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Sample records for yohimbine

  1. Yohimbine in the treatment of erectile disorder.

    PubMed

    Riley, A J

    1994-01-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid derived mainly from the bark of the African tree, Pausinystalia yohimbe. Although many pharmacological properties of yohimbine have been described, at the plasma concentration attained at recommended dosages in man the predominant activity is antagonism of alpha 2-adrenoceptors. For more than 70 years yohimbine has been used as a treatment for male and female sexual difficulties. It has enjoyed a reputation as an aphrodisiac although no effect on sexual drive in humans has been adequately demonstrated. Yohimbine has been evaluated in the management of erectile disorder by means of placebo-controlled but often poorly designed trials. It does appear to have a modest therapeutic benefit over placebo, particularly in essentially psychogenic erectile disorder, and is generally well tolerated. Yohimbine is not licensed in the UK.

  2. Norepinephrine and impulsivity: Effects of acute yohimbine

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Alan C.; Lijffijt, Marijn; Lane, Scott D.; Cox, Blake; Steinberg, Joel L.; Moeller, F. Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rapid-response impulsivity, characterized by inability to withhold response to a stimulus until it is adequately appraised, is associated with risky behavior and may be increased in a state-dependent manner by norepinephrine. Objective We assessed effects of yohimbine, which increases norepinephrine release by blocking alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors, on plasma catecholamine metabolites, blood pressure, subjective symptoms, and laboratory-measured rapid-response impulsivity. Methods Subjects were twenty-three healthy controls recruited from the community, with normal physical examination and ECG, and negative history for hypertension, cardiovascular illness, and Axis I or II disorder. Blood pressure, pulse, and behavioral measures were obtained before and periodically after 0.4 mg/kg oral yohimbine or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced design. Metabolites of norepinephrine (3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol, MHPG; vanillylmandelic acid, VMA) and dopamine (homovanillic acid, HVA) were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Rapid-response impulsivity was measured by commission errors and reaction times on the Immediate Memory Task (IMT), a continuous performance test designed to measure impulsivity and attention. Results Yohimbine increased plasma MHPG and VMA but not HVA. Yohimbine increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse rate. On the IMT, yohimbine increased impulsive errors and impulsive response bias and accelerated reaction times. Yohimbine-associated increase in plasma MHPG correlated with increased impulsive response rates. Time courses varied; effects on blood pressure generally preceded those on metabolites and test performance. Conclusions These effects are consistent with increased rapid-response impulsivity after pharmacological noradrenergic stimulation in healthy controls. Labile noradrenergic responses, or increased sensitivity to norepinephrine, may increase risk for impulsive

  3. Catalytic asymmetric total synthesis of (+)-yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Mergott, Dustin J; Zuend, Stephan J; Jacobsen, Eric N

    2008-03-06

    The total synthesis of (+)-yohimbine was achieved in 11 steps and 14% overall yield. The absolute configuration was established through a highly enantioselective thiourea-catalyzed acyl-Pictet-Spengler reaction, and the remaining 4 stereocenters were set simultaneously in a substrate-controlled intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction.

  4. Acute neurotoxicity after yohimbine ingestion by a body builder.

    PubMed

    Giampreti, Andrea; Lonati, Davide; Locatelli, Carlo; Rocchi, Loretta; Campailla, Maria Teresa

    2009-09-01

    Yohimbine is an alkaloid obtained from the Corynanthe yohimbe tree and other biological sources. Yohimbine is currently approved in the United States for erectile dysfunction and has undergone resurgence in street use as an aphrodisiac and mild hallucinogen. In recent years yohimbine use has become common in body-building communities for its presumed lipolytic and sympathomimetic effects. We describe a 37-year-old bodybuilder in which severe acute neurotoxic effects occurred in 2 h after yohimbine ingestion. The patient presented with malaise, vomiting, loss of consciousness, and repeated seizures after ingestion of 5 g of yohimbine during a body-building competition in a gymnasium. His Glasgow Coma Score was 3, requiring orotracheal intubation. Two hours after admission, vital signs were blood pressure 259/107 mmHg and heart rate 140 beats/min. Treatment with furosemide, labetalol, clonidine, and urapidil and gastrointestinal decontamination were performed. Twelve hours later the patient was extubated with normal hemodynamic parameters and neurological examination. The yohimbine blood levels at 3, 6, 14, and 22 h after ingestion were 5,240; 2,250; 1,530; and 865 ng/mL, respectively, with a mean half-life of 2 h. Few data are available about yohimbine toxicity and the related blood levels. This is a case of a large ingestion of yohimbine in which severe hemodynamic and neurological manifestations occurred and elevated blood levels of yohimbine were detected.

  5. Comparative pharmacokinetics of yohimbine in steers, horses and dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Jernigan, A D; Wilson, R C; Booth, N H; Hatch, R C; Akbari, A

    1988-01-01

    In steers, horses and dogs, the comparative pharmacokinetics of yohimbine were determined using model-independent analysis. The intravenous dose of yohimbine was 0.25 mg/kg of body weight in steers, 0.075 or 0.15 mg/kg in horses, and 0.4 mg/kg in dogs. The mean residence time (+/- SD) of yohimbine was 86.7 +/- 46.2 min in steers, 106.2 +/- 72.1 to 118.7 +/- 35.0 min in horses, and 163.6 +/- 49.7 min in dogs. The mean apparent volume of distribution of yohimbine at steady state was 4.9 +/- 1.4 L/kg for steers, 2.7 +/- 1.0 to 4.6 +/- 1.9 L/kg for horses, and 4.5 +/- 1.8 L/kg for dogs. The total body clearance of yohimbine was 69.6 +/- 35.1 mL/min/kg for steers, 34.0 +/- 19.4 to 39.6 +/- 16.6 mL/min/kg for horses, and 29.6 +/- 14.7 mL/min/kg for dogs. Between-species comparisons indicated that the mean area under the serum concentration versus time curve was significantly greater (P less than 0.05) in dogs than in horses. There were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) between the means for the apparent volume of distribution, clearance, mean residence time, terminal rate constant, and area under the curve between horses given the two doses of yohimbine. The harmonic mean effective half-life (+/- pseudo standard deviation) of yohimbine was 46.7 +/- 24.4 min in steers, 52.8 +/- 27.8 to 76.1 +/- 23.1 min in horses, and 104.1 +/- 32.1 min in dogs. The data may explain why steers, horses, and dogs given certain sedatives and anesthetics do not relapse when aroused by an intravenous injection of yohimbine hydrochloride. PMID:3370551

  6. Acute pesticide ingestion managed with yohimbine as a rescue therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nasa, Prashant; Juneja, Deven

    2016-01-01

    Amitraz is used as a pesticide in agricultural and veterinary medicine. It is primarily a central α2 adrenergic agonist and known to cause central nervous system depression, convulsions, respiratory depression, and bradycardia on severe intoxication. We report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with accidental ingestion of amitraz solution with signs of severe poisoning. There is no specific antidote of amitraz poisoning in humans, however, animal experiments with α2 adrenergic antagonists such as yohimbine and atimepazole have been successful. The child was managed besides intensive management with enteral yohimbine, and he regained consciousness in 18 h and was successfully weaned off mechanical ventilation. PMID:28149034

  7. Acute pesticide ingestion managed with yohimbine as a rescue therapy.

    PubMed

    Nasa, Prashant; Juneja, Deven

    2016-12-01

    Amitraz is used as a pesticide in agricultural and veterinary medicine. It is primarily a central α2 adrenergic agonist and known to cause central nervous system depression, convulsions, respiratory depression, and bradycardia on severe intoxication. We report a case of a 3-year-old child who presented with accidental ingestion of amitraz solution with signs of severe poisoning. There is no specific antidote of amitraz poisoning in humans, however, animal experiments with α2 adrenergic antagonists such as yohimbine and atimepazole have been successful. The child was managed besides intensive management with enteral yohimbine, and he regained consciousness in 18 h and was successfully weaned off mechanical ventilation.

  8. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Ball, Kevin T; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-11-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one's drug use history. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Yohimbine reinstates extinguished 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) seeking in rats with prior exposure to chronic yohimbine

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Kevin T.; Jarsocrak, Hanna; Hyacinthe, Johanna; Lambert, Justina; Lockowitz, James; Schrock, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to acute stress has been shown to reinstate extinguished responding for a wide variety of drugs, no studies have investigated stress-induced reinstatement in animals with a history of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) self-administration. Thus, rats were trained to press a lever for MDMA (0.50 mg/kg/infusion) in daily sessions, and lever pressing was subsequently extinguished in the absence of MDMA and conditioned cues (light and tone). We then tested the ability of acute yohimbine (2.0 mg/kg), a pharmacological stressor, to reinstate lever-pressing under extinction conditions. Additionally, to model chronic stress, some rats were injected daily with yohimbine (5.0 mg/kg × 10 days) prior to reinstatement tests. To assess dopaminergic involvement, chronic yohimbine injections were combined with injections of SCH-23390 (0.0 or 10.0 μg/kg), a dopamine D1-like receptor antagonist. In a separate experiment, rats with a history of food self-administration were treated and tested in the same way. Results showed that acute yohimbine injections reinstated extinguished MDMA and food seeking, but only in rats with a history of chronic yohimbine exposure. Co-administration of SCH-23390 with chronic yohimbine injections prevented the potentiation of subsequent food seeking, but not MDMA seeking. These results suggest that abstinent MDMA users who also are exposed to chronic stress may be at increased risk for future relapse, and also that the effects of chronic stress on relapse may be mediated by different mechanisms depending on one’s drug use history. PMID:26241170

  10. Estimation of yohimbine base in complex mixtures by quantitative HPTLC application.

    PubMed

    Adel-Kader, Maged Saad; Alwahebi, Naif Wahebi Hamadan; Alam, Prawez

    2017-01-01

    The indole alkaloid Yohimbine has been used for over two centuries in the treatment of erectly dysfunction. Several formulations containing yohimbine salts, yohimbe bark power or extract are marketed worldwide. Determination of the amount of yohimbine in such formulation is a challenging task due to their complex nature. Extraction followed by acid-base purification resulted in a relatively pure alkaloids containing fractions. The exact amounts of yohimbine free base in different formulations were determined by densitometric HPTLC validated methods using silica gel TLC plates. Standard curve for yohimbine was generated using yohimbine hydrochloride subjected to the same acid-base treatment as the used samples. All formulations found to contain yohimbine though some with less concentration than the labeled amount.

  11. Gas chromatographic determination of yohimbine in commercial yohimbe products.

    PubMed

    Betz, J M; White, K D; der Marderosian, A H

    1995-01-01

    The bark of Pausinystalia yohimbe [K. Schumann] Pierre (Rubiaceae), long valued as an aphrodisiac in West Africa, recently has been promoted in the United States as a dietary supplement alternative to anabolic steroids for enhancement of athletic performance. As the number of yohimbe products on the retail market increases, concerns about their safety are raised because of the reported toxicity of yohimbine (the major alkaloid of the plant). Although plant materials are usually identified microscopically, we were unable to identify them in many of the products, because as their labels indicated, the products were mixtures of various botanicals or were bark extracts and contained little or no plant material. A method for extraction and capillary gas chromatographic (GC) separation of the alkaloids of P. yohimbe was, therefore, developed and used to analyze a number of commercial yohimbe products. The method involved solvent extraction and partitioning in chloroform-water followed by separation on a methyl silicone capillary GC column (N-P detection). Comparisons of chromatograms of extracts of authentic bark with those of commercial products indicated that, although many products contained measurable quantities of the alkaloid yohimbine, they were largely devoid of the other alkaloids previously reported in this species. Concentrations of yohimbine in the commercial products ranged from < 0.1 to 489 ppm, compared with 7089 ppm in the authentic material. Authentic bark has been reported to contain up to 6% total alkaloids, 10-15% of which are yohimbine. The possible presence of undeclared diluents in the products was indicated by peaks in product chromatograms but not in those of authentic bark.

  12. Yohimbine use for physical enhancement and its potential toxicity.

    PubMed

    Cimolai, Nevio; Cimolai, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    Yohimbine is a naturally sourced pharmacological agent, which produces hyperadrenergic physiological effects. In excess doses, it may typically cause agitation, anxiety, hypertension, and tachycardia. There is no conclusive evidence for this drug to be of benefit in bodybuilding, exercise tolerance, physical performance, or desirable alterations of body mass. Although tolerated generally well in low doses, the potential for dose-dependent toxicity should be recognized.

  13. Yohimbine-induced cutaneous drug eruption, progressive renal failure, and lupus-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sandler, B; Aronson, P

    1993-04-01

    Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid obtained from the yohimbe tree, a common tree in West Africa. We describe a forty-two-year black man in whom a generalized erythrodermic skin eruption, progressive renal failure, and lupus-like syndrome developed following treatment with the drug, yohimbine. A literature review failed to reveal any reported association of these side effects. We review current information on yohimbine's use in male impotence, reported side effects, and its role as a drug allergen.

  14. Effect of yohimbine on detomidine induced changes in behavior, cardiac and blood parameters in the horse.

    PubMed

    DiMaio Knych, Heather K; Covarrubias, Vanessa; Steffey, Eugene P

    2012-11-01

    To describe selected pharmacodynamic effects of detomidine and yohimbine when administered alone and in sequence. Randomized crossover design. Nine healthy adult horses aged 9 ± 4 years and weighing 561 ± 56 kg. Three dose regimens were employed in the current study. 1) 0.03 mg kg(-1) detomidine IV, 2) 0.2 mg kg(-1) yohimbine IV and 3) 0.03 mg kg(-1) detomidine IV followed 15 minutes later by 0.2 mg kg(-1) yohimbine IV. Each horse received all three treatments with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Blood samples were obtained and plasma analyzed for detomidine and yohimbine concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Behavioral effects, heart rate and rhythm, glucose, packed cell volume and plasma proteins were monitored. Yohimbine rapidly reversed the sedative effects of detomidine in the horse. Additionally, yohimbine effectively returned heart rate and the percent of atrio-ventricular conduction disturbances to pre-detomidine values when administered 15 minutes post-detomidine administration. Plasma glucose was significantly increased following detomidine administration. The detomidine induced hyperglycemia was effectively reduced by yohimbine administration. Effects on packed cell volume and plasma proteins were variable. Intravenous administration of yohimbine effectively reversed detomidine induced sedation, bradycardia, atrio-ventricular heart block and hyperglycemia. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  15. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Jihan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. Materials and Method: In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum sheets precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (97:3:0.2), which gave compact bands of yohimbine hydrochloride. Results: Linear regression data for the calibration curves of standard yohimbine hydrochloride showed a good linear relationship over a concentration range of 80–1000 ng/spot with respect to the area and correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.9965. The method was evaluated regarding accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 5 and 40 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method efficiently separated yohimbine hydrochloride from other components even in complex mixture containing powdered plants. The amount of yohimbine hydrochloride ranged from 2.3 to 5.2 mg/tablet or capsule in preparations containing the pure alkaloid, while it varied from zero (0) to 1.5–1.8 mg/capsule in dietary supplements containing powdered yohimbe bark. Conclusion: We concluded that this method employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in quantitative determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations is efficient, simple, accurate, and validated. PMID:23661986

  16. A validated high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations.

    PubMed

    Badr, Jihan M

    2013-01-01

    Yohimbine is an indole alkaloid used as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. A number of methods were reported for the analysis of yohimbine in the bark or in pharmaceutical preparations. In the present work, a simple and sensitive high performance thin layer chromatographic method is developed for determination of yohimbine (occurring as yohimbine hydrochloride) in pharmaceutical preparations and validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The method employed thin layer chromatography aluminum sheets precoated with silica gel as the stationary phase and the mobile phase consisted of chloroform:methanol:ammonia (97:3:0.2), which gave compact bands of yohimbine hydrochloride. Linear regression data for the calibration curves of standard yohimbine hydrochloride showed a good linear relationship over a concentration range of 80-1000 ng/spot with respect to the area and correlation coefficient (R(2)) was 0.9965. The method was evaluated regarding accuracy, precision, selectivity, and robustness. Limits of detection and quantitation were recorded as 5 and 40 ng/spot, respectively. The proposed method efficiently separated yohimbine hydrochloride from other components even in complex mixture containing powdered plants. The amount of yohimbine hydrochloride ranged from 2.3 to 5.2 mg/tablet or capsule in preparations containing the pure alkaloid, while it varied from zero (0) to 1.5-1.8 mg/capsule in dietary supplements containing powdered yohimbe bark. We concluded that this method employing high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) in quantitative determination of yohimbine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparations is efficient, simple, accurate, and validated.

  17. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats

    PubMed Central

    Murahata, Yusuke; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine, and prazosin on xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 2 mg/kg BW xylazine intramuscularly, and saline (as the control); 160 μg/kg BW prazosin; or 40, 160, or 480 μg/kg BW atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 h later. Urine and blood samples were collected 10 times over 8 h. Urine volume, pH, and specific gravity; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) concentration; and creatinine, osmolality, and electrolyte values in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized xylazine-induced diuresis, but prazosin did not. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine but not dose-dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed xylazine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality, and the increase in free water clearance. Glomerular filtration rate, osmolar clearance, and plasma electrolyte concentrations were not significantly altered. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP concentration, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine increased plasma AVP concentration initially and temporarily, suggesting that this may in part influence antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of xylazine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against xylazine-induced diuresis in clinically normal cats. PMID:25356000

  18. Pharmaceutical quantities of yohimbine found in dietary supplements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Pieter A; Wang, Yan-Hong; Maller, Gregory; DeSouza, Renan; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    In the USA, botanical dietary supplements are presumed to be safe, but this is not necessarily always the case. Extracts of the evergreen tree yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe, though banned in many countries, are sold in hundreds of dietary supplements in the USA. We analyzed 49 brands of supplements labelled as containing yohimbe or yohimbine available for sale from seven major retailers in the USA. Supplements were analyzed using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry detectors for quantity of three alkaloids found in P. johimbe (yohimbine, rauwolscine, and corynanthine). The alkaloids were confirmed on the basis of retention time, ultraviolet spectra, and mass spectra against reference standards. The quantity of the most active alkaloid, yohimbine, per recommended serving ranged from none detected to 12.1 mg. Thirty-nine percent of the supplements (19/49) did not contain rauwolscine and corynanthine suggesting that the yohimbine was either from highly processed plant extract or synthetic in origin. Only 11 supplement brands (22%, 11/49) listed a specific quantity of yohimbine on the label. Most of these were inaccurately labelled (actual content ranged from 23% to 147% of the content on the label). Eighteen percent (9/49) of the supplements' labels did not provide any information about yohimbine's adverse effects. Of the 49 yohimbine supplement brands sold at seven major retail chains in the USA, only 4.1% (2/49) provided consumers with both accurate information about the quantity of yohimbine as well as information about yohimbine's known adverse effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Methadone patients exhibit increased startle and cortisol response after intravenous yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Stine, S M; Grillon, C G; Morgan, C A; Kosten, T R; Charney, D S; Krystal, J H

    2001-03-01

    Brain noradrenergic systems have been shown to be altered in opioid dependence and to mediate aspects of opioid withdrawal. Pre-clinical and clinical studies by others have shown that yohimbine, which increases noradrenergic activity, also increases both baseline and fear enhancement of the magnitude of the acoustic startle response (ASR). In a separate report from this experiment, it was shown that yohimbine produced opioid withdrawal-like symptoms, including anxiety, in clinically stable methadone-maintained patients and also produced elevations in the norepinepherine (NE) metabolite, 3-methoxy-4 hydroxyphenethyleneglycol (MHPG), and cortisol serum levels. The current study reports the effects of intravenous yohimbine hydrochloride, 0.4 mg/kg versus saline (double-blind), on ASR magnitude, plasma MHPG, and cortisol levels in eight methadone-maintained patients and 13 healthy subjects in a double-blind fashion. Yohimbine increased startle magnitude in both groups. There was no basal (placebo day) difference between the startle response of the two groups, but methadone patients had a larger startle magnitude increase in response to yohimbine than healthy controls. Methadone-maintained patients had lower baseline plasma levels of MHPG and similar baseline plasma cortisol levels compared with normal subjects. Yohimbine caused significant elevation in cortisol and MHPG in both groups. Methadone-maintained subjects had higher elevations in cortisol levels and MHPG (methadone main effect) levels in response to yohimbine. However, when MHPG levels were corrected for baseline differences by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), the yohimbine effect, but not the methadone effect remained statistically significant. These results are consistent with the previous report and support the hypothesis that abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and of noradrenergic mechanisms of stress response persist in opioid-agonist maintenance. The ASR effect extends the

  20. Yohimbine enhancement of exposure therapy for social anxiety disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smits, Jasper A J; Rosenfield, David; Davis, Michelle L; Julian, Kristin; Handelsman, Pamela R; Otto, Michael W; Tuerk, Peter; Shiekh, Michael; Rosenfield, Ben; Hofmann, Stefan G; Powers, Mark B

    2014-06-01

    Preclinical and clinical trials suggest that yohimbine may augment extinction learning without significant side effects. However, previous clinical trials have only examined adults with specific phobias. Yohimbine has not yet been investigated in the augmentation of exposure therapy for other anxiety disorders. Adults (n = 40) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of social anxiety disorder were randomized to placebo or yohimbine HCl (10.8 mg) 1 hour before each of four exposure sessions. Outcome measures were collected at baseline, each treatment session, posttreatment, and 1-month follow-up. Yohimbine was well tolerated. Yohimbine augmentation, relative to placebo augmentation, resulted in faster improvement and better outcomes on self-report measures of social anxiety disorder severity (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, d = .53) and depressed mood severity (Beck Depression Inventory, d = .37) but not on the clinician-rated measures (Clinical Global Impressions-Severity Scale, d = .09; Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement Scale, d = .25). Between-group differences on the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale were moderated by the level of fear reported at the end of an exposure exercise (end fear), such that the advantage of yohimbine over placebo was only evident among patients who reported low end fear. The results provide moderate support for yohimbine as a therapeutic augmentation strategy for exposure therapy in social anxiety disorder, one that may be especially effective when coupled with successful exposure experiences. Beneficial effects for yohimbine were readily evident for self-report measures but not for clinician-rated outcomes of social anxiety severity and improvement. © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry Published by Society of Biological Psychiatry All rights reserved.

  1. Quantification of [11C]yohimbine binding to α2 adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Landau, Anne M; Wong, Dean F; Jakobsen, Steen; Nahimi, Adjmal; Doudet, Doris J; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-01-01

    We quantified the binding potentials (BPND) of [11C]yohimbine binding in rat brain to alpha-2 adrenoceptors to evaluate [11C]yohimbine as an in vivo marker of noradrenergic neurotransmission and to examine its sensitivity to the level of noradrenaline. Dual [11C]yohimbine dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were applied to five Sprague Dawley rats at baseline, followed by acute amphetamine administration (2 mg/kg) to induce elevation of the endogenous level of noradrenaline. The volume of distribution (VT) of [11C]yohimbine was obtained using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of an anatomic region of no displaceable binding. We used the Inhibition plot to acquire the reference volume, VND, from which we calculated the BPND. Acute pharmacological challenge with amphetamine induced a significant decline of [11C]yohimbine BPND of ~38% in all volumes of interest. The BPND was greatest in the thalamus and striatum, followed in descending order by, frontal cortex, pons, and cerebellum. The experimental data demonstrate that [11C]yohimbine binding is sensitive to a challenge known to increase the extracellular level of noradrenaline, which can benefit future PET investigations of pathologic conditions related to disrupted noradrenergic neurotransmission. PMID:25564241

  2. Quantification of [(11)C]yohimbine binding to α2 adrenoceptors in rat brain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Landau, Anne M; Wong, Dean F; Jakobsen, Steen; Nahimi, Adjmal; Doudet, Doris J; Gjedde, Albert

    2015-03-01

    We quantified the binding potentials (BPND) of [(11)C]yohimbine binding in rat brain to alpha-2 adrenoceptors to evaluate [(11)C]yohimbine as an in vivo marker of noradrenergic neurotransmission and to examine its sensitivity to the level of noradrenaline. Dual [(11)C]yohimbine dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) recordings were applied to five Sprague Dawley rats at baseline, followed by acute amphetamine administration (2 mg/kg) to induce elevation of the endogenous level of noradrenaline. The volume of distribution (VT) of [(11)C]yohimbine was obtained using Logan plot with arterial plasma input. Because alpha-2 adrenoceptors are distributed throughout the brain, the estimation of the BPND is complicated by the absence of an anatomic region of no displaceable binding. We used the Inhibition plot to acquire the reference volume, VND, from which we calculated the BPND. Acute pharmacological challenge with amphetamine induced a significant decline of [(11)C]yohimbine BPND of ~38% in all volumes of interest. The BPND was greatest in the thalamus and striatum, followed in descending order by, frontal cortex, pons, and cerebellum. The experimental data demonstrate that [(11)C]yohimbine binding is sensitive to a challenge known to increase the extracellular level of noradrenaline, which can benefit future PET investigations of pathologic conditions related to disrupted noradrenergic neurotransmission.

  3. Baclofen blocks yohimbine-induced increases in ethanol-reinforced responding in rats.

    PubMed

    Williams, Keith L; Nickel, Melissa M; Bielak, Justin T

    2016-05-01

    Chronic or repeated stress increases alcohol consumption. The GABA-B agonist baclofen decreases alcohol consumption and may be most effective for individuals with comorbid anxiety/stress disorders. The present study sought to determine if baclofen blocks stress-induced increases in ethanol self-administration as modeled by repeated yohimbine injections in rats. Rats were trained to respond for 15% w/v ethanol in operant chambers using a method that applies neither water deprivation nor saccharin/sucrose fading. Following training, the rats received 6 injections of 1.25mg/kg yohimbine were given immediately prior to the operant sessions during a 2-week time period. Subsequently, some rats were pair-matched to receive either 1.25mg/kg yohimbine or saline in the presence of 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg baclofen prior to sessions. Acquisition of ethanol self-administration was poor. Pretreatment with yohimbine consistently increased responding across repeated injections. Yohimbine's effect on ethanol intake unexpectedly diverged from the effect on responding as the rats failed to consume all reinforcers earned. Smaller doses of baclofen paired with saline injections had no effect on ethanol responding; only 3mg/kg baclofen reduced ethanol self-administration. The smallest baclofen dose of 0.3mg/kg failed to block the yohimbine-induced increase in self-administration. The large baclofen dose of 3mg/kg continued to suppress ethanol self-administration when given with yohimbine. Baclofen 1mg/kg blocked the effect of yohimbine even though it had no effect when given in the absence of yohimbine. Exposure to high ethanol concentrations may induce self-administration only in certain conditions. The dissociation between responding and intake suggests that repeated yohimbine injections may initiate other behavioral or physiological mechanisms that confound its effects as a pharmacological stressor. Furthermore, an optimal baclofen dose range may specifically protect against stress

  4. Comparative efficacy of yohimbine against pyridostigmine for the treatment of orthostatic hypotension in autonomic failure.

    PubMed

    Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis E; Gamboa, Alfredo; Yu, Chang; Diedrich, Andre'; Raj, Satish R; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2010-11-01

    Orthostatic hypotension affects patients with autonomic failure producing considerable disability because of presyncopal symptoms. Severely affected patients may have residual sympathetic tone that can be engaged to increase blood pressure (BP) with the α-2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. This medication activates sympathetic outflow centrally and unrestrains norepinephrine release from noradrenergic neurons. Alternatively, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine, can increase sympathetic tone by improving ganglionic cholinergic neurotransmission. Our purpose was to compare these complementary approaches and to explore whether the combination would lead to synergistic increases in BP. We compared the effects of 60 mg of pyridostigmine and 5.4 mg of yohimbine in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion. In a subset of patients we tested the combination of pyridostigmine and yohimbine. Our primary outcome was the change in standing diastolic BP 60 minutes after drug administration from baseline. We studied a total of 31 patients with severe autonomic failure. Yohimbine significantly improved standing diastolic BP as compared with placebo (11±3 mm Hg [95% CI: 6 to 16 mm Hg]; P<0.001). On the contrary, pyridostigmine did not increase the standing diastolic BP (0.6±3 mm Hg [95% CI: -5 to 5 mm Hg]; P=0.823). Only yohimbine showed a significant improvement in presyncopal symptoms. Sixteen patients received the combination of pyridostigmine and yohimbine, but no evidence of synergistic pressor effect was found. Engaging residual sympathetic tone with yohimbine is a more effective approach to improve orthostatic hypotension as compared with pyridostigmine in patients with severe orthostatic hypotension.

  5. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF YOHIMBINE AGAINST PYRIDOSTIGMINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF ORTHOSTATIC HYPOTENSION IN AUTONOMIC FAILURE

    PubMed Central

    Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis E.; Gamboa, Alfredo; Yu, Chang; Diedrich, Andre'; Raj, Satish R.; Robertson, David; Biaggioni, Italo

    2010-01-01

    Orthostatic hypotension affects patients with autonomic failure producing considerable disability because of pre-syncopal symptoms. Severely affected patients may have residual sympathetic tone that can be engaged to increase blood pressure with the alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. This medication activates sympathetic outflow centrally and unrestrains norepinephrine release from noradrenergic neurons. Alternatively, the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, pyridostigmine, can increase sympathetic tone by improving ganglionic cholinergic neurotransmission. Our purpose was to compare these complementary approaches and test the hypothesis that the combination would lead to synergistic increases in blood pressure. We compared the effects of pyridostigmine 60 mg and yohimbine 5.4 mg in a single-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover fashion. In a subset of patients we tested the combination of pyridostigmine and yohimbine. Our primary outcome was the change in standing diastolic blood pressure 60 minutes after drug administration from baseline. We studied a total of 31 patients with confirmed severe autonomic failure. Yohimbine significantly improved standing diastolic blood pressure as compared to placebo (11±3 mm Hg 95%CI: 6 to 16, P <0.001). On the contrary, Pyridostigmine did not increase the standing diastolic blood pressure (0.6±3 mm Hg 95%CI: −5 to 5, P =0.823). Only yohimbine showed a significant improvement in presyncopal symptoms. Sixteen patients received the combination of pyridostigmine and yohimbine, but no evidence of synergistic pressor effect was found. Engaging residual sympathetic tone with yohimbine is a more effective approach to improve orthostatic hypotension as compared to pyridostigmine in patients with severe orthostatic hypotension. PMID:20837887

  6. Differential effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on impulsive decision making and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Schippers, M C; Schetters, D; De Vries, T J; Pattij, T

    2016-07-01

    High levels of impulsivity have been associated with psychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance abuse. In addition, acute stress is known to exacerbate many psychiatric symptoms in impulse control disorders. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the acute effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on response inhibition and impulsive choice. A group of male rats (n = 12) was trained in the delayed reward task (DRT) to assess impulsive choice. A separate group (n = 10) was trained in the stop-signal task (SST) to measure response inhibition. Upon stable responding, the effects of yohimbine (0, 1.25, 2.5, and 5 mg/kg i.p.) were tested in a Latin square design. Acute yohimbine significantly increased the preference for the large and delayed reinforcer in the DRT, indicating a decrease in impulsive choice. On the contrary, the effect size of 1.25 mg/kg yohimbine on stop-signal reaction times correlated negatively with baseline performance, suggesting a baseline-dependent effect on response inhibition as measured in the SST. The current data suggest that the effects of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine on impulse control strongly depend on the type of impulsive behavior. Pharmacological stress decreased impulsive decision making, an observation that is in line with previously published rodent studies. By contrast, the lowest dose of yohimbine revealed a baseline-dependent effect on response inhibition. As such, the effects of yohimbine are largely comparable to the effects of psychostimulants on impulsivity and may support the notion of cross sensitization of stress and psychostimulants.

  7. Yohimbine Increases Opioid-Seeking Behavior in Heroin-Dependent, Buprenorphine-Maintained Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Greenwald, Mark K.; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Steinmiller, Caren L.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale In laboratory animals, the biological stressor yohimbine (α2-noradrenergic autoreceptor antagonist) promotes drug seeking. Human laboratory studies have demonstrated that psychological stressors can increase drug craving but not that stressors alter drug seeking. Objectives This clinical study tested whether yohimbine increases opioid seeking behavior. Methods Ten heroin-dependent, buprenorphine (8-mg/day) stabilized volunteers, sampled two doses of hydromorphone (12 and 24 mg IM in counterbalanced order, labeled Drug A [session 1] and Drug B [session 2]). During each of six later sessions (within-subject, double blind, randomized crossover design), volunteers could respond on a 12-trial choice progressive ratio task to earn units (1 or 2 mg) of the sampled hydromorphone dose (Drug A or B) vs. money ($2) following different oral yohimbine pretreatment doses (0, 16.2 and 32.4 mg). Results Behavioral economic demand intensity and peak responding (Omax) were significantly higher for hydromorphone 2-mg than 1-mg. Relative to placebo, yohimbine significantly increased hydromorphone demand inelasticity, more so for hydromorphone 1-mg units (Pmax = 909, 3647 and 3225 for placebo, 16.2 and 32.4 mg yohimbine doses, respectively) than hydromorphone 2-mg units (Pmax = 2656, 3193 and 3615, respectively). Yohimbine produced significant but clinically modest dose-dependent increases in blood pressure (systolic ≈15 and diastolic ≈10 mmHg) and opioid withdrawal symptoms, and decreased opioid agonist symptoms and elated mood. Conclusions These findings concur with preclinical data by demonstrating that yohimbine increases drug seeking; in this study, these effects occurred without clinically significant subjective distress or elevated craving, and partly depended on opioid unit dose. PMID:23161001

  8. The effects of yohimbine on the pharmacokinetic parameters of detomidine in the horse.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K; Steffey, Eugene P; Stanley, Scott D

    2012-05-01

    To describe the pharmacokinetics of detomidine and yohimbine when administered in combination. Randomized crossover design. Nine healthy adult horses aged 9 ± 4 years and weighing of 561 ± 56 kg. Three dose regimens were employed in the current study. 1) 0.03 mg kg(-1) detomidine IV (D), 2) 0.2 mg kg(-1) yohimbine IV (Y) and 3) 0.03 mg kg(-1) detomidine IV followed 15 minutes later by 0.2 mg kg(-1) yohimbine IV (DY). Each horse received all three dose regimens with a minimum of 1 week in between subsequent regimens. Blood samples were obtained and plasma analyzed for detomidine and yohimbine concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using both non-compartmental and compartmental analysis. The maximum measured detomidine concentrations were 76.0 and 129.9 ng mL(-1) for the D and DY treatments, respectively. Systemic clearance and volume of distribution of detomidine were not significantly different for either treatment. There was a significant increase in the maximum measured yohimbine plasma concentrations from Y (173.9 ng mL(-1)) to DY (289.8 ng mL(-1)). Both the Cl and V(d) for yohimbine were significantly less (6.8 mL minute(-1) kg(-1) (Cl) and 1.7 L kg(-1) (V(d) )) for the DY as compared to the Y treatments (13.9 mL minute(-1) kg(-1) (Cl) and 2.7 L kg(-1) (V(d))). Plasma concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (0.05 and 0.5 ng mL(-1)) by 18 hours for both detomidine and yohimbine. The Cl and V(d) of yohimbine were affected by prior administration of detomidine. The elimination half life of yohimbine remained unaffected when administered subsequent to detomidine. However, the increased plasma concentrations in the presence of detomidine has the potential to cause untoward effects and therefore further studies to assess the physiologic effects of this combination of drugs are warranted. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American

  9. Yohimbine stress potentiates conditioned cue-induced reinstatement of heroin-seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Banna, Kelly M; Back, Sudie E; Do, Phong; See, Ronald E

    2010-03-17

    Stress and drug-associated cues can trigger craving and relapse in abstinent drug-dependent individuals. Although the role of these two critical factors in relapse has been extensively studied, the interaction between stress and drug-associated cues in relapse has been less well characterized. Using an animal model of relapse, we assessed the effects of the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25 or 2.5mg/kg), on reinstatement of extinguished heroin-seeking in rats either in the presence or absence of heroin-associated cues. Yohimbine, in the absence of heroin-associated cues, and cues by themselves reliably reinstated heroin-seeking over extinction levels. Notably, animals showed significantly potentiated responding when yohimbine preceded cue-induced reinstatement (3-4x higher over cues or yohimbine alone). These results demonstrate that exposure to heroin-paired cues during yohimbine-induced stress greatly potentiates heroin-seeking, and support the simultaneous targeting of both stress and cue activation during relapse intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of yohimbine on reinstatement of operant responding in rats is dependent on cue contingency but not food reward history.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Wei; Fiscella, Kimberly A; Bacharach, Samuel Z; Tanda, Gianluigi; Shaham, Yavin; Calu, Donna J

    2015-07-01

    Yohimbine is an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist that has been used in numerous studies as a pharmacological stressor in rodents, monkeys and humans. Recently, yohimbine has become the most common stress manipulation in studies on reinstatement of drug and food seeking. However, the wide range of conditions under which yohimbine promotes reward seeking is significantly greater than that of stressors like intermittent footshock. Here, we addressed two fundamental questions regarding yohimbine's effect on reinstatement of reward seeking: (1) whether the drug's effect on operant responding is dependent on previous reward history or cue contingency, and (2) whether yohimbine is aversive or rewarding under conditions typically used in reinstatement studies. We also used in vivo microdialysis to determine yohimbine's effect on dopamine levels in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). We found that the magnitude of yohimbine-induced (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mg/kg) operant responding during the reinstatement tests was critically dependent on the contingency between lever pressing and discrete tone-light cue delivery but not the previous history with food reward during training. We also found that yohimbine (2 mg/kg) did not cause conditioned place aversion. Finally, we found that yohimbine modestly increased dopamine levels in mPFC but not NAc. Results suggest that yohimbine's effects on operant responding in reinstatement studies are likely independent of the history of contingent self-administration of food or drug rewards and may not be related to the commonly assumed stress-like effects of yohimbine. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Manipulation of norepinephrine metabolism with yohimbine in the treatment of autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, R. M.; Robertson, D.

