...

  2. Sonocrystallization yields monoclinic paracetamol with significantly improved compaction behavior.

    PubMed

    Bučar, Dejan-Krešimir; Elliott, James A; Eddleston, Mark D; Cockcroft, Jeremy K; Jones, William

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound-assisted crystallization (sonocrystallization) was used to prepare a mixture of nano- and micrometer-sized crystals of the monoclinic form of paracetamol-a widely used analgesic known for its particularly problematic mechanical behavior under compression (i.e. poor tabletability). The nano- and micrometer-sized crystals yielded a powder which exhibits elastic moduli and bulk cohesions that are significantly higher than those observed in samples consisting of macrometer-sized crystals, thus leading to enhanced tabletability without the use of excipients, particle coating, salt, or cocrystal formation. Experimental compaction and finite element analysis were utilized to rationalize the significantly improved compaction behavior of the monoclinic form of paracetamol.

  3. 16 CFR 1021.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1021.13 Section 1021.13 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW Contents of Environmental Review Documents § 1021.13 Finding of no significant impact. (a) A finding of...

  4. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... significant effect on the human environment and why, therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 504.6 Section 504.6... POLICY ANALYSIS § 504.6 Finding of no significant impact. (a) If upon completion of an...

  5. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... significant effect on the human environment and why, therefore, an environmental impact statement (EIS) will... quality of the human environment of the United States or of the global commons, a finding of no... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 504.6 Section...

  6. 76 FR 68260 - Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... interested parties the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the United States Merchant Marine Academy Mallory Pier Replacement project. An environmental assessment (EA) and FONSI have been prepared...

  7. Unexpected Findings in Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Their Clinical Significance

    PubMed Central

    Ravindran, Srivathsan; Hancox, Sarah Helen; Barlow, Neil; Dunk, Arthur; Howlett, David

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To identify the prevalence of colonic and extraenteric incidental findings in magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and their clinical significance. Methods. We retrospectively analysed 470 MRE studies carried out between March 2012 and 2014. Incidental findings were defined as those not expected from or made apparent on the referral. MRE reports were reviewed for colonic and extraenteric findings, subcategorised into “clinically significant” and “insignificant.” Follow-up was identified from the electronic patient record. Results. The majority of MRE requests were made for inflammatory bowel disease (97%). In total, 114 incidental findings were noted in 94 (20%) scans performed. There were 29 “colonic” findings (25%) with 55% having a diagnosis of colitis. Out of 85 extraenteric findings, ovarian cysts (25%), renal cysts (10%), and abdominal lymphadenopathy (9%) were the commonest. Cumulatively, 59 cases were clinically significant (52%); of these, 30 findings were not previously diagnosed, amounting to 26% of all incidental findings. This led to intervention in seven patients. Conclusions. Incidental findings are common in MRE and there is a substantial proportion that is clinically significant and requires further investigation. There need to be stratification of risk and employment of local guidelines in order to achieve this. PMID:27446837

  8. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND...

  10. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND...

  11. 40 CFR 1508.13 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... have a significant effect on the human environment and for which an environmental impact statement... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 1508.13 Section 1508.13 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND...

  12. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human...

  13. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human...

  14. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human...

  15. 10 CFR 51.32 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 51.32 Section 51.32 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION REGULATIONS FOR DOMESTIC... reasons why the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the quality of the human...

  16. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA.... If the EA does not support a FONSI, the Responsible Official must prepare an EIS and issue a ROD before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include:...

  17. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA.... If the EA does not support a FONSI, the Responsible Official must prepare an EIS and issue a ROD before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include:...

  18. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA.... If the EA does not support a FONSI, the Responsible Official must prepare an EIS and issue a ROD before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include:...

  19. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA.... If the EA does not support a FONSI, the Responsible Official must prepare an EIS and issue a ROD before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include:...

  20. 40 CFR 6.206 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Responsible Official may issue a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) (see 40 CFR 1508.13) only if the EA.... If the EA does not support a FONSI, the Responsible Official must prepare an EIS and issue a ROD before taking action on the proposed action. (b) Consistent with 40 CFR 1508.13, a FONSI must include:...

  1. 46 CFR 504.6 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION GENERAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PROCEDURES FOR ENVIRONMENTAL... document shall include the environmental assessment or a summary of it, and shall briefly present the... not be prepared. (b) Petitions for review of a finding of no significant impact must be received...

  2. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21...

  3. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21...

  4. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21...

  5. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21...

  6. 32 CFR 651.21 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Finding of no significant impact. 651.21 Section 651.21 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Records and Documents § 651.21...

  7. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-03-01

    We explore a new approach for structural connectivity based segmentations of subcortical brain regions. Connectivity based segmentations are usually based on fibre connections from a seed region to predefined target regions. We present a method for finding significantly connected voxels based on the distribution of connection strengths. Paths from seed voxels to all voxels in a target region are obtained from a shortest-path tractography. For each seed voxel we approximate the distribution with a histogram of path scores. We hypothesise that the majority of estimated connections are false-positives and that their connection strength is distributed differently from true-positive connections. Therefore, an empirical null-distribution is defined for each target region as the average normalized histogram over all voxels in the seed region. Single histograms are then tested against the corresponding null-distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto-occipital zone. The obtained segmentations consistently show a sparse number of significantly connected voxels that are located near the surface of the anterior thalamus over a population of 38 subjects.

  8. Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment: Significant and Quantitative Findings Made

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    Direct examination of atomic interactions is difficult. One powerful approach to visualizing atomic interactions is to study near-index-matched colloidal dispersions of microscopic plastic spheres, which can be probed by visible light. Such spheres interact through hydrodynamic and Brownian forces, but they feel no direct force before an infinite repulsion at contact. Through the microgravity flight of the Physics of Hard Spheres Experiment (PHaSE), researchers have sought a more complete understanding of the entropically driven disorder-order transition in hard-sphere colloidal dispersions. The experiment was conceived by Professors Paul M. Chaikin and William B. Russel of Princeton University. Microgravity was required because, on Earth, index-matched colloidal dispersions often cannot be density matched, resulting in significant settling over the crystallization period. This settling makes them a poor model of the equilibrium atomic system, where the effect of gravity is truly negligible. For this purpose, a customized light-scattering instrument was designed, built, and flown by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field on the space shuttle (shuttle missions STS 83 and STS 94). This instrument performed both static and dynamic light scattering, with sample oscillation for determining rheological properties. Scattered light from a 532- nm laser was recorded either by a 10-bit charge-coupled discharge (CCD) camera from a concentric screen covering angles of 0 to 60 or by sensitive avalanche photodiode detectors, which convert the photons into binary data from which two correlators compute autocorrelation functions. The sample cell was driven by a direct-current servomotor to allow sinusoidal oscillation for the measurement of rheological properties. Significant microgravity research findings include the observation of beautiful dendritic crystals, the crystallization of a "glassy phase" sample in microgravity that did not crystallize for over 1 year in 1g

  9. [Significant laparoscopy and ultrasound findings in chronic hepatic porphyria].

    PubMed

    Fengler, J D; Binus, R; Hintsche-Kilger, B; Baumgarten, R

    1990-09-01

    In the years from 1983 to 1989 we diagnosed in altogether 69 patients a chronic hepatic porphyria. As a rule the light microscopic and sonographic findings in the liver use to be uncharacteristic. Yet, unexpectedly by sonography in eight patients findings, suspicious for metastases, were stated. Multiple coin lesions with a marginal edge mostly rich in echoes were impressing. The laparoscopy resulted in grey/blue-discoloured depressions in an otherwise even surface of the liver, thus suggesting mass necroses respectively rebuilding processes. Subclinical stages of a chronic hepatic porphyria could have been proved by the partial red-fluorescence of bioptates and a corresponding porphyrin secretion. The histological changes of the liver were--in contrary to the impressing laparoscopic picture--rather insignificant. In case of a successful intervention the pathological porphyrin secretion was done in about eight months. Mostly, more than a year used to pass away till the sonographic findings normalized. The seldom described phenomena use to conceal the danger of a false interpretation and an unnecessary stress for the patient. More over the causes and the development of these peculiar porphyria findings are unclear; they need in an discussion among medical special branches.

  10. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the environment and thus will not be the subject of an EIS. The FONSI must summarize the EA or, preferably, have... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one...

  11. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the environment and thus will not be the subject of an EIS. The FONSI must summarize the EA or, preferably, have... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one...

  12. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the environment and thus will not be the subject of an EIS. The FONSI must summarize the EA or, preferably, have... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one...

  13. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the environment and thus will not be the subject of an EIS. The FONSI must summarize the EA or, preferably, have... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one...

  14. 32 CFR 989.15 - Finding of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FONSI (40 CFR 1508.13) briefly describes why an action would not have a significant effect on the environment and thus will not be the subject of an EIS. The FONSI must summarize the EA or, preferably, have... the action (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)): (i) When the proposed action is, or is closely similar to, one...

  15. Finding Significant Correlates of Conscious Activity in Rhythmic EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durka, Piotr J.

    2005-12-01

    One of the important issues in designing an EEG-based brain-computer interface is an exact delineation of the rhythms, related to the intended or performed action. Traditionally, related bands were found by trial and error procedures seeking maximum reactivity. Even then, large values of ERD/ERS did not imply the statistical significance of the results. This paper presents complete methodology, allowing for a high-resolution presentation of the whole time-frequency picture of event-related changes in the energy density of signals, revealing the microstructure of rhythms, and determination of the time-frequency regions of energy changes, which are related to the intentions in a statistically significant way.

  16. Media Naturalness and Online Learning: Findings Supporting Both the Significant- and No-Significant-Difference Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kock, Ned; Verville, Jacques; Garza, Vanessa

    2007-01-01

    Is the use of an online course delivery format, when compared with the more traditional face-to-face format, good or bad in the context of university education? Those who subscribe to the no-significant-difference perspective argue that online delivery is good, because it allows students with time and geographic distance constraints to obtain the…

  17. Significance of smoking machine toxicant yields to blood-level exposure in waterpipe tobacco smokers

    PubMed Central

    Shihadeh, Alan L.; Eissenberg, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The global rise in tobacco smoking using a waterpipe (hookah, narghile, shisha) has made understanding its health consequences imperative. One key to developing this understanding is identifying and quantifying carcinogens and other toxicants present in waterpipe smoke. To do so, the toxicant yield of machine-generated waterpipe smoke has been measured. However, the relevance of toxicant yields of machine-generated smoke to actual human exposure has not been established. Methods In this study, we examined whether CO and nicotine yields measured using a smoking machine programmed to replicate the puffing behavior of 31 human participants who smoked a waterpipe could reliably predict these participant’s blood-level exposure. In addition to CO and nicotine, yields of PAH, volatile aldehydes, NO, and “tar” were measured. Results We found that when used in this puff-replicating manner, smoking machine yields are highly correlated with blood-level exposure (Nicotine: r>0.76, p<0.001; CO: r>0.78, p<0.001). Total drawn smoke volume was the best predictor of toxicant yield and exposure, accounting for approximately 75–100% of the variability across participants in yields of NO, CO, volatile aldehydes and “tar”, and blood-level CO and normalized nicotine. Conclusions Machine-based methods can be devised in which smoke toxicant yields reliably track human exposure. Impact This finding indicates the basic feasibility of valid analytical laboratory evaluation of tobacco products for regulatory purposes. PMID:21914836

  18. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    PubMed

    Hijri, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  19. 75 FR 65294 - Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Rural Utilities Service Southern Maryland Electric Cooperative: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Rural Utilities Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact. SUMMARY: The Rural Utilities Service (RUS) has issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for...

  20. Recent trends in vegetation greenness in China significantly altered annual evapotranspiration and water yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yibo; Xiao, Jingfeng; Ju, Weimin; Xu, Ke; Zhou, Yanlian; Zhao, Yuntai

    2016-09-01

    There has been growing evidence that vegetation greenness has been increasing in many parts of the northern middle and high latitudes including China during the last three to four decades. However, the effects of increasing vegetation greenness particularly afforestation on the hydrological cycle have been controversial. We used a process-based ecosystem model and a satellite-derived leaf area index (LAI) dataset to examine how the changes in vegetation greenness affected annual evapotranspiration (ET) and water yield for China over the period from 2000 to 2014. Significant trends in vegetation greenness were observed in 26.1% of China’s land area. We used two model simulations driven with original and detrended LAI, respectively, to assess the effects of vegetation ‘greening’ and ‘browning’ on terrestrial ET and water yield. On a per-pixel basis, vegetation greening increased annual ET and decreased water yield, while vegetation browning reduced ET and increased water yield. At the large river basin and national scales, the greening trends also had positive effects on annual ET and had negative effects on water yield. Our results showed that the effects of the changes in vegetation greenness on the hydrological cycle varied with spatial scale. Afforestation efforts perhaps should focus on southern China with larger water supply given the water crisis in northern China and the negative effects of vegetation greening on water yield. Future studies on the effects of the greenness changes on the hydrological cycle are needed to account for the feedbacks to the climate.

  1. Simple Machine Perfusion Significantly Enhances Hepatocyte Yields of Ischemic and Fresh Rat Livers

    PubMed Central

    Izamis, Maria-Louisa; Calhoun, Candice; Uygun, Basak E.; Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Price, Gavrielle; Luitje, Martha; Saeidi, Nima; Yarmush, Martin L.; Uygun, Korkut

    2013-01-01

    The scarcity of viable hepatocytes is a significant bottleneck in cell transplantation, drug discovery, toxicology, tissue engineering, and bioartificial assist devices, where trillions of high-functioning hepatocytes are needed annually. We took the novel approach of using machine perfusion to maximize cell recovery, specifically from uncontrolled cardiac death donors, the largest source of disqualified donor organs. In a rat model, we developed a simple 3-h room temperature (20 ± 2°C) machine perfusion protocol to treat nonpremedicated livers exposed to 1 h of warm (34°C) ischemia. Treated ischemic livers were compared to fresh, fresh-treated, and untreated ischemic livers using viable hepatocyte yields and in vitro performance as quantitative endpoints. Perfusion treatment resulted in both a 25-fold increase in viable hepatocytes from ischemic livers and a 40% increase from fresh livers. While cell morphology and function in suspension and plate cultures of untreated warm ischemic cells was significantly impaired, treated warm ischemic cells were indistinguishable from fresh hepatocytes. Furthermore, a strong linear correlation between tissue ATP and cell yield enabled accurate evaluation of the extent of perfusion recovery. Maximal recovery of warm ischemic liver ATP content appears to be correlated with optimal flow through the microvasculature. These data demonstrate that the inclusion of a simple perfusion-preconditioning step can significantly increase the efficiency of functional hepatocyte yields and the number of donor livers that can be gainfully utilized. PMID:25431743

  2. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong

    2011-11-01

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world.

  3. Stratigraphic potential of Bolboforma significantly increased by new finds in the North Atlantic and South Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie; Karowe, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    Until now, the genus Bolboforma, a problematic group of calcareous microfossils, has been recorded only in Oligocene to Pliocene marine sedimentary rocks, chiefly in the eastern North Atlantic region. We add to this eastern North Atlantic record six new sites and eleven undescribed species from the continental slopes of Ireland and Morocco. More significantly, we record, for the first time, abundant assemblages of Bolboforma on the western side of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Seven boreholes on the continental shelf and slope of New Jersey and Virginia contain ten species, three of which are new. Two species are present in two outcrops in eastern Mississippi and four are present in a borehole in the coastal plain of Virginia. On the Lord Howe Rise, west of New Zealand, a DSDP corehole has yielded a rich assemblage including four undescribed species. In addition to expanding the geographic distribution of Bolboforma, our work extends the known stratigraphic range downward into the upper Eocene on both sides of the North Atlantic and in the western South Pacific. Our findings firmly support the inference of a planktonic life style for Bolboforma, which implies a significant potential for biostratigraphic, paleobiogeographic, and paleoenvironmental studies, on both a local and global scale. We recommend a concerted effort to further document the nature and distribution of Bolboforma.

  4. Paraoxonase-1 activity determination via paraoxon substrate yields no significant difference in mild hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Türkeli, Hatice; Caycı, Tuncer; Akgül, Emin Özgür; Macit, Enis; Yaman, Halil; Aydın, Ibrahim; Demirin, Hilmi; Alacam, Hasan; Ozkan, Esin; Cakır, Erdinç; Deren, Ozgür; Erbil, Mehmet Kemal; Kunak, Z Ilker; Burat, Kutlay; Akman, Serif

    2010-11-01

    Elevated plasma homocystein (Hcy) level has been recognized as an important risk factor for a number of cardiovascular diseases, peripheral arterial occlusive disease and venous thrombosis. A part of Hcy in the organism is turned to homocysteine thiolactone (HcyT) via a ring closure reaction, which gains rate in hyperhomocysteinemia, and in turn undergoes a hydrolytic reaction back to Hcy by paraoxonase enzyme (PON). Since this is a protective reflex action enzyme against hyperhomocysteinemia, we investigated how a mild hyperhomocysteinemic nutritional habit affected serum PON activity in a population-based study. The difference detected via enzymatic activity using the paraoxon substrate was statistically non-significant (p=0.19), suggesting a defective performance to reflect the expected significance. Determination of serum PON activity via substrate paraoxon yielded no significant difference in an acute mild hyperhomocysteinemic diet model in humans. PMID:19419786

  5. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary....

  6. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I... Environmental Impact SUBJECT: Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact and Necessary Environmental... human environment. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary....

  7. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...), that the proposal will have a significant environmental impact upon the quality of the human...); findings of no significant impact. 1.1308 Section 1.1308 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... significant impact. (a) Applicants shall prepare EAs for actions that may have a significant...

  8. Significant enhancement of negative secondary ion yields by cluster ion bombardment combined with cesium flooding.

    PubMed

    Philipp, Patrick; Angerer, Tina B; Sämfors, Sanna; Blenkinsopp, Paul; Fletcher, John S; Wirtz, Tom

    2015-10-01

    In secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the beneficial effect of cesium implantation or flooding on the enhancement of negative secondary ion yields has been investigated in detail for various semiconductor and metal samples. All results have been obtained for monatomic ion bombardment. Recent progress in SIMS is based to a large extent on the development and use of cluster primary ions. In this work we show that the enhancement of negative secondary ions induced by the combination of ion bombardment with simultaneous cesium flooding is valid not only for monatomic ion bombardment but also for cluster primary ions. Experiments carried out using C60+ and Ar4000+ bombardment on silicon show that yields of negative secondary silicon ions can be optimized in the same way as by Ga+ and Cs+ bombardment. Both for monatomic and cluster ion bombardment, the optimization does not depend on the primary ion species. Hence, it can be assumed that the silicon results are also valid for other cluster primary ions and that results obtained for monatomic ion bombardment on other semiconductor and metal samples are also valid for cluster ion bombardment. In SIMS, cluster primary ions are also largely used for the analysis of organic matter. For polycarbonate, our results show that Ar4000+ bombardment combined with cesium flooding enhances secondary ion signals by a factor of 6. This can be attributed to the removal of charging effects and/or reduced fragmentation, but no major influence on ionization processes can be observed. The use of cesium flooding for the imaging of cells was also investigated and a significant enhancement of secondary ion yields was observed. Hence, cesium flooding has also a vast potential for SIMS analyses with cluster ion bombardment.

  9. 75 FR 12581 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-16

    ... COMMISSION Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption From 10 CFR 30, 40, and 70; Commencement of Construction Requirements; AREVA Enrichment Services, Eagle Rock Enrichment Facility, Bonneville County, ID AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission....

  10. Diagnostic Yield of Recommendations for Chest CT Examination Prompted by Outpatient Chest Radiographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, H. Benjamin; Gilman, Matthew D.; Wu, Carol C.; Cushing, Matthew S.; Halpern, Elkan F.; Zhao, Jing; Pandharipande, Pari V.; Shepard, Jo-Anne O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic yield of recommended chest computed tomography (CT) prompted by abnormalities detected on outpatient chest radiographic images. Materials and Methods This HIPAA-compliant study had institutional review board approval; informed consent was waived. Reports of all outpatient chest radiographic examinations performed at a large academic center during 2008 (n = 29 138) were queried to identify studies that included a recommendation for a chest CT imaging. The radiology information system was queried for these patients to determine if a chest CT examination was obtained within 1 year of the index radiographic examination that contained the recommendation. For chest CT examinations obtained within 1 year of the index chest radiographic examination and that met inclusion criteria, chest CT images were reviewed to determine if there was an abnormality that corresponded to the chest radiographic finding that prompted the recommendation. All corresponding abnormalities were categorized as clinically relevant or not clinically relevant, based on whether further work-up or treatment was warranted. Groups were compared by using t test and Fisher exact test with a Bonferroni correction applied for multiple comparisons. Results There were 4.5% (1316 of 29138 [95% confidence interval {CI}: 4.3%, 4.8%]) of outpatient chest radiographic examinations that contained a recommendation for chest CT examination, and increasing patient age (P < .001) and positive smoking history (P = .001) were associated with increased likelihood of a recommendation for chest CT examination. Of patients within this subset who met inclusion criteria, 65.4% (691 of 1057 [95% CI: 62.4%, 68.2%) underwent a chest CT examination within the year after the index chest radiographic examination. Clinically relevant corresponding abnormalities were present on chest CT images in 41.4% (286 of 691 [95% CI: 37.7%, 45.2%]) of cases, nonclinically relevant corresponding abnormalities in

  11. 76 FR 19523 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Beaumont Layberth Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Maritime Administration Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Beaumont Layberth Facility AGENCY... Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Beaumont Layberth Facility. An environmental assessment (EA) and FONSI...

  12. 77 FR 25131 - Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Turning Point Solar LLC: Notice of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY... Assessment (EA) associated with a solar generation project. The EA was prepared in accordance with the... associated with a potential loan or loan guarantee to Turning Point Solar LLC (Turning Point Solar) for...

  13. 76 FR 80366 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... effective on June 30, 2008 (see 74 FR 40338) and will expire on February 15, 2012. The proposed action... issues and reasonable alternatives to be addressed in the EA. 76 FR 22882. The environmental review... AGENCY Availability of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

  14. 77 FR 49457 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... non-target federally or state listed threatened and endangered species. The proposed action will... Finding of No Significant Impact for Environmental Assessment for Non-native Plant Control and Re..., 1981, (46 FR 44083); the United States Section hereby gives notice that the Final...

  15. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  16. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  17. 7 CFR Exhibit I to Subpart G of... - Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finding of No Significant Environmental Impact I Exhibit I to Subpart G of Part 1940 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL...

  18. 75 FR 11575 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant... Program for Nuclear Power Facilities Operating Prior to January 1, 1979,'' issued to Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  19. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-20

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  20. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  1. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-11-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge.

  2. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2015-01-01

    Global crop yields are limited by water and nutrient availability. Soil mulching (with plastic or straw) reduces evaporation, modifies soil temperature and thereby affects crop yields. Reported effects of mulching are sometimes contradictory, likely due to differences in climatic conditions, soil characteristics, crop species, and also water and nitrogen (N) input levels. Here we report on a meta-analysis of the effects of mulching on wheat and maize, using 1310 yield observations from 74 studies conducted in 19 countries. Our results indicate that mulching significantly increased yields, WUE (yield per unit water) and NUE (yield per unit N) by up to 60%, compared with no-mulching. Effects were larger for maize than wheat, and larger for plastic mulching than straw mulching. Interestingly, plastic mulching performed better at relatively low temperature while straw mulching showed the opposite trend. Effects of mulching also tended to decrease with increasing water input. Mulching effects were not related to soil organic matter content. In conclusion, soil mulching can significantly increase maize and wheat yields, WUE and NUE, and thereby may contribute to closing the yield gap between attainable and actual yields, especially in dryland and low nutrient input agriculture. The management of soil mulching requires site-specific knowledge. PMID:26586114

  3. Counseling Challenges with Variants of Uncertain Significance and Incidental Findings in Prenatal Genetic Screening and Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Westerfield, Lauren; Darilek, Sandra; van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal genetic screening and testing provides prospective parents information about the health of their fetus. It is offered to find or address an increased risk for chromosomal abnormalities or other genetic conditions in the fetus or to identify the cause of fetal structural abnormalities detected by prenatal imaging. Genome-wide tests, such as the already widely-used chromosomal microarray analysis and emerging diagnostic whole exome and whole genome sequencing, have improved the ability to detect clinically significant findings, but have also increased the chance of detecting incidental findings and variants of uncertain significance. There is an extensive ongoing discussion about optimal strategies for diagnostic laboratories to report such findings and for providers to communicate them with patients. While consensus opinions and guidelines are beginning to appear, they often exclude the prenatal setting, due to its unique set of challenging considerations. These include more limited knowledge of the impact of genetic variants when prospectively detected in an ongoing pregnancy, the absence or limitations of detecting clinically recognizable phenotypes at the time of testing and the different decision-making processes that will ensue from testing. In this review, we examine these challenges within the medical ethical framework unique to prenatal care. PMID:26237491

  4. Low Carbon Rice Farming Practices in the Mekong Delta Yield Significantly Higher Profits and Lower Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudek, J.; Van Sanh, N.; Tinh, T. K.; Tin, H. Q.; Thu Ha, T.; Pha, D. N.; Cui, T. Q.; Tin, N. H.; Son, N. N.; Thanh, H. H.; Kien, H. T.; Kritee, K.; Ahuja, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Vietnam Low-Carbon Rice Project (VLCRP) seeks to significantly reduce GHG emissions from rice cultivation, an activity responsible for more than 30% of Vietnam's overall GHG emissions, while improving livelihoods for the rice farmer community by decreasing costs and enhancing yield as well as providing supplemental farmer income through the sale of carbon credits. The Mekong Delta makes up 12% of Vietnam's land area, but produces more than 50% of the country's rice, including more than 90% of the rice for export. Rice cultivation is the main source of income for 80% of farmers in the Mekong Delta. VLCRP was launched in late 2012 in the Mekong Delta in two major rice production provinces, Kien Giang and An Giang. To date, VLCRP has completed 11 crop seasons (in Kien Giang and An Giang combined), training over 400 farmer households in applying VLCRP's package of practices (known as 1 Must - 6 Reductions) and building technical capacity to its key stakeholders and rice farmer community leaders. By adopting the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices (including reduced seeding density, reduced fertilizer and pesticide application, and alternative wetting and drying water management), rice farmers reduce their input costs while maintaining or improving yields, and decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. The VLCRP package of practices also deliver other environmental and social co-benefits, such as reduced water pollution, improved habitat for fishery resources and reduced health risks for farmers through the reduction of agri-chemicals. VLCRP farmers use significantly less inputs (50% reduction in seed, 30% reduction in fertilizer, 40-50% reduction in water) while improving yields 5-10%, leading to an increase in profit from 10% to as high as 60% per hectare. Preliminary results indicate that the 1 Must- 6 Reductions practices have led to approximately 40-65% reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, equivalent to 4 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in An Giang and 35 tons of CO2e/ha/yr in Kien

  5. Finding the most significant common sequence and structure motifs in a set of RNA sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Gorodkin, J; Heyer, L J; Stormo, G D

    1997-01-01

    We present a computational scheme to locally align a collection of RNA sequences using sequence and structure constraints. In addition, the method searches for the resulting alignments with the most significant common motifs, among all possible collections. The first part utilizes a simplified version of the Sankoff algorithm for simultaneous folding and alignment of RNA sequences, but maintains tractability by constructing multi-sequence alignments from pairwise comparisons. The algorithm finds the multiple alignments using a greedy approach and has similarities to both CLUSTAL and CONSENSUS, but the core algorithm assures that the pairwise alignments are optimized for both sequence and structure conservation. The choice of scoring system and the method of progressively constructing the final solution are important considerations that are discussed. Example solutions, and comparisons with other approaches, are provided. The solutions include finding consensus structures identical to published ones. PMID:9278497

  6. Network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis towards biologically significant findings from microarrays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaogang; Huang, Hui; Wei, Tao; Pandey, Ragini; Reinhard, Christoph; Li, Shuyu D; Chen, Jake Y

    2012-01-01

    In many cases, crucial genes show relatively slight changes between groups of samples (e.g. normal vs. disease), and many genes selected from microarray differential analysis by measuring the expression level statistically are also poorly annotated and lack of biological significance. In this paper, we present an innovative approach - network expansion and pathway enrichment analysis (NEPEA) for integrative microarray analysis. We assume that organized knowledge will help microarray data analysis in significant ways, and the organized knowledge could be represented as molecular interaction networks or biological pathways. Based on this hypothesis, we develop the NEPEA framework based on network expansion from the human annotated and predicted protein interaction (HAPPI) database, and pathway enrichment from the human pathway database (HPD). We use a recently-published microarray dataset (GSE24215) related to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D) as case study, since this study provided a thorough experimental validation for both genes and pathways identified computationally from classical microarray analysis and pathway analysis. We perform our NEPEA analysis for this dataset based on the results from the classical microarray analysis to identify biologically significant genes and pathways. Our findings are not only consistent with the original findings mostly, but also obtained more supports from other literatures.

  7. FOCUSED R&D FOR ELECTROCHROMIC SMART WINDOWS: SIGNIFICANT PERFORMANCE AND YIELD ENHANCEMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus Milling

    2004-09-23

    Developments made under this program will play a key role in underpinning the technology for producing EC devices. It is anticipated that the work begun during this period will continue to improve materials properties, and drive yields up and costs down, increase durability and make manufacture simpler and more cost effective. It is hoped that this will contribute to a successful and profitable industry, which will help reduce energy consumption and improve comfort for building occupants worldwide. The first major task involved improvements to the materials used in the process. The improvements made as a result of the work done during this project have contributed to the enhanced performance, including dynamic range, uniformity and electrical characteristics. Another major objective of the project was to develop technology to improve yield, reduce cost, and facilitate manufacturing of EC products. Improvements directly attributable to the work carried out as part of this project and seen in the overall EC device performance, have been accompanied by an improvement in the repeatability and consistency of the production process. Innovative test facilities for characterizing devices in a timely and well-defined manner have been developed. The equipment has been designed in such a way as to make scaling-up to accommodate higher throughput necessary for manufacturing relatively straightforward. Finally, the third major goal was to assure the durability of the EC product, both by developments aimed at improving the product performance, as well as development of novel procedures to test the durability of this new product. Both aspects have been demonstrated, both by carrying out a number of different durability tests, both in-house and by independent third-party testers, and also developing several novel durability tests.

  8. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Kalina Geothermal Demonstration Project Steamboat Springs, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-22

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) to provide the DOE and other public agency decision makers with the environmental documentation required to take informed discretionary action on the proposed Kalina Geothermal Demonstration project. The EA assesses the potential environmental impacts and cumulative impacts, possible ways to minimize effects associated with partial funding of the proposed project, and discusses alternatives to DOE actions. The DOE will use this EA as a basis for their decision to provide financial assistance to Exergy, Inc. (Exergy), the project applicant. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human or physical environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Finding of No Significant Impact, proposed remediation of the Maybell Uranium Mill Processing Site, Maybell, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-12-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0347) on the proposed surface remediation of the Maybell uranium mill processing site in Moffat County, Colorado. The mill site contains radioactively contaminated materials from processing uranium ore that would be stabilized in place at the existing tailings pile location. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Public Law 91-190 (42 U.S.C. {section}4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Mid-Columbia Coho Reintroduction Feasibility Project : Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife

    1999-04-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund research for 2 to 3 years on the feasibility of reintroducing coho salmon into mid-Columbia River basin tributaries. The research would take place in the Methow and Wenatchee river basins in Chelan and Okanogan Counties, Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1282) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  11. Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-05-24

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the Tucannon River Spring Chinook Captive Broodstock Program, a small-scale production initiative designed to increase numbers of a weak but potentially recoverable population of spring chinook salmon in the Tucannon River in the State of Washington. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-l326) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  12. Seduction of Finding Universality in Sputtering Yields Due to Cluster Bombardment of Solids.

    PubMed

    Paruch, Robert J; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J

    2015-09-15

    Universal descriptions are appealing because they simplify the description of different (but similar) physical systems, allow the determination of general properties, and have practical applications. Recently, the concept of universality has been applied to the dependence of the sputtering (ejection) yield due to energetic cluster bombardment versus the energy of the incident cluster. It was observed that the spread in data points can be reduced if the yield Y and initial projectile cluster kinetic energy E are expressed in quantities scaled by the number of cluster atoms n, that is, Y/n versus E/n. The convergence of the data points is, however, not perfect, especially when the results for molecular and atomic solids are compared. In addition, the physics underlying the apparent universal dependence in not fully understood. For the study presented in this Account, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of Arn cluster bombardment of molecular (benzene, octane, and β-carotene) and atomic (Ag) solids in order to address the physical basis of the apparent universal dependence. We have demonstrated that the convergence of the data points between molecular and atomic solids can be improved if the binding energy of the solid U0 is included and the dependence is presented as Y/(E/U0) versus (E/U0)/n. As a material property, the quantity U0 is defined per the basic unit of material, which is an atom for atomic solids and a molecule for molecular solids. Analogously, the quantity Y is given in atoms and molecules, respectively. The simulations show that, for almost 3 orders of magnitude variation of (E/U0)/n, there are obvious similarities in the ejection mechanisms between the molecular and atomic solids, thus supporting the concept of universality. For large (E/U0)/n values, the mechanism of ejection is the fluid flow from a cone-shaped volume. This regime of (E/U0)/n is generally accessed experimentally by clusters with hundreds of atoms and results in the largest

  13. Seduction of Finding Universality in Sputtering Yields Due to Cluster Bombardment of Solids.

    PubMed

    Paruch, Robert J; Postawa, Zbigniew; Garrison, Barbara J

    2015-09-15

    Universal descriptions are appealing because they simplify the description of different (but similar) physical systems, allow the determination of general properties, and have practical applications. Recently, the concept of universality has been applied to the dependence of the sputtering (ejection) yield due to energetic cluster bombardment versus the energy of the incident cluster. It was observed that the spread in data points can be reduced if the yield Y and initial projectile cluster kinetic energy E are expressed in quantities scaled by the number of cluster atoms n, that is, Y/n versus E/n. The convergence of the data points is, however, not perfect, especially when the results for molecular and atomic solids are compared. In addition, the physics underlying the apparent universal dependence in not fully understood. For the study presented in this Account, we performed molecular dynamics simulations of Arn cluster bombardment of molecular (benzene, octane, and β-carotene) and atomic (Ag) solids in order to address the physical basis of the apparent universal dependence. We have demonstrated that the convergence of the data points between molecular and atomic solids can be improved if the binding energy of the solid U0 is included and the dependence is presented as Y/(E/U0) versus (E/U0)/n. As a material property, the quantity U0 is defined per the basic unit of material, which is an atom for atomic solids and a molecule for molecular solids. Analogously, the quantity Y is given in atoms and molecules, respectively. The simulations show that, for almost 3 orders of magnitude variation of (E/U0)/n, there are obvious similarities in the ejection mechanisms between the molecular and atomic solids, thus supporting the concept of universality. For large (E/U0)/n values, the mechanism of ejection is the fluid flow from a cone-shaped volume. This regime of (E/U0)/n is generally accessed experimentally by clusters with hundreds of atoms and results in the largest

  14. The significance of medico-legal findings for behavioural analysis in unsolved homicide cases.

    PubMed

    Schröer, Judith; Trautmann, Karin; Dern, Harald; Baurmann, Michael C; Püschel, Klaus

    2003-03-01

    In recent years, behavioural analysis in unsolved homicide cases is playing a more and more important role in the field of police work in Germany. The method of behavioural analysis was developed in the USA and first carried out in Germany at the end of the 80s by the Federal Criminal Police Office (BKA). Since 1998 each Federal State has set up behavioural analysis units. In Germany, behavioural analysis is defined as complex information processing system for the purpose of enabling an overall view of a case and of supporting the case work in ongoing investigations. The procedure of behavioural analysis is based on empirically and scientifically proven knowledge, on case information (e.g. crime scene characteristics, medico-legal findings) and on methods of combining the existing knowledge on statements relevant to the case. To assess the role of legal medicine in the process of behavioural analysis, a retrospective examination of more than 40 case analyses in unsolved homicide cases was performed. It turned out that medico-legal findings played a major role in the process of case analysis because the results were of central importance for the case reconstruction and further deductions (e.g. offender aims, organized/disorganized components, escalation). In a vast majority of cases though, the autopsy reports did not provide sufficiently detailed information, explanations and/or interpretations of injuries, wound patterns and sequence of events. Various examples are presented to elucidate the significance of medico-legal findings for the process of behavioural analysis. As a basic principle, the role of the forensic scientist as independent, unbiased, unprejudiced expert for the court should not be influenced by speculative interpretations within the process of behavioural analysis. This can be established by a very precise and comprehensive autopsy protocol on the one hand and - separately - an interpretation by another experienced specialist who works for the

  15. Cochlear implantation with hearing preservation yields significant benefit for speech recognition in complex listening environments

    PubMed Central

    Gifford, René H.; Dorman, Michael F.; Skarzynski, Henryk; Lorens, Artur; Polak, Marek; Driscoll, Colin L. W.; Roland, Peter; Buchman, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the benefit of having preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear for speech recognition in complex listening environments. Design The current study included a within subjects, repeated-measures design including 21 English speaking and 17 Polish speaking cochlear implant recipients with preserved acoustic hearing in the implanted ear. The patients were implanted with electrodes that varied in insertion depth from 10 to 31 mm. Mean preoperative low-frequency thresholds (average of 125, 250 and 500 Hz) in the implanted ear were 39.3 and 23.4 dB HL for the English- and Polish-speaking participants, respectively. In one condition, speech perception was assessed in an 8-loudspeaker environment in which the speech signals were presented from one loudspeaker and restaurant noise was presented from all loudspeakers. In another condition, the signals were presented in a simulation of a reverberant environment with a reverberation time of 0.6 sec. The response measures included speech reception thresholds (SRTs) and percent correct sentence understanding for two test conditions: cochlear implant (CI) plus low-frequency hearing in the contralateral ear (bimodal condition) and CI plus low-frequency hearing in both ears (best aided condition). A subset of 6 English-speaking listeners were also assessed on measures of interaural time difference (ITD) thresholds for a 250-Hz signal. Results Small, but significant, improvements in performance (1.7 – 2.1 dB and 6 – 10 percentage points) were found for the best-aided condition vs. the bimodal condition. Postoperative thresholds in the implanted ear were correlated with the degree of EAS benefit for speech recognition in diffuse noise. There was no reliable relationship among measures of audiometric threshold in the implanted ear nor elevation in threshold following surgery and improvement in speech understanding in reverberation. There was a significant correlation between ITD

  16. Focused R&D For Electrochromic Smart Windowsa: Significant Performance and Yield Enhancements

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Burdis; Neil Sbar

    2003-01-31

    There is a need to improve the energy efficiency of building envelopes as they are the primary factor governing the heating, cooling, lighting and ventilation requirements of buildings--influencing 53% of building energy use. In particular, windows contribute significantly to the overall energy performance of building envelopes, thus there is a need to develop advanced energy efficient window and glazing systems. Electrochromic (EC) windows represent the next generation of advanced glazing technology that will (1) reduce the energy consumed in buildings, (2) improve the overall comfort of the building occupants, and (3) improve the thermal performance of the building envelope. ''Switchable'' EC windows provide, on demand, dynamic control of visible light, solar heat gain, and glare without blocking the view. As exterior light levels change, the window's performance can be electronically adjusted to suit conditions. A schematic illustrating how SageGlass{reg_sign} electrochromic windows work is shown in Figure I.1. SageGlass{reg_sign} EC glazings offer the potential to save cooling and lighting costs, with the added benefit of improving thermal and visual comfort. Control over solar heat gain will also result in the use of smaller HVAC equipment. If a step change in the energy efficiency and performance of buildings is to be achieved, there is a clear need to bring EC technology to the marketplace. This project addresses accelerating the widespread introduction of EC windows in buildings and thus maximizing total energy savings in the U.S. and worldwide. We report on R&D activities to improve the optical performance needed to broadly penetrate the full range of architectural markets. Also, processing enhancements have been implemented to reduce manufacturing costs. Finally, tests are being conducted to demonstrate the durability of the EC device and the dual pane insulating glass unit (IGU) to be at least equal to that of conventional windows.

  17. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Sunrise II Water Supply Line

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-09

    Sunrise Power Company, LLC (Sunrise), has planned the modification of an existing power plant project to increase its generation capacity by 265 megawatts by 2003. The initial Sunrise facility was constructed in accordance with a license issued by the California Energy Commission (CEC) on December 6, 2000 and brought 320 MW of much needed power to commercial operation in June 2001. The Governor of the State of California issued recent Executive Orders to provide for emergency permit streamlining of projects that can help alleviate the current California energy crisis. Specifically, Executive Order D-25-01 directed the CEC to expedite processing amendments such as the Sunrise II modification that would increase generating capacity from 320 MW to 585 MW by summer 2003. As part of the modification, an approximately 15.3 mile water line will be installed. Additionally, improvements to West Kern Water District's (WKWD) Pumping Station ''B'', located on DOE land, will occur. Sunrise has requested a right-of-way grant for the construction of the water supply line on U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and DOE lands. Pursuant to the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended, the potential impacts of the proposed action were analyzed in an Environmental Assessment (EA-1434) with the BLM acting as lead agency. Based on the analysis of the potential environmental impacts contained in the Environmental Assessment (EA), BLM has determined that significant impacts are not expected and an environmental impact statement is not required. The DOE, acting as a cooperating agency, has adopted the BLM's EA and is consequently issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  19. Diagnostic Approach to Patients with Atypical Squamous Cells of Undetermined Significance Cytologic Findings on Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Jahic, Mahira; Jahic, Elmir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) is a term that refers to inflammatory, reactive and reparative processes which are atypical and of higher level and insufficient to be classified as cervical intraepithelial lesions (CIN). Aims: Examine of frequency of HPV infection in ASCUS lesions and regression, stagnation and progression during six-month period. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study was conducted over a period of 3 years. In private gynecological ambulance „Dr Mahira Jahic”. Analysis of PAP smears and HPV typization have been done in 50 patients and PAP test has been repeated after six months. X² test was used for statistical analysis. Results: Analysis of 1784 PAP smears showed normal results in 86,6% (N-1530), and abnormal in 13% (N-254). ASCUS in 7,4% (N-133) and ASC-H in 0,5% (N-9), LSIL in 4,4% (N-80), HSIL in 1,3% (N-24), CIN II in 1,2% (N-20), CIN III in 0,2% (N-4). Progression occurred in 18% (9), persistence in 74% (37) and regression in 8%. Patients with ASC-H lesion 0,5% (N-9), PH results showed 22% (N-2) Carcinoma in situ, 33% (N-3) CIN II, 22% (N-2) CIN I and 22% (N-2) chronic cervicitis. Patients with CIN I in 88% (N-7) were positive on HPV of high risk. Patients with persistent ASCUS result were positive in 51% (N-19). The number of CIN I lesions found in women with ASCUS is bigger and statistically significant (p<0,05) in relation to number of CIN I findings found in regular examinations. Conclusion: Monitoring women with ASCUS lesion, especially HPV positive to high risk group is the best way of selection of women who should be treated and monitored in order to prevent cervical cancer. PMID:27703293

  20. (Bradfield Electric and Alaska Power Authority Presidential permit): Finding of no significant impact (FONSI)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    The Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA) of the Department of Energy (DOE) is considering an application by Bradfield Electric, Inc. (Bradfield), and the Alaska Power Authority (APA) for a Presidential permit to construct, operate, maintain and connect a 69-kilovolt (kV) transmission line which would extend from the APA's Tyee Lake Hydroelectric Power Project located near Wrangell, Alaska, to a point on the US-Canadian international border just east of the South Fork Craig River. The DOE has reviewed an environmental assessment (EA) prepared by the US Forest Service (USFS) in connection with its issuance of a special use permit to construct the proposed line through the Tongass National Forest. Based on this EA, the USFS issued a decision notice and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for the proposed project on May 9, 1988. The DOE is adopting this EA as DOE/EA-0375 in partial satisfaction of its responsibilities under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) regarding the issuance of a Presidential permit.