    1994-01-01

    It has been postulated that alpha 2-adrenergic receptors play a modulatory role in the regulation of blood pressure. Activation of alpha 2-receptors located in the central nervous system results in inhibition of sympathetic tone and decrease of blood pressure. This indeed may be the mechanism of action of central sympatholytic antihypertensives such as alpha-methyldopa. Presynaptic alpha 2-receptors also are found in adrenergic nerve terminals. These receptors act as a negative feedback mechanism by inhibiting the release of norepinephrine. The relevance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors for blood pressure regulation can be explored with yohimbine, a selective antagonist of these receptors. Yohimbine increases blood pressure in resting normal volunteers. This effect is associated with an increase in both sympathetic nerve activity, reflecting an increase in central sympathetic outflow, and in norepinephrine spillover, reflecting potentiation of the release of norepinephrine from adrenergic nerve terminals. These actions, therefore, underscore the importance of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors for blood pressure regulation even under resting conditions. Patients with autonomic failure, even those with severe sympathetic deprivation, are hypersensitive to the pressor effects of yohimbine. This increased responsiveness can be explained by sensitization of adrenergic receptors, analogous to denervation supersensitivity, and by the lack of autonomic reflexes that would normally buffer any increase in blood pressure. Preliminary studies suggest that the effectiveness of yohimbine in autonomic failure can be enhanced with monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Used in combination, yohimbine increases norepinephrine release, whereas monoamine oxidase inhibitors inhibit its degradation. Therefore, yohimbine is not only a useful tool in the study of blood pressure regulation, but may offer a therapeutic option in autonomic dysfunction.

  12. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Md. Hasanuzzaman; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Hajime; Sato, Kanako; Matsuu, Aya

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy dogs. Five dogs were used repeatedly in each of 8 groups. One group was not medicated. Dogs in the other groups received 20 μg/kg of medetomidine intramuscularly and, 0.5 h later, saline (as the control injection), 50, 100, or 300 μg/kg of atipamezole, or 50, 100, or 300 μg/kg of yohimbine intramuscularly. Urine and blood samples were taken 11 times over 24 h for measurement of the following: urine volume, specific gravity, and creatinine concentration; urine and plasma osmolality; urine and plasma concentrations of electrolytes and arginine vasopressin (AVP); and the plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized the diuretic effect of medetomidine, inhibiting medetomidine-induced decreases in urine specific gravity, osmolality, and concentrations of creatinine, sodium, potassium, chloride, and AVP and reversing both the medetomidine-induced increase in plasma concentrations of sodium, potassium, and chloride and the medetomidine-induced decrease in the plasma AVP concentration. Atipamezole significantly stimulated ANP release. The antidiuretic action of yohimbine was more potent than that of atipamezole but was not dose-dependent, in contrast to the action of atipamezole. The effects of these drugs may not be due only to actions mediated by α2-adrenoceptors. PMID:20046627

  13. Dissociable effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action and relapse to cocaine seeking.

    PubMed

    Broos, Nienke; van Mourik, Yvar; Schetters, Dustin; De Vries, Taco J; Pattij, Tommy

    2017-11-01

    A strong association has been demonstrated between various forms of impulsivity and addiction-like behavior in both humans and rats. In this study, we investigated how impulsive action, as measured in the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT), is affected during various stages of cocaine taking and seeking and by relapse-provoking stimuli in animals that were trained both in an intravenous cocaine self-administration paradigm and in the 5-CSRTT. Rats were concurrently trained in the 5-CSRTT and cocaine self-administration protocol, and subsequently, the effects of cocaine (7.5 mg/kg) and the pharmacological stressor yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg) were tested in both paradigms. Cocaine self-administration (5 h/day) transiently altered impulsive action and increased errors of omission in the 5-CSRTT. Pharmacological challenges with cocaine and yohimbine induced increments in impulsive action and reinstated cocaine-seeking responses within the same animals. Further analyses revealed that the effects of cocaine and yohimbine on impulsive action did not correlate with their effects on reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These data suggest that although impulsive action and relapse can be pharmacologically modulated in the same direction within individuals, these effects appear not to be directly coupled.

  14. Analysis of yohimbine alkaloid from Pausinystalia yohimbe by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qinhua; Li, Peng; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Kaijun; Liu, Jia; Li, Qiang

    2008-07-01

    In the present work, the qualitative and quantitative analysis of Pausinystalia yohimbe-type alkaloids in the barks of Rubiaceae species is presented using different analytical approaches. Extracts of P. yohimbe were first examined by GC-MS and the major alkaloids were identified. The quantitation of yohimbine was then accomplished by non-aqueous CE (NACE) with diode array detection. This approach was selected in order to use a running buffer fully compatible with samples in organic solvent. In particular, a mixture of methanol containing ammonium acetate (20 mM) and glacial acetic acid was used as a BGE. The same analytical sample was subjected to GC-MS and NACE analysis; the different selectivity displayed by these techniques allowed different separation profiles that can be useful in phytochemical characterization of the extracts. The linear calibration ranges were all 10-1000 microg/mL for yohimbine by GC-MS and NACE analysis. The recovery of yohimbine was 91.2-94.0% with RSD 1.4-4.3%. The LOD for yohimbine were 0.6 microg/mL by GC-MS and 1.0 microg/mL by NACE, respectively. The GC-MS and NACE methods were successfully validated and applied to the quantitation of yohimbine.

  15. Characterization and quantitation of yohimbine and its analogs in botanicals and dietary supplements using LC/QTOF-MS and LC/QQQ-MS for determination of the presence of bark extract and yohimbine adulteration.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Derick; Neal-Kababick, James; Zweigenbaum, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    The compound yohimbine HCl has been restricted in Australia and categorized as a scheduled prescription drug in other parts of the world, including the United States where it is monographed as a drug in the U. S. Pharmacopeia. However, the bark of the yohimbe plant and its extract is considered a botanical that can be used as a dietary supplement in some parts of the world. For these reasons, methods to characterize the indole alkaloids of the bark and quantify yohimbine and its analogs are presented using accurate mass LC/quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF)-MS and triple quadrupole LC/MS, respectively. Samples were extracted with a QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method to characterize and quantify the indole alkaloids. With the LC/QTOF-MS in auto MS/MS mode the indole alkaloids were identified, and the isomeric response of each could be used to determine whether the actual bark or extract was in samples of dietary supplements and not adulteration with yohimbine HCl. Analogs were identified and include yohimbic acid, methyl yohimbine, and hydroxyl yohimbine. Many isomers of each were also detected, but identified only by the number of chromatographic peaks. Quantification of yohimbine and ajmalicine spiked extracts showed recoveries of 99 to 103% with RSD of 3.6% or lower and LODs of less than 100 ppt. Calibration of the two standards gave r(2) = 0.9999 in a range from 0.1 to 100 ppb. Dietary supplements quantified for these two compounds showed a range from not detected to 3x the amounts found in the bark.

  16. Impaired flexibility in decision making in rats after administration of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine.

    PubMed

    Schwager, Andrea L; Haack, Andrew K; Taha, Sharif A

    2014-10-01

    Stress-induced disruption of decision making has been hypothesized to contribute to drug-seeking behaviors and addiction. Noradrenergic signaling plays a central role in mediating stress responses. However, the effects of acute stress on decision making, and the role of noradrenergic signaling in regulating these effects, have not been well characterized. To characterize changes in decision making caused by acute pharmacological stress, the effects of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic antagonist) were examined in a delay discounting task. Noradrenergic contributions to decision making were further characterized by examining the effects of propranolol (a β antagonist), prazosin (an α1 antagonist), and guanfacine (an α2 agonist). Sprague-Dawley rats were administered drugs prior to performance on a delay discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward increased within each session (ascending delays). To dissociate drug-induced changes in delay sensitivity from behavioral inflexibility, drug effects were subsequently tested in a modified version of the discounting task, in which the delay preceding the large reward decreased within each session (descending delays). Yohimbine increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays but decreased choice of the same large reward when tested with descending delays, suggesting that drug effects could be attributed to perseverative choice of the lever preferred at the beginning of the session. Propranolol increased choice of the large reward when tested with ascending delays. Prazosin and guanfacine had no effect on reward choice. The stress-like effects of yohimbine administration may impair decision making by causing inflexible, perseverative behavior.

  17. Postpartum immobilization of adult female moose using xylazine, ketamine and yohimbine hydrochlorides.

    PubMed

    Garner, D L; Addison, E M

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two free-ranging adult female moose (Alces alces) were immobilized with a 1:4 mixture of xylazine hydrochloride (XH) and ketamine hydrochloride (KH). Mean (SD) dosages/animal for XH and KH were 419 (148) and 1565 (433) mg, respectively. Mean (SD) induction time was 18.4 (9.7) minutes. Reversal with yohimbine hydrochloride using a mean dosage of 83 mg/animal resulted in a mean (SD) recovery time of 22.8 (28.5) minutes.

  18. Cardiovascular and behavioral responses of gray wolves to ketamine-xylazine immobilization and antagonism by yohimbine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreeger, T.J.; Faggella, A.M.; Seal, U.S.; Mech, L.D.; Callahan, Margaret; Hall, B.

    1987-01-01

    Adult wolves (Canis lupus) were immobilized with 6.6 mg/kg ketamine hydrochloride (KET) and 2.2 mg/kg xylazine hydrochloride (XYL) administered intramuscularly. Induction time was 4.6 ± 0.3 min (x̄ ± SE). Immobilization resulted in significant bradycardia and hypertension (P < 0.05). Twenty min after induction, the wolves were given 0.05–0.60 mg/kg yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH). Yohimbine given intravenously produced dose-related increases in heart rate (HR) with doses >0.15 mg/kg resulting in extreme tachycardia (>300 bpm). All doses of YOH caused a temporary decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with some individual animals manifesting profound hypotension (<30 torr) at doses >0.15 mg/kg. Increasing the dose of YOH above 0.15 mg/kg did not significantly decrease either arousal or ambulation times. Administering YOH at 40 or 60 min after induction resulted in decreased arousal and ambulation times. Stimulation by weighing and taking repeated blood samples during anesthesia did not shorten arousal times. We recommend that wolves immobilized with XYL-KET be antagonized with doses of YOH <0.15 mg/kg.

  19. Use of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine to antagonize xylazine-induced immobilization in North American Cervidae.

    PubMed

    Renecker, L A; Olsen, C D

    1985-12-01

    Four captive moose (Alces alces), 4 mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and 5 white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized with xylazine (0.63 to 1.29 mg/kg of body weight, IM). Mean induction times for the moose were 17 minutes and for the deer, 14 and 10 minutes, respectively. According to published data and past experience, the dosage of xylazine used would be expected to provide 115, 120, and 100 minutes of immobilization in captive moose, mule deer, and white-tailed deer, respectively. In the present study, maximal sedation of the moose and deer was reversed with successive injections (given IV) of yohimbine (0.15 mg/kg) and 4-aminopyridine (0.26 to 0.29 mg/kg). These produced sternal recumbency-to-arousal intervals of 1 to 15 minutes and recumbency-to-standing or walking intervals of 1 to 24 minutes. Relapses to recumbency were not observed. The injections of the reversal drugs produced marked increases in respiratory rate and heart in the moose and deer, without occurrence of muscle tremors or convulsions. The administrations of yohimbine and 4-aminopyridine markedly enhanced the speed of recovery from xylazine-induced immobilization in moose and deer.

  20. Effects of Yohimbine and Tolazoline on Isoproterenol and Angiotensin 2-Induced Water Intake in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1983-01-01

    Subcutaneous administration of the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists, yohimbine and tolazoline, at doses up to 1000 micro-g/kg, had no effect on water intake of female rats. However, when these compounds were administered SC in combination with either the beta-adrenoreceptor agonist, isoproterenol (10 to 25 micro-g/kg, SC), or with angiotensin 2 (200 micro-g/kg, SC). water intake was enhanced. In contrast, intraventricular administration of either tolazoline (10 and 20 micro-g/kg) or yohimbine (300 micro-g/kg) failed to augment the dipsogenic response to angiotensin 2 (150 micro-g/kg, SC). Thus, the enhancing effect of these alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor antagonists on isoproterenol- and angiotensin 2-induced water intakes appears to be manifested peripherally, rather than centrally. In view of the fact that clonidine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit water intake induced by both isoproterenol and angiotensin 2, the results suggest that the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoreceptor may play a role in modulating water intake induced by these two dipsogenic agents.

  1. Determination of Yohimbine in Yohimbe Bark and Related Dietary Supplements Using UHPLC-UV/MS: Single-Laboratory Validation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Bryden, Noella

    2015-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation was performed on a practical ultra-HPLC (UHPLC)-diode array detector (DAD)/tandem MS method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity ethylene bridged hybrid C18 column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The method can separate corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract, which is critical for accurate quantitation of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements. Accuracy of the method was demonstrated using standard addition methods. Both intraday and interday precisions of the method were good. The method can be used without MS since yohimbine concentration in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements are usually high enough for DAD detection, which can make it an easy and economical method for routine analysis of yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. On the other hand, the method can be used with MS if desired for more challenging work such as biological and/or clinical studies.

  2. The antagonistic effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ambrisko, T. D.; Hikasa, Y.

    2003-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole (40, 120, and 320 μg/kg, IM), yohimbine (110 μg/kg, IM), and saline on neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine (20 μg/kg, IM). Five beagle dogs were used in each of the 5 experimental groups in randomized order. Blood samples were taken for 6 h. Medetomidine significantly decreased norepinephrine, epinephrine, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acid levels, and increased plasma glucose levels. Both atipamezole and yohimbine antagonized these effects. The reversal effect of atipamezole was dose-dependency, except on epinephrine. Yohimbine caused prolonged increases in plasma norepinephrine and insulin levels compared to atipamezole, possibly because of its longer half-life elimination. Only yohimbine increased the cortisol levels. Neither glucagon nor lactate levels changed significantly. Based on these findings, when medetomidine-induced sedation is antagonized in dogs, we recommend using atipamezole IM, from 2- to 6-fold the dose of medetomidine, unless otherwise indicated. PMID:12528832

  3. Single laboratory validation of the determination of yohimbine in yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A single laboratory validation has been performed on a practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC), diode array detection (DAD), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method for determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved u...

  4. PEEK tube-based online solid-phase microextraction-high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of yohimbine in rat plasma and its application in pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Xiaowei; Shang, Bing; Wang, Xiaozheng; Chen, Qinhua

    2017-04-01

    Yohimbine is a novel compound for the treatment of erectile dysfunction derived from natural products, and pharmacokinetic study is important for its further development as a new medicine. In this work, we developed a novel PEEK tube-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-HPLC method for analysis of yohimbine in plasma and further for pharmacokinetic study. Poly (AA-EGDMA) was synthesized inside a PEEK tube as the sorbent for microextraction of yohimbine, and parameters that could influence extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. Under optimum conditions, the PEEK tube-based SPME method exhibits excellent enrichment efficiency towards yohimbine. By using berberine as internal standard, an online SPME-HPLC method was developed for analysis of yohimbine in human plasma sample. The method has wide linear range (2-1000 ng/mL) with an R 2 of 0.9962; the limit of detection was determined and was as low as 0.1 ng/mL using UV detection. Finally, a pharmacokinetic study of yohimbine was carried out by the online SPME-HPLC method and the results have been compared with those of reported methods. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Winter day lengths counteract stimulatory effects of apomorphine and yohimbine on sexual behavior of male Syrian hamsters.

    PubMed

    Piekarski, David J; Jarjisian, Stephan G; Zucker, Irving

    2012-08-01

    Yohimbine and apomorphine selectively act on noradrenergic and dopaminergic neural substrates to augment male sexual behavior (MSB) in several rodent species. The present study assessed whether these drugs can overcome the suppressive effects of short winter-like day lengths on MSB. Yohimbine treatments that markedly increase copulatory behavior of male hamsters in long days were completely ineffective in facilitating MSB when injected after gonadal regression induced by 16 wks of short day lengths and after complete gonadal recrudescence after 32 wks of short days; apomorphine was similarly ineffective. The brain circuit that mediates MSB either may be less responsive to yohimbine and apomorphine in short than long days, or these drugs may not produce equivalent neurotransmitter changes in the two day lengths. After 32 wks of short-day treatment, all males had undergone testicular recrudescence and successfully ejaculated on initial tests with sexually receptive females after a hiatus of at least 4 mo during which they were denied mating opportunities. This suggests that overwintering males in the field are in a state of reproductive readiness at the outset of spring conditions favorable for survival of offspring.

  6. Comparison of the effect of intrathecal administration of clonidine and yohimbine on the locomotion of intact and spinal cats.

    PubMed

    Giroux, N; Reader, T A; Rossignol, S

    2001-06-01

    Several studies have shown that noradrenergic mechanisms are important for locomotion. For instance, L-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) can initiate "fictive" locomotion in immobilized acutely spinalized cats and alpha(2)-noradrenergic agonists, such as 2,6,-dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylid-enebenzenamine (clonidine), can induce treadmill locomotion soon after spinalization. However, the activation of noradrenergic receptors may be not essential for the basic locomotor rhythmicity because chronic spinal cats can walk with the hindlimbs on a treadmill in the absence of noradrenergic stimulation because the descending pathways are completely severed. This suggests that locomotion, in intact and spinal conditions, is probably expressed and controlled through different neurotransmitter mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, we compared the effect of the alpha(2) agonist, clonidine, and the antagonist (16 alpha, 17 alpha)-17-hydroxy yohimbine-16-carboxylic acid methyl ester hydrochloride (yohimbine), injected intrathecally at L(3)--L(4) before and after spinalization in the same cats chronically implanted with electrodes to record electromyograms (EMGs). In intact cats, clonidine (50-150 microg/100 microl) modulated the locomotor pattern slightly causing a decrease in duration of the step cycle accompanied with some variation of EMG burst amplitude and duration. In the spinal state, clonidine could trigger robust and sustained hind limb locomotion in the first week after the spinalization at a time when the cats were paraplegic. Later, after the spontaneous recovery of a stable locomotor pattern, clonidine prolonged the cycle duration, increased the amplitude and duration of flexor and extensor bursts, and augmented the foot drag at the onset of swing. In intact cats, yohimbine at high doses (800--1600 microg/100 microl) caused major walking difficulties characterized by asymmetric stepping, stumbling with poor lateral stability, and, at smaller doses (400 microg/100 microl

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Reserpine, Rescinnamine, and Yohimbine in Human Plasma by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muzaffar; Alam, Aftab; Wani, Tanveer A.; Khalil, Nasr Y.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and selective UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of three indolic alkaloids (reserpine, rescinnamine, and yohimbine) in human plasma using papaverine as internal standard (IS). After a one step protein precipitation with acetonitrile, separation was carried out using C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, i.d. 1.7 μm) and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : formic acid (60 : 40 : 0.1%, v/v/v) pumped at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The mass spectrometric determination was carried out using an electrospray interface operated in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 609.32 > 195.01, m/z 635.34 > 221.03, m/z 355.19 > 144, and m/z 340.15 > 202.02 were selected for the quantification of reserpine, rescinnamine, yohimbine, and IS, respectively. The analytical response was found to be linear in the range of 0.36–400, 0.27–300, and 0.23–250 ng/mL with lower limit of quantification of 0.36, 0.27, and 0.23 ng/mL for reserpine, rescinnamine, and yohimbine, respectively. Validation was made following official guidelines. The proposed method enabled reproducible results and hence could be reliable for pharmacokinetic and toxicological analysis. PMID:24383039

  8. Yohimbine hydrochloride as an antagonist to xylazine hydrochloride-ketamine hydrochloride immobilization of white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; DelGiudice, G.D.; Karns, P.D.; Seal, U.S.

    1985-01-01

    Thirteen captive and one free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) were immobilized one to six times each with ketamine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride during winter and spring in northern Minnesota. Administration of 0.09 to 0.53 mg of yohimbine hydrochloride per kg IV after each trial reversed the immobilization. The deer raised their heads within a median time of 2.0 min, stood in 6.0 min and walked away in 9.5 min. No adverse side effects were observed for several weeks following the immobilization.

  9. Qualitative and quantitative determination of yohimbine in authentic yohimbe bark and in commercial aphrodisiacs by HPLC-UV-API/ MS methods.

    PubMed

    Zanolari, Boris; Ndjoko, Karine; Ioset, Jean-Robert; Marston, Andrew; Hostettmann, Kurt

    2003-01-01

    The development and validation of a rapid qualitative and quantitative method based on an HPLC-UV-MS technique with atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation for the analysis of yohimbine in a number of commercial aphrodisiac products is reported. HPLC with multiple-stage mass spectrometry experiments allowed the identification of the target compound and increased the selectivity of complex analyses such as those involved with multi-botanical preparations. The precision and the robustness of the method were improved by the use of two internal standards: codeine for UV detection and deuterium-labelled yohimbine for MS detection. Twenty commercial aphrodisiac preparations were analysed and the amount of yohimbine measured and expressed as the maximal dose per day suggested on product labels ranged from 1.32 to 23.16 mg.

  10. Effects of intravenously administered yohimbine on antinociceptive, cardiorespiratory, and postural changes induced by epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution to healthy mares.

    PubMed

    Skarda, R T; Muir, W W

    1999-10-01

    To determine effects of i.v. administered yohimbine on perineal analgesia, cardiovascular and respiratory activity, and head and pelvic limb position in healthy mares following epidural administration of detomidine hydrochloride solution. 8 healthy mares. Each mare received detomidine hydrochloride (0.06 mg/kg of body weight), administered in the caudal epidural space, followed 61 minutes later by yohimbine (0.05 mg/kg; test) or sterile saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control), administered i.v., in a randomized, crossover study design with > or = 2 weeks between treatments. Analgesia was determined by lack of sensory perception to electrical stimulation of perineal dermatomes and needle-prick stimulation of coccygeal to 15th thoracic dermatomes. Arterial pH, PaCO2, PaO2, heart and respiratory rates, rectal temperature, arterial blood pressure, and cardiac output were determined, and mares were observed for sweating and urination. Mean scores obtained for test and control groups were compared. Intravenously administered yohimbine significantly reduced mean scores of detomidine-induced perineal analgesia, head ptosis, changes in pelvic limb position, and sweating and diuresis; antagonized detomidine-induced decreases in heart rate and cardiac output; but did not affect detomidine-induced decrease in respiratory rate. Most effects of epidurally administered detomidine, except bradypnea, were antagonized by yohimbine, suggesting that detomidine may influence respiratory rate by mechanisms other than stimulation of alpha2-adrenoceptors, or that yohimbine induces respiratory depressant effects. Yohimbine may be an effective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist for all but respiratory depression following epidural administration of detomidine to mares.

  11. Effects of yohimbine and drug cues on impulsivity and attention in cocaine-dependent men and women and sex-matched controls.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, M M; Baker, N L; McRae-Clark, A L; Prisciandaro, J J; Brady, K T

    2016-05-01

    Deficits in executive function have been associated with risk for relapse. Data from previous studies suggest that relapse may be triggered by stress and drug-paired cues and that there are significant sex differences in the magnitude of these responses. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the pharmacological stressor and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine and cocaine cues on executive function in cocaine-dependent men and women. In a double-blind placebo controlled cross-over study, cocaine-dependent men (n=12), cocaine-dependent women (n=27), control men (n=31) and control women (n=25) received either yohimbine or placebo prior to two cocaine cue exposure sessions. Participants performed the Connors' Continuous Performance Test II prior to medication/placebo administration and immediately after each cue exposure session Healthy controls had a significant increase in commission errors under the yohimbine condition [RR (95% CI)=1.1 (1.0-1.3), χ(2)1=2.0, p=0.050]. Cocaine-dependent individuals exhibited a significant decrease in omission errors under the yohimbine condition [RR (95% CI)=0.6 (0.4-0.8), χ(2)1=8.6, p=0.003]. Cocaine-dependent women had more omission errors as compared to cocaine-dependent men regardless of treatment [RR (95% CI)=7.2 (3.6-14.7), χ(2)1=30.1, p<0.001]. Cocaine-dependent women exhibited a slower hit reaction time as compared to cocaine-dependent men [Female 354 ± 13 vs. Male 415 ± 14; t89=2.6, p=0.012]. These data add to a growing literature demonstrating significant sex differences in behaviors associated with relapse in cocaine-dependent individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sex differences in reinstatement of alcohol seeking in response to cues and yohimbine in rats with and without a history of adolescent corticosterone exposure.

    PubMed

    Bertholomey, M L; Nagarajan, V; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2016-06-01

    Women represent a vulnerable and growing population with respect to alcohol abuse. Elevated glucocorticoid exposure in adolescence increases addiction risk and stress sensitivity in adulthood. However, little is known about sex differences in ethanol craving-like behavior. This study characterized sex differences in ethanol-motivated behavior following ethanol-paired cues and/or acute stimulation of the HPA axis in male and female rats with or without exposure to chronically elevated glucocorticoids in adolescence. Adolescent corticosterone-treated (Experiment 1) or naïve (Experiment 2) male and female rats were trained as adults to self-administer ethanol paired with a cue, and tested for the effects of this cue, alone or in combination with yohimbine, on the reinstatement of ethanol seeking. Females showed elevated ethanol self-administration and seeking compared to males. In Experiment 1, corticosterone exposure in adolescence augmented cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking in females only, and females were more sensitive to yohimbine in promoting reinstatement. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed that exposure to both yohimbine and alcohol-related cues enhanced the reinstatement of alcohol seeking, producing additive effects in females. Corticosterone levels were higher in females and in yohimbine-treated rats, and corticosterone and estradiol correlated with responding during reinstatement. Chronic manipulations in adolescence and acute manipulations in adulthood of the HPA axis increase cue-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking to a greater degree in females than in males. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie these effects may lead to the development of sex-specific interventions aimed at mitigating alcohol relapse risk in females.

  13. Repeated Alcohol Extinction Sessions in Conjunction with MK-801, but not Yohimbine or Propranolol, Reduces Subsequent Alcohol Cue-Induced Responding in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Keith L.; Harding, Kaitlyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Cues associated with alcohol can stimulate subjective states that increase relapse. Alcohol-cue associations may be strengthened by enhancing adrenergic activity with yohimbine or weakened by blocking adrenergic activity with propranolol. Alcohol-cue associations may also be weakened by long cue exposure sessions or strengthened by short cue exposure sessions. A useful treatment approach for alcoholism may combine adrenergic manipulation with cue exposure sessions of a specific duration. The present study sought to determine if cue exposure during long- or short-duration extinction sessions with post-session yohimbine or propranolol would alter alcohol cue-induced responding and self-administration. Rats were trained to respond for alcohol during sessions that included an olfactory cue given at the beginning of the session and a visual/auditory cue complex delivered concurrently with alcohol. Cue-induced responding was assessed before and after the repeated extinction sessions. Repeated alcohol extinction sessions of long duration (45 min) or short duration (5 min) were followed immediately by injections of saline, yohimbine, or propranolol. After the second set of cue-induced responding tests, reacquisition of operant alcohol self-administration was examined. To determine if the experimental procedures were sensitive to memory manipulation through other pharmacological mechanisms, the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 was given 20 min prior to long-duration extinction sessions. Both the long- and short-duration extinction sessions decreased cue-induced responding. Neither yohimbine nor propranolol, given post-session, had subsequent effects on cue-induced responding or alcohol self-administration. MK-801 blocked the effect of extinction sessions on cue-induced responding but had no effect on self-administration. The present study shows that manipulation of the NMDA system in combination with alcohol cue exposure therapy during extinction-like sessions may be more

  14. Effect of addition of yohimbine (alpha-2-receptor antagonist) to the antidepressant activity of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in the mouse forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Ashish; Kulkarni, S K

    2007-01-01

    Studies have suggested that alpha(2)-adrenoceptors strongly affect monoaminergic neurotransmission by enhancing not only noradrenergic but also serotonergic firing rates. With this background in mind, the present study was undertaken to monitor the effect of addition of yohimbine (alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist) to the effect of fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) or venlafaxine (dual reuptake inhibitors of both serotonin and norepinephrine) in Porsolt's forced swim test (FST) using male Laca strain mice. The immobility period was recorded in mouse FST during a 6-min period. Different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine were administered 30 min before exposing the animals to the test procedure. In the combination study, yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) was administered 15 min before the administration of different doses of fluoxetine or venlafaxine. Fluoxetine (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) [F = 28.352] or venlafaxine (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg) [F = 17.842] dose-dependently inhibited the immobility period in mice. Addition of yohimbine (2 mg/kg i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant action of fluoxetine or venlafaxine in mouse FST as the animals showed a decrease in the immobility period compared to the fluoxetine or venlafaxine per se group, respectively. The present study not only demonstrated the association of alpha(2)-receptors in the antidepressant effect of fluoxetine or venlafaxine, but also supports its adjuvant therapy with other antidepressant drugs. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Enhancement of exposure therapy in participants with specific phobia: A randomized controlled trial comparing yohimbine, propranolol and placebo.

    PubMed

    Meyerbröker, K; Morina, N; Emmelkamp, P M G

    2018-06-01

    Recent research indicates that pharmacological agents may enhance psychotherapeutic outcome. Yet, empirical results have not been conclusive with respect to two pharmacological agents, yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH) and propranolol. YOH is suggested to enhance emotional memory by elevating norepinephrine, whereas the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol might help better cope with feared situations by reducing accompanying bodily sensations. In this controlled trial, fifty-six participants with specific phobia were randomly assigned to either 1) virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) plus YOH, 2) VRET plus Propranolol, or 3) VRET plus placebo. Participants in all conditions received three sessions of VRET over a period of two weeks. We conducted 2 × 3 repeated measures MANOVA's. Results showed a significant effect for time, with partial eta squared ranging from ηp2 = 0.647 to ηp2 = 0.692, for specific phobia, yet no significant interaction effects were found. No significant differences were found when VRET with YOH or a beta-blocker was compared to VRET with a non-active placebo. Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does yohimbine hydrochloride facilitate fear extinction in virtual reality treatment of fear of flying? A randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Meyerbroeker, Katharina; Powers, Mark B; van Stegeren, Anda; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride (YOH), a noradrenaline agonist, can facilitate fear extinction. It is thought that the mechanism of enhanced emotional memory is stimulated through elevated noradrenaline levels. This randomized placebo-controlled trial examined the potential exposure-enhancing effects of YOH in a clinical sample of participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for a specific phobia (fear of flying). Sixty-seven participants with fear of flying were randomized to 4 sessions of virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) combined with YOH (10 mg), or 4 sessions of VRET combined with a placebo. Treatment consisted of 4 weekly 1-hour exposure sessions consisting of two 25-minute virtual flights. At pre- and post- treatment, fear of flying was assessed. The YOH or placebo capsules were administered 1 h prior to exposures. The manipulation of the noradrenaline activity was confirmed by salivary α-amylase (sAA) samples taken pre-, during and post-exposure. Forty-eight participants completed treatment. Manipulation of noradrenaline levels with YOH was successful, with significantly higher levels of sAA in the YOH group when entering exposure. Results showed that both groups improved significantly from pre- to post-treatment with respect to anxiety reduction. However, although the manipulation of noradrenaline activity was successful, there was no evidence that YOH enhanced outcome. Participants improved significantly on anxiety measures independently of drug condition, after 4 sessions of VRET. These data do not support the initial findings of exposure-enhancing effects of YOH in this dosage in clinical populations. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Effect of the α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine on vascular regulation of the middle cerebral artery and the ophthalmic artery in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kaya, S; Kolodjaschna, J; Berisha, F; Polska, E; Pemp, B; Garhöfer, G; Schmetterer, L

    2011-01-01

    There is evidence that vascular beds distal to the ophthalmic artery (OA) show vasoconstriction in response to a step decrease in systemic blood pressure (BP). The mediators of this response are mostly unidentified. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that α2-adrenoreceptors may contribute to the regulatory process in response to a decrease in BP. In this randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study 14 healthy male volunteers received either 22mg yohimbine hydrochloride or placebo. Beat-to-beat BP was measured by analysis of arterial pressure waveform; blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and the OA were measured with Doppler ultrasound. Measurements were done before, during and after a step decrease in BP. The step decrease in BP was induced by bilateral thigh cuffs at a suprasystolic pressure followed by a rapid cuff deflation. After cuff deflation, BP returned to baseline after 7-8 pulse cycles (PC). Blood velocities in the MCA returned to baseline earlier (4 PC) than BP indicating peripheral vasodilatation. Blood velocities in the OA returned to baseline later (15-20 PC) indicating peripheral vasoconstriction. Yohimbine did not affect the blood velocity response in the MCA, but significantly shortened the time of OA blood velocities to return to baseline values (6-7 PC, p<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that yohimbine did not alter the regulatory response in the MCA, but modified the response of vascular beds distal to the OA. This suggests that α2-adrenoceptors play a role in the vasoconstrictor response of the vasculatures distal to the OA. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioligand binding analysis of α 2 adrenoceptors with [11C]yohimbine in brain in vivo: Extended Inhibition Plot correction for plasma protein binding.

    PubMed

    Phan, Jenny-Ann; Landau, Anne M; Jakobsen, Steen; Wong, Dean F; Gjedde, Albert

    2017-11-22

    We describe a novel method of kinetic analysis of radioligand binding to neuroreceptors in brain in vivo, here applied to noradrenaline receptors in rat brain. The method uses positron emission tomography (PET) of [ 11 C]yohimbine binding in brain to quantify the density and affinity of α 2 adrenoceptors under condition of changing radioligand binding to plasma proteins. We obtained dynamic PET recordings from brain of Spraque Dawley rats at baseline, followed by pharmacological challenge with unlabeled yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg). The challenge with unlabeled ligand failed to diminish radioligand accumulation in brain tissue, due to the blocking of radioligand binding to plasma proteins that elevated the free fractions of the radioligand in plasma. We devised a method that graphically resolved the masking of unlabeled ligand binding by the increase of radioligand free fractions in plasma. The Extended Inhibition Plot introduced here yielded an estimate of the volume of distribution of non-displaceable ligand in brain tissue that increased with the increase of the free fraction of the radioligand in plasma. The resulting binding potentials of the radioligand declined by 50-60% in the presence of unlabeled ligand. The kinetic unmasking of inhibited binding reflected in the increase of the reference volume of distribution yielded estimates of receptor saturation consistent with the binding of unlabeled ligand.

  19. Enhanced anti-immobility effects of Sanggenon G isolated from the root bark of Morus alba combined with the α2-antagonist yohimbine in the rat forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Baek, Nam-In; Kim, Yun Tai; Lee, Changho; Kim, In-Ho; Han, Daeseok

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine whether Sanggenon G, an active compound isolated from the root bark of Morus alba, exhibited enhanced anti-immobility activity with the addition of the α2-antagonist yohimbine in rats subjected to forced swim test (FST)-induced depression. Fluoxetine (a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) treatment in rats reduced the immobility time, and pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of fluoxetine at 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg. Similarly, Sanggenon G significantly decreased the immobility time, reducing immobility by a maximum of 43.9 % when treated at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Furthermore, pretreatment with yohimbine significantly enhanced the antidepressant-like behavior of Sanggenon G at 5 and 10 mg/kg. Our findings suggest that the antidepressant-like effect of Sanggenon G could be facilitated by concomitant use of the α2-antagonist. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of Sanggenon G as an alternative therapeutic approach for the treatment of depression.