  1. 76 FR 28480 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Exemption From Certain Requirements for the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 1 License DPR-002, Grundy County, IL AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental Assessment and Finding...

  2. Constitutive overexpression of the TaNF-YB4 gene in transgenic wheat significantly improves grain yield

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dinesh; Shavrukov, Yuri; Bazanova, Natalia; Chirkova, Larissa; Borisjuk, Nikolai; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Ismagul, Ainur; Parent, Boris; Langridge, Peter; Hrmova, Maria; Lopato, Sergiy

    2015-01-01

    Heterotrimeric nuclear factors Y (NF-Ys) are involved in regulation of various vital functions in all eukaryotic organisms. Although a number of NF-Y subunits have been characterized in model plants, only a few have been functionally evaluated in crops. In this work, a number of genes encoding NF-YB and NF-YC subunits were isolated from drought-tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. RAC875), and the impact of the overexpression of TaNF-YB4 in the Australian wheat cultivar Gladius was investigated. TaNF-YB4 was isolated as a result of two consecutive yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screens, where ZmNF-YB2a was used as a starting bait. A new NF-YC subunit, designated TaNF-YC15, was isolated in the first Y2H screen and used as bait in a second screen, which identified two wheat NF-YB subunits, TaNF-YB2 and TaNF-YB4. Three-dimensional modelling of a TaNF-YB2/TaNF-YC15 dimer revealed structural determinants that may underlie interaction selectivity. The TaNF-YB4 gene was placed under the control of the strong constitutive polyubiquitin promoter from maize and introduced into wheat by biolistic bombardment. The growth and yield components of several independent transgenic lines with up-regulated levels of TaNF-YB4 were evaluated under well-watered conditions (T1–T3 generations) and under mild drought (T2 generation). Analysis of T2 plants was performed in large deep containers in conditions close to field trials. Under optimal watering conditions, transgenic wheat plants produced significantly more spikes but other yield components did not change. This resulted in a 20–30% increased grain yield compared with untransformed control plants. Under water-limited conditions transgenic lines maintained parity in yield performance. PMID:26220082

  3. 75 FR 27583 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ...), gives final notice of the proposed construction of a small vertical axis wind turbine and solar cells at... Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical Wind Turbine and Solar Installation at the... of the Secretary Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Vertical...

  4. 75 FR 34774 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... CFR 20.1402. These DCGLs define the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces... radioactivity at the Facility and concluded that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on...

  5. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  6. Writing the Discussion Section: Describing the Significance of the Study Findings.

    PubMed

    Bavdekar, Sandeep B

    2015-11-01

    The Discussion section is an important part of the research manuscript that allows the authors to showcase the study. It is used to interpret the results for readers, describe the virtues and limitations of the study, discuss the theoretical and practical implications of the research work done and provide important "take home" message. The Discussion section of a paper intends to convey what the findings of the study mean and hence has been likened to the closing arguments put forth by counselors in a court case. It is the last chance for an author to "sell" his paper. The discussion section should be written in a focused manner getting straight to answering the research question raised in the introduction section. Such a direct approach is likely to make a lasting impression on the minds of the readers. The discussion section is considered harder to define as compared to the other sections of the research paper. While other sections require orderly and simple logical writing; composing discussion section requires logical thinking, reflection and critical appraisal. A well-written discussion section includes a statement of important results, reference to previously published relevant literature, comparison of study results with previously reported findings, explanation of results, elucidations of strengths and weaknesses of the study, interpretation of the whole evidence, description of impact of the study and recommendations for the future course of action. PMID:27608782

  7. 75 FR 2480 - Wildlife Services; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ..., 2009, we published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register (74 FR 61319-61321, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0087... of no significant impact relative to oral rabies vaccination programs in several States. The... vaccination program to include the States of New Mexico and Arizona, which is necessary to effectively...

  8. 78 FR 65607 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Significant Impact (FONSI) of the Kika de la Garza Subtropical Research Center (KSARC) AGENCY: Agricultural... Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has made a FONSI for transferring the land and real estate at the KSARC in Weslaco, Texas to the Texas A&M University System (TAMUS). The FONSI document...

  9. 77 FR 21594 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact, Oconee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-10

    ... of the Oconee Nuclear Station, (ONS) Units 1, 2, and 3 reactor pressure vessels. The proposed action..., 2, and 3 reactor pressure vessels, would not significantly affect plant safety and would not have a... toughness requirements for ferritic materials of pressure-retaining components of the reactor...

  10. 78 FR 70529 - Notice of Availability for the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Cotton Quality Research Station Land Transfer AGENCY: Agricultural Research... the Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) in Clemson, SC, to Clemson University. The FONSI document... transfer of approximately 10 acres of land and facilities at the Cotton Quality Research Station...

  11. A Visitor's Guide to Effect Sizes--Statistical Significance versus Practical (Clinical) Importance of Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

    2004-01-01

    Effect Sizes (ES) are an increasingly important index used to quantify the degree of practical significance of study results. This paper gives an introduction to the computation and interpretation of effect sizes from the perspective of the consumer of the research literature. The key points made are: (1) "ES" is a useful indicator of the…

  12. Finding the Intersection of the Learning Organization and Learning Transfer: The Significance of Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jun Hee; Callahan, Jamie L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to develop a conceptual framework delineating the key dimension of the learning organization which significantly influences learning transfer. Design/methodology/approach: The conceptual framework was developed by analyzing previous studies and synthesizing the results associated with the following four relationships:…

  13. 77 FR 76050 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... a new animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon. Also... EA prepared by FDA in support of an NADA associated with AQUADVANTAGE Salmon, a GE Atlantic...

  14. 78 FR 10620 - Draft Environmental Assessment and Preliminary Finding of No Significant Impact Concerning a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    .... Background In the Federal Register of December 26, 2012 (77 FR 76050), FDA published a notice of availability... Significant Impact Concerning a Genetically Engineered Atlantic Salmon; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY... animal drug application (NADA) concerning a genetically engineered (GE) Atlantic salmon and a...

  15. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...—Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. In addition, when an action interferes with or adversely affects an American Indian...), that the proposal will have a significant environmental impact upon the quality of the...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1308 - Consideration of environmental assessments (EAs); findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...—Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, 50 CFR part 402; Protection of Historic and Cultural Properties, 36 CFR part 800. In addition, when an action interferes with or adversely affects an American Indian...), that the proposal will have a significant environmental impact upon the quality of the...

  17. An algorithm for finding biologically significant features in microarray data based on a priori manifold learning.

    PubMed

    Hira, Zena M; Trigeorgis, George; Gillies, Duncan F

    2014-01-01

    Microarray databases are a large source of genetic data, which, upon proper analysis, could enhance our understanding of biology and medicine. Many microarray experiments have been designed to investigate the genetic mechanisms of cancer, and analytical approaches have been applied in order to classify different types of cancer or distinguish between cancerous and non-cancerous tissue. However, microarrays are high-dimensional datasets with high levels of noise and this causes problems when using machine learning methods. A popular approach to this problem is to search for a set of features that will simplify the structure and to some degree remove the noise from the data. The most widely used approach to feature extraction is principal component analysis (PCA) which assumes a multivariate Gaussian model of the data. More recently, non-linear methods have been investigated. Among these, manifold learning algorithms, for example Isomap, aim to project the data from a higher dimensional space onto a lower dimension one. We have proposed a priori manifold learning for finding a manifold in which a representative set of microarray data is fused with relevant data taken from the KEGG pathway database. Once the manifold has been constructed the raw microarray data is projected onto it and clustering and classification can take place. In contrast to earlier fusion based methods, the prior knowledge from the KEGG databases is not used in, and does not bias the classification process--it merely acts as an aid to find the best space in which to search the data. In our experiments we have found that using our new manifold method gives better classification results than using either PCA or conventional Isomap. PMID:24595155

  18. Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir : Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impacts.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada.

    1997-03-01

    This notice announces BPA`s decision to fund the construction, operation, and maintenance of the Billy Shaw Dam and Reservoir on the Duck Valley Reservation. This project is part of a continuing effort to address system-wide fish and wildlife losses caused by the development of the hydropower system in the Columbia River Basin. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) evaluating the potential environmental impacts of the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  19. Functional significance of predischarge exercise thallium-201 findings following intravenous streptokinase therapy during acute myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    Touchstone, D.A.; Beller, G.A.; Nygaard, T.W.; Watson, D.D.; Tedesco, C.; Kaul, S.

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine which predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging pattern(s) best correlate with myocardial salvage following intravenous streptokinase therapy (IVSK). Myocardial salvage was defined as improvement in regional left ventricular function determined by two-dimensional echocardiography between the time of admission and time of discharge in 21 prospectively studied patients receiving IVSK within 4 hours of chest pain. All patients had coronary angiography 2 hours following IVSK. Whereas 16 of the 21 patients (76%) had patent infarct-related vessels, only seven (33%) showed significant improvement in regional function at hospital discharge. Eleven patients demonstrated persistent defects (PD), and five each showed delayed and reverse redistribution. Patients with both delayed and reverse redistribution demonstrated significant improvement in regional left ventricular function score, while those with PD did not (+3.9 +/- 3.3 versus -0.5 +/- 2.9, p = 0.004). All other clinical, exercise, electrocardiographic, scintigraphic, and angiographic variables were similar between all patients, with the exception of the interval between chest pain and the institution of IVSK, which was longer in patients with reverse compared to delayed redistribution (3.5 +/- 0.4 versus 2.2 +/- 0.4 hours, p = 0.001). It is concluded that both delayed and reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging are associated with myocardial salvage, defined as serial improvement in regional systolic function. Despite a high infarct vessel patency rate in patients with acute myocardial infarction receiving IVSK within 4 hours of onset of symptoms, only one third demonstrated improvement in regional function that was associated with either delayed or reverse redistribution seen on predischarge exercise thallium-201 imaging.

  20. Surface water drainage system. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is written pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The document identifies and evaluates the action proposed to correct deficiencies in, and then to maintain, the surface water drainage system serving the Department of Energy`s Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. Many of the activities proposed would not normally be subject to this level of NEPA documentation. However, in many cases, maintenance of the system has been deferred to the point that wetlands vegetation has become established in some ditches and culverts, creating wetlands. The proposed activities would damage or remove some of these wetlands in order to return the drainage system to the point that it would be able to fully serve its intended function - stormwater control. The Department of Energy (DOE) regulations require that activities affecting environmentally sensitive areas like wetlands be the subject of an EA. Most portions of the surface water drainage system are presently inadequate to convey the runoff from a 100-year storm event. As a result, such an event would cause flooding across much of the Site and possibly threaten the integrity of the dams at the terminal ponds. Severe flooding would not only cause damage to facilities and equipment, but could also facilitate the transport of contaminants from individual hazardous substance sites (IHSSs). Uncontrolled flow through the A- and B-series ponds could cause contaminated sediments to become suspended and carried downstream. Additionally, high velocity flood flows significantly increase erosion losses.

  1. Can I be sued for that? Liability risk and the disclosure of clinically significant genetic research findings

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Amy L.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Zawati, Ma’n H.; Clayton, Ellen Wright

    2014-01-01

    Genomic researchers increasingly are faced with difficult decisions about whether, under what circumstances, and how to return research results and significant incidental findings to study participants. Many have argued that there is an ethical—maybe even a legal—obligation to disclose significant findings under some circumstances. At the international level, over the last decade there has begun to emerge a clear legal obligation to return significant findings discovered during the course of research. However, there is no explicit legal duty to disclose in the United States. This creates legal uncertainty that may lead to unmanaged variation in practice and poor quality care. This article discusses liability risks associated with the disclosure of significant research findings for investigators in the United States. PMID:24676095

  2. 77 FR 67057 - Notice of Availability of a Finding of No Significant Impact for the Port of Guam Modernization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... purpose of this Notice is to make available to the public the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI... operations, expand storage capacity, and upgrade existing infrastructure. Specifically, the proposed...

  3. Scientists Find X Rays from Stellar Winds That May Play Significant Role in Galactic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    Colorful star-forming regions that have captivated stargazers since the advent of the telescope 400 years ago contain gas thousands of times more energetic than previously recognized, powered by colliding stellar winds. This multimillion-degree gas radiated as X rays is one of the long-sought sources of energy and elements in the Milky Way galaxy's interstellar medium. A team led by Leisa Townsley, a senior research associate in astronomy and astrophysics at Penn State University, uncovered this wind phenomenon in the Rosette Nebula, a stellar nursery. With the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the team found that the most massive stars in the nebula produce winds that slam into each other, create violent shocks, and infuse the region with 6-million-degree gas. The findings are presented in Washington, D.C., today at a conference entitled "Two Years of Science with Chandra." "A ghostly glow of diffuse X-ray emission pervades the Rosette Nebula and perhaps many other similar star-forming regions throughout the Galaxy," said Townsley. "We now have a new view of the engine lighting the beautiful Rosette Nebula and new evidence for how the interstellar medium may be energized." Townsley and her colleagues created a striking X-ray panorama of the Rosette Molecular Cloud from four images with Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer. This is a swath of the sky nearly 100 light years across sprayed with hundreds of X-ray-emitting young stars. In one corner of the Rosette Molecular Cloud lies the Rosette Nebula, called an "H II region" because the hydrogen gas there has been stripped of its electrons due to the strong ultraviolet radiation from its young stars. This region, about 5,000 light years away in the constellation Monoceros, the Unicorn, has long been a favorite among amateur astronomers. The wispy, colorful display is visible with small telescopes. The Chandra survey reveals, for the first time, 6-million-degree gas at the center of the Rosette Nebula, occupying a

  4. 76 FR 15935 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... 19, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 3076-3077, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0115) a notice... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Air Potato AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... relative to the control of air potato (Dioscorea bulbifera). Based on its finding of no significant...

  5. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Pond B Dam Repair Project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-09-27

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1285) for the proposed repair of the Pond B dam at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Implementation of the Wetland Mitigation Bank Program at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-04-28

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1205) for the proposed implementation of a wetland mitigation bank program at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) and Floodplain Statement of Findings.

  7. Frequency and Clinical Significance of Previously Undetected Incidental Findings Detected on Computed Tomography Simulation Scans for Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Naoki; Tsunoda, Hiroko; Takahashi, Osamu; Kikuchi, Mari; Honda, Satoshi; Shikama, Naoto; Akahane, Keiko; Sekiguchi, Kenji

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the frequency and clinical significance of previously undetected incidental findings found on computed tomography (CT) simulation images for breast cancer patients. Methods and Materials: All CT simulation images were first interpreted prospectively by radiation oncologists and then double-checked by diagnostic radiologists. The official reports of CT simulation images for 881 consecutive postoperative breast cancer patients from 2009 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Potentially important incidental findings (PIIFs) were defined as any previously undetected benign or malignancy-related findings requiring further medical follow-up or investigation. For all patients in whom a PIIF was detected, we reviewed the clinical records to determine the clinical significance of the PIIF. If the findings from the additional studies prompted by a PIIF required a change in management, the PIIF was also recorded as a clinically important incidental finding (CIIF). Results: There were a total of 57 (6%) PIIFs. The 57 patients in whom a PIIF was detected were followed for a median of 17 months (range, 3-26). Six cases of CIIFs (0.7% of total) were detected. Of the six CIIFs, three (50%) cases had not been noted by the radiation oncologist until the diagnostic radiologist detected the finding. On multivariate analysis, previous CT examination was an independent predictor for PIIF (p = 0.04). Patients who had not previously received chest CT examinations within 1 year had a statistically significantly higher risk of PIIF than those who had received CT examinations within 6 months (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-9.50; p = 0.01). Conclusions: The rate of incidental findings prompting a change in management was low. However, radiation oncologists appear to have some difficulty in detecting incidental findings that require a change in management. Considering cost, it may be reasonable that routine interpretations are given to those who have not

  8. 78 FR 55330 - Notice of Approval of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Murdo Municipal Airport, Murdo...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Approval of Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Murdo... Murdo Municipal Airport, Murdo, South Dakota. The FAA approved the FONSI on August 22, 2013. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FONSI approved the Sponsor's proposed action to extend primary Runway...

  9. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... entity makes a finding of no significant impact, it must prepare a FONSI notice, using the current HUD-recommended format or an equivalent format. As a minimum, the responsible entity must send the FONSI notice to... may also publish the FONSI notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the affected community....

  10. 77 FR 32173 - Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact: Union and Henderson Counties, KY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Administration procedures, the FHWA announces the availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) to... Henderson Counties, Kentucky. The Division Administrator, FHWA-Kentucky Division signed the FONSI on April 9, 2012. ADDRESSES: The FHWA FONSI for the US 60 Capacity and Safety Improvement project can be viewed...

  11. 76 FR 42121 - Final Notice of a Finding of No Significant Impact for a Programmatic Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... the April 18, 2011 Federal Register (76 FR Page 21712). No comments were received regarding the... States AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for a... Order P5090.2A), the Department of the Navy gives final notice that the FONSI for the PEA...

  12. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... entity makes a finding of no significant impact, it must prepare a FONSI notice, using the current HUD-recommended format or an equivalent format. As a minimum, the responsible entity must send the FONSI notice to... may also publish the FONSI notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the affected community....

  13. 77 FR 67862 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Finding of No Significant Impact/Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for the Aberdeen Regional Airport in... of a Final EA and FONSI/ROD. SUMMARY: The FAA has issued the final EA final Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Aberdeen Regional Airport Updates and FONSI/ROD for the proposed decoupling of runways...

  14. 78 FR 17468 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ...) and Finding of No Significant Impact/Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for the 2020 Improvement Project... FAA has prepared and approved (March 6, 2013) a FONSI/ROD based on the Final EA for the MSP 2020.... Telephone number is (612) 253-4639. Copies of the FONSI/ROD and/or Final EA are available upon...

  15. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... entity makes a finding of no significant impact, it must prepare a FONSI notice, using the current HUD-recommended format or an equivalent format. As a minimum, the responsible entity must send the FONSI notice to... may also publish the FONSI notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the affected community....

  16. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... entity makes a finding of no significant impact, it must prepare a FONSI notice, using the current HUD-recommended format or an equivalent format. As a minimum, the responsible entity must send the FONSI notice to... may also publish the FONSI notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the affected community....

  17. 24 CFR 58.43 - Dissemination and/or publication of the findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entity makes a finding of no significant impact, it must prepare a FONSI notice, using the current HUD-recommended format or an equivalent format. As a minimum, the responsible entity must send the FONSI notice to... may also publish the FONSI notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the affected community....

  18. 76 FR 45780 - Notice of Availability for a Finding of No Significant Impact and Environmental Assessment for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Response AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... Oil Spill Response (EA) was completed by NOAA, and a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) was... seagrass beds that resulted from Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill response activities. The injuries...

  19. 78 FR 29201 - Notice of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Dakota to markets in Alberta, Canada. The entire proposed Vantage Pipeline in the United States would... of Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed Vantage Pipeline US LP Ethane Pipeline Project SUMMARY: The purpose of this notice is to inform the public of the availability of...

  20. 75 FR 29365 - Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-25

    ..., 2010 Federal Register (75 FR 17161). No comments were received regarding the preliminary FONSI. OSEC... of the Secretary Job Corps: Final Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for Small Wind Turbine Installation at the Pine Ridge Job Corps Center Located at 15710 Highway 385, Chadron, NE 69337 AGENCY:...

  1. 76 FR 37842 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption for the Peach... security requirements in 10 CFR part 73 and 10 CFR 50.54(p) for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power...

  2. 75 FR 14637 - James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... COMMISSION James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant...), for the operation of the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP) located in Oswego County... part 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926, (March 27, 2009). The NRC staff's...

  3. 78 FR 146 - Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... Assessment (FEA) and Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Longhorn Pipeline Reversal Project (Project). PHMSA has posted the FEA and FONSI online at http://www.regulations.gov in docket number PHMSA... Longhorn Pipeline than it would have under normal circumstances. Accordingly, PHMSA has issued an FEA...

  4. Finding of no significant impact for the tritium facility modernization and consolidation project at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1222) for the proposed modernization and consolidation of the existing tritium facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issueing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  5. Evaluation of the Potential Excess of Statistically Significant Findings in Published Genetic Association Studies: Application to Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kavvoura, Fotini K.; McQueen, Matthew B.; Khoury, Muin J.; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Bertram, Lars

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated whether there is an excess of statistically significant results in studies of genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease reflecting either between-study heterogeneity or bias. Among published articles on genetic associations entered into the comprehensive AlzGene database (www.alzgene.org) through January 31, 2007, 1,348 studies included in 175 meta-analyses with 3 or more studies each were analyzed. The number of observed studies (O) with statistically significant results (P = 0.05 threshold) was compared with the expected number (E) under different assumptions for the magnitude of the effect size. In the main analysis, the plausible effect size of each association was the summary effect presented in the respective meta-analysis. Overall, 19 meta-analyses (all with eventually nonsignificant summary effects) had a documented excess of O over E: Typically single studies had significant effects pointing in opposite directions and early summary effects were dissipated over time. Across the whole domain, O was 235 (17.4%), while E was 164.8 (12.2%) (P < 10−6). The excess showed a predilection for meta-analyses with nonsignificant summary effects and between-study heterogeneity. The excess was seen for all levels of statistical significance and also for studies with borderline P values (P = 0.05–0.10). The excess of significant findings may represent significance-chasing biases in a setting of massive testing. PMID:18779388

  6. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Waste Disposition Activities at the Paducah Site Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-11-05

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1339), which is incorporated herein by reference, for proposed disposition of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) wastes, low-level radioactive waste (LLW), mixed low-level radioactive waste (MLLW), and transuranic (TRU) waste from the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Site (Paducah Site) in Paducah, Kentucky. All of the wastes would be transported for disposal at various locations in the United States. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment with in the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  7. Finding of no significant impact proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).

  8. Finding of no significant impact proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  9. Yields of biologically significant damage produced in mammalian DNA by irradiation associated with radon decay. Final progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, J.F.

    1994-03-01

    The objective of this project was to characterize the difference between damage to DNA caused by alpha particles and by low LET radiation. Estimation of the risk posed by exposure to high LET radiation (such as that from radon) relies at present on epidemiological data, and is therefore largely empirical. This empiricism is evident from the concepts of quality factor or RBE that find use for describing the biological effects of high LET radiation. The author argues that some effort should be made to address the mechanisms of DNA damage by high and low LET forms of radiation, and how these mechanisms might relate to the biological endpoints. This report summarizes the results of the author`s investigations and the current understanding of these mechanisms.

  10. Dimension Reduction via Unsupervised Learning Yields Significant Computational Improvements for Support Vector Machine Based Protein Family Classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Oehmen, Christopher S.

    2009-02-26

    Reducing the dimension of vectors used in training support vector machines (SVMs) results in a proportional speedup in training time. For large-scale problems this can make the difference between tractable and intractable training tasks. However, it is critical that classifiers trained on reduced datasets perform as reliably as their counterparts trained on high-dimensional data. We assessed principal component analysis (PCA) and sequential project pursuit (SPP) as dimension reduction strategies in the biology application of classifying proteins into well-defined functional ‘families’ (SVM-based protein family classification) by their impact on run-time, sensitivity and selectivity. Homology vectors of 4352 elements were reduced to approximately 2% of the original data size without significantly affecting accuracy using PCA and SPP, while leading to approximately a 28-fold speedup in run-time.

  11. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wind Energy Center Edgeley/Kulm Project, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-15

    The proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project is a 21-megawatt (MW) wind generation project proposed by Florida Power and Light (FPL) Energy North Dakota Wind LLC (Dakota Wind) and Basin Electric Power Cooperative (Basin). The proposed windfarm would be located in La Moure County, south central North Dakota, near the rural farming communities of Kulm and Edgeley. The proposed windfarm is scheduled to be operational by the end of 2003. Dakota Wind and other project proponents are seeking to develop the proposed Edgeley/Kulm Project to provide utilities and, ultimately, electric energy consumers with electricity from a renewable energy source at the lowest possible cost. A new 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line would be built to transmit power generated by the proposed windfarm to an existing US Department of Energy Western Area Power Administration (Western) substation located near Edgeley. The proposed interconnection would require modifying Western's Edgeley Substation. Modifying the Edgeley Substation is a Federal proposed action that requires Western to review the substation modification and the proposed windfarm project for compliance with Section 102(2) of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4332, and Department of Energy NEPA Implementing Procedures (10 CFR Part 1021). Western is the lead Federal agency for preparation of this Environmental Assessment (EA). The US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is a cooperating agency with Western in preparing the EA. This document follows regulation issued by the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for implementing procedural provisions of NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508), and is intended to disclose potential impacts on the quality of the human environment resulting from the proposed project. If potential impacts are determined to be significant, preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement would be required. If impacts are determined to be insignificant, Western would complete a Finding of No Significant

  12. Proposed fish passage improvements at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, Umatilla River, Oregon: Finding of no significant impact

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation proposes to administer the construction of fish passage and protective facilities at Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam on the Umatilla River in Oregon to increase the numbers of anadromous fish. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to provide funding for the project. These agencies' actions would implement section 904(d) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program which addresses the provision of offsite enhancement to compensate for fish and wildlife losses caused by hydroelectric project development and operations throughout the Columbia River Basin. This Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) is the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) decision document for both agencies. The proposed action would improve both upstream and downstream passage by providing a new right bank ladder on Three Mile Falls Diversion Dam, modifying the existing left bank ladder, and installing rotary drum fish screens and related structures on the adjacent West Extension Irrigation District (WEID) Canal. Four other alternatives are considered in the environmental assessment (EA): a concrete apron plus a left bank ladder; a cap on the crest of the dam plus a left bank ladder; dam removal; and no action. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  13. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures.

  14. Heat waves imposed during early pod development in soybean (Glycine max) cause significant yield loss despite a rapid recovery from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Siebers, Matthew H; Yendrek, Craig R; Drag, David; Locke, Anna M; Rios Acosta, Lorena; Leakey, Andrew D B; Ainsworth, Elizabeth A; Bernacchi, Carl J; Ort, Donald R

    2015-08-01

    Heat waves already have a large impact on crops and are predicted to become more intense and more frequent in the future. In this study, heat waves were imposed on soybean using infrared heating technology in a fully open-air field experiment. Five separate heat waves were applied to field-grown soybean (Glycine max) in central Illinois, three in 2010 and two in 2011. Thirty years of historical weather data from Illinois were analyzed to determine the length and intensity of a regionally realistic heat wave resulting in experimental heat wave treatments during which day and night canopy temperatures were elevated 6 °C above ambient for 3 days. Heat waves were applied during early or late reproductive stages to determine whether and when heat waves had an impact on carbon metabolism and seed yield. By the third day of each heat wave, net photosynthesis (A), specific leaf weight (SLW), and leaf total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC) were decreased, while leaf oxidative stress was increased. However, A, SLW, TNC, and measures of oxidative stress were no different than the control ca. 12 h after the heat waves ended, indicating rapid physiological recovery from the high-temperature stress. That end of season seed yield was reduced (~10%) only when heat waves were applied during early pod developmental stages indicates the yield loss had more to do with direct impacts of the heat waves on reproductive process than on photosynthesis. Soybean was unable to mitigate yield loss after heat waves given during late reproductive stages. This study shows that short high-temperature stress events that reduce photosynthesis and increase oxidative stress resulted in significant losses to soybean production in the Midwest, U.S. The study also suggests that to mitigate heat wave-induced yield loss, soybean needs improved reproductive and photosynthetic tolerance to high but increasingly common temperatures. PMID:25845935

  15. 76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding... Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John A....

  16. 78 FR 65606 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and a Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Significant Impact (FONSI) of the J. Phil Campbell, Sr., National Resource Conservaton Center (JPC-NRCC... public inspection during normal business hours at the following locations: J. Phil Campbell,...

  17. Rectal cancer staging: focus on the prognostic significance of the findings described by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dieguez, Adriana

    2013-01-01

    High-resolution (HR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become an indispensable tool for multidisciplinary teams (MDTs) addressing rectal cancer. It provides anatomic information for surgical planning and allows patients to be stratified into different groups according to the risk of local and distant recurrence. One of the objectives of the MDT is the preoperative identification of high-risk patients who will benefit from neoadjuvant treatment. For this reason, the correct evaluation of the circumferential resection margin (CRM), the depth of tumor spread beyond the muscularis propria, extramural vascular invasion and nodal status is of the utmost importance. Low rectal tumors represent a special challenge for the MDT, because decisions seek a balance between oncologic safety, in the pursuit of free resection margins, and the patient's quality of life, in order to preserve sphincter function. At present, the exchange of information between the different specialties involved in dealing with patients with rectal cancer can rank the contribution of colleagues, auditing their work and incorporating knowledge that will lead to a better understanding of the pathology. Thus, beyond the anatomic description of the images, the radiologist's role in the MDT makes it necessary to know the prognostic value of the findings that we describe, in terms of recurrence and survival, because these findings affect decision making and, therefore, the patients' life. In this review, the usefulness of HR MRI in the initial staging of rectal cancer and in the evaluation of neoadjuvant treatment, with a focus on the prognostic value of the findings, is described as well as the contribution of HR MRI in assessing patients with suspected or confirmed recurrence of rectal cancer. PMID:23876415

  18. Natalizumab Significantly Improves Cognitive Impairment over Three Years in MS: Pattern of Disability Progression and Preliminary MRI Findings

    PubMed Central

    Mattioli, Flavia; Stampatori, Chiara; Bellomi, Fabio; Scarpazza, Cristina; Capra, Ruggero

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported that Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients treated with natalizumab for one or two years exhibit a significant reduction in relapse rate and in cognitive impairment, but the long term effects on cognitive performance are unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of natalizumab on cognitive impairment in a cohort of 24 consecutive patients with relapsing remitting MS treated for 3 years. The neuropsychological tests, as well as relapse number and EDSS, were assessed at baseline and yearly for three years. The impact on cortical atrophy was also considered in a subgroup of them, and are thus to be considered as preliminary. Results showed a significant reduction in the number of impaired neuropsychological tests after three years, a significant decrease in annualized relapse rate at each time points compared to baseline and a stable EDSS. In the neuropsychological assessment, a significant improvement in memory, attention and executive function test scores was detected. Preliminary MRI data show that, while GM volume did not change at 3 years, a significantly greater parahippocampal and prefrontal gray matter density was noticed, the former correlating with neuropsychological improvement in a memory test. This study showed that therapy with Natalizumab is helpful in improving cognitive performance, and is likely to have a protective role on grey matter, over a three years follow-up. PMID:26148120

  19. 76 FR 42675 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Hemlock Woolly Adelgid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... biological control agent to reduce the severity of hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae, HWA) infestations... release of this biological control agent into the continental United States. \\1\\ To view the notice,...

  20. 75 FR 23221 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Water Hyacinth AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of water hyacinth infestations. Based on... the continental United States for use as a biological control agent to reduce the severity of...

  1. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Bayou Meto Basin Project, Arkansas AGENCY: Natural Resources... Basin, Arkansas Post General Reevaluation Design Changes'' dated July 21, 2010, and an NRCS FONSI for the EA is available. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and FONSI are available upon request from...

  2. 78 FR 58517 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision (ROD) and Findings of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... of No Significant Impact (FONSI) for the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project AGENCY: Natural... Pumping Station Borrow Area, Prairie County, Arkansas'' (2010 EA), and an NRCS FONSI for each EA is available. ADDRESSES: Copies of the ROD and FONSI are available upon request from the Natural...

  3. 78 FR 14508 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Field...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-06

    .... On August 3, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 46373, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0061) a... Significant Impact for the Field Release of Aphelinus glycinis for the Biological Control of the Soybean Aphid... Aphelinus glycinis for the biological control of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, in the continental...

  4. 76 FR 4859 - Availability of an Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a Biological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    .... On May 20, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 28233- 28234, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0028... Significant Impact for a Biological Control Agent for Asian Citrus Psyllid AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... relative to the control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama). The environmental...

  5. FatiGO: a web tool for finding significant associations of Gene Ontology terms with groups of genes.

    PubMed

    Al-Shahrour, Fátima; Díaz-Uriarte, Ramón; Dopazo, Joaquín

    2004-03-01

    We present a simple but powerful procedure to extract Gene Ontology (GO) terms that are significantly over- or under-represented in sets of genes within the context of a genome-scale experiment (DNA microarray, proteomics, etc.). Said procedure has been implemented as a web application, FatiGO, allowing for easy and interactive querying. FatiGO, which takes the multiple-testing nature of statistical contrast into account, currently includes GO associations for diverse organisms (human, mouse, fly, worm and yeast) and the TrEMBL/Swissprot GOAnnotations@EBI correspondences from the European Bioinformatics Institute.

  6. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Sold residue treatment, repackaging, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    From its founding in 1952 through the cessation of production in 1989, the United States Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Plant (now the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site [the Site]) produced components for nuclear weapons. Some of those components were made of plutonium. As a result of the processes used to recover and purify plutonium and manufacture the components, a variety of materials became contaminated with plutonium. If the level of contamination were low, the material was considered waste. However, if the concentration of plutonium in the material exceeded the {open_quotes}economic discard limit,{close_quotes} the materials were classified as {open_quotes}residue{close_quotes} rather than{open_quotes}Waste{close_quotes} and were stored for later recovery of the plutonium. While large quantities of residues were processed, others, primarily those more difficult to process, accumulated at the Site in storage. Two important events regarding residues have occurred at the Site since production activities ceased. One event was the end of the Cold War in 1991, which made the return to production of nuclear weapons, with their Rocky Flats-made components, unnecessary. This event led to DOE`s decision to permanently cease production at the Site, clean up and remove radioactive and chemical contamination at the Site, and find alternative uses for the Site. This document describes methods for processing of the wastes for safe interim storage. Environmental impacts from the processing and storage are discussed.

  7. Hysteroscopic findings in women with two and with more than two first-trimester miscarriages are not significantly different.

    PubMed

    Bohlmann, Michael K; von Wolff, Michael; Luedders, Doerte W; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Diedrich, Klaus; Hornemann, Amadeus; Strowitzki, Thomas

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse hysteroscopic results in patients with recurrent miscarriages and to compare the frequency of uterine anomalies in women with a history of exactly two and with more than two consecutive miscarriages. A retrospective analysis of 206 patients undergoing hysteroscopy for repeated early pregnancy losses was performed at two university centres. Late miscarriages were excluded, terminations of pregnancy were not counted. Eighty-seven patients had suffered from exactly two early miscarriages and 119 from more than two. Both groups were comparable with respect to age at admission (32.95+/-4.46 versus 34.06+/-5.02 years) and at first miscarriage (30.43+/-4.24 versus 29.08+/-5.38 years). The prevalence of acquired (adhesions, polyps, fibroids) and congenital uterine anomalies (septate or bicornuate uterus, etc.) did not differ significantly (acquired: 28.7 versus 27.7%; congenital: 9.2 versus 16.8%). The rates of uterine anomalies did not differ significantly overall (36.8 versus 42.9%). In conclusion, uterine anomalies are frequently found in patients with two and with more than two early miscarriages. Due to the high rate of anomalies, their risk for adverse pregnancy outcome and a possible therapeutic approach, hysteroscopy might be a diagnostic option even after two early miscarriages.

  8. Young coconut juice, a potential therapeutic agent that could significantly reduce some pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease: novel findings.

    PubMed

    Radenahmad, Nisaudah; Saleh, Farid; Sawangjaroen, Kitja; Vongvatcharanon, Uraporn; Subhadhirasakul, Patchara; Rundorn, Wilart; Withyachumnarnkul, Boonsirm; Connor, James R

    2011-03-01

    Brains from ovariectomised (ovx) rats can display features similar to those observed in menopausal women with Alzheimer's disease (AD), and oestrogen seems to play a key role. Preliminary studies on young coconut juice (YCJ) have reported the presence of oestrogen-like components in it. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of YCJ on the AD pathological changes in the brains of ovx rats. Rat groups included sham-operated, ovx, ovx+oestradiol benzoate (EB) and ovx+YCJ. Brain sections (4 μm) were taken and were immunostained with β-amyloid (Aβ) 1-42, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) (an intermediate neurofilament of astrocytes) and Tau-1 antibodies. Aβ 1-42, GFAP and Tau-1 are considered as reliable biomarkers of amyloidosis, astrogliosis and tauopathy (neurofibrillary tangles), respectively, which in turn are characteristic features associated with AD. The serum oestradiol (E2) level was measured using a chemiluminescent immunoassay technique. YCJ restored the serum E2 to levels significantly (P < 0·001) higher than that of the ovx group, and even that of the sham group. Aβ deposition was significantly (P < 0·0001) reduced in the cerebral cortex of the YCJ group, as compared with the ovx group and with the sham and ovx+EB groups (P < 0·01). A similar trend was observed in relation to GFAP expression in the cerebral cortex and to Tau-1 expression in the hippocampus. This is a novel study demonstrating that YCJ could have positive future implications in the prevention and treatment of AD in menopausal women.

  9. Serial assessment of suspected myelodysplastic syndromes: significance of flow cytometric findings validated by cytomorphology, cytogenetics, and molecular genetics

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Claudia; Schnittger, Susanne; Alpermann, Tamara; Haferlach, Torsten

    2013-01-01

    The significance of flow cytometry indicating myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology remains to be clarified. We evaluated follow-up analyses in 142 patients analyzed in parallel by flow cytometry, cytomorphology and cytogenetics for suspected myelodysplasia without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology. At initial assessment, flow cytometry indicated myelodysplasia in 64 of 142 (45.1%) patients. In 9 of 142 (6.3%) patients, cytogenetics revealed aberrant karyotypes at first evaluation that were found in 5 of 64 (7.8%) patients rated with myelodysplasia by flow cytometry. The remaining 133 patients without proof of myelodysplasia by cytomorphology and with normal karyotype underwent follow-up analyses that confirmed myelodysplasia by cytomorphology, cytogenetics or molecular genetics in 47 (35.3%) after a median interval of nine months (range 1-53 months). As far as initial flow cytometry results are concerned, this applied to 30 of 59 (50.1%) with myelodysplasia, 10 of 42 (23.8%) with “possible myelodysplasia” (minor antigen aberrancies only) and 7 of 32 (21.9%) without myelodysplasia (P=0.004). Notably, in these latter 7 patients, flow cytometry results changed at follow up to “possible myelodysplasia” (n=4) and “myelodysplasia” (n=2). These data argue in favor of including flow cytometry along with cytomorphology, cytogenetics and molecular genetics to diagnose myelodysplasia, and suggest a closer monitoring of patients with myelodysplasia-typical aberrant antigen expression found by flow cytometry. PMID:22929975

  10. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The National Compact Stellarator Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-10-25

    If the United States is to meet the energy needs of the future, it is essential that new technologies emerge to compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels, the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors, and the limitations of solar, hydro and wind alternatives. Fusion energy, the power source of the sun and other stars, has the potential to become a major source of energy for the future. Power from fusion would provide substantially reduced environmental impacts as compared with current forms of energy generation. Thus, the United States and other countries around the world continue to pursue development of fusion energy as one of a number of potential power sources for the long term. Fusion research, using various machine configurations, has been proceeding since the early 1950's, and significant progress has been achieved in performance and in understanding of the underlying physics. For most of this period, fusion machines called stellarators and tokamaks, which are toroidal (doughnut-shaped) devices, have been most frequently used to conduct experiments for producing controlled nuclear fusion. It is now desirable to take a next step in the fusion development program, by providing an experimental device to investigate the attractiveness of a compact stellarator as the basis for a fusion power reactor. This concept has the potential to build upon advances in understanding of stellarators and tokamaks, and to combine the best features of both. The goal is to build a compact stellarator that would be smaller than conventional stellarators and operate more efficiently than previous tokamaks. Such a device would broaden our understanding of magnetic fusion science while contributing to the development of a potentially attractive fusion reactor solution that may have cost advantages over other fusion concepts.

  11. Rare allele of OsPPKL1 associated with grain length causes extra-large grain and a significant yield increase in rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianfei; Huang, Ji; Lan, Hongxia; Wang, Cailin; Yin, Congfei; Wu, Yunyu; Tang, Haijuan; Qian, Qian; Li, Jiayang; Zhang, Hongsheng

    2012-01-01

    Grain size and shape are important components determining rice grain yield, and they are controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Here, we report the cloning and functional characterization of a major grain length QTL, qGL3, which encodes a putative protein phosphatase with Kelch-like repeat domain (OsPPKL1). We found a rare allele qgl3 that leads to a long grain phenotype by an aspartate-to-glutamate transition in a conserved AVLDT motif of the second Kelch domain in OsPPKL1. The rice genome has other two OsPPKL1 homologs, OsPPKL2 and OsPPKL3. Transgenic studies showed that OsPPKL1 and OsPPKL3 function as negative regulators of grain length, whereas OsPPKL2 as a positive regulator. The Kelch domains are essential for the OsPPKL1 biological function. Field trials showed that the application of the qgl3 allele could significantly increase grain yield in both inbred and hybrid rice varieties, due to its favorable effect on grain length, filling, and weight. PMID:23236132

  12. Adding multiple micronutrient powders to a homestead food production programme yields marginally significant benefit on anaemia reduction among young children in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Osei, Akoto K; Pandey, Pooja; Spiro, David; Adhikari, Debendra; Haselow, Nancy; De Morais, Caroline; Davis, Dale

    2015-12-01

    Anaemia affects 46% of preschool-aged children in Nepal. A cluster-randomised study was conducted in rural Nepal to test whether providing micronutrient powders (MNP) in addition to enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) programme, consisting of home gardens, poultry and nutrition education, could lead to a higher reduction in anaemia compared with providing only EHFP. This sub-study enrolled 335 children aged 6-9 months into one of three groups: (1) EHFP + MNP; (2) EHFP; or (3) control. The EHFP + MNP group received 60 sachets of MNP for flexible consumption at the start and 6 months later for a total supplementation period of 11 months. The MNP contained 15 micronutrients including iron (10 mg encapsulated ferrous fumarate). Haemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post-MNP supplementation. Mean ± SE haemoglobin concentration increased significantly in all groups, with a slightly higher but non-significant increase in the EHFP + MNP and EHFP compared with control (difference-in-differences: 4.1 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. control; 3.6 g L(-1) for EHFP vs. control; 0.5 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. EHFP). Anaemia decreased at a slightly higher magnitude in the EHFP + MNP [51.5 percentage points (PP)] than the EHFP (48.6 PP) and control (39.6 PP), with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) at post-supplementation of 0.52 (0.25-1.12) for EHFP + MNP and 0.69 (0.35-1.36) for EHFP, compared with control. There was no impact on child growth. Combining EHFP and MNP programmes yielded a marginally significant reduction in anaemia among children. PMID:25682798

  13. Adding multiple micronutrient powders to a homestead food production programme yields marginally significant benefit on anaemia reduction among young children in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Osei, Akoto K; Pandey, Pooja; Spiro, David; Adhikari, Debendra; Haselow, Nancy; De Morais, Caroline; Davis, Dale

    2015-12-01

    Anaemia affects 46% of preschool-aged children in Nepal. A cluster-randomised study was conducted in rural Nepal to test whether providing micronutrient powders (MNP) in addition to enhanced homestead food production (EHFP) programme, consisting of home gardens, poultry and nutrition education, could lead to a higher reduction in anaemia compared with providing only EHFP. This sub-study enrolled 335 children aged 6-9 months into one of three groups: (1) EHFP + MNP; (2) EHFP; or (3) control. The EHFP + MNP group received 60 sachets of MNP for flexible consumption at the start and 6 months later for a total supplementation period of 11 months. The MNP contained 15 micronutrients including iron (10 mg encapsulated ferrous fumarate). Haemoglobin and anthropometry were measured at baseline and post-MNP supplementation. Mean ± SE haemoglobin concentration increased significantly in all groups, with a slightly higher but non-significant increase in the EHFP + MNP and EHFP compared with control (difference-in-differences: 4.1 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. control; 3.6 g L(-1) for EHFP vs. control; 0.5 g L(-1) for EHFP + MNP vs. EHFP). Anaemia decreased at a slightly higher magnitude in the EHFP + MNP [51.5 percentage points (PP)] than the EHFP (48.6 PP) and control (39.6 PP), with adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) at post-supplementation of 0.52 (0.25-1.12) for EHFP + MNP and 0.69 (0.35-1.36) for EHFP, compared with control. There was no impact on child growth. Combining EHFP and MNP programmes yielded a marginally significant reduction in anaemia among children.

  14. 78 FR 48543 - Notice of Approval of Finding of No Significant Impact-Record of Decision (FONSI/ROD) for Sioux...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Approval of Finding of No Significant Impact--Record of Decision... Golf Course. The proposed mitigation of obstructions to FAR Part 77 is needed in order to enhance...

  15. Finding of No Significant for the Closure of the High-Level Waste Tanks in F-and H-Areas at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1996-07-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOEEA-1164) for the proposed closure of the high-level waste tanks in F- and H-Areas on the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken, South Carolina. Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Crop yield gaps in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Yengoh, Genesis T; Ardö, Jonas

    2014-03-01

    Although food crop yields per hectare have generally been increasing in Cameroon since 1961, the food price crisis of 2008 and the ensuing social unrest and fatalities raised concerns about the country's ability to meet the food needs of its population. This study examines the country's potential for increasing crop yields and food production to meet this food security challenge. Fuzzy set theory is used to develop a biophysical spatial suitability model for different crops, which in turn is employed to ascertain whether crop production is carried out in biophysically suited areas. We use linear regression to examine the trend of yield development over the last half century. On the basis of yield data from experimental stations and farmers' fields we assess the yield gap for major food crops. We find that yields have generally been increasing over the last half century and that agricultural policies can have significant effects on them. To a large extent, food crops are cultivated in areas that are biophysically suited for their cultivation, meaning that the yield gap is not a problem of biophysical suitability. Notwithstanding, there are significantly large yield gaps between actual yields on farmers' farms and maximum attainable yields from research stations. We conclude that agronomy and policies are likely to be the reasons for these large yield gaps. A key challenge to be addressed in closing the yield gaps is that of replenishing and properly managing soil nutrients.

  17. Environmental assessment and finding of no significant impact for completion of flood protection works, Bannister Road Federal Complex, Kansas City, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-18

    The Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to provide partial funding to the Corps of Engineers (COE) for the completion of the flood protection works at the Bannister Road Federal Complex in Kansas City, Missouri. The DOE Kansas City Plant is a major tenant of the Complex. COE has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) for the project which includes the construction of levees, floodwalls, and drainage ditches. DOE has adopted the EA prepared by COE (DOE/EA-0509), this report. Based on the analyses in this EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  18. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Idaho Department of Fish and Game Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-10-12

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE), is proposing to fund the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG) Captive Rearing Initiative for Salmon River Chinook Salmon Program (IDFG Program). The IDFG Program is a small-scale research and production initiative designed to increase numbers of three weak but recoverable populations of spring/summer chinook salmon in the Salmon River drainage. This would increase numbers of spring/summer chinook salmon within the Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU), and reduce population fragmentation within the ESU. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1301) evaluating the proposed IDFG Program. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the Proposed Action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined within the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  19. [Clinical studies in working populations: value and significance of anamnestic findings, clinical tests and instrumental tests for the diagnosis of musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities].

    PubMed

    De Marco, F; Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Bonaiuti, D; Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E

    1996-01-01

    The authors discuss the value and significance of symptoms in WMSDs, considering that the anamnestic threshold proposed in epidemiological investigations cannot be used as clinical and diagnosing criteria. Some useful clinical procedures are suggested for cases where there is a suspicion of musculo-skeletal disorders of the cervical spine and upper limbs, bearing in mind that they are to be applied within the framework of health surveillance programmes undertaken by health care practitioners who are not specialists in orthopaedics, physiatrics or neurology. The recommendations for instrumental tests and specialist referrals are also discussed for the various disorders. The authors also provide flow charts for the diagnostic procedures pertaining to WMSDs. The Appendix shows a sample patient chart illustrating the proposed procedures; it also permits the findings to be encoded so that they can be stored in a dedicated database. The codes for diagnosing WMSDs are also reported for the same epidemiological purposes.

  20. Disruption of glutamate-glutamine-GABA cycle significantly impacts on suicidal behaviour: survey of the literature and own findings on glutamine synthetase.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Hans-Gert; Tausch, Anne; Wagner, Rebecca; Steiner, Johann; Seeleke, Patrick; Walter, Martin; Dobrowolny, Henrik; Bogerts, Bernhard

    2013-11-01

    The aetiology of suicide is complex and still not completely understood. The present communication, which consists of two parts, aims to shed some light on the role of amino acidergic neurotransmission in suicide. In the first part we provide an overview of the literature showing that with the exception of certain gamma-aminobutyric acid transporters, virtually all components of the glutamate-glutamine- gamma-aminobutyric acid cycle are, in some way or other, abnormal in suicide victims, which indicates a prominent involvement of the glutamatergic and gammaaminobutyric acidergic neurotransmitter systems in suicidal behaviour. In the second part we present own immunohistochemical findings showing that densities of glutamine synthetase expressing glial cells in the mediodorsal thalamus as well as in the dorsolateral prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex of schizophrenic suicide completers are significantly elevated compared with controls and non-suicide individuals with schizophrenia, thus calling into question the belief that cerebral glutamine synthetase deficit is indicative of suicidal behaviour.

  1. Differential mass spectrometry: a label-free LC-MS method for finding significant differences in complex peptide and protein mixtures.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Matthew C; Sachs, Jeffrey R; Deyanova, Ekaterina G; Yates, Nathan A

    2004-10-15

    Efficiently identifying and quantifying disease- or treatment-related changes in the abundance of proteins is an important area of research for the pharmaceutical industry. Here we describe an automated, label-free method for finding differences in complex mixtures using complete LC-MS data sets, rather than subsets of extracted peaks or features. The method selectively finds statistically significant differences in the intensity of both high-abundance and low-abundance ions, accounting for the variability of measured intensities and the fact that true differences will persist in time. The method was used to compare two complex peptide mixtures with known peptide differences. This controlled experiment allowed us to assess the validity of each difference found and so to analyze the method's sensitivity and specificity. The method detects both presence versus absence and a 2-fold change in peptide concentration near the limit of detection of the instrument used, where chromatographic peaks may not be sufficiently well defined to be detected in individual samples. The method is more sensitive and gives fewer false positives than subtractive methods that ignore signal variability. Differential mass spectrometry combined with targeted MS/MS analysis of only identified differences may save both computation time and human effort compared to shotgun proteomics approaches. PMID:15481957

  2. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-04-23

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam Project. The project proposes to continue to carry out harvest monitoring and stock status updates coordinated with fisheries management planning, annual young-of-the year recruitment indexing, research, experimental artificial propagation, and transport of white sturgeon to less densely populated areas of the river(s). Additionally, release of hatchery-reared juveniles is proposed to evaluate release strategies. Actions will take place in the following Columbia River mainstem reaches: Bonneville, The Dalles, John Day, and McNary Reservoirs; Hanford Reach, as well as the Wanapum and Rock Island Reservoirs; and the following Snake River mainstem reaches: Ice Harbor, Lower Monumental and Little Goose Reservoirs. Spawning and rearing are undertaken at established hatcheries at McNary Dam and also the Abernathy Fish Technology Center. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1367, April 2003) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and BPA is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  3. Finding of no significant impact: Changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1042) that evaluates potential impacts of proposed changes in the sanitary sludge land application program on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Changes in lifetime sludge land application limits and radionuclide loading are proposed, and two new sources of sewage sludge from DOE facilities would be transported to the City of Oak Ridge Publicly Owned Treatment Works (COR POTW). Lifetime sludge land application limits would increase from 22 tons/acre to 50 tons/acre, which is the limit approved and permitted by the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). With the approval of TDEC, the permissible radiological dose from sludge land application would change from the current limit of 2x background radionuclide concentrations in receiving soils to a risk-based dose limit of 4 millirem (mrem) per year for the maximally exposed individual. Sludge land application sites would not change from those that are currently part of the program. Based on the results of the analysis reported in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). 70 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  4. Finding of no significant impact for the joint DOE/EPA program on national industrial competitiveness through energy efficiency and economics (NICE{sup 3})

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), to assess the environment impacts associated with a joint DOE/EPA cost-sharing grant program named National Industrial Competitiveness through Energy Efficiency, Environment and Economics (NICE{sup 3}). The purpose of the NICE{sup 3} Program is to encourage waste minimization technology in industry by funding projects that develop activities and process improvements to conserve energy and reduce pollution. The proposed action would provide Federal financial assistance in the form of grants to industry in order to promote pollution prevention, energy efficiency, and cost competitiveness. Based on the analysis presented in the PEA, DOE has determined that the proposed action (providing NICE{sup 3} grants for projects which are consistent with the goals of the PPA and EPACT) does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not needed and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact.

  5. A new direction for prenatal chromosome microarray testing: software-targeting for detection of clinically significant chromosome imbalance without equivocal findings

    PubMed Central

    Bint, Susan; Irving, Melita D.; Kyle, Phillipa M.; Akolekar, Ranjit; Mohammed, Shehla N.; Mackie Ogilvie, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To design and validate a prenatal chromosomal microarray testing strategy that moves away from size-based detection thresholds, towards a more clinically relevant analysis, providing higher resolution than G-banded chromosomes but avoiding the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) of unclear prognosis that cause parental anxiety. Methods. All prenatal samples fulfilling our criteria for karyotype analysis (n = 342) were tested by chromosomal microarray and only CNVs of established deletion/duplication syndrome regions and any other CNV >3 Mb were detected and reported. A retrospective full-resolution analysis of 249 of these samples was carried out to ascertain the performance of this testing strategy. Results. Using our prenatal analysis, 23/342 (6.7%) samples were found to be abnormal. Of the remaining samples, 249 were anonymized and reanalyzed at full-resolution; a further 46 CNVs were detected in 44 of these cases (17.7%). None of these additional CNVs were of clear clinical significance. Conclusion. This prenatal chromosomal microarray strategy detected all CNVs of clear prognostic value and did not miss any CNVs of clear clinical significance. This strategy avoided both the problems associated with interpreting CNVs of uncertain prognosis and the parental anxiety that are a result of such findings. PMID:24795849

  6. Revised Finding of No Significant Impact for Expansion and Operation of the Central Shops Borrow Pit at the Savannah River Site (10/29/03)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-29

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1194) in 1997 for the expansion and operation of the existing Central Shops Borrow Pit (i.e., SRS Facility 632-G) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), located near Aiken, South Carolina. This EA was prepared in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 15400-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). Based on the analyses in the EA, DOE determined that the action was not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) was not required, and DOE issued a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) dated March 13, 1997. In an effort to provide the site with cost-effective future landfill capacity for construction and demolition (C&D) debris/structural fill, DOE is considering redefining the closure of the 632-G facility to encompass the permitted disposal of inert C&D debris into the excavation areas, which would then be closed as per regulatory requirements. Based on the existing infrastructure at the 632-G facility that would support a permitted Part III C&D Landfill, DOE has concluded that the environmental impacts of the proposed use of the excavated portions of this facility as an inert debris landfill is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of NEPA. Therefore, the preparation of an EIS is not required, and DOE is issuing this revised FONSI.

  7. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Widening Trench 36 of the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-02-11

    This environmental assessment was prepared to assess potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed action to widen and operate unused Trench 36 in the 218-E-12B Low-Level Burial Ground for disposal of low-level waste. Information contained herein will be used by the Manager, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, to determine if the Proposed Action is a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment. If the Proposed Action is determined to be major and significant, an environmental impact statement will be prepared. If the Proposed Action is determined not to be major and significant, a Finding of No Significant Impact will be issued and the action may proceed. Criteria used to evaluate significance can be found in Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1508.27. This environmental assessment was prepared in compliance with the ''National Environmental Policy Act of1969'', as amended, the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of ''National Environmental Policy Act'' (Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations 1500-1508), and the U.S. Department of Energy Implementing Procedures for ''National Environmental Polio Act'' (Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021). The following is a description of each section of this environmental assessment. (1) Purpose and Need for Action. This section provides a brief statement concerning the problem or opportunity the U.S, Department of Energy is addressing with the Proposed Action. Background information is provided. (2) Description of the Proposed Action. This section provides a description of the Proposed Action with sufficient detail to identify potential environmental impacts. (3) Alternatives to the Proposed Action. This section describes reasonable,alternative actions to the Proposed Action, which addresses the Purpose and Need. A No Action Alternative, as required by Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations 1021

  8. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Environmental Assessment for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve West Hackberry Facility Raw Water Intake Pipeline Replacement Cameron and Calcasieu Parishes, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2004-08-31

    DOE has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1497, for the proposed replacement of the existing 107 centimeter (cm) [42 inch (in)] 6.87 kilometer (km) [4.27 mile (mi)] raw water intake pipeline (RWIPL). This action is necessary to allow for continued, optimum operations at the West Hackberry facility (main site/facility). The EA described the proposed action (including action alternatives) and three alternatives to the proposed action. The EA evaluated only the potential environmental consequences of the proposed action (one action alternative), and Alternative 3, which consisted of the No Build Action that is required by 10 CFR 1021.321(c). Based on the analysis in DOE/EA-1497, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting humans or the natural environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 USC 4321 et seq. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI). To further minimize impacts to environmental media, the DOE will also implement a Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) for this action. The MAP is included as Appendix F of this EA, which is appended to this FONSI. The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, authorizes the creation of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) to store crude oil to reduce the United States' vulnerability to energy supply disruptions. Crude oil is stored in geologic formations, or salt domes, located under these facilities. The purpose of this proposed project is to construct a new RWIPL at the main site to replace the existing RWIPL which services this facility.

  9. Finding of no significant impact: Interim storage of enriched uranium above the maximum historical level at the Y-12 Plant Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Proposed Interim Storage of Enriched Uranium Above the Maximum Historical Storage Level at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (DOE/EA-0929, September, 1994). The EA evaluates the environmental effects of transportation, prestorage processing, and interim storage of bounding quantities of enriched uranium at the Y-12 Plant over a ten-year period. The State of Tennessee and the public participated in public meetings and workshops which were held after a predecisional draft EA was released in February 1994, and after the revised pre-approval EA was issued in September 1994. Comments provided by the State and public have been carefully considered by the Department. As a result of this public process, the Department has determined that the Y-12 Plant-would store no more than 500 metric tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and no more than 6 metric tons of low enriched uranium (LEU). The bounding storage quantities analyzed in the pre-approval EA are 500 metric tons of HEU and 7,105.9 metric tons of LEU. Based on-the analyses in the EA, as revised by the attachment to the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI), DOE has determined that interim storage of 500 metric tons of HEU and 6 metric tons of LEU at the Y-12 Plant does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and the Department is issuing this FONSI.

  10. Seropositivity to a major allergen of Anisakis simplex, Ani s 1, in dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori infection: histological and laboratory findings and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Toro, C; Caballero, M L; Baquero, M; García-Samaniego, J; Casado, I; Martínez, P; Alarcón, T; Moneo, I

    2006-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of seropositivity to the Ani s 1 protein in dyspeptic patients with Helicobacter pylori infection, but it is not known whether this represents episodes of anisakiasis misdiagnosis or previous exposure to the parasite without clinical relevance. To investigate the clinical significance of seropositivity to the Ani s 1 protein, a cohort study was performed with 87 consecutive dyspeptic patients who were treated for H. pylori infection. Fourteen (16.5%) patients were seropositive for the Ani s 1 protein, which was associated with the consumption of uncooked fish (p 0.0002). There were no differences in histological findings between subjects seropositive or seronegative for Ani s 1, but seropositive patients had increased eosinophil and basophil leukocyte counts (p < 0.05). Anti-Ani s 1 IgE was associated with a lack of improvement in the group of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia after successful eradication of H. pylori (p 0.016). Thus, in at least a subset of patients with H. pylori infection, seropositivity to Ani s 1 could have clinical relevance. In addition, these data highlight that only anisakiasis associated with severe allergic or gastric symptoms is currently being diagnosed. PMID:16643522

  11. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  12. Monosomy 1p36.31-33{yields}pter due to a paternal reciprocal translocation: Prognostic significance of FISH analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Blennow, E.; Bui, The-Hung; Wallin, A.

    1996-10-02

    A rare monosomy 1p36.31-33{r_arrow}pter was found in a child with physical anomalies, psycho-motor retardation, and seizures. Cytogenetic investigation suggested an unbalanced translocation between 1p and an acrocentric chromosome, but the rearrangement was difficult to assess accurately using conventional chromosome banding techniques. The half-cryptic translocation was further characterized using fluorescence in situ hybridization, and the aberrant chromosome 1 was shown to be a derivate of a paternal reciprocal translocation t(1;15)(p36.31-33;p11.2-12). The breakpoints on chromosome 1 and 15 were defined in detail using locus specific probes. The rearrangement did not include the region on chromosome 1p which previously has been suggested to predispose to the development of neuroblastoma in a case with a constitutional translocation. At 3 6/12 years, the patient has no clinical signs of this disease, which illustrates the prognostic significance of this investigation. 30 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Binding screen for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator correctors finds new chemical matter and yields insights into cystic fibrosis therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Justin D; Wang, Hong; Byrnes, Laura J; Shanker, Suman; Wang, Kelong; Efremov, Ivan V; Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Aulabaugh, Ann E

    2016-02-01

    The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is deletion of F508 (ΔF508) in the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508 causes a decrease in the trafficking of CFTR to the cell surface and reduces the thermal stability of isolated NBD1; it is well established that both of these effects can be rescued by additional revertant mutations in NBD1. The current paradigm in CF small molecule drug discovery is that, like revertant mutations, a path may exist to ΔF508 CFTR correction through a small molecule chaperone binding to NBD1. We, therefore, set out to find small molecule binders of NBD1 and test whether it is possible to develop these molecules into potent binders that increase CFTR trafficking in CF-patient-derived human bronchial epithelial cells. Several fragments were identified that bind NBD1 at either the CFFT-001 site or the BIA site. However, repeated attempts to improve the affinity of these fragments resulted in only modest gains. Although these results cannot prove that there is no possibility of finding a high-affinity small molecule binder of NBD1, they are discouraging and lead us to hypothesize that the nature of these two binding sites, and isolated NBD1 itself, may not contain the features needed to build high-affinity interactions. Future work in this area may, therefore, require constructs including other domains of CFTR in addition to NBD1, if high-affinity small molecule binding is to be achieved. PMID:26444971

  14. Binding screen for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator correctors finds new chemical matter and yields insights into cystic fibrosis therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Hall, Justin D; Wang, Hong; Byrnes, Laura J; Shanker, Suman; Wang, Kelong; Efremov, Ivan V; Chong, P Andrew; Forman-Kay, Julie D; Aulabaugh, Ann E

    2016-02-01

    The most common mutation in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients is deletion of F508 (ΔF508) in the first nucleotide binding domain (NBD1) of the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). ΔF508 causes a decrease in the trafficking of CFTR to the cell surface and reduces the thermal stability of isolated NBD1; it is well established that both of these effects can be rescued by additional revertant mutations in NBD1. The current paradigm in CF small molecule drug discovery is that, like revertant mutations, a path may exist to ΔF508 CFTR correction through a small molecule chaperone binding to NBD1. We, therefore, set out to find small molecule binders of NBD1 and test whether it is possible to develop these molecules into potent binders that increase CFTR trafficking in CF-patient-derived human bronchial epithelial cells. Several fragments were identified that bind NBD1 at either the CFFT-001 site or the BIA site. However, repeated attempts to improve the affinity of these fragments resulted in only modest gains. Although these results cannot prove that there is no possibility of finding a high-affinity small molecule binder of NBD1, they are discouraging and lead us to hypothesize that the nature of these two binding sites, and isolated NBD1 itself, may not contain the features needed to build high-affinity interactions. Future work in this area may, therefore, require constructs including other domains of CFTR in addition to NBD1, if high-affinity small molecule binding is to be achieved.

  15. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Interim Measures for the Mixed Waste Management Facility Groundwater at the Burial Ground Complex at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-12-08

    the southwest plume area to Fourmile Branch between 25 to 35 percent. If this proposed action is undertaken and its effectiveness is demonstrated, it may become a component of the final action in the CAP. This document was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended; the requirements of the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508); and the DOE Regulations for Implementing NEPA (10 CFR 1021). NEPA requires the assessment of environmental consequences of Federal actions that may affect the quality of the human environment. Based on the potential for impacts described herein, DOE will either publish a Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) or prepare an environmental impact statement (EM).

  16. Managing corporate knowledge can yield significant dividends.

    PubMed

    Sauer, S D

    1996-12-01

    Integrated delivery systems (IDSs) that track projects, initiatives, and task force undertakings system-wide are better able to effectively manage their corporate knowledge. IDS executives must understand how valuable corporate knowledge is, and should manage their organizations' corporate knowledge as carefully as their capital investments. PMID:10163001

  17. From Bayes through Marginal Utility to Effect Sizes: A Guide to Understanding the Clinical and Statistical Significance of the Results of Autism Research Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Domenic V.; Koenig, Kathy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.; Paul, Rhea; Sparrow, Sara

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this report are: (a) to trace the theoretical roots of the concept clinical significance that derives from Bayesian thinking, Marginal Utility/Diminishing Returns in Economics, and the "just noticeable difference", in Psychophysics. These concepts then translated into: Effect Size (ES), strength of agreement, clinical…

  18. Detection of cancer cells and tumor markers in gastric lavage of patients with gastric cancer: Do these findings have a clinicopathological significance and oncological implication?

    PubMed

    Virgilio, Edoardo; Giarnieri, Enrico; Montagnini, Monica; D'Urso, Rosaria; Proietti, Antonella; Mesiti, Alessandra; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria; Mercantini, Paolo; Cavallini, Marco; Balducci, Genoveffa

    2016-09-01

    Although decreasing in the incidence over the last years, currently gastric adenocarcinoma represents the second cause of cancer related-death worldwide. Further knowledge and novel therapies are desperately needed in order to make the prognosis of these patients more acceptable. Infact, even though in recent years numerous staging parameters have been largely studied and unanimously recognized for their clinical and prognostic value, today too many shadows still exist around the capacity to predict exactly the natural history or post-treatment behavior of this cancer even among patients of the same stage. This study has identified the presence of isolated cancer cells as well as tumor markers (CEA, Ca 19.9, Ca 72.4 and Ca 50) from the gastric lavage of patients affected by gastric adenocarcinoma. Such findings led to the hypothesis that endoluminal exfoliation of neoplastic cells and the release of their products (tumor markers) into the gastric juice might be an expression of neoplastic behavior as well as aggressive malignancy. Should this hypothesis become a reality, some important progress could be made in the knowledge, staging, prediction as well as management and follow-up of this inauspicious type of cancer. PMID:27515187

  19. Prognostic significance of prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the Gulf RACE-2 Registry.

    PubMed

    Hersi, Ahmad; Alhabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Alfaleh, Hussam F; Alsaif, Shukri; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Asaad, Nidal; Haitham, Amin; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Suwaidi, Jassim; Shehab, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    There is a paucity of data on atrial fibrillation (AF) complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Arabian Gulf countries. Thus, we assessed the incidence of AF in patients with ACS in these countries and examined the associated in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year adverse outcomes. The population comprised 7930 patients enrolled in the second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Of 7930 patients with ACS, 217 (2.7%) had AF. Compared with patients without AF, patients with AF were less likely to be male (65.9 vs 79.1%) and were older (mean age 64.6 vs 56.6 years). Compared with patients without AF, in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in patients with any AF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, respectively; P < .001) and in patients with new-onset AF (OR: 5.2, 3.9, 3.1, respectively; P < .001. In conclusion, AF in patients with ACS was associated with significantly higher short- and long-term mortality.

  20. Prognostic significance of prevalent and incident atrial fibrillation among patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndrome: findings from the Gulf RACE-2 Registry.

    PubMed

    Hersi, Ahmad; Alhabib, Khalid F; Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Sulaiman, Kadhim; Alfaleh, Hussam F; Alsaif, Shukri; Al-Mahmeed, Wael; Asaad, Nidal; Haitham, Amin; Al-Motarreb, Ahmed; Suwaidi, Jassim; Shehab, Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    There is a paucity of data on atrial fibrillation (AF) complicating acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Arabian Gulf countries. Thus, we assessed the incidence of AF in patients with ACS in these countries and examined the associated in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year adverse outcomes. The population comprised 7930 patients enrolled in the second Gulf Registry of Acute Coronary Events (Gulf RACE-2). Of 7930 patients with ACS, 217 (2.7%) had AF. Compared with patients without AF, patients with AF were less likely to be male (65.9 vs 79.1%) and were older (mean age 64.6 vs 56.6 years). Compared with patients without AF, in-hospital, 30-day, and 1-year mortality were significantly higher in patients with any AF (odds ratio [OR]: 2.7, 2.2, 1.9, respectively; P < .001) and in patients with new-onset AF (OR: 5.2, 3.9, 3.1, respectively; P < .001. In conclusion, AF in patients with ACS was associated with significantly higher short- and long-term mortality. PMID:22144666

  1. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kV Transmission Line Reroute Project, Montrose County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2000-03-20

    The Department of Energy (DOE), Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to reroute a section of the Curecanti-Lost Canyon 230-kilovolt (kV) transmission line, in Montrose County, Colorado. A portion of the transmission line, situated 11 miles southeast of Montrose, Colorado, crosses Waterdog Peak, an area of significant geologic surface activity, which is causing the transmission line's lattice steel towers to shift. This increases stress to structure hardware and conductors, and poses a threat to the integrity of the transmission system. Western proposes to relocate the lattice steel towers and line to a more geologically stable area. The existing section of transmission line and the proposed relocation route cross Bureau of Land Management and private land holdings.

  2. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Expansion of the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-11-06

    The U.S. Department of Energy needs to provide additional cost-effective personal protection and public safety through expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1412, for expanding training and equipment testing facilities at the Volpentest Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training and Education Center (HAMMER) on the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington. Based on the analysis in the EA, and considering tribal and agency comments, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required.

  3. Changes in Normal Liver and Spleen Volume after Radioembolization with {sup 90}Y-Resin Microspheres in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients: Findings and Clinical Significance

    SciTech Connect

    Paprottka, Philipp M. Schmidt, G. P.; Trumm, C. G.; Hoffmann, R. T.; Reiser, M. F.; Jakobs, T. F.

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: In clinical trials with yttrium-90-resin-microspheres for the management of colorectal cancer liver metastases, it was observed that radioembolization might result in splenomegaly and an increase in portal vein size. Subclinical hepatitis in normal liver tissue as well as the effects of radioembolization and prior chemotherapy are suspected to be responsible for this phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter after radioembolization. Methods: Twenty-seven patients with liver-dominant metastatic disease from breast cancer who had not responded to chemotherapy or had to abandon chemotherapy because of its toxic effects were evaluated. Changes in liver and spleen volume and portal vein diameter as well as liver tumor volume and diameter were quantified using computed tomography scans. Results: Radioembolization was associated with a significant mean decrease in the whole liver volume of 10.2% (median 16.7%; P = 0.0024), mainly caused by a reduction in the right lobe volume (mean 16.0%; P < 0.0001). These changes were accompanied by a significant increase in the diameter of the main portal vein (mean 6.8%; P < 0.0001) as well as splenic volume (mean 50.4%; P < 0.0001). Liver-tumor volume and diameter decreased by a median of 24 and 39.7%. Conclusions: Radioembolization is an effective treatment for tumor size reduction in patients with breast cancer liver metastases. Treatment is associated with changes of hepatic parenchymal volume, splenic volume, and portal vein size that appear not to represent clinically important sequelae in this patient cohort.

  4. Significant Findings: Tracking the SeaWiFS Record with a Coupled Physical/Biogeochemical/Radiative Model of the Global Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Gregg W.

    2000-01-01

    The Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) has observed 2.5 years of routine global chlorophyll observations from space. The mission was launched into a record El Nino event, which eventually gave way to one of the most intensive and longest-lasting La Nina events ever recorded. The SeaWiFS chlorophyll record captured the response of ocean phytoplankton to these significant events in the tropical Indo-Pacific basins, but also indicated significant interannual variability unrelated to the El Nino/La Nina events. This included large variability in the North Atlantic and Pacific basins, in the North Central and equatorial Atlantic, and milder patterns in the North Central Pacific. This SeaWiFS record was tracked with a coupled physical/biogeochemical/radiative model of the global oceans using near-real-time forcing data such as wind stresses, sea surface temperatures, and sea ice. This provided an opportunity to offer physically and biogeochemically meaningful explanations of the variability observed in the SeaWiFS data set, since the causal mechanisms and interrelationships of the model are completely understood. The coupled model was able to represent the seasonal distributions of chlorophyll during the SeaWiFS era, and was capable of differentiating among the widely different processes and dynamics occurring in the global oceans. The model was also reasonably successful in representing the interannual signal, especially when it was large, such as, the El Nino and La Nina events in the tropical Pacific and Indian Oceans. The model provided different phytoplankton group responses for the different events in these regions: diatoms were predominant in the tropical Pacific during the La Nina but other groups were predominant during El Nino. The opposite condition occurred in the tropical Indian Ocean. Both situations were due to the different responses of the basins to El Nino. The interannual variability in the North Atlantic, which was exhibited in Sea

  5. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  6. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Wastewater Treatment Capability Upgrade, Project NO. 96-D-122 Pantex Plant Amarillo, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-05-27

    that the following conditions are not present, nor of concern at the proposed site on Pantex Plant, and no further analysis was conducted: (1) State or national parks, forests, or other conservation areas; (2) Wild and scenic rivers; (3) Natural resources, such as timber, range, soils, minerals; (4) Properties of historic, archeological, or architectural significance; (5) Native American concerns; (6) Minority and low-income populations; and (7) Prime or unique farmland. In this document, DOE describes the proposed action and a reasonable range of alternatives to the proposed action, including the ''No-Action'' alternative. The proposed action cited in the ''U.S. Department of Energy Application for a Texas Pollutant Discharge Elimination System Permit Modifying Permit to Dispose of Waste, No. 02296,'' December 1998, included the construction of a new wastewater treatment facility, a new irrigation storage pond, and the conversion of the current wastewater treatment facility into an irrigation storage pond. Although a permit modification application has been filed, if a decision on this EA necessitates it, an amendment to the permit application would be made. The permit application would be required for any of the alternatives and the filing does not preclude or predetermine selection of an alternative considered by this EA. This permit change would allow Pantex to land-dispose treated wastewater by irrigating agricultural land. This construction for the proposed action would include designing two new lagoons for wastewater treatment. One of the lagoons could function as a facultative lagoon for treatment of wastewater. The second lagoon would serve as an irrigation storage impoundment (storage pond), with the alternative use as a facultative lagoon if the first lagoon is out of service for any reason. The new facultative lagoon and irrigation water storage pond would be sited outside of the 100-year flood plain. The existing WWTF lagoon would be used as a storage pond

  7. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Construction and Operation of the Molecular Foundry at Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-03-07

    Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI). Nanotechnology is the design, fabrication, characterization, and use of materials, devices, and systems through the control of matter at the nanometer-length scale. Nanoscience will develop the understanding of building blocks at the nanometer-length scale and the methods by which they are assembled into multi-component devices. Alternatives to the Proposed Action include a reduced size building configuration, location of the building on a different on-site location, and a No Action alternative. Several off-site alternatives were considered but were not found to reasonably meet the purpose and need for the Proposed Action. Of the reasonable alternatives analyzed, the Proposed Action is found to best meet DOE's purpose and need for action. Although the Proposed Action would take place on a partially developed site that is generally surrounded by existing buildings and roads, the site is near to designated Critical Habitat of the Federally-listed Alameda Whipsnake. To minimize any potential but unexpected impact to the Alameda whipsnake, several mitigation measures are proposed. In addition, the Proposed Action would result in minor increases in stormwater runoff, air pollutant emissions, visual quality impacts, noise impacts, and the potential to disturb unanticipated archaeological resources. It would produce marginal increases in traffic and parking demand, as well as incremental demand increases for water, energy, wastewater treatment, waste disposal, and public services. The following impact is found to be potentially significant without mitigation in this Environmental Assessment: Although the site is not located in USFWS-designated critical habitat, due to the potential for Alameda whipsnake movement into the project area, mitigation measures would be implemented to ensure that whipsnakes are protected to the greatest extent possible during project construction.

  8. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production.

    PubMed

    Elhofy, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v) the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1)) when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 10(5) cells(- 1) days(- 1); p < 0.05). This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells. PMID:27594979

  9. Finding of no significant impact shipment of stabilized mixed waste from the K-25 Site to an off-site commercial disposal facility, Oak Ridge K-25 Site, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) for the shipment of stabilized mixed waste, removed from K-1407-B and -C ponds, to an off-site commercial disposal facility (Envirocare) for permanent land disposal. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  10. Search for D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, P.; Lowrey, N.; Mehrabyan, S.; Selen, M.; Wiss, J.; Mitchell, R. E.; Shepherd, M. R.; Besson, D.; Pedlar, T. K.; Cronin-Hennessy, D.; Gao, K. Y.; Hietala, J.; Kubota, Y.; Klein, T.; Poling, R.; Scott, A. W.; Zweber, P.; Dobbs, S.; Metreveli, Z.; Seth, K. K.

    2009-05-01

    We search for simultaneous baryon and lepton number violating decays of the D{sup 0} meson. Specifically, we use 281 pb{sup -1} of data taken on the {psi}(3770) resonance with the CLEO-c detector at the CESR collider to look for decays D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}, D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}, and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}. We find no significant signals and set the following branching fraction upper limits: D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup +})<1.1x10{sup -5} and D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -}(D{sup 0}{yields}pe{sup -})<1.0x10{sup -5}, both at the 90% confidence level.

  11. Flood-tolerant rice reduces yield variability and raises expected yield, differentially benefitting socially disadvantaged groups

    PubMed Central

    Dar, Manzoor H.; de Janvry, Alain; Emerick, Kyle; Raitzer, David; Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 30% of the cultivated rice area in India is prone to crop damage from prolonged flooding. We use a randomized field experiment in 128 villages of Orissa India to show that Swarna-Sub1, a recently released submergence-tolerant rice variety, has significant positive impacts on rice yield when fields are submerged for 7 to 14 days with no yield penalty without flooding. We estimate that Swarna-Sub1 offers an approximate 45% increase in yields over the current popular variety when fields are submerged for 10 days. We show additionally that low-lying areas prone to flooding tend to be more heavily occupied by people belonging to lower caste social groups. Thus, a policy relevant implication of our findings is that flood-tolerant rice can deliver both efficiency gains, through reduced yield variability and higher expected yield, and equity gains in disproportionately benefiting the most marginal group of farmers. PMID:24263095

  12. Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Testing and Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (the Department) has completed an Environmental Assessment for the Future Location of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Power System Assembly and Test. Operations Currently Located at the Mound Site. Based on the analysis in the environmental assessment, the Department has determined that the proposed action, the relocation of the Department's heat source and radioisotope power system operations, does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the ''National Environmental Policy Act'' of 1969 (NEPA). Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required, and the Department is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  13. Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: The Implementation of the Authorized Limits Process for Waste Acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2002-08-06

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has completed an environmental assessment (DOE/EA-1414) for the proposed implementation of the authorized limits process for waste acceptance at the C-746-U Landfill at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, Kentucky. Based on the results of the impact analysis reported in the EA, which is incorporated herein by this reference, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action that would significantly affect the quality of the human environment within the context of the ''National Environmental Policy Act of 1969'' (NEPA). Therefore preparation of an environmental impact statement is not necessary, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  14. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  15. How to Use SNP_TATA_Comparator to Find a Significant Change in Gene Expression Caused by the Regulatory SNP of This Gene's Promoter via a Change in Affinity of the TATA-Binding Protein for This Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Ponomarenko, Mikhail; Rasskazov, Dmitry; Arkova, Olga; Ponomarenko, Petr; Suslov, Valentin; Savinkova, Ludmila; Kolchanov, Nikolay

    2015-01-01

    The use of biomedical SNP markers of diseases can improve effectiveness of treatment. Genotyping of patients with subsequent searching for SNPs more frequent than in norm is the only commonly accepted method for identification of SNP markers within the framework of translational research. The bioinformatics applications aimed at millions of unannotated SNPs of the “1000 Genomes” can make this search for SNP markers more focused and less expensive. We used our Web service involving Fisher's Z-score for candidate SNP markers to find a significant change in a gene's expression. Here we analyzed the change caused by SNPs in the gene's promoter via a change in affinity of the TATA-binding protein for this promoter. We provide examples and discuss how to use this bioinformatics application in the course of practical analysis of unannotated SNPs from the “1000 Genomes” project. Using known biomedical SNP markers, we identified 17 novel candidate SNP markers nearby: rs549858786 (rheumatoid arthritis); rs72661131 (cardiovascular events in rheumatoid arthritis); rs562962093 (stroke); rs563558831 (cyclophosphamide bioactivation); rs55878706 (malaria resistance, leukopenia), rs572527200 (asthma, systemic sclerosis, and psoriasis), rs371045754 (hemophilia B), rs587745372 (cardiovascular events); rs372329931, rs200209906, rs367732974, and rs549591993 (all four: cancer); rs17231520 and rs569033466 (both: atherosclerosis); rs63750953, rs281864525, and rs34166473 (all three: malaria resistance, thalassemia). PMID:26516624

  16. Prevalence of defined ultrasound findings of unknown significance at the second trimester fetal anomaly scan and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes: the Welsh study of mothers and babies population‐based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Lisa; Wright, Melissa; Dunstan, Frank; Thomas, Susan; Brook, Fiona; Morris, Susan; Tucker, David; Wills, Marilyn Ann; Davies, Colin; John, Gareth; Fone, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective The aim of this article was to estimate the population prevalence of seven defined ultrasound findings of uncertain significance (‘markers’) in the second trimester and the associated risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Method A prospective record‐linked cohort study of 30 078 pregnant women who had second trimester anomaly scans between July 2008 and March 2011 in Wales was conducted. Results The prevalence of markers ranged from 43.7 per 1000 singleton pregnancies for cardiac echogenic foci [95% confidence interval (CI): 38.8, 51.1] to 0.6 for mild‐to‐moderate ventriculomegaly (95% CI: 0.3, 1.0). Isolated echogenic bowel was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies [risk ratio (RR) 4.54, 95% CI: 2.12, 9.73] and preterm birth (RR 2.30, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.90). Isolated pelvicalyceal dilatation was associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 3.82, 95% CI: 2.16, 6.77). Multiple markers were associated with an increased risk of congenital anomalies (RR 5.00, 95% CI: 1.35, 18.40) and preterm birth (RR 3.38, 95% CI 1.20, 9.53). Conclusions These data are useful for counselling families and developing clinical guidance and care pathways following the detection of markers in clinical practice, particularly the need for follow‐up scans to monitor placental function and growth in pregnancies with isolated echogenic bowel, and further investigation for multiple markers. © 2015 The Authors. Prenatal Diagnosis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26475362

  17. Yield: it's now an entitlement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Bill

    1994-09-01

    Only a few years ago, the primary method of cost reduction and productivity improvement in the semiconductor industry was increasing manufacturing yields throughout the process. Many of the remarkable reliability improvements realized over the past decade have come about as a result of actions that were originally taken primarily to improve device yields. Obviously, the practice of productivity improvement through yield enhancement is limited to the attainment of 100% yield, at which point some other mechanism must be employed. Traditionally, new products have been introduced to manufacturing at a point of relative immaturity, and semiconductor producers have relied on the traditional `learning curve' method of yield improvement to attain profitable levels of manufacturing yield. Recently, results of a survey of several fabs by a group of University of California at Berkeley researchers in the Competitive Semiconductor Manufacturing Program indicate that most factories learn at about the same rate after startup, in terms of both line yield and defectivity. If this is indeed generally true, then the most competitive factor is the one that starts with the highest yield, and it is difficult to displace a leader once his lead has been established. The two observations made above carry enormous implications for the semiconductor development or manufacturing professional. First, one must achieve very high yields in order to even play the game. Second, the achievement of competitive yields over time in the life of a factory is determined even before the factory is opened, in the planning and development phase. Third, and perhaps most uncomfortable for those of us who have relied on yield improvement as a cost driver, the winners of the nineties will find new levers to drive costs down, having already gotten the benefit of very high yield. This paper looks at the question of how the winners will achieve the critical measures of success, high initial yield and utilization

  18. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  19. Maximizing the ExoEarth candidate yield from a future direct imaging mission

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, Christopher C.; Roberge, Aki; Mandell, Avi; Robinson, Tyler D.