  20. Sexual Enhancement Products for Sale Online: Raising Awareness of the Psychoactive Effects of Yohimbine, Maca, Horny Goat Weed, and Ginkgo biloba

    PubMed Central

    Corazza, Ornella; Martinotti, Giovanni; Santacroce, Rita; Chillemi, Eleonora; Di Giannantonio, Massimo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Cellek, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The use of unlicensed food and herbal supplements to enhance sexual functions is drastically increasing. This phenomenon, combined with the availability of these products over the Internet, represents a challenge from a clinical and a public health perspective. Methods. A comprehensive multilingual assessment of websites, drug fora, and other online resources was carried out between February and July 2013 with exploratory qualitative searches including 203 websites. Additional searches were conducted using the Global Public Health Intelligence Network (GPHIN). Once the active constitutes of the products were identified, a comprehensive literature search was carried out using PsycInfo and PubMed. Results. The most common sexual enhancement products available on the Internet were identified. Their active ingredients included yohimbine, maca, horny goat weed and Ginkgo biloba. These four substances were reported with the occurrence of adverse events and the induction of psychological symptoms, such as mood changes, anxiety, and hallucinations as well as addictive behaviours. Conclusions. Uncontrolled availability of sexual enhancement products that contain potentially harmful substances is a major public health concern. The possible impact on population health, particularly among subjects with psychiatric disorders, usually at risk for sexual dysfunction, may be significant. This new trend needs to be extensively studied and monitored. PMID:25025070

  1. FG7142, yohimbine, and βCCE produce anxiogenic-like effects in the elevated plus-maze but do not affect brainstem activated hippocampal theta.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Michelle; Lu, Lily; Hughes, Adam M; Treit, Dallas; Dickson, Clayton T

    2013-12-01

    The neurobiological underpinnings of anxiety are of paramount importance to selective and efficacious pharmaceutical intervention. Hippocampal theta frequency in urethane anaesthetized rats is suppressed by all known (and some previously unknown) anti-anxiety (anxiolytic) drugs. Although these findings support the predictive validity of this assay, its construct validity (i.e., whether theta frequency actually indexes anxiety per se) has not been a subject of systematic investigation. We reasoned that if anxiolytic drugs suppress hippocampal theta frequency, then drugs that increase anxiety (i.e., anxiogenic agents) should increase theta frequency, thus providing evidence of construct validity. We used three proven anxiogenic drugs--two benzodiazepine receptor inverse agonists, N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG7142) and β-carboline-3-carboxylate ethyl ester (βCCE), and one α2 noradrenergic receptor antagonist, 17α-hydroxy-yohimban-16α-carboxylic acid methyl ester (yohimbine) as pharmacological probes to assess the construct validity of the theta model. Although all three anxiogenic drugs significantly increased behavioural measures of anxiety in the elevated plus-maze, none of the three increased the frequency of hippocampal theta oscillations in the neurophysiological model. As a positive control, we demonstrated that diazepam, a proven anxiolytic drug, decreased the frequency of hippocampal theta, as in all other studies using this model. Given this discrepancy between the significant effects of anxiogenic drugs in the behavioural model and the null effects of these drugs in the neurophysiological model, we conclude that the construct validity of the hippocampal theta model of anxiety is questionable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lesions of the Lateral Habenula Increase Voluntary Ethanol Consumption and Operant Self-Administration, Block Yohimbine-Induced Reinstatement of Ethanol Seeking, and Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion

    PubMed Central

    Schwager, Andrea L.; Sinclair, Michael S.; Tandon, Shashank; Taha, Sharif A.

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug. PMID:24695107

  3. Lesions of the lateral habenula increase voluntary ethanol consumption and operant self-administration, block yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and attenuate ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Haack, Andrew K; Sheth, Chandni; Schwager, Andrea L; Sinclair, Michael S; Tandon, Shashank; Taha, Sharif A

    2014-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) plays an important role in learning driven by negative outcomes. Many drugs of abuse, including ethanol, have dose-dependent aversive effects that act to limit intake of the drug. However, the role of the LHb in regulating ethanol intake is unknown. In the present study, we compared voluntary ethanol consumption and self-administration, yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking, and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats with sham or LHb lesions. In rats given home cage access to 20% ethanol in an intermittent access two bottle choice paradigm, lesioned animals escalated their voluntary ethanol consumption more rapidly than sham-lesioned control animals and maintained higher stable rates of voluntary ethanol intake. Similarly, lesioned animals exhibited higher rates of responding for ethanol in operant self-administration sessions. In addition, LHb lesion blocked yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol seeking after extinction. Finally, LHb lesion significantly attenuated an ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion. Our results demonstrate an important role for the LHb in multiple facets of ethanol-directed behavior, and further suggest that the LHb may contribute to ethanol-directed behaviors by mediating learning driven by the aversive effects of the drug.

  4. A qualitative/quantitative approach for the detection of 37 tryptamine-derived designer drugs, 5 β-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine in human urine and plasma using standard urine screening and multi-analyte approaches.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Caspar, Achim; Brandt, Simon D; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-01-01

    The first synthetic tryptamines have entered the designer drug market in the late 1990s and were distributed as psychedelic recreational drugs. In the meantime, several analogs have been brought onto the market indicating a growing interest in this drug class. So far, only scarce analytical data were available on the detectability of tryptamines in human biosamples. Therefore, the aim of the presented study was the development and full validation of a method for their detection in human urine and plasma and their quantification in human plasma. The liquid chromatography-linear ion trap mass spectrometry method presented covered 37 tryptamines as well as five β-carbolines, ibogaine, and yohimbine. Compounds were analyzed after protein precipitation of urine or fast liquid-liquid extraction of plasma using an LXQ linear ion trap coupled to an Accela ultra ultra high-performance liquid chromatography system. Data mining was performed via information-dependent acquisition or targeted product ion scan mode with positive electrospray ionization. The assay was selective for all tested substances with limits of detection in urine between 10 and 100 ng/mL and in plasma between 1 and 100 ng/mL. A validated quantification in plasma according to international recommendation could be demonstrated for 33 out of 44 analytes.

  5. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution in dogs. (1) Amount. 0.05 milligram per pound (0.11 milligram per kilogram) of body weight. (2) Indications for use. To reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs. (3) Limitations. For intravenous use in dogs only. Not for use in food-producing animals. Safety of use in pregnant dogs or in dogs intended for...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... pregnant dogs or in dogs intended for breeding has not been established. Federal law restricts this drug to... of 2 milligrams per milliliter solution in dogs. (1) Amount. 0.05 milligram per pound (0.11 milligram per kilogram) of body weight. (2) Indications for use. To reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs. (3...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... pregnant dogs or in dogs intended for breeding has not been established. Federal law restricts this drug to... of 2 milligrams per milliliter solution in dogs. (1) Amount. 0.05 milligram per pound (0.11 milligram per kilogram) of body weight. (2) Indications for use. To reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs. (3...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... pregnant dogs or in dogs intended for breeding has not been established. Federal law restricts this drug to... of 2 milligrams per milliliter solution in dogs. (1) Amount. 0.05 milligram per pound (0.11 milligram per kilogram) of body weight. (2) Indications for use. To reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs. (3...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2670 - Yohimbine injectable.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... pregnant dogs or in dogs intended for breeding has not been established. Federal law restricts this drug to... of 2 milligrams per milliliter solution in dogs. (1) Amount. 0.05 milligram per pound (0.11 milligram per kilogram) of body weight. (2) Indications for use. To reverse the effects of xylazine in dogs. (3...

  10. Yohimbine Impairs Extinction of Cocaine-Conditioned Place Preference in an [alpha] [subscript 2]-Adrenergic Receptor Independent Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Adeola R.; Shields, Angela D.; Brigman, Jonathan L.; Norcross, Maxine; McElligott, Zoe A.; Holmes, Andrew; Winder, Danny G.

    2008-01-01

    Extinction, a form of learning that has the ability to reshape learned behavior based on new experiences, has been heavily studied utilizing fear learning paradigms. Mechanisms underlying extinction of positive-valence associations, such as drug self-administration and place preference, are poorly understood yet may have important relevance to…

  11. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are powerful...

  12. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are powerful...

  13. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are powerful...

  14. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are powerful...

  15. 21 CFR 310.528 - Drug products containing active ingredients offered over-the-counter (OTC) for use as an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., testosterone, vitamins, yohimbine, yohimbine hydrochloride, and yohimbinum have been present as ingredients in such drug products. Androgens (e.g., testosterone and methyltestosterone) and estrogens are powerful...

  16. Chromatographic fingerprint analysis of yohimbe bark and related dietary supplements using UHPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Chen, Pei

    2012-03-05

    A practical ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) method was developed for fingerprint analysis of and determination of yohimbine in yohimbe barks and related dietary supplements. Good separation was achieved using a Waters Acquity BEH C(18) column with gradient elution using 0.1% (v/v) aqueous ammonium hydroxide and 0.1% ammonium hydroxide in methanol as the mobile phases. The study is the first reported chromatographic method that separates corynanthine from yohimbine in yohimbe bark extract. The chromatographic fingerprint analysis was applied to the analysis of 18 yohimbe commercial dietary supplement samples. Quantitation of yohimbine, the traditional method for analysis of yohimbe barks, were also performed to evaluate the results of the fingerprint analysis. Wide variability was observed in fingerprints and yohimbine content among yohimbe dietary supplement samples. For most of the dietary supplements, the yohimbine content was not consistent with the label claims. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Yohimbe

    MedlinePlus

    ... people on the effects of yohimbe as a dietary supplement. But studies have documented the risks of taking it. What Have We Learned? The amount of yohimbine in dietary supplements may vary; some yohimbe products contain very ...

  18. Refractory priapism associated with ingestion of yohimbe extract.

    PubMed

    Myers, Amy; Barrueto, Fermin

    2009-12-01

    Extracts of the bark of the central African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe contain yohimbine, an indole alkaloid, which is used to treat erectile dysfunction. The reported side effects of over-the-counter preparations of yohimbine include gastrointestinal upset, anxiety, increased blood pressure, headache, agitation, rash, tachycardia, and frequent urination. In this report, we describe a severe case of intractable priapism associated with the ingestion of yohimbe extract. Management required insertion of a proximal cavernosal spongiosum shunt (Quackles shunt) in the operating room.

  19. Effect of combined opioid receptor and α2-adrenoceptor blockade on anxiety and electrically evoked startle responses.

    PubMed

    Vo, Lechi; Drummond, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The R3 component of the electrically evoked blink reflex may form part of a startle reaction. Acoustic startle responses are augmented by yohimbine, an α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist that blocks α 2 -autoreceptors, and are potentiated by opioid receptor blockade. To investigate these influences on electrically evoked startle responses, 16 mg yohimbine, with (16 participants) or without 50 mg naltrexone (23 participants), was administered in separate double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over experiments. In each experiment, R3 (a probable component of the startle response) was examined before and after high-frequency electrical stimulation of the forearm, a procedure that initiates inhibitory pain controls. Anxiety and somatic symptoms were greater after yohimbine than placebo, and were potentiated by naltrexone. Pain ratings for the electrically evoked startle stimuli decreased after high-frequency electrical stimulation in the placebo session but remained stable after drug administration. Yohimbine with naltrexone, but not yohimbine alone, also blocked an inhibitory effect of high-frequency electrical stimulation on electrically evoked sharp sensations and R3. Together, the findings suggest that adding naltrexone to yohimbine potentiated anxiety and blocked inhibitory influences of high-frequency electrical stimulation on electrically evoked sensations and startle responses. Thus, opioid peptides could reduce activity in nociceptive and startle-reflex pathways, or inhibit crosstalk between these pathways. Failure of this inhibitory opioid influence might be important in chronically painful conditions that are aggravated by startle stimuli.

  20. Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Piasecki, Christopher C; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2013-08-01

    Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams' anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine did increase anxiety-related behavior in postpartum females. However, BSTv infusion of idazoxan did not reproduce yohimbine's anxiogenic effects and anxiety was not reduced by peripheral or intra-BSTv clonidine. Because yohimbine is a weak 5HT1A receptor agonist, other groups of females received BSTv infusion of the 5HT1A receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT, but it did not alter their anxiety-related behavior. Lastly, levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in tissue punches from the BSTv did not differ between postpartum and diestrous rats, but serotonin turnover was lower in mothers. These results suggest that the impaired maternal behavior after BSTv infusion of yohimbine or idazoxan cannot both be readily explained by an increase in dams' anxiety, and that BSTv α2-autoreceptor modulation alone has little influence on anxiety-related behaviors in postpartum or diestrous rats.

  1. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiu

    2015-06-01

    Overeating beyond individuals' homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine, enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) receptor blockade by a CRF1-selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating and obesity.

  2. Enhanced motivation for food reward induced by stress and attenuation by corticotrophin-releasing factor receptor antagonism in rats: implications for overeating and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiu

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Overeating beyond individuals’ homeostatic needs critically contributes to obesity. The neurobehavioral mechanisms underlying the motivation to consume excessive foods with high calories are not fully understood. Objective The present study examined whether a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine enhances the motivation to procure food reward with an emphasis on comparisons between standard lab chow and high-fat foods. The effects of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF1) blockade by a CFR1 selective antagonist NBI on the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward were also assessed. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats with chow available ad libitum in their home cages were trained to press a lever under a progressive-ratio schedule for deliveries of either standard or high-fat food pellets. For testing yohimbine stress effects, rats received an intraperitoneal administration of yohimbine 10 min before start of the test sessions. For testing effects of CRF1 receptor blockade on stress responses, NBI was administered 20 min prior to yohimbine challenge. Results The rats emitted higher levels of lever responses to procure the high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. Yohimbine challenge facilitated lever responses for the reward in all of the rats, whereas the effect was more robust in the rats on high-fat food pellets compared with their counterparts on standard food pellets. An inhibitory effect of pretreatment with NBI was observed on the enhancing effect of yohimbine challenge but not on the responses under baseline condition without yohimbine administration. Conclusions Stress challenge significantly enhanced the motivation of satiated rats to procure extra food reward, especially the high-fat food pellets. Activation of CRF1 receptors is required for the stress-enhanced motivation for food reward. These results may have implications for our better understanding of the biobehavioral mechanisms of overeating

  3. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples.

    PubMed

    Raman, Vijayasankar; Avula, Bharathi; Galal, Ahmed M; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2013-01-01

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. The objectives of the current study were to provide a detailed anatomy of yohimbe bark, as well as to determine the quantity of yohimbine in the raw yohimbe products sold online. Twelve commercial raw materials of yohimbe were analyzed by microscopic and ultra performance liquid chromatography-UV-MS methods. The study revealed that three samples were probably adulterated and four other samples contained various levels of impurities. Yohimbine was not detected in one sample, whereas its presence in other samples was found to be in the range 0.1-0.91%. The present work also provides a detailed anatomy of the stem bark of yohimbe, with light and scanning electron microscopy images, for proper identification and authentication.

  4. Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis – effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Carl D.; Piasecki, Christopher C.; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S.

    2014-01-01

    Emotional hyper-reactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams’ anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine did increase anxiety-related behavior in postpartum females. However, BSTv infusion of idazoxan did not reproduce yohimbine’s anxiogenic effects and anxiety was not reduced by peripheral or intra-BSTv clonidine. Because yohimbine is a weak 5HT1A receptor agonist, other groups of females received BSTv infusion of the 5HT1A receptor agonist 8OH-DPAT, but it did not alter their anxiety-related behavior. Lastly, levels of norepinephrine and serotonin in tissue punches from the BSTv did not differ between postpartum and diestrous rats, but serotonin turnover was lower in mothers. These results suggest that the impaired maternal behavior after BSTv infusion of yohimbine or idazoxan cannot both be readily explained by an increase in dams’ anxiety, and that BSTv α2-autoreceptor modulation alone has little influence anxiety-related behaviors in postpartum or diestrous rats. PMID:23796237

  5. Agmatine in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulates feeding in rats: involvement of neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Taksande, BG; Kotagale, NR; Nakhate, KT; Mali, PD; Kokare, DM; Hirani, K; Subhedar, NK; Chopde, CT; Ugale, RR

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Agmatine, a multifaceted neurotransmitter, is abundantly expressed in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Our aim was to assess (i) the effect of agmatine on feeding behaviour and (ii) its association, if any, with neuropeptide Y (NPY). EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Satiated rats fitted with intra-PVN cannulae were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (i) α2-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine, or antagonist, yohimbine; (ii) NPY, NPY Y1 receptor agonist, [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY, or antagonist, BIBP3226; or (iii) yohimbine and NPY. Cumulative food intake was monitored at different post-injection time points. Furthermore, the expression of hypothalamic NPY following i.p. treatment with agmatine, alone or in combination with yohimbine (i.p.), was evaluated by immunocytochemistry. KEY RESULTS Agmatine robustly increased feeding in a dose-dependent manner. While pretreatment with clonidine augmented, yohimbine attenuated the orexigenic response to agmatine. Similarly, NPY and [Leu31, Pro34]-NPY potentiated the agmatine-induced hyperphagia, whereas BIBP3226 inhibited it. Moreover, yohimbine attenuated the synergistic orexigenic effect induced by the combination of NPY and agmatine. Agmatine increased NPY immunoreactivity in the PVN fibres and in the cells of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and this effect was prevented by pretreatment with yohimbine. NPY immunoreactivity in the fibres of the ARC, dorsomedial, ventromedial and lateral nuclei of the hypothalamus was not affected by any of the above treatments. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The orexigenic effect of agmatine is coupled to increased NPY activity mediated by stimulation of α2-adrenoceptors within the PVN. This signifies the importance of agmatine or α2-adrenoceptor modulators in the development of novel therapeutic agents to treat feeding-related disorders. PMID:21564088

  6. Effects of Attentional Focus on Emotional Responding to a Biological Challenge in Panic Disorder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-26

    Panic .5 1.4. Biological Challenges 6 1.4.1. Carbon dioxide 6 1.4.2. Sodium Lactate 7 1.4.3. Yohimbine 7 1.4.4. Caffeine 8 1.4.5. Hyperventilation 8...biological challenges (e.g., carbon dioxide, caffeine , lactate infusion) have been used to provoke somatic symptoms that are similar to those reported during...challenges utilized in the study of panic disorder. Examples of biological challenge agents include carbon dioxide, sodium lactate, yohimbine, caffeine

  7. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-ion mobility- quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized, and reduced speci...

  8. Microscopic and UPLC-UV-MS analyses of authentic and commercial yohimbe (Pausinystalia johimbe) bark samples

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yohimbine is the major alkaloid found in the stem-bark of yohimbe, Pausinystalia johimbe (Rubiaceae), an evergreen tree native to Africa. A number of yohimbe products are sold in USA as dietary supplements. Hand-sections of the stem-bark were prepared and the anatomical features were studied by ligh...

  9. Acute Stressor Effects on Goal-Directed Action in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Here we examined effects of acute stressors that involve either systemic coadministration of corticosterone/yohimbine (3 mg/kg each) to increase glucocorticoid/noradrenaline activity (denoted as "pharmacological" stressor) or one or several distinct restraint stressors (denoted as "single" vs. "multiple" stressor) on…

  10. Olfactory Bulb [alpha][subscript 2]-Adrenoceptor Activation Promotes Rat Pup Odor-Preference Learning via a cAMP-Independent Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakhawat, Amin MD.; Harley, Carolyn W.; Yuan, Qi

    2012-01-01

    In this study, three lines of evidence suggest a role for [alpha][subscript 2]-adrenoreceptors in rat pup odor-preference learning: olfactory bulb infusions of the [alpha][subscript 2]-antagonist, yohimbine, prevents learning; the [alpha][subscript 2]-agonist, clonidine, paired with odor, induces learning; and subthreshold clonidine paired with…

  11. Involvement of α(2)-adrenergic receptor in the regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yu-Jung; Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Sharma, Naveen; Suh, Hong-Won

    2015-01-01

    The blood glucose profiles were characterized after mice were forced into immobilization stress with various exposure durations. The blood glucose level was significantly enhanced by immobilization stress for 30 min or 1 h, respectively. On the other hand, the blood glucose level was not affected in the groups which were forced into immobilization stress for 2 or 4 h. We further examined the effect of yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist) administered systemically or centrally in the immobilization stress model. Mice were pretreated intraperitoneally (i.p.; from 0.5 to 5 mg/kg), intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl), or intrathecally (i.t.; from 1 to 10 µg/5 µl) with yohimbine for 10 min and then, forced into immobilization stress for 30 min. The blood glucose level was measured right after immobilization stress. We found that up-regulation of the blood glucose level induced by immobilization stress was abolished by i.p. pretreatment with yohimbine. And the immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was not inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at a lower dose (1 µg/5 µl). However, immobilization stress-induced blood glucose level was significantly inhibited by i.c.v. or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine at higher doses (5 and 10 µg/5 µl). In addition, the i.p. (5 mg/kg), i.c.v. (10 µg/5 µl), or i.t. (10 µg/5 µl) pretreatment with yohimbine reduced hypothalamic glucose transporter 4 expression. The involvement of α2-adrenergic receptor in regulation of immobilization stress- induced blood glucose level was further confirmed by the i.p, i.c.v, or i.t pretreatment with idazoxan, another specific α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. Finally, i.p., i.c.v., or i.t. pretreatment with yohimbine attenuated the blood glucose level in D-glucose-fed model. We suggest that α2-adrenergic receptors located at the peripheral, the brain and the spinal cord play important roles in the up

  12. Pharmacologically induced alcohol craving in treatment seeking alcoholics correlates with alcoholism severity, but is insensitive to acamprosate

    PubMed Central

    Umhau, John C; Schwandt, Melanie L; Usala, Julie; Geyer, Christopher; Singley, Erick; George, David T; Heilig, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Modulation of alcohol craving induced by challenge stimuli may predict the efficacy of new pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. We evaluated two pharmacological challenges, the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine, which reinstates alcohol seeking in rats, and the serotonergic compound meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), previously reported to increase alcohol craving in alcoholics. To assess the predictive validity of this approach, the approved alcoholism medication acamprosate was evaluated for its ability to modulate challenge-induced cravings. A total of 35 treatment seeking alcohol dependent inpatients in early abstinence were randomized to placebo or acamprosate (2997 mg daily). Following two weeks of medication, subjects underwent three challenge sessions with yohimbine, mCPP or saline infusion under double blind conditions, carried out in counterbalanced order, and separated by at least 5 days. Ratings of cravings and anxiety, as well as biochemical measures were obtained. In all, 25 subjects completed all three sessions and were included in the analysis. Cravings were modestly, but significantly higher following both yohimbine and mCPP challenge compared with saline infusion. The mCPP, but not yohimbine significantly increased anxiety ratings. Both challenges produced robust ACTH, cortisol and prolactin responses. There was a significant correlation between craving and the degree of alcoholism severity. Acamprosate administration did not influence craving. Both yohimbine and mCPP challenges lead to elevated alcohol craving in a clinical population of alcoholics, and these cravings correlate with alcoholism severity. Under the experimental conditions used, alcohol cravings induced by these two stimuli are not sensitive to acamprosate at clinically used doses. PMID:21289601

  13. Involvement of α2-adrenoceptors in inhibitory and facilitatory pain modulation processes.

    PubMed

    Vo, L; Drummond, P D

    2016-03-01

    In healthy humans, high-frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of the forearm not only produces hyperalgesia at the site of stimulation but also reduces sensitivity to pressure-pain on the ipsilateral side of the forehead. In addition, HFS augments the ipsilateral trigeminal nociceptive blink reflex and intensifies the ipsilateral component of conditioned pain modulation. The aim of this study was to determine whether α2-adrenoceptors mediate these ipsilateral nociceptive influences. The α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine was administered to 22 participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. In each session, thermal and mechanical sensitivity in the forearms and forehead was assessed before and after HFS. In addition, the combined effect of HFS and yohimbine on the nociceptive blink reflex and on conditioned pain modulation was explored. In this paradigm, the conditioning stimulus was cold pain in the ipsilateral or contralateral temple, and the test stimulus was electrically evoked pain in the forearm. Blood pressure and electrodermal activity increased for several hours after yohimbine administration, consistent with blockade of central α2-adrenoceptors. Yohimbine not only augmented the nociceptive blink reflex ipsilateral to HFS but also intensified the inhibitory influence of ipsilateral temple cooling on electrically evoked pain at the HFS-treated site in the forearm. Yohimbine had no consistent effect on primary or secondary hyperalgesia in the forearm or on pressure-pain in the ipsilateral forehead. These findings imply involvement of α2-adrenoceptors both in ipsilateral antinociceptive and pronociceptive pain modulation processes. However, a mechanism not involving α2-adrenoceptors appears to mediate analgesia in the ipsilateral forehead after HFS. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  14. Evidence for alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist activity of minoxidil.

    PubMed

    Sharma, N; Mehta, A A; Santani, D D; Goyal, R K

    1997-09-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the mechanism of action of minoxidil using various smooth muscle preparations. Minoxidil (4.7 x 10(-6) M to 4.7 x 10(-4) M) produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of field stimulation-evoked responses in rat anococcygeus muscle and vas deferens. The inhibition produced by minoxidil was antagonized by yohimbine (2.5 x 10(-7) M). Minoxidil (1.4 x 10(-5) M to 4.7 x 10(-4) M) also produced a concentration-dependent relaxation in oestrogen-primed potassium chloride-depolarized rat uterus. These responses were blocked not only by yohimbine but also by glibenclamide (2.02 x 10(-8) M). Our results suggest that minoxidil possesses alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist activity in addition to potassium-channel-opening activity.

  15. [Alkaloids of Pausinystalia macroceras].

    PubMed

    Leboef, M; Cavé, A; Mangeney, P; Bouquet, A

    1981-04-01

    A study of the alkaloidal content of trunk-barks of Pausinystalia macroceras (K. Schum.) Pierre, Rubiaceae, resulted in the isolation of six alkaloids, five of which are indole alkaloids that belong to the yohimbane and heteroyohimbane groups; among them, yohimbine was found in major amount. Moreover, the levorotatory isomer of calycanthine, a quinoline dimeric tryptophane derived base, has been isolated for the first time. The phytochemical significance of calycanthine and related alkaloids is discussed.

  16. Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Norman, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension is the most disabling symptom of autonomic failure. The choice of a pressor agent is largely empiric, and it would be of great value to define predictors of a response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 35 patients with severe orthostatic hypotension due to multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure, we determined the effect on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of placebo, phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg and 25 mg), yohimbine (5.4 mg), indomethacin (50 mg), ibuprofen (600 mg), caffeine (250 mg), and methylphenidate (5 mg). In a subgroup of patients, we compared the pressor effect of midodrine (5 mg) with the effect of phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the pressor responses between patients with multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure. When compared with placebo, the pressor response was significant for phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin. In a subgroup of patients, we confirmed that this pressor effect of phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin corresponded to a significant increase in standing SBP. The pressor responses to ibuprofen, caffeine, and methylphenidate were not significantly different from placebo. Phenylpropanolamine and midodrine elicited similar pressor responses. There were no significant associations between drug response and autonomic function testing, postprandial hypotension, or plasma catecholamine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that significant increases in systolic blood pressure can be obtained in patients with orthostatic hypotension due to primary autonomic failure with phenylpropanolamine in low doses or yohimbine or indomethacin in moderate doses. The response to a pressor agent cannot be predicted by autonomic function testing or plasma catecholamines. Therefore, empiric testing with a sequence of medications, based on the risk of side effects in the individual patient and the probability of a response, is a useful approach.

  17. Interactions of nitric oxide with α2 -adrenoceptors within the locus coeruleus underlie the facilitation of inhibitory avoidance memory by agmatine.

    PubMed

    Shelkar, Gajanan P; Gakare, Sukanya G; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Dravid, Shashank M; Ugale, Rajesh R

    2016-09-01

    Agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter, plays a vital role in learning and memory. Although it is considered an endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, agmatine exhibits high affinity for α-adrenoceptors, NOS and NMDA receptors. These substrates within the locus coeruleus (LC) are critically involved in learning and memory processes. The hippocampus and LC of male Wistar rat were stereotaxically cannulated for injection. Effects of agmatine, given i.p. or intra-LC, on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory were measured. The NO donor S-nitrosoglutathione, non-specific (L-NAME) and specific NOS inhibitors (L-NIL, 7-NI, L-NIO), the α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine) or the corresponding agonist (clonidine) were injected intra-LC before agmatine. Intra-hippocampal injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK-801 (dizocilpine), were used to modify the memory enhancing effects of agmatine, SNG and yohimbine. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and eNOS in the LC was assessed immunohistochemically. Agmatine (intra-LC or i.p.) facilitated memory retrieval in the IA test. S-nitrosoglutathione potentiated, while L-NAME and L-NIO decreased, these effects of agmatine. L-NIL and 7-NI did not alter the effects of agmatine. Yohimbine potentiated, whereas clonidine attenuated, effects of agmatine within the LC. The effects of agmatine, S-nitrosoglutathione and yohimbine were blocked by intra-hippocampal MK-801. Agmatine increased the population of TH- and eNOS-immunoreactive elements in the LC. The facilitation of memory retrieval in the IA test by agmatine is probably mediated by interactions between eNOS, NO and noradrenergic pathways in the LC. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de

  19. Interactions of nitric oxide with α2‐adrenoceptors within the locus coeruleus underlie the facilitation of inhibitory avoidance memory by agmatine

    PubMed Central

    Shelkar, Gajanan P; Gakare, Sukanya G; Chakraborty, Suwarna; Dravid, Shashank M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Agmatine, a putative neurotransmitter, plays a vital role in learning and memory. Although it is considered an endogenous ligand of imidazoline receptors, agmatine exhibits high affinity for α‐adrenoceptors, NOS and NMDA receptors. These substrates within the locus coeruleus (LC) are critically involved in learning and memory processes. Experimental Approach The hippocampus and LC of male Wistar rat were stereotaxically cannulated for injection. Effects of agmatine, given i.p. or intra‐LC, on acquisition, consolidation and retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory were measured. The NO donor S‐nitrosoglutathione, non‐specific (L‐NAME) and specific NOS inhibitors (L‐NIL, 7‐NI, L‐NIO), the α2‐adrenoceptor antagonist (yohimbine) or the corresponding agonist (clonidine) were injected intra‐LC before agmatine. Intra‐hippocampal injections of the NMDA antagonist, MK‐801 (dizocilpine), were used to modify the memory enhancing effects of agmatine, SNG and yohimbine. Expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and eNOS in the LC was assessed immunohistochemically. Key Results Agmatine (intra‐LC or i.p.) facilitated memory retrieval in the IA test. S‐nitrosoglutathione potentiated, while L‐NAME and L‐NIO decreased, these effects of agmatine. L‐NIL and 7‐NI did not alter the effects of agmatine. Yohimbine potentiated, whereas clonidine attenuated, effects of agmatine within the LC. The effects of agmatine, S‐nitrosoglutathione and yohimbine were blocked by intra‐hippocampal MK‐801. Agmatine increased the population of TH‐ and eNOS‐immunoreactive elements in the LC. Conclusions and Implications The facilitation of memory retrieval in the IA test by agmatine is probably mediated by interactions between eNOS, NO and noradrenergic pathways in the LC. PMID:27273730

  20. Structural characterization of monoterpene indole alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of Rauwolfia species by liquid chromatography with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-12-01

    Rauwolfia species (Apocynaceae) are medicinal plants well known worldwide due to its potent bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. Reserpine, ajmalicine and ajmaline are powerful antihypertensive, tranquilizing agents used in hypertension. Yohimbine is an aphrodisiac used in dietary supplements. As there is no report on the comparative and comprehensive phytochemical investigation of the roots of Rauwolfia species, we have developed an efficient and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for ethanolic root extract of Rauwolfia species to elucidate the fragmentation pathways for dereplication of bioactive MIAs using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS/MS) in positive ion mode. We identified and established diagnostic fragment ions and fragmentation pathways using reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine. The MS/MS spectra of reserpine, ajmalicine, and ajmaline showed C -ring-cleavage whereas E -ring cleavage was observed in serpentine via Retro Diels Alder (RDA). A total of 47 bioactive MIAs were identified and characterized on the basis of their molecular formula, exact mass measurements and MS/MS analysis. Reserpine, ajmalicine, ajmaline, serpentine and yohimbine were unambiguously identified by comparison with their authentic standards and other 42 MIAs were tentatively identified and characterized from the roots of Rauwolfia hookeri, Rauwolfia micrantha, Rauwolfia serpentina, Rauwolfia verticillata, Rauwolfia tetraphylla and Rauwolfia vomitoria . Application of LC-MS followed by principal component analysis (PCA) has been successfully used to discriminate among six Rauwolfia species.

  1. Evidence for the Involvement of Monoaminergic Pathways in the Antidepressant-Like Activity of Cymbopogon citratus in Mice.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, Solomon; Ogboh, Somtochukwu I; Omorogbe, Osarume; Adekeye, Abdul-Lateef A; Olatunde, Matthew O

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Depression is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder, which affects the quality of life of the sufferers and treatment approach is associated with serious adverse effects and sometimes therapeutic failures. Cymbopogon citratus leaf (CC) has been reported to exert anti-depressant effect but its mechanism of action is yet to be elucidated hence, the need for this study. Methods The anti-depressant-like effect of Cymbopogon citratus aqueous leaf was evaluated using forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and yohimbine-induced lethality test (YLT) in aggregated mice. Interaction studies involving p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA), an inhibitor of serotonin biosynthesis and yohimbine, α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist were carried out to evaluate the role of monoaminergic system in the anti-depressant-like effect of CC. The effect of CC on spontaneous motor activity (SMA) was also assessed using activity cage. Results Cymbopogon citratus (25 and 50 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated antidepressant-like activity devoid of significant stimulation of the SMA in mice. However, the antidepressant-like property of CC was significantly (p<0.05) attenuated by pretreatment with yohimbine suggesting involvement of noradrenergic pathway in the action of the extract. Also, pCPA reversed the anti-immobility effect of CC, indicating the role of serotonergic system in the mediation of its antidepressant activity. Moreover, CC (25 and 50 mg/kg) potentiated the lethal effect of yohimbine in aggregated mice, which further suggest the involvement of monoaminergic systems in its action. Conclusions The results of the study showed that C. citratus might be interacting with serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways to mediate its anti-depressant-like effect in mice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade, pituitary-adrenal hormones, and agonistic interactions in rats.

    PubMed

    Haller, J; Barna, I; Kovács, J L

    1994-08-01

    The effects of adrenergic activation on aggressiveness and the aggression induced endocrine changes were tested in rats. Alpha 2 adrenoceptor blockers were used for enhancing activation of the adrenergic system, and changes in aggressiveness were tested in resident-intruder contests. Three experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, saline injected rats responded to the presence of an opponent by aggression and the increase in plasma ACTH and corticosterone. Intraperitoneal administration of 1 mg/kg CH-38083 (an alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist) produced a several fold increase in clinch fighting and mutual upright scores, and also further enhanced the plasma ACTH and corticosterone response. In experiment 2, the effect of three doses (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/kg) of three different alpha 2 adrenoceptor blockers CH-38083, idazoxan and yohimbine were tested. All the substances increased aggression at 0.5 and 1 mg/kg; at 2 mg/kg the effect of idazoxan and yohimbine disappeared, while with CH-38083 an additional increase was obtained. In yohimbine treated animals the enhancement of aggression was reduced already at 1 mg/kg. In experiment 3, indomethacin, a potent inhibitor of the catecholamine-induced ACTH release completely abolished the effects of the alpha 2 adrenoceptor antagonist CH-38083: the intensity of agonistic interactions, as well as ACTH and corticosterone plasma concentrations, returned to control levels. The possible role of catecholamines and the stress hormones in the activation of aggression is discussed.

  3. A Role for Presynaptic alpha(sub 2)-Adrenoceptors in Angiotensin 2-Induced Drinking in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, Melvin J.; Rowland, Neil E.; Greenleaf, John E.

    1984-01-01

    Studies from this laboratory have shown that either central or peripheral administration of clonidine, the alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, can attenuate a variety of dipsogenic stimuli in rats. Further, yohimbine and tolazoline, alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor antagonists, augment the drinking response to both peripherally administered isoproterenol and angiotensin 2. Studies reported here establish a dose-inhibition relationship between the dose of clonidine administered (2 to 32 micrograms/kg) intracerebroventricularly (IVT) and inhibition of the drinking response to peripherally administered angiotensin 2 (200 micrograms/kg, SC). DI(sub 50) was approximately 4 micrograms/kg. Yohimbine (300 micrograms/kg, SC) reversed the antidipsogenic effect of centrally administered clonidine (32 micrograms/kg, IVT) on angiotensin 2-induced (200 micrograms/kg, SC) water intake. Phenylephrine, an alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor agonist, administered IVT (40 and 80 micrograms/kg) also inhibited angiotensin 2-induced drinking in a dose-related fashion. The antidipsogenic effect of phenylephfine (80 micrograms/kg) was blocked by administration of yohimbine (100 micrograms/kg, SC). Thus, this effect of phenylephrine most likely occurs by way of alpha(sub 2)- adrenoceptors. These results support a role for the pre-synaptic alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptor in the mediation of drinking in rats. Activation of alpha(sub 2)-adrenoceptors is accompanied by reduced water intake while inhibition of these receptors enhances water intake.

  4. 5-Methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced analgesia is blocked by alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, T.; Danysz, W.; Jonsson, G.; Minor, B. G.; Post, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, phentolamine and yohimbine upon 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeODMT)-induced analgesia were tested in the hot-plate, tail-flick and shock-titration tests of nociception with rats. Intrathecally injected yohimbine and phentolamine blocked or attenuated the analgesia produced by systemic administration of 5-MeODMT in all three nociceptive tests. Intrathecally administered prazosin attenuated the analgesic effects of 5-MeODMT in the hot-plate and tail-flick tests, but not in the shock titration test. Intrathecal yohimbine showed a dose-related lowering of pain thresholds in saline and 5-MeODMT-treated animals. Phentolamine and prazosin produced normal dose-related curves in the hot-plate test and biphasic effects in the shock titration and tail-flick tests. These results demonstrate a functional interaction between alpha 2-adrenoceptors and 5-HT agonist-induced analgesia at a spinal level in rats. PMID:2877697

  5. [Ocular hypotensive effect of alpha-adrenoceptor agonist and antagonist in the conscious pigmented rabbit].

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Y; Iizuka, T; Nakamura, A; Nakata, K; Masaoka, Y; Ueda, T; Koide, R; Inatomi, M; Fukado, Y; Uchida, E

    1992-02-01

    It has been reported that some of the topically-used antiglaucomatics have a central ocular hypotensive effect. In this study, the influence of topical and intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of phenylephrine, clonidine, guanfacine, prazosin, yohimbine on the intraocular pressure (IOP) was investigated in the rabbit. Male pigmented rabbits were used throughout the experiments. For measurement of IOP, an applanation pneumatonograph was used. By unilateral topical administration of phenylephrine, an increase in IOP in the eye in which instillation was performed was observed. On the other hand, a slight decrease in IOP was observed by similar treatment of prazosin and yohimbine. No significant change of IOP in the contralateral eye was observed with these drugs. On the contrary, unilateral topical administration of clonidine or guanfacine decreased the IOP of both eyes. Furthermore, the decrease of IOP was more remarkable in the contralateral eye compared to the eye which received instillation. The IOP of both eyes was decreased in a dose-related fashion by i.c.v. administration of clonidine or guanfacine. The ocular hypotensive effects of clonidine were diminished by the pretreatment by i.c.v. administration with yohimbine. These results suggest that the ocular hypotensive effect of clonidine and guanfacine is due to their alpha 2-adrenoceptor stimulation in the central nervous system.

  6. alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist properties of OPC-28326, a novel selective peripheral vasodilator.

    PubMed

    Orito, K; Kishi, M; Imaizumi, T; Nakazawa, T; Hashimoto, A; Mori, T; Kambe, T

    2001-10-01

    1. Antagonistic properties of OPC-28326 ([4-(N-methyl-2-phenylethylamino)-1-(3,5-dimethyl-4-propionyl-aminobenzoyl)] piperidine hydrochloride monohydrate), a selective peripheral vasodilator, were investigated by analysing the data from functional studies in various tissues from the rat and binding studies of the drug to alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes. 2. Using a human recombinant receptor and rat kidney cortex, we found that OPC-28326 displays affinities to alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors with K(i) values of 2040, 285, and 55 nM, respectively. The K(i) values of yohimbine for alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors were 3.0, 2.0 and 11.0 nM, respectively. 3. B-HT 920, an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist, produced a pressor response via peripheral postsynaptic alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation (thought to be an alpha(2B)-subtype) in a reserpine-pretreated pithed rat preparation. OPC-28326 (3 - 30 mg kg(-1), i.v.) and yohimbine (0.3 - 3 mg kg(-1), i.v.) caused dose-dependent rightward shift in the pressor dose-response curve induced by B-HT 920. The apparent pA(2) values were 1.55 (0.87 - 2.75, 95% confidence interval) and 0.11 (0.06 - 0.21) mg kg(-1), respectively. The potency of OPC-28326 was about 14 times less than that of yohimbine. 4. Clonidine inhibited the tension developed by electrical stimulation, of the rat vas deferens, by its peripheral presynaptic alpha(2A/D)-adrenoceptor action. OPC-28326 (1 - 100 microM) and yohimbine (10 - 1000 nM) caused a rightward shift in the concentration-response curve of clonidine. The pA(2) values were 5.73 (5.54 - 5.91) and 7.92 (7.84 - 8.01), respectively, providing evidence for a potency of OPC-28326 of about 155 times less than that of yohimbine. 5. Mydriasis was induced by brimonidine via stimulation of central alpha(2A/D)-adrenoceptors in anaesthetized rats. Intravenous OPC-28326 had no effect on this action, even at a very high dose of 10 mg kg(-1) i.v., while yohimbine (0.1 - 0.3 mg kg(-1

  7. Correction to Smith et al. (2013).

    PubMed

    Smith, Carl D; Piasecki, Christopher C; Weera, Marcus; Olszewicz, Joshua; Lonstein, Joseph S

    2015-08-01

    Reports an error in "Noradrenergic alpha-2 receptor modulators in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: Effects on anxiety behavior in postpartum and virgin female rats" by Carl D. Smith, Christopher C. Piasecki, Marcus Weera, Joshua Olszewicz and Joseph S. Lonstein (Behavioral Neuroscience, 2013[Aug], Vol 127[4], 582-597). Table 2 should have used the ratio of 5HIAA/serotonin - rather than the inverse - as the indicator of serotonin turnover. Using the correct ratio, differences in serotonin turnover between the postpartum and virgin females are: BSTv - 1.11 0.06 vs 0.79 0.11 (t 2.57, p 0.05); BSTd - 1.01 0.07 vs 0.68 0.11 (t 2.58, p 0.05). That is, contrary to what was originally reported, postpartum females had higher serotonin turnover in both subregions of the BST compared to virgins. The penultimate sentence in the abstract noting serotonin turnover in mothers has been corrected in the online version of this article. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2013-22430-001.) Emotional hyperreactivity can inhibit maternal responsiveness in female rats and other animals. Maternal behavior in postpartum rats is disrupted by increasing norepinephrine release in the ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTv) with the α2-autoreceptor antagonist, yohimbine, or the more selective α2-autoreceptor antagonist, idazoxan (Smith et al., 2012). Because high noradrenergic activity in the BSTv can also increase anxiety-related behaviors, increased anxiety may underlie the disrupted mothering of dams given yohimbine or idazoxan. To assess this possibility, anxiety-related behaviors in an elevated plus maze were assessed in postpartum rats after administration of yohimbine or idazoxan. It was further assessed if the α2-autoreceptor agonist clonidine (which decreases norepinephrine release) would, conversely, reduce dams' anxiety. Groups of diestrous virgins were also examined. It was found that peripheral or intra-BSTv yohimbine

  8. Modulatory effects of the basolateral amygdala α2-adrenoceptors on nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviours of rats in the elevated plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bashiri, Hamideh; Rezayof, Ameneh; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to clarify whether α2-adrenoceptors of the basolateral amygdala (BLA) are involved in nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviours. Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally cannulated in the BLA and anxiety-like behaviours were assessed in an elevated plus maze (EPM) task. Systemic intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of nicotine (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mg/kg) dose-dependently decreased open arm time (%OAT) and open arm entry (%OAE), indicating the anxiogenic-like effect of nicotine. The activation of the BLA α2-adrenoceptors by the injection of α2-receptor agonist, clonidine (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 μg/rat) into the BLA (intra-BLA) reversed nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviours. It is important to note that intra-BLA injection of a higher dose of clonidine (0.5 μg/rat) by itself increased %OAT, but not %OAE which showed an anxiolytic effect of the agonist. On the other hand, intra-BLA injection of different doses of α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (1, 3 and 5 μg/rat) in combination with an ineffective dose of nicotine (0.3 mg/kg) decreased %OAT and %OAE, suggesting a potentiative effect of the antagonist on nicotine response. In addition, intra-BLA injection of the same doses of yohimbine did not alter %OAT and %OAE. Interestingly, intra-BLA injection of yohimbine (0.5 and 1 μg/rat) significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of clonidine on nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviours. It should be considered that the drug treatments had no effect on locomotor activity in all experiments. Taken together, it can be concluded that nicotine produces anxiogenic-like behaviours which may be mediated through the BLA α2-adrenoceptor mechanism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Characterization of the hypothermic effects of imidazoline I2 receptor agonists in rats

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, David A; An, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Yanan; Pigini, Maria; Li, Jun-Xu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Imidazoline I2 receptors have been implicated in several CNS disorders. Although several I2 receptor agonists have been described, no simple and sensitive in vivo bioassay is available for studying I2 receptor ligands. This study examined I2 receptor agonist-induced hypothermia as a functional in vivo assay of I2 receptor agonism. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Different groups of rats were used to examine the effects of I2 receptor agonists on the rectal temperature and locomotion. The pharmacological mechanisms were investigated by combining I2 receptor ligands and different antagonists. KEY RESULTS All the selective I2 receptor agonists examined (2-BFI, diphenyzoline, phenyzoline, CR4056, tracizoline, BU224 and S22687, 3.2–56 mg·kg–1, i.p.) dose-dependently and markedly decreased the rectal temperature (hypothermia) in rats, with varied duration of action. Pharmacological mechanism of the observed hypothermia was studied by combining the I2 receptor agonists (2-BFI, BU224, tracizoline and diphenyzoline) with imidazoline I2 receptor/ α2 adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, selective I1 receptor antagonist efaroxan, α2 adrenoceptor antagonist/5-HT1A receptor agonist yohimbine. Idazoxan but not yohimbine or efaroxan attenuated the hypothermic effects of 2-BFI, BU224, tracizoline and diphenyzoline, supporting the I2 receptor mechanism. In contrast, both idazoxan and yohimbine attenuated hypothermia induced by the α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine. Among all the I2 receptor agonists studied, only S22687 markedly increased the locomotor activity in rats. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Imidazoline I2 receptor agonists can produce hypothermic effects, which are primarily mediated by I2 receptors. These data suggest that I2 receptor agonist-induced hypothermia is a simple and sensitive in vivo assay for studying I2 receptor ligands. PMID:22324428

  10. Serotonin-induced hypophagia is mediated via α2 and β2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Zendehdel, M; Sardari, F; Hassanpour, S; Rahnema, M; Adeli, A; Ghashghayi, E

    2017-06-01

    1. Serotoninergic and adrenergic systems play crucial roles in feed intake regulation in avians but there is no report on possible interactions among them. So, in this study, 5 experiments were designed to evaluate the interaction of central serotonergic and adrenergic systems on food intake regulation in 3 h food deprived (FD 3 ) neonatal layer-type chickens. 2. In Experiment 1, chickens received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), prazosin (α 1 receptor antagonist, 10 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus prazosin. In Experiment 2, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), yohimbine (α 2 receptor antagonist, 13 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus yohimbine were used. In Experiment 3, the birds received control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), metoprolol (β 1 receptor antagonist, 24 nmol) and co-injection of serotonin plus metoprolol. In Experiment 4, injections were control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), ICI 118.551 (β 2 receptor antagonist, 5 nmol) and serotonin plus ICI 118.551. In Experiment 5, control solution, serotonin (56.74 nmol), SR59230R (β 3 receptor antagonist, 20 nmol) and co-administration of serotonin and SR59230R were injected. In all experiments the cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. 3. The results showed that ICV injection of serotonin alone decreased food intake in chickens. A combined injection of serotonin plus ICI 118.551 significantly attenuated serotonin-induced hypophagia. Also, co-administration of serotonin and yohimbine significantly amplified the hypophagic effect of serotonin. However, prazosin, metoprolol and SR59230R had no effect on serotonin-induced hypophagia in chickens. 4. These results suggest that serotonin-induced feeding behaviour is probably mediated via α 2 and β 2 adrenergic receptors in neonatal layer-type chicken.

  11. Antidepressant-like property of Jobelyn®, an African unique herbal formulation, in mice.

    PubMed

    Umukoro, S; Eduviere, A T; Aladeokin, A C; Olugbemide, A S

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether Jobelyn® (JB) possesses anti-depressant-like property in the mouse forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and yohimbine-induced lethality test (YLT) in aggregated mice. Mice were given JB (10-100 mg/kg, p.o.) daily for 7 days and then subjected to FST, TST, YLT and open field test. The parameters assessed in both FST and TST were the time (s) spent in active movement (struggling time), first occurrence of immobility (s) and the duration of immobility (s). In the YLT, the mortality rate was recorded 24 h after yohimbine (35 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In the open field test, the number of line crosses and total distance travelled (m) were measured for 10 min in the open field chamber. JB significantly (p<0.05) decrease the duration of immobility both in the FST and TST, which suggests antidepressant-like property. JB significantly (p<0.05) prolonged the time spent in active swimming and delayed the first occurrence of immobility, indicating endurance promoting effect. It potentiated the toxic effect of yohimbine, which further suggests antidepressant-like activity and facilitation of both serotonergic and noradrenergic neurotransmissions. However, JB did not significantly increase the locomotor activity in the open-field test. Jobelyn® has antidepressant-like activity, which may be related to the stimulation of serotonergic and noradrenergic pathways. The ability of Jobelyn® to delay the onset of immobility and to prolong the struggling time support its use as energizer in general body weakness or exhaustion. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Modulation of the release of ( sup 3 H)norepinephrine from the base and body of the rat urinary bladder by endogenous adrenergic and cholinergic mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Somogyi, G.T.; de Groat, W.C.

    Modulation of (3H)NE release was studied in rat urinary bladder strips prelabeled with (3H)NE. (3H)NE uptake occurred in strips from the bladder base and body, but was very prominent in the base where the noradrenergic innervation is most dense. Electrical field stimulation markedly increased (3H)NE outflow from the superfused tissue. The quantity of (3H)NE release was approximately equal during three consecutive periods of stimulation. Activation of presynaptic muscarinic receptors by 1.0 microM oxotremorine reduced (3H)NE release to 46% of the control. Atropine (1 microM) blocked the effect of oxotremorine and increased the release to 147% of predrug control levels. Activationmore » of presynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors by 1 microM clonidine reduced (3H)NE release to 55% of control. Yohimbine blocked the action of clonidine and increased the release to 148% of control. The release of (3H)NE from the bladder base and body was increased by both 1 microM atropine (to 167% and 174% of control, respectively) and 1 microM yohimbine (to 286% and 425% of control, respectively). Atropine and yohimbine administered in combination had similar facilitatory effects as when administered alone. We conclude that the release of (3H)NE from adrenergic nerve endings in electrically stimulated bladder strips is modulated via endogenous transmitters acting on both muscarinic and alpha-2 adrenergic presynaptic receptors and that the latter provide the most prominent control.« less

  13. Serum concentrations and effects of detomidine delivered orally to horses in three different mediums.

    PubMed

    Ramsay, Edward C; Geiser, Dennis; Carter, Wyndee; Tobin, Thomas

    2002-10-01

    To compare the effect of orally delivered detomidine on head posture when administered alone or in combination with two different food items, and to determine the serum concentrations of detomidine after oral delivery. Prospective randomized experimental study. Fifteen adult grade mares weighing 328-537 kg. The horses were randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups (five horses each). The groups were given detomidine (0.06 mg kg -1 ): alone; mixed with 3 mL of an apple sauce and gum mixture; or mixed with 3 mL molasses. Head droop, measured before treatment and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 minutes after treatment, was used to evaluate sedation. Yohimbine (0.1 mg kg -1 IV) was administered after the 90-minute evaluation. Blood samples were collected from the detomidine-alone group before treatment and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes after treatment. Sera were analyzed for detomidine equivalent concentrations by an ELISA. Head droop percentages were compared using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Significant mean head droop developed in each treatment group by 30 minutes and persisted until reversal with yohimbine. After yohimbine administration, head positions returned to 87-91% of pre-treatment levels. There were no significant differences among the oral treatment groups at any time. Mean serum detomidine equivalents increased slowly until 45-minute post-administration, but never exceeded 30 ng mL -1 . Orally administered detomidine results in measurable serum drug concentrations using any of the delivery mediums investigated, and can be expected to produce profound head droop in horses approximately 45 minutes after administration. Copyright © 2002 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of three antagonists on selected pharmacodynamic effects of sublingually administered detomidine in the horse.

    PubMed

    Knych, Heather K; Stanley, Scott D

    2014-01-01

    To describe the effects of alpha2 -adrenergic receptor antagonists on the pharmacodynamics of sublingual (SL) detomidine in the horse. Randomized crossover design. Nine healthy adult horses with an average age of 7.6 ± 6.5 years. Four treatment groups were studied: 1) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL; 2) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.075 mg kg(-1) yohimbine intravenously (IV); 3) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 4 mg kg(-1) tolazoline IV; and 4) 0.04 mg kg(-1) detomidine SL followed 1 hour later by 0.12 mg kg(-1) atipamezole IV. Each horse received all treatments with a minimum of 1 week between treatments. Blood samples were obtained and plasma analyzed for yohimbine, atipamezole and tolazoline concentrations by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Behavioral effects, heart rate and rhythm, glucose, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma proteins were monitored. Chin-to-ground distance increased following administration of the antagonists, however, this effect was transient, with a return to pre-reversal values as early as 1 hour. Detomidine induced bradycardia and increased incidence of atrioventricular blocks were either transiently or incompletely antagonized by all antagonists. PCV and glucose concentrations increased with tolazoline administration, and atipamezole subjectively increased urination frequency but not volume. At the doses administered in this study, the alpha2 -adrenergic antagonistic effects of tolazoline, yohimbine and atipamezole on cardiac and behavioral effects elicited by SL administration of detomidine are transient and incomplete. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  15. The involvement of peripheral alpha 2-adrenoceptors in the antihyperalgesic effect of oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Tomić, Maja A; Vucković, Sonja M; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Ugresić, Nenad D; Paranos, Sonja Lj; Prostran, Milica S; Bosković, Bogdan

    2007-11-01

    We studied whether peripheral alpha2-adrenergic receptors are involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine by examining the effects of yohimbine (selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist), BRL 44408 (selective alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist), MK-912 (selective alpha2C-adrenoceptor antagonist), and clonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) on the antihyperalgesic effect of oxcarbazepine in the rat model of inflammatory pain. Rats were intraplantarly (i.pl.) injected with the proinflammatory compound concanavalin A (Con A). A paw-pressure test was used to determine: 1) the development of hyperalgesia induced by Con A; 2) the effects of oxcarbazepine (i.pl.) on Con A-induced hyperalgesia; and 3) the effects of i.pl. yohimbine, BRL 44408, MK-912 and clonidine on the oxcarbazepine antihyperalgesia. Both oxcarbazepine (1000-3000 nmol/paw; i.pl.) and clonidine (1.9-7.5 nmol/paw; i.pl.) produced a significant dose-dependent reduction of the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Yohimbine (260 and 520 nmol/paw; i.pl.), BRL 44408 (100 and 200 nmol/paw; i.pl.) and MK-912 (10 and 20 nmol/paw; i.pl.) significantly depressed the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine (2000 nmol/paw; i.pl.) in a dose-dependent manner. The effects of antagonists were due to local effects since they were not observed after administration into the contralateral hindpaw. Oxcarbazepine and clonidine administered jointly in fixed-dose fractions of the ED(50) (1/4, 1/2, and 3/4) caused significant and dose-dependent reduction of hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Isobolographic analysis revealed an additive antihyperalgesic effect. Our results indicate that the peripheral alpha2A and alpha2C adrenoceptors could be involved in the antihyperalgesic effects of oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory hyperalgesia.

  16. Sympathetically mediated hypertension in autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, J. R.; Jordan, J.; Diedrich, A.; Pohar, B.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.; Biaggioni, I.; Roberton, D. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 50% of patients with primary autonomic failure have supine hypertension. We investigated whether this supine hypertension could be driven by residual sympathetic activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: In patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) or pure autonomic failure (PAF), we studied the effect of oral yohimbine on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP), the effect of ganglionic blockade (with trimethaphan) on supine SBP and plasma catecholamine levels, and the effect of alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor blockade (phentolamine) on supine SBP. The SBP response to yohimbine was greater in patients with MSA than in those with PAF (area under the curve, 2248+/-543 versus 467+/-209 mm Hg. min; P=0.022). MSA patients with a higher supine SBP had a greater response than those with a lower supine SBP (3874+/-809 versus 785+/-189 mm Hg. min; P=0. 0017); this relationship was not seen in PAF patients. MSA patients had a marked depressor response to low infusion rates of trimethaphan; the response in PAF patients was more variable. Plasma norepinephrine decreased in both groups, but heart rate did not change in either group. At 1 mg/min, trimethaphan decreased supine SBP by 67+/-8 and 12+/-6 mm Hg in MSA and PAF patients, respectively (P<0.0001). Cardiac index and total peripheral resistance decreased in MSA patients by 33.4+/-5.8% and 40.7+/-9.5%, respectively (P=0. 0015). Patients having a depressor response to trimethaphan also had a depressor response to phentolamine. In MSA patients, the pressor response to yohimbine and the decrease in SBP with 1 mg/min trimethaphan were correlated (r=0.98; P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Residual sympathetic activity drives supine hypertension in MSA. It contributes to, but does not completely explain, supine hypertension in PAF.

  17. Cortisol boosts risky decision-making behavior in men but not in women.

    PubMed

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-10-01

    Acute stress may escalate risky decision-making in men, while there is no such effect in women. Although first evidence links these gender-specific effects of stress to stress-induced changes in cortisol, whether elevated cortisol is indeed sufficient to boost risk-taking, whether a potential cortisol effect depends on simultaneous noradrenergic activation, and whether cortisol and noradrenergic activation exert distinct effects on risk-taking in men and women is unknown. In this experiment, we therefore set out to elucidate the impact of cortisol and noradrenergic stimulation on risky decision-making in men and women. In a fully-crossed, placebo-controlled, double-blind design, male and female participants received orally either a placebo, hydrocortisone, yohimbine, an alpha-2-adrenoceptor-antagonist leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs before completing the balloon analogue risk task, a validated measure of risk-taking. Overall, participants' choice was risk-sensitive as reflected in reduced responding in high- compared to moderate- and low-risk conditions. Cortisol, however, led to a striking increase in risk-taking in men, whereas it had no effect on risk-taking behavior in women. Yohimbine had no such effect and the gender-specific effect of cortisol was not modulated by yohimbine. Our data show that cortisol boosts risk-taking behavior in men but not in women. This differential effect of cortisol on risk-taking may drive gender differences in risky decision-making under stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Evaluation of the alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated effects of a series of dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives in the cardiovascular system of the pithed rat.

    PubMed

    Ruffolo, R R; Messick, K

    1985-01-01

    The alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated effects of a series of dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives were investigated in the cardiovascular system of the pithed rat. The 2,5- and 3,5-dimethoxy-substituted tolazoline derivatives produced vasopressor responses that were inhibited by the alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (0.1 mg/kg i.v.), and were not affected by the alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (1 mg/kg i.v.), suggesting that these derivatives selectively activate postsynaptic vascular alpha-1 adrenoceptors. The 2,5- and 3,5-dimethoxy-substituted derivatives of tolazoline did not produce an alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neurogenic tachycardia in cord-stimulated pithed rats and were therefore presumed to be devoid of alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist activity. In contrast, 2,3-dimethoxytolazoline produced a vasopressor effect that was inhibited by yohimbine but not by prazosin, suggesting selective activation of postsynaptic vascular alpha-2 adrenoceptors. Consistent with this observation is the fact that 2,3-dimethoxytolazoline elicited a dose-dependent, alpha-2 adrenoceptor-mediated inhibition of neurogenic tachycardia in cord-stimulated pithed rat. 3,4-Dimethoxytolazoline was a weak alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist in the vasculature of the pithed rat and was devoid of agonist activity at alpha-2 adrenoceptors. However, 3,4-dimethoxytolazoline was found to be an alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist of similar potency as yohimbine. The results of the present study indicate that dimethoxy-substituted derivatives of tolazoline possess different activities and selectivities at alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors depending upon the positions of substitution.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Clebopride enhances contractility of the guinea pig stomach by blocking peripheral D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Takeda, K; Taniyama, K; Kuno, T; Sano, I; Ishikawa, T; Ohmura, I; Tanaka, C

    1991-05-01

    The mechanism of action of clebopride on the motility of guinea pig stomach was examined by the receptor binding assay for bovine brain membrane and by measuring gastric contractility and the release of acetylcholine from the stomach. The receptor binding assay revealed that clebopride bound to the D2 dopamine receptor with a high affinity and to the alpha-2 adrenoceptor and 5-HT2 serotonin receptor with relatively lower affinity, and not to D1 dopamine, alpha-1 adrenergic, muscarinic acetylcholine, H1 histamine, or opioid receptor. In strips of the stomach, clebopride at 10(-8) M to 10(-5) M enhanced the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked contraction and the release of acetylcholine. This enhancement was attributed to the blockade of the D2 dopamine receptor and alpha-2 adrenoceptor because: 1) Maximum responses obtained with specific D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, domperidone, and with specific alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, were smaller than that with clebopride, and the sum of the effects of these two specific receptor antagonists is approximately equal to the effect of clebopride. 2) The facilitatory effect of clebopride was partially eliminated by pretreatment of the sample with domperidone or yohimbine, and the facilitatory effect of clebopride was not observed in preparations treated with the combination of domperidone and yohimbine. Clebopride also antagonized the inhibitory effects of dopamine and clonidine on the electrical transmural stimulation-evoked responses. These results indicate that clebopride acts on post ganglionic cholinergic neurons at D2 and alpha-2 receptors in this preparation to enhance enteric nervous system stimulated motility.

  20. Cutaneous vascular and core temperature responses to sustained cold exposure in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Grant H; Barrett-O'Keefe, Zachary; Minson, Christopher T; Halliwill, John R

    2011-10-01

    We tested the effect of hypoxia on cutaneous vascular regulation and defense of core temperature during cold exposure. Twelve subjects had two microdialysis fibres placed in the ventral forearm and were immersed to the sternum in a bathtub on parallel study days (normoxia and poikilocapnic hypoxia with an arterial O(2) saturation of 80%). One fibre served as the control (1 mM propranolol) and the other received 5 mM yohimbine (plus 1 mM propranolol) to block adrenergic receptors. Skin blood flow was assessed at each site (laser Doppler flowmetry), divided by mean arterial pressure to calculate cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC), and scaled to baseline. Cold exposure was first induced by a progressive reduction in water temperature from 36 to 23°C over 30 min to assess cutaneous vascular regulation, then by clamping the water temperature at 10°C for 45 min to test defense of core temperature. During normoxia, cold stress reduced CVC in control (-44 ± 4%) and yohimbine sites (-13 ± 7%; both P < 0.05 versus precooling). Hypoxia caused vasodilatation prior to cooling but resulted in greater reductions in CVC in control (-67 ± 7%) and yohimbine sites (-35 ± 11%) during cooling (both P < 0.05 versus precooling; both P < 0.05 versus normoxia). Core cooling rate during the second phase of cold exposure was unaffected by hypoxia (-1.81 ± 0.23°C h(-1) in normoxia versus -1.97 ± 0.33°C h(-1) in hypoxia; P > 0.05). We conclude that hypoxia increases cutaneous (non-noradrenergic) vasoconstriction during prolonged cold exposure, while core cooling rate is not consistently affected.

  1. An investigation into the selectivity of a novel series of benzoquinolizines for alpha 2-adrenoceptors in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Paciorek, P. M.; Pierce, V.; Shepperson, N. B.; Waterfall, J. F.

    1984-01-01

    The potencies and selectivities of a novel series of benzoquinolizines for the alpha 2-adrenoceptor have been investigated in the rat in comparison with yohimbine and indoramin. Peripheral postjunctional alpha 2- and alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade was measured as the reversal of B-HT 933 and methoxamine-induced pressor responses, respectively, in the pithed rat. Peripheral prejunctional alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade was measured as the reversal of B-HT 933-induced inhibition of an electrically evoked tachycardia in the pithed rat. Central alpha 2-adrenoceptor blockade was measured as a reversal of the hypotension induced in anaesthetized rats by central (i.c.v.) administration of clonidine. Wy 25309, Wy 26392, Wy 26703 and yohimbine (0.3-3 mg kg-1 i.v.) evoked dose-dependent shifts to the right of the dose-response curves to B-HT 933 whilst having minimal effects on the methoxamine dose-response curve. The selectivity for alpha 2-adrenoceptors increased with the dose of antagonist administered. In general, the order of selectivity was Wy 25309 greater than Wy 26392 greater than Wy 26703 greater than yohimbine. Indoramin (1 mg kg-1 i.v.) shifted the methoxamine pressor dose-response curve to the right without affecting the B-HT 933 dose-response curves, confirming its selective alpha 1-antagonist activity. Peripheral administration of all three benzoquinolizines (1-100 micrograms kg-1 i.v.) led to a dose-dependent reversal of the hypotension evoked by central administration of clonidine (500 ng i.c.v.). The reversal was incomplete, higher doses causing a further decrease in blood pressure. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6329385

  2. Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Manju; Jagtap, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bacopa monniera (BM), a plant described in Ayurveda for many CNS actions was found to exhibit antidepressant (methanolic extract at 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg p.o.) as well as antinociceptive activity (aqueous extract (AE) at 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg p.o.). The present study sought to explore the possible mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of aqueous extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM) at 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg given orally. Materials and Methods: AEBM was given singly as well as with selective α2 receptor blocker Yohimbine, selective β1 receptor blocker Atenolol, serotonin receptor antagonist Cyproheptadine and a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone in experimental groups of mice and rats under strict protocols and conditions. Results: We observed that the antinociceptive effects of AEBM in the acetic acid writhing test was prevented by prior treatment with the selective Yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p; 14.50 ± 2.26 and 37.17 ± 2.14 writhes in the AEBM-treated and yohimbine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively) and selective β1 Atenolol receptor blocker (1 mg/kg, i.p; 14.50 ± 2.26 and 31.00 ± 5.44 writhes in the AEBM-treated and yohimbine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively). In the formalin test, the reduction in licking time with AEBM was found to be reversed by prior treatment with serotonin receptor antagonist Cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg, i.p; 47.33 ± 2.25s and 113.50 ± 3.83s (during phase I i.e. 0-5 min) and 26.67 ± 3.83s and 88.17 ± 7.27s (during phase II i.e. 20-30 min) in the AEBM-treated and Cyproheptadine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively). The % increase in tail flick latency with AEBM was prevented by prior treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p; 282.35 and 107.35 in the AEBM-treated and naloxone-treated groups, respectively). Conclusions: Our results indicate, that the endogenous adrenergic, serotonergic and opioidergic systems are

  3. Indole alkaloids and other constituents of Rauwolfia serpentina.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Atsuko; Kumashiro, Tomoko; Yamaguchi, Machiko; Nagakura, Naotaka; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Nishi, Toyoyuki; Tanahashi, Takao

    2005-06-01

    From the dried roots of Rauwolfia serpentina were isolated five new indole alkaloids, N(b)-methylajmaline (1), N(b)-methylisoajmaline (2), 3-hydroxysarpagine (3), yohimbinic acid (4), isorauhimbinic acid (5), a new iridoid glucoside, 7-epiloganin (6), and a new sucrose derivative, 6'-O-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoyl)glomeratose A (7), together with 20 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical means. The inhibitory activities of the selected alkaloids on topoisomerase I and II and their cytotoxicity against the human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cell lines were assessed.

  4. Effect of fractionated extracts and isolated pure compounds of Spondias mombin (L. Anacardiaceae) leaves on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice.

    PubMed

    Ayoka, Abiodun O; Owolabi, Rotimi A; Bamitale, Samuel K; Akomolafe, Rufus O; Aladesanmi, Joseph A; Ukponmwan, Eghe O

    2013-01-01

    This study attempted to elucidate the neurotransmitter systems involved in the neurophysiological properties of ethanolic extract, fractions and pure isolates of Spondias mombin leaves in mice (n = 6) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) route of administration.The crude ethanolic extract of Spondian mombin leaves was fractionated using the partitioning method to obtain the ethylacetate, butanolic and aqueous fractions. Open column chromatographic fractionation of the ethylacetate fraction yielded seven sub-fractions, out of which the pure coumaroyl, quercetin and gallic acid derivatives were obtained after purification on Sephadex LH 20. The ethanolic extract, butanolic fraction, ethylacetate subfractions and pure isolates of the Spondian mombin leaves were tested on novelty-induced rearing and grooming behaviours in mice with standard pharmacological tools using the open field method. The extract and its fractions decreased novelty-induced rearing in a dose-dependent manner. While the Coumaroyl derivative had no effect on novelty-induced rearing, it significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of yohimbine, propranolol and haloperidol on novelty-induced rearing. Quercetin significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone significantly potentiated the quercetin-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing. Gallic acid derivative significantly potentiated the inhibitory effect of yohimbine on novelty-induced rearing. Naloxone, atropine and haloperidol pretreatments significantly potentiated gallic acid derivative-induced suppression of novelty-induced rearing.The extract and its fractions had biphasic effect on novelty-induced grooming in mice. Coumaroyl derivative significantly increased novelty-induced grooming, while quercetin and gallic acid derivative decreased novelty-induced grooming significantly. The three pure isolates significantly reversed the effects of yohimbine and atropine on the novelty-induced grooming in

  5. Alpha2-adrenoceptor modulation of long-term potentiation elicited in vivo in rat occipital cortex.

    PubMed

    Mondaca, Mauricio; Hernández, Alejandro; Pérez, Hernán; Valladares, Luis; Sierralta, Walter; Fernández, Victor; Soto-Moyano, Rubén

    2004-09-24

    Pretreatment with the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist clonidine (31.25, 62.5, or 125 microg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently reduced long-term potentiation (LTP) elicited in vivo in the occipital cortex of anesthetized rats, whereas pretreatment with the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (0.133, 0.4, or 1.2 mg/kg, i.p.) increased neocortical LTP in a dose-dependent fashion. These effects could be related to the reported disruptive and facilitatory actions induced on memory formation by pretreatment with alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists, respectively.

  6. The effect of lysergic acid diethylamide, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and related compounds on the liver fluke, fasciola hepatica

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, T. E.

    1957-01-01

    The rhythmical activity of the liver fluke, Fasciola hepatica, was stimulated by 5-hydroxytryptamine and by lysergic acid diethylamide at very low concentrations. The effect was peripheral and was not mediated through the central ganglion. Other amines also stimulated rhythmical activity, the most potent being the indolamines. Bromolysergic acid diethylamide, and other analogues such as yohimbine, harmine, and dopamine depressed rhythmical movement and antagonized the stimulant action of 5-hydroxytryptamine and lysergic acid diethylamide. Evidence which suggests the presence of tryptamine receptors in the trematode is discussed. PMID:13489165

  7. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Nouruddin W.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abdelkawy, M.; Emam, Aml A.

    2016-02-01

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL- 1 were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  8. Tiletamine-zolazepam, ketamine, and xylazine anesthesia of captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Albert H; Bonar, Christopher J; Evans, Sara E

    2002-12-01

    Thirty-two anesthetic episodes used a combination of tiletamine-zolezepam (50 mg/ml each), ketamine (80 mg/ml), and xylazine (20 mg/ml) at various dosages for routine diagnostic and minor surgical procedures in 13 captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The mean dosage (0.023 +/- 0.003 ml/kg) provided rapid induction with a single i.m. injection along with safe predictable working time, good muscle relaxation, and analgesia. Yohimbine administration subsequently accelerated smooth and rapid recovery.

  9. A comparative study of ICH validated novel spectrophotometric techniques for resolving completely overlapping spectra of quaternary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nouruddin W; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Abdelkawy, M; Emam, Aml A

    2016-02-05

    A pharmaceutically marketed mixture of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine co-formulated as a promising therapy for erectile dysfunction. Simultaneous determination of the aforementioned pharmaceutical formulation without prior separation steps was applied using mean centering of ratio spectra and triple divisor spectrophotometric methods. Mean centering of ratio spectra method depended on using the mean centered ratio spectra in three successive steps which eliminated the derivative steps and so the signal to noise ratio was improved. The absorption spectra of the prepared solutions were measured in the wavelength range of 215-300 nm in the concentration ranges of 1-15, 3-15, 1-20, and 3-15 μg mL(-1) for Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. The amplitudes of the mean centered third ratio spectra were measured at 250 nm and 268 nm for Yohimbine and Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, respectively and at peak to peak 272-273 and 262-263 nm for Niacin and Caffeine, respectively. In triple divisor method each drug in the quaternary mixture was determined by dividing the spectrum of the quaternary mixture by a standard spectrum of a mixture containing equal concentrations of the other three drugs. First derivative of these ratio spectra was obtained where determination could be achieved without any interference from the other three drugs. Amplitudes of 1-15, 3-15, 1-15, and 3-15 μg mL(-1) were used for selective determination of Yohimbine, Alpha-tocopheryl acetate, Niacin, and Caffeine, respectively. Laboratory prepared mixtures were analyzed by the developed novel methods to investigate their selectivity also, Super Act® capsules were successfully analyzed to ensure absence of interference from additives. The developed methods were validated according to the ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were statistically compared with each other and with the reported methods; using student t-test, F-test, and one way ANOVA

  10. Serial immobilization of a Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestrus) with oral detomidine and oral carfentanil.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Christal G; Ramsay, Edward C

    2003-12-01

    Detomidine (0.17 +/- 0.03 mg/kg, p.o.) followed in 20 min by carfentanil (7.88 +/- 1.85 microg/kg, p.o.) reliably restrained an adult Brazilian tapir (Tapirus terrestrus) eight times for short medical procedures. Detomidine caused head droop, sawhorse stance, ataxia or head pressing (or both). Sternal or lateral recumbency was reached within 10.75 +/- 7.6 min of carfentanil administration. Recoveries after i.v. and s.c. administration of yohimbine and naltrexone were smooth and rapid, with the tapir standing within 2-5 min.