    2014-11-10

    ExoEarth yield is a critical science metric for future exoplanet imaging missions. Here we estimate exoEarth candidate yield using single visit completeness for a variety of mission design and astrophysical parameters. We review the methods used in previous yield calculations and show that the method choice can significantly impact yield estimates as well as how the yield responds to mission parameters. We introduce a method, called Altruistic Yield Optimization, that optimizes the target list and exposure times to maximize mission yield, adapts maximally to changes in mission parameters, and increases exoEarth candidate yield by up to 100% compared to previous methods. We use Altruistic Yield Optimization to estimate exoEarth candidate yield for a large suite of mission and astrophysical parameters using single visit completeness. We find that exoEarth candidate yield is most sensitive to telescope diameter, followed by coronagraph inner working angle, followed by coronagraph contrast, and finally coronagraph contrast noise floor. We find a surprisingly weak dependence of exoEarth candidate yield on exozodi level. Additionally, we provide a quantitative approach to defining a yield goal for future exoEarth-imaging missions.

  20. Incorporating phenology into yield models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, J. M.; Friedl, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Because the yields of many crops are sensitive to meteorological forcing during specific growth stages, phenological information has potential utility in yield mapping and forecasting exercises. However, most attempts to explain the spatiotemporal variability in crop yields with weather data have relied on growth stage definitions that do not change from year-to-year, even though planting, maturity, and harvesting dates show significant interannual variability. We tested the hypothesis that quantifying temperature exposures over dynamically determined growth stages would better explain observed spatiotemporal variability in crop yields than statically defined time periods. Specifically, we used National Agricultural and Statistics Service (NASS) crop progress data to identify the timing of the start of the maize reproductive growth stage ("silking"), and examined the correlation between county-scale yield anomalies and temperature exposures during either the annual or long-term average silking period. Consistent with our hypothesis and physical understanding, yield anomalies were more correlated with temperature exposures during the actual, rather than the long-term average, silking period. Nevertheless, temperature exposures alone explained a relatively low proportion of the yield variability, indicating that other factors and/or time periods are also important. We next investigated the potential of using remotely sensed land surface phenology instead of NASS progress data to retrieve crop growth stages, but encountered challenges related to crop type mapping and subpixel crop heterogeneity. Here, we discuss the potential of overcoming these challenges and the general utility of remotely sensed land surface phenology in crop yield mapping.

  1. Grapevine canopy reflectance and yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minden, K. A.; Philipson, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    Field spectroradiometric and airborne multispectral scanner data were applied in a study of Concord grapevines. Spectroradiometric measurements of 18 experimental vines were collected on three dates during one growing season. Spectral reflectance, determined at 30 intervals from 0.4 to 1.1 microns, was correlated with vine yield, pruning weight, clusters/vine, and nitrogen input. One date of airborne multispectral scanner data (11 channels) was collected over commercial vineyards, and the average radiance values for eight vineyard sections were correlated with the corresponding average yields. Although some correlations were significant, they were inadequate for developing a reliable yield prediction model.

  2. Studies of acute and chronic radiation injury at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 1953-1970: Description of individual studies, data files, codes, and summaries of significant findings

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, D.; Fox, C.; Wright, B.J.; Carnes, B.A.

    1994-05-01

    Between 1953 and 1970, studies on the long-term effects of external x-ray and {gamma} irradiation on inbred and hybrid mouse stocks were carried out at the Biological and Medical Research Division, Argonne National Laboratory. The results of these studies, plus the mating, litter, and pre-experimental stock records, were routinely coded on IBM cards for statistical analysis and record maintenance. Also retained were the survival data from studies performed in the period 1943-1953 at the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland. The card-image data files have been corrected where necessary and refiled on hard disks for long-term storage and ease of accessibility. In this report, the individual studies and data files are described, and pertinent factors regarding caging, husbandry, radiation procedures, choice of animals, and other logistical details are summarized. Some of the findings are also presented. Descriptions of the different mouse stocks and hybrids are included in an appendix; more than three dozen stocks were involved in these studies. Two other appendices detail the data files in their original card-image format and the numerical codes used to describe the animal`s exit from an experiment and, for some studies, any associated pathologic findings. Tabular summaries of sample sizes, dose levels, and other variables are also given to assist investigators in their selection of data for analysis. The archive is open to any investigator with legitimate interests and a willingness to collaborate and acknowledge the source of the data and to recognize appropriate conditions or caveats.

  3. Ethiopian Wheat Yield and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatial Small Area Integrated Data Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, M.; Warner, J.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the collection of routine annual agricultural surveys and significant advances in GIS and remote sensing products, little econometric research has been undertaken in predicting developing nation's agricultural yields. In this paper, we explore the determinants of wheat output per hectare in Ethiopia during the 2011-2013 Meher crop seasons aggregated to the woreda administrative area. Using a panel data approach, combining national agricultural field surveys with relevant GIS and remote sensing products, the model explains nearly 40% of the total variation in wheat output per hectare across the country. The model also identifies specific contributors to wheat yields that include farm management techniques (eg. area planted, improved seed, fertilizer, irrigation), weather (eg. rainfall), water availability (vegetation and moisture deficit indexes) and policy intervention. Our findings suggest that woredas produce between 9.8 and 86.5% of their potential wheat output per hectare given their altitude, weather conditions, terrain, and plant health. At the median, Amhara, Oromiya, SNNP, and Tigray produce 48.6, 51.5, 49.7, and 61.3% of their local attainable yields, respectively. This research has a broad range of applications, especially from a public policy perspective: identifying causes of yield fluctuations, remotely evaluating larger agricultural intervention packages, and analyzing relative yield potential. Overall, the combination of field surveys with spatial data can be used to identify management priorities for improving production at a variety of administrative levels.

  4. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  5. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  6. Soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Rogério Teixeira; Junior, Ruy Casão; Werner, Simone Silmara; Junior, Luiz Antônio Zanão; Hoogenboom, Gerrit

    2016-07-01

    Crops close to small water bodies may exhibit changes in yield if the water mass causes significant changes in the microclimate of areas near the reservoir shoreline. The scientific literature describes this effect as occurring gradually, with higher intensity in the sites near the shoreline and decreasing intensity with distance from the reservoir. Experiments with two soybean cultivars were conducted during four crop seasons to evaluate soybean yield in relation to distance from the Itaipu reservoir and determine the effect of air temperature and water availability on soybean crop yield. Fifteen experimental sites were distributed in three transects perpendicular to the Itaipu reservoir, covering an area at approximately 10 km from the shoreline. The yield gradient between the site closest to the reservoir and the sites farther away in each transect did not show a consistent trend, but varied as a function of distance, crop season, and cultivar. This finding indicates that the Itaipu reservoir does not affect the yield of soybean plants grown within approximately 10 km from the shoreline. In addition, the variation in yield among the experimental sites was not attributed to thermal conditions because the temperature was similar within transects. However, the crop water availability was responsible for higher differences in yield among the neighboring experimental sites related to water stress caused by spatial variability in rainfall, especially during the soybean reproductive period in January and February.

  7. Assessing the impacts of current and future concentrations of surface ozone on crop yield with meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    Meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of rising ozone concentrations ([O 3]) on yield and yield components of major food crops: potato, barley, wheat, rice, bean and soybean in 406 experimental observations. Yield loss of the crops under current and future [O 3] was expressed relative to the yield under base [O 3] (≤26 ppb). With potato, current [O 3] (31-50 ppb) reduced the yield by 5.3%, and it reduced the yield of barley, wheat and rice by 8.9%, 9.7% and 17.5%, respectively. In bean and soybean, the yield losses were 19.0% and 7.7%, respectively. Compared with yield loss at current [O 3], future [O 3] (51-75 ppb) drove a further 10% loss in yield of soybean, wheat and rice, and 20% loss in bean. Mass of individual grain, seed, or tuber was often the major cause of the yield loss at current and future [O 3], whereas other yield components also contributed to the yield loss in some cases. No significant difference was found between the responses in crops grown in pots and those in the ground for any yield parameters. The ameliorating effect of elevated [CO 2] was significant in the yields of wheat and potato, and the individual grain weight in wheat exposed to future [O 3]. These findings confirm the rising [O 3] as a threat to food security for the growing global population in this century.

  8. Acid soil infertility effects on peanut yields and yield components

    SciTech Connect

    Blamey, F.P.C.

    1983-01-01

    The interpretation of soil amelioration experiments with peanuts is made difficult by the unpredictibility of the crop and by the many factors altered when ameliorating acid soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of lime and gypsum applications on peanut kernel yield via the three first order yield components, pods per ha, kernels per pod, and kernel mass. On an acid medium sandy loam soil (typic Plinthustult), liming resulted in a highly significant kernel yield increase of 117% whereas gypsum applications were of no significant benefit. As indicated by path coefficient analysis, an increase in the number of pods per ha was markedly more important in increasing yield than an increase in either the number of kernels per pod or kernel mass. Furthermore, exch. Al was found to be particularly detrimental to pod number. It was postulated that poor peanut yields resulting from acid soil infertility were mainly due to the depressive effect of exch. Al on pod number. Exch. Ca appeared to play a secondary role by ameliorating the adverse effects of exch. Al.

  9. Statistical or biological significance?

    PubMed

    Saxon, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Oat plants grown at an agricultural research facility produce higher yields in Field 1 than in Field 2, under well fertilised conditions and with similar weather exposure; all oat plants in both fields are healthy and show no sign of disease. In this study, the authors hypothesised that the soil microbial community might be different in each field, and these differences might explain the difference in oat plant growth. They carried out a metagenomic analysis of the 16 s ribosomal 'signature' sequences from bacteria in 50 randomly located soil samples in each field to determine the composition of the bacterial community. The study identified >1000 species, most of which were present in both fields. The authors identified two plant growth-promoting species that were significantly reduced in soil from Field 2 (Student's t-test P < 0.05), and concluded that these species might have contributed to reduced yield. PMID:26541972

  10. Effects of geoengineering on crop yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongratz, J.; Lobell, D. B.; Cao, L.; Caldeira, K.

    2011-12-01

    The potential of "solar radiation management" (SRM) to reduce future climate change and associated risks has been receiving significant attention in scientific and policy circles. SRM schemes aim to reduce global warming despite increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations by diminishing the amount of solar insolation absorbed by the Earth, for example, by injecting scattering aerosols into the atmosphere. Climate models predict that SRM could fully compensate warming at the global mean in a high-CO2 world. While reduction of global warming may offset a part of the predicted negative effects of future climate change on crop yields, SRM schemes are expected to alter regional climate and to have substantial effects on climate variables other than temperature, such as precipitation. It has therefore been warned that, overall, SRM may pose a risk to food security. Assessments of benefits and risks of geoengineering are imperative, yet such assessments are only beginning to emerge; in particular, effects on global food security have not previously been assessed. Here, for the first time, we combine climate model simulations with models of crop yield responses to climate to assess large-scale changes in yields and food production under SRM. In most crop-growing regions, we find that yield losses caused by climate changes are substantially reduced under SRM as compared with a non-geoengineered doubling of atmospheric CO2. Substantial yield losses with SRM are only found for rice in high latitudes, where the limits of low temperatures are no longer alleviated. At the same time, the beneficial effect of CO2-fertilization on plant productivity remains active. Overall therefore, SRM in our models causes global crop yields to increase. We estimate the direct effects of climate and CO2 changes on crop production, and do not quantify effects of market dynamics and management changes. We note, however, that an SRM deployment would be unlikely to maintain the economic status quo, as

  11. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... review and comment before making a final determination on the FONSI if required by 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2... CFR 1506.1 and § 1021.211 of this part. (b) In addition to the requirements found at 40 CFR 1508.13, a... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  12. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... review and comment before making a final determination on the FONSI if required by 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2... CFR 1506.1 and § 1021.211 of this part. (b) In addition to the requirements found at 40 CFR 1508.13, a... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  13. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... human environment and for which, therefore, an EIS will not be prepared. A FONSI includes the EA or a...) responsible for approving the FONSI will sign the document, thereby establishing that the official(s)...

  14. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents. (b) After a FONSI has been made by the Administration, a notice of availability of the FONSI shall be sent...) If another Federal agency has issued a FONSI on an action which includes an element proposed...

  15. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... human environment and for which, therefore, an EIS will not be prepared. A FONSI includes the EA or a...) responsible for approving the FONSI will sign the document, thereby establishing that the official(s)...

  16. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... human environment and for which, therefore, an EIS will not be prepared. A FONSI includes the EA or a...) responsible for approving the FONSI will sign the document, thereby establishing that the official(s)...

  17. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... review and comment before making a final determination on the FONSI if required by 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2... CFR 1506.1 and § 1021.211 of this part. (b) In addition to the requirements found at 40 CFR 1508.13, a... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  18. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... review and comment before making a final determination on the FONSI if required by 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2... CFR 1506.1 and § 1021.211 of this part. (b) In addition to the requirements found at 40 CFR 1508.13, a... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  19. 10 CFR 1021.322 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... review and comment before making a final determination on the FONSI if required by 40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2... CFR 1506.1 and § 1021.211 of this part. (b) In addition to the requirements found at 40 CFR 1508.13, a... this part; (2) Any “Statement of Findings” required by 10 CFR part 1022, “Compliance with...

  20. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents. (b) After a FONSI has been made by the Administration, a notice of availability of the FONSI shall be sent...) If another Federal agency has issued a FONSI on an action which includes an element proposed...

  1. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... human environment and for which, therefore, an EIS will not be prepared. A FONSI includes the EA or a...) responsible for approving the FONSI will sign the document, thereby establishing that the official(s)...

  2. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents. (b) After a FONSI has been made by the Administration, a notice of availability of the FONSI shall be sent...) If another Federal agency has issued a FONSI on an action which includes an element proposed...

  3. 21 CFR 25.41 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... impact. (a) As defined by the CEQ regulations (40 CFR 1508.13), a FONSI is a document prepared by a... human environment and for which, therefore, an EIS will not be prepared. A FONSI includes the EA or a...) responsible for approving the FONSI will sign the document, thereby establishing that the official(s)...

  4. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents. (b) After a FONSI has been made by the Administration, a notice of availability of the FONSI shall be sent...) If another Federal agency has issued a FONSI on an action which includes an element proposed...

  5. 23 CFR 771.121 - Findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... written FONSI incorporating by reference the EA and any other appropriate environmental documents. (b) After a FONSI has been made by the Administration, a notice of availability of the FONSI shall be sent...) If another Federal agency has issued a FONSI on an action which includes an element proposed...

  6. Significant findings concerning the production of Italian Renaissance lustred majolica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padeletti, G.; Fermo, P.

    2013-12-01

    In the present paper the main results obtained, over a period of more than ten years, from a series of studies concerning the characterization of Italian Renaissance lustred majolicas (from Gubbio and Deruta, Umbria, Italy) are presented. Lustre decoration is a well-known technique, consisting in the application of a thin metallic iridescent film, containing silver and copper nanoparticles, over a previously glazed ceramic object. The technique had its origin in Persia (IX century), was imported by Moorish in Spain, and then developed in central Italy during the Renaissance period. Numerous analytical techniques (among which, ETASS, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM-EDX) have been employed for the characterization of lustred ceramic shards, allowing one to acquire information on both lustre chemical composition and nanostructure. In this way it was shown how some technological parameters, such as the firing conditions, are mandatory to obtain the final result. The presence of a specific marker of the lustre Italian production, i.e., cosalite (Pb2Bi2S5), has been also highlighted. From the study of the ceramic body composition (by means of XRD and ICP-OES and in particular of chemometric techniques) acquired on more than 50 ceramic shards it was possible to discriminate between Deruta and Gubbio production, in this way allowing one to assign objects of uncertain provenance to a specific site. Finally, the most interesting results obtained studying excellent lustred masterpieces from Renaissance belonging to important museums are here presented. In particular, with the use of nondestructive techniques (PIXE, RBS, and portable XRD), the production of Mastro Giorgio Andreoli from Gubbio was investigated. By means of the same analytical approach, one of the first examples of lustre in Italy (the famous Baglioni's albarello) was examined, and the controversial question of its attribution to Italian production was scientifically faced.

  7. Changes in diurnal temperature range and national cereal yields

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D

    2007-04-26

    Models of yield responses to temperature change have often considered only changes in average temperature (Tavg), with the implicit assumption that changes in the diurnal temperature range (DTR) can safely be ignored. The goal of this study was to evaluate this assumption using a combination of historical datasets and climate model projections. Data on national crop yields for 1961-2002 in the 10 leading producers of wheat, rice, and maize were combined with datasets on climate and crop locations to evaluate the empirical relationships between Tavg, DTR, and crop yields. In several rice and maize growing regions, including the two major nations for each crop, there was a clear negative response of yields to increased DTR. This finding reflects a nonlinear response of yields to temperature, which likely results from greater water and heat stress during hot days. In many other cases, the effects of DTR were not statistically significant, in part because correlations of DTR with other climate variables and the relatively short length of the time series resulted in wide confidence intervals for the estimates. To evaluate whether future changes in DTR are relevant to crop impact assessments, yield responses to projected changes in Tavg and DTR by 2046-2065 from 11 climate models were estimated. The mean climate model projections indicated an increase in DTR in most seasons and locations where wheat is grown, mixed projections for maize, and a general decrease in DTR for rice. These mean projections were associated with wide ranges that included zero in nearly all cases. The estimated impacts of DTR changes on yields were generally small (<5% change in yields) relative to the consistently negative impact of projected warming of Tavg. However, DTR changes did significantly affect yield responses in several cases, such as in reducing US maize yields and increasing India rice yields. Because DTR projections tend to be positively correlated with Tavg, estimates of yields

  8. Yield Improvement in Steel Casting (Yield II)

    SciTech Connect

    Richard A. Hardin; Christoph Beckermann; Tim Hays

    2002-02-18

    This report presents work conducted on the following main projects tasks undertaken in the Yield Improvement in Steel Casting research program: Improvement of Conventional Feeding and Risering Methods, Use of Unconventional Yield Improvement Techniques, and Case Studies in Yield Improvement. Casting trials were conducted and then simulated using the precise casting conditions as recorded by the participating SFSA foundries. These results present a statistically meaningful set of experimental data on soundness versus feeding length. Comparisons between these casting trials and casting trials performed more than forty years ago by Pellini and the SFSA are quite good and appear reasonable. Comparisons between the current SFSA feeding rules and feeding rules based on the minimum Niyama criterion reveal that the Niyama-based rules are generally less conservative. The niyama-based rules also agree better with both the trials presented here, and the casting trails performed by Pellini an d the SFSA years ago. Furthermore, the use of the Niyama criterion to predict centerline shrinkage for horizontally fed plate sections has a theoretical basis according to the casting literature reviewed here. These results strongly support the use of improved feeding rules for horizontal plate sections based on the Niyama criterion, which can be tailored to the casting conditions for a given alloy and to a desired level of soundness. The reliability and repeatability of ASTM shrinkage x-ray ratings was investigated in a statistical study performed on 128 x-rays, each of which were rated seven different times. A manual ''Feeding and Risering Guidelines for Steel Castings' is given in this final report. Results of casting trials performed to test unconventional techniques for improving casting yield are presented. These use a stacked arrangement of castings and riser pressurization to increase the casting yield. Riser pressurization was demonstrated to feed a casting up to four time s the

  9. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions.

  10. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap.

    PubMed

    Ponisio, Lauren C; M'Gonigle, Leithen K; Mace, Kevi C; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-22

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  11. Diversification practices reduce organic to conventional yield gap

    PubMed Central

    Ponisio, Lauren C.; M'Gonigle, Leithen K.; Mace, Kevi C.; Palomino, Jenny; de Valpine, Perry; Kremen, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture today places great strains on biodiversity, soils, water and the atmosphere, and these strains will be exacerbated if current trends in population growth, meat and energy consumption, and food waste continue. Thus, farming systems that are both highly productive and minimize environmental harms are critically needed. How organic agriculture may contribute to world food production has been subject to vigorous debate over the past decade. Here, we revisit this topic comparing organic and conventional yields with a new meta-dataset three times larger than previously used (115 studies containing more than 1000 observations) and a new hierarchical analytical framework that can better account for the heterogeneity and structure in the data. We find organic yields are only 19.2% (±3.7%) lower than conventional yields, a smaller yield gap than previous estimates. More importantly, we find entirely different effects of crop types and management practices on the yield gap compared with previous studies. For example, we found no significant differences in yields for leguminous versus non-leguminous crops, perennials versus annuals or developed versus developing countries. Instead, we found the novel result that two agricultural diversification practices, multi-cropping and crop rotations, substantially reduce the yield gap (to 9 ± 4% and 8 ± 5%, respectively) when the methods were applied in only organic systems. These promising results, based on robust analysis of a larger meta-dataset, suggest that appropriate investment in agroecological research to improve organic management systems could greatly reduce or eliminate the yield gap for some crops or regions. PMID:25621333

  12. Atmospheric Nitrogen Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K. U.; Sokolsky, Pierre; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric nitrogen fluorescence. The nitrogen fluorescence yield from air shower electrons depends on the atmospheric composition. We will discuss the uncertainties in the fluorescence yield form electrons in the real atmosphere and describe a concept for a small balloon payload to measure the atmospheric fluorescence yield as a function of attitude.

  13. 76 FR 16838 - Finding of No Significant Impact; Notice of Availability of the Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Contractor To House Approximately 1,000 Federal, Low-Security, Adult Male, Non-US Citizen, Criminal Aliens at... contracts to house approximately, 1,000 federal, low-security, adult males, criminal aliens within one... U.S. Department of Homeland Security regarding sentenced and unsentenced criminal aliens....

  14. Detecting Temporal Change in Watershed Nutrient Yields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wickham, James D.; Wade, Timothy G.; Riitters, Kurt H.

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act.

  15. Detecting temporal change in watershed nutrient yields.

    PubMed

    Wickham, James D; Wade, Timothy G; Riitters, Kurt H

    2008-08-01

    Meta-analyses reveal that nutrient yields tend to be higher for watersheds dominated by anthropogenic uses (e.g., urban, agriculture) and lower for watersheds dominated by natural vegetation. One implication of this pattern is that loss of natural vegetation will produce increases in watershed nutrient yields. Yet, the same meta-analyses also reveal that, absent land-cover change, watershed nutrient yields vary from one year to the next due to many exogenous factors. The interacting effects of land cover and exogenous factors suggest nutrient yields should be treated as distributions, and the effect of land-cover change should be examined by looking for significant changes in the distributions. We compiled nutrient yield distributions from published data. The published data included watersheds with homogeneous land cover that typically reported two or more years of annual nutrient yields for the same watershed. These data were used to construct statistical models, and the models were used to estimate changes in the nutrient yield distributions as a result of land-cover change. Land-cover changes were derived from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD). Total nitrogen (TN) yield distributions increased significantly for 35 of 1550 watersheds and decreased significantly for 51. Total phosphorus (TP) yield distributions increased significantly for 142 watersheds and decreased significantly for 17. The amount of land-cover change required to produce significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions was not constant. Small land-cover changes led to significant shifts in nutrient yield distributions when watersheds were dominated by natural vegetation, whereas much larger land-cover changes were needed to produce significant shifts when watersheds were dominated by urban or agriculture. We discuss our results in the context of the Clean Water Act. PMID:18446405

  16. Heterogeneous global crop yield response to biochar: a meta-regression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane-Droesch, Andrew; Abiven, Samuel; Jeffery, Simon; Torn, Margaret S.

    2013-12-01

    Biochar may contribute to climate change mitigation at negative cost by sequestering photosynthetically fixed carbon in soil while increasing crop yields. The magnitude of biochar’s potential in this regard will depend on crop yield benefits, which have not been well-characterized across different soils and biochars. Using data from 84 studies, we employ meta-analytical, missing data, and semiparametric statistical methods to explain heterogeneity in crop yield responses across different soils, biochars, and agricultural management factors, and then estimate potential changes in yield across different soil environments globally. We find that soil cation exchange capacity and organic carbon were strong predictors of yield response, with low cation exchange and low carbon associated with positive response. We also find that yield response increases over time since initial application, compared to non-biochar controls. High reported soil clay content and low soil pH were weaker predictors of higher yield response. No biochar parameters in our dataset—biochar pH, percentage carbon content, or temperature of pyrolysis—were significant predictors of yield impacts. Projecting our fitted model onto a global soil database, we find the largest potential increases in areas with highly weathered soils, such as those characterizing much of the humid tropics. Richer soils characterizing much of the world’s important agricultural areas appear to be less likely to benefit from biochar.

  17. The fingerprint of climate trends on European crop yields.

    PubMed

    Moore, Frances C; Lobell, David B

    2015-03-01

    Europe has experienced a stagnation of some crop yields since the early 1990s as well as statistically significant warming during the growing season. Although it has been argued that these two are causally connected, no previous studies have formally attributed long-term yield trends to a changing climate. Here, we present two statistical tests based on the distinctive spatial pattern of climate change impacts and adaptation, and explore their power under a range of parameter values. We show that statistical power for the identification of climate change impacts is high in many settings, but that power for identifying adaptation is almost always low. Applying these tests to European agriculture, we find evidence that long-term temperature and precipitation trends since 1989 have reduced continent-wide wheat and barley yields by 2.5% and 3.8%, respectively, and have slightly increased maize and sugar beet yields. These averages disguise large heterogeneity across the continent, with regions around the Mediterranean experiencing significant adverse impacts on most crops. This result means that climate trends can account for ∼ 10% of the stagnation in European wheat and barley yields, with likely explanations for the remainder including changes in agriculture and environmental policies.

  18. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco Industry and Products Federal Tax Increase Tobacco Ingredient Reporting ... be used. 3 In the past, the tobacco industry categorized low-yield cigarettes using measurements of tar ...

  19. Argentina soybean yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the soybean growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1969 to 1978 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  20. Argentina corn yield model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate corn yields for the country of Argentina. A meteorological data set was obtained for the country by averaging data for stations within the corn-growing area. Predictor variables for the model were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature. A trend variable was included for the years 1965 to 1980 since an increasing trend in yields due to technology was observed between these years.

  1. Predicting Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: "Non-Significant" Findings with the Potential for Significant Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbriggen, Eileen L.; Becker-Blease, Kathryn

    2003-01-01

    In the March 2003 issue of "Psychological Science", the flagship journal of the American Psychological Society, Goodman et al. (2003) reported on a prospective study that examined memory for childhood sexual abuse. The authors interviewed adolescents and young adults who had been victims of documented childhood sexual abuse that led to criminal…

  2. Yield gaps and yield relationships in US soybean production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield to meet the food demands of future populations. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] yields (1971 – 2011) from Kentuc...

  3. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security. PMID:25680193

  4. Is yield increase sufficient to achieve food security in China?

    PubMed

    Wei, Xing; Zhang, Zhao; Shi, Peijun; Wang, Pin; Chen, Yi; Song, Xiao; Tao, Fulu

    2015-01-01

    Increasing demand for food, driven by unprecedented population growth and increasing consumption, will keep challenging food security in China. Although cereal yields have substantially improved during the last three decades, whether it will keep thriving to meet the increasing demand is not known yet. Thus, an integrated analysis on the trends of crop yield and cultivated area is essential to better understand current state of food security in China, especially on county scale. So far, yield stagnation has extensively dominated the main cereal-growing areas across China. Rice yield is facing the most severe stagnation that 53.9% counties tracked in the study have stagnated significantly, followed by maize (42.4%) and wheat (41.9%). As another important element for production sustainability, but often neglected is the planted area patterns. It has been further demonstrated that the loss in productive arable land for rice and wheat have dramatically increased the pressure on achieving food security. Not only a great deal of the planted areas have stagnated since 1980, but also collapsed. 48.4% and 54.4% of rice- and wheat-growing counties have lost their cropland areas to varying degrees. Besides, 27.6% and 35.8% of them have retrograded below the level of the 1980s. The combined influence (both loss in yield and area) has determined the crop sustainable production in China to be pessimistic for rice and wheat, and consequently no surprise to find that more than half of counties rank a lower level of production sustainability. Therefore, given the potential yield increase in wheat and maize, as well as substantial area loss of rice and wheat, the possible targeted adaptation measures for both yield and cropping area is required at county scale. Moreover, policies on food trade, alongside advocation of low calorie diets, reducing food loss and waste can help to enhance food security.

  5. Yields of bedrock wells in Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, B.P.; Simcox, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Six to seven percent of the population of Massachusetts obtains its water from domestic bedrock wells. Additional public, commercial, industrial, and domestic supplies from bedrock will be needed in the future. Information about the factors that are related to large well yields is needed. The factors associated with well yields were identified by use of statistical analysis of reported data from 4,218 bedrock wells. The median reported yield of all bedrock wells was 7 gallons per minute, and the median depth was 170 feet. Wells in valleys and lowlands had the largest median yield--I0 gallons per minute. The median well yield on hilltops and slopes was 6 gallons per minute. In valleys and lowlands, significant increases in well yields corresponded to increasing thickness of overburden. On hilltops and slopes, only small increases in well yield corresponded to increases in overburden thickness. Increases in well diameter corresponded to significant increases in well yields for all well locations, depths, and use categories. The common assumptions that fractured crystalline rocks generally yield only small quantities of water to wells and that the fractures that yield water to wells pinch out or are closed because of lithostatic pressure at depths greater than 300 to 400 feet may be in error. Analysis of well data indicates that the median yield of all bedrock wells decreased as well depth increased to 400 feet and increased slightly with well depths greater than 600 feet. The median yield of bedrock wells located in valleys and lowlands reached 50 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. The median yield of wells located on hilltops and slopes reached 15 gallons per minute at depths of 600 to 700 feet. Carbonate bedrock, with a median well yield of 25 gallons per minute, seemed to be the most productive bedrock type. A reported yield of 1,700 gallons per minute from an industrial well completed in carbonate bedrock is the largest reported yield from a bedrock

  6. Linkages among climate change, crop yields and Mexico-US cross-border migration.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shuaizhang; Krueger, Alan B; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2010-08-10

    Climate change is expected to cause mass human migration, including immigration across international borders. This study quantitatively examines the linkages among variations in climate, agricultural yields, and people's migration responses by using an instrumental variables approach. Our method allows us to identify the relationship between crop yields and migration without explicitly controlling for all other confounding factors. Using state-level data from Mexico, we find a significant effect of climate-driven changes in crop yields on the rate of emigration to the United States. The estimated semielasticity of emigration with respect to crop yields is approximately -0.2, i.e., a 10% reduction in crop yields would lead an additional 2% of the population to emigrate. We then use the estimated semielasticity to explore the potential magnitude of future emigration. Depending on the warming scenarios used and adaptation levels assumed, with other factors held constant, by approximately the year 2080, climate change is estimated to induce 1.4 to 6.7 million adult Mexicans (or 2% to 10% of the current population aged 15-65 y) to emigrate as a result of declines in agricultural productivity alone. Although the results cannot be mechanically extrapolated to other areas and time periods, our findings are significant from a global perspective given that many regions, especially developing countries, are expected to experience significant declines in agricultural yields as a result of projected warming.

  7. Atmospheric Fluorescence Yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Christl, M. J.; Fountain, W. F.; Gregory, J. C.; Martens, K.; Sokolsky, P.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Several existing and planned experiments estimate the energies of ultra-high energy cosmic rays from air showers using the atmospheric fluorescence from these showers. Accurate knowledge of the conversion from atmospheric fluorescence to energy loss by ionizing particles in the atmosphere is key to this technique. In this paper we discuss a small balloon-borne instrument to make the first in situ measurements versus altitude of the atmospheric fluorescence yield. The instrument can also be used in the lab to investigate the dependence of the fluorescence yield in air on temperature, pressure and the concentrations of other gases that present in the atmosphere. The results can be used to explore environmental effects on and improve the accuracy of cosmic ray energy measurements for existing ground-based experiments and future space-based experiments.

  8. Representing Extreme Temperature Events and Resolving Their Implications for Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huybers, P. J.; Mueller, N. D.; Butler, E. E.; Tingley, M.; McKinnon, K. A.; Rhines, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Although it is well recognized that extreme temperatures occurring at particular growth stages are destructive to yield, there appears substantial scope for improved empirical assessment and simulation of the relationship between temperature and yield. Several anecdotes are discussed. First, a statistical analysis of historical U.S. extreme temperatures is provided. It is demonstrated that both reanalysis and model simulations significantly differ from near-surface temperature observations in the frequency and magnitude of extremes. This finding supports empirical assessment using near-surface instrumental records and underscores present difficulties in simulating past and predicting future changes. Second, an analysis of the implications of extreme temperatures on U.S. maize yield is provided where the response is resolved regionally and according to growth stage. Sensitivity to extreme temperatures during silking is found to be uniformly high across the U.S., but the response during grain filling varies spatially, with higher sensitivity in the North. This regional and growth-stage dependent sensitivity implies the importance of representing cultivar, planting times, and development rates, and is also indicative of the potential for future changes according to the combined effects of climate and technology. Finally, interaction between extreme temperatures and agriculture is indicated by analysis showing that historical extreme temperatures in the U.S. Midwest have cooled in relation to changes in regional productivity, possibly because of greater potential for cooling through evapotranspiration. This interpretation is consistent with changes in crop physiology and management, though also noteworthy is that the moderating influence of increased evapotranspiration on extreme temperatures appears to be lost during severe drought. Together, these findings indicate that a more accurate assessment of the historical relationship between extreme temperatures and yield

  9. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2016-01-01

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983–2012 to understand how growing-season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change substantially over 1983–2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations. PMID:27616326

  10. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R; Leung, L Ruby

    2016-01-01

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983-2012 to understand how growing-season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change substantially over 1983-2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations. PMID:27616326

  11. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R; Leung, L Ruby

    2016-01-01

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983-2012 to understand how growing-season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change substantially over 1983-2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations.

  12. The Role of Climate Covariability on Crop Yields in the Conterminous United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Guoyong; Zhang, Xuesong; Huang, Maoyi; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Leung, L. Ruby

    2016-09-01

    The covariability of temperature (T), precipitation (P) and radiation (R) is an important aspect in understanding the climate influence on crop yields. Here, we analyze county-level corn and soybean yields and observed climate for the period 1983–2012 to understand how growing-season (June, July and August) mean T, P and R influence crop yields jointly and in isolation across the CONterminous United States (CONUS). Results show that nationally averaged corn and soybean yields exhibit large interannual variability of 21% and 22%, of which 35% and 32% can be significantly explained by T and P, respectively. By including R, an additional of 5% in variability can be explained for both crops. Using partial regression analyses, we find that studies that ignore the covariability among T, P, and R can substantially overestimate the sensitivity of crop yields to a single climate factor at the county scale. Further analyses indicate large spatial variation in the relative contributions of different climate variables to the variability of historical corn and soybean yields. The structure of the dominant climate factors did not change substantially over 1983–2012, confirming the robustness of the findings, which have important implications for crop yield prediction and crop model validations.

  13. Drilling ban yields verdict

    SciTech Connect

    Nation, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews a lawsuit which is under appeal by the State of Michigan regarding a takings claim filed over a petroleum exploration site. The dispute arose as a result of a 1987 decision by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources forbidding the property owners from developing the mineral rights leased to Miller Brothers in the Huron/Manistee National Forest. This area is bisected by a trend of Silurian Niagaran reef complexes which has a known production history throughout the State. The dunes area of the national forest has been deemed a wilderness area. As a result of the State's decision, the courts have awarded a sum of 71 million dollars to the developer to cover damages and lost resources. The reserve estimates were taken from adjacent areas which showed that the Niagaran reefs are relatively consistent in their yield.

  14. Global evidence of positive impacts of freshwater biodiversity on fishery yields

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Robert Alan; Darwall, William Robert Thomas; Eigenbrod, Felix; Tittensor, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aim An often‐invoked benefit of high biodiversity is the provision of ecosystem services. However, evidence for this is largely based on data from small‐scale experimental studies of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem function that may have little relevance to real‐world systems. Here, large‐scale biodiversity datasets are used to test the relationship between the yield of inland capture fisheries and species richness from 100 countries. Location Inland waters of Africa, Europe and parts of Asia. Methods A multimodel inference approach was used to assess inland fishery yields at the country level against species richness, waterside human population, area, elevation and various climatic variables, to determine the relative importance of species richness to fisheries yields compared with other major large‐scale drivers. Secondly, the mean decadal variation in fishery yields at the country level for 1981–2010 was regressed against species richness to assess if greater diversity reduces the variability in yields over time. Results Despite a widespread reliance on targeting just a few species of fish, freshwater fish species richness is highly correlated with yield (R 2 = 0.55) and remains an important and statistically significant predictor of yield once other macroecological drivers are controlled for. Freshwater richness also has a significant negative relationship with variability of yield over time in Africa (R 2 = 0.16) but no effect in Europe. Main conclusions The management of inland waters should incorporate the protection of freshwater biodiversity, particularly in countries with the highest‐yielding inland fisheries as these also tend to have high freshwater biodiversity. As these results suggest a link between biodiversity and stable, high‐yielding fisheries, an important win–win outcome may be possible for food security and conservation of freshwater ecosystems. However, findings also highlight the urgent

  15. Verb finding in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Kohn, S E; Lorch, M P; Pearson, D M

    1989-03-01

    Word finding for nouns and verbs was examined in a heterogeneous group of aphasics (N = 9) by comparing the ability to generate synonyms and sentences for the same set of 20 nouns and 20 verbs. Synonym Generation performance resembled that of an age-matched group of normal control subjects (n = 9): In both groups, some subjects produced comparable numbers of synonyms for nouns and verbs while other subjects produced significantly fewer synonyms for verbs. Essentially the same two patterns were displayed on Sentence Generation using the frequency of "empty" nouns (e.g., 'it', 'man') and "empty" verbs (e.g., 'is', 'do') as an index of word-finding difficulty: In both groups, some subjects produced comparable numbers of empty nouns and verbs, while other subjects produced significantly more empty verbs. However, the Sentence Generation performance of one aphasic subject stood out overall by her tendency to avoid empty verbs and produce incomplete sentences. This pattern of performance was interpreted as a breakdown in an early stage of sentence planning that may be directly related to her diagnosis of transcortical motor aphasia.

  16. Ensemble brightening and enhanced quantum yield in size-purified silicon nanocrystals

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Joseph B.; Van Sickle, Austin R.; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Kroll, Daniel M.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2012-07-18

    Here, we report on the quantum yield, photoluminescence (PL) lifetime and ensemble photoluminescent stability of highly monodisperse plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) prepared though density-gradient ultracentrifugation in mixed organic solvents. Improved size uniformity leads to a reduction in PL line width and the emergence of entropic order in dry nanocrystal films. We find excellent agreement with the anticipated trends of quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon, with a solution quantum yield that is independent of nanocrystal size for the larger fractions but decreases dramatically with size for the smaller fractions. We also find a significant PL enhancement in films assembled from themore » fractions, and we use a combination of measurement, simulation and modeling to link this ‘brightening’ to a temporally enhanced quantum yield arising from SiNC interactions in ordered ensembles of monodisperse nanocrystals. Using an appropriate excitation scheme, we exploit this enhancement to achieve photostable emission.« less

  17. Ensemble brightening and enhanced quantum yield in size-purified silicon nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Joseph B.; Van Sickle, Austin R.; Anthony, Rebecca J.; Kroll, Daniel M.; Kortshagen, Uwe R.; Hobbie, Erik K.

    2012-07-18

    Here, we report on the quantum yield, photoluminescence (PL) lifetime and ensemble photoluminescent stability of highly monodisperse plasma-synthesized silicon nanocrystals (SiNCs) prepared though density-gradient ultracentrifugation in mixed organic solvents. Improved size uniformity leads to a reduction in PL line width and the emergence of entropic order in dry nanocrystal films. We find excellent agreement with the anticipated trends of quantum confinement in nanocrystalline silicon, with a solution quantum yield that is independent of nanocrystal size for the larger fractions but decreases dramatically with size for the smaller fractions. We also find a significant PL enhancement in films assembled from the fractions, and we use a combination of measurement, simulation and modeling to link this ‘brightening’ to a temporally enhanced quantum yield arising from SiNC interactions in ordered ensembles of monodisperse nanocrystals. Using an appropriate excitation scheme, we exploit this enhancement to achieve photostable emission.

  18. Yield enhancement with DFM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  19. Secondary Electron Emission Yields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, I.; Lundin, W.; Gordon, W. L.; Hoffman, R. W.