  11. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Maturation and Function of Human Cord Blood-Derived Dendritic Cells by Interfering with Synthesis and Secretion of IL-12 and IL-23

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gong; Le, Yuan; Zhou, Lei; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaoxiao; Li, Yunli; Liao, Qin; Duan, Kaiming; Tong, Jianbin; Ouyang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aims To investigate the effects and underlying mechanism of dexmedetomidine on the cultured human dendritic cells (DCs). Methods Human DCs and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) were obtained from human cord blood mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. Cultured DCs were divided into three groups: dexmedetomidine group, dexmedetomidine plus yohimbine (dexmedetomidine inhibitor) group and control group. DCs in the three groups were treated with dexmedetomidine, dexmedetomidine plus yohimbine and culture medium, respectively. After washing, the DCs were co-incubated with cultured CTLs. The maturation degree of DCs was evaluated by detecting (1) the ratios of HLA-DR-, CD86-, and CD80-positive cells (flow cytometry), and (2) expression of IL-12 and IL-23 (PCR and Elisa). The function of DCs was evaluated by detecting the proliferation (MTS assay) and cytotoxicity activity (the Elisa of IFN-γ) of CTLs. In addition, in order to explore the mechanisms of dexmedetomidine modulating DCs, α2-adrenergic receptor and its downstream signals in DCs were also detected. Results The ratios of HLA-DR-, CD86-, and CD80-positive cells to total cells were similar among the three groups (P>0.05). Compared to the control group, the protein levels of IL-12 and IL-23 in the culture medium and the mRNA levels of IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40 and IL-23 p19 in the DCs all decreased in dexmedetomidine group (P<0.05). In addition, the proliferation of CTLs and the secretion of IFN-γ also decreased in the dexmedetomidine group, compared with the control group (P<0.05). Moreover, these changes induced by dexmedetomidine in the dexmedetomidine group were reversed by α2-adrenergic receptor inhibitor yohimbine in the dexmedetomidine plus yohimbine group. It was also found the decrease of mRNA levels of IL-12 p35, IL-12 p40 and IL-23 p19 in the dexmedetomidine group could be reversed by ERK1/2 or AKT inhibitors. Conclusion Dexmedetomidine could negatively modulate human immunity by inhibiting

  12. Acute episodes of predator exposure in conjunction with chronic social instability as an animal model of post-traumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    People who are exposed to horrific, life-threatening experiences are at risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Some of the symptoms of PTSD include persistent anxiety, exaggerated startle, cognitive impairments and increased sensitivity to yohimbine, an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist. We have taken into account the conditions known to induce PTSD, as well as factors responsible for long-term maintenance of the disorder, to develop an animal model of PTSD. Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were administered a total of 31 days of psychosocial stress, composed of acute and chronic components. The acute component was a 1-h stress session (immobilization during cat exposure), which occurred on Days 1 and 11. The chronic component was that on all 31 days the rats were given unstable housing conditions. We found that psychosocially stressed rats had reduced growth rate, reduced thymus weight, increased adrenal gland weight, increased anxiety, an exaggerated startle response, cognitive impairments, greater cardiovascular and corticosterone reactivity to an acute stressor and heightened responsivity to yohimbine. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of acute inescapable episodes of predator exposure administered in conjunction with daily social instability as an animal model of PTSD. PMID:18574787

  13. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Reyes, R.; Ferreyra-Cruz, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana. The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity. PMID:27656650

  14. Alpha-2 adrenergic activity of bromocriptine and quinpirole in chicken pineal gland. Effects on melatonin synthesis and ( sup 3 H)rauwolscine binding

    SciTech Connect

    Zawilska, J.; Iuvone, P.M.

    In the pineal gland and retina of chickens, serotonin N-acetyl-transferase (NAT) activity and melatonin content are modulated by different receptors, alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland and D2-dopamine receptors in retina. The effect of two D2-dopamine receptor agonists, bromocriptine and quinpirole (LY 171555), on melatonin synthesis in these tissues was investigated. Systemic administrations of bromocriptine and quinpirole decreased nocturnal NAT activity and melatonin content of both pineal gland and retina. Bromocriptine was equipotent in the two tissues, whereas quinpirole was approximately 100-fold more potent in retina than in pineal gland. In pineal gland, the suppressive effects of bromocriptine and quinpirolemore » on NAT activity were blocked by yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, but not by spiperone, a D2-dopamine receptor antagonist. In contrast, bromocriptine- and quinpirole-induced decreases of the enzyme activity in retina were antagonized by spiperone, and not affected by yohimbine. The nocturnal increase of NAT activity of pineal glands in vitro was inhibited with an order of potency clonidine greater than bromocriptine greater than quinpirole. Additionally, bromocriptine and quinpirole displaced the specific binding of (3H)rauwolscine, an alpha-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to membranes from chicken pineal gland, with potencies comparable to those observed for inhibition of NAT activity in vitro. It is suggested that bromocriptine and quinpirole, in addition to their D2-dopaminergic activity, can stimulate alpha-2 adrenergic receptors in pineal gland of chicken.« less

  15. Synergistic effects between intrathecal clonidine and neostigmine in the formalin test.

    PubMed

    Yoon, M H; Yoo, K Y; Jeong, C Y

    2001-08-01

    Spinal alpha-2 adrenoceptors and cholinergic receptors are involved in the regulation of acute nociception and the facilitated processing. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacological effect of an intrathecal alpha-2 agonist and a cholinesterase inhibitor on the facilitated pain model induced by formalin injection and to determine the nature of drug interaction using an isobolographic analysis. Both intrathecal clonidine and neostigmine dose-dependently suppressed the flinching during phase 1 and phase 2. Intrathecal pretreatment with atropine reversed the antinociceptive effects of clonidine and neostigmine in both phases. Pretreatment with intrathecal yohimbine attenuated the effect of clonidine. The antinociception of clonidine and neostigmine was not reversed by mecamylamine. Isobolographic analysis showed that intrathecal clonidine and neostigmine acted synergistically in both phase 1 and 2. Intrathecal pretreatment with atropine and yohimbine antagonized the effect of the mixture of clonidine and neostigmine in both phases, but no antagonism was observed with mecamylamine pretreatment. These data indicate that spinal clonidine and neostigmine are effective to counteract the facilitated state evoked formalin stimulus, and these two drugs interact in a synergistic fashion. In addition, the analgesic action of intrathecal clonidine is mediated by spinal muscarinic receptors as well as alpha-2 adrenoceptors.

  16. Interaction of berberine with human platelet. alpha. sub 2 adrenoceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Hui, Ka Kit; Yu, Jun Liang; Chan, Wai Fong A.

    1991-01-01

    Berberine was found to inhibit competitively the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)-yohimbine. The displacement curve was parallel to those of clonidine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, with the rank order of potency (IC{sub 50}) being clonidine {gt} epinephrine {gt} norepinephrine (14.5 {mu}M) = berberine. Increasing concentrations of berberine from 0.1 {mu}M to 10 {mu}M inhibited ({sup 3}H)-yohimbine binding, shifting the saturation binding curve to the right without decreasing the maximum binding capacity. In platelet cyclic AMP accumulation experiments, berberine at concentrations of 0.1 {mu}M to 0.1 mM inhibited the cAMP accumulation induced by 10 {mu}M prostaglandin E{sub 1} in a dose dependent manner,more » acting as an {alpha}{sub 2} adrenoceptor agonist. In the presence of L-epinephrine, berberine blocked the inhibitory effect of L-epinephrine behaving as an {alpha}{sub 2} adrenoceptor antagonist.« less

  17. Dopamine modulates male sexual behavior in Japanese quail in part via actions on noradrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Cornil, Charlotte A; Dejace, Christel; Ball, Gregory F; Balthazart, Jacques

    2005-08-30

    In rats, dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior through its combined action on D1- and D2-like receptors, in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) as well as other brain areas. In Japanese quail, systemic injections of dopaminergic drugs suggested a similar pharmacology but central injections have never been performed. Recent electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that DA effects in the MPOA of quail are mediated mainly through the activation of alpha2-noradrenergic receptors. Previous studies of DA action on behavior used specific dopaminergic agonists/antagonists and therefore unintentionally avoided the potential cross-reaction with alpha2-receptors. The present study was thus designed to investigate directly the effects of DA on male sexual behavior and to test whether the interaction of DA with heterologous receptors affects this behavior. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of DA or NE inhibited copulation in a dose-dependent manner. Systemic injections of yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, modulated copulation in a bimodal manner depending on the dose injected. Interestingly, a behaviorally ineffective dose of yohimbine markedly reduced the inhibitory effects of DA when injected 15min before. Together, these results show for the first time that i.c.v. injections of DA itself inhibit male sexual behavior in quail and suggest that the interaction of DA with alpha2-receptors has behavioral significance.

  18. Mechanism of ipamorelin-evoked insulin release from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Adeghate, Ernest; Ponery, Abdul Samad

    2004-12-01

    To examine the effect of ipamorelin (IPA), a novel pentapeptide with a strong growth hormone releasing potency, on insulin secretion from pancreatic tissue fragments of normal and diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (60 mg kg(-1)). Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, pancreatic tissue fragments of normal and diabetic rats were removed and incubated with different concentrations (10(-12) - 10(-6) M) of IPA. Insulin release from the pancreas was measured by radioimmunoassay. Ipamorelin evoked significant (p<0.04) increases in insulin secretion from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. Either diltiazem or yohimbine or propranolol or a combination of atropine, propranolol and yohimbine inhibited IPA-evoked insulin secretion significantly (p<0.03) from the pancreas of normal and diabetic rats. Atropine caused a significant (p<0.007) reduction in the IPA-induced insulin secretion in diabetic but not in normal rats. IPA stimulates insulin release through the calcium channel and the adrenergic receptor pathways. This is the first study to examine the effect of ipamorelin on insulin secretion in the pancreas.

  19. Alpha 2-adrenergic receptor stimulation of phospholipase A2 and of adenylate cyclase in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by different mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Halenda, S.P.; Bylund, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    The effect of alpha 2-adrenergic receptor activation on adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells stably transfected with the alpha 2A-adrenergic receptor gene is biphasic. At lower concentrations of epinephrine forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is inhibited, but at higher concentrations the inhibition is reversed. Both of these effects are blocked by the alpha 2 antagonist yohimbine but not by the alpha 1 antagonist prazosin. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin attenuates inhibition at lower concentrations of epinephrine and greatly potentiates forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production at higher concentrations of epinephrine. alpha 2-Adrenergic receptor stimulation also causes arachidonic acid mobilization, presumably via phospholipasemore » A2. This effect is blocked by yohimbine, quinacrine, removal of extracellular Ca2+, and pretreatment with pertussis toxin. Quinacrine and removal of extracellular Ca2+, in contrast, have no effect on the enhanced forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production. Thus, it appears that the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor in these cells can simultaneously activate distinct signal transduction systems; inhibition of adenylate cyclase and stimulation of phospholipase A2, both via G1, and potentiation of cyclic AMP production by a different (pertussis toxin-insensitive) mechanism.« less

  20. Influence of adrenal hormones in the occurrence and prevention of stress ulcers.

    PubMed

    Yigiter, Murat; Albayrak, Yavuz; Polat, Beyzagul; Suleyman, Bahadır; Salman, Ahmet Bedii; Suleyman, Halis

    2010-11-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether endogenous cortisol and adrenalin have a role in the formation of stress ulcers in intact and adrenalectomized rats. The study was composed of 4 experiments: ulcerated areas in stomachs of adrenalectomized and intact rats were measured, adrenaline (100 μg/kg) and prednisolone (5 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally in adrenalectomized rats, metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered to intact rats, and metyrapone (200 mg/kg) and metyrosine (200 mg/kg) were administered orally with yohimbine (10 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg) alone were administered to intact rats. After 24-hour restraint stress, ulcerated areas were measured. In the stomach of intact rats, the degree of stress ulcer was 7.25 times more severe than that noted in adrenalectomized rats. Furthermore, stress ulcers in adrenalectomized rats that received adrenaline or prednisolone only were fewer and less severe than rats receiving both adrenaline and prednisolone. Simultaneous administration of adrenaline and prednisolone did not prevent the formation of stress ulcers. However, either of these hormones alone (adrenaline or prednisolone), in the absence of the other, repressed the formation of stress ulcers. This antiulcer activity may be related to α2-adrenergic receptor activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rubus occidentalis analgesic effect in a rat model of incisional pain.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Kwon, Ji Wung; Kim, Beom Gyu; Choi, Yoo Shin; Cha, Young Joo; Ko, Jin Soo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Rubus occidentalis extract (ROE) in a rat model of incisional pain. The involved mechanisms and proinflammatory cytokine response were also examined. To investigate the analgesic effect, rats were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline or various doses of ROE before or after a plantar incision. To evaluate the involved mechanism, rats were intraperitoneally administered yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, naloxone, atropine, or mecamylamine after a plantar incision; ROE was then administered intraperitoneally. The mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was tested with von Frey filaments at various time points. To determine the inflammatory response, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-1β or IL-6 were measured. The MWTs significantly increased at 15 min after postincisional administration of 300 mg/kg ROE when compared with those in the control group. This elevation was observed for up to 45 min. Overall, MWTs increased in proportion to ROE dosage; however, ROEs administered before the incision produced no significant change in the MWT. The analgesic effect of ROE was significantly antagonized by mecamylamine, naloxone, and yohimbine, and agonized by dexmedetomidine. Administration of ROE inhibited the postincisional increase in serum IL-1β and IL-6. Intraperitoneal administration of ROE after surgery induces antinociceptive effects in a rat model of postoperative pain, and its effects on mechanical hyperalgesia may be associated with α 2 -adrenergic, nicotinic cholinergic, and opioid receptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L.) on gastrointestinal transit activity in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Souli, Abdellaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Rtibi, Kaïs; Chehimi, Latifa; Sakly, Mohsen; Amri, Mohamed; El-Benna, Jamel

    2014-07-01

    The current study was performed to measure the chemical composition and the effects of dates pulp extract and palm sap on gastrointestinal transit (GIT) activity in healthy adult rats. In this respect, male Wistar rats fasted for 24 hours were used and received per orally (p.o.) sodium chloride (NaCl) (0,9%) (control group) or various doses of dates pulp extract (150 and 300 mg/kg, body weight [b.w.]) and palm sap (0.4 and 4 mL/kg, b.w.). Two other groups of rats (batch tests) received, respectively, clonidine (an alpha-2 adrenergic agonist, 1 mg/kg, b.w.) and yohimbine (an alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist, 2mg/kg, b.w.). Chemical analysis showed that the dates pulp extract is more rich in sugars and minerals, especially potassium and sucrose, as compared with palm sap composition. On the other hand, in vivo study showed that the aqueous dates pulp extract significantly, and dose dependently, increased the GIT activity while the palm sap slightly increased it. Moreover, a converse effect has been observed using clonidine (decreased 68%) and yohimbine (increased 33%) on the GIT activity. These findings suggest that dates pulp extract and palm sap have a stimulating effect on GIT activity in rats and confirm their use in traditional Tunisian medicine for the treatment of constipation.

  3. Agmatine induces Nrf2 and protects against corticosterone effects in hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Andiara E; Egea, Javier; Buendía, Izaskun; Navarro, Elisa; Rada, Patricia; Cuadrado, Antonio; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; López, Manuela G

    2015-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a common finding in major depression; this may lead to increased levels of cortisol, which are known to cause oxidative stress imbalance and apoptotic neuronal cell death, particularly in the hippocampus, a key region implicated in mood regulation. Agmatine, an endogenous metabolite of L-arginine, has been proposed for the treatment of major depression. Corticosterone induced apoptotic cell death and increased ROS production in cultured hippocampal neuronal cells, effects that were abolished in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by agmatine. Interestingly, the combination of sub-effective concentrations of agmatine with fluoxetine or imipramine afforded synergic protection. The neuroprotective effect of agmatine was abolished by yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), ketanserin (5-HT2A receptor antagonist), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SnPP (HO-1 inhibitor), and cycloheximide (protein synthesis inhibitor). Agmatine increased Akt and ERK phosphorylation and induced the transcription factor Nrf2 and the proteins HO-1 and GCLc; induction of these proteins was prevented by yohimbine, ketanserin, LY294002, and PD98059. In conclusion, agmatine affords neuroprotection against corticosterone effects by a mechanism that implicates Nrf2 induction via α2-adrenergic and 5-HT2A receptors, Akt and ERK pathways, and HO-1 and GCLc expression.

  4. Agmatine exerts anticonvulsant effect in mice: modulation by alpha 2-adrenoceptors and nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Demehri, Shadpour; Homayoun, Houman; Honar, Hooman; Riazi, Kiarash; Vafaie, Kourosh; Roushanzamir, Farshad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2003-09-01

    The effect of agmatine, an endogenous polyamine metabolite, on seizure susceptibility was investigated in mice. Acute intraperitoneal administration of agmatine (5, 10, 20, 40 mg/kg) had a significant and dose-dependent inhibitory effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. The peak of this anticonvulsant effect was 45 min after agmatine administration. We further investigated the possible involvement of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors and L-arginine/NO pathway in this effect of agmatine. The alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.5-2 mg/kg), induced a dose-dependent blockade of the anticonvulsant effect of agmatine. The nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate, L-arginine (60 mg/kg), inhibited the anticonvulsant property of agmatine and this effect was significantly reversed by NOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME, 30 mg/kg), implying an NO-dependent mechanism for L-arginine effect. We further examined a possible additive effect between agmatine (1 or 5 mg/kg) and L-NAME (10 mg/kg). The combination of L-NAME (10 mg/kg) with agmatine (5 but not 1 mg/kg) induced a significantly higher level of seizure protection as compared with each drug alone. Moreover, a combination of lower doses of yohimbine (0.5 mg/kg) and L-arginine (30 mg/kg) also significantly decreased the anticonvulsant effect of agmatine. In conclusion, the present data suggest that agmatine may be of potential use in seizure treatment.

  5. Study of human serum albumin structure by dynamic light scattering: two types of reactions under different pH and interaction with physiologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luik, A. I.; Naboka, Yu. N.; Mogilevich, S. E.; Hushcha, T. O.; Mischenko, N. I.

    1998-09-01

    The effect of pH and binding of ten physiologically active compounds (isoproterenol, yohimbine, propranolol, clonidine, phenylephrine, carbachol, tripeptide fMLP, diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine and atropine) on the molecular structure of human serum albumin (HSA) has been studied using the dynamic light scattering. It was found that albumin globule has the most compact configuration (Stokes diameter 59-62 Å) at physiological pH 7.4. The changes in pH, both increase to 8.0 and decrease to 5.4, result in the growth of globule size to 72-81 Å. At acidic shift of pH an additional peak arises in the correlation spectra caused by the light scattering on the structures with the Stokes diameters of 29-37 Å. Those conform to the sizes of the albumin subdomains. The indicated peak is not displayed at basic shift of pH. The interaction with propranolol, clonidine, phenylephrine, carbachol and tripeptide fMLP which hinder adenylate cyclase (AdC) and activate Ca-polyphosphoinositide (Ca-PPI) signaling system of a cell initiates structural rearrangements similar to acidic transitions. Isoproterenol, yohimbine diphenhydramine, chlorpromazine and atropine, which activate AdC and hinder Ca-PPI, cause conformational changes of HSA similar to basic transitions.

  6. The analgesic agent tapentadol inhibits calcitonin gene-related peptide release from isolated rat brainstem via a serotonergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greco, Maria Cristina; Navarra, Pierluigi; Tringali, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    In this study we tested the hypothesis that tapentadol inhibits GGRP release from the rat brainstem through a mechanism mediated by the inhibition of NA reuptake; as a second alternative hypothesis, we investigated whether tapentadol inhibits GGRP release via the inhibition of 5-HT reuptake. Rat brainstems were explanted and incubated in short-term experiments. CGRP released in the incubation medium was taken as a marker of CGRP release from the central terminals of trigeminal neurons within the brainstem. CGRP levels were measured by radioimmunoassay under basal conditions or in the presence of tapentadol; NA, 5-HT, clonidine, yohimbine and ondansetron were used as pharmacological tools to investigate the action mechanism of tapentadol. The α2-antagonist yohimbine failed to counteract the effects of tapentadol. Moreover, neither NA nor the α2-agonist clonidine per se inhibited K(+)-stimulated CGRP release, thereby indicating that the effects of tapentadol are nor mediated through the block of NA reuptake. Further experiments showed that 5-HT and tramadol, which inhibits both NA and 5-HT reuptake, significantly reduced K(+)-stimulated CGRP release. Moreover, the 5-HT3 antagonist ondansetron was able to counteract the effects of tapentadol in this system. This study provided pharmacological evidence that tapentadol inhibits stimulated CGRP release from the rat brainstem in vitro through a mechanism involving an increase in 5-HT levels in the system and the subsequent activation of 5-HT3 receptors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Systemic ketamine inhibits hypersensitivity after surgery via descending inhibitory pathways in rats.

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Shiro; Obata, Hideaki; Sasaki, Masayuki; Saito, Shigeru; Goto, Fumio

    2005-05-01

    Systemic ketamine suppresses several types of chronic pain. Although ketamine is used as a general anesthetic agent, the analgesic effect of systemic ketamine for early-stage postoperative pain is not clear. We investigated the efficacy and mechanism of systemic ketamine in a rat model of postoperative pain. An incision was made in the plantar aspect of the left hind paw in male Wistar rats. Mechanical hypersensitivity was measured using calibrated von Frey filaments. The anti-hypersensitivity effect of systemic or intrathecal administration of ketamine was determined every hour after making the incision. We examined the effects of intrathecal pretreatment with yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, and methysergide, a serotonergic receptor antagonist, on the anti-hypersensitivity effect of ketamine. We also examined the effect of systemic ketamine on the c-fos immunoreactivity in the spinal cord. Systemic administration of ketamine at doses from 3 to 30 mg.kg(-1) produced anti-hypersensitivity effects in a dose-dependent manner. Intrathecal administration of ketamine had no effect. There was no significant difference between effects of pre- and post-incisional administration. Intrathecal pretreatment with yohimbine (10 microg) or methysergide (15 microg) completely reversed the anti-hypersensitivity effects of systemic ketamine. Systemic ketamine reduced fos expression in laminae I-II in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord ipsilateral to the paw incision. The results suggest that systemic administration of ketamine perioperatively suppresses early-stage postoperative pain via monoaminergic descending inhibitory pathways.

  8. Pregabalin reduces cocaine self-administration and relapse to cocaine seeking in the rat.

    PubMed

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Cippitelli, Andrea; Somaini, Lorenzo; Gerra, Gilberto; Li, Hongwu; Stopponi, Serena; Ubaldi, Massimo; Kallupi, Marsida; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Pregabalin (Lyrica™) is a structural analog of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and is approved by the FDA for partial epilepsy, neuropathic pain and generalized anxiety disorders. Pregabalin also reduces excitatory neurotransmitter release and post-synaptic excitability. Recently, we demonstrated that pregabalin reduced alcohol intake and prevented relapse to the alcohol seeking elicited by stress or environmental stimuli associated with alcohol availability. Here, we sought to extend these findings by examining the effect of pregabalin on cocaine self-administration (0.25 mg/infusion) and on cocaine seeking elicited by both conditioned stimuli and stress, as generated by administration of yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg). The results showed that oral administration of pregabalin (0, 10 or 30 mg/kg) reduced self-administration of cocaine over an extended period (6 hours), whereas it did not modify self-administration of food. In cocaine reinstatement studies, pregabalin (10 and 30 mg/kg) abolished the cocaine seeking elicited by both the pharmacological stressor yohimbine and the cues predictive of cocaine availability. Overall, these results demonstrate that pregabalin may have potential in the treatment of some aspects of cocaine addiction. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Adrenergic factors involved in the control of crypt cell proliferation in jejunum and descending colon of mouse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, M F; Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1983-01-01

    The mitotic rates in the crypts of Lieberkühn of the proximal jejunum and descending colon of mouse, following different treatments, were measured using a stathmokinetic technique. Regression coefficients, representing mitotic rates, were then calculated by the method of least squares. Treatment with adrenaline, isoprenaline, phenylephrine, phentolamine, and yohimbine all resulted in decreased mitotic rate of jejunal and colonic crypt cells. Chemical sympathectomy and cryosympathectomy had a similar effect, and chemical sympathectomy was followed by a supersensitivity to clonidine. Intraperitoneal injection of metaraminol, clonidine, propranolol, prazosin, labetolol and simultaneous injection of propranolol and adrenaline all resulted in an increased rate of crypt cell proliferation in both jejunum and colon. A significant increase in mitotic rate was observed in both tissues at night. The amplitude of this diurnal variation was decreased in both jejunum and colon following chemical sympathectomy. In addition, the amplitude of this variation in jejunum was decreased after treatment with yohimbine or phentolamine. The results of the study suggest that the sympathetic nervous system stimulates epithelial cell proliferation in both the small and large intestine and that this effect is mediated by an alpha 2-adrenoceptor. By contrast, stimulation of alpha 1- and beta-adrenoceptors is inhibitory to cell proliferation in these tissues.

  10. Prosexual Effect of Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae), False Damiana, in a Model of Male Sexual Behavior.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Reyes, R; Ferreyra-Cruz, O A; Jiménez-Rubio, G; Hernández-Hernández, O T; Martínez-Mota, L

    Chrysactinia mexicana A. Gray (Asteraceae) and Turnera diffusa Willd (Turneraceae) are employed in traditional medicine as aphrodisiacs; however, there is no scientific evidence supporting the prosexual properties of C. mexicana . The aim of this study was to determine whether an aqueous extract of C. mexicana (Cm) stimulates rat male sexual behavior in the sexual exhaustion paradigm. Sexually exhausted (SExh) male rats were treated with Cm (80, 160, and 320 mg/kg), an aqueous extract of T. diffusa (Td), or yohimbine. The sexual exhaustion state in the control group was characterized by a low percentage of males exhibiting mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations and no males demonstrating mating behavior after ejaculation. Cm (320 mg/kg), Td, or yohimbine significantly increased the proportion of SExh rats that ejaculated and resumed copulation after ejaculation. In males that exhibited reversal of sexual exhaustion, Cm (320 mg/kg) improved sexual performance by reducing the number of intromissions and shrinking ejaculation latency. The effects of treatments on sexual behavior were not related with alterations in general locomotion. In conclusion, the prosexual effects of Cm, as well as those of Td, are established at a central level, which supports the traditional use of C. mexicana for stimulating sexual activity.

  11. Noradrenergic Stimulation Impairs Memory Generalization in Women.

    PubMed

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2017-07-01

    Memory generalization is essential for adaptive decision-making and action. Our ability to generalize across past experiences relies on medial-temporal lobe structures, known to be highly sensitive to stress. Recent evidence suggests that stressful events may indeed interfere with memory generalization. Yet, the mechanisms involved in this generalization impairment are unknown. We tested here whether a pharmacological elevation of major stress mediators-noradrenaline and glucocorticoids-is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, healthy men and women received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine that leads to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before they completed an associative learning task probing memory generalization. Drugs left learning performance intact. Yohimbine, however, led to a striking generalization impairment in women, but not in men. Hydrocortisone, in turn, had no effect on memory generalization, neither in men nor in women. The present findings indicate that increased noradrenergic activity, but not cortisol, is sufficient to disrupt memory generalization in a sex-specific manner, with relevant implications for stress-related mental disorders characterized by generalization deficits.

  12. Death related to consumption of Rauvolfia sp. powder mislabeled as Tabernanthe iboga.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Thomas; Hugbart, Chloé; Le Devehat, Françoise; Lepage, Sylvie; Baert, Alain; Bouvet, Renaud; Morel, Isabelle

    2016-09-01

    Powdered roots of iboga (Tabernanthe iboga) contain ibogaine, an alkaloid that has been used to treat addictions. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman who died after ingesting a powder labeled as Tabernanthe iboga she had bought online. Analysis of the powder revealed the absence of ibogaine but the presence of toxic alkaloids (ajmaline, yohimbine and reserpine) found in Rauvolfia sp. plant species. An original and specific LC-MS/MS method developed to quantify ajmaline, yohimbine and reserpine showed respective concentrations of 109.1ng/mL, 98.2ng/mL and 30.8ng/mL in blood, and 1528.2ng/mL, 914.2ng/mL and 561.2ng/mL in bile. Moreover, systematic toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of oxazepam at therapeutic concentration and cannabinoids. Death could be attributed to ingestion of a substantial quantity of crushed roots of Rauvolfia in association with concomitant drug withdrawal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The neuropharmacology of relapse to food seeking: methodology, main findings, and comparison with relapse to drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sunila G; Adams-Deutsch, Tristan; Epstein, David H; Shaham, Yavin

    2009-09-01

    Relapse to old, unhealthy eating habits is a major problem in human dietary treatments. The mechanisms underlying this relapse are unknown. Surprisingly, until recently this clinical problem has not been systematically studied in animal models. Here, we review results from recent studies in which a reinstatement model (commonly used to study relapse to abused drugs) was employed to characterize the effect of pharmacological agents on relapse to food seeking induced by either food priming (non-contingent exposure to small amounts of food), cues previously associated with food, or injections of the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. We also address methodological issues related to the use of the reinstatement model to study relapse to food seeking, similarities and differences in mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking versus drug seeking, and the degree to which the reinstatement procedure provides a suitable model for studying relapse in humans. We conclude by discussing implications for medication development and future research. We offer three tentative conclusions: (1)The neuronal mechanisms of food-priming- and cue-induced reinstatement are likely different from those of reinstatement induced by the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. (2)The neuronal mechanisms of reinstatement of food seeking are possibly different from those of ongoing food-reinforced operant responding. (3)The neuronal mechanisms underlying reinstatement of food seeking overlap to some degree with those of reinstatement of drug seeking.

  14. The effects of alpha2-adrenoceptor agents on anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Vucković, Sonja M; Tomić, Maja A; Stepanović-Petrović, Radica M; Ugresić, Nenad; Prostran, Milica S; Bosković, Bogdan

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the effects of yohimbine (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and clonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) on anti-hyperalgesia induced by carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine in a rat model of inflammatory pain were investigated. Carbamazepine (10-40 mg/kg; i.p.) and oxcarbazepine (40-160 mg/kg; i.p.) caused a significant dose-dependent reduction of the paw inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by concanavalin A (Con A, intraplantarly) in a paw pressure test in rats. Yohimbine (1-3 mg/kg; i.p.) significantly depressed the anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drug mixtures (carbamazepine-clonidine and oxcarbazepine-clonidine) administered in fixed-dose fractions of the ED50 (1/2, 1/4 and 1/8) caused significant and dose-dependent reduction of the hyperalgesia induced by Con A. Isobolographic analysis revealed a significant synergistic (supra-additive) anti-hyperalgesic effect of both combinations tested. These results indicate that anti-hyperalgesic effects of carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine are, at least partially, mediated by activation of adrenergic alpha2-receptors. In addition, synergistic interaction for anti-hyperalgesia between carbamazepine and clonidine, as well as oxcarbazepine and clonidine in a model of inflammatory hyperalgesia, was demonstrated.

  15. Neuroenhancement of Exposure Therapy in Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Stefan G.; Mundy, Elizabeth A.; Curtiss, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure-based treatments and anxiolytic medications are more effective than placebo for treating anxiety disorders, there is still considerable room for further improvement. Interestingly, combining these two modalities is usually not more effective than the monotherapies. Recent translational research has identified a number of novel approaches for treating anxiety disorders using agents that serve as neuroenhancers (also known as cognitive enhancers). Several of these agents have been studied to determine their efficacy at improving treatment outcome for patients with anxiety and other psychiatric disorders. In this review, we examine d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, catecholamines, oxytocin, modafinil, and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids as potential neuroenhancers. Of these agents, d-cycloserine shows the most promise as an effective neuroenhancer for extinction learning and exposure therapy. Yet, the optimal dosing and dose timing for drug administration remains uncertain. There is partial support for cortisol, catecholamines, yohimbine and oxytocin for improving extinction learning and exposure therapy. There is less evidence to indicate that modafinil and nutrients such as caffeine and amino fatty acids are effective neuroenhancers. More research is needed to determine their long term efficacy and clinical utility of these agents. PMID:26306326

  16. The antinociceptive effect of zolpidem and zopiclone in mice.

    PubMed

    Pick, Chaim G; Chernes, Yakov; Rigai, Tova; Rice, Kenner C; Schreiber, Shaul

    2005-07-01

    Zolpidem and zopiclone are two of a newer hypno-sedative class of drugs, the "Z compounds". Their use for the treatment of short-term insomnia has been expanding constantly during the last two decades. The "Z compounds" are considered to cause less significant rebound insomnia or tolerance than the conventional hypnotic benzodiazepines. Their possible antinociceptive effect and interaction with the opioid system has not been studied yet. Our results demonstrate a significant difference between the antinociceptive properties of zopiclone and zolpidem when injected s.c. in the hotplate analgesic assay in mice. Zopiclone induced a weak, dose-dependent antinociceptive effect, antagonized only by the alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine. Zolpidem induced a weak, biphasic dose-dependent antinociceptive effect, antagonized primarily by the non-selective opioid antagonist naloxone and by yohimbine. The weak antinociceptive effect of both drugs, evident only at very high doses (far beyond those used clinically to induce sleep), implies no clinical use for zopiclone or zolpidem in the management of pain. However, the possible interaction of zolpidem with the opioid system should be further investigated (in behavioral models, which do not overlap with the acute-pain antinociception model we used), both for possible side effects in special populations (i.e. elderly) and for possible drug-drug interactions, in order to minimize possible hazards and maximize clinical beneficial effects of its use for sleep.

  17. [Vasodilative effects of indole alkaloids obtained from domestic plants, Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq. and Amsonia elliptica Roem. et Schult].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Y

    1990-02-01

    Vasodilative effects of hirsutine (HS) and hirsuteine (HST) which were isolated from the domestic plant Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq. and beta-yohimbine (beta-Y) which was isolated from the domestic plant Amsonia elliptica Roem. et Schult. were carried out. In the hind-limb artery of anesthetized dogs, intra-arterial administration of HS, HST and beta-Y caused a vasodilatation. The vasodilative potency of HS was somewhat stronger than that of HST, and the potency of both alkaloids was approximately equal to that of papaverine. The vasodilative effect of beta-Y was similar to that of yohimbine, which is considered to be derived from its alpha-adrenoceptor blocking effect, and the potency of both alkaloids was approximately the same, while the effect of beta-Y was stronger than that of papaverine. In the coronary artery, HS showed a vasodilatation and its potency was weaker than that of papaverine. Also, HS showed the same effect in the cerebral artery, and the potency of HS was approximately the same as that of papaverine. These results suggest that the mode of the vasodilative effect induced by HS may partly differ from that of papaverine.

  18. Actions of alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at alpha2A and 5-HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for alpha2A adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Nicolas, J P; Audinot, V; Gavaudan, S; Verrièle, L; Touzard, M; Chaput, C; Richard, N; Millan, M J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the activity of chemically diverse alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) alpha2A adrenoceptors compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h alpha2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (+/-)-idazoxan, benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h alpha2A versus h5-HT1A receptors of only 1.4-, 3.6-, 4-, 10- and 11-fold, respectively (based on differences in pKi values). Clonidine, brimonidine (UK 14304), the benzopyrrolidine fluparoxan and the guanidines guanfacine and guanabenz exhibited intermediate selectivity (22- to 31-fold) for h alpha2A receptors. Only the antagonist atipamezole and the agonist dexmedetomidine (DMT) displayed high preference for alpha2 adrenoceptors (1290- and 91-fold, respectively). Second, the compounds were tested for their ability to induce h5-HT1A receptor-mediated G-protein activation, as indicated by the stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. All except atipamezole and RX 821,002 exhibited agonist activity, with potencies which correlated with their affinity for h5-HT1A receptors. Relative efficacies (Emax values) were 25-35% for guanabenz, guanfacine, WB 4101 and benalfocin, 50-65% for 1-PP, (+/-)-idazoxan and clonidine, and over 70% for fluparoxan, oxymetazoline and yohimbine (relative to 5-HT = 100%). Yohimbine-induced [35S]GTPgammaS binding was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635. In contrast, RX 821,002 was the only ligand which exhibited antagonist activity at h5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Atipamezole, which exhibited negligeable affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, was inactive. Third, the affinities for r alpha2A differed considerably from the affinities for h alpha2A receptors whereas the affinities for r5-HT1A differed much less from the affinities for h5-HT

  19. Neuropeptide Y-Y2 receptor knockout mice: influence of genetic background on anxiety-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Zambello, E; Zanetti, L; Hédou, G F; Angelici, O; Arban, R; Tasan, R O; Sperk, G; Caberlotto, L

    2011-03-10

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been extensively studied in relation to anxiety and depression but of the seven NPY receptors known to date, it is not yet clear which one is mainly involved in mediating its effects in emotional behavior. Mice lacking the NPY-Y2 receptors were previously shown to be less anxious due to their improved ability to cope with stressful situations. In the present study, the behavioral phenotype including the response to challenges was analyzed in NPY-Y2 knockout (KO) mice backcrossed in to congenic C57BL/6 background. In the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the forced swim test (FST), the anxiolytic-like or antidepressant-like phenotype of the NPY-Y2 KO mice could not be confirmed, although this study differs from the previous one only with regard to the genetic background of the mice. In addition, no differences in response to acute stress or to the antidepressant desipramine in the FST were detected between wild type (WT) and NPY-Y2 KO animals. These results suggest that the genetic background of the animals appears to have a strong influence on the behavioral phenotype of NPY-Y2 KO mice. Additionally, to further characterize the animals by their biochemical response to a challenge, the neurochemical changes induced by the anxiogenic compound yohimbine were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of NPY-Y2 KO and compared to WT mice. Dopamine (DA) levels were significantly increased by yohimbine in the WT but unaffected in the KO mice, suggesting that NPY-Y2 receptor exerts a direct control over both the tonic and phasic release of DA and that, although the anxiety-like behavior of these NPY-Y2 KO mice is unaltered, there are clear modifications of DA dynamics. However, yohimbine led to a significant increase in noradrenaline (NA) concentration and a slight reduction in serotonin concentration that were identical for both phenotypes. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Infusion of adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists into the locus coeruleus and ventricular system of the brain. Effects on swim-motivated and spontaneous motor activity.