    1981-01-01

    The secondary electron emission (SEE) characteristics for a variety of spacecraft materials were determined under UHV conditions using a commercial double pass CMA which permits sequential Auger electron electron spectroscopic analysis of the surface. The transparent conductive coating indium tin oxide (ITO) was examined on Kapton and borosilicate glass and indium oxide on FED Teflon. The total SEE coefficient ranges from 2.5 to 2.6 on as-received surfaces and from 1.5 to 1.6 on Ar(+) sputtered surfaces with 5 nm removed. A cylindrical sample carousel provides normal incidence of the primary beam as well as a multiple Faraday cup measurement of the approximately nA beam currents. Total and true secondary yields are obtained from target current measurements with biasing of the carousel. A primary beam pulsed mode to reduce electron beam dosage and minimize charging of insulating coatings was applied to Mg/F2 coated solar cell covers. Electron beam effects on ITO were found quite important at the current densities necessary to do Auger studies.

  20. Yield Stress Effects on Mucus Plug Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yingying; Bian, Shiyao; Grotberg, John C.; Takayama, Shuichi; Grotberg, James B.

    2012-11-01

    Mucus plugs can obstruct airways, resulting in lost gas exchange and inflammation. Yield stress, one of the significant rheological properties of mucus, plays a significant role in plug rupture. We use carbopol 940 gels as mucus simulants to study dynamics of mucus plug rupture in experiments. Yield stress increases with gel concentration increasing (0.1% ~0.3%). The yield stress of the 0.2% gel is about 530 dyn/cm2, which can simulate normal mucus. A 2D PDMS channel is used to simulate a collapsed airway of the 12th generation in a human lung. Plug rupture is driven by a pressure drop of 1.6 ×104 ~ 2.0 ×104 dyn/cm2. Initial plug length varies from half to two times the half channel width. A micro-PIV technique is used to acquire velocity fields during rupture, from which wall shear stress is derived. Plug shortening velocity increases with the pressure drop, but decreases with yield stress or the initial plug length. Wall shear stress increases with yield stress, which indicates more potential damage may occur to epithelial cells when pathologic mucus has a high yield stress. Near the rupture moment, a wall shear stress peak appears at the front of the film deposited by the plug during rupture. This work is supported by NIH: HL84370 and HL85156.

  1. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  2. The effect of water deficit on yield and yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Nabipour, M; Meskarbashee, M; Yousefpour, H

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study carried out in Shahid Chamran Ahwaz, University, in 2001-2002 to determine the effect of different forms of irrigation on the safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) yield and yield components. Information was needed on application time of irrigation water on cultivars of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.). Increasing competition for water supplies and rising costs of applying water make efficient irrigation important. Yield and water use of safflower were evaluated on silt loam soil. Deficit irrigation treatments; I1: normal irrigation, I2: cutoff irrigation in budding period, I3: cutoff irrigation in flowering period (blooming), I4: cutoff irrigation in maturity period, were examined in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCB) with three replications. In this field experiment irrigation regimes were the main plots and cvs (ARAK 28, ESFAHAN LOCALITY and FO2 cvs) were as sub plots. The plant height, the plant head number, the 1000 seed weight, and the seed yield were measured in this experiment. The different irrigation regimes had a significant effects (p < 0.05) on the seed, the crude oil yields (kg ha(-1)), seed number per boll, harvest index, total dry weight. The highest seed yield (2679 kg seed ha(-1) in cv. ESFAHAN Lo.) and the crude oil yield (855 kg oil ha(-1) in cv. ARAK) were obtained from the I1 irrigation regime. I3 gave the lowest seed yield (1499 kg seed ha(-1) in cv. FO2) and the crude oil yield (449 kg oil ha(-1) in cv. FO2). I1 gave the highest oil percentage (35% in ARAK cv.) and the lowest (27.4% in FO2 cv.) obtained in I4. The different between cvs were significant in number of boll per plant, number of seed per boll, the 1000 seed, high, number of branch per plant, seed yield (kg ha(-1)), crude oil yield and total dry weight.

  3. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  4. Defect reduction methodologies: pellicle yield improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Susan V.

    1993-03-01

    The pelliclization process at Intel during the first half of 1991 was not in control. Weekly process yield was trending downward, and the range of the weekly yield during that time frame was greater than 40%. A focused effort in process yield improvement, that started in the second half of 1991 and continued through 1992, brought process yield up an average of 20%, and reduced the range of the process yield to 20 - 25%. This paper discusses the continuous process improvement guidelines that are being followed to reduce variations/defects in the pelliclization process. Teamwork tools, such as Pareto charts, fishbone diagrams, and simple experiments, prioritize efforts and help find the root cause of the defects. Best known methods (BKM), monitors, PMs, and excursion control aid in the elimination and prevention of defects. Monitoring progress and repeating the whole procedure are the final two guidelines. The benefits from the use of the continuous process improvement guidelines and tools can be seen in examples of the actions, impacts, and results for the last half of 1991 and the first half of 1992.

  5. Evidence for Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay in type Ia supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Pinto, Philip A.; Leibundgut, Bruno

    1994-01-01

    In the prevailing picture of Type Ia supernovae (SN Ia), their explosive burning produces Ni-56, and the radioactive decay chain Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 powers the subsequent emission. We test a central feature of this theory by measuring the relative strengths of a (Co III) emission feature near 5900 A and a (Fe III) emission feature near 4700 A. We measure 38 spectra from 13 SN Ia ranging from 48 to 310 days after maximum light. When we compare the observations with a simple multilevel calculation, we find that the observed Fe/Co flux ratio evolves as expected when the Fe-56/Co-56 abundance ratio follows from Ni-56 yields Co-56 yields Fe-56 decay. From this agreement, we conclude that the cobalt and iron atoms we observe through SN Ia emission lines are produced by the radioactive decay of Ni-56, just as predicted by a wide range of models for SN Ia explosions.

  6. Acne Yields Up Secret That Points to New Treatments

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Acne Yields Up Secret That Points to New Treatments Bacteria on skin sometimes release fatty acids ... News) -- In a finding that could lead to new treatments for acne, scientists say they've discovered ...

  7. Probing new physics in B{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K decays

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, A. K.; Mawlong, B.; Mohanta, R.

    2006-12-01

    We study the hadronic decay modes B{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup {+-}}{sup (0)}, involving a scalar and a pseudoscalar meson in the final state. These decay modes are dominated by the loop induced b{yields}sqq(q=s,u,d) penguins along with a small b{yields}u tree level transition (for B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +}) and annihilation diagrams. Therefore, the standard model expectation of direct CP violation is negligibly small and the mixing-induced CP violation parameter in the mode B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} is expected to give the same value of sin(2{beta}), as extracted from B{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}K{sub S} but with opposite sign. Using the generalized factorization approach we find the direct CP violation in the decay mode B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sup +} to be of the order of few percent. We then study the effect of the R-parity violating supersymmetric model and show that the direct CP violating asymmetry in B{sup +}{yields}f{sub 0}(980)K{sup +} could be as large as {approx}80% and the mixing-induced CP asymmetry in B{sup 0}{yields}f{sub 0}K{sub S} (i.e., -S{sub f{sub 0}}{sub K{sub S}}) could deviate significantly from that of sin(2{beta}){sub J/{psi}}{sub K{sub S}}.

  8. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    plantations could be further analyzed by considering whether they help depress global prices, reducing incentives to expand elsewhere (Angelsen and Kaimowitz 2001). The significance of the study goes well beyond the bounds of Ucayli, and highlights risks to Amazonian forests from oil palm expansion (Butler and Laurance 2010). Oil palm is an astoundingly profitable and productive crop, with typical oil yields more than ten times that of soy. Some have even argued that oil palm is innately land sparing because it would take substantially more land for all other oil-bearing crops to provide the same output. However, most production gains from oil palm have occurred through increased area rather than increased yield, and in many cases expansion has been through forest clearing (Koh and Wilcove 2008, Gibbs et al 2010). The findings of Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) are particularly significant considering that the booming palm oil sectors in Indonesia and Malaysia, which currently produce over 80% of the world's product, are facing a host of pressures that constrain future area expansion. Malaysia has little remaining land suited for plantations and Indonesia faces intensifying international scrutiny over the future of their forestlands. Consequently, the Amazon basin is widely considered the new frontier, with more than half of its forest area suitable for palm oil cultivation (Butler and Laurance 2010) and growing incentives from Brazil's Program for the Sustainable Production of Oil Palm, which aims to utilize degraded lands and spur reforestation efforts. Their results also illuminate another key issue, namely the constraints faced by large-scale producers when they seek to expand plantation area. Emerging demand-side conservation efforts, such as the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO), assume that already cleared and non-forested lands are freely available. Gutiérrez-Vélez et al (2011) hint at the obstacles to using such cleared lands, which is that they are

  9. Reexamining charmless B{yields}PV decays in the QCD factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinqiang; Yang Yadong

    2006-06-01

    Using the QCD factorization approach, we reexamine the two-body hadronic charmless B-meson decays to final states involving a pseudoscalar (P) and a vector (V) meson, with inclusion of the penguin contractions of spectator-scattering amplitudes induced by the b{yields}Dg*g* (where D=d or s, and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions, which are of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2}. Their impacts on the CP-averaged branching ratios and CP-violating asymmetries are examined. We find that these higher order penguin contraction contributions have significant impacts on some specific decay modes. Since B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} decays involve the same electroweak physics as B{yields}{pi}K puzzles, we present a detailed analysis of these decays and find that the five R-ratios for the B{yields}{pi}K*, K{rho} system are in agreement with experimental data except for R({pi}K*). Generally, these new contributions are found to be important for penguin-dominated B{yields}PV decays.

  10. Brazil soybean yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate soybean yields for the seven soybean-growing states of Brazil. The meteorological data of these seven states were pooled and the years 1975 to 1980 were used to model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation and monthly average temperature.

  11. Modern yields per stellar generation: the effect of the IMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincenzo, F.; Matteucci, F.; Belfiore, F.; Maiolino, R.

    2016-02-01

    Gaseous and stellar metallicities in galaxies are nowadays routinely used to constrain the evolutionary processes in galaxies. This requires the knowledge of the average yield per stellar generation, yZ, i.e. the quantity of metals that a stellar population releases into the interstellar medium (ISM), which is generally assumed to be a fixed fiducial value. Deviations of the observed metallicity from the expected value of yZ are used to quantify the effect of outflows or inflows of gas, or even as evidence for biased metallicity calibrations or inaccurate metallicity diagnostics. Here, we show that y_{Z} depends significantly on the initial mass function (IMF), varying by up to a factor larger than three, for the range of IMFs typically adopted in various studies. Varying the upper mass cutoff of the IMF implies a further variation of yZ by an additional factor that can be larger than two. These effects, along with the variation of the gas mass fraction restored into the ISM by supernovae (R, which also depends on the IMF), may yield to deceiving results, if not properly taken into account. In particular, metallicities that are often considered unusually high can actually be explained in terms of yield associated with commonly adopted IMFs such as the Kroupa or Chabrier. We provide our results for two different sets of stellar yields (both affected by specific limitations) finding that the uncertainty introduced by this assumption can be as large as ˜0.2 dex. Finally, we show that yZ is not substantially affected by the initial stellar metallicity as long as Z > 10-3 Z⊙.

  12. A field study to unravel factors that are significantly associated with the secretory activity of the corpus luteum during the first three postpartum cycles in high yielding dairy cows, based on the amount of steroidogenic and endothelial cells present in the luteal tissue.

    PubMed

    Cools, S; Van den Broeck, W; Bossaert, P; Hostens, M; Opsomer, G

    2014-12-01

    Fourteen multi- and eight primiparous high-yielding dairy cows were followed from the first till the fourth ovulation postpartum. Cows were randomly divided into two groups and supplemented with soybean (group I; n = 11) or rapeseed meal (group II; n = 11). Both groups were subjected to a biopsy sampling of the corpus luteum (CL) at cycle day 9. The luteal capillary network (visualized by Bandeiraea simplicifolia) was denser in cycles 2 and 3 (p = 0.0005). The same was seen for the surface occupied by steroidogenic cells (visualized by 3β-hydroxysteroiddehydrogenase) (p = 0.0001). The peripheral blood progesterone concentration showed an increasing trend with increasing cycle number and was higher in primiparous cows (p = 0.013), which had also larger glands on cycle day 9. The area occupied by endothelial cells was positively correlated with the area occupied by steroidogenic cells (r = 0.59; p < 0.0001). Both the areas occupied by endothelial and by steroidogenic cells were negatively correlated with the blood concentration of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) (respectively, r = -0.377; p = 0.004 and r = -0.355; p = 0.007). We can conclude that primiparous cows generally have higher peripheral progesterone levels during the first three cycles after calving which is associated with a larger CL. In comparison with those of the first post-partum cycle, corpora lutea of cycles 2 and 3 have a denser capillary network and a larger area of steroidogenic cells, while these are only associated with a trend of higher peripheral progesterone concentrations.

  13. Effect of available nutrients on yield and quality of pear fruit Bartlett in Kashmir Valley India.

    PubMed

    Dar, M A; Wani, J A; Raina, S K; Bhat, M Y; Dar, M A

    2012-11-01

    Pear is one of the most important commercial crops grown in the Kashmir valley of India. A study was conducted during 2008 to find out the effect of available nutrients on yield and quality parameters of pear cultivar "Bartlett" which revealed that nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.882, 0.856, and 0.482 mm, respectively), diameter (0.869, 0.794 and 0.458 mm, respectively), weight (0.876, 0.825 and 0.439 g, respectively), volume (0.908, 0.806 and 0.404, Cm3 respectively) and yield (0.908, 0.764 and 0.702 kg tree(-1), respectively) however, only nitrogen and phosphorus showed similar relationship with total sugars (0.833 and 0.838% respectively). The calcium indicated significant and negative relationship with fruit diameter (-0.433) and yield (-0.589), while as it showed significant and positive correlation with fruit firmness (0.442) only. The sulphur revealed significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.440), diameter (0.434), TSS (0.482) and yield (0.729) whereas zinc, copper, iron and manganese exhibited significant and positive relationship with fruit length (0.889, 793, 0.671 and 0.619, respectively), diameter (0.875, 0.807, 0.653 and 0.576, respectively) weight (0.881, 0.784, 0.669 and 0.615, respectively), volume (0.885, 0.832, 0.692 and 0.572, respectively) TSS (0.858, 0.761, 0.735 and 0.609, respectively), total sugars (0.853, 0.890, 0.705 and 0.517, respectively) and yield (0.777, 0.618, 0.789 and 0.701, respectively). It is therefore suggested that nutrients have effect on quality and yield of pear fruits.

  14. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture.

  15. Sustainable management in crop monocultures: the impact of retaining forest on oil palm yield.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Felicity A; Edwards, David P; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

  16. Sustainable Management in Crop Monocultures: The Impact of Retaining Forest on Oil Palm Yield

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Felicity A.; Edwards, David P.; Sloan, Sean; Hamer, Keith C.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical agriculture is expanding rapidly at the expense of forest, driving a global extinction crisis. How to create agricultural landscapes that minimise the clearance of forest and maximise sustainability is thus a key issue. One possibility is protecting natural forest within or adjacent to crop monocultures to harness important ecosystem services provided by biodiversity spill-over that may facilitate production. Yet this contrasts with the conflicting potential that the retention of forest exports dis-services, such as agricultural pests. We focus on oil palm and obtained yields from 499 plantation parcels spanning a total of ≈23,000 ha of oil palm plantation in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. We investigate the relationship between the extent and proximity of both contiguous and fragmented dipterocarp forest cover and oil palm yield, controlling for variation in oil palm age and for environmental heterogeneity by incorporating proximity to non-native forestry plantations, other oil palm plantations, and large rivers, elevation and soil type in our models. The extent of forest cover and proximity to dipterocarp forest were not significant predictors of oil palm yield. Similarly, proximity to large rivers and other oil palm plantations, as well as soil type had no significant effect. Instead, lower elevation and closer proximity to forestry plantations had significant positive impacts on oil palm yield. These findings suggest that if dipterocarp forests are exporting ecosystem service benefits or ecosystem dis-services, that the net effect on yield is neutral. There is thus no evidence to support arguments that forest should be retained within or adjacent to oil palm monocultures for the provision of ecosystem services that benefit yield. We urge for more nuanced assessments of the impacts of forest and biodiversity on yields in crop monocultures to better understand their role in sustainable agriculture. PMID:24638038

  17. Tensile Yielding of Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wei, Chenyu; Cho, Kyeongjae; Srivastava, Deepak; Parks, John W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The tensile yielding of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) has been studied using Molecular Dynamics simulations and a Transition State Theory based model. We find a strong dependence of the yielding on the strain rate. A critical strain rate has been predicted above/below which yielding strain of a MWCNT is larger/smaller than that of the corresponding single-wall carbon nanotubes. At experimentally feasible strain rate of 1% /hour and T = 300K, the yield strain of a MWCNT is estimated to be about 3-4 % higher than that of an equivalent SWCNT (Single Wall Carbon Nanotube), in good agreement with recent experimental observations.

  18. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding.

  19. Effects of nitrogen application method and weed control on corn yield and yield components.

    PubMed

    Sepahvand, Pariya; Sajedi, Nurali; Mousavi, Seyed Karim; Ghiasvand, Mohsen

    2014-04-01

    The effects of nitrogen fertilizer application and different methods for weed control on yield and yield components of corn was evaluated in Khorramabad in 2011. The experiment was conducted as a split plot based on randomized complete block design in 3 replications. Nitrogen application was as main plot in 4 levels (no nitrogen, broadcasting nitrogen, banding nitrogen and sprayed nitrogen) and methods of weed control were in 4 levels (non-control weeds, application Equip herbicide, once hand control of weeds and application Equip herbicide+once time weeding) was as subplots. Result illustrated that effects of nitrogen fertilizer application were significant on grain and forage yield, 100 seeds weight, harvest index, grain number per row and cob weight per plant. Grain yield increased by 91.4 and 3.9% in application banding and broadcasting for nitrogen fertilizer, respectively, compared to the no fertilizer treatment. The results show improved efficiency of nitrogen utilization by banding application. Grain yield, harvest index, seed rows per cob, seeds per row and cob weight were increased by weed control. In the application of Equip herbicide+ hand weeding treatment corn grain yield was increased 126% in comparison to weedy control. It represents of the intense affects of weed competition with corn. The highest corn grain yield (6758 kg h(-1)) was related to the application banding of nitrogen fertilizer and Equip herbicide+once hand weeding. PMID:25911836

  20. Groundwater subsidies and penalties to corn yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zipper, S. C.; Booth, E.; Loheide, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    directly related to year-end yield. During 2012 (a drier-than-normal growing season) corn in parts of the field with shallow groundwater had significantly higher yields than the rest of the field, indicating that groundwater can provide significant yield benefits during drought. In contrast, during 2013 (a wetter-than-normal growing season) areas with the shallowest groundwater experienced total yield losses due to early-season groundwater flooding and oxygen stress. This demonstrates that the optimal DTGW for agricultural production is variable and depends on growing season weather conditions. The presence or absence of shallow groundwater is an important and dynamic feature of many agroecosystems, and should be considered when making both field- and watershed-scale management decisions.

  1. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the... have a notice published which informs the public of the RUS finding and the availability of the EA...

  2. 7 CFR 1794.43 - Agency finding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Agency finding. 1794.43 Section 1794.43 Agriculture... finding. If RUS finds, based on an EA that the proposed action will not have a significant effect on the... have a notice published which informs the public of the RUS finding and the availability of the EA...

  3. Leiomyosarcoma: computed tomographic findings

    SciTech Connect

    McLeod, A.J.; Zornoza, J.; Shirkhoda, A.

    1984-07-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) findings in 118 patients with the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma were reviewed. The tumor masses visualized in these patients were often quite large; extensive necrotic or cystic change was a frequent finding. Calcification was not observed in these tumors. The liver was the most common site of metastasis in these patients, with marked necrosis of the liver lesions a common finding. Other manifestations of tumor spread included pulmonary metastases, mesenteric or omental metastases, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, soft-tissue metastases, bone metastases, splenic metastases, and ascites. Although the CT appearance of leiomyosarcoma is not specific, these findings, when present, suggest consideration of this diagnosis.

  4. Brazil wheat yield covariance model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, S. L.; Sakamoto, C.

    1984-01-01

    A model based on multiple regression was developed to estimate wheat yields for the wheat growing states of Rio Grande do Sul, Parana, and Santa Catarina in Brazil. The meteorological data of these three states were pooled and the years 1972 to 1979 were used to develop the model since there was no technological trend in the yields during these years. Predictor variables were derived from monthly total precipitation, average monthly mean temperature, and average monthly maximum temperature.

  5. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  6. Find a Nurse Practitioner

    MedlinePlus

    Find a Nurse Practitioner AANP Home MyAANP Contact Us Find an NP near me or near Search Reset I accept AANP's Terms of Use Overall Focus All Primary ... practice site(s) to NP Finder, and enjoy many more member benefits.

  7. Effect of Climate-Induced Change in Crop Yields on Emigration: The Case of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Krueger, A. B.; Feng, S.

    2009-05-01

    Researchers have suggested several channels through which future global warming could trigger mass migration across country borders. This paper examines one of them by focusing on the effect of climate- induced crop failures on out-migration. Using data from Mexico, we identify and estimate elasticity of emigration with respect to changes in crop yield, which sheds light on the possible magnitudes of migrant flows for other areas of the world under different climate change scenarios. We choose Mexico as the study object as it is by far the largest migrant-sending country, with an estimated number of emigrants living in the United States to be well over 10 million. In addition, over 20% of Mexico population directly relies on the agricultural sector, which is heavily dependent on climate. For example, the prolonged drought from 1996 to 1998 in northern Mexico resulted in mass crop failures and the death of livestock. Historically, farmers have been using emigration as an adaptation strategy to cope with crop yield reductions. We first examine the relationship between corn yields and climate variables for the period of 1980-2000, using state-level data. We find significant positive effects of annual precipitation and annual average temperature, but a negative effect of summer temperature on corn yields. The effects of both annual and summer temperatures are also nonlinear. Our analyses of other crops such as wheat yield very similar results. Using Mexico Census micro data, we calculate the number of emigrants from each state for the periods of 1990-1995 and 1995-2000. We then regress changes in the number of emigrants on changes in crop yields, instrumented by changes in temperatures and precipitation. Our preferred specification gives an elasticity of -4, which suggests that a 25% reduction in crop yields would double the number of emigrants. The null hypothesis of no effect is rejected at the 5% significance level.

  8. Global Agriculture Yields and Conflict under Future Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J.; Cane, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Aspects of climate have been shown to correlate significantly with conflict. We investigate a possible pathway for these effects through changes in agriculture yields, as predicted by field crop models (FAO's AquaCrop and DSSAT). Using satellite and station weather data, and surveyed data for soil and management, we simulate major crop yields across all countries between 1961 and 2008, and compare these to FAO and USDA reported yields. Correlations vary by country and by crop, from approximately .8 to -.5. Some of this range in crop model performance is explained by crop varieties, data quality, and other natural, economic, and political features. We also quantify the ability of AquaCrop and DSSAT to simulate yields under past cycles of ENSO as a proxy for their performance under changes in climate. We then describe two statistical models which relate crop yields to conflict events from the UCDP/PRIO Armed Conflict dataset. The first relates several preceding years of predicted yields of the major grain in each country to any conflict involving that country. The second uses the GREG ethnic group maps to identify differences in predicted yields between neighboring regions. By using variation in predicted yields to explain conflict, rather than actual yields, we can identify the exogenous effects of weather on conflict. Finally, we apply precipitation and temperature time-series under IPCC's A1B scenario to the statistical models. This allows us to estimate the scale of the impact of future yields on future conflict. Centroids of the major growing regions for each country's primary crop, based on USDA FAS consumption. Correlations between simulated yields and reported yields, for AquaCrop and DSSAT, under the assumption that no irrigation, fertilization, or pest control is used. Reported yields are the average of FAO yields and USDA FAS yields, where both are available.

  9. The realistic energy yield potential of GaAs-on-Si tandem solar cells: a theoretical case study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haohui; Ren, Zekun; Liu, Zhe; Aberle, Armin G; Buonassisi, Tonio; Peters, Ian Marius

    2015-04-01

    Si based tandem solar cells represent an alternative to traditional compound III-V multijunction cells as a promising way to achieve high efficiencies. A theoretical study on the energy yield of GaAs on Si (GaAs/Si) tandem solar cells is performed to assess their energy yield potential under realistic illumination conditions with varying spectrum. We find that the yield of a 4-terminal contact scheme with thick top cell is more than 15% higher than for a 2-terminal scheme. Furthermore, we quantify the main losses that occur for this type of solar cell under varying spectra. Apart from current mismatch, we find that a significant power loss can be attributed to low irradiance seen by the sub-cells. The study shows that despite non-optimal bandgap combination, GaAs/Si tandem solar cells have the potential to surpass 30% energy conversion efficiency.

  10. The significance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-02-01

    When promoting the value of their research or procuring funding, researchers often need to explain the significance of their work to the community -- something that can be just as tricky as the research itself.

  11. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients Choosing Your PT Preparing For a Visit Insurance Information Advocacy Visiting a PT What you need to know before your appointment with your physical therapist. Go There » Find a PT For Health Professionals ... ...

  12. Find a Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... information you need from the Academy of General Dentistry Tuesday, October 4, 2016 About | Contact Find an ... more. Disclaimer of Liabilities The Academy of General Dentistry's (AGD) Web site provides a listing of members ...

  13. Find a Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Find Help News and Research Tips for Soldiers and Veterans Tips for Families and Friends Take ... questions to ask for yourself and for your child . If we can be of further assistance Contact ...

  14. Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Doctor Finding a doctor with special training in movement disorders can make a big difference in your ... Goldstein Goldstone Gollomp Goodman Gorman Gottschalk Graff Greeley Green Gregory Griffith Grill Grillone Grist Grossman Groves Gudesblatt ...

  15. Evidence for compensatory photosynthetic and yield response of soybeans to aphid herbivory

    DOE PAGES

    Kucharik, Christopher J.; Mork, Amelia C.; Meehan, Timothy D.; Serbin, Shawn P.; Singh, Aditya; Townsend, Philip A.; Whitney, Kaitlin Stack; Gratton, Claudio

    2016-04-13

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, an exotic species in North America that has been detected in 21 U.S. states and Canada, is a major pest for soybean that can reduce maximum photosynthetic capacity and yields. Our existing knowledge is based on relatively few studies that do not span a wide variety of environmental conditions, and often focus on relatively high and damaging population pressure. We examined the effects of varied populations and duration of soybean aphids on soybean photosynthetic rates and yield in two experiments. In a 2011 field study, we found that plants with low cumulative aphid daysmore » (CAD, less than 2,300) had higher yields than plants not experiencing significant aphid pressure, suggesting a compensatory growth response to low aphid pressure. This response did not hold at higher CAD, and yields declined. In a 2013 controlled-environment greenhouse study, soybean plants were well-watered and fertilized with nitrogen (N), and aphid populations were manipulated to reach moderate to high levels (8,000–50,000 CAD). Plants tolerated these population levels when aphids were introduced during the vegetative or reproductive phenological stages of the plant, showing no significant reduction in yield. Leaf N concentration and CAD were positively and significantly correlated with increasing ambient photosynthetic rates. Our findings suggest that, given the right environmental conditions, modern soybean plants can withstand higher aphid pressure than previously assumed. Moreover, soybean plants also responded positively through a compensatory photosynthetic effect to moderate population pressure, contributing to stable or increased yield.« less

  16. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing.

  17. [Influence of fertilizers on yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum Linn].

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Takeo; Hatakeyama, Yoshio; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Shimomura, Koichiro

    2003-01-01

    The effect of fertilizer on the yield and yield components of opium from Papaver somniferum L.cv.Ikkanshu were investigated from 1993 to 1995. The weight of opium per one capsule was tendency to increase in the order of peat moss > pulverized charcoal > compound fertilizer, but the differences among the results were not significant. Furthermore, no difference in the capsule weight per 100 m2 and the yields of opium and alkaloids per 100 m2 were detected. The significant difference was only observed when the data were compared among the weights and yields of different years. The difference among the yield of opium was mainly due to the weight of opium per one capsule. The weight of opium per one capsule showed a high correlation with capsule husk weight. The alkaloids contents in opium obtained with a different fertilizer application showed no difference. Morphine content at the first lancing was about 11%, and the value decreased with the order of lancing. On the contrary, the codeine and the thebaine content did not change during lancing and the value were 6-7% and 3%, respectively. The papaverine and the noscapine content decreased in the order of lancing. PMID:14740399

  18. Immunological findings in autism.

    PubMed

    Cohly, Hari Har Parshad; Panja, Asit

    2005-01-01

    elevated in autistic brains. In measles virus infection, it has been postulated that there is immune suppression by inhibiting T-cell proliferation and maturation and downregulation MHC class II expression. Cytokine alteration of TNF-alpha is increased in autistic populations. Toll-like-receptors are also involved in autistic development. High NO levels are associated with autism. Maternal antibodies may trigger autism as a mechanism of autoimmunity. MMR vaccination may increase risk for autism via an autoimmune mechanism in autism. MMR antibodies are significantly higher in autistic children as compared to normal children, supporting a role of MMR in autism. Autoantibodies (IgG isotype) to neuron-axon filament protein (NAFP) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) are significantly increased in autistic patients (Singh et al., 1997). Increase in Th2 may explain the increased autoimmunity, such as the findings of antibodies to MBP and neuronal axonal filaments in the brain. There is further evidence that there are other participants in the autoimmune phenomenon. (Kozlovskaia et al., 2000). The possibility of its involvement in autism cannot be ruled out. Further investigations at immunological, cellular, molecular, and genetic levels will allow researchers to continue to unravel the immunopathogenic mechanisms' associated with autistic processes in the developing brain. This may open up new avenues for prevention and/or cure of this devastating neurodevelopmental disorder.

  19. Effects of water deficit and spraying of dessicant on yield, yield components and water use efficiency of wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Ezzat Ahmadi, M; Noormohammadi, G; Ghodsi, M; Kafi, M

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate yield, yield components and water use efficiency of bread wheat in water stress conditions and spraying of dessicant, a field experiment was carried out in 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Main plots were assigned to two levels of water stress treatments; D1: optimum irrigation and D2: cessation of watering from anthesis to maturity stages. Sub plots were assigned to eight bread wheat genotypes; and assimilates limitations with two levels: P1: no source limitation and P2: inhibition of current photosynthesis were in sub-sub plots. Grain yield, biological yield, harvest index, the number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight and water use efficiency were significantly influenced by irrigation treatments and source limitation. Grain Yield (GY) significantly decreased by 35 and 68% under water deficiency and postanthesis photosynthetic inhibition, respectively; compared with control. Water use efficiency was higher for well-watered compared with postanthesis drought stress conditions. WUEgrain decrease due to water deficit was attributed to grain yield reduction. Under water stress, current photosynthetic inhibition reduced grain yield by 62%, but under well-watered condition; it significantly decreased grain yield by 71%, that indicate the source is limititing factor under different irrigation regimes. Considering that C-81-10, 9103 and 9116 genotypes showed the highest grain yield, potential for reserves and remobilizations of assimilates under different irrigation conditions; thus, these genotypes could be introduced as promising in breeding programs for arid and semi-arid regions.

  20. Reexamining B{yields}{pi}{pi}, {pi}K decays in QCD factorization approach

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xinqiang; Yang Yadong

    2005-10-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data, we have revisited the B{yields}{pi}K,{pi}{pi} decays in the framework of QCD factorization, with inclusion of the important strong penguin corrections of order {alpha}{sub s}{sup 2} induced by b{yields}Dg*g* (D=d or s and g* denotes an off-shell gluon) transitions. We find that these higher order strong penguin contributions can provide {approx}30% enhancement to the penguin-dominated B{yields}{pi}K decay rates, and such an enhancement can improve the consistency between the theoretical predictions and the experimental data significantly, while for the tree-dominated B{yields}{pi}{pi} decays, these higher order contributions play only a minor role. When these strong penguin contributions are summed, only a small strong phase remains and the direct CP asymmetries get small corrections. We also find that patterns of the ratios between the CP-averaged branching fractions remain nearly unaffected even after including these higher order corrections and the {pi}K puzzle still persists. Our results may indicate that to resolve the puzzle one would have to resort to new physics contributions in the electroweak penguin sector as found by Buras et al.

  1. Climatic and technological ceilings for Chinese rice stagnation based on yield gaps and yield trend pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyi; Yang, Xiaoguang; Wang, Hesong; Li, Yong; Ye, Qing

    2014-04-01

    Climatic or technological ceilings could cause yield stagnation. Thus, identifying the principal reasons for yield stagnation within the context of the local climate and socio-economic conditions are essential for informing regional agricultural policies. In this study, we identified the climatic and technological ceilings for seven rice-production regions in China based on yield gaps and on a yield trend pattern analysis for the period 1980-2010. The results indicate that 54.9% of the counties sampled experienced yield stagnation since the 1980. The potential yield ceilings in northern and eastern China decreased to a greater extent than in other regions due to the accompanying climate effects of increases in temperature and decreases in radiation. This may be associated with yield stagnation and halt occurring in approximately 49.8-57.0% of the sampled counties in these areas. South-western China exhibited a promising scope for yield improvement, showing the greatest yield gap (30.6%), whereas the yields were stagnant in 58.4% of the sampled counties. This finding suggests that efforts to overcome the technological ceiling must be given priority so that the available exploitable yield gap can be achieved. North-eastern China, however, represents a noteworthy exception. In the north-central area of this region, climate change has increased the yield potential ceiling, and this increase has been accompanied by the most rapid increase in actual yield: 1.02 ton ha(-1) per decade. Therefore, north-eastern China shows a great potential for rice production, which is favoured by the current climate conditions and available technology level. Additional environmentally friendly economic incentives might be considered in this region. PMID:24130084

  2. Genetic findings in anorexia and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Hinney, Anke; Scherag, Susann; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) are complex disorders associated with disordered eating behavior. Heritability estimates derived from twin and family studies are high, so that substantial genetic influences on the etiology can be assumed for both. As the monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems are involved in eating disorders (EDs), candidate gene studies have centered on related genes; additionally, genes relevant for body weight regulation have been considered as candidates. Unfortunately, this approach has yielded very few positive results; confirmed associations or findings substantiated in meta-analyses are scant. None of these associations can be considered unequivocally validated. Systematic genome-wide approaches have been performed to identify genes with no a priori evidence for their relevance in EDs. Family-based scans revealed linkage peaks in single chromosomal regions for AN and BN. Analyses of candidate genes in one of these regions led to the identification of genetic variants associated with AN. Currently, an international consortium is conducting a genome-wide association study for AN, which will hopefully lead to the identification of the first genome-wide significant markers.

  3. Significant lexical relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Pedersen, T.; Kayaalp, M.; Bruce, R.

    1996-12-31

    Statistical NLP inevitably deals with a large number of rare events. As a consequence, NLP data often violates the assumptions implicit in traditional statistical procedures such as significance testing. We describe a significance test, an exact conditional test, that is appropriate for NLP data and can be performed using freely available software. We apply this test to the study of lexical relationships and demonstrate that the results obtained using this test are both theoretically more reliable and different from the results obtained using previously applied tests.

  4. Some short-term effects of changing to lower yield cigarettes

    SciTech Connect

    Minty, B.D.; Royston, D.; Jones, J.G.

    1985-10-01

    The rate of clearance from the lung of the hydrophilic tracer molecule /sup 99m/Tc DTPA was used to investigate the short-term effects on lung epithelial function when smokers switched to cigarettes with lower yields of tobacco smoke constituents. Two separate studies were performed. In the first study, subjects smoked conventional mid- and low-tar cigarettes. The second study used two specially manufactured cigarettes with similar tar and nicotine yields, but differing carbon monoxide yields. Neither study demonstrated any significant improvement in /sup 99m/Tc DTPA clearance. The yields of carbon monoxide determined under standard machine smoking conditions implied that there would be a 44 percent reduction in exposure to carbon monoxide when subjects switched from smoking conventional mid-tar to low-tar cigarettes. However, measurements of carboxyhemoglobin showed that the smokers compensated for the lower yields and their exposure was reduced by only 11 percent. Similarly, in the second study, the subjects reduced their exposure by 7 percent instead of the expected 44 percent. Urine nicotine/cotinine excretion measurements in this study indicated that there was no complimentary increase in nicotine absorption suggesting the possibility that subjects may be able to regulate their intake of individual components of the cigarette smoke. Thus, the unexpected result from this study was the finding that cigarette smokers could, in some way, regulate their intake of smoke from cigarettes of different composition so as to maintain a constant exposure of smoke constituents.

  5. Dip-coating of yield stress fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, M.; Bleyer, J.; Andrieux, A. L.; Boujlel, J.; Coussot, P.

    2016-05-01

    We review and discuss the characteristics of dip-coating of yield stress fluids on the basis of theoretical considerations, numerical simulations of the flow in the bath, and experimental data with different materials. We show that in general, due to the yield stress, viscous dissipations are sufficiently large for capillary effects to be negligible in the process. Dip-coating with yield stress fluids is thus essentially governed by an equilibrium between viscous and gravity effects. In contrast with simple liquids, the coated thickness is uniform and remains fixed to the plate. At low velocities, it appears to tend to a value significantly smaller than the Derjaguin and Levi prediction [B. V. Derjaguin and S. M. Levi, Film Coating Theory (The Focal Press, London, 1964)], i.e., critical thickness of stoppage of a free surface flow along a vertical plate. We show that this comes from the fact that in the bath only a relatively small layer of fluid is in its liquid regime along the moving plate, while the rest of the material is in a solid regime. From numerical simulations, we describe the general trends of this liquid layer, and in particular, its thickness as a function of the rheological characteristics and plate velocity. We finally propose a model for the dip-coating of yield stress fluid, assuming that the solid volume of fluid finally fixed to the plate results from the mass flux of the liquid layer in the bath minus a mass flux due to some downward flow under gravity in the transition zone. A good agreement between this model and experimental data is found for a fluid with a yield stress larger than 20 Pa.

  6. Genetic Effects and Heterosis of Yield and Yield Component Traits Based on Gossypium Barbadense Chromosome Segment Substitution Lines in Two Gossypium Hirsutum Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Juwu; Li, Junwen; Liu, Aiying; Shang, Haihong; Gong, Wankui; Chen, Tingting; Ge, Qun; Jia, Chaoyang; Lei, Yake; Hu, Yushu; Yuan, Youlu

    2016-01-01

    We hybridized 10 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) each from two CSSL populations and produced 50 F1 hybrids according to North Carolina Design II. We analyzed the genetic effects and heterosis of yield and yield components in the F1 hybrids and parents in four environments via the additive-dominance genetic model. Yield and yield components of the CSSLs were controlled by combined additive and dominance effects, and lint percentage was mainly controlled by additive effects, but boll weight, boll number, seedcotton yield and lint yield were mainly controlled by dominance effects. We detected significant interaction effects between genetics and the environment for all yields traits. Similar interactions were detected between two CSSL populations (Pop CCRI 36 and Pop CCRI 45). Significant positive mid-parent heterosis was detected for all yield traits in both populations, and significant positive better-parent heterosis was also detected for all yield traits except lint percentage. The differences among parents were relatively small, but significant heterosis was detected for yield and yield components. Therefore, the relationship between heterosis and genetic distance for yield traits is complicated and requires further study. These CSSLs represent useful tools for improving yield and yield components in cotton. PMID:27348815

  7. Observation of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and evidence for B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Bozek, A.; Rozanska, M.; Kapusta, P.; Matyja, A.; Ostrowicz, W.; Stypula, J.; Adachi, I.; Higuchi, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Sakai, Y.; Schuemann, J.; Trabelsi, K.; Uehara, S.; Uno, S.; Aihara, H.

    2010-10-01

    We present measurements of B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}and B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}decays in a data sample of 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find 446{sub -56}{sup +58} B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 8.1 standard deviations, and 146{sub -41}{sup +42} B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}}events with a significance of 3.5 standard deviations. The latter signal provides the first evidence for this decay mode. The measured branching fractions are B(B{sup +{yields}}D*{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(2.12{sub -0.27}{sup +0.28}(stat){+-}0.29(syst))% and B(B{sup +{yields}}D{sup 0{tau}+{nu}}{sub {tau}})=(0.77{+-}0.22(stat){+-}0.12(syst))%.

  8. Significance of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    The significance of brown dwarfs for resolving some major problems in astronomy is discussed. The importance of brown dwarfs for models of star formation by fragmentation of molecular clouds and for obtaining independent measurements of the ages of stars in binary systems is addressed. The relationship of brown dwarfs to planets is considered.

  9. Statistical Significance Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The controversy about the use or misuse of statistical significance testing has become the major methodological issue in educational research. This special issue contains three articles that explore the controversy, three commentaries on these articles, an overall response, and three rejoinders by the first three authors. They are: (1)…

  10. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Deepak K.; Gerber, James S.; MacDonald, Graham K.; West, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32–39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability. PMID:25609225

  11. Climate variation explains a third of global crop yield variability.

    PubMed

    Ray, Deepak K; Gerber, James S; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C

    2015-01-22

    Many studies have examined the role of mean climate change in agriculture, but an understanding of the influence of inter-annual climate variations on crop yields in different regions remains elusive. We use detailed crop statistics time series for ~13,500 political units to examine how recent climate variability led to variations in maize, rice, wheat and soybean crop yields worldwide. While some areas show no significant influence of climate variability, in substantial areas of the global breadbaskets, >60% of the yield variability can be explained by climate variability. Globally, climate variability accounts for roughly a third (~32-39%) of the observed yield variability. Our study uniquely illustrates spatial patterns in the relationship between climate variability and crop yield variability, highlighting where variations in temperature, precipitation or their interaction explain yield variability. We discuss key drivers for the observed variations to target further research and policy interventions geared towards buffering future crop production from climate variability.

  12. Observation of B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{gamma}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-J.; Wang, M.-Z.; Chang, M.-C.; Chang, P.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K.-F.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Lin, S.-W.; Schuemann, J.; Ueno, K.; Wang, C.C.; Abe, K.; Gershon, T.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Ishikawa, A.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.

    2005-08-05

    We report the first observation of the radiative hyperonic B decay B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{gamma}, using a 140 fb{sup -1} data sample recorded on the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. The measured branching fraction is B(B{sup +}{yields}p{lambda}{gamma})=(2.16{sub -0.53}{sup +0.58}{+-}0.20)x10{sup -6}. We examine its M{sub p{lambda}} distribution and observe a peak near threshold. This feature is expected by the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} transition. A search for B{sup +}{yields}p{sigma}{sup 0}{gamma} yields no significant signal, and we set a 90% confidence-level upper limit on the branching fraction of B(B{sup +}{yields}p{sigma}{sup 0}{gamma})<4.6x10{sup -6}.