    PubMed

    Weiss, J M; Simson, P G; Hoffman, L J; Ambrose, M J; Cooper, S; Webster, A

    1986-04-01

    These studies examined how pharmacological stimulation and blockade of alpha receptors would affect active motor behavior in rats. In experiment I, alpha-2 receptor antagonists (piperoxane, yohimbine) and agonists [clonidine, norepinephrine (NE)] were infused into various locations in the ventricular system of the brain, including the locus coeruleus region, and motor activity was measured. Activity was measured principally in a swim test but spontaneous (ambulatory) activity was also recorded while drugs were being infused. When infused into the locus coeruleus region, small doses of the antagonists piperoxane and yohimbine depressed activity in the swim test while infusion of the agonists clonidine and NE had the opposite effect of stimulating activity. These effects were highly specific to the region of the locus coeruleus, since infusions of these drugs into other nearby locations in the ventricular system or use of larger doses had different, often opposite effects. This was especially true of clonidine and NE which profoundly depressed activity when infused posterior to the locus coeruleus, particularly over the dorsal vagal complex. Infusion of small doses of these drugs into the lateral ventricle had effects similar to infusion into the locus coeruleus region, though less pronounced. Changes in spontaneous motor activity were also observed, but this measure differentiated the groups less well than did the swim test. In experiment II, the predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists isoproterenol (beta agonist) and phenylephrine (alpha-1 agonist) were infused into the ventricular system. Since infusions of piperoxane and yohimbine into the locus coeruleus that decreased activity in experiment I increase the release of NE by blocking alpha-2 inhibitory receptors on cell bodies and dendrites of the locus coeruleus, experiment II tested whether ventricular infusion of predominantly postsynaptic receptor agonists would also decrease activity in the swim test

  1. Involvement of histaminergic and noradrenergic receptors in the oxytocin-induced food intake in neonatal meat-type chicks.

    PubMed

    Mirnaghizadeh, Seyed Vahid; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab

    2017-03-01

    Oxytocin neurons have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Several studies have shown that central histaminergic and adrenergic systems synapse on oxytocin neurons but there is no information for their interaction on food intake regulation in birds. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of α-fluoromethylhistidine (α-FMH, histidine decarboxylase inhibitor), chlorpheniramine (histamine H1 receptors antagonist), famotidine (histamine H2 receptors antagonist), thioperamide (histamine H3 receptors antagonist), prazosin (α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (α2 receptor antagonist), metoprolol (β1 adrenergic receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (β2 adrenergic receptor antagonist) and SR59230R (β3 adrenergic receptor antagonist) on oxytocin-induced hypophagia in 3-h food-deprived (FD 3 ) neonatal broiler chicken. In Experiment 1, 3 h-fasted chicks were given an ICV injection of saline, α-FMH (250 nmol), oxytocin (10 μg) and co-injection of α-FMH + oxytocin. Experiments 2-9 were similar to experiment 1 except birds were injected with chlorpheniramine (300 nmol), famotidine (82 nmol), thioperamide (300 nmol), prazosin (10 nmol), yohimbine (13 nmol), metoprolol (24 nmol), ICI 118,551(5 nmol) and SR59230R (20 nmol) instead of α-FMH, respectively. After injection cumulative food intake was measured until 120 min post injection. According to the results, ICV injection of oxytocin significantly decreased food intake in broiler chickens (P < 0.001). ICV injection of α-FMH significantly attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001). Also, co-injection of chlorpheniramine plus oxytocin significantly decreased the effect of oxytocin on food intake (P < 0.001). Co-administration of thioperamide and oxytocin significantly amplified hypophagic effect of oxytocin in chickens (P < 0.001). In addition, ICI 118,551 attenuated hypophagic effect of oxytocin (P < 0.001); while

  2. Investigation of the prejunctional α2-adrenoceptor mediated actions of MDMA in rat atrium and vas deferens

    PubMed Central

    Lavelle, Aisling; Honner, Valerie; Docherty, J R

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy') on peripheral noradrenergic neurotransmission in the rat.In rat atrial slices pre-incubated with [3H]-noradrenaline and in the presence of desipramine (1 μM) to prevent effects of MDMA on basal outflow of tritium, MDMA (10 μM) significantly inhibited the release of tritium evoked by short trains of six pulses at 100 Hz every 10 s for 3 min. This effect did not occur in the presence of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 μM).In epididymal portions of rat vas deferens in the presence of nifedipine (10 μM), MDMA produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of single pulse nerve stimulation-evoked contractions with a pD2 of 5.88±0.16 (n=4). Inhibitory effects of MDMA were antagonized by the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (0.3 μM), but not by the 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor antagonist cyanopindolol in a concentration (1 μM) which markedly antagonized the inhibitory actions of the 5-HT-1 receptor agonist 5-carboxamidotryptamine.In prostatic portions of rat vas deferens in the presence of cocaine (3 μM), MDMA produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of single pulse nerve stimulation-evoked contractions with a pD2 of 5.12±0.21 (n=4). In the absence of cocaine, only the highest concentration of MDMA (30 μM) produced an inhibition, but the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (0.3 μM) converted the response to MDMA from inhibition to potentiation of the stimulation-evoked contraction.In radioligand binding studies, MDMA showed similar affinities for α2B, α2C and α2D-adrenoceptor sites, with pKi values of 5.14±0.16, 5.11±0.05 and 5.31±0.14, respectively.It is concluded that MDMA has significant α2-adrenoceptor agonist actions. PMID:10556934

  3. Immobilization of mule deer with thiafentanil (A-3080) or thiafentanil plus xylazine.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Lance, William R; Miller, Michael W

    2004-04-01

    We evaluated thiafentanil oxalate (A-3080) for the immobilization of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) under laboratory and field conditions. In a crossover experiment comparing recommended (0.1 mg/kg) and 2x recommended thiafentanil doses in captive deer, both produced rapid induction and immobilization. Mean induction was shorter (P = 0.013) for the 2x group (1.9 vs. 3 min); mean reversals for both groups were rapid (recommended = 0.9 min after naltrexone injection; 2x = 1 min) and did not differ (P = 0.29). Six free-ranging mule deer were immobilized with 7 mg thiafentanil and four with 10 mg; mean induction was 2.3 min for both groups (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7 mg, 1.2-3.4; 10 mg, 1.9-2.8), and mean reversal was <1 min for both groups. Of 165 free-ranging deer darted with various combinations of thiafentanil and xylazine, we successfully immobilized 148 (90%). Mean induction ranged from 2.1 to 4.9 min for different drug combinations. Reversals were not compared because naltrexone and yohimbine doses varied, but overall mean reversal was 1.9 min (95% CI, 1.7-2.1 min) after injection of naltrexone and yohimbine intravenously (i.v.); naltrexone:thiafentanil ratios ranging from 10:1 to 43:1 provided mean recoveries ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 min. All 25 deer fitted with radio collars were alive at 30 days postcapture. On the basis of overall reliability and effectiveness, drug volumes, and ease of handling drugged animals, we recommend using a combination of 10-12 mg thiafentanil (0.15-0.2 mg/kg) and 100 mg xylazine to immobilize mule deer; immobilization can be effectively reversed with 100 mg naltrexone or more and 15 mg yohimbine or more i.v. Where feasible, we also recommend the use of transmitter darts when immobilizing mule deer with opioids in order to maximize recovery of darted deer and to ensure that missed darts are found.

  4. Release inhibitory receptors activation favours the A2A-adenosine receptor-mediated facilitation of noradrenaline release in isolated rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Fresco, Paula; Diniz, Carmen; Queiroz, Glória; Gonçalves, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    Interactions between A2A-adenosine receptors and α2-, A1- and P2- release-inhibitory receptors, on the modulation of noradrenaline release were studied in isolated rat tail artery. Preparations were labelled with [3H]-noradrenaline, superfused with desipramine-containing medium, and stimulated electrically (100 pulses at 5 Hz or 20 pulses at 50 Hz).Blockade of α2-autoreceptors with yohimbine (1 μM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz but not by 20 pulses at 50 Hz.The selective A2A-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxyethyl)phenethylamino-5′-N-ethylcarboxamidoadenosine (CGS 21680; 1 – 100 nM) enhanced tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz. Yohimbine prevented the effect of CGS 21680, which was restored by the A1-receptor agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA; 100 nM) or by the P2-receptor agonist 2-methylthioadenosine triphosphate (2-MeSATP; 80 μM).CGS 21680 (100 nM) failed to increase tritium overflow elicited by 20 pulses at 50 Hz. The α2-adrenoceptor agonist 5-bromo-6-(2-imidazolin-2-ylamino)-quinoxaline (UK 14304; 30 nM), the A1-receptor agonist CPA (100 nM) or the P2-receptor agonist 2-MeSATP (80 μM) reduced tritium overflow. In the presence of these agonists CGS 21680 elicited a facilitation of tritium overflow.Blockade of potassium channels with tetraethylammonium (TEA; 5 mM) increased tritium overflow elicited by 100 pulses at 5 Hz to values similar to those obtained in the presence of yohimbine but did not prevent the effect of CGS 21680 (100 nM) on tritium overflow.It is concluded that, in isolated rat tail artery, the facilitation of noradrenaline release mediated by A2A-adenosine receptors is favoured by activation of release inhibitory receptors. PMID:12010771

  5. p-( sup 125 I)iodoclonidine is a partial agonist at the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Gerhardt, M.A.; Wade, S.M.; Neubig, R.R.

    1990-08-01

    The binding properties of p-(125I)iodoclonidine (( 125I)PIC) to human platelet membranes and the functional characteristics of PIC are reported. (125I)PIC bound rapidly and reversibly to platelet membranes, with a first-order association rate constant (kon) at room temperature of 8.0 +/- 2.7 x 10(6) M-1 sec-1 and a dissociation rate constant (koff) of 2.0 +/- 0.8 x 10(-3) sec-1. Scatchard plots of specific (125I)PIC binding (0.1-5 nM) were linear, with a Kd of 1.2 +/- 0.1 nM. (125I)PIC bound to the same number of high affinity sites as the alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2-AR) full agonist (3H) bromoxidine (UK14,304), which representedmore » approximately 40% of the sites bound by the antagonist (3H)yohimbine. Guanosine 5'-(beta, gamma-imido)triphosphate greatly reduced the amount of (125I)PIC bound (greater than 80%), without changing the Kd of the residual binding. In competition experiments, the alpha 2-AR-selective ligands yohimbine, bromoxidine, oxymetazoline, clonidine, p-aminoclonidine, (-)-epinephrine, and idazoxan all had Ki values in the low nanomolar range, whereas prazosin, propranolol, and serotonin yielded Ki values in the micromolar range. Epinephrine competition for (125I)PIC binding was stereoselective. Competition for (3H)bromoxidine binding by PIC gave a Ki of 1.0 nM (nH = 1.0), whereas competition for (3H)yohimbine could be resolved into high and low affinity components, with Ki values of 3.7 and 84 nM, respectively. PIC had minimal agonist activity in inhibiting adenylate cyclase in platelet membranes, but it potentiated platelet aggregation induced by ADP with an EC50 of 1.5 microM. PIC also inhibited epinephrine-induced aggregation, with an IC50 of 5.1 microM. Thus, PIC behaves as a partial agonist in a human platelet aggregation assay. (125I)PIC binds to the alpha 2B-AR in NG-10815 cell membranes with a Kd of 0.5 +/- 0.1 nM.« less

  6. Novelty response of rats determines the effect of prefrontal alpha-2 adrenoceptor modulation on anxiety.

    PubMed

    Uzsoki, B; Tóth, M; Hernádi, I

    2011-07-25

    In this study we provide evidence that animals of the same population, although identical in age and sex, have individual reactions to the prefrontal modulation of adrenoceptors. We have examined the dose-dependent action of α(2)-adrenoceptor agents on the anxiety of rats with different response to novelty in the elevated plus maze (EPM) apparatus. Rats were divided into high (HR) and low responder (LR) groups based on their locomotor activity in a novel open field environment. HR rats also showed increased locomotion and low anxiety in the EPM. Prefrontal injection of α(2)-receptor antagonist yohimbine, BRL44408 or imiloxan caused anxiety only in HR rats. The α(2A/D)-receptor agonist guanfacine increased anxiety levels of both groups. However, the effective dose was lower in HR rats. The present results propose different prefrontal adrenoceptor sensitivity of rats showing distinct baseline activity levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark with ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianghao; Baker, Andrew; Chen, Pei

    2011-09-30

    An ultra-performance liquid chromatography/ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/IM-QTOF-MS) method was developed for profiling the indole alkaloids in yohimbe bark. Many indole alkaloids with the yohimbine or ajmalicine core structure, plus methylated, oxidized and reduced species, were characterized. Common fragments and mass differences are described. It was shown that the use of IMS could provide another molecular descriptor, i.e. molecular shape by rotationally averaged collision cross-section; this is of great value for identification of constituents when reference materials are usually not available. Using the combination of high resolution (~40000) accurate mass measurement with time-aligned parallel (TAP) fragmentation, MS(E) (where E represents collision energy), ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMS) and UPLC chromatography, a total 55 indole alkaloids were characterized and a few new indole alkaloids are reported for the first time. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Noradrenaline treatment of rats stimulates H2O2 generation in liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, A; Patole, M S; Puranam, R S; Ramasarma, T

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of rats with noradrenaline stimulated H2O2 generation in liver mitochondria using succinate, choline or glycerol 1-phosphate as substrate. The dehydrogenase activity with either succinate or choline as substrate showed no change, whereas that with glycerol 1-phosphate increased. The effect was obtained with noradrenaline, but not with dihydroxyphenylserine. Phenoxybenzamine and yohimbine, but not propranolol, prevented the response to noradrenaline treatment. Phenylephrine could stimulate H2O2 generation, whereas isoprenaline had only a marginal effect. Theophylline treatment slightly decreased the generation of H2O2 in liver mitochondria, but treatment with pargyline, Ro4-1284 and dibutyryl cyclic AMP had little effect. These studies showed that noradrenaline might possibly be acting through the alpha 2-adrenergic system. PMID:6312963

  9. Clonidine in horses: identification, detection, and clinical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Dirikolu, L; McFadden, E T; Ely, K J; ElkHoly, H; Lehner, A F; Thompson, K

    2006-01-01

    Clonidine is classified as a class 3 performance-enhancing agent by the Association of Racing Commissioners International and thus has the potential to influence the outcome of a race. In this study, the authors developed and validated a sensitive gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer method to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of clonidine in equine plasma samples after IV administration of a single dose (0.025 mg/kg) of clonidine in horses. At this dose, clonidine produced rapid and profound sedation, which cold be quickly reversed with yohimbine. Clonidine was able to produce an analgesic effect but failed to provide maximal analgesia in all horses; the limited analgesic effect persisted for about 60 minutes.

  10. Tolazoline reversal of xylazine in bison (Bison bison): Mitigation of adverse effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roffe, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Steven J.; Williams, Beth; Quist, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Tolazoline is a mixed alpha-1 and -2 adrenergic antagonist used to reverse the sedative, analgesic and muscle-relaxing effects of xylazine, a potent alpha adrenergic agonist. Tolazoline has been used in cattle and is superior to yohimbine, another alpha adrenergic antagonist, in this species. In white-tailed deer, tolazoline shortened recovery times and reversed xylazine-induced bradycardia, respiratory depression, and bloat following xylazine-ketamine anesthesia (Kreeger et al. 1986). We have used it for a number of years in moose without any detected adverse reactions. Caulkett et al. (2000) used tolazoline in wood bison to reverse the xylazine-induced effects of xylazine-tiletamine/zolazepam anesthesia and did not report any ill effects. However, the reported side effects of tolazoline in horses (species for which the drug was developed and is labeled) include abdominal discomfort, gastrointestinal hypermotility, diarrhea, tachycardia, ventricular dysrhythmia, hypertension and apprehensiveness.

  11. Exogenous cortisol causes a shift from deliberative to intuitive thinking.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Strombach, Tina; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2016-02-01

    People often rely on intuitive judgments at the expense of deliberate reasoning, but what determines the dominance of intuition over deliberation is not well understood. Here, we employed a psychopharmacological approach to unravel the role of two major endocrine stress mediators, cortisol and noradrenaline, in cognitive reasoning. Healthy participants received placebo, cortisol (hydrocortisone) and/or yohimbine, a drug that increases noradrenergic stimulation, before performing the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We found that cortisol impaired performance in the CRT by biasing responses toward intuitive, but incorrect answers. Elevated stimulation of the noradrenergic system, however, had no effect. We interpret our results in the context of the dual systems theory of judgment and decision making. We propose that cortisol causes a shift from deliberate, reflective cognition toward automatic, reflexive information processing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Commercially marketed supplements for bodybuilding athletes.

    PubMed

    Grunewald, K K; Bailey, R S

    1993-02-01

    We conducted a survey of 624 commercially available supplements targeted towards bodybuilding athletes. Over 800 performance claims were made for these supplements. Supplements include amino acids, boron, carnitine, choline, chromium, dibencozide, ferulic acid, gamma oryzanol, medium chain triglycerides, weight gain powders, Smilax compounds and yohimbine. Many performance claims advertised were not supported by published research studies. In some instances, we found no research to validate the claims; in other cases, research findings were extrapolated to inappropriate applications. For example, biological functions of some non-essential compounds were interpreted as performance claims for the supplements. Claims for others were based on their ability to enhance hormonal release or activity. We suggest that more research be conducted on this group of athletes and their nutritional needs. Furthermore, the effectiveness and safety of supplements merit further investigation.

  13. Bulk muscles, loose cables

    PubMed Central

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. PMID:25326558

  14. Bulk muscles, loose cables.

    PubMed

    Liyanage, Chamari R D G; Kodali, Venkata

    2014-10-17

    The accessibility and usage of body building supplements is on the rise with stronger internet marketing strategies by the industry. The dangers posed by the ingredients in them are underestimated. A healthy young man came to the emergency room with palpitations and feeling unwell. Initial history and clinical examination were non-contributory to find the cause. ECG showed atrial fibrillation. A detailed history for any over the counter or herbal medicine use confirmed that he was taking supplements to bulk muscle. One of the components in these supplements is yohimbine; the onset of symptoms coincided with the ingestion of this product and the patient is symptom free after stopping it. This report highlights the dangers to the public of consuming over the counter products with unknown ingredients and the consequential detrimental impact on health. 2014 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Effects on fawn survival of multiple immobilizations of captive pregnant white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.D.; Mech, L.D.; Paul, W.J.; Karns, P.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fawn viability was tested in captive, pregnant white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) immobilized with xylazine hydrochloride and ketamine hydrochloride and reversed by yohimbine hydrochloride or tolazoline hydrochloride. Nine pregnant does were immobilized 10 times each from December 1984 to May 1985. Their mean parturition date was 8 June. The number of fawns produced per pregnant doe was 1.88. Mean weight of newborn fawns was 4.18 kg. Seventy-five percent of the does produced twins or triplets. Three (20%) fawns died postnatally within 48 hr, but the remaining 12 survived for the full 72 hr they were allowed to remain with their dams. These observations compare favorably with those of non-immobilized captive deer on similar diets.

  16. Involvement of opioid and other systems in ethanol abstinence audiogenic seizures in the rat?

    PubMed

    Kotlińska, J; Langwiński, R

    1985-01-01

    The action of opiate receptor agonists: (D-Ala2)-methionine enkephalinamide (D-MEA), morphine, heroin, etorphine, and antagonists: naloxone and diprenorphine on audiogenic seizures was tested during ethanol abstinence. The action of diazepam and clonidine was also tested Morphine (5 and 20 mg/kg), but not heroin and etorphine, given intraperitoneally inhibited the seizures, similarly as intraventricularly administered D-MEA did. However, morphine given by this route was ineffective. Diazepam and clonidine inhibited audiogenic seizures: the action of clonidine was counteracted by yohimbine, but not by prazosin. The results may be considered as supporting the hypothesis on the participation of opioid system in ethanol abstinence. However, the participation of gabergic and noradrenergic systems cannot be ruled out: these systems may possibly interact with the opioid system in evoking the symptoms of ethanol abstinence.

  17. LSD, 5-HT (serotonin), and the evolution of a behavioral assay.

    PubMed

    Appel, James B; West, William B; Buggy, James

    2004-01-01

    Research in our laboratory, supported by NIDA and facilitated by Roger Brown, has indicated that serotonergic neuronal systems are involved in the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD. However, the only compounds that fully antagonize the LSD cue act at both serotonin (5-HT) and dopamine (DA) receptors. In addition, substitution for LSD in standard drug vs. no-drug (DND) discriminations does not necessarily predict either similar mechanisms of action or hallucinogenic potency because 'false positives' occur when animals are given drugs such as lisuride (LHM), quipazine, or, possibly, yohimbine. These effects can be greatly reduced by using drug vs. drug (D-D), drug vs. drug vs. no drug (D-ND), or drug vs. ' other' drug (saline, cocaine, pentobarbital) training procedures. Additional studies, in which drugs were administered directly into the cerebral ventricles or specific brain areas, suggest that structures containing terminal fields of serotonergic neurons might be involved in the stimulus effects of LSD.

  18. Synthesis of 2,4-dihydroxychalcone derivatives as potential antidepressant effect.

    PubMed

    Guan, L-P; Zhao, D-H; Chang, Y; Wen, Z-S; Tang, L-M; Huang, F-F

    2013-01-01

    In this study, twelve 2,4-dihydroxychalcone derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for antidepressant activities using the forced swimming test (FST). The pharmacological test showed that 6 compounds significantly reduced the immobility times in the FST at a dose of 10 mg/kg, indicative of antidepressant activity. Among the derivatives, compounds designated 3d and 3 h exhibited the best antidepressant activity, with reduced immobility time by 32.05% and 34.33%, respectively. In the 5-hydroxytryptophan-induced head-twitch test and yohimbine-induced mortality test, compounds 3d and 3 h increased head-twitch and increased the mortality rate. The mechanisms of the antidepressant effects of compounds 3d and 3 h may be related with the 5-HTP and NE nervous system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. A cocktail of synthetic stimulants found in a dietary supplement associated with serious adverse events.

    PubMed

    Venhuis, Bastiaan; Keizers, Peter; van Riel, Antoinette; de Kaste, Dries

    2014-06-01

    Food supplements are regularly found to contain pharmacologically active substances. Recently, the food supplement Dexaprine was removed from the Dutch market because it was associated with severe adverse events. Reports to the Dutch Poisons Information Center (DPIC) showed that ingestion of as little as half a tablet caused several cases of nausea, agitation, tachycardia, and palpitations and even one case of cardiac arrest. The remaining tablets of four patients were sent in by different healthcare professionals. Analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight mass-spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) confirmed the presence of synephrine, oxilofrine, deterenol, yohimbine, caffeine, and theophylline. Two more compounds were found which were tentatively identified as β-methyl-β-phenylethylamines. This incident is only the next in a series of similar incidents involving dietary supplements with (undeclared) active substances that are either unsafe or have no known safety profile. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Efficacy of 1.25% amitraz solution in the treatment of generalized demodicosis (eight cases) and sarcoptic mange (five cases) in dogs.

    PubMed

    Hugnet, C; Bruchon-Hugnet, C; Royer, H; Bourdoiseau, G

    2001-04-01

    Eight dogs with generalized demodicosis and five with sarcoptic manage were treated with 1.25% amitraz solution applied weekly and associated with an antidote treatment (atipamezol, 0.1 mg kg-1 i.m. once: and yohimbine 0.1 mg kg-1 once daily for 3 days, orally). Results of skin scrapings were used to determine whether therapy should be continued or stopped. The median number of treatments for demodicosis and sarcoptic mange was three (range 2-5) and two (range 1-3), respectively. Some side-effects were observed but all were stopped with antidote treatment; no failure or relapses occurred at 6-36 months after treatment.

  1. Evidence that (-)-7-hydroxy-4'-dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol activates a non-CB(1), non-CB(2), non-TRPV1 target in the mouse vas deferens.

    PubMed

    Pertwee, Roger G; Thomas, Adèle; Stevenson, Lesley A; Maor, Yehoshua; Mechoulam, Raphael

    2005-06-01

    Previous experiments showed that R-(+)-WIN55212-induced inhibition of electrically-evoked contractions of mouse vasa deferentia could be antagonized by cannabidiol in a manner that appeared to be competitive but not to involve direct competition for established cannabinoid receptors. We have now discovered that (-)-7-hydroxy-4'-dimethylheptyl-cannabidiol (7-OH-DMH-CBD) inhibits electrically-evoked contractions of the vas deferens (EC(50)=13.3 nM). This it appeared to do by acting on prejunctional neurones as 100 nM 7-OH-DMH-CBD did not attenuate contractile responses to phenylephrine or beta,gamma-methylene-ATP. Although 7-OH-DMH-CBD was antagonized by SR141716A, it was less susceptible to antagonism by this CB(1) receptor antagonist than R-(+)-WIN55212. 7-OH-DMH-CBD was also antagonized by cannabidiol (1 microM; apparent K(B)=222.2 nM) but not by the CB(2) receptor antagonist, SR144528 (32 nM), or by naloxone (300 nM), ruthenium red (1 microM) or capsazepine (10 microM). Yohimbine (100 nM) enhanced the ability of 7-OH-DMH-CBD to inhibit electrically-evoked contractions. R-(+)-WIN55212 was also potentiated by 100 nM yohimbine, possibly reflecting ongoing sequestration of G(i/o) proteins from CB(1) receptors by alpha(2)-adrenoceptors. Our results suggest that 7-OH-DMH-CBD may activate a neuronal target in the vas deferens that is not a CB(1), CB(2), TRPV1, opioid or alpha(2)-adrenergic receptor but do not exclude the possibility that it also activates CB(1) receptors.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and α 2 adrenergic receptors mediate heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Paula E; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Edwards, Scott; Schulteis, Gery; Koob, George F

    2013-09-01

    Anxiety is one of the early symptoms of opioid withdrawal and contributes to continued drug use and relapse. The acoustic startle response (ASR) is a component of anxiety that has been shown to increase during opioid withdrawal in both humans and animals. We investigated the role of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and norepinephrine (NE), two key mediators of the brain stress system, on acute heroin withdrawal-potentiated ASR. Rats injected with heroin (2 mg/kg s.c.) displayed an increased ASR when tested 4 h after heroin treatment. A similar increase in ASR was found in rats 10-20 h into withdrawal from extended access (12 h) to i.v. heroin self-administration, a model that captures several aspects of heroin addiction in humans. Both the α 2 adrenergic receptor agonist clonidine (10 μg/kg s.c.) and CRF1 receptor antagonist N,N-bis(2-methoxyethyl)-3-(4-methoxy-2-methylphenyl)-2,5-dimethyl-pyrazolo[1,5-a] pyrimidin-7-amine (MPZP; 20 mg/kg s.c.) blocked heroin withdrawal-potentiated startle. To investigate the relationship between CRF1 and α 2 adrenergic receptors in the potentiation of the ASR, we tested the effect of MPZP on yohimbine (1.25 mg/kg s.c.)-potentiated startle and clonidine on CRF (2 μg i.c.v.)-potentiated startle. Clonidine blocked CRF-potentiated startle, whereas MPZP partially attenuated but did not reverse yohimbine-potentiated startle, suggesting that CRF may drive NE release to potentiate startle. These results suggest that CRF1 and α 2 receptors play an important role in the heightened anxiety-like behaviour observed during acute withdrawal from heroin, possibly via CRF inducing the release of NE in stress-related brain regions.

  3. Modulation of cannabinoid signaling by amygdala α2-adrenergic system in fear conditioning.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Zamanparvar, Majid; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-03-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the modulation of emotional state, primarily related to anxiety, arousal, and stress. Growing evidence suggests that the endocannabinoid system mediates stress responses and emotional homeostasis, in part, by targeting noradrenergic circuits. In addition, there is an interaction between the cannabinoid and noradrenergic system that has significant functional and behavioral implications. Considering the importance of these systems in forming memories for fearful events, we have investigated the involvement of basolateral amygdala (BLA) α2-adrenoceptors on ACPA (as selective cannabinoid CB1 agonist)-induced inhibition of the acquisition of contextual and auditory conditioned fear. A contextual and auditory fear conditioning apparatus for assess fear memory in adult male NMRI mice was used. Pre-training, intraperitoneal administration of ACPA decreased the percentage freezing time in contextual (at doses of 0.05 and 0.1mg/kg) and auditory (at dose of 0.1 mg/kg) in the fear conditioning task, indicating memory acquisition deficit. The same result was observed with intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.001-0.5 μg/mouse, for both memories), as α2-adrenoceptor agonist and yohimbine (at doses of 0.005 and 0.05 for contextual and at dose of 0.05 μg/mouse for auditory fear memory), as α2-adrenoceptor antagonist. In addition, intra-BLA microinjection of clonidine (0.0005 μg/mouse) did not alter ACPA response in both conditions, while the same dose of yohimbine potentiated ACPA response at the lower dose on contextual fear memory. It is concluded that BLA α2-adrenergic receptors may be involved in context- but not tone-dependent fear memory impairment induced by activation of CB1 receptors. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Stimulation of the noradrenergic system during memory formation impairs extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Soeter, Marieke; Kindt, Merel

    2012-04-01

    The noradrenergic system plays a critical role in the 'consolidation' of emotional memory. If we are to target 'reconsolidation' in patients with anxiety disorders, the noradrenergic strengthening of fear memory should not impair the disruption of reconsolidation. In Experiment I, we addressed this issue using a differential fear conditioning procedure allowing selective reactivation of one of two fear associations. First, we strengthened fear memory by administering an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist (ie, yohimbine HCl; double-blind placebo-controlled study) 30 min before acquisition (time for peak value yohimbine HCl <1 h). Next, the reconsolidation of one of the fear associations was manipulated by administering a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist (ie, propranolol HCl) 90 min before its selective reactivation (time for peak value propranolol HCl <2 h). In Experiment II, we administered propranolol HCl after reactivation of the memory to rule out a possible effect of the pharmacological manipulation on the memory retrieval itself. The excessive release of noradrenaline during memory formation not only delayed the process of extinction 48 h later, but also triggered broader fear generalization. Yet, the β-adrenergic receptor blocker during reconsolidation selectively 'neutralized' the fear-arousing aspects of the noradrenergic-strengthened memory and undermined the generalization of fear. We observed a similar reduction in fear responding when propranolol HCl was administered after reactivation of the memory. The present findings demonstrate the involvement of noradrenergic modulation in the formation as well as generalization of human fear memory. Given that the noradrenergic strengthening of fear memory impaired extinction learning but not the disruption of reconsolidation, our findings may have implications for the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  5. Inhibition of [11C]mirtazapine binding by alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists studied by positron emission tomography in living porcine brain.

    PubMed

    Smith, Donald F; Dyve, Suzan; Minuzzi, Luciano; Jakobsen, Steen; Munk, Ole L; Marthi, Katalin; Cumming, Paul

    2006-06-15

    We have developed [(11)C]mirtazapine as a ligand for PET studies of antidepressant binding in living brain. However, previous studies have determined neither optimal methods for quantification of [(11)C]mirtazapine binding nor the pharmacological identity of this binding. To obtain that information, we have now mapped the distribution volume (V(d)) of [(11)C]mirtazapine relative to the arterial input in the brain of three pigs, in a baseline condition and after pretreatment with excess cold mirtazapine (3 mg/kg). Baseline V(d) ranged from 6 ml/ml in cerebellum to 18 ml/ml in frontal cortex, with some evidence for a small self-displaceable binding component in the cerebellum. Regional binding potentials (pBs) obtained by a constrained two-compartment model, using the V(d) observation in cerebellum, were consistently higher than pBs obtained by other arterial input or reference tissue methods. We found that adequate quantification of pB was obtained using the simplified reference tissue method. Concomitant PET studies with [(15)O]-water indicated that mirtazapine challenge increased CBF uniformly in cerebellum and other brain regions, supporting the use of this reference tissue for calculation of [(11)C]mirtazapine pB. Displacement by mirtazapine was complete in the cerebral cortex, but only 50% in diencephalon, suggesting the presence of multiple binding sites of differing affinities in that tissue. Competition studies with yohimbine and RX 821002 showed decreases in [(11)C]mirtazapine pB throughout the forebrain; use of the multireceptor version of the Michaelis-Menten equation indicated that 42% of [(11)C]mirtazapine binding in cortical regions is displaceable by yohimbine. Thus, PET studies confirm that [(11)C]mirtazapine affects alpha(2)-adrenoceptor binding sites in living brain. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Alpha2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V; Vadodaria, Krishna C; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2010-01-20

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of alpha(2)-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine beta-hydroxylase knock-out (Dbh(-/-)) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for alpha(2)-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than alpha(2)-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of alpha(2)-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Furthermore, coadministration of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short-duration (7 d) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action

  7. α2-adrenoceptor blockade accelerates the neurogenic, neurotrophic, and behavioral effects of chronic antidepressant treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yanpallewar, Sudhirkumar U.; Fernandes, Kimberly; Marathe, Swananda V.; Vadodaria, Krishna C.; Jhaveri, Dhanisha; Rommelfanger, Karen; Ladiwala, Uma; Jha, Shanker; Muthig, Verena; Hein, Lutz; Bartlett, Perry; Weinshenker, David; Vaidya, Vidita A.

    2010-01-01

    Slow-onset adaptive changes that arise from sustained antidepressant treatment, such as enhanced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and increased trophic factor expression, play a key role in the behavioral effects of antidepressants. α2-adrenoceptors contribute to the modulation of mood and are potential targets for the development of faster acting antidepressants. We investigated the influence of α2-adrenoceptors on adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Our results indicate that α2-adrenoceptor agonists, clonidine and guanabenz, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis through a selective effect on the proliferation, but not the survival or differentiation, of progenitors. These effects persist in dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice lacking norepinephrine, supporting a role for α2-heteroceptors on progenitor cells, rather than α2-autoreceptors on noradrenergic neurons that inhibit norepinephrine release. Adult hippocampal progenitors in vitro express all the α2-adrenoceptor subtypes, and decreased neurosphere frequency and BrdU incorporation indicate direct effects of α2-adrenoceptor stimulation on progenitors. Further, co-administration of the α2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine with the antidepressant imipramine significantly accelerates effects on hippocampal progenitor proliferation, the morphological maturation of newborn neurons, and the increase in expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor implicated in the neurogenic and behavioral effects of antidepressants. Finally, short duration (7 day) yohimbine and imipramine treatment results in robust behavioral responses in the novelty suppressed feeding test, which normally requires 3 weeks of treatment with classical antidepressants. Our results demonstrate that α2-adrenoceptors, expressed by progenitor cells, decrease adult hippocampal neurogenesis, while their blockade speeds up antidepressant action, highlighting their importance as targets for

  8. Possible involvements of glutamate and adrenergic receptors on acute toxicity of methylphenidate in isolated hippocampus and cerebral cortex of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Shabab, Behnaz

    2017-04-01

    Neurodegeneration induced by methylphenidate (MPH), as a central stimulant with unknown long-term consequences, in adult rats' brain and the possible mechanisms involved were studied. Rats were acutely treated with MPH in the presence and absence of some receptor antagonists such as ketamine, topiramate, yohimbine, and haloperidol. Motor activity and anxiety level in rats were monitored. Antioxidant and inflammatory parameters were also measured in isolated hippocampus and cerebral cortex. MPH-treated groups (10 and 20 mg/kg) demonstrated anxiety-like behavior and increased motor activity. MPH significantly increased lipid peroxidation, GSSG content, IL-1β and TNF-α levels in isolated tissues, and also significantly reduced GSH content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Pretreatment of animals by receptor antagonists caused inhibition of MPH-induced motor activity disturbances and anxiety-like behavior. Pretreatment of animals by ketamine, topiramate, and yohimbine inhibited the MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation; it significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, GSSG level, IL-1β and TNF-α levels and increased GSH content, SOD, GPx, and GR activities in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of acutely MPH-treated rats. Pretreatment with haloperidol did not cause any change in MPH-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. In conclusion, acute administration of high doses of MPH can cause oxidative and inflammatory changes in brain cells and induce neurodegeneration in hippocampus and cerebral cortex of adult rats and these changes might probably be mediated by glutamate (NMDA or AMPA) and/or α 2 -adrenergic receptors. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  9. A Rodent “Self-Report” Measure of Methamphetamine Craving? Rat Ultrasonic Vocalizations During Methamphetamine Self-Administration, Extinction, and Reinstatement

    PubMed Central

    Mahler, Stephen V.; Moorman, David E.; Feltenstein, Matthew W.; Cox, Brittney M.; Ogburn, Katelyn B.; Bachar, Michal; McGonigal, Justin T.; Ghee, Shannon M.; See, Ronald E.

    2012-01-01

    Rats emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in a variety of contexts, and it is increasingly clear that USVs reflect more complex information than mere positive and negative affect states. We sought to examine USVs in a common model of addiction and relapse, the self-administration/reinstatement paradigm, in order to gain insight into subjective states experienced by rats during various types of methamphetamine seeking. We measured three subtypes of “50kHz” USVs [flats, trills, and non-trill frequency modulated USVs (FMs)], as well as long and short duration “22kHz” USVs, during self-administration and extinction training, and during reinstatement elicited by cues, a methamphetamine prime, cues + prime, or the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. During self-administration and extinction, rats emitted many flats and FMs, (and short duration “22kHz” USVs on day 1 of self-administration), but few trills. In contrast, methamphetamine priming injections potently enhanced FMs and trills, and trill production was correlated with the degree of methamphetamine + cue-elicited reinstatement. Cues alone yielded increases only in flat USVs during reinstatement, though a subset of rats displaying strong cue-induced reinstatement also emitted long duration, aversion-related “22kHz” USVs. Although yohimbine administration caused reinstatement, it did not induce “22kHz” USVs in methamphetamine-experienced or methamphetamine-naïve rats (unlike footshock stress, which did induce long duration “22kHz” USVs). These findings demonstrate heterogeneity of rat USVs emitted during different types of methamphetamine seeking, and highlight their potential usefulness for gaining insight into the subjective states of rats in rodent models of drug addiction and relapse. PMID:22940018

  10. Abscisic Acid Acts as a Blocker of the Bitter Taste G Protein-Coupled Receptor T2R4.

    PubMed

    Pydi, Sai P; Jaggupilli, Appalaraju; Nelson, Ken M; Abrams, Suzanne R; Bhullar, Rajinder P; Loewen, Michele C; Chelikani, Prashen

    2015-04-28

    Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) belong to the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily. In humans, 25 T2Rs mediate bitter taste sensation. In addition to the oral cavity, T2Rs are expressed in many extraoral tissues, including the central nervous system, respiratory system, and reproductive system. To understand the mechanistic roles of the T2Rs in oral and extraoral tissues, novel blockers or antagonists are urgently needed. Recently, we elucidated the binding pocket of T2R4 for its agonist quinine, and an antagonist and inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid. This structure-function information about T2R4 led us to screen the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA), its precursor (xanthoxin), and catabolite phaseic acid for their ability to bind and activate or inhibit T2R4. Molecular docking studies followed by functional assays involving calcium imaging confirmed that ABA is an antagonist with an IC50 value of 34.4 ± 1.1 μM. However, ABA precursor xanthoxin acts as an agonist on T2R4. Interestingly, molecular model-guided site-directed mutagenesis suggests that the T2R4 residues involved in quinine binding are also predominantly involved in binding to the novel antagonist, ABA. The antagonist ability of ABA was tested using another T2R4 agonist, yohimbine. Our results suggest that ABA does not inhibit yohimbine-induced T2R4 activity. The discovery of natural bitter blockers has immense nutraceutical and physiological significance and will help in dissecting the T2R molecular pathways in various tissues.

  11. Spinal 5-HT2 and 5-HT3 receptors mediate low, but not high, frequency TENS-induced antihyperalgesia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Rajan; King, Ellen W.; Dickman, Janelle K.; Herold, Carli A.; Johnston, Natalie F.; Spurgin, Megan L.; Sluka, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a form of non-pharmacological treatment for pain. Involvement of descending inhibitory systems is implicated in TENS-induced analgesia. In the present study, the roles of spinal 5-HT and α2-adrenoceptors in TENS analgesia were investigated in rats. Hyperalgesia was induced by inflaming the knee joint with 3% kaolin—carrageenan mixture and assessed by measuring paw withdrawal latency (PWL) to heat before and 4 h after injection. The (1) α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (30 μg), (2) 5-HT antagonist methysergide (5-HT1 and 5-HT2,30 μg), one of the 5-HT receptor subtype antagonists, (3) NAN-190 (5-HT1A, 15 μg), (4) ketanserin (5-HT2A, 30 μg), (5) MDL-72222 (5-HT3, 12 μg), or (6) vehicle was administered intrathecally prior to TENS treatment. Low (4 Hz) or high (100 Hz) frequency TENS at sensory intensity was then applied to the inflamed knee for 20 min and PWL was determined. Selectivity of the antagonists used was confirmed using respective agonists administered intrathecally. Yohimbine had no effect on the antihyperalgesia produced by low or high frequency TENS. Methysergide and MDL-72222 prevented the antihyperalgesia produced by low, but not high, frequency TENS. Ketanserin attenuated the antihyperalgesic effects of low frequency TENS whereas NAN-190 had no effect. The results from the present study show that spinal 5-HT receptors mediate low, but not high, frequency TENS-induced antihyperalgesia through activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT3 receptors in rats. Furthermore, spinal noradrenergic receptors are not involved in either low or high frequency TENS antihyperalgesia. PMID:14499437

  12. A comparison of the effects of psychotomimetics and anxiolytics on punished and unpunished responding maintained by fixed interval schedules of food reinforcement in the rat.

    PubMed

    Evenden, John; Duncan, Bertina; Ko, Tracey

    2006-02-01

    Characterization of anxiolytic drugs often employs conflict paradigms in which the drug effects on punished and unpunished responding can be compared. In this study, a fixed interval schedule generating a range of baseline response rates allowed comparison of the effects of anxiolytic drugs with those of psychotomimetic drugs on equivalent and differing rates of punished and unpunished responding. The first response made by the rat after a 40-s fixed interval elapsed resulted in food pellet delivery. In punished intervals, signalled by the illumination of stimulus lamps above each lever, a 0.6-mA shock was delivered after every 20th response, resulting in a lower rate of responding than that in the unpunished intervals. Three psychotomimetic agents, D-amphetamine, MK801 and DOI were compared with the anxiolytics chlordiazepoxide, NS2710 and pregabalin. The three psychotomimetics preferentially increased rates of unpunished responding compared with those of punished responding. Chlordiazepoxide, NS2710 and, to a lesser extent, pregabalin increased rates of both unpunished and punished responding. In comparison studies, yohimbine also increased rates of both unpunished and punished responding whereas the antidepressant citalopram had no effect. In conclusion, stable baseline performance over many months allowed the direct comparison of several different drugs in the same subjects with no need to adjust shock levels or equate baseline response rates. The drugs had systematic and replicable effects in this procedure, which, in the case of amphetamine and chlordiazepoxide, were similar to those in other species, and psychotomimetic drugs could clearly be distinguished from anxiolytic drugs. The procedure, however, has limited value for characterizing novel anxiolytic agents as the examples used here increased punished and unpunished responding to the same extent, and were indistinguishable in that regard from the clinically anxiogenic agent, yohimbine.

  13. Initiating or blocking locomotion in spinal cats by applying noradrenergic drugs to restricted lumbar spinal segments.

    PubMed

    Marcoux, J; Rossignol, S

    2000-11-15

    After an acute low thoracic spinal transection (T13), cats can be made to walk with the hindlimbs on a treadmill with clonidine, an alpha2-noradrenergic agonist. Because previous studies of neonatal rat spinal cord in vitro suggest that the most important lumbar segments for rhythmogenesis are L1-L2, we investigated the role of various lumbar segments in the initiation of walking movements on a treadmill of adult cats spinalized (T13), 5-6 d earlier. The locomotor activities were evaluated from electromyographic and video recordings. The results show that: (1) localized topical application of clonidine in restricted baths over either the L3-L4 or the L5-L7 segments was sufficient to induce walking movements. Yohimbine, an alpha2-noradrenergic antagonist, could block this locomotion when applied over L3-L4 or L5-L7; (2) microinjections of clonidine in one or two lumbar segments from L3 to L5 could also induce locomotion; (3) after an intravenous injection of clonidine, locomotion was blocked by microinjections of yohimbine in segments L3, L4, or L5 but not if the injection was in L6; (4) locomotion was also blocked in all cases by additional spinal transections at L3 or L4. These results show that it is possible to initiate walking in the adult spinal cat with a pharmacological stimulation of a restricted number of lumbar segments and also that the integrity of the L3-L4 segments is necessary to sustain the locomotor activity.

  14. The α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 attenuates stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking in a rat model of relapse and induces minimal withdrawal in dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Menglu; Malagon, Ariana M; Yasuda, Dennis; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M; Zaveri, Nurulain T

    2017-08-30

    The strong reinforcing effects of nicotine and the negative symptoms such as anxiety experienced during a quit attempt often lead to relapse and low success rates for smoking cessation. Treatments that not only block the reinforcing effects of nicotine but also attenuate the motivation to relapse are needed to improve cessation rates. Recent genetic and preclinical studies have highlighted the involvement of the α3, β4, and α5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunits and the α3β4 nAChR subtype in nicotine dependence and withdrawal. However, the involvement of these nAChR in relapse is not fully understood. We previously reported that the α3β4 nAChR partial agonist AT-1001 selectively decreases nicotine self-administration in rats without affecting food responding. In the present experiments, we examined the efficacy of AT-1001 in attenuating reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in a model of stress-induced relapse. Rats extinguished from nicotine self-administration were treated with the pharmacological stressor yohimbine prior to AT-1001 treatment and reinstatement testing. We also examined whether AT-1001 produced any withdrawal-related effects when administered to nicotine-dependent rats. We found that AT-1001 dose-dependently reduced yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine seeking. When administered to nicotine-dependent rats at the dose that significantly blocked nicotine reinstatement, AT-1001 elicited minimal somatic withdrawal signs in comparison to the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, which is known to produce robust withdrawal. Our data suggest that α3β4 nAChR-targeted compounds may be a promising approach for nicotine addiction treatment because they can not only block nicotine's reinforcing effects, but also decrease motivation to relapse without producing significant withdrawal effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. α1- and α2-adrenergic receptors in the retrotrapezoid nucleus differentially regulate breathing in anesthetized adult rats.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luiz M; Moreira, Thiago S; Kuo, Fu-Shan; Mulkey, Daniel K; Takakura, Ana C

    2016-09-01

    Norepinephrine (NE) is a potent modulator of breathing that can increase/decrease respiratory activity by α1-/α2-adrenergic receptor (AR) activation, respectively. The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) is known to contribute to central chemoreception, inspiration, and active expiration. Here we investigate the sources of catecholaminergic inputs to the RTN and identify respiratory effects produced by activation of ARs in this region. By injecting the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold into the RTN, we identified back-labeled catecholaminergic neurons in the A7 region. In urethane-anesthetized, vagotomized, and artificially ventilated male Wistar rats unilateral injection of NE or moxonidine (α2-AR agonist) blunted diaphragm muscle activity (DiaEMG) frequency and amplitude, without changing abdominal muscle activity. Those inhibitory effects were reduced by preapplication of yohimbine (α2-AR antagonist) into the RTN. Conversely, unilateral RTN injection of phenylephrine (α1-AR agonist) increased DiaEMG amplitude and frequency and facilitated active expiration. This response was blocked by prior RTN injection of prazosin (α1-AR antagonist). Interestingly, RTN injection of propranolol (β-AR antagonist) had no effect on respiratory inhibition elicited by applications of NE into the RTN; however, the combined blockade of α2- and β-ARs (coapplication of propranolol and yohimbine) revealed an α1-AR-dependent excitatory response to NE that resulted in increase in DiaEMG frequency and facilitation of active expiration. However, blockade of α1-, α2-, or β-ARs in the RTN had minimal effect on baseline respiratory activity, on central or peripheral chemoreflexes. These results suggest that NE signaling can modulate RTN chemoreceptor function; however, endogenous NE signaling does not contribute to baseline breathing or the ventilatory response to central or peripheral chemoreceptor activity in urethane-anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The pheromone production of female Plodia interpunctella is inhibited by tyraminergic antagonists.

    PubMed

    Hirashima, Akinori; Kimizu, Megumi; Shigeta, Yoko; Matsugu, Sachiko; Eiraku, Tomohiko; Kuwano, Eiichi; Eto, Morifusa

    2004-11-01

    Several compounds were found to suppress the calling behavior and in vitro pheromone biosynthesis of the Indian meal moth, Plodia interpunctella. The compounds were screened by means of a calling-behavior bioassay with female P. interpunctella. Five derivatives with activities in the nanomolar range were identified, in order of decreasing pheromonostatic activity: 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde semicarbazone (42) > 5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazole (38) > 5-[4-(tert-butyl)phenyl]-1,3-oxazole (40) > 5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-oxazole (35) > 5-(4-cyanophenyl)-1,3-oxazole (36). These compounds also showed in vitro inhibitory activity in intracellular de novo pheromone biosynthesis, as determined with isolated pheromone-gland preparations that incorporated [1-(14)C]sodium acetate in the presence of the so-called pheromone-biosynthesis-activating neuropeptide (PBAN). The non-additive effect of the inhibitor with antagonist (yohimbine) for the tyramine (TA) receptor suggests that it could be a tyraminergic antagonist. Three-dimensional (3D) computer models were built from a set of compounds. Among the common-featured models generated by the program Catalyst/HipHop, aromatic-ring (AR) and H-bond-acceptor-lipophilic (HBAl) features were considered to be essential for inhibitory activity in the calling behavior and in vitro pheromone biosynthesis. Active compounds, including yohimbine, mapped well onto all the AR and HBAl features of the hypothesis. Less-active compounds were shown to be unable to achieve an energetically favorable conformation, consistent with our 3D common-feature pharmacophore models. The present hypothesis demonstrates that calling behavior and PBAN-stimulated incorporation of radioactivity are inhibited by tyraminergic antagonists.

  17. Αlpha-2 Adrenergic and Opioids Receptors Participation in Mice Gastroprotection of Abelmoschus esculentus Lectin.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Kátia A; Chaves, Hellíada V; Filho, Samuel Mateus Pereira; Pinto, Isabela Ribeiro; Monteiro, Dina Andressa Martins; Matos, Samuel Oliveira; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Gadelha, Carlos Alberto de Almeida; Lacerda, José Thalles Jocelino Gomes de; Aguiar, Lissiana M V; Pereira, Karuza M A; Benevides, Norma M B; Pinto, Vicente de Paulo T; Filho, Gerardo Cristino; Bezerra, Mirna M; Silva, Antonio A R

    2016-01-01

    Lectins are a heterogeneous group of proteins and glycoproteins with potential role as therapeutic and diagnostic tools to combat various diseases, besides some functions on human organism. Abelmoschus esculentus (Okra), a horticultural plant of African origin, is cultivated in northeastern Brazil, and used for different medicinal purposes. This work is aimed to elucidate the action mechanisms of Abelmoschus esculentus lectin (AEL) gastro protective effect on gastropathy induced by ethanol. Fasted mice treated with Ethanol 99.9% (0.2 ml/animal, p.o.) received previously AEL (0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10 or 50 mg/kg, i.v.), saline (5 ml/kg; i.v.) or ranitidine (80 mg/kg, p.o.) in four experimental series, in which pharmacological tools (yohimbine, naloxone, L-NAME or indomethacin), were administered with the purpose of make clear possible molecular action mechanisms. Mice were euthanized 30 min after ethanol challenge to verify the stomach damages. Establishment of gastric oxidative stress, tissue hemoglobin (Hb) content and microscopic features (H&E) were taken in order to characterize the AEL gastro protective effect. AEL (1 mg/kg) was capable of protect mucosa against ethanol damages in presence of two (L-NAME and indomethacin) of four antagonists/inhibitors used. The AEL effect was reversed by naloxone and yohimbine, showing the involvement of opioids and Αlpha-2 adrenergic receptors on gastric protective effect of this lectin. Evaluation of microscopic features, oxidative stress, and Hb levels pointed the protective effects of AEL. This activity seems to be mediated by alpha-2 adrenergic and opioid receptors activation. Nitric oxide or prostaglandins were not involved. AEL simultaneously showed antioxidant effect that is probably implicated in its intricate defensive mechanism of action.

  18. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Rats with Prolonged Cocaine Self-Administration Suggests Potential Brain Biomarkers for Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Cannella, Nazzareno; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Roscher, Mareike; Takahashi, Tatiane T.; Vogler, Nils; Wängler, Björn; Spanagel, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges. Compared to cocaine-naïve control rats, 0crit animals showed higher glucose uptake in the caudate putamen (CPu) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) respect to naïve controls. 3crit animals did not show this adaptive higher glucose utilization, but had lower uptake in several cortical areas. Both cocaine and yohimbine challenges affected glucose uptake in control rats in several brain sites, but not in 0crit and 3crit rats, indicating that impaired glucose mobilization in response to these challenges is not specifically associated with addictive behavior. Compared to 0crit, 3crit rats showed higher reinstatement responses, which were negatively associated with glucose uptake in the ventral tegmental area. Data indicate that cocaine non-addict- and addict-like phenotypes are associated with several potential biomarkers. Specifically, we propose that increased glucose uptake in the CPu and mPFC is a function of controlled drug use, whereas a loss of striatal and prefrontal metabolic activity and reduced uptake in cortical areas are indicative of addictive behavior. PMID:29163237

  19. Reconstitution of high affinity. cap alpha. /sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding by fusion with a pertussis toxin substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M.H.; Neubig, R.R.

    1986-03-05

    High affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ adrenergic agonist binding is thought to occur via a coupling of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptor with N/sub i/, the inhibitory guanyl nucleotide binding protein. Human platelet membranes pretreated at pH 11.5 exhibit a selective inactivation of agonist binding and N/sub i/. To further study the mechanism of agonist binding, alkali treated membranes (ATM) were mixed with membranes pretreated with 10 ..mu..M phenoxybenzamine to block ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors (POB-M). The combined membrane pellet was incubated in 50% polyethylene glycol (PEG) to promote membrane-membrane fusion and assayed for binding to the ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonistmore » (/sup 3/H)UK 14,304 (UK) and the antagonist (/sup 3/H) yohimbine. PEG treatment resulted in a 2-4 fold enhancement of UK binding whereas yohimbine binding was unchanged. No enhancement of UK binding was observed in the absence of PEG treatment. The reconstitution was dependent on the addition of POB-M. They found that a 1:1 ratio of POB-M:ATM was optimal. Reconstituted binding was inhibited by GppNHp. Fusion of rat C6 glioma cell membranes, which do not contain ..cap alpha../sub 2/ receptors, also enhanced agonist binding to ATM. Fusion of C6 membranes from cells treated with pertussis toxin did not enhance (/sup 3/H) UK binding. These data show that a pertussis toxin sensitive membrane component, possibly N/sub i/, can reconstitute high affinity ..cap alpha../sub 2/ agonist binding.« less

  20. Rubus occidentalis alleviates hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injection of acidic saline in rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Geun Joo; Kang, Hyun; Kim, Won Joong; Baek, Chong Wha; Jung, Yong Hun; Woo, Young Cheol; Kwon, Ji Wung

    2016-07-11

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) fruit extract (ROE) in a rat model of chronic muscle pain and examine the mechanisms involved. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were used, and chronic muscle pain was induced by two injections of acidic saline into one gastrocnemius muscle. For the first experiment, 50 rats were randomly assigned to five groups. After the development of hyperalgesia, rats were injected intraperitoneally with 0.9 % saline or ROE (10, 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg). For the second experiment, 70 rats were randomly assigned to seven groups. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with saline, yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, atropine, mecamylamine, or naloxone after the development of hyperalgesia. Ten minutes later, ROE (300 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally. For both experiments, the mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) was evaluated with von Frey filaments before the first acidic saline injection, 24 h after the second injection, and at 15, 30, 45, 60, 80, 100, and 120 min, 24 and 48 h after the drug administration. Compared with the control group, the MWT significantly increased up to 45 min after injection of ROE 100 mg/kg and up to 60 min after injection of ROE 300 mg/kg, respectively. Injection of ROE together with yohimbine or mecamylamine significantly decreased the MWT compared with the effect of ROE alone, while ROE together with dexmedetomidine significantly increased the MWT. ROE showed antinociceptive activity against induced chronic muscle pain, which may be mediated by α2-adrenergic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors.

  1. Chronic THC during adolescence increases the vulnerability to stress-induced relapse to heroin seeking in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Stopponi, Serena; Soverchia, Laura; Ubaldi, Massimo; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2014-07-01

    Cannabis derivatives are among the most widely used illicit substances among young people. The addictive potential of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major active ingredient of cannabis is well documented in scientific literature. However, the consequence of THC exposure during adolescence on occurrence of addiction for other drugs of abuse later in life is still controversial. To explore this aspect of THC pharmacology, in the present study, we treated adolescent rats from postnatal day (PND) 35 to PND-46 with increasing daily doses of THC (2.5-10mg/kg). One week after intoxication, the rats were tested for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) test. One month later (starting from PND 75), rats were trained to operantly self-administer heroin intravenously. Finally, following extinction phase, reinstatement of lever pressing elicited by the pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (1.25mg/kg) was evaluated. Data revealed that in comparison to controls, animals treated with chronic THC during adolescence showed a higher level of anxiety-like behavior. When tested for heroin (20μg per infusion) self-administration, no significant differences were observed in both the acquisition of operant responding and heroin intake at baseline. Noteworthy, following the extinction phase, administration of yohimbine elicited a significantly higher level of heroin seeking in rats previously exposed to THC. Altogether these findings demonstrate that chronic exposure to THC during adolescence is responsible for heightened anxiety and increased vulnerability to drug relapse in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression of osteoclastogenesis via α2-adrenergic receptors

    PubMed Central

    Hamajima, Kosuke; Hamamura, Kazunori; Chen, Andy; Yokota, Hiroki; Mori, Hironori; Yo, Shoyoku; Kondo, Hisataka; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Ishizuka, Kyoko; Kodama, Daisuke; Hirai, Takao; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Togari, Akifumi

    2018-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system is known to regulate osteoclast development. However, the involvement of α2-adrenergic receptors (α2-ARs) in osteoclastogenesis is not well understood. In the present study, their potential role in osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Guanabenz, clonidine and xylazine were used as agonists of α2-ARs, while yohimbine and idazoxan were employed as antagonists. Using RAW264.7 pre-osteoclast and primary bone marrow cells, the mRNA expression of the osteoclast-related genes nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K was evaluated following induction with receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). TRAP staining was also conducted to assess effects on osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cells in vitro. Administration of 5–20 µM guanabenz (P<0.01, for RANKL-only treatment), 20 µM clonidine (P<0.05, for RANKL-only treatment) and 20 µM xylazine (P<0.05, for RANKL-only treatment) attenuated RANKL-induced upregulation of NFATc1, TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA. Furthermore, the reductions in these mRNAs by 10 µM guanabenz and 20 µM clonidine in the presence of RANKL were attenuated by 20 µM yohimbine or idazoxan (P<0.05). The administration of 5–20 µM guanabenz (P<0.01, for RANKL-only treatment) and 10–20 µM clonidine (P<0.05, for RANKL-only treatment) also decreased the number of TRAP-positive multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that α2-ARs may be involved in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:29725523

  3. Morphine-induced antinociception in the rat: supra-additive interactions with imidazoline I₂ receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu; Zhang, Yanan; Winter, Jerrold C

    2011-11-01

    Pain remains a significant clinical challenge and currently available analgesics are not adequate to meet clinical needs. Emerging evidence suggests the role of imidazoline I(2) receptors in pain modulation primarily from studies of the non-selective imidazoline receptor ligand, agmatine. However, little is known of the generality of the effect to selective I(2) receptor ligands. This study examined the antinociceptive effects of two selective I(2) receptor ligands 2-BFI and BU224 (>2000-fold selectivity for I(2) receptors over α(2) adrenoceptors) in a hypertonic (5%) saline-induced writhing test and analyzed their interaction with morphine using a dose-addition analysis. Morphine, 2-BFI and BU224 but not agmatine produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect. Both composite additive curve analyses and isobolographical plots revealed a supra-additive interaction between morphine and 2-BFI or BU224, whereas the interaction between 2-BFI and BU224 was additive. The antinociceptive effect of 2-BFI and BU224 was attenuated by the I(2) receptor antagonist/α(2) adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan but not by the selective α(2) adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, suggesting an I(2) receptor-mediated mechanism. Agmatine enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine, 2-BFI and BU224 and the enhancement was prevented by yohimbine, suggesting that the effect was mediated by α(2) adrenoceptors. Taken together, these data represent the first report that selective I(2) receptor ligands have substantial antinociceptive activity and produce antinociceptive synergy with opioids in a rat model of acute pain. These data suggest that drugs acting on imidazoline I(2) receptors may be useful either alone or in combination with opioids for the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Noradrenaline induces peripheral antinociception by endogenous opioid release.

    PubMed

    Romero, Thiago Roberto Lima; Soares Santos, Raquel Rodrigues; Castor, Marina Gomes Miranda E; Petrocchi, Júlia Alvarenga; Guzzo, Luciana Souza; Klein, Andre; Duarte, Igor Dimitri Gama

    2018-02-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate this involvement in not inflammatory model of pain and which opioid receptor subtype mediates noradrenaline-induced peripheral antinociception. NA is involved in the intrinsic control of pain-inducing pro-nociceptive effects in the primary afferent nociceptors. However, inflammation can induce various plastic changes in the central and peripheral noradrenergic system that, upon interaction with the immune system, may contribute, in part, to peripheral antinociception. Hyperalgesia was induced by intraplantar injection of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 , 2 μg) into the plantar surface of the right hind paw and the paw pressure test to evaluated the hyperalgesia was used. Noradrenaline (NA) was administered locally into right hind paw of Wistar rat (160-200 g) alone and after either agents, α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, α 1 -adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin, β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol, μ-opioid antagonist clocinnamox, δ-opioid antagonist naltrindole and κ-opioid antagonist nor-binaltorfimina. In addition, the enkephalinase inhibitor bestatin was administered prior to NA low dose. Intraplantar injection of NA induced peripheral antinociception against hyperalgesia induced by PGE 2 . This effect was reversed, in dose dependent manner, by intraplantar injection of yohimbine, prazosin, propranolol, clocinnamox and naltrindole. However, injection of nor-binaltorfimina did not alter antinociception of NA after PGE 2 hyperalgesia. Bestatin intensified the antinociceptive effects of low-dose of NA. Besides the α 2 -adrenoceptor, the present data provide evidence that, in absence of inflammation, NA activating α 1 and β-adrenoceptor induce endogenous opioid release to produce peripheral antinociceptive effect by μ and δ opioid receptors. Copyright © 2018 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The inhibitory avoidance discrimination task to investigate accuracy of memory.

    PubMed

    Atucha, Erika; Roozendaal, Benno

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed at developing a new inhibitory avoidance task, based on training and/or testing rats in multiple contexts, to investigate accuracy of memory. In the first experiment, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given footshock in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus and, 48 h later, retention latencies of each rat were assessed in the training apparatus (Shock box) as well as in a novel, contextually modified, apparatus. Retention latencies in the Shock box were significantly longer than those in the Novel box, indicating accurate memory of the training context. When the noradrenergic stimulant yohimbine (0.3 mg/kg, sc) was administered after the training, 48-h retention latencies in the Shock box, but not Novel box, were increased, indicating that the noradrenergic activation enhanced memory of the training experience without reducing memory accuracy. In the second experiment, rats were trained on an inhibitory avoidance discrimination task: They were first trained in an inhibitory avoidance apparatus without footshock (Non-Shock box), followed 1 min later by footshock training in a contextually modified apparatus (Shock box). Forty-eight-hour retention latencies in the Shock and Non-Shock boxes did not differ from each other but were both significantly longer than those in a Novel box, indicating that rats remembered the two training contexts but did not have episodic-like memory of the association of footshock with the correct training context. When the interval between the two training episodes was increased to 2 min, rats showed accurate memory of the association of footshock with the training context. Yohimbine administered after the training also enhanced rats' ability to remember in which training context they had received actual footshock. These findings indicate that the inhibitory avoidance discrimination task is a novel variant of the well-established inhibitory avoidance task suitable to investigate accuracy of memory.

  6. [18F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose-Positron Emission Tomography in Rats with Prolonged Cocaine Self-Administration Suggests Potential Brain Biomarkers for Addictive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Cannella, Nazzareno; Cosa-Linan, Alejandro; Roscher, Mareike; Takahashi, Tatiane T; Vogler, Nils; Wängler, Björn; Spanagel, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    The DSM5-based dimensional diagnostic approach defines substance use disorders on a continuum from recreational drug use to habitual and ultimately addicted behavior. Biomarkers that are indicative of recreational drug use and addicted behavior are lacking. We performed a translational [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) study in the multi-dimensional 0/3crit model of cocaine addiction. Addict-like (3crit) and non-addict-like (0crit) rats, which shared identical life conditions and levels of cocaine self-administration, were acquired for FDG-PET under baseline conditions and following cocaine and yohimbine challenges. Compared to cocaine-naïve control rats, 0crit animals showed higher glucose uptake in the caudate putamen (CPu) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) respect to naïve controls. 3crit animals did not show this adaptive higher glucose utilization, but had lower uptake in several cortical areas. Both cocaine and yohimbine challenges affected glucose uptake in control rats in several brain sites, but not in 0crit and 3crit rats, indicating that impaired glucose mobilization in response to these challenges is not specifically associated with addictive behavior. Compared to 0crit, 3crit rats showed higher reinstatement responses, which were negatively associated with glucose uptake in the ventral tegmental area. Data indicate that cocaine non-addict- and addict-like phenotypes are associated with several potential biomarkers. Specifically, we propose that increased glucose uptake in the CPu and mPFC is a function of controlled drug use, whereas a loss of striatal and prefrontal metabolic activity and reduced uptake in cortical areas are indicative of addictive behavior.

  7. Dopamine and Stress System Modulation of Sex Differences in Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Georgiou, Polymnia; Zanos, Panos; Bhat, Shambhu; Tracy, J Kathleen; Merchenthaler, Istvan J; McCarthy, Margaret M; Gould, Todd D

    2018-01-01

    Maladaptive decision making is associated with several neuropsychiatric disorders, including problem gambling and suicidal behavior. The prevalence of these disorders is higher in men vs women, suggesting gender-dependent regulation of their pathophysiology underpinnings. We assessed sex differences in decision making using the rat version of the Iowa gambling task. Female rats identified the most optimal choice from session 1, whereas male rats from session 5. Male, but not female rats, progressively improved their advantageous option responding and surpassed females. Estrus cycle phase did not affect decision making. To test whether pharmacological manipulations targeting the dopaminergic and stress systems affect decision making in a sex-dependent manner, male and female rats received injections of a dopamine D 2 receptor (D 2 R) antagonist (eticlopride), D 2 R agonist (quinpirole), corticotropin-releasing factor 1 (CRF 1 ) antagonist (antalarmin), and α 2 -adrenergic receptor antagonist (yohimbine; used as a pharmacological stressor). Alterations in mRNA levels of D 2 R and CRF 1 were also assessed. Eticlopride decreased advantageous responding in male, but not female rats, whereas quinpirole decreased advantageous responding specifically in females. Yohimbine dose-dependently decreased advantageous responding in female rats, whereas decreased advantageous responding was only observed at higher doses in males. Antalarmin increased optimal choice responding only in female rats. Higher Drd2 and Crhr1 expression in the amygdala were observed in female vs male rats. Higher amygdalar Crhr1 expression was negatively correlated with advantageous responding specifically in females. This study demonstrates the relevance of dopaminergic- and stress-dependent sex differences to maladaptive decision making.

  8. Sedative effects of midazolam and xylazine with or without ketamine and detomidine alone following intranasal administration in Ring-necked Parakeets.

    PubMed

    Vesal, Nasser; Eskandari, Mohammad H

    2006-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of intranasal administration of midazolam and xylazine (with or without ketamine) and detomidine and their specific antagonists in parakeets. Prospective study. 17 healthy adult Ring-necked Parakeets (Psittacula krameri) of both sexes (mean weight, 128.83+/-10.46 g [0.28+/-0.02 lb]). The dose of each drug or ketamine-drug combination administered intranasally that resulted in adequate sedation (ie, unrestrained dorsal recumbency maintained for >or=5 minutes) was determined; the onset of action, duration of dorsal recumbency, and duration of sedation associated with these treatments were evaluated. The efficacy of the reversal agents flumazenil, yohimbine, and atipamezole was also evaluated. In parakeets, intranasal administration of midazolam (7.3 mg/kg [3.32 mg/lb]) or detomidine (12 mg/kg [5.45 mg/lb]) caused adequate sedation within 2.7 and 3.5 minutes, respectively. Combinations of midazolam (3.65 mg/kg [1.66 mg/lb]) and xylazine (10 mg/kg [4.55 mg/lb]) with ketamine (40 to 50 mg/kg [18.2 to 22.7 mg/lb]) also achieved adequate sedation. Compared with detomidine, duration of dorsal recumbency was significantly longer with midazolam. Intranasal administration of flumazenil (0.13 mg/kg [0.06 mg/lb]) significantly decreased midazolam-associated recumbency time. Compared with the xylazineketamine combination, duration of dorsal recumbency was longer after midazolam-ketamine administration. Intranasal administration of flumazenil, yohimbine, or atipamezole significantly decreased the duration of sedation induced by midazolam, xylazine, or detomidine, respectively. Intranasal administration of sedative drugs appears to be an acceptable method of drug delivery in Ring-necked Parakeets. Reversal agents are also effective when administered via this route.

  9. Antinociceptive effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of the leaves of Pittosporum mannii Hook. F. (Pittosporaceae) in mice.