  13. Finding the engram.

    PubMed

    Josselyn, Sheena A; Köhler, Stefan; Frankland, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, or engram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In this Review, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recent progress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent 'capture' studies use novel approaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, thereby allowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times. We propose that findings from these capture studies represent considerable progress in allowing us to observe, erase and express the engram. PMID:26289572

  14. Relevant and significant supervised gene clusters for microarray cancer classification.

    PubMed

    Maji, Pradipta; Das, Chandra

    2012-06-01

    An important application of microarray data in functional genomics is to classify samples according to their gene expression profiles such as to classify cancer versus normal samples or to classify different types or subtypes of cancer. One of the major tasks with gene expression data is to find co-regulated gene groups whose collective expression is strongly associated with sample categories. In this regard, a gene clustering algorithm is proposed to group genes from microarray data. It directly incorporates the information of sample categories in the grouping process for finding groups of co-regulated genes with strong association to the sample categories, yielding a supervised gene clustering algorithm. The average expression of the genes from each cluster acts as its representative. Some significant representatives are taken to form the reduced feature set to build the classifiers for cancer classification. The mutual information is used to compute both gene-gene redundancy and gene-class relevance. The performance of the proposed method, along with a comparison with existing methods, is studied on six cancer microarray data sets using the predictive accuracy of naive Bayes classifier, K-nearest neighbor rule, and support vector machine. An important finding is that the proposed algorithm is shown to be effective for identifying biologically significant gene clusters with excellent predictive capability. PMID:22552589

  15. Significant Tsunami Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  16. Modeling the secondary emission yield of salty ice dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richterová, I.; Němeček, Z.; Pavlů, J.; Beránek, M.; Šafránková, J.

    2011-03-01

    Secondary emission is one of important processes leading to dust grain charging in many plasma environments. The secondary yield varies with the grain material, shape, and size. Several experiments confirmed that the yield of small grains differs from that of planar samples. Among other materials, ices of different compositions can be frequently found in the interplanetary space and/or planetary magnetospheres. However, the admixtures can significantly influence the inner structure of such materials and thus may change their yield. We present numerical simulations that provide a realistic description of the secondary emission process from water ice grains. The simulations reveal that the secondary emission yield increases as the grain dimension decreases to tens of nanometers. The yield of backscattered primary electrons approaches unity and the grain can be charged to high positive potentials under these conditions. We found that any reasonable admixture of NaCl does not alter secondary electron emission properties significantly.

  17. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  18. Finding Health Care Services

    Cancer.gov

    If you have been diagnosed with cancer, finding a doctor and treatment facility for your cancer care is an important step to getting the best treatment possible. Learn tips for choosing a doctor and treatment facility to manage your cancer care.

  19. Evaluation of a cotton stripper yield monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the accuracy of a microwave sensor based yield monitor for measuring yield on a cotton stripper harvester and determine if the yield monitor can discriminate differences in yield to the same level as a reference scale system. A new yield monitor was instal...

  20. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach

  1. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    PubMed Central

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985–2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September−May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  2. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields.

  3. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields.

    PubMed

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-06-01

    Climate change is expected to increase future temperatures, potentially resulting in reduced crop production in many key production regions. Research quantifying the complex relationship between weather variables and wheat yields is rapidly growing, and recent advances have used a variety of model specifications that differ in how temperature data are included in the statistical yield equation. A unique data set that combines Kansas wheat variety field trial outcomes for 1985-2013 with location-specific weather data is used to analyze the effect of weather on wheat yield using regression analysis. Our results indicate that the effect of temperature exposure varies across the September-May growing season. The largest drivers of yield loss are freezing temperatures in the Fall and extreme heat events in the Spring. We also find that the overall effect of warming on yields is negative, even after accounting for the benefits of reduced exposure to freezing temperatures. Our analysis indicates that there exists a tradeoff between average (mean) yield and ability to resist extreme heat across varieties. More-recently released varieties are less able to resist heat than older lines. Our results also indicate that warming effects would be partially offset by increased rainfall in the Spring. Finally, we find that the method used to construct measures of temperature exposure matters for both the predictive performance of the regression model and the forecasted warming impacts on yields. PMID:25964323

  4. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity.

  5. Effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of 3D steel buildings with PMRF.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions.

  6. Effect of Damping and Yielding on the Seismic Response of 3D Steel Buildings with PMRF

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

  7. Effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of 3D steel buildings with PMRF.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Salazar, Alfredo; Haldar, Achintya; Rodelo-López, Ramon Eduardo; Bojórquez, Eden

    2014-01-01

    The effect of viscous damping and yielding, on the reduction of the seismic responses of steel buildings modeled as three-dimensional (3D) complex multidegree of freedom (MDOF) systems, is studied. The reduction produced by damping may be larger or smaller than that of yielding. This reduction can significantly vary from one structural idealization to another and is smaller for global than for local response parameters, which in turn depends on the particular local response parameter. The uncertainty in the estimation is significantly larger for local response parameter and decreases as damping increases. The results show the limitations of the commonly used static equivalent lateral force procedure where local and global response parameters are reduced in the same proportion. It is concluded that estimating the effect of damping and yielding on the seismic response of steel buildings by using simplified models may be a very crude approximation. Moreover, the effect of yielding should be explicitly calculated by using complex 3D MDOF models instead of estimating it in terms of equivalent viscous damping. The findings of this paper are for the particular models used in the study. Much more research is needed to reach more general conclusions. PMID:25097892

  8. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant and binding activities and spear yield of Asparagus officinalis L.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Jeong Hyun; Yu, In Ho; Gorinstein, Shela; Bae, Jong Hyang; Ku, Yang Gyu

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find a proper harvesting period and establishing fern number, which effects the spear yield, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activities of Asparagus officinalis L. Spears were harvested at 2, 4, and 6 weeks after sprouting. Control for comparison was used without harvest. Spears and total yield increased with prolonged spear harvest period. In harvest of 6 weeks long optimum spear yield was the highest and fern numbers were 5 ~ 8. Bioactive compounds (polyphenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and ascorbic acid) and the levels of antioxidant activities by ferric-reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) assays in asparagus ethanol extracts significantly differed in the investigated samples and were the highest at 6 weeks harvest period (P < 0.05). The first and the second segments from the tip significantly increased with the increase of catalase (CAT). It was interesting to investigate in vitro how human serum albumin (HSA) interacts with polyphenols extracted from investigated vegetables. Therefore the functional properties of asparagus were studied by the interaction of polyphenol ethanol extracts with HSA, using 3D- FL. In conclusion, antioxidant status (bioactive compounds, binding and antioxidant activities) improved with the harvesting period and the first segment from spear tip. Appropriate harvesting is effective for higher asparagus yield and its bioactivity. PMID:24793354

  9. Designing a high-yielding maize ideotype for a changing climate in Lombardy plain (northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Perego, Alessia; Sanna, Mattia; Giussani, Andrea; Chiodini, Marcello Ermido; Fumagalli, Mattia; Pilu, Salvatore Roberto; Bindi, Marco; Moriondo, Marco; Acutis, Marco

    2014-11-15

    The expected climate change will affect the maize yields in view of air temperature increase and scarce water availability. The application of biophysical models offers the chance to design a drought-resistant ideotype and to assist plant breeders and agronomists in the assessment of its suitability in future scenarios. The aim of the present work was to perform a model-based estimation of the yields of two hybrids, current vs ideotype, under future climate scenarios (2030-2060 and 2070-2100) in Lombardy (northern Italy), testing two options of irrigation (small amount at fixed dates vs optimal water supply), nitrogen (N) fertilization (300 vs 400 kg N ha(-1)), and crop cycle durations (current vs extended). For the designing of the ideotype we set several parameters of the ARMOSA process-based crop model: the root elongation rate and maximum depth, stomatal resistance, four stage-specific crop coefficients for the actual transpiration estimation, and drought tolerance factor. The work findings indicated that the current hybrid ensures good production only with high irrigation amount (245-565 mm y(-1)). With respect to the current hybrid, the ideotype will require less irrigation water (-13%, p<0.01) and it resulted in significantly higher yield under water stress condition (+15%, p<0.01) and optimal water supply (+2%, p<0.05). The elongated cycle has a positive effect on yield under any combination of options. Moreover, higher yields projected for the ideotype implicate more crop residues to be incorporated into the soil, which are positively correlated with the SOC sequestration and negatively with N leaching. The crop N uptake is expected to be adequate in view of higher rate of soil mineralization; the N fertilization rate of 400 kg N ha(-1) will involve significant increasing of grain yield, and it is expected to involve a higher rate of SOC sequestration. PMID:24913890

  10. Tales of significance.

    PubMed

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  11. [Submitting studies without significant results].

    PubMed

    Texier, Gaëtan; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Michel, Rémy; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-03-01

    When a study finds that no exposure factor or therapy is significantly related to a given effect, researchers legitimately wonder if the results should be submitted for publication and to what journal. Clinical trials that report significant associations have a higher probability of publication, a phenomenon known as selective publication. The principal reasons of this selective publication include author self-censorship, peer-reviewing, trials not intended for publication, interpretation of the p value, cost of journal subscriptions, and policies. Subsequent reviews and meta-analyses are biased by the unavailability of nonsignificant results. Suggestions for preventing this risk include university training, trial registries, an international standard randomised controlled trial number (ISRCTN), Cochrane collaboration, and the gray literature. Journals (including electronic journals) interested in studies with nonsignificant results are listed. New technologies are changing the relations between publishers, libraries, authors and readers. PMID:17287106

  12. Relations for Direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PP and B {yields} PV decays

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, T. N.

    2006-01-12

    The presence of additional strong phase from power corrections and other chirally enhanced terms makes it more difficult to predict direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays. In this talk, I would like to report on a recent work on QCD Factorisation and Power Corrections in Charmless B Decays. Using the measured branching ratios for B {yields} PV, it is shown that power corrections in charmless B decays are probably large, at least for penguin dominated PV channels. Since the tree-penguin interference responsible for direct CP asymmetries in two-body charmless B decays are related by CKM factors and SU(3) symmetry, we find that, if power corrections other than the chirally enhanced power corrections and annihilation topology were negligible, QCD Factorisation would predict the direct CP asymmetry of B {yields} {pi}+{pi}- to be about 3 times larger than that of B {yields} {pi}{+-}K{+-}, with opposite sign, in agreement with the latest measurement from Belle. Similar relations are also given for direct CP asymmetries in B {yields} PV.

  13. Timing of single balloon enteroscopy: significant or not?

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kirbylee K.; Lipka, Seth; Davis-Yadley, Ashley H.; Rodriguez, Andrea C.; Doraiswamy, Vignesh; Rabbanifard, Roshanak; Kumar, Ambuj; Brady, Patrick G.

    2016-01-01

    were not significantly different between patients having the procedure within 24 hours and those having it later, the early SBE group required more interventional radiology procedures. While endoscopists may not necessarily have to perform emergent assessment within 24 hours in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) for greater diagnostic or therapeutic yield, early intervention may allow for earlier stabilization and thus shorter hospital stays. Prospective studies further evaluating these findings are indicated. PMID:27556093

  14. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.

    2015-10-01

    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  15. Improving photosynthetic efficiency for greater yield.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin-Guang; Long, Stephen P; Ort, Donald R

    2010-01-01

    Increasing the yield potential of the major food grain crops has contributed very significantly to a rising food supply over the past 50 years, which has until recently more than kept pace with rising global demand. Whereas improved photosynthetic efficiency has played only a minor role in the remarkable increases in productivity achieved in the last half century, further increases in yield potential will rely in large part on improved photosynthesis. Here we examine inefficiencies in photosynthetic energy transduction in crops from light interception to carbohydrate synthesis, and how classical breeding, systems biology, and synthetic biology are providing new opportunities to develop more productive germplasm. Near-term opportunities include improving the display of leaves in crop canopies to avoid light saturation of individual leaves and further investigation of a photorespiratory bypass that has already improved the productivity of model species. Longer-term opportunities include engineering into plants carboxylases that are better adapted to current and forthcoming CO(2) concentrations, and the use of modeling to guide molecular optimization of resource investment among the components of the photosynthetic apparatus, to maximize carbon gain without increasing crop inputs. Collectively, these changes have the potential to more than double the yield potential of our major crops. PMID:20192734

  16. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  17. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Two companies in Osaka, Japan. Subjects: 130 Japanese male workers selected randomly during their annual regular health check up and 116 Japanese male volunteers taking part in a smoking cessation programme. Main outcome measurements: Subjects answered a questionnaire about smoking habits. Following the interview, each participant was asked to smoke his own cigarette and, after extinguishing it, to blow expired air into an apparatus for measuring carbon monoxide concentration. Urine was also collected for the assays of nicotine metabolites. Results: We found wide variation in urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations at any given nicotine yield. Based on one way analysis of variance (ANOVA), the urinary nicotine metabolite concentrations of ultra low yield cigarette smokers were significantly lower compared to smokers of high (p = 0.002) and medium yield cigarettes (p = 0.017). On the other hand, the estimated nicotine intake per ultra low yield cigarette smoked (0.59 mg) was much higher than the 0.1 mg indicated by machine. Conclusions: In this study of Japanese male smokers, actual levels of nicotine intake bore little relation to advertised nicotine yield levels. Our study reinforces the need to warn consumers of inappropriate advertisements of nicotine yields, especially low yield brands. PMID:11891369

  18. Spirit, Too, Finds Hematite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These graphs, or spectra, shows evidence for the mineral hematite in the rock dubbed 'Pot of Gold,' located at Gusev Crater. The data was taken from the surface of the rock with the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Moessbauer spectrometer on sols 161 and 163 (June 16 and 18, 2004). The top red line is the spectrum for Pot of Gold, and the bottom blue line is for a typical basaltic, or volcanic, rock in Gusev Crater. The two large peaks in the center represent non-hematite, iron-containing minerals, while the smaller set of six peaks (two are hidden in the larger peaks) in the top spectrum is the signature of hematite. Hematite, which is found on Earth, can be formed in three different ways: in standing water; in small amounts of hot fluids (hydrothermal processes); and in volcanic rock. Scientists are planning further observations of this and other rocks in the area, which they hope will yield more insight into the hematite's origins.

  19. Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Nathaniel D; Gerber, James S; Johnston, Matt; Ray, Deepak K; Ramankutty, Navin; Foley, Jonathan A

    2012-10-11

    In the coming decades, a crucial challenge for humanity will be meeting future food demands without undermining further the integrity of the Earth's environmental systems. Agricultural systems are already major forces of global environmental degradation, but population growth and increasing consumption of calorie- and meat-intensive diets are expected to roughly double human food demand by 2050 (ref. 3). Responding to these pressures, there is increasing focus on 'sustainable intensification' as a means to increase yields on underperforming landscapes while simultaneously decreasing the environmental impacts of agricultural systems. However, it is unclear what such efforts might entail for the future of global agricultural landscapes. Here we present a global-scale assessment of intensification prospects from closing 'yield gaps' (differences between observed yields and those attainable in a given region), the spatial patterns of agricultural management practices and yield limitation, and the management changes that may be necessary to achieve increased yields. We find that global yield variability is heavily controlled by fertilizer use, irrigation and climate. Large production increases (45% to 70% for most crops) are possible from closing yield gaps to 100% of attainable yields, and the changes to management practices that are needed to close yield gaps vary considerably by region and current intensity. Furthermore, we find that there are large opportunities to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture by eliminating nutrient overuse, while still allowing an approximately 30% increase in production of major cereals (maize, wheat and rice). Meeting the food security and sustainability challenges of the coming decades is possible, but will require considerable changes in nutrient and water management.

  20. Analysis of the trade-off between high crop yield and low yield instability at the global scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2016-10-01

    Yield dynamics of major crops species vary remarkably among continents. Worldwide distribution of cropland influences both the expected levels and the interannual variability of global yields. An expansion of cultivated land in the most productive areas could theoretically increase global production, but also increase global yield instability if the most productive regions are characterized by high interannual yield variability. In this letter, we use portfolio analysis to quantify the tradeoff between the expected values and the interannual variance of global yield. We compute optimal frontiers for four crop species i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat and show how the distribution of cropland among large world regions can be optimized to either increase expected global crop production or decrease its interannual variability. We also show that a preferential allocation of cropland in the most productive regions can increase global expected yield at the expense of yield stability. Theoretically, optimizing the distribution of a small fraction of total cultivated areas can help find a good compromise between low instability and high crop yields at the global scale.

  1. Sonographic Findings of Hydropneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nations, Joel Anthony; Smith, Patrick; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being used in examination of the thorax. The sonographic features of normal aerated lung, abnormal lung, pneumothorax, and intrapleural fluid have been published. The sonographic features of uncommon intrathoracic syndromes are less known. Hydropneumothorax is an uncommon process in which the thoracic cavity contains both intrapleural air and water. Few published examples of the sonographic findings in hydropneumothorax exist. We present 3 illustrative cases of the sonographic features of hydropneumothorax with comparative imaging and a literature review of the topic. PMID:27556194

  2. Finding the Biotic Fringe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shock, E.

    2014-12-01

    The deepest extent of inhabited rock, known as the biotic fringe, is determined by the interplay of geochemical and biochemical reaction rates. As a consequence it is unlikely that a single parameter, such as temperature, will be generally diagnostic. More probably, shifting combinations of compositional factors, together with temperature and pressure changes, will determine the position and dynamic movements of the biotic fringe. As an example, during serpentinization the biotic fringe may be determined by the depletion of carbon through carbonate precipitation or abiotic organic synthesis at mineral surfaces at temperatures and pressures that are readily inhabited elsewhere. During other weathering, diagenetic and alteration processes, the transition from sterile to populated may be determined by supply rates of reductants, oxidants, nutrients, or their diverse combinations. Where geochemical composition and mineral catalysts permit rapid abiotic organic synthesis and redox equilibration, microbes are unlikely to be able to compete. This is especially true if such conditions inhibit the function of enzymatic catalysts. As abiotic rates slow, opportunities for catalysis emerge as can the biotic fringe where enzymes can function effectively. There are many ways to turn this conceptual model into one that makes quantitative predictions. Rates of many abiotic redox and organic synthesis reactions are amenable to experimental study, and parallel biotic rate experiments yield particularly useful results. Likewise, determining how enzymes are inactivated at the limits of their function will add explicit biochemical constraints. Exploring for the biotic fringe in the subsurface involves using compositional data to evaluate apparent temperatures of equilibration that reveal anomalous approaches to redox equilibrium at conditions where abiotic rates are insufficient. Meanwhile, sampling the inhabitants of the biotic fringe will reveal surprising extents of enzyme behavior.

  3. Fungi producing significant mycotoxins.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of microfungi that are known to cause sickness or death in humans or animals. Although many such toxic metabolites are known, it is generally agreed that only a few are significant in causing disease: aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, and ergot alkaloids. These toxins are produced by just a few species from the common genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps. All Aspergillus and Penicillium species either are commensals, growing in crops without obvious signs of pathogenicity, or invade crops after harvest and produce toxins during drying and storage. In contrast, the important Fusarium and Claviceps species infect crops before harvest. The most important Aspergillus species, occurring in warmer climates, are A. flavus and A. parasiticus, which produce aflatoxins in maize, groundnuts, tree nuts, and, less frequently, other commodities. The main ochratoxin A producers, A. ochraceus and A. carbonarius, commonly occur in grapes, dried vine fruits, wine, and coffee. Penicillium verrucosum also produces ochratoxin A but occurs only in cool temperate climates, where it infects small grains. F. verticillioides is ubiquitous in maize, with an endophytic nature, and produces fumonisins, which are generally more prevalent when crops are under drought stress or suffer excessive insect damage. It has recently been shown that Aspergillus niger also produces fumonisins, and several commodities may be affected. F. graminearum, which is the major producer of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone, is pathogenic on maize, wheat, and barley and produces these toxins whenever it infects these grains before harvest. Also included is a short section on Claviceps purpurea, which produces sclerotia among the seeds in grasses, including wheat, barley, and triticale. The main thrust of the chapter contains information on the identification of these fungi and their morphological characteristics, as well as factors

  4. [Empirical findings with arson offenders].

    PubMed

    Rechlin, T; Weis, M

    1992-11-01

    Forensic, psychological and psychopathological findings on 40 arsonists, who were investigated in our psychiatric department between 1980 and 1990, are presented. The findings indicate that arsonists represent a diagnostically heterogeneous group of offenders. On the other hand, some common psychodynamic patterns can be seen; in particular, a high degree of suicidal and autoaggressive behaviour. As reported by other authors, arsonists appear to suffer from a disorder of impulse control. A historical review illustrates that since the mid-19th century a purely psychopathological model of pyromania has been found unsatisfactory, and suggests that psychodynamic aspects should not be over-emphasized. Analysis of the different motivation and abnormalities of arsonists could render the term pyromania obsolete. This requires however a radical reappraisal of the significance of psychiatric diagnosis within an anthropological framework.

  5. Yield impacting systematic defects search and management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Xu, Qingxiu; Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Xing; Ning, Jay; Cheng, Guojie; Chen, Shijie; Zhang, Gary; Vikram, Abhishek; Su, Bo

    2012-03-01

    Despite great effort before design tapeout, there are still some pattern related systematic defects showing up in production, which impact product yield. Through various check points in the production life cycle endeavor is made to detect these defective patterns. It is seen that apart from the known defective patterns, slight variations of polygon sizes and shapes in the known defective patterns also cause yield loss. This complexity is further compounded when interactions among multiple process layers causes the defect. Normally the exact pattern matching techniques cannot detect these variations of the defective patterns. With the currently existing tools in the fab it is a challenge to define the 'sensitive patterns', which are arbitrary variations in the known 'defective patterns'. A design based approach has been successfully experimented on product wafers to detect yield impacting defects that greatly reduces the TAT for hotspot analysis and also provides optimized care area definition to enable high sensitivity wafer inspection. A novel Rule based pattern search technique developed by Anchor Semiconductor has been used to find sensitive patterns in the full chip design. This technique allows GUI based pattern search rule generation like, edge move or edge-to-edge distance range, so that any variations of a particular sensitive pattern can be captured and flagged. Especially the pattern rules involving multiple process layers, like M1-V1-M2, can be defined easily using this technique. Apart from using this novel pattern search technique, design signatures are also extracted around the defect locations in the wafer and used in defect classification. This enhanced defect classification greatly helps in determining most critical defects among the total defect population. The effectiveness of this technique has been established through design to defect correlation and SEM verification. In this paper we will report details of the design based experiments that

  6. Finding an Eye Care Professional

    MedlinePlus

    ... Information > Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional Finding an Eye Care Professional PDF* The National Eye Institute does not provide referrals or recommend specific ...

  7. Agricultural management practices to sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities.

    PubMed

    Sainju, Upendra M; Whitehead, Wayne F; Singh, Bharat P

    2003-08-20

    In the past several decades, agricultural management practices consisting of intensive tillage and high rate of fertilization to improve crop yields have resulted in the degradation of soil and environmental qualities by increasing erosion and nutrient leaching in the groundwater and releasing greenhouses gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrous oxide (N2O), that cause global warming in the atmosphere by oxidation of soil organic matter. Consequently, management practices that sustain crop yields and improve soil and environmental qualities are needed. This paper reviews the findings of the effects of tillage practices, cover crops, and nitrogen (N) fertilization rates on crop yields, soil organic carbon (C) and N concentrations, and nitrate (NO3)-N leaching from the soil. Studies indicate that conservation tillage, such as no-till or reduced till, can increase soil organic C and N concentrations at 0- to 20-cm depth by as much as 7-17% in 8 years compared with conventional tillage without significantly altering crop yields. Similarly, cover cropping and 80-180 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) fertilization can increase soil organic C and N concentrations by as much as 4-12% compared with no cover cropping or N fertilization by increasing plant biomass and amount of C and N inputs to the soil. Reduced till, cover cropping, and decreased rate of N fertilization can reduce soil N leaching compared with conventional till, no cover cropping, and full rate of N fertilization. Management practices consisting of combinations of conservation tillage, mixture of legume and nonlegume cover crops, and reduced rate of N fertilization have the potentials for sustaining crop yields, increasing soil C and N storage, and reducing soil N leaching, thereby helping to improve soil and water qualities. Economical and social analyses of such practices are needed to find whether they are cost effective and acceptable to the farmers.

  8. Science Yield Modeling with EXOSIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Daniel; Savransky, Dmitry

    2016-01-01

    Accurately modeling science yield of an exoplanet direct imaging mission to build confidence in the achievement of science goals can be almost as complicated as designing the mission itself. It is challenging to compare science simulation results and systematically test the effects of changing instrument or mission designs. EXOSIMS (Exoplanet Open-Source Imaging Mission Simulator) addresses this by generating ensembles of mission simulations for exoplanet direct imaging missions to estimate distributions of science yield. EXOSIMS consists of stand-alone modules written in Python which may be individually modified without requiring modifications to the code elsewhere. This structure allows for user driven systemic exploration of the effects of changing designs on the estimated science yield.The modules of EXOSIMS are classified as either input or simulation modules. Input modules contain specific mission design parameters and functions. These include Planet Population, Star Catalog, Optical System, Zodiacal Light, Planet Physical Model, Observatory, Time Keeping, and Post-Processing. Simulation modules perform tasks requiring input from one or more input modules as well as calling functions from other simulation modules. These include Completeness, Target List, Simulated Universe, Survey Simulation, and Survey Ensemble. The required parameters and functionality of each of these modules is defined in the documentation for EXOSIMS.EXOSIMS is available to the public at https://github.com/dsavransky/EXOSIMS. Included in the documentation is an interface control document which defines the required inputs and outputs to each input and simulation module. Future development of EXOSIMS is intended to be community-driven. Mission planners and instrument designers may quickly write their own modules, following the guidelines in the interface control document, and drop them directly into the code without making additional modifications elsewhere. It is expected that EXOSIMS

  9. The Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}*, Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* triangle diagrams and the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}, Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays

    SciTech Connect

    Achasov, N. N.

    2011-03-15

    The approach to the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decay study is presented in detail, based on the sum rules for the Z {yields} cc-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* and Z {yields} bb-bar {yields} {gamma}{gamma}* amplitudes and their derivatives. The branching ratios of the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are calculated for different hypotheses on saturation of the sum rules. The lower bounds of {Sigma}{sub {psi}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}{psi}) = 1.95 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} and {Sigma}{sub {upsilon}} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y) = 7.23 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} are found. Deviations from the lower bounds are discussed, including the possibility of BR(Z {yields} {gamma}J/{psi}(1S)) {approx} BR(Z {yields} {gamma}Y(1S)) {approx} 10{sup -6}, that could be probably measured in LHC. The angular distributions in the Z {yields} {gamma}{psi} and Z {yields} {gamma}Y decays are also calculated.

  10. Determining yields in high solids enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Jan B; Felby, Claus; Jørgensen, Henning

    2009-05-01

    As technologies for utilizing biomass for fuel and chemical production continue to improve, enzymatic hydrolysis can be run at still higher solids concentrations. For hydrolyses that initially contain little or no free water (10-40% total solids, w/w), the saccharification of insoluble polymers into soluble sugars involves changes of volume, density, and proportion of insoluble solids. This poses a new challenge when determining the degree of hydrolysis (conversion yield). Experiments have shown that calculating the yield from the resulting sugar concentration in the supernatant of the slurry and using the assumed initial volume leads to significant overestimations of the yield. By measuring the proportion of insoluble solids in the slurry as well as the sugar concentration and specific gravity of the aqueous phase, it is possible to precisely calculate the degree of conversion. The discrepancies between the different ways of calculating yields are demonstrated along with a nonlaborious method for approximating yields in high solids hydrolysis. PMID:18836690

  11. Down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase activity in wheat endosperm increases vegetative biomass and yield.

    PubMed

    Ral, Jean-Philippe; Bowerman, Andrew F; Li, Zhongyi; Sirault, Xavier; Furbank, Robert; Pritchard, Jenifer R; Bloemsma, Marianne; Cavanagh, Colin R; Howitt, Crispin A; Morell, Matthew K

    2012-09-01

    A novel mechanism for increasing vegetative biomass and grain yield has been identified in wheat (Triticum aestivum). RNAi-mediated down-regulation of Glucan, Water-Dikinase (GWD), the primary enzyme required for starch phosphorylation, under the control of an endosperm-specific promoter, resulted in a decrease in starch phosphate content and an increase in grain size. Unexpectedly, consistent increases in vegetative biomass and grain yield were observed in subsequent generations. In lines where GWD expression was decreased, germination rate was slightly reduced. However, significant increases in vegetative growth from the two leaf stage were observed. In glasshouse pot trials, down-regulation of GWD led to a 29% increase in grain yield while in glasshouse tub trials simulating field row spacing and canopy development, GWD down-regulation resulted in a grain yield increase of 26%. The enhanced yield resulted from a combination of increases in seed weight, tiller number, spikelets per head and seed number per spike. In field trials, all vegetative phenotypes were reproduced with the exception of increased tiller number. The expression of the transgene and suppression of endogenous GWD RNA levels were demonstrated to be grain specific. In addition to the direct effects of GWD down-regulation, an increased level of α-amylase activity was present in the aleurone layer during grain maturation. These findings provide a potentially important novel mechanism to increase biomass and grain yield in crop improvement programmes.

  12. Electrocardiographic findings in pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Boey, Elaine; Teo, Swee-Guan; Poh, Kian-Keong

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) poses a challenge to physicians, as it can be difficult to diagnose but results in significant mortality and morbidity in patients. Diagnosing PE requires an integrated approach using clinical findings, electrocardiography (ECG), blood investigations and imaging modalities. Abnormalities in ECG are common among patients with massive acute PE and can serve as a prognostic indicator. In this article, we describe the ECG presentations of two patients diagnosed with PE, and review the literature on the various types of ECG presentations and their role in predicting the prognosis of PE.

  13. Crop Diversity for Yield Increase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengyun; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Shusheng; Zhou, Huiping; Wang, Yunyue; Li, Yan; Yang, Jing; Fan, Jinxiang; Yang, Jincheng; Wang, Guibin; Long, Yunfu; Xu, Jiayou; Tang, Yongsheng; Zhao, Gaohui; Yang, Jianrong; Liu, Lin; Sun, Yan; Xie, Yong; Wang, Haining; Zhu, Youyong

    2009-01-01

    Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean – either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER) of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand. PMID:19956624

  14. Achieving yield gains in wheat.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Matthew; Foulkes, John; Furbank, Robert; Griffiths, Simon; King, Julie; Murchie, Erik; Parry, Martin; Slafer, Gustavo

    2012-10-01

    Wheat provides 20% of calories and protein consumed by humans. Recent genetic gains are <1% per annum (p.a.), insufficient to meet future demand. The Wheat Yield Consortium brings expertise in photosynthesis, crop adaptation and genetics to a common breeding platform. Theory suggest radiation use efficiency (RUE) of wheat could be increased ~50%; strategies include modifying specificity, catalytic rate and regulation of Rubisco, up-regulating Calvin cycle enzymes, introducing chloroplast CO(2) concentrating mechanisms, optimizing light and N distribution of canopies while minimizing photoinhibition, and increasing spike photosynthesis. Maximum yield expression will also require dynamic optimization of source: sink so that dry matter partitioning to reproductive structures is not at the cost of the roots, stems and leaves needed to maintain physiological and structural integrity. Crop development should favour spike fertility to maximize harvest index so phenology must be tailored to different photoperiods, and sensitivity to unpredictable weather must be modulated to reduce conservative responses that reduce harvest index. Strategic crossing of complementary physiological traits will be augmented with wide crossing, while genome-wide selection and high throughput phenotyping and genotyping will increase efficiency of progeny screening. To ensure investment in breeding achieves agronomic impact, sustainable crop management must also be promoted through crop improvement networks.

  15. Regressions by leaps and bounds and biased estimation techniques in yield modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was observed that OLS was not adequate as an estimation procedure when the independent or regressor variables were involved in multicollinearities. This was shown to cause the presence of small eigenvalues of the extended correlation matrix A'A. It was demonstrated that the biased estimation techniques and the all-possible subset regression could help in finding a suitable model for predicting yield. Latent root regression was an excellent tool that found how many predictive and nonpredictive multicollinearities there were.

  16. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  17. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    PubMed Central

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  18. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    PubMed

    Gaudin, Amélie C M; Tolhurst, Tor N; Ker, Alan P; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  19. An evolutionary yield function based on Barlat 2000 yield function for the superconducting niobium sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Darbandi, Payam; Pourboghrat, Farhang

    2011-08-22

    Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) niobium cavities are widely used in high-energy physics to accelerate particle beams in particle accelerators. The performance of SRF cavities is affected by the microstructure and purity of the niobium sheet, surface quality, geometry, etc. Following optimum strain paths in the forming of these cavities can significantly control these parameters. To select these strain paths, however, information about the mechanical behavior, microstructure, and formability of the niobium sheet is required. In this study the Barlat 2000 yield function has been used as a yield function for high purity niobium. Results from this study showed that, due to intrinsic behavior, it is necessary to evolve the anisotropic coefficients of Barlat's yield function in order to properly model the plastic behavior of the niobium sheet. The accuracy of the newly developed evolutionary yield function was verified by applying it to the modeling of the hydrostatic bulging of the niobium sheet. Also, in a separate attempt crystal plasticity finite element method was use to model the behavior of the polycrystalline niobium sheet with a particular initial texture.

  20. Observed secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and organic nitrate yields from NO3 oxidation of isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollins, A. W.; Fry, J. L.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Brown, S. S.; Fuchs, H.; Dube, W.; Mensah, A.; Tillmann, R.; Dorn, H.; Brauers, T.; Cohen, R. C.

    2008-12-01

    Formation of organic nitrates and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from the NO3 oxidation of isoprene has been studied at atmospheric concentrations of VOC (10 ppb) and oxidant (<100 ppt NO3) in the presence of ammonium sulfate seed aerosol in the atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR at Forschungszentrum Jülich. Cavity Ringdown (CaRDS) and thermal dissociation - CaRDS measurements of NO3 and N2O5 as well as Thermal Dissociation - Laser Induced Fluorescence (TD-LIF) detection of alkyl nitrates (RONO2) and Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) measurements of aerosol composition were all used in comparison to a Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM) based chemical kinetics box model to quantify the product yields from two stages in isoprene oxidation. We find significant yields of organic nitrate formation from both the initial isoprene + NO3 reaction (71%) as well as from the reaction of NO3 with the initial oxidation products (30% - 60%). Under these low concentration conditions (~1 μg / m3), measured SOA production was greater than instrument noise only for the second oxidation step. Based on the modeled chemistry, we estimate an SOA mass yield of 10% (relative to isoprene mass reacted) for the reaction of the initial oxidation products with NO3. This yield is found to be consistent with the estimated saturation concentration (C*) of the presumed gas products of the doubly oxidized isoprene, where both oxidations lead to the addition of nitrate, carbonyl, and hydroxyl groups.

  1. Search for new physics in B{yields}D*{tau}nu-bar {sub {tau}} decay

    SciTech Connect

    Fajfer, Svjetlana; Kamenik, Jernej F.; Nisandzic, Ivan

    2012-10-23

    B physics offers important tests of the Standard Model at low energies. Recently, BaBar observed significant deviations from the Standard Model expectations in the semileptonic B{yields}D{sup (*)}{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} decays. Interestingly, the measured leptonic B{yields}{tau}{nu} branching fraction also deviates from CKM unitarity predictions. Motivated by these results we investigate the most general set of lowest dimensional effective operators leading to modifications of b{yields}c(u) (semi)tauonic transitions. Allowing for general flavor violation, we find that among possible operator structures, new contributions from right-right vector and right-left scalar quark currents provide viable explanations of the anomalies. In addition, we identify a number of B{yields}D*{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} transition observables with the power to discriminate among the various effective operators' contributions. They are the differential decay rate, longitudinal D* polarization fraction, D*-{tau} opening angle asymmetry and the {tau} helicity asymmetry.

  2. Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change.

    PubMed

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Roberts, Michael J

    2009-09-15

    The United States produces 41% of the world's corn and 38% of the world's soybeans. These crops comprise two of the four largest sources of caloric energy produced and are thus critical for world food supply. We pair a panel of county-level yields for these two crops, plus cotton (a warmer-weather crop), with a new fine-scale weather dataset that incorporates the whole distribution of temperatures within each day and across all days in the growing season. We find that yields increase with temperature up to 29 degrees C for corn, 30 degrees C for soybeans, and 32 degrees C for cotton but that temperatures above these thresholds are very harmful. The slope of the decline above the optimum is significantly steeper than the incline below it. The same nonlinear and asymmetric relationship is found when we isolate either time-series or cross-sectional variations in temperatures and yields. This suggests limited historical adaptation of seed varieties or management practices to warmer temperatures because the cross-section includes farmers' adaptations to warmer climates and the time-series does not. Holding current growing regions fixed, area-weighted average yields are predicted to decrease by 30-46% before the end of the century under the slowest (B1) warming scenario and decrease by 63-82% under the most rapid warming scenario (A1FI) under the Hadley III model. PMID:19717432

  3. Nonlinear temperature effects indicate severe damages to U.S. crop yields under climate change

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Wolfram; Roberts, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States produces 41% of the world's corn and 38% of the world's soybeans. These crops comprise two of the four largest sources of caloric energy produced and are thus critical for world food supply. We pair a panel of county-level yields for these two crops, plus cotton (a warmer-weather crop), with a new fine-scale weather dataset that incorporates the whole distribution of temperatures within each day and across all days in the growing season. We find that yields increase with temperature up to 29° C for corn, 30° C for soybeans, and 32° C for cotton but that temperatures above these thresholds are very harmful. The slope of the decline above the optimum is significantly steeper than the incline below it. The same nonlinear and asymmetric relationship is found when we isolate either time-series or cross-sectional variations in temperatures and yields. This suggests limited historical adaptation of seed varieties or management practices to warmer temperatures because the cross-section includes farmers' adaptations to warmer climates and the time-series does not. Holding current growing regions fixed, area-weighted average yields are predicted to decrease by 30–46% before the end of the century under the slowest (B1) warming scenario and decrease by 63–82% under the most rapid warming scenario (A1FI) under the Hadley III model. PMID:19717432

  4. Exact significance test for Markov order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pethel, S. D.; Hahs, D. W.

    2014-02-01

    We describe an exact significance test of the null hypothesis that a Markov chain is nth order. The procedure utilizes surrogate data to yield an exact test statistic distribution valid for any sample size. Surrogate data are generated using a novel algorithm that guarantees, per shot, a uniform sampling from the set of sequences that exactly match the nth order properties of the observed data. Using the test, the Markov order of Tel Aviv rainfall data is examined.

  5. Multiple exciton generation in nano-crystals revisited: consistent calculation of the yield based on pump-probe spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Karki, Khadga J; Ma, Fei; Zheng, Kaibo; Zidek, Karel; Mousa, Abdelrazek; Abdellah, Mohamed A; Messing, Maria E; Wallenberg, L Reine; Yartsev, Arkadi; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2013-01-01

    Multiple exciton generation (MEG) is a process in which more than one exciton is generated upon the absorption of a high energy photon, typically higher than two times the band gap, in semiconductor nanocrystals. It can be observed experimentally using time resolved spectroscopy such as the transient absorption measurements. Quantification of the MEG yield is usually done by assuming that the bi-exciton signal is twice the signal from a single exciton. Herein we show that this assumption is not always justified and may lead to significant errors in the estimated MEG yields. We develop a methodology to determine proper scaling factors to the signals from the transient absorption experiments. Using the methodology we find modest MEG yields in lead chalcogenide nanocrystals including the nanorods.

  6. Optimization of microwave pretreatment conditions to maximize methane production and methane yield in mesophilic anaerobic sludge digestion.

    PubMed

    Park, W J; Ahn, J H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to find optimum microwave pretreatment conditions for methane production and methane yield in anaerobic sludge digestion. The sludge was pretreated using a laboratory-scale industrial microwave unit (2450 MHz frequency). Microwave temperature increase rate (TIR) (2.9-17.1 degrees C/min) and final temperature (FT) (52-108 degrees C) significantly affected solubilization, methane production, and methane yield. Solubilization degree (soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD)/total COD) in the pretreated sludge (3.3-14.7%) was clearly higher than that in the raw sludge (2.6%). Within the design boundaries, the optimum conditions for maximum methane production (2.02 L/L) were TIR = 9.1 degrees C/min and FT = 90 degrees C, and the optimum conditions for maximum methane yield (809 mL/g VS(removed)) were TIR 7.1 degrees C/min and FT = 92 degrees C.

  7. Observation of B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} Decay at Belle

    SciTech Connect

    Matyja, A.; Rozanska, M.; Bozek, A.; Lesiak, T.; Natkaniec, Z.; Palka, H.; Adachi, I.; Brodzicka, J.; Haba, J.; Hazumi, M.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Katayama, N.; Kichimi, H.; Krokovny, P.; Nakamura, I.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Nozaki, T.; Ozaki, H.

    2007-11-09

    We report an observation of the decay B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}} in a data sample containing 535x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider. We find a signal with a significance of 5.2{sigma} and measure the branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}D*{sup -}{tau}{sup +}{nu}{sub {tau}})=(2.02{sub -0.37}{sup +0.40}(stat){+-}0.37(syst)) = %. This is the first observation of an exclusive B decay with a b{yields}c{tau}{nu}{sub {tau}} transition.

  8. Finding the patterns in mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Suzanne; Rozel, Antoine; Valentine, Andrew; Tackley, Paul; Trampert, Jeannot

    2016-04-01

    Inverting mantle flow for past configurations is one of the great outstanding problems in geodynamics. We demonstrate a new method for probabilistic inversion of present-day Earth observations for mantle properties and history. Convection is a non-linear and chaotic, thwarting most standard inversion methods. Because of its chaotic and unpredictable nature, small errors in initial conditions, parameter selection, and computational precision can all significantly change the results produced by mantle convection simulations. However, some patterns and statistics of convection contain the signature of the parameters used in the simulations over long time-scales. Geodynamical studies often vary these parameters to investigate their effects on the patterns produced. We show that with a large enough set of simulations, we can investigate the relationship between input parameters and convection patterns in a more rigorous way. Probabilistic inversion is the only way to approach highly non-linear problems. We use neural networks to represent the probability density function linking convection simulation input parameters and the patterns they produce. This allows us to find input parameters, whilst taking into account all of the uncertainties that are inherent in the inversion of any Earth system: how well do we understand the physics of the process; what do we already know about the input parameters; and how certain are our observations? We show that the mantle structures produced by 4.5 Gyr of convection simulations contain enough information on yield stress, viscosity coefficients, mantle heating rate, and the initial state of primordial material that we can infer them directly without requiring any other information, such as plate velocity.

  9. Hydrostatic Stress Effect On the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2002-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has no effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of notched geometries. New experiments and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN 100) equal-arm bend and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions was performed. In all test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, which is independent of hydrostatic pressure, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains, the Drucker-Prager FEMs predicted loads that were 3% to 5% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEMs predicted strains that were 20% to 35% greater than the von Mises values. The Drucker-Prager yield function seems to more accurately predict the overall specimen response of geometries with significant internal hydrostatic stress influence.

  10. Finding a Niche

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Although I always knew I wanted to be a scientist, I didn't know I would become a cell biologist. Events in life that you would never have predicted can greatly impact your career trajectory. I have learned to let those events take me in new directions. Following a desire to investigate an understudied area of cell biology, I have found a niche. In this area, my lab is poised to contribute significantly toward understanding the fundamental molecular mechanisms underlying polarized plant cell growth. PMID:21079002

  11. Workplace abuse: finding solutions.

    PubMed

    Christmas, Kate

    2007-01-01

    The atmosphere within the work setting speaks volumes about your culture, and is often a primary factor in recruitment and retention (or turnover) of staff. Workplace tension and abuse are significant contributing factors as to why nurses are exiting workplaces--and even leaving the profession. Abuse can take many forms from inappropriate interpersonal communication to sexual harassment and even violence. Administrators should adopt a zero tolerance policy towards abusive communication. Addressing peer behavior is essential, but positive behavior must also be authentically modeled from the CNO and other nursing leaders. Raising awareness and holding individuals accountable for their behavior can lead to a safer and more harmonious work environment.

  12. Effects of irrigation moisture regimes on yield and quality of paprika ( Capsicum annuum L)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shongwe, Victor D.; Magongo, Bekani N.; Masarirambi, Michael T.; Manyatsi, Absalom M.

    Although paprika ( Capsicum annuum L) is not widely grown in Swaziland it is becoming increasingly popular as a spice and food colourant. It is a crop that requires irrigation at specific stages of growth as this affects not only the yield but most importantly the quality of the crop. Yield of paprika has been found to increase with relative increase in moisture whereas the quality of fruits has not followed the same trend. The objective of this study was to find the effect of varying irrigation water regimes on the yield and quality of paprika at uniform fertiliser levels. The study was carried out in the 2006/2007 cropping season at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland in a greenhouse. A randomised complete block design was used with four water treatments (0.40, 0.60, 0.80, and 1.00 × Field Capacity). Parameters measured included leaf number per plant, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, leaf width, leaf length, stem girth, dry mass, fresh mass, fruit length, and brix content. There were significant ( P < 0.05) increases in leaf number, plant height, chlorophyll content, canopy size, fresh and dry mass tops and fruit length at the highest moisture level (1.00 × FC) followed by the second highest regime (0.80 × FC) whilst the lower water regimes resulted in lower increases in each of the parameters. Leaf area index did not differ significantly across all treatments. In increasing order the treatments 0.80 × FC and 1.00 × FC gave higher yields but in decreasing order lower brix and thus subsequent lower paprika quality. It is recommended that growers who are aiming for optimum yield and high quality of paprika may use the 0.8 × FC treatment when irrigating.

  13. Correlation between biogas yield and chemical composition of energy crops.

    PubMed

    Dandikas, V; Heuwinkel, H; Lichti, F; Drewes, J E; Koch, K

    2014-12-01

    The scope of this study was to investigate the influence of the chemical composition of energy crops on biogas and methane yield. In total, 41 different plants were analyzed in batch test and their chemical composition was determined. For acid detergent lignin (ADL) content below 10% of total solids, a significant negative correlation for biogas and methane yields (r≈-0.90) was observed. Based on a simple regression analysis, more than 80% of the sample variation can be explained through ADL. Based on a principal component analysis and multiple regression analysis, ADL and hemicellulose are suggested as suitable model variables for biogas yield potential predictions across plant species. PMID:25443623

  14. Finding the Next Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

  15. Harvesting Technique Affects Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Yield

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi; Hubenak, Justin; Liu, Jun; Chang, Edward I.; Beahm, Elisabeth K.; Zhang, Qixu

    2015-01-01

    Background The success of an autologous fat graft depends in part on its total stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). However, variations in the yields of ASCs and SVF cells as a result of different harvesting techniques and donor sites are poorly understood. Objective To investigate the effects of adipose tissue harvesting technique and donor site on the yield of ASCs and SVF cells. Methods Subcutaneous fat tissues from the abdomen, flank, or axilla were harvested from patients of various ages by mechanical liposuction, direct surgical excision, or Coleman's technique with or without centrifugation. Cells were isolated and then analyzed with flow cytometry to determine the yields of total SVF cells and ASCs (CD11b−, CD45−, CD34+, CD90+, D7-FIB+). Differences in ASC and total SVF yields were assessed with one-way analysis of variance. Differentiation experiments were performed to confirm the multilineage potential of cultured SVF cells. Results Compared with Coleman's technique without centrifugation, direct excision yielded significantly more ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P = .007); liposuction yielded significantly fewer ASCs (P < .001) and total SVF cells (P < .05); and Coleman's technique with centrifugation yielded significantly more total SVF cells (P < .005), but not ASCs. The total number of SVF cells in fat harvested from the abdomen was significantly larger than the number in fat harvested from the flank or axilla (P < .05). Cultured SVF cells differentiated to adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Conclusions Adipose tissue harvested from the abdomen through direct excision or Coleman's technique with centrifugation was found to yield the most SVF cells and ASCs. PMID:25791999

  16. High Yielding Microbubble Production Method

    PubMed Central

    Fiabane, Joe; Prentice, Paul; Pancholi, Ketan

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidic approaches to microbubble production are generally disadvantaged by low yield and high susceptibility to (micro)channel blockages. This paper presents an alternative method of producing microbubbles of 2.6 μm mean diameter at concentrations in excess of 30 × 106 mL−1. In this method, the nitrogen gas flowing inside the liquid jet is disintegrated into spray of microbubble when air surrounding this coflowing nitrogen gas-liquid jet passes through a 100 μm orifice at high velocity. Resulting microbubble foam has the polydispersity index of 16%. Moreover, a ratio of mean microbubble diameter to channel width ratio was found to be less than 0.025, which substantially alleviates the occurrence of blockages during production. PMID:27034935

  17. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  18. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact: Western's Hoover Dam Bypass Project Phase II (Double-Circuiting a Portion of the Hoover-Mead No.5 and No.7 230-kV Transmission Lines with the Henderson-Mead No.1 230-kV Transmission Line, Clark County, Nevada)

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-10-27

    structures, conductors, and fiber optic cables. Project construction activities would be conducted within the existing 200-foot transmission line ROW and 50-foot access road ROW, although new spur access roads could occur outside of existing ROWs. As lead Federal agency for this action under National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Western must ensure that adverse environmental effects on Federal and non-Federal lands and resources are avoided or minimized. This Environmental Assessment (EA) is intended to be a concise public document that assesses the probable and known impacts to the environment from Western's Proposed Action and alternatives, and reaches a conclusion about the significance of the impacts. This EA was prepared in compliance with NEPA regulations published by the Council on Environmental Quality (40 CFR 1500-1508) and implementing procedures of the Department of Energy (10 CFR 1021).

  19. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  20. Significant Reading Experiences of Superior English Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Robert S.

    1964-01-01

    Superior high school students (975 finalists in the NCTE Achievement Awards Program) were surveyed to find what one book was most significant to each of them in their high school experiences, and the reason for the significance. In response to questionnaires, the students cited 416 different titles, 72% of which were novels. The top 10 books were…

  1. Ideotype population exploration: growth, photosynthesis, and yield components at different planting densities in winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×10(4), 37.5×10(4), 48.0×10(4), 58.5×10(4), 69.0×10(4) plants ha(-1)) during 2010-2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011-2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×10(4) plants ha(-1) in ZS11 and 48.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×10(4) plants ha(-1) for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×10(4) (n m(-2)) and ∼1×10(4) (n m(-2)), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m(-2)) and ∼300 (n m(-2)), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  2. Ideotype Population Exploration: Growth, Photosynthesis, and Yield Components at Different Planting Densities in Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ni; Yuan, Jinzhan; Li, Ming; Li, Jun; Zhang, Liyan; Liu, Lixin; Naeem, Muhammad Shahbaz; Zhang, Chunlei

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is one of the most important edible oil crops in the world and the seed yield has lagged behind the increasing demand driven by population growth. Winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is widely cultivated with relatively low yield in China, so it is necessary to find the strategies to improve the expression of yield potential. Planting density has great effects on seed yield of crops. Hence, field experiments were conducted in Wuhan in the Yangtze River basin with one conventional variety (Zhongshuang 11, ZS11) and one hybrid variety (Huayouza 9, HYZ9) at five planting densities (27.0×104, 37.5×104, 48.0×104, 58.5×104, 69.0×104 plants ha–1) during 2010–2012 to investigate the yield components. The physiological traits for high-yield and normal-yield populations were measured during 2011–2013. Our results indicated that planting densities of 58.5×104 plants ha–1 in ZS11 and 48.0×104 plants ha–1 in HYZ9 have significantly higher yield compared with the density of 27.0×104 plants ha–1for both varieties. The ideal silique numbers for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼0.9×104 (n m–2) and ∼1×104 (n m-2), respectively, and ideal primary branches for ZS11 and HYZ9 were ∼250 (n m–2) and ∼300 (n m–2), respectively. The highest leaf area index (LAI) and silique wall area index (SAI) was ∼5.0 and 7.0, respectively. Moreover, higher leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in the high-yield populations. A significantly higher level of silique wall photosynthesis and rapid dry matter accumulation were supposed to result in the maximum seed yield. Our results suggest that increasing the planting density within certain range is a feasible approach for higher seed yield in winter rapeseed in China. PMID:25517990

  3. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site.

  4. Switchgrass yield on reclaimed surface mines for bioenergy production.

    PubMed

    Marra, Michael; Keene, Travis; Skousen, Jeff; Griggs, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The high cost of transportation fuels and the environmental risks associated with acquiring and using nonrenewable energy sources have created a demand for developing renewable bioenergy crops. Switchgrass ( L.), a warm-season perennial grass, is a promising feedstock due to its high biomass production under a wide range of growing conditions and its satisfactory forage quality and chemical composition. West Virginia contains vast expanses of reclaimed surface mine lands that could be used to produce switchgrass as a bioenergy feedstock. This study determined dry matter yields of three switchgrass varieties (Cave-In-Rock, Shawnee, and Carthage) during the second to fourth years of production. Two research sites were established on reclaimed surface mines in southern West Virginia: Hobet and Hampshire. The Hobet site was prepared using crushed, unweathered sandstone as the soil material, and yields were significantly lower at 803 kg ha averaged across varieties and years than annual yields at Hampshire. The highest yield at Hobet, with Shawnee in the third year, was 1964 kg ha. The Hamphire site, which was reclaimed in the late 1990s using topsoil and treated municipal sludge, averaged 5760 kg ha of switchgrass across varieties and years. The highest yield, obtained with Cave-in-Rock during the third year, was 9222 kg ha. Switchgrass yields on agricultural lands in this region averaged 12,000 kg ha. Although average switchgrass yields at Hampshire were about 50% lower than agricultural lands, they were greater than a target yield of 5000 kg ha, a threshold for economically feasible production. Yields during the fourth year from a two-harvest per year system were not significantly different from a single, end-of-year harvest at both sites. Reclaimed lands show promise for growing bioenergy crops such as switchgrass on areas where topsoil materials are replaced and amended like that at the Hampshire site. PMID:23673936

  5. Well servicing industry finds

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.D

    1989-07-01

    The U.S. well servicing industry showed modest growth last year, continuing a slow recovery that started in 1987. Even with crude oil prices up significantly during the first half of 1989, the year looks destined to be a repeat of 1988 slow but steady growth. According to this annual well servicing survey, U.S. operators spent $2.6 billion for well servicing in 1988 compared with $2.1 billion in 1987, a slight increase of 12%. Expenditures peaked in 1981 at more than $4 billion before bottoming out in 1986 at $1.65 billion. Most well servicing categories included in the PEI survey were down last year from 1987 levels, even though expenditures were up. This anomaly resulted from the service and supply companies' ability to increase prices for their products and services, even though the market for these products and services failed to expand noticeably. Total 1988 well servicing activities covered in this survey recompletions, lift and tubular repairs, remedial stimulation, and abandonment were off compared with 1987, dropping 10% from 415,000 to 372,000 jobs.

  6. Topsoil Depth Effects on Crop Yields as Affected by Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Scott; Cruse, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Topsoil (A-horizon) depth is positively correlated with crop productivity; crop roots and available nutrients are concentrated in this layer; topsoil is critical for nutrient retention and water holding capacity. Its loss or reduction can be considered an irreversible impact of soil erosion. Climatic factors such as precipitation and temperature extremes that impose production stress further complicate the relationship between soil erosion and crop productivity. The primary research objective was to determine the effects of soil erosion on corn and soybean yields of loess and till-derived soils in the rain-fed farming region of Iowa. Data collection took place from 2007 to 2012 at seven farm sites located in different major soil regions. Collection consisted of 40 to 50 randomly selected georeferenced soil probe locations across varying erosion classes in well drained landscape positions. Soil probes were done to a minimum depth of 100 cm and soil organic carbon samples were obtained in the top 10 cm. Crop yields were determined utilizing georeferenced harvest maps from yield monitoring devices and cross referenced with georeferenced field data points. Data analysis targeted relationships between crop yields versus soil organic carbon contents (SOC) and crop yields versus topsoil depths (TSD). The variation of yield and growing season rainfall across multiple years were also evaluated to provide an indication of soil resiliency associated with topsoil depth and soil organic carbon levels across varying climatic conditions. Results varied between sites but generally indicated a greater yield potential at thicker TSD's and higher SOC concentrations; an annual variation in yield response as a function of precipitation amount during the growing season; largest yield responses to both TSD and SOC occurred in the driest study year (2012); and little to no significant yield responses to TSD occurred during the wettest study year (2010). These results were not

  7. Natural variation in photosynthetic capacity, growth, and yield in 64 field-grown wheat genotypes.

    PubMed

    Driever, S M; Lawson, T; Andralojc, P J; Raines, C A; Parry, M A J

    2014-09-01

    Increasing photosynthesis in wheat has been identified as an approach to enhance crop yield, with manipulation of key genes involved in electron transport and the Calvin cycle as one avenue currently being explored. However, natural variation in photosynthetic capacity is a currently unexploited genetic resource for potential crop improvement. Using gas-exchange analysis and protein analysis, the existing natural variation in photosynthetic capacity in a diverse panel of 64 elite wheat cultivars grown in the field was examined relative to growth traits, including biomass and harvest index. Significant variations in photosynthetic capacity, biomass, and yield were observed, although no consistent correlation was found between photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf and grain yield when all cultivars were compared. The majority of the variation in photosynthesis could be explained by components related to maximum capacity and operational rates of CO2 assimilation, and to CO2 diffusion. Cluster analysis revealed that cultivars may have been bred unintentionally for desirable traits at the expense of photosynthetic capacity. These findings suggest that there is significant underutilized photosynthetic capacity among existing wheat varieties. Our observations are discussed in the context of exploiting existing natural variation in physiological processes for the improvement of photosynthesis in wheat.

  8. Association mapping for yield and yield-contributing traits in barley under drought conditions with genome-based SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elwafa, Salah Fatouh

    2016-01-01

    Drought negatively affects plant development, growth, yield, and ultimately production of crop species. Association analysis of yield and yield-contributing traits was conducted for a barley germplasm collection consisting 107 wild (Hordeum spontaneum L.) genotypes, originating from 12 countries using 76 SSR markers. Phenotypic evaluations were performed for days to heading, plant height, number of tillers/plant, spike length, thousand kernel weight, single plant yield under well-watered and drought-stress conditions. Highly significant differences between well-watered and drought-stress conditions were observed in all measured traits. Association analysis revealed a total of 83 significant marker-trait associations for all six measured traits. The results revealed that several chromosomal regions significantly influence more than one trait, suggesting a possible existence of pleiotropic or indirect effects. The phenotypic variation explained by individual marker-trait associations ranged from 5.08 to 27.84%. The results demonstrated that wild barley is a valuable source for improving yield and yield-contributing traits for drought tolerance. Our data provide a tool kit for the potential application of marker-assisted selection for drought tolerance in barley.

  9. Finding and Not Finding Rat Perirhinal Neuronal Responses to Novelty

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Robert U.; Brown, Malcolm W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT There is much evidence that the perirhinal cortex of both rats and monkeys is important for judging the relative familiarity of visual stimuli. In monkeys many studies have found that a proportion of perirhinal neurons respond more to novel than familiar stimuli. There are fewer studies of perirhinal neuronal responses in rats, and those studies based on exploration of objects, have raised into question the encoding of stimulus familiarity by rat perirhinal neurons. For this reason, recordings of single neuronal activity were made from the perirhinal cortex of rats so as to compare responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli in two different behavioral situations. The first situation was based upon that used in “paired viewing” experiments that have established rat perirhinal differences in immediate early gene expression for novel and familiar visual stimuli displayed on computer monitors. The second situation was similar to that used in the spontaneous object recognition test that has been widely used to establish the involvement of rat perirhinal cortex in familiarity discrimination. In the first condition 30 (25%) of 120 perirhinal neurons were visually responsive; of these responsive neurons 19 (63%) responded significantly differently to novel and familiar stimuli. In the second condition eight (53%) of 15 perirhinal neurons changed activity significantly in the vicinity of objects (had “object fields”); however, for none (0%) of these was there a significant activity change related to the familiarity of an object, an incidence significantly lower than for the first condition. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. It is argued that the failure to find recognition‐related neuronal responses while exploring objects is related to its detectability by the measures used, rather than the absence of all such signals in perirhinal cortex. Indeed, as shown by the results, such signals are found when a different methodology is used.

  10. Finding and Not Finding Rat Perirhinal Neuronal Responses to Novelty.

    PubMed

    von Linstow Roloff, Eva; Muller, Robert U; Brown, Malcolm W

    2016-08-01

    There is much evidence that the perirhinal cortex of both rats and monkeys is important for judging the relative familiarity of visual stimuli. In monkeys many studies have found that a proportion of perirhinal neurons respond more to novel than familiar stimuli. There are fewer studies of perirhinal neuronal responses in rats, and those studies based on exploration of objects, have raised into question the encoding of stimulus familiarity by rat perirhinal neurons. For this reason, recordings of single neuronal activity were made from the perirhinal cortex of rats so as to compare responsiveness to novel and familiar stimuli in two different behavioral situations. The first situation was based upon that used in "paired viewing" experiments that have established rat perirhinal differences in immediate early gene expression for novel and familiar visual stimuli displayed on computer monitors. The second situation was similar to that used in the spontaneous object recognition test that has been widely used to establish the involvement of rat perirhinal cortex in familiarity discrimination. In the first condition 30 (25%) of 120 perirhinal neurons were visually responsive; of these responsive neurons 19 (63%) responded significantly differently to novel and familiar stimuli. In the second condition eight (53%) of 15 perirhinal neurons changed activity significantly in the vicinity of objects (had "object fields"); however, for none (0%) of these was there a significant activity change related to the familiarity of an object, an incidence significantly lower than for the first condition. Possible reasons for the difference are discussed. It is argued that the failure to find recognition-related neuronal responses while exploring objects is related to its detectability by the measures used, rather than the absence of all such signals in perirhinal cortex. Indeed, as shown by the results, such signals are found when a different methodology is used. © 2016 The Authors

  11. Yield and yield gaps in central U.S. corn production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The magnitude of yield gaps (YG) (potential yield – farmer yield) provides some indication of the prospects for increasing crop yield. Quantile regression analysis was applied to county maize (Zea mays L.) yields (1972 – 2011) from Kentucky, Iowa and Nebraska (irrigated) (total of 115 counties) to e...

  12. Cosmic Ray Albedo Proton Yield Correlated with Lunar Elemental Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Blake, J. B.; Golightly, M. J.; Kasper, J. C.; Looper, M. D.; Mazur, J. E.; Schwadron, N. A.; Townsend, L. W.; Zeitlin, C. J.

    2012-12-01

    High energy cosmic rays constantly bombard the lunar regolith, producing secondary "albedo" or "splash" particles like protons and neutrons, some of which escape back to space. Two lunar missions, Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), have shown that the energy distribution of albedo neutrons is modulated by the elemental composition of the lunar regolith[1-4], with reduced neutron fluxes near the lunar poles being the result of collisions with hydrogen nuclei in ice deposits[5] in permanently shadowed craters. Here we investigate an analogous phenomenon with high energy (~100 MeV) lunar albedo protons. LRO has been observing the surface and environment of the Moon since June of 2009. The CRaTER instrument (Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation) on LRO is designed to characterize the lunar radiation environment and its effects on simulated human tissue. CRaTER's multiple solid-state detectors can discriminate the different elements in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) population above ~10 MeV/nucleon, and can also distinguish between primary GCR protons arriving from deep space and albedo particles propagating up from the lunar surface. We use albedo protons with energies greater than 60 MeV to construct a cosmic ray albedo proton map of the Moon. The yield of albedo protons is proportional to the rate of lunar proton detections divided by the rate of incoming GCR detections. The map accounts for time variation in the albedo particles driven by time variations in the primary GCR population, thus revealing any true spatial variation of the albedo proton yield. Our current map is a significant improvement over the proof-of-concept map of Wilson et al.[6]. In addition to including twelve more months of CRaTER data here, we use more numerous minimum ionizing GCR protons for normalization, and we make use of all six of CRaTER's detectors to reduce contamination from spurious non-proton events in the data stream. We find find that the flux

  13. [Cardiological findings in acromegaly].

    PubMed

    Ferramosca, B; Bianchi, D; Serra, D; Savini, R; Villecco, A S; Bugiardini, R

    1987-12-31

    Acromegaly involves cardiovascular complications mostly due to the presence of hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However the appearance of cardiac decompensation and arrhythmias in the absence of predisposing factors tends to support the hypothesis of a specific myocardiopathy caused by excess GH. In order to assess the existence and course of subclinical cardiac alterations, 8 acromegaly patients were examined: 4 males and 4 females aged 31-56 with GH levels of 24-70 ng/ml (M + CD X 47 +/- 16) and no cardiovascular symptoms. One of the patients had moderate hypertension and 2 reduced glucose tolerance. The basal ECG showed sporadic ventricular extrasystoles in 2 cases and alterations compatible with left ventricular hypertrophy in another, while the effort ECG produced an asymptomatic depression of the ST segment in the hypertensive patient. The chest X-ray was normal in all cases. The echocardiography study investigated: the thickness of the interventricular septum (IVS = 13.9 +/- 2.8 mm), the thickness of the posterior wall of the left ventricle (LPW = 10.6 +/- 2.9 mm), the septum/posterior wall ratio (IVS/LPW = 1.3 +/- 0.2 the diastolic diameter (DD = 15.4 +/- 11.4 mm), the fraction of shortening (FS = 39.1 +/- 14.5%), the ejection fraction (EF = 64.1 +/- 18.4%) and revealed asymmetrical septal hypertrophy in 3 cases, concentric hypertrophy in another two. In two cases the DD and EF were distinctly altered. The patients were re-examined 2-4 years after surgical or radiation treatment. GH levels (M +/- SD = 10.3 +/- 10.1 ng/ml) were normal in 4 cases and still high, though lower in another two. The remaining two patients had borderline GH levels with high Sm-C. The ECG and chest X-ray were unchanged while echocardiography revealed a significant deterioration in heart function as far as DD (56.4 +/- 10.8 mm, p less than 0.05) were concerned with frankly pathological results in 4 and 3 cases respectively. These data confirm the view that most acromegalic

  14. Phosphorus, zinc, and boron influence yield components in Earliglow strawberry

    SciTech Connect

    May, G.M.; Pritts, M.P. . Dept. of Fruit and Vegetable Science)

    1993-01-01

    The main effects and interactions of soil-applied P, B, and Zn on yield and its components were examined in the field at two pH levels with Earliglow' strawberries (Fragaria ananassa Duch.). Applied nutrients had significant effects on several yield components, but responses depended on the levels of other nutrients or the soil pH. At a soil pH of 5.5, yield responded linearly to B and quadratically to P. At pH 6.5, P interacted with B and Zn. Fruit count per inflorescence was the yield component most strongly associated with yield, followed by individual fruit weight. However, these two yield components responded differently to soil-applied nutrients. Foliar nutrient levels generally did not increase with the amount of applied nutrient, but often an applied nutrient had a strong effect on the level of another nutrient. Leaf nutrient levels were often correlated with fruit levels, but foliar and fruit levels at harvest were not related to reproductive performance. The study identifies some of the problems inherent in using foliar nutrient levels to predict a yield response and demonstrates how plant responses to single nutrients depend on soil chemistry and the presence of other nutrients.

  15. Hydrostatic Stress Effect on the Yield Behavior of Inconel 100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Phillip A.; Wilson, Christopher D.

    2003-01-01

    Classical metal plasticity theory assumes that hydrostatic stress has negligible effect on the yield and postyield behavior of metals. Recent reexaminations of classical theory have revealed a significant effect of hydrostatic stress on the yield behavior of various geometries. Fatigue tests and nonlinear finite element analyses (FEA) of Inconel 100 (IN100) equal-arm bend specimens and new monotonic tests and nonlinear finite element analyses of IN100 smooth tension, smooth compression, and double-edge notch tension (DENT) test specimens have revealed the effect of internal hydrostatic tensile stresses on yielding. Nonlinear FEA using the von Mises (yielding is independent of hydrostatic stress) and the Drucker-Prager (yielding is linearly dependent on hydrostatic stress) yield functions were performed. A new FEA constitutive model was developed that incorporates a pressure-dependent yield function with combined multilinear kinematic and multilinear isotropic hardening using the ABAQUS user subroutine (UMAT) utility. In all monotonic tensile test cases, the von Mises constitutive model, overestimated the load for a given displacement or strain. Considering the failure displacements or strains for the DENT specimen, the Drucker-Prager FEM s predicted loads that were approximately 3% lower than the von Mises values. For the failure loads, the Drucker Prager FEM s predicted strains that were up to 35% greater than the von Mises values. Both the Drucker-Prager model and the von Mises model performed equally-well in simulating the equal-arm bend fatigue test.

  16. The prevalence of positive imaging findings on MRI scans ordered by chiropractic versus medical providers

    PubMed Central

    Morries, Larry; Yochum, Terry; Barry, Michael; Slizeski, John; Freuden, Donald; Danielson, Clark

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if there is a greater yield of pathological findings identified on MRI scans of patients referred by chiropractors as compared to those referred by allopathic providers. Methods MRI reports authored by medical radiologists from two independent MRI centers in the Denver metropolitan area were analyzed retrospectively for pathological data related to the spinal regions studied. A pathological report data sheet was used to record pathological findings in 22 different categories. A total of 150 reports from each provider group were reviewed. Results Of the 22 pathological conditions studied, a statistically significant difference between doctor of chiropractic and medical doctor referrers was identified in 4 categories: central spinal canal stenosis, lateral stenosis, facet arthrosis, and negative report. The most common primary diagnoses given for MRI referral were low back pain/sciatica, neck pain, and extremity pain. Seventy-four percent of the reports evaluated were performed on patients referred with a diagnosis of pain. In 3 of the 22 categories (14%), the medical doctors had a statistically higher pathological yield than the chiropractors. However, in 4 of the 22 categories (18%), the chiropractors had a statistically higher pathological yield. In 18 of the 22 categories (82%), there was no statistical difference between the two provider groups. Conclusion The data presented in this study suggests chiropractic and medical providers are compeer at ordering MRI for suspected pathological findings. PMID:19674677

  17. Factors Affecting the Diagnostic Yield of Transbronchial Biopsy Using Endobronchial Ultrasonography with a Guide Sheath in Peripheral Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Okachi, Shotaro; Imai, Naoyuki; Imaizumi, Kazuyoshi; Iwano, Shingo; Ando, Masahiko; Hase, Tetsunari; Aso, Hiromichi; Morise, Masahiro; Wakahara, Keiko; Ito, Satoru; Hashimoto, Naozumi; Sato, Mitsuo; Kondo, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Objective Endobronchial ultrasonography with a guide sheath (EBUS-GS) and virtual bronchoscopic navigation (VBN) improves the diagnostic yield in patients with peripheral pulmonary lesions (PPLs). Most previous reports on EBUS-GS-guided transbronchial biopsy (TBB) have included patients with benign and malignant diseases. We aimed to determine the factors that predicted a successful diagnosis by EBUS-GS-guided TBB diagnostic in patients with small peripheral lung cancer, with a focus on the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings before bronchoscopy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 173 consecutive patients with 175 small (≤30 mm) PPLs who were diagnosed with primary lung cancer between June 2010 and October 2013 at Nagoya University Hospital. All patients underwent EBUS-GS-guided TBB with VBN using a ZioStation computer workstation (Ziosoft, Osaka, Japan). We analyzed the patient characteristics, HRCT findings, diagnostic yield, and the diagnostic factors in small peripheral lung carcinoma. Results The EBUS probe position was within the PPL in 83 of the 175 lesions (47%) and 112 (64.0%) cases were successfully diagnosed by EBUS-GS-guided TBB. A univariate analysis revealed that the following factors were associated with a significantly higher diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity, a lesion of >20 mm in diameter, a solid nodule, and a probe position that was within the lesion. The following factors were not significant: the lesion location, the number of biopsies, and the lung cancer histology. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following factors significantly affected the diagnostic yield: CT bronchus sign positivity [odds ratio (OR) =2.479]; a probe position that was within the lesion (OR=2.542); and a solid nodule (OR=2.304). Conclusion The significant factors that were significantly associated with a successful diagnosis using EBUS-GS-guided TBB in small peripheral lung carcinoma were as follows: CT

  18. 75 FR 50036 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Availability of Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Spaceport (MARS) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (WFF). As the MARS expansion... (1) licensing the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority (VCSFA) which operates MARS as a... at MARS. The FAA has formally adopted the EA and is using the FONSI/ROD to support the...

  19. 78 FR 28873 - Availability of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ... notice regarding our public dockets in the January 17, 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316... it, and announcing the dates and locations of two public meetings on the Draft EA (78 FR 740). On... for the Proposed Modification of the Bayonne Bridge Across the Kill Van Kull Between Bayonne,...

  20. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... by that date. The commenters raised several issues, including the potential for invasive species/pest... and animal pests and diseases. On January 19, 2010, we published in the Federal Register (75 FR 2845... (75 FR 29706, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172) a notice announcing the availability of a...

  1. 76 FR 65753 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Proposed Disposal Procedures for the Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project... Licensing Directorate, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and... amendment application from Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (WEC or the licensee), pertaining to...

  2. 76 FR 74069 - Central Utah Project Completion Act; Finding of No Significant Impact Associated With the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... District (JSSD) Keetley Water Treatment Plant at Jordanelle Reservoir. During an emergency, this system... Assessment for Block Notice 1A Heber Sub-Area Agricultural Water to Municipal Industrial Water Conversion AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Water and Science, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 75 FR 63518 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Manager, Materials Decommissioning Branch, Division of Waste Management and Environmental Protection, Office of Federal and State Materials and Environmental Management Programs, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory... considering the issuance of a license amendment to Source Materials License SUA-1473 issued to Rio...

  4. Fluid-electrolyte responses during prolonged space flight: A review and interpretation of significant findings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1985-01-01

    The most important results of the Skylab studies related to fluid-electrolyte regulation are summarized. These data are the starting point of a systems analysis to study adaptation to the weightlessness environment. A summary of the systems analysis study, including an interpretation of Skylab results, is included.

  5. 78 FR 4134 - Availability of the Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... reductions by inactivating a minimum of eight Brigade Combat Teams (BCTs) and realign other combat, combat... installations where a BCT is inactivated and smaller organizations realigned. The draft FNSI concludes...

  6. 76 FR 67229 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... 29, 2011 (76 FR 60557), that noticed the availability of the Environmental Assessment (EA) and... Documents Access and Management System (ADAMS) accession number for the EA contained in Section II, ``EA Summary,'' and Section IV, ``Further Information''. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John J. Hayes,...

  7. 77 FR 25209 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemption Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... brachytherapy sources have been in its possession and use since September 18, 1986 (25 years), including cesium..., Inc. The cesium-137 sealed sources are not approved in the SSD Registry as required by the NRC... the Registry). In this case, however, use of the cesium-137 sources predates the SSD Registry....

  8. 77 FR 77118 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... July 11, 2012 (77 FR 40917), the NRC issued a Federal Register Notice (FRN), announcing the USDA... quantities of chlorine-36, nickel-63, strontium-90, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. In addition to...

  9. 76 FR 31379 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...-232 (Th-232) and radium-226 (Ra-226) are provided in the revised DP. Small quantities of Th-232 and Ra... Soil DCGLs Addendum Soil DCGLs for Thorium and Radium). The revised DP does not change any previously... Radium. August 2010. ABB, Inc. Decommissioning Plan, Revision 2, CE X X ML102310553 X Windsor...

  10. 78 FR 21919 - Finding of No Significant Impact and Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice of... Impact (FNSI) for implementation of force structure realignment to reduce the Army active duty end... Programmatic Environmental Assessment for Army 2020 Force Structure Realignment (PEA), supporting studies,...

  11. 75 FR 34151 - Availability: Final Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Finding of No Significant Impact; Modoc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ..., and environmental education and ] interpretation. We will review and update the CCP at least every 15... will be prohibited. In addition, environmental education, interpretation, wildlife observation... press releases, updates to constituents, and a Federal Register notice (74 FR 28271, June 15, 2009)....

  12. 76 FR 65541 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... Illinois State official of the Division of Nuclear Safety, Illinois Emergency Management Agency, regarding... on March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). The revised regulation stated that it was applicable to all Part...

  13. 78 FR 17383 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... considered as part of the EA. Alternatives Considered: The EA for DLA Energy's Mobility Fuel Purchase... market, and DLA Energy's continued efforts to procure, certify, and approve alternative fuels, the... implementation of a systemic change to the use of commercial standard Jet A aviation fuel in most aircraft...

  14. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  15. 33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... prepared. The FONSI will be a brief summary document as noted in 40 CFR 1508.13. In the case of feasibility... concerned agencies, organizations and the interested public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)). In the case of operation... public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(1))....

  16. 33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... prepared. The FONSI will be a brief summary document as noted in 40 CFR 1508.13. In the case of feasibility... concerned agencies, organizations and the interested public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)). In the case of operation... public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(1))....

  17. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact - Mckay Bypass Canal Extension

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1998-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1262) to extend the McKay Bypass Canal on the east side of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), located north of Golden, Colorado. The McKay Bypass Canal Extension (Extension) is needed to route water from the existing canal around the Walnut Creek drainage, thus preventing potential co-mingling of Broomfield city water (collected from the Coal Creek drainage) with Site runoff water. The EA describes and analyzes the environmental effects of the Proposed Action (using a buried pipeline for the extension), and the alternatives of taking no action, using an open ditch for the extension, and using an aboveground pipeline for the extension. The EA was the subject of a public comment period from July 22 to August 6, 1998. Written comments regarding the EA were received from the City of Broomfield and the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment.

  18. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  19. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  20. 33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... prepared. The FONSI will be a brief summary document as noted in 40 CFR 1508.13. In the case of feasibility... concerned agencies, organizations and the interested public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)). In the case of operation... public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(1))....

  1. 33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... prepared. The FONSI will be a brief summary document as noted in 40 CFR 1508.13. In the case of feasibility... concerned agencies, organizations and the interested public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)). In the case of operation... public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(1))....

  2. Chariton Valley Biomass Project Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    2003-07-11

    Switchgrass is a warm-weather, native Iowa grass that grows well on marginal land. It has been identified and extensively studied for its potential as a biomass energy crop, especially its potential for use as co-fire feedstock in coal-burning plants. In this environmental assessment (EA), the term ''co-fire'' refers to the burning of switchgrass in the OGS boiler in conjunction with coal, with the goal of reducing the amount of coal used and reducing emissions of some objectionable air pollutants associated with coal combustion. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to provide partial funding for (1) the design and construction of a biomass (switchgrass [Panicum virgatum]) storage, handling, and conveying system into the boiler at the Ottumwa Generating Station (OGS) near Chillicothe, Iowa; (2) operational testing of switchgrass as a biomass co-fire feedstock at OGS; and (3) ancillary activities related to growing, harvesting, storing, and transporting switchgrass in areas of the Rathbun Lake watershed. Chillicothe is in Wapello County on the south side of the Des Moines River, approximately 16 kilometers (10 miles) northwest of Ottumwa, Iowa, and 130 kilometers (80 miles) southeast of Des Moines. The OGS is a 725-megawatt (MW) maximum output, low-sulfur, pulverized coal-burning plant jointly owned by several Iowa utilities and operated by Alliant Energy. The plant is located about 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) northwest of Chillicothe, Iowa, on the Des Moines River. The following three-phase switchgrass co-fire test campaign has been planned and partially implemented at OGS: During Phase 1, which occurred from November 2000 through January 2001, Alliant Energy conducted Co-fire Test 1 at OGS. Phase 2 testing, the Proposed Action, would consist of two additional co-fire tests. Co-fire Test 2, which would utilize some residual equipment from Co-fire Test 1 and also test some new equipment, is currently planned for September/October 2003. It would be designed to test and demonstrate the engineering and environmental feasibility of co-firing up to 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) of switchgrass per hour and would burn a maximum of 5,440 tonnes (6,000 tons) of switchgrass. Co-fire Test 3, which is tentatively planned for winter 2004/2005, would test the long-term (approximately 2,000 hours) sustainability of processing 11.3 tonnes (12.5 tons) per hour. Co-fire Test 3 would be conducted using a proposed new process building and storage barn that would be constructed at the OGS as part of the Proposed Action. Phase 3, commercial operations, may occur if Phase 2 indicated that commercial operations were technically, environmentally, and economically feasible. Continuous, full-scale commercial operations could process up to 23 tonnes (25 tons) of switchgrass per hour, generate 35 MW per year of OGS's annual output, and replace 5 percent of the coal burned at OGS with switchgrass. Chariton Valley Resource Conservation and Development Inc. (Chariton Valley RC&D), a rural-development-oriented, non-profit corporation (Chariton Valley RC&D 2003a) and Alliant Energy would implement Phase 3 at their discretion after the completion of the Phase 2 co-fire tests. DOE's Proposed Action would support only Phase 2 testing; that is, Co-fire Tests 2 and 3. DOE has no plans to provide financial support for the commercial operations that would be performed during Phase 3. The new construction that DOE proposes to partially fund would include a new switchgrass processing facility and equipment and a new storage barn that would be used for Co-fire Test 3. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the environmental impacts that could result from the Proposed Action. It also evaluates the impacts that could occur if DOE decided not to partially fund the Proposed Action (the No Action Alternative). No other action alternatives are analyzed because (1) no generating plants other than OGS have the installed infrastructure and operating experience necessary to conduct Phase 2 co-fire testing, and (2) the Rathbun Lake watershed is the only viable source of the supply of switchgrass necessary to conduct the testing at OGS. This EA has been prepared under DOE's regulations and guidelines for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. A draft version of this EA was distributed to interested members of the public and to Federal, state, and local agencies for review and comment prior to any final decisions by DOE on the Proposed Action.

  3. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  4. 33 CFR 230.11 - Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... prepared. The FONSI will be a brief summary document as noted in 40 CFR 1508.13. In the case of feasibility... concerned agencies, organizations and the interested public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(2)). In the case of operation... public (40 CFR 1501.4(e)(1))....

  5. 21 CFR 25.51 - Environmental assessments and findings of no significant impact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.6 as follows: (1) When the proposed action is the subject of a notice of proposed... be made available to the public upon request according to the procedures in 40 CFR 1506.6. (3) For a... determination whether to prepare an EIS and before the action may begin, as described in 40 CFR 1501.4(e)....

  6. 75 FR 76496 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... Proposed Exemption From a Requirement To Measure the Uranium Element and Isotopic Content of Special... content of certain small amounts of strategic special nuclear material, as described further below. The... licensee must establish and maintain a system of measurements to substantiate such contents. By...

  7. 75 FR 25301 - Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc.; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Releases, Environmental Monitoring, Water Resources, Geology, Soils, Air Quality, Demography, Biota..., soils, air quality, demography, biota, or cultural or historic resources at or near the NFS site. No..., environmental monitoring, water resources, geology, soils, air quality, demography, biota, or cultural...

  8. 78 FR 75370 - Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Flood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ..., published in the Federal Register September 2, 1981, (46 FR 44083); the USIBWC hereby gives notice that the...: Gilbert Anaya, Environmental Management Division; United States Section, International Boundary and...

  9. 76 FR 187 - Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Final Finding of No Significant Impact for Exemptions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-03

    ... CFR 73.55 as discussed in the Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR 13926). There would... impact (10 CFR parts 50, 52, 72, and 73, Power Reactor Security Requirements, 74 FR 13926 (March 27, 2009... Monticello Nuclear Generating Plant North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Palisades Nuclear Plant...

  10. 78 FR 46378 - La Crosse Boiling Water Reactor, Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-31

    ... licensee emergency plan requirements to: (1) Enhance the ability of licensees in preparing and in taking... emergency plan implementation among licensees; and (4) modify certain EP requirements to be more effective... Cooperative (DPC, the licensee) requesting exemptions from specific emergency planning requirements of part...

  11. 77 FR 71198 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-29

    ... terrorist events of September 11, 2001; clarify regulations to effect consistent emergency plan...-Related Emergency Plan Issues: Emergency Action Levels for Hostile Action (10 CFR Part 50, App. E, IV.B.1... emergency plans. Therefore, PG&E is still evaluating the applicability of the Final Rule to...

  12. 78 FR 77722 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to an Alternative Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... acceptable to begin a technical review. On August 23, 2013 (78 FR 52574), the NRC published in the Federal... oversight of certain studies and response actions in accordance with the National Oil and Hazardous... radiologically contaminated remediation waste, regulated by the NRC is co-mingled with chemically...

  13. Environmental assessment, finding of no significant impact, and response to comments. Radioactive waste storage

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE) Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (the Site), formerly known as the Rocky Flats Plant, has generated radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste (waste with both radioactive and hazardous constituents) since it began operations in 1952. Such wastes were the byproducts of the Site`s original mission to produce nuclear weapons components. Since 1989, when weapons component production ceased, waste has been generated as a result of the Site`s new mission of environmental restoration and deactivation, decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of buildings. It is anticipated that the existing onsite waste storage capacity, which meets the criteria for low-level waste (LL), low-level mixed waste (LLM), transuranic (TRU) waste, and TRU mixed waste (TRUM) would be completely filled in early 1997. At that time, either waste generating activities must cease, waste must be shipped offsite, or new waste storage capacity must be developed.

  14. 76 FR 44374 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Amendment to Source...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... Protection Agency modeling data. The Licensee thus determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on..., subject to radiation exposure principally caused by residual radioactivity in soil; impacts to people... caused by residual radioactivity on building surfaces impacts; and impacts to plant and...

  15. 77 FR 41774 - Notice of Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-16

    ... designed to contain radioactivity and prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to workers, the... contain radioactivity and prevent the spread of radioactive contamination to workers, the public, and the... of airborne radioactivity and surveyed using stringent NNPP standards prior to demolition,...

  16. 76 FR 8382 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact For...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... was published in the Federal Register on December 8, 2009 (74 FR 64762). The Licensee's final status... determined the maximum amount of residual radioactivity on building surfaces, equipment, materials and soils... 20.1402. Based on its review, the staff considered the impact of the residual radioactivity at...

  17. 76 FR 34273 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Special Nuclear Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... Board of Directors was published in the Federal Register on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45859), and the 2007... NRC on April 30, 2009 (ML091400067). On September 11, 2009 (74 FR at 46799), the NRC published a..., demographics, meteorology, hydrology, and geology. The proposed activity is limited to the receipt,...

  18. 77 FR 48131 - Draft Finding of No Significant Impact and Programmatic Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... assesses the potential environmental impacts from the range of energy, water, and waste projects that could... Implementation of the Net Zero program at Army Installations. This PEA evaluates potential direct, indirect, and... returning water back to the same watershed so as not to deplete the groundwater and surface water...

  19. Finding of no significant impact for the State Energy Conservation Program

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA), DOE/EA 1068, to assess the environmental impacts associated with the State Energy Conservation Program (SECP). DOE previously funded SECP projects under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA). The State Energy Efficiency Programs Improvements Act of 1990 (SEEPIA) and the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) amended EPCA to broaden the range of state initiatives qualifying for Federal assistance under the SECP. The PEA presents a general analysis of the potential environmental effects associated with broad types of projects that can be funded under the SECP. It does not analyze specific environmental effects or alternatives associated with individual energy conservation, energy efficiency, and renewable energy projects. Individual actions are to be evaluated in detail on a project-by-project basis to determine whether their impacts fall within the bounding analysis of the impacts analyzed in the SECP PEA.

  20. Washington Wildlife Mitigation Projects : Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Washington . Dept. of Fish and Wildlife.

    1996-08-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) proposes to fund the portion of the Washington Wildlife Mitigation Agreement (Agreement) pertaining to wildlife habitat mitigation projects to be undertaken in a cooperative effort with the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). This Agreement serves to establish a monetary budget funded by BPA for projects proposed by Washington Wildlife Coalition members and approved by BPA to protect, mitigate, and improve wildlife and/or wildlife habitat within the State of Washington that has been affected by the construction of Federal dams along the Columbia River. This Environmental Assessment examines the potential environmental effects of acquiring and/or improving wildlife habitat within five different project areas. These project areas are located throughout Grant County and in parts of Okanogan, Douglas, Adams, Franklin, Kittias, Yakima, and Benton Counties. The multiple projects would involve varying combinations of five proposed site-specific activities (habitat improvement, operation and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, access and recreation management, and cultural resource management). All required Federal, State, and tribal coordination, permits and/or approvals would be obtained prior to ground-disturbing activities.

  1. Unexpected and significant findings in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko: an interdisciplinary view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulle, Marco; Altobelli, N.; Buratti, B.; Choukroun, M.; Fulchignoni, M.; Grün, E.; Taylor, M. G. G. T.; Weissman, P.

    2016-11-01

    ESA's Rosetta Mission has followed Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from 3.6 au inbound to 3.6 au outbound. Many results are largely unexpected, as compared to previous models based on in situ and ground-based observations of Jupiter-family comets. The main topics discussed in this review are (1) the importance of the large concavities characterizing the 67P nucleus, that, (2) coupled to the nucleus obliquity, make seasons an unexpectedly important source of many phenomena observed in this and probably in most comets; (3) the mostly uniform distribution of ices over the nucleus surface; (4) the high dust-to-water mass ratio, which implies that much of the nucleus mass is in the form of minerals partly coming from the inner proto-solar nebula, thus making 67P very porous and less hydrated than primitive CI chondrites. 67P nucleus may have never experienced any collision at speeds larger than 1 m s-1.

  2. 75 FR 43225 - Finding of No Significant Impact: San Diego-Tijuana Airport Cross Border Facility

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... public notice of the draft EA in the Federal Register, 74 FR 68906 (December 29, 2009), and invited... congestion at the border indicates, existing infrastructure was not designed to handle current traffic... and national economic losses associated with border congestion. The sponsor's proposed...

  3. 76 FR 30639 - Final Environmental Assessment and Mitigated Finding of No Significant Impact; Giant Miscanthus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ..., but not be limited to, NRCS Conservation Practice Standards (CPS) for soil erosion, pesticide use and... on April 8, 2011 (76 FR 19741) and used additional inputs from the Natural Resources Conservation... on October 27, 2010 (75 FR 65995-66007) is incorporated by reference in the EA. FSA considered...

  4. 77 FR 7610 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... in the gaseous effluent stream is Argon-41. Licensee calculations, based on operation, indicate that... 10 CFR Part 20, Appendix B for air effluent releases. The NRC staff performed an independent... the NRC in the licensee's annual reports were less than two percent of the air effluent...

  5. Kalispell Maintenance Headquarters Project : Environmental Assessment and Findings of No Significant Impact.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-12-01

    The facilities needed to maintain and repair Bonneville Power Administration (BPA`s) electrical equipment in northwest Montana are currently in two locations: A maintenance headquarters at the Kalispell Substation, and a temporary leased facility south of Kalispell. The present situation is not efficient. There is not enough space to accommodate the equipment needed at each site, and coordination and communication between the two sites is difficult. Also, two sites means duplication of equipment and facilities. BPA needs a single, centralized facility that would efficiently accommodate all the area`s maintenance activities and equipment. BPA proposes to build a maintenance headquarters facility consisting of 2 to 4 single-story buildings totaling about 35,000 square feet (office spaces and workshop areas); an open-ended vehicle storage building (carport style); a fenced-in storage year; a storage building for flammables, herbicides, and hazardous wastes; and a parking lot. The facility would require developing about 6 to 10 acres of land. Two sites are being considered for the proposed project (see the attached map for locations). This report is the environmental assessment of the two options.

  6. 77 FR 66874 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... research project to characterize historic earthquakes in the Central and Eastern United States. Geologic... such as sand blows and sand dikes that formed during historic and pre-historic earthquakes as a...

  7. 76 FR 19794 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... begin using an incinerator to dispose of radioactive wastes. The licensee has used this incinerator to dispose of biologically hazardous wastes containing low- level radioactive materials. On July 30, 2008..., ``Termination of Operating Licenses for Nuclear Reactors,'' Table 1, Acceptable Surface Contamination Levels....

  8. 76 FR 60557 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for a License Amendment to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... the site's decommissioning, the removal of buried waste, the removal of surface, subsurface soil and... critical group. For the WEC site the most critical group is that of a resident farmer who lives on the...

  9. 76 FR 56820 - Detroit Edison Company, Fermi 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... safety of ERO personnel when responding to the site due to the increase in population and redistribution... the plant was first licensed. Additional delays may occur in the future based on continued population growth. Improvements have been made to equipment, procedures, and training since initial approval of...

  10. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Impact. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Rural Utilities Service... rulemaking in the Federal Register at 77 FR 43723, with a 60-day comment period, for the subpart H of 7...

  11. 76 FR 66334 - Final Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for the Proposed License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... NRC provided notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 51323) of its receipt of the license renewal... for the proposed action on October 15, 2010 (75 FR 63519). The NRC staff accepted comments on the......... SMALL. Geology & Soils SMALL (geology) SMALL SMALL (geology) SMALL SMALL (geology) SMALL to...

  12. 75 FR 63519 - Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment and Draft Finding of No Significant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register (74 FR 51323) of its receipt of the license renewal application and also... MODERATE. Geology & Soils SMALL (geology), SMALL SMALL (geology), SMALL SMALL (geology), to MODERATE...

  13. Protected Area Reconfiguration Project. Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    DOE has decided to consolidate, process, and store Category I and II Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in Building 371 at Rocky Flats, in order to improve safeguards and security and to reduce baseline facility and personnel costs. Once all SNM in consolidated into this building, maintaining the full 200-acre protected area would no longer be necessary, and the protected area (PA) could be reconfigured to include only the protection requirements necessary for Building 371. DOE Environmental Assessment 1132 has been written to evaluate options for reconfiguration of the PA; it addressed potential environmental impacts resulting from construction of fence alternatives. Possible routes for the new fence section were examined for environmental impact, feasibility, cost, and complexity. A number of the alternatives, including the proposed action, would impact wetlands.

  14. 75 FR 36701 - Issuance of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... of Utah, Inc.) on May 7, 1999 (64 FR 27826; May 21, 1999). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.33, the NRC... public review and comment on October 7, 2009 (74 FR 51622). The public comment period closed on November... image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to ADAMS or if there are problems...

  15. 75 FR 69138 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact Related to Exemption of Material...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... concrete, steel, insulation, roofing material, and other debris from Units 1 and 2 as well as concrete... radioactive material. The natural features include the low precipitation rate and the long vertical distance.... Need for Proposed Action The subject waste material consists of concrete, steel, insulation,...

  16. 76 FR 71619 - Availability of the Final Environmental Assessment (EA) and Finding of No Significant Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... (NEPA) of 1969, 42 United States Code Sec. 4321-4347 (as amended), Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ..., and cultural resources; hazardous materials, pollution prevention, and solid waste; light...

  17. 75 FR 6067 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... License Amendment for Revised Groundwater Protection Standards, Western Nuclear, Inc., Jeffrey City, WY... Nuclear, Inc. (WNI), to authorize revised groundwater protection standards for its facility near Jeffrey... groundwater protection standards. On ] March 9, 2009, WNI submitted an additional amendment request...

  18. 78 FR 5514 - Supplemental Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for License Renewal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Uranium One USA, Inc., Willow Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Johnson and Campbell Counties, WY... Materials License SUA-1341 for continued uranium production operations and in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium... a change of control of the license and Uranium One, USA, Inc. (Uranium One) became the licensee...

  19. 76 FR 41528 - Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Federal Register on February 9, 2009 (74 FR 6436). In response, the Oglala Delegation of the Great Sioux... License Renewal for Uranium One USA Inc., Irigaray and Christensen Ranch Uranium In-Situ Recovery Projects... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ron C. Linton, Project Manager, Uranium Recovery Licensing Branch,...

  20. 77 FR 8903 - Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact; Carolina Power and Light Company...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ..., Division of Operating Reactor Licensing, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, U.S. Nuclear Regulatory...\\ alloy fuel rod cladding for Renewed Facility Operating License No. NPF-63, issued to Carolina Power and... 50.46, paragraph (a)(1)(i) provides requirements for reactors containing uranium oxide fuel...

  1. [Significance of molecular-cytogenetic findings in mucoepidermoid carcinoma as an example of salivary gland tumors].

    PubMed

    Röser, K; Jäkel, K T; Bullerdiek, J; Löning, T

    2005-09-01

    Chromosome translocations in tumors frequently give rise to fusion genes encoding proteins with oncogenic activities. Mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are characterized by a t(11;19)(q21-22;p13) translocation found in approximately 60% of the tumors. This t(11;19) translocation results in a fusion gene consisting of exon 1 of the MECT 1 gene and exons 2-5 of the MAML 2 gene. As a result of the t(11;19) a fusion protein is generated which, independent of NOTCH-ligands, activates the transcription of the NOTCH target gene HES 1. The altered function of MAML 2 causes a disruption of NOTCH signalling which suggests a novel mechanism of tumorigenesis. Pending the elucidation of the t(11;19) at the molecular level of an apparently identical chromosomal translocation in Warthin's tumor, the identification of the translocation in MEC by FISH- and/or RT-PCR-analyses may become important in diagnosis and might have prognostic relevance. Warthin's tumors are benign salivary gland neoplasms with a distinctive histomorphology and histogenesis completely different from MEC.

  2. 75 FR 11946 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... operation of the Fermi 2, located in Monroe County, Michigan. In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC... physical changes to the reactor, fuel, plant structures, support structures, water, or land at the Fermi 2... revisions to 10 CFR Part 73 as discussed in a Federal Register notice dated March 27, 2009 (74 FR...

  3. 75 FR 81316 - Detroit Edison Company; FERMI 2; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... Edison Company (the licensee), for operation of Fermi 2, located in Monroe County, Michigan. Therefore... County due to a storm front moving through southeast Michigan. At 0238 hours, a tornado swept across the... does not have any foreseeable impacts to land, air, or water resources, including impacts to biota....

  4. 75 FR 70707 - Detroit Edison Company; Environmental Assessment and Finding of No Significant Impact

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-18

    ... in Monroe County, Michigan. Therefore, as required by 10 CFR 51.21, the NRC performed an... changes to land use or water use, or result in changes to the quality or quantity of non- radiological... State official, Mr. Ken Yale, of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources and Environment...

  5. Executive Summary High-Yield Scenario Workshop Series Report

    SciTech Connect

    Leslie Park Ovard; Thomas H. Ulrich; David J. Muth Jr.; J. Richard Hess; Steven Thomas; Bryce Stokes

    2009-12-01

    To get a collective sense of the impact of research and development (R&D) on biomass resource availability, and to determine the feasibility that yields higher than baseline assumptions used for past assessments could be achieved to support U.S. energy independence, an alternate “High-Yield Scenario” (HYS) concept was presented to industry experts at a series of workshops held in December 2009. The workshops explored future production of corn/agricultural crop residues, herbaceous energy crops (HECs), and woody energy crops (WECs). This executive summary reports the findings of that workshop.

  6. Yield model development project implementation plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ambroziak, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Tasks remaining to be completed are summarized for the following major project elements: (1) evaluation of crop yield models; (2) crop yield model research and development; (3) data acquisition processing, and storage; (4) related yield research: defining spectral and/or remote sensing data requirements; developing input for driving and testing crop growth/yield models; real time testing of wheat plant process models) and (5) project management and support.

  7. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  8. High pressure intensification of cassava resistant starch (RS3) yields.

    PubMed

    Lertwanawatana, Proyphon; Frazier, Richard A; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-08-15

    Cassava starch, typically, has resistant starch type 3 (RS3) content of 2.4%. This paper shows that the RS3 yields can be substantially enhanced by debranching cassava starch using pullulanase followed by high pressure or cyclic high-pressure annealing. RS3 yield of 41.3% was obtained when annealing was carried out at 400MPa/60°C for 15 min, whereas it took nearly 8h to obtain the same yield under conventional atmospheric annealing at 60°C. The yield of RS3 could be further significantly increased by annealing under 400 MPa/60°C pressure for 15 min followed by resting at atmospheric pressure for 3h 45 min, and repeating this cycle for up to six times. Microstructural surface analysis of the product under a scanning electron microscope showed an increasingly rigid density of the crystalline structure formed, confirming higher RS3 content.

  9. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Feasibility of assessing crop condition and yield from LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Yield modelling for crop production estimation derived a means of predicting the within-a-year yield and the year-to-year variability of yield over some fixed or randomly located unit of area. Preliminary studies indicated that the requirements for interpreting LANDSAT data for yield may be sufficiently similar to those of signature extension that it is feasible to investigate the automated estimation of production. The concept of an advanced yield model consisting of both spectral and meteorological components was endorsed. Rationale for using meteorological parameters originated from known between season and near harvest dynamics in crop environmental-condition-yield relationships.

  10. Temporal associations between low body condition, lameness and milk yield in a UK dairy herd.

    PubMed

    Green, L E; Huxley, J N; Banks, C; Green, M J

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has hypothesised that cows in low body condition become lame. We tested this in a prospective longitudinal study. Body condition score (BCS), causes of lameness and milk yield were collected from a 600-cow herd over 44-months. Mixed effect binomial models and a continuous outcome model were used to investigate the associations between lameness, BCS and milk yield. In total, 14,320 risk periods were obtained from 1137 cows. There were 1510 lameness treatments: the most common causes of lameness were sole ulcer (SU) (39%), sole haemorrhage (SH) (13%), digital dermatitis (DD) (10%) and white line disease (WLD) (8%). These varied by year and year quarter. Body condition was scored at 60-day intervals. BCS ranged from 1 to 5 with a mean of 2.5, scores were higher in very early lactation but varied widely throughout lactation; approximately 45% of scores were <2.5. The key finding was that BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for lameness in the following 0-2 months and >2-4 months for all causes of lameness and also specifically for SU/WLD lameness. BCS<2.5 was associated with an increased risk of treatment for SH in the following 0-2 months but not >2-4 months. There was no such association with DD. All lameness, SU/WLD, SH and DD were significantly more likely to occur in cows that had been lame previously, but the effect of BCS was present even when all repeat cases of lameness were excluded from the analysis. Milk yield was significantly higher and fell in the month before treatment in cows lame with SU/WLD but it was not significantly higher for cows that were treated for DD compared with non-lame cows. These findings support the hypothesis that low BCS contributes to the development of horn related claw lameness but not infectious claw diseases in dairy cows. One link between low BCS and lameness is a thin digital cushion which has been proposed as a trigger for claw horn disease. Cows with BCS 2 produced more milk than cows

  11. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  12. Effect of sowing dates on yield and yield components of spring safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) in Isfahan region.

    PubMed

    Nikabadi, S; Soleimani, A; Dehdashti, S M; Yazdanibakhsh, M

    2008-08-01

    In order to study the effect of sowing dates on the yield and yield components of two safflower varieties, an experiment was conducted at Agriculture Research Station of Isfahan Kabotar Abad in 2004. A split plot layout within randomized complete block design with three replications was used in the experimentation. Eight sowing dates were in the main plots, consist March 6, March 21, April 6, April 21, May 6, May 21, June 6 and June 21 and two varieties (Isfahan 14 and I.L111) were in the sub plots. The results showed that the number of seed per capitulum and seed yield were decreased significantly as the sowings dates were delayed. The Isfahan 14 variety in comparison with I.L111 produced more fertile capitulum in square meter and also, respectively seed per capitulum. The second sowing date (March 21) produced the highest seed yield (2306.2 kg ha(-1)), whereas the 7th sowing date (June 6) produced the lowest seed yield (622 kg ha(-1)). The effect of variety for seed yield was not significant. Farmers in the Kabotar Abad of Isfahan and in other areas with similar conditions are recommended to plant the Isfahan 14 variety on March 21.

  13. Dalitz analysis of B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} decays and the Z(4430){sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Mizuk, R.; Balagura, V.; Chistov, R.; Danilov, M.; Liventsev, D.; Pakhlov, P.; Pakhlova, G.; Tikhomirov, I.; Uglov, T.; Adachi, I.; Dalseno, J.; Haba, J.; Hara, T.; Itoh, R.; Iwasaki, Y.; Krokovny, P.; Nakao, M.; Nishida, S.; Sakai, Y.; Trabelsi, K.

    2009-08-01

    From a Dalitz plot analysis of B{yields}K{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} decays, we find a signal for Z(4430){sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '} with a mass M=(4443{sub -12-13}{sup +15+19}) MeV/c{sup 2}, width {gamma}=(107{sub -43-56}{sup +86+74}) MeV, product branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}K{sup -}Z(4430){sup +})xB(Z(4430){sup +}{yields}{pi}{sup +}{psi}{sup '})=(3.2{sub -0.9-1.6}{sup +1.8+5.3})x10{sup -5}, and significance of 6.4{sigma} that agrees with previous Belle measurements based on the same data sample. In addition, we determine the branching fraction B(B{sup 0}{yields}K*(892){sup 0}{psi}{sup '})=(5.52{sub -0.32-0.58}{sup +0.35+0.53})x10{sup -4} and the fraction of K*(892){sup 0} mesons that are longitudinally polarized f{sub L}=(44.8{sub -2.7-5.3}{sup +4.0+4.0})%. These results are obtained from a 605 fb{sup -1} data sample that contains 657x10{sup 6} BB pairs collected near the {upsilon}(4S) resonance with the Belle detector at the KEKB asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider.

  14. Correlation and periodicity analysis between herbage yields and climatic factors in the Tianshan Mountain,China in 22 year periods.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jianlong, L.

    2009-04-01

    To analyze the relationship between herbage yields and climatic factors, 22 years of herbage yields and climate data were collected on the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountains region of western China. Using multiple regression analysis, maximum entropy spectrum analysis and cross spectrum analysis, it was clarified that fluctuation of climatic factors affected herbage yields and their periodical variation. The herbage yields were correlated significantly to the four climate factors including annual precipitation, annual means of relative humidity, absolute humidity and percentage of sunshine, but unrelated to the trend variable (the former year yield has little effects on the later) and other climatic factors. These clarified that long term variation of grassland productivity responded directly to changes of some climate factors in typical zone of arid continental climate. The results in co-spectrum and quadrature spectrum analysis revealed that the herbage yields had 4-year period similar to some moisture factors, and with 1/4 period delay. These findings demonstrated further that the fluctuation of some climatic elements (precipitation particularly) was the crucial factor affecting the variations of herbage yields of natural grassland in arid and semiarid ecosystem. The periodical change of vegetation and correlation with climate provide us a way to predict the herbage production according to the climate change, and it was important for the herdsmen to arrange predictively their animal production including rectifying their livestock population in natural grazing land and storing up the supply of forage timely for livestock use in cold season. Our finding in periodical variation of climatic element and plant yield further demonstrated the crucial driver of some climate factors on formation of herbage yields. The same or similar quasi-4-year period in climatic element and vegetation was due to that periodical variation of climatic element (especially

  15. Attribution of maize yield increase in China to climate change and technological advancement between 1980 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianping; Zhao, Junfang; Wu, Dingrong; Mu, Jia; Xu, Yanhong

    2014-12-01

    Crop yields are affected by climate change and technological advancement. Objectively and quantitatively evaluating the attribution of crop yield change to climate change and technological advancement will ensure sustainable development of agriculture under climate change. In this study, daily climate variables obtained from 553 meteorological stations in China for the period 1961-2010, detailed observations of maize from 653 agricultural meteorological stations for the period 1981-2010, and results using an Agro-Ecological Zones (AEZ) model, are used to explore the attribution of maize (Zea mays L.) yield change to climate change and technological advancement. In the AEZ model, the climatic potential productivity is examined through three step-by-step levels: photosynthetic potential productivity, photosynthetic thermal potential productivity, and climatic potential productivity. The relative impacts of different climate variables on climatic potential productivity of maize from 1961 to 2010 in China are then evaluated. Combined with the observations of maize, the contributions of climate change and technological advancement to maize yield from 1981 to 2010 in China are separated. The results show that, from 1961 to 2010, climate change had a significant adverse impact on the climatic potential productivity of maize in China. Decreased radiation and increased temperature were the main factors leading to the decrease of climatic potential productivity. However, changes in precipitation had only a small effect. The maize yields of the 14 main planting provinces in China increased obviously over the past 30 years, which was opposite to the decreasing trends of climatic potential productivity. This suggests that technological advancement has offset the negative effects of climate change on maize yield. Technological advancement contributed to maize yield increases by 99.6%-141.6%, while climate change contribution was from -41.4% to 0.4%. In particular, the actual

  16. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ishii, Takuro; Tanaka, Junichi; Tsunematsu, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Matsumura, Osamu; Yonemaru, Jun-Ichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only), which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05); some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001) by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05). These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield.

  17. Pinto Bean Yield Increased by Chemical Control of Pratylenchus spp.

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, R. T.; Dickerson, O. J.; Kyle, J. H.

    1972-01-01

    Pinto bean yields and Pratylenchus spp. (nematode) population densities are reported for field plots pro-plant treated with nematicides in 1966 and 1968. Vidden-D (1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and related chlorinated hydrocarbons), Vortex (20% methyl isothioeyanate plus 80% chlorinated Ca-hydrocarbons), Telone PBC (80% dichloropropenes, 15% chloropicrin, and 5% propargyl bromide), Dasardt (0,0-Diethyl 0-[p-(methylsulfmyl)phenyl] phosphorothioate, and Dowfume MC-2 (98% methyl bromide plus 2% chloropierin) were used in 1966. Vorlex, Dasanit, and D-D (1,3-dichloropropene, 1,2-dichloropropane and related chlorinated hydrocarbons) were each used at two rates in 1968. Fumigated plot yields ranged 32-56% higher than control plots in 1966 and 11-80% higher in 1968. Significant yield increases were obtained for all fumigants except Telone PBC in 1966. In 1968 significant increases were obtained from use of the high rate (374 liters/ha) of Vorlex and low rate (8.4 liters/ha) of Dasanit. There was an inverse relationship between yield and numbers of Pratylenchus spp./g root on four sampling dates in 1968. A correlation coefficient of -.39 (P ≤ 0.05) was obtained for samples taken 36 days after planting and -.52 (P ≤ 0.01) for samples taken 30 days later. There was no significant correlation between yield and numbers of Pratylenchus spp. recovered from the soil. PMID:19319242

  18. Improvement of Rice Biomass Yield through QTL-Based Selection

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Eiji; Kobayashi, Nobuya; Ishii, Takuro; Tanaka, Junichi; Tsunematsu, Hiroshi; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Matsumura, Osamu; Yonemaru, Jun-ichi; Mizobuchi, Ritsuko; Yamamoto, Toshio; Kato, Hiroshi; Yano, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Biomass yield of rice (Oryza sativa L.) is an important breeding target, yet it is not easy to improve because the trait is complex and phenotyping is laborious. Using progeny derived from a cross between two high-yielding Japanese cultivars, we evaluated whether quantitative trait locus (QTL)-based selection can improve biomass yield. As a measure of biomass yield, we used plant weight (aboveground parts only), which included grain weight and stem and leaf weight. We measured these and related traits in recombinant inbred lines. Phenotypic values for these traits showed a continuous distribution with transgressive segregation, suggesting that selection can affect plant weight in the progeny. Four significant QTLs were mapped for plant weight, three for grain weight, and five for stem and leaf weight (at α = 0.05); some of them overlapped. Multiple regression analysis showed that about 43% of the phenotypic variance of plant weight was significantly explained (P < 0.0001) by six of the QTLs. From F2 plants derived from the same parental cross as the recombinant inbred lines, we divergently selected lines that carried alleles with positive or negative additive effects at these QTLs, and performed successive selfing. In the resulting F6 lines and parents, plant weight significantly differed among the genotypes (at α = 0.05). These results demonstrate that QTL-based selection is effective in improving rice biomass yield. PMID:26986071

  19. Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

  20. Critical study of the B{yields}K{pi} puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, C.S.; Oh, Sechul; Yu, Chaehyun

    2005-10-01

    In the light of new experimental results on B{yields}K{pi} decays, we critically study the decay processes B{yields}K{pi} in a phenomenological way. Using the quark diagram approach and the currently available data, we determine the allowed values of the relevant theoretical parameters, corresponding to the electroweak (EW) penguin, the color-suppressed tree contribution, etc. In order to find the most likely values of the parameters in a statistically reliable way, we use the {chi}{sup 2} minimization technique. Our result shows that the current data for B{yields}K{pi} decays strongly indicate (large) enhancements of both the EW penguin and the color-suppressed tree contributions. In particular, the color-suppressed tree effect needs to be enhanced by about an order of magnitude to fit the present data.

  1. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  2. Test day variability in yield and composition of Surti and Mehsani buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 postpartum

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, K. K.; Brahmkshtri, B. P.; Ramani, U. V.; Kharadi, V. B.; Pandaya, G. M.; Janmeda, M.; Ankuya, K. J.; Patel, M. D.; Sorathiya, L. M.

    2016-01-01

    .05% significantly (p≤0.05) higher than Surti buffaloes milk at day 15 and 60 pp, respectively. However, there was a significant difference in protein% observed with the advancement of lactation in Mehsani buffaloes, but it was not so in the case of Surti buffaloes. Conclusion: Major consistent finding of the present study reveals that milk yield and protein% of Mehsani buffalo was significantly higher than Surti buffalo at day 15 and 60 pp. PMID:27397982

  3. Boosting investor yields through bond insurance

    SciTech Connect

    Mosbacher, M.L.; Burkhardt, D.A.

    1993-02-01

    The market for utility securities generally tends to be fairly static. Innovative financing techniques are rarely used because of the marketability of utility securities stemming from the companies' generally strong financial credit and the monopoly markets most utilities serve. To many people, utility securities are considered the pillars of the financial world, and innovation is not needed. Further, plain vanilla utility issues are easily understood by investors, as well as by regulators and customers. Over the past several years, however, a new utility bond product has crept into the world of utility securities - insured secondary utility bonds. These insured bonds may possibly be used as an alternative financing technique for newly issued debt. Individual investors often tend to rely on insurance as a tool for reducing credit risk and are willing to take the lower yields as a tradeoff. Insured utility bonds are created by brokerage firms through the acqusition of a portion of an outstanding utility bond issue and subsequent solicitation of the insurance companies for bids. The insurance company then agrees to insure that portion of the issue until maturity for a fee, and the brokerage firm sells those bonds to their customers as a AAA-insured bond. Issuers are encouraged to explore the retail market as a financing alternative. They may find a most cost-effective means of raising capital.

  4. Yield Stress Reduction of DWPF Melter Feed Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.E.; Smith, M.E.

    2007-07-01

    indicates that the bead slurry would not require higher flows rates than frit slurry at DWPF during transfers. Another key finding was that the pump impeller was not significantly damaged by the bead slurry, while the Frit 320 slurry rapidly destroyed the impeller. Evidence of this was first observed when black particles were seen in the Frit 320 slurry being recirculated and then confirmed by a post-test inspection of the impeller. Finally, the pumping of bead slurry could be recovered even if flow is stopped. The Frit 320 slurry could not be restarted after stopping flow due to the nature of the frit to pack tightly when settled. Beads were shown to represent a significant process improvement versus frit for the DWPF process in lowering yield stress of the melter feed. Lower erosion of process equipment is another expected benefit.

  5. Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royal, K.

    2015-12-01

    Keitasha Royal, Meha Jain, Ph.D., David Lobell, Ph.D Mapping Crop Yield and Sow Date Using High Resolution ImageryThe use of satellite imagery in agriculture is becoming increasingly more significant and valuable. Due to the emergence of new satellites, such as Skybox, these satellites provide higher resolution imagery (e.g 1m) therefore improving the ability to map smallholder agriculture. For the smallholder farm dominated area of northern India, Skybox high-resolution satellite imagery can aid in understanding how to improve farm yields. In particular, we are interested in mapping winter wheat in India, as this region produces approximately 80% of the country's wheat crop, which is important given that wheat is a staple crop that provides approximately 20% of household calories. In northeast India, the combination of increased heat stress, limited irrigation access, and the difficulty for farmers to access advanced farming technologies results in farmers only producing about 50% of their potential crop yield. The use of satellite imagery can aid in understanding wheat yields through time and help identify ways to increase crop yields in the wheat belt of India. To translate Skybox satellite data into meaningful information about wheat fields, we examine vegetation indices, such as the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), to measure the "greenness" of plants to help determine the health of the crops. We test our ability to predict crop characteristics, like sow date and yield, using vegetation indices of 59 fields for which we have field data in Bihar, India.

  6. High-Yield Hydrogen Production from Starch and Water by a Synthetic Enzymatic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.-H. Percival; Evans, Barbara R.; Mielenz, Jonathan R.; Hopkins, Robert C.; Adams, Michael W.W.

    2007-01-01

    Background The future hydrogen economy offers a compelling energy vision, but there are four main obstacles: hydrogen production, storage, and distribution, as well as fuel cells. Hydrogen production from inexpensive abundant renewable biomass can produce cheaper hydrogen, decrease reliance on fossil fuels, and achieve zero net greenhouse gas emissions, but current chemical and biological means suffer from low hydrogen yields and/or severe reaction conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we demonstrate a synthetic enzymatic pathway consisting of 13 enzymes for producing hydrogen from starch and water. The stoichiometric reaction is C6H10O5 (l)+7 H2O (l)→12 H2 (g)+6 CO2 (g). The overall process is spontaneous and unidirectional because of a negative Gibbs free energy and separation of the gaseous products with the aqueous reactants. Conclusions Enzymatic hydrogen production from starch and water mediated by 13 enzymes occurred at 30°C as expected, and the hydrogen yields were much higher than the theoretical limit (4 H2/glucose) of anaerobic fermentations. Significance The unique features, such as mild reaction conditions (30°C and atmospheric pressure), high hydrogen yields, likely low production costs ($∼2/kg H2), and a high energy-density carrier starch (14.8 H2-based mass%), provide great potential for mobile applications. With technology improvements and integration with fuel cells, this technology also solves the challenges associated with hydrogen storage, distribution, and infrastructure in the hydrogen economy. PMID:17520015

  7. Analysis of the impacts of well yield and groundwater depth on irrigated agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, T.; Brozović, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has found that irrigation water demand is relatively insensitive to water price, suggesting that increased pumping costs due to declining groundwater levels will have limited effects on agricultural water management practices. However, non-linear changes in well yields as aquifer saturated thickness is reduced may have large impacts on irrigated production that are currently neglected in projections of the long-term sustainability of groundwater-fed irrigation. We conduct empirical analysis of observation data and numerical simulations for case studies in Nebraska, USA, to compare the impacts of changes in well yield and groundwater depth on agricultural production. Our findings suggest that declining well pumping capacities reduce irrigated production areas and profits significantly, whereas increased pumping costs reduce profits but have minimal impacts on the intensity of groundwater-fed irrigation. We suggest, therefore, that management of the dynamic relationship between well yield and saturated thickness should be a core component of policies designed to enhance long-term food security and support adaptation to climate change.

  8. From macroscopic yield criteria to atomic stresses in polymer glasses

    SciTech Connect

    MacNeill, David; Rottler, Joerg

    2010-01-15

    The relationship between macroscopic shear yield criteria and local stress distributions in deformed polymer glasses is investigated via molecular dynamics simulations on different scales of coarse-graining. Macroscopic shear stresses at the yield point obey a pressure-modified von Mises (pmvM) criterion for many different loading conditions and strain rates. Average local stresses in small volume elements obey the same yield criterion for volumes containing approx. 100 atoms or more. Qualitatively different behavior is observed on smaller scales: the average octahedral atomic shear stress has a simple linear relationship to hydrostatic pressure regardless of macroscopic stress state and failure mode. Local plastic events are identified through a threshold in the mean-squared nonaffine displacement and compared to the local stress state. We find that the pmvM criterion only predicts local yield events when stress and displacements are averaged over at least 100 atoms. By contrast, macroscopic shear yield criteria appear to lose their ability to predict plastic activity on the atomic scale.

  9. Changes in yields and their variability at different levels of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Childers, Katelin

    2015-04-01

    An assessment of climate change impacts at different levels of global warming is crucial to inform the political discussion about mitigation targets as well as for the inclusion of climate change impacts in Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) that generally only provide global mean temperature change as an indicator of climate change. While there is a well-established framework for the scalability of regional temperature and precipitation changes with global mean temperature change we provide an assessment of the extent to which impacts such as crop yield changes can also be described in terms of global mean temperature changes without accounting for the specific underlying emissions scenario. Based on multi-crop-model simulations of the four major cereal crops (maize, rice, soy, and wheat) on a 0.5 x 0.5 degree global grid generated within ISI-MIP, we show the average spatial patterns of projected crop yield changes at one half degree warming steps. We find that emissions scenario dependence is a minor component of the overall variance of projected yield changes at different levels of global warming. Furthermore, scenario dependence can be reduced by accounting for the direct effects of CO2 fertilization in each global climate model (GCM)/impact model combination through an inclusion of the global atmospheric CO2 concentration as a second predictor. The choice of GCM output used to force the crop model simulations accounts for a slightly larger portion of the total yield variance, but the greatest contributor to variance in both global and regional crop yields and at all levels of warming, is the inter-crop-model spread. The unique multi impact model ensemble available with ISI-MIP data also indicates that the overall variability of crop yields is projected to increase in conjunction with increasing global mean temperature. This result is consistent throughout the ensemble of impact models and across many world regions. Such a hike in yield volatility could have

  10. Xenon Sputter Yield Measurements for Ion Thruster Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, John D.; Gardner, Michael M.; Johnson, Mark L.; Wilbur, Paul J.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a technique that was used to measure total and differential sputter yields of materials important to high specific impulse ion thrusters. The heart of the technique is a quartz crystal monitor that is swept at constant radial distance from a small target region where a high current density xenon ion beam is aimed. Differential sputtering yields were generally measured over a full 180 deg arc in a plane that included the beam centerline and the normal vector to the target surface. Sputter yield results are presented for a xenon ion energy range from 0.5 to 10 keV and an angle of incidence range from 0 deg to 70 deg from the target surface normal direction for targets consisting of molybdenum, titanium, solid (Poco) graphite, and flexible graphite (grafoil). Total sputter yields are calculated using a simple integration procedure and comparisons are made to sputter yields obtained from the literature. In general, the agreement between the available data is good. As expected for heavy xenon ions, the differential and total sputter yields are found to be strong functions of angle of incidence. Significant under- and over-cosine behavior is observed at low- and high-ion energies, respectively. In addition, strong differences in differential yield behavior are observed between low-Z targets (C and Ti) and high-Z targets (Mo). Curve fits to the differential sputter yield data are provided. They should prove useful to analysts interested in predicting the erosion profiles of ion thruster components and determining where the erosion products re-deposit.

  11. Going Local to Find Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Cover Story: Traumatic Brain Injury Going Local to Find Help Past Issues / Fall ... the time. From the MedlinePlus page on Traumatic Brain Injury, you can use Go Local to find specific ...

  12. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment. PMID:25348886

  13. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC50 value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  14. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    PubMed

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  15. Distinguishing between yield advances and yield plateaus in historical crop production trends

    PubMed Central

    Grassini, Patricio; Eskridge, Kent M.; Cassman, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Food security and land required for food production largely depend on rate of yield gain of major cereal crops. Previous projections of food security are often more optimistic than what historical yield trends would support. Many econometric projections of future food production assume compound rates of yield gain, which are not consistent with historical yield trends. Here we provide a framework to characterize past yield trends and show that linear trajectories adequately describe past yield trends, which means the relative rate of gain decreases over time. Furthermore, there is evidence of yield plateaus or abrupt decreases in rate of yield gain, including rice in eastern Asia and wheat in northwest Europe, which account for 31% of total global rice, wheat and maize production. Estimating future food production capacity would benefit from an analysis of past crop yield trends based on a robust statistical analysis framework that evaluates historical yield trajectories and plateaus. PMID:24346131

  16. Weather yield model for the semi tropical region (Pakistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haider, Syed Faizan; Asif, K. H.; Gilani, Amjad Hussain

    1992-09-01

    Weather models are essential tools for checking of the effect of the weather elements in terms of their effect on the production of the crop. This research is an attempt to see the effect of only two variables i.e., temperature and rainfall for the division Faisalabad (semitropical region of Pakistan). The model fitted is of the linear form: Y= a+ bX 1+ cX 2, the values of a,b,c have been found. The expected yield has been calculated by using the aridity indices X 1 and X 2 and the result in the form of coefficient of determination R 2 has been found equal to 0.166. The significance of the regression coefficient has been tested, which shows that the contribution to the yield from aridity index at germination and that at ripening is significant. The wheat yields are the results of a wide variety of variables, most of which show varying degree of relationship with one another, some positive and some negative in terms of output. These variables may be technology, fertilizers, pesticides, epidemics, kinds of seeds used, market price of crop and the area under cultivation etc, which can be the source of variation in the wheat yield. Since rainfall during germination and temperature at the ripening periods are the necessary factors for the yield of wheat, for this purpose these parameters have been studied in order to their contribution.

  17. Study of B{sub c{yields}}KK decay with perturbative QCD approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yueling; Sun Junfeng; Wang Na

    2010-04-01

    In the framework of the perturbative QCD approach, we study the charmless pure weak annihilation B{sub c}{sup -{yields}}K{sup -}K{sup 0} decay and find that the branching ratio BR(B{sub c{yields}}KK){approx}O(10{sup -7}). This prediction is so tiny that the B{sub c{yields}}KK decay might be unmeasurable at the Large Hadron Collider.

  18. Photoelectron Quantum Yields of the Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Dam, Rudy J.; Burke, Charles A.; Griffith, O. Hayes

    1974-01-01

    The photoelectron quantum yields of 21 common amino acids and 15 polyamino acids were measured in the 180-240 nm wavelength region. On the average, the quantum yields of these two groups exhibit quite similar wavelength dependence. For λ > 220 nm all amino acid and polyamino acid quantum yields are ≤10-7 electrons/(incident) photon. The mean yields increase to about 5 × 10-7 electrons/photon at 200 nm and 5 × 10-6 electrons/photon at 180 nm. L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, and poly-L-tryptophan exhibit above average yields between 180 and 200 nm. Comparison with the dye phthalocyanine indicates that the quantum yield of the dye is two orders of magnitude greater than that of the amino acids from 200 to 240 nm, suggesting the feasibility of photoelectron labeling studies of biological surfaces. PMID:4836100

  19. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  20. Crop status evaluations and yield predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haun, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    One phase of the large area crop inventory project is presented. Wheat yield models based on the input of environmental variables potentially obtainable through the use of space remote sensing were developed and demonstrated. By the use of a unique method for visually qualifying daily plant development and subsequent multifactor computer analyses, it was possible to develop practical models for predicting crop development and yield. Development of wheat yield prediction models was based on the discovery that morphological changes in plants are detected and quantified on a daily basis, and that this change during a portion of the season was proportional to yield.