    PubMed

    Wandji, Bibiane Aimée; Tatsinkou Bomba, Francis Desire; Awouafack, Maurice Ducret; Nkeng-Efouet, Pepin Alango; Kamanyi, Albert; Nguelefack, Télesphore Benoît

    2016-07-01

    Pittosporum mannii (Pittosporaceae) is used in Africa traditional medicine to treat various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to evaluate the antinociceptive effects of the aqueous (AEPM) and methanol (MEPM) extracts from the leaves of Pittosporum mannii. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LCMS) was used for the phytochemical analysis of AEPM prepared as decoction and MEPM prepared as cold maceration. The in vitro cytotoxicity of AEPM and MEPM were evaluated on Artemia salina larvae. AEPM and MEPM antinociceptive effects were evaluated at the doses of 35, 75, 150 and 300mg/kg given orally, against pain induced by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, capsaicin and glutamate. The rota rod test was also performed at the same doses. To determine the mechanism of action of these extracts, their antinociceptive effects were tested in animals pretreated with yohimbine (α2-adrenergic antagonist), atropine (muscarinic antagonist) or naloxone (an opioids antagonist). The LCMS analysis showed that both extracts contain pittovidoside and 1-O-rhamnopyranosyl-23-acetoxyimberbic acid 29-methyl ester, the aqueous extract being more concentrated. Oral administration of both extracts significantly reduced pain symptoms induced by acetic acid, formalin, capsaicin, glutamate and hot plate. The antinociceptive effect of AEPM was significantly inhibited by yohimbine, atropine and naloxone while these inhibitors tend to potentiate the activity of MEPM. Both extracts have no effect on Rota rod test. AEPM and MEPM showed respective LC50 of 2.44 and 0.70mg/ml on Artemia larvae and were therefore, considered non-toxic. These results indicate that AEPM and MEPM possesses analgesic effects with different mechanism of action. Although effects of both extracts may involve TRPV1 receptors and glutamatergic pathway, AEPM may in addition, interact with alpha-adrenergic, muscarinic and opioidergic pathways that are not involve

  10. Identification, characterization and distribution of monoterpene indole alkaloids in Rauwolfia species by Orbitrap Velos Pro mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-01-25

    Monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are medicinally important class of compounds abundant in the roots of Rauwolfia species (Apocynaceae). MIAs such as yohimbine (aphrodisiac agent) and reserpine (antihypertensive, tranquilizer) are the official drugs included in Model List of Essential Drugs of World Health Organization (WHO). Therefore, we have attempt to identify and characterize the MIAs in the crude extracts of six Rauwolfia species using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with Orbitrap Velos Pro hybrid mass spectrometer. The identity of the MIAs were construed using the high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (HRMS/MS) spectra of standard compounds 'yohimbine' and 'reserpine' in higher energy collisional dissociation (HCD) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) modes. The diagnostic fragment ions found in HCD mode was highly affected by variation of normalized collision energy (NCE) and gave few product ions ('C-F') while CID produced intense and more diagnostic product ions ('A-F'). Consequently, CID-MS/MS mode provided significantly more structural information about basic skeleton and therefore the recommended mode for analysis of MIAs. Furthermore, six diagnostic fragmentation pathways were established by multi-stage mass analysis (MS(n) (n=5)) analysis which gave information regarding the substitution. Fragment ions 'A-F' revealed the number and position of substituents on indole and terpene moieties. The proposed diagnostic fragmentation pathways have been successfully applied for identification and characterization of MIAs in crude root extracts of six Rauwolfia species. Ten bioactive reserpine class of MIAs were tentatively identified and characterized on the basis of chromatographic and mass spectrometric features as well as HRMS/MS an MS(n) (n=4) analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Large-scale separation of antipsychotic alkaloids from Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. by pH-zone-refining fast centrifugal partition chromatography.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anupam; Gupta, Shikha; Srivastava, Santosh K

    2013-01-01

    pH-zone-refining centrifugal partition chromatography was successively applied in the large-scale separation of close R(f) antipsychotic indole alkaloids directly from CHCl(3) fraction of Rauwolfia tetraphylla leaves. Two experiments with increasing mass from 500 mg to 3 g of crude alkaloid extracts (1C) of R. tetraphylla were carried out in normal-displacement mode using a two-phase solvent system composed of methyl tert-butyl ether/ACN/water (4:1:5, v/v/v) where HCl (12 mM) was added to the lower aqueous stationary phase as a retainer and triethylamine (5 mM) to the organic mobile phase as an eluter. The two centrifugal partition chromatography separations afforded a total of 162.6 mg of 10-methoxytetrahydroalstonine (1) and 296.5 mg of isoreserpiline (2) in 97% and 95.5% purity, respectively, along with a 400.9 mg mixture of α-yohimbine and reserpiline (3 and 4). Further, this mixture was resolved over medium pressure LC using TLC grade silica gel H (average particle size 10 μm), which afforded 160.4 mg of α-yohimbine (3) and 150.2 mg of reserpiline (4) in >95% purities. The purity of the isolated antipsychotic alkaloids was analyzed by high-performance LC and their structures were characterized on the basis of their 1D, 2D NMR and electrospray ionization-mass spectroscopic data. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Reinstatement of cocaine seeking induced by drugs, cues, and stress in adolescent and adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In human and animal studies, adolescence marks a period of increased vulnerability to the initiation and subsequent abuse of drugs. Adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse, and a critical aspect of drug abuse is that it is a chronically relapsing disorder. However, little is known of how vulnerability factors such as adolescence are related to conditions that induce relapse, triggered by the drug itself, drug-associated cues, or stress. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare adolescent and adult rats on drug-, cue-, and stress-induced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking behavior. Methods On postnatal days 23 (adolescents) and 90 (adults), rats were implanted with intravenous catheters and trained to lever press for i.v. infusions of cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) during two daily 2-h sessions. The rats then self-administered i.v. cocaine for ten additional sessions. Subsequently, visual and auditory stimuli that signaled drug delivery were unplugged, and rats were allowed to extinguish lever pressing for 20 sessions. Rats were then tested on cocaine-, cue-, and yohimbine (stress)-induced cocaine seeking using a within-subject multicomponent reinstatement procedure. Results Results indicated that adolescents had heightened cocaine seeking during maintenance and extinction compared to adults. During reinstatement, adolescents (vs adults) responded more following cocaine- and yohimbine injections, while adults (vs adolescents) showed greater responding following presentations of drug-associated cues. Conclusion These results demonstrated that adolescents and adults differed across several measures of drug-seeking behavior, and adolescents may be especially vulnerable to relapse precipitated by drugs and stress. PMID:19953228

  13. Noradrenergic modulation of risk/reward decision making.

    PubMed

    Montes, David R; Stopper, Colin M; Floresco, Stan B

    2015-08-01

    Catecholamine transmission modulates numerous cognitive and reward-related processes that can subserve more complex functions such as cost/benefit decision making. Dopamine has been shown to play an integral role in decisions involving reward uncertainty, yet there is a paucity of research investigating the contributions of noradrenaline (NA) transmission to these functions. The present study was designed to elucidate the contribution of NA to risk/reward decision making in rats, assessed with a probabilistic discounting task. We examined the effects of reducing noradrenergic transmission with the α2 agonist clonidine (10-100 μg/kg), and increasing activity at α2A receptor sites with the agonist guanfacine (0.1-1 mg/kg), the α2 antagonist yohimbine (1-3 mg/kg), and the noradrenaline transporter (NET) inhibitor atomoxetine (0.3-3 mg/kg) on probabilistic discounting. Rats chose between a small/certain reward and a larger/risky reward, wherein the probability of obtaining the larger reward either decreased (100-12.5 %) or increased (12.5-100 %) over a session. In well-trained rats, clonidine reduced risky choice by decreasing reward sensitivity, whereas guanfacine did not affect choice behavior. Yohimbine impaired adjustments in decision biases as reward probability changed within a session by altering negative feedback sensitivity. In a subset of rats that displayed prominent discounting of probabilistic rewards, the lowest dose of atomoxetine increased preference for the large/risky reward when this option had greater long-term utility. These data highlight an important and previously uncharacterized role for noradrenergic transmission in mediating different aspects of risk/reward decision making and mediating reward and negative feedback sensitivity.

  14. α-Adrenoceptor blockade modifies neurally induced atrial arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Richer, Louis-Philippe; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Cardinal, René; Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Armour, John Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modified by α-adrenergic receptor blockade. In 30 anesthetized dogs, trains of five electrical stimuli (1 mA; 1 ms) were delivered immediately after the P wave of the ECG to mediastinal nerves associated with the superior vena cava. Regional atrial electrical events were monitored with 191 atrial unipolar electrodes. Mediastinal nerve sites were identified that reproducibly initiated atrial arrhythmias. These sites were then restimulated following 1 h (time control, n = 6), or the intravenous administration of naftopidil (α1-adrenergic blocker: 0.2 mg/kg, n = 6), yohimbine (α2-adrenergic blocker: 1 mg/kg, n = 6) or both (n = 8). A ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium: 1 mg/kg) was tested in four dogs. Stimulation of mediastinal nerves sites consistently elicited atrial tachyarrhythmias. Repeat stimulation after 1 h in the time-control group exerted a 19% decrease of the sites still able to induce atrial tachyarrhythmias. Hexamethonium inactivated 78% of the previously active sites. Combined α-adrenoceptor blockade inactivated 72% of the previously active sites. Bradycardia responses induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation were blunted by hexamethonium, but not by α1,2-adrenergic blockade. Naftopidil or yohimbine alone eliminated atrial arrhythmia induction from 31% and 34% of the sites (similar to time control). We conclude that heterogeneous activation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system results in atrial arrhythmias that involve intrinsic cardiac neuronal α-adrenoceptors. In contrast to the global suppression exerted by hexamethonium, we conclude that α-adrenoceptor blockade targets intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons involved in arrhythmia formation and not the flow-through efferent projections of the cardiac nervous system. PMID:18716036

  15. Alpha-adrenoceptor blockade modifies neurally induced atrial arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Richer, Louis-Philippe; Vinet, Alain; Kus, Teresa; Cardinal, René; Ardell, Jeffrey L; Armour, John Andrew

    2008-10-01

    Our objective was to determine whether neuronally induced atrial arrhythmias can be modified by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade. In 30 anesthetized dogs, trains of five electrical stimuli (1 mA; 1 ms) were delivered immediately after the P wave of the ECG to mediastinal nerves associated with the superior vena cava. Regional atrial electrical events were monitored with 191 atrial unipolar electrodes. Mediastinal nerve sites were identified that reproducibly initiated atrial arrhythmias. These sites were then restimulated following 1 h (time control, n = 6), or the intravenous administration of naftopidil (alpha(1)-adrenergic blocker: 0.2 mg/kg, n = 6), yohimbine (alpha(2)-adrenergic blocker: 1 mg/kg, n = 6) or both (n = 8). A ganglionic blocker (hexamethonium: 1 mg/kg) was tested in four dogs. Stimulation of mediastinal nerves sites consistently elicited atrial tachyarrhythmias. Repeat stimulation after 1 h in the time-control group exerted a 19% decrease of the sites still able to induce atrial tachyarrhythmias. Hexamethonium inactivated 78% of the previously active sites. Combined alpha-adrenoceptor blockade inactivated 72% of the previously active sites. Bradycardia responses induced by mediastinal nerve stimulation were blunted by hexamethonium, but not by alpha(1,2)-adrenergic blockade. Naftopidil or yohimbine alone eliminated atrial arrhythmia induction from 31% and 34% of the sites (similar to time control). We conclude that heterogeneous activation of the intrinsic cardiac nervous system results in atrial arrhythmias that involve intrinsic cardiac neuronal alpha-adrenoceptors. In contrast to the global suppression exerted by hexamethonium, we conclude that alpha-adrenoceptor blockade targets intrinsic cardiac local circuit neurons involved in arrhythmia formation and not the flow-through efferent projections of the cardiac nervous system.

  16. The influence of μ-opioid and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition in the modulation of pain responsive neurones in the central amygdala by tapentadol in rats with neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Leonor; Friend, Lauren V.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2015-01-01

    Treatments for neuropathic pain are either not fully effective or have problematic side effects. Combinations of drugs are often used. Tapentadol is a newer molecule that produces analgesia in various pain models through two inhibitory mechanisms, namely central μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and noradrenaline reuptake inhibition. These two components interact synergistically, resulting in levels of analgesia similar to opioid analgesics such as oxycodone and morphine, but with more tolerable side effects. The right central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) is critical for the lateral spinal ascending pain pathway, regulates descending pain pathways and is key in the emotional-affective components of pain. Few studies have investigated the pharmacology of limbic brain areas in pain models. Here we determined the actions of systemic tapentadol on right CeA neurones of animals with neuropathy and which component of tapentadol contributes to its effect. Neuronal responses to multimodal peripheral stimulation of animals with spinal nerve ligation or sham surgery were recorded before and after two doses of tapentadol. After the higher dose of tapentadol either naloxone or yohimbine were administered. Systemic tapentadol resulted in dose-dependent decrease in right CeA neuronal activity only in neuropathy. Both naloxone and yohimbine reversed this effect to an extent that was modality selective. The interactions of the components of tapentadol are not limited to the synergy between the MOR and α2-adrenoceptors seen at spinal levels, but are seen at this supraspinal site where suppression of responses may relate to the ability of the drug to alter affective components of pain. PMID:25576174

  17. Adrenergic receptors inhibit TRPV1 activity in the dorsal root ganglion neurons of rats.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yumi; Manabe, Miki; Kitamura, Naoki; Shibuya, Izumi

    2018-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a polymodal receptor channel that responds to multiple types of stimuli, such as heat, acid, mechanical pressure and some vanilloids. Capsaicin is the most commonly used vanilloid to stimulate TRPV1. TRPV1 channels are expressed in dorsal root ganglion neurons that extend to Aδ- and C-fibers and have a role in the transduction of noxious inputs to the skin into the electrical signals of the sensory nerve. Although noradrenergic nervous systems, including the descending antinociceptive system and the sympathetic nervous system, are known to modulate pain sensation, the functional association between TRPV1 and noradrenaline in primary sensory neurons has rarely been examined. In the present study, we examined the effects of noradrenaline on capsaicin-evoked currents in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons of the rat by the whole-cell voltage clamp method. Noradrenaline at concentrations higher than 0.1 pM significantly reduced the amplitudes of the inward capsaicin currents recorded at -60 mV holding potential. This inhibitory action was reversed by either yohimbine (an α2 antagonist, 10 nM) or propranolol (a β antagonist, 10 nM). The α2 agonists, clonidine (1 pM) and dexmedetomidine (1 pM) inhibited capsaicin currents, and yohimbine (1 nM) reversed the effects of clonidine. The inhibitory action of noradrenaline was not seen in the neurons pretreated with pertussis toxin (100 μg/ml for 24 h) and the neurons dialyzed intracellularly with guanosine 5'- [β-thio] diphosphate (GDPβS, 200 μM), the catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (250 U/ml) or okadaic acid (1 μM). These results suggest that noradrenaline directly acts on dorsal root ganglion neurons to inhibit the activity of TRPV1 depending on the activation of α2-adrenoceptors followed by the inhibition of the adenylate cyclase/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway.

  18. Neuropeptide Y and peptide YY inhibit excitatory synaptic transmission in the rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus

    PubMed Central

    Browning, Kirsteen N; Travagli, R Alberto

    2003-01-01

    Pancreatic polypeptides (PPs) such as neuropeptide Y (NPY) and peptide YY (PYY) exert profound, vagally mediated effects on gastrointestinal (GI) motility and secretion. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were made from brainstem slices containing identified GI-projecting rat dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) neurons to determine the mechanism of action of PPs. Electrical stimulation of nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) that were reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by NPY and PYY (both at 0.1–300 nm) in 65 % of the neurons. An increase in the paired-pulse ratio without changes in the postsynaptic membrane input resistance or EPSC rise and decay time suggested that the effects of PPs on EPSCs were due to actions at presynaptic receptors. The Y1 and Y2 receptor selective agonists [Leu31,Pro34]NPY and NPY(3–36) (both at 100 nm) mimicked the inhibition of NPY and PYY on the EPSC amplitude. The effects of 100 nm NPY, but not PYY, were antagonized partially by the Y1 receptor selective antagonist BIBP3226 (0.1 μm). In addition, the inhibition of the EPSC amplitude induced by NPY, but not PYY, was attenuated partially by pretreatment with the α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (10 μm), and occluded partially by the α2 adrenoceptor agonist UK14,304 (10 μm) as well as by pretreatment with reserpine. Pretreatment with a combination of BIBP3226 and yohimbine almost completely antagonized the NPY-mediated effects on EPSCs. Contrary to the inhibition of EPSCs, perfusion with PPs had no effect on the amplitude of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) and a minimal effect on a minority of DMV neurons. Differences in the receptor subtypes utilized and in the mechanism of action of NPY and PYY may indicate functional differences in their roles within the circuitry of the dorsal vagal complex (DVC). PMID:12730340

  19. Cardiovascular responses to static exercise in conscious cats: effects of intracerebroventricular injection of clonidine.

    PubMed Central

    Ally, A; Hand, G A; Mitchell, J H

    1996-01-01

    1. Static exercise elicits increases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) in humans and conscious animals. In this study, the effects of intracerebroventricular (I.C.V.) administration of clonidine, an alpha 2-adrenergic agonist, on these cardiovascular responses were investigated using conscious cats. Four cats were operantly trained to extend a forelimb and press a bar (200-650 g) for 15-60 s. A stainless-steel cannula was inserted into the right lateral ventricle for I.C.V. injection of drugs, and a common carotid artery was catheterized to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and HR. The number of exercise trials and changes in MAP, HR and force were pooled for 30 min periods. After the cats exercised for 30 min, either artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or clonidine (2 or 5 micrograms) were administered intracerebroventricularly. 2. Before clonidine injection, fifty-two exercise trials increased MAP and HR by 15 +/- 3 mmHg and 41 +/- 5 beats min-1, respectively. Administration of clonidine (2 micrograms) did not alter the resting MAP and HR, but attenuated the increases in MAP and HR in response to exercise (0-30 min post-clonidine: n = 81; delta MAP, 6 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 20 +/- 6 beats min-1; 30-60 min post-clonidine: n = 71; delta MAP, 4 +/- 4 mmHg; delta HR, 17 +/- 8 beats min-1). Administration of artificial CSF I.C.V. had no effect on the cardiovascular responses to static exercise. 3. An increased dose of clonidine (5 micrograms) decreased resting MAP and HR by 31 +/- 7 mmHg and 37 +/- 7 beats min-1, respectively, and markedly blunted the cardiovascular responses to exercise (pre-clonidine: n = 52; delta MAP, 17 +/- 3 mmHg; delta HR, 38 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 0-30 min: n = 66; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 15 +/- 5 beats min-1; post-clonidine 30-60 min: n = 60; delta MAP, 4 +/- 2 mmHg; delta HR, 14 +/- 6 beats min-1). Pretreatment with the alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist, yohimbine (8 micrograms, I.C.V.), blocked the

  20. Localization of the delta opioid receptor and corticotropin-releasing factor in the amygdalar complex: role in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Beverly A S; Kravets, J L; Connelly, K L; Unterwald, E M; Van Bockstaele, E J

    2017-03-01

    amygdala. Functional studies were performed to determine if activation of DOPR could inhibit the anxiety produced by elevation of NE in the amygdala using the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. Administration of the DOPR agonist, SNC80, significantly attenuated elevated anxiogenic behaviors produced by yohimbine as measured in the rat on the elevated zero maze. Taken together, results from this study demonstrate the convergence of three important systems, NE, CRF, and DOPR, in the amygdala and provide insight into their functional role in modulating stress and anxiety responses.

  1. Evaluation of BAM (butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine) in captive African lion (Panthera leo) immobilization.

    PubMed

    Semjonov, Aleksandr; Andrianov, Vladimir; Raath, Jacobus P; Orro, Toomas; Venter, Derik; Laubscher, Liesel; Pfitzer, Silke

    2017-07-01

    The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). Prospective, clinical trial. Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0.005-0.008 mL kg -1 (0.6 mL 100 kg -1 ). Physiologic variables were recorded every 5 minutes. Four arterial blood samples were collected from all animals at 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after immobilization for analysis of blood-gases and acid-base status. The actual doses administered were as follows: butorphanol, 0.18±0.03 mg kg -1 ; azaperone, 0.07±0.01 mg kg -1 ; and medetomidine, 0.07±0.01 mg kg -1 . The inductions were calm and smooth, and induction time ranged from 4 to 10 minutes (7±2 minutes). The amount of time needed to work with each lion was 70 minutes, and no additional drug doses were needed. Heart rate (40±8 beats minute -1 ) and respiratory frequency (15±4 breaths minute -1 ) were stable throughout immobilization. The mean arterial blood pressure of all animals was stable but elevated (142±16 mmHg). The rectal temperature slightly increased over time but remained within acceptable range. The recovery time was significantly shorter when using naltrexone and atipamezole (9±1 minutes) compared to using naltrexone and yohimbine (22±7 minutes). The BAM combination proved to be reliable for general veterinary anaesthesia in lions. During anaesthesia, minor veterinary procedures such a blood collection, intubation, vaccination and collaring could safely be performed with no additional dosing required. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute orexigenic effect of agmatine involves interaction between central α2-adrenergic and GABAergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Taksande, Brijesh Gulabrao; Sharma, Omi; Aglawe, Manish Manohar; Kale, Mayur Bhimrao; Gawande, Dinesh Yugraj; Umekar, Milind Janraoji; Kotagale, Nandkishor Ramdas

    2017-09-01

    Agmatine and GABA have been abundantly expressed in brain nuclei involved in regulation of energy homeostasis and promoting stimulation of food intake in rodents. However, their mutual interaction, if any, in the elicitation of feeding behavior is largely remains unclear. The current study provides experimental evidence for the possible interaction of agmatine, adrenergic and GABAergic systems in stimulation of feeding in satiated rats. Satiated rats fitted with intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) cannulae and were administered agmatine, alone or jointly with (a) GABA A receptor agonist, muscimol, diazepam or antagonist bicuculline and flumazenil, GABA A positive modulator, allopregnanolone or negative modulator of GABA A receptor, dehydroepiandrosterone (b) In view of the high affinity of agmatine for α 2 -adrenoceptors and the close association between α 2 -adrenoceptors and GABAergic system, the effect of their modulators on feeding elicited by agmatine/GABAergic agonists were also examined. I.c.v. administration of agmatine (40-80μg/rat) induces the significant orexigenic effect in satiated rats. The orexigenic effect of agmatine was potentiated by muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.); diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.); allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg, s.c.) and blocked by bicuculline (1mg/kg, i.p.) and dehydroepiandrosterone (4mg/kg,s.c.). However, it remained unaffected in presence of flumazenil (25ng/rat, i.c.v.). The orexigenic effect of agmatine and GABAergic agonists was potentiated by a α 2 -adrenoceptors agonist, clonidine (10ng/rat, i.c.v.) and blocked by its antagonist, yohimbine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.). Yohimbine also blocked the hyperphagic effect elicited by ineffective dose combination of agmatine (5μg/rat, i.c.v.) with muscimol (25ng/rat, i.c.v.) or diazepam (0.5mg/kg, i.p.) or allopregnanolone (0.5mg/kg,s.c.). The results of the present study suggest that agmatine induced α 2 -adrenoceptors activation might facilitate GABAergic activity to stimulate food intake in

  3. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mazul, B; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Miklić, P; Sumajstorcić, J

    1997-03-01

    Since superior protection against different gastrointestinal and liver lesions and antiinflammatory and analgesic activities were noted for pentadecapeptide BPC (an essential fragment of an organoprotective gastric juice protein named BPC), the beneficial mechanism of BPC 157 and its likely interactions with other systems were studied. Hence its beneficial effects would be abolished by adrenal gland medullectomy, the influence of different agents affecting alpha, beta, and dopamine receptors on BPC 157 gastroprotection in 48 h restraint stress was further investigated. Animals were pretreated (1 hr before stress) with saline (controls) or BPC 157 (dissolved in saline) (10 microg or 10 ng/kg body wt intraperitoneally or intragastrically) applied either alone to establish basal conditions or, when manipulating the adrenergic or dopaminergic system, a simultaneous administration was carried out with various agents with specific effects on adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors [given in milligrams per kilogram intraperitoneally except for atenolol, which was given subcutaneously] phentolamine (10.0), prazosin (0.5), yohimbine (5.0), clonidine (0.1) (alpha-adrenergic domain), propranolol (1.0), atenolol (20.0) (beta-adrenergic domain), domperidone (5.0), and haloperidol (5.0) (peripheral/central dopamine system). Alternatively, agents stimulating adrenergic or dopaminergic systems--adrenaline (5.0) or bromocriptine (10.0)--were applied. A strong protection, noted following intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of BPC 157, was fully abolished by coadministration of phentolamine, clonidine, and haloperidol, and consistently not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, or domperidone. Atenolol abolished only intraperitoneal BPC 157 protection, whereas propranolol affected specifically intragastric BPC 157 protection. Interestingly, the severe course of lesion development obtained in basal conditions, unlike BPC 157 gastroprotection, was not influenced by the application of

  4. Simultaneous quantitative determination of bioactive terpene indole alkaloids in ethanolic extracts of Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don by ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Kumar, Brijesh; Singh, Bikarma; Bahadur, Lal; Lal, Mohan

    2018-03-20

    A rapid, sensitive and reproducible method using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-QqQ LIT -MS/MS) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was developed and validated for simultaneous quantitation of anticancer (vincristine, vinblastine, vindesine), antihypertensive (ajmaline, ajmalicine, reserpine), aphrodisiac (yohimbine), sedative (serpentine) agents, dietary supplement (vinpocetine, yohimbine) and precursor of vinblastine (vindoline) from crude extracts of Catharanthus roseus. The precursor to product ion transitions for these compounds were observed at m/z 327 → 144, 355 → 144, 754 → 355, 353 → 144, 349 → 317, 825 → 225, 811 → 224, 458 → 188, 351 → 280 and 609 → 195, respectively in positive ionization mode. Chromatographic separation of all targeted TIAs was performed on ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C 18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm). The calibration curves were linear within the concentration range 0.5-1000 ng/mL and correlation coefficients (R 2 ) were closer to 1. Limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.039-0.583 ng/mL and 0.118-1.767 ng/mL, respectively. The intra-day (0.23-2.71% RSD) and inter-day (0.40-2.90% RSD) precision, stability (0.69-3.45% RSD) and recovery (99.63-104.30% ± %RSD ≤ 3.03%) were acceptable indicating good accuracy of the developed method. The method was successfully applied in ethanolic extracts of 39 samples of C. roseus parts (leaf, stem and root) collected from five different locations in India. Serpentine was detected as one of the most abundant TIA. Principal component analysis (PCA) was able to successfully discriminate among C. roseus samples on the basis of content of targeted TIAs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Serotonergic systems associated with arousal and vigilance behaviors following administration of anxiogenic drugs.

    PubMed

    Abrams, J K; Johnson, P L; Hay-Schmidt, A; Mikkelsen, J D; Shekhar, A; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Serotonergic systems play important roles in modulating behavioral arousal, including behavioral arousal and vigilance associated with anxiety states. To further our understanding of the neural systems associated with increases in anxiety states, we investigated the effects of multiple anxiogenic drugs on topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons using double immunohistochemical staining for c-Fos and tryptophan hydroxylase combined with topographical analysis of the rat dorsal raphe nucleus (DR). Anxiogenic drugs with diverse pharmacological properties including the adenosine receptor antagonist caffeine, the serotonin 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist m-chlorophenyl piperazine (mCPP), the alpha2-adrenoreceptor antagonist yohimbine, and the benzodiazepine receptor partial inverse agonist N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) induced increases in behavioral arousal and vigilance behaviors consistent with an increase in anxiety state. In addition, these anxiogenic drugs, excluding yohimbine, had convergent actions on an anatomically-defined subset of serotonergic neurons within the middle and caudal, dorsal subdivision of the DR. High resolution topographical analysis revealed that at the mid-rostrocaudal level, caffeine and FG-7142 had convergent effects on c-Fos expression in serotonergic neurons that were restricted to a previously undefined region, which we have named the shell region of the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRDSh), that overlaps the anatomical border between the dorsal part of the dorsal raphe nucleus, the ventral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRV), and the ventrolateral part of the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRVL). Retrograde tracing methods revealed that DRDSh contains large numbers of neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdaloid nucleus, a forebrain structure important for emotional appraisal and modulation of anxiety-related physiological and behavioral responses. Together these findings support the

  6. Localization of the delta opioid receptor and corticotropin-releasing factor in the amygdalar complex: role in anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, B. A. S.; Kravets, J. L.; Connelly, K. L.; Unterwald, E. M.; Van Bockstaele, E. J.

    2016-01-01

    amygdala. Functional studies were performed to determine if activation of DOPR could inhibit the anxiety produced by elevation of NE in the amygdala using the pharmacological stressor yohimbine. Administration of the DOPR agonist, SNC80, significantly attenuated elevated anxiogenic behaviors produced by yohimbine as measured in the rat on the elevated zero maze. Taken together, results from this study demonstrate the convergence of three important systems, NE, CRF, and DOPR, in the amygdala and provide insight into their functional role in modulating stress and anxiety responses. PMID:27376372

  7. [Monolayer culture of pancreatic islet cells of the adult rat: effect of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose].

    PubMed

    Aoki, M; Kagawa, S; Yamamura, T; Matsuoka, A; Utsunomiya, J

    1988-02-20

    In the present study, the culture system for preparing monolayer islet cells of the neonatal rat was applied and modified for use with the pancreas of the adult rat. In this procedure, whole pancreatic tissues were enzymatically dispersed and then cultured for 30 days in TCM 199 medium with either 5.5 mM glucose or 5.5 mM glucose plus 1 mM 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose. Under culture conditions without 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose, the responsiveness of B cells was totally abolished by day 20 of culture. The addition of 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose destroyed fibroblasts selectively in a period of 20 days, yielding the monolayers mostly consisting of islet cells, and the morphological characteristics were well preserved at the end of the culture study period. After culture for 20 days in medium with 2-deoxy-2-fluoroglucose, insulin secretion was raised in a dose-dependent fashion due to the increasing concentrations of glucose, leucine and 2-ketoisocaproate. The dose-response curve for insulin secretion evoked by glucose was sigmoid with a Km of 7 mM glucose, and the secretion threshold was observed at a concentration of between 2.8 and 5.5 mM glucose. The ratios of the maximum level to the basal were 6, 5 and 3 respectively for glucose, leucine and 2-ketoisocaproate. The secretory competence was preserved in the B cells on day 30 as well. Addition of epinephrine or clonidine inhibited the glucose-induced insulin secretion dose-dependently. At a concentration of 10(-7) M, both drugs produced an 80% drop in insulin secretion evoked by glucose. The inhibitory effect of epinephrine or clonidine was reversed by 3 X 10(-5) M yohimbine or 10(-5) M phentolamine, whereas 10(-5) M propranolol had little or no effect and alpha adrenergic blockade of prazosin (5 X 10(-5) M) was weak as compared to that of yohimbine. At a high concentration (10(-5) M) of phenylephrine, a marked drop of insulin secretion was observed. In summary, the present culture system facilitates the establishment of

  8. Simultaneous Determination of Bioactive Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids in Ethanolic Extract of Seven Rauvolfia Species using UHPLC with Hybrid Triple Quadrupole Linear Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Singh, Awantika; Bajpai, Vikas; Srivastava, Mukesh; Singh, Bhim Pratap; Ojha, Sanjeev; Kumar, Brijesh

    2016-09-01

    Rauvolfia serpentina is an endangered plant species due to its over-exploitation. It has highly commercial and economic importance due to the presence of bioactive monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) such as ajmaline, yohimbine, ajmalicine, serpentine and reserpine. To develop a validated, rapid, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQLIT -MS/MS) method in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode for simultaneous determination of bioactive MIAs in ethanolic extract of seven Rauvolfia species and herbal formulations. The separation of MIAs was achieved on an ACQUITY UPLC BEH™ C18 column (1.7 μm, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) using a gradient mobile phase (0.1% aqueous formic acid and acetonitrile) at flow rate 0.3 μL/min in 7 min. The validated method showed good linearity (r(2)  ≥ 0.9999), limit of detection (LOD) (0.06-0.15 ng/mL), limit of quantitation (LOQ) (0.18-0.44 ng/mL), precisions [intraday: relative standard deviation (RSD) ≤ 2.24%, interday: RSD ≤ 2.74%], stability (RSD ≤ 1.53%) and overall recovery (RSD ≤ 2.23%). The validated method was applied to quantitate MIAs. Root of Rauvolfia vomitoria showed a high content of ajmaline (48.43 mg/g), serpentine (87.77 mg/g) whereas high quantities of yohimbine (100.21 mg/g) and ajmalicine (120.51 mg/g) were detected in R. tetraphylla. High content of reserpine was detected in R. micrantha (35.18 mg/g) and R. serpentina (32.38 mg/g). The encouraging results of this study may lead to easy selection of suitable Rauvolfia species according to the abundance of MIAs. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Antidiarrhoeal Activity of Hydroethanolic Leaf Extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O; Ishola, Ismail O; Okoro, Uzodinma

    2013-01-01

    Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. Kurtz (Crassulaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the treatment of diarrhoea. To investigate the antidiarrhoeal action of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of Bryophyllum pinnatum (BP). Normal intestinal transit, castor oil-induced intestinal transit, castor oil-induced diarrhoea, gastric emptying and enteropooling models in rodents were used to investigate antidiarrhoeal effect. The possible mechanism of antidiarrhoeal activity was investigated using prazosin (1 mg/kg, s.c; α1, adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, s.c; α2 adrenoceptor antagonist), propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.p; α- adrenoceptor non-selective antagonist), atropine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic antagonist), pilocarpine (1 mg/kg, s.c; muscarinic cholinergic agonist), and isosorbide dinitrate (IDN) (150 mg/kg, p.o; nitric oxide donor). BP (25-100 mg/kg, p.o) produced dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) decrease in intestinal propulsion in normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit models in comparison to distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.) treated control. This antidiarrhoeal effect was inhibited by propranolol pretreatment but yohimbine, prazosin, or atropine pretreatment failed to block this effect. BP treatment reduced the increased peristaltic activity induced by pilocarpine, however, co-treatment with IDN significantly (P < 0.001) enhanced the antidiarrhoeal effect of the extract. In castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract produced a dose-dependent and significant (P < 0.001) increase in onset of diarrhoea, decreased diarrhoea score, the number and weight of wet stools when compared to control. The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index (ADI(in) vivo)) of 53.52 produced by the extract (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was similar to 76.28 ADI(in vivo) produced by morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). The extract produced dose- dependent and significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.001) decrease in the weight and volume of intestinal content in the intestinal fluid accumulation

  10. Contributions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, noradrenaline, and neuropeptide Y to local warming-induced cutaneous vasodilatation in men.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Sparks, Paul A

    2013-11-01

    We performed a two-part study to determine the roles of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and the vasoconstrictor nerves neurotransmitters noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the cutaneous vasodilator response to local skin warming. Forearm skin sites were instrumented with intradermal microdialysis fibres, local heaters, and laser-Doppler flow (LDF) probes. Sites were locally heated from 34 to 42°C. LDF was expressed as cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC; LDF/mean arterial pressure). In Part I, we tested whether sympathetic noradrenergic nerves acted via eNOS. In 8 male participants, treatments were as follows: 1) untreated; 2) bretylium tosylate (BT), preventing sympathetic neurotransmitter release; 3) l-NAA to inhibit eNOS; and 4) combined BT+l-NAA. At treated sites, the initial peak response was markedly reduced, and the plateau phase response to 35min of local warming was also reduced (P<0.05), which was not different among those sites (P>0.05). In Part II, we tested whether NA and NPY were involved in the vasodilator response to local warming. In Part IIa, treatments were: 1) untreated; 2) propranolol and yohimbine to antagonize α- and β-receptors; 3) l-NAA; and 4) combined propranolol, yohimbine, and l-NAA. In Part IIb, conditions were: 1) untreated; 2) BIBP to antagonize Y1-receptors; 3) l-NAA; and 4) combined BIBP and l-NAA. All treatments caused a reduction in the initial peak and plateau responses to local skin warming (P<0.05). The results of Part II indicate that both NA and NPY play roles in the cutaneous vasodilator response and their actions are achieved via eNOS. These data indicate that NA and NPY are involved in the initial, rapid rise in skin blood flow at the onset of local skin warming. However, their vasodilator actions in response to local skin warming appears to be manifested through eNOS. © 2013.

  11. Enhancing Exposure Therapy for Anxiety Disorders, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Storch, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Translating findings from basic science, several compounds have been identified that may enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains when administered alongside exposure-based treatments. Four of these compounds (referred to as cognitive enhancers) have been evaluated in the context of randomized controlled trials for anxiety disorders (e.g., specific phobias, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These cognitive enhancers include D-cycloserine, yohimbine hydrochloride, glucocorticoids and cortisol, and brain derived neurotrophic factor. There is consistent evidence that cognitive enhancers can enhance therapeutic outcomes and/or expedite treatment gains across anxiety disorders, OCD, and PTSD. Emerging evidence has highlighted the importance of within-session fear habituation and between-session fear learning, which can either enhance fear extinction or reconsolidate of fear responses. Although findings from these trials are promising, there are several considerations that warrant further evaluation prior to wide-spread use of cognitive enhancers in exposure-based treatments. Consistent trial design and large sample sizes are important in future studies of cognitive enhancers. PMID:24972729

  12. Norepinephrine signaling through β-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Schank, Jesse R.; Liles, L. Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-01-01

    Background Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine’s rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. Methods In this study we evaluated the performance of dopamine β-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh −/−) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. Results We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/−) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. Dbh −/− mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM, but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/− mice following administration of disulfiram, a DBH inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the β-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/− and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the α1 antagonist prazosin and the α2 antagonist yohimbine had no effect. Conclusions These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via β-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice. PMID:18083142

  13. Norepinephrine signaling through beta-adrenergic receptors is critical for expression of cocaine-induced anxiety.

    PubMed

    Schank, Jesse R; Liles, L Cameron; Weinshenker, David

    2008-06-01

    Cocaine is a widely abused psychostimulant that has both rewarding and aversive properties. While the mechanisms underlying cocaine's rewarding effects have been studied extensively, less attention has been paid to the unpleasant behavioral states induced by cocaine, such as anxiety. In this study, we evaluated the performance of dopamine beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice, which lack norepinephrine (NE), in the elevated plus maze (EPM) to examine the contribution of noradrenergic signaling to cocaine-induced anxiety. We found that cocaine dose-dependently increased anxiety-like behavior in control (Dbh +/-) mice, as measured by a decrease in open arm exploration. The Dbh -/- mice had normal baseline performance in the EPM but were completely resistant to the anxiogenic effects of cocaine. Cocaine-induced anxiety was also attenuated in Dbh +/- mice following administration of disulfiram, a dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor. In experiments using specific adrenergic antagonists, we found that pretreatment with the beta-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol blocked cocaine-induced anxiety-like behavior in Dbh +/- and wild-type C57BL6/J mice, while the alpha(1) antagonist prazosin and the alpha(2) antagonist yohimbine had no effect. These results indicate that noradrenergic signaling via beta-adrenergic receptors is required for cocaine-induced anxiety in mice.

  14. Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2006-07-01

    To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg x day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the testicular cells. Our results elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and reproductive changes, possibly, under the influence of yohimbine (principal constituent of Yohimbe) on neurotransmitters, including norephinephrine. These data warrant careful use of Yohimbe.

  15. Herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fugh-Berman, A

    2000-01-08

    Concurrent use of herbs may mimic, magnify, or oppose the effect of drugs. Plausible cases of herb-drug interactions include: bleeding when warfarin is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba), garlic (Allium sativum), dong quai (Angelica sinensis), or danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza); mild serotonin syndrome in patients who mix St John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) with serotonin-reuptake inhibitors; decreased bioavailability of digoxin, theophylline, cyclosporin, and phenprocoumon when these drugs are combined with St John's wort; induction of mania in depressed patients who mix antidepressants and Panax ginseng; exacerbation of extrapyramidal effects with neuroleptic drugs and betel nut (Areca catechu); increased risk of hypertension when tricyclic antidepressants are combined with yohimbine (Pausinystalia yohimbe); potentiation of oral and topical corticosteroids by liquorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra); decreased blood concentrations of prednisolone when taken with the Chinese herbal product xaio chai hu tang (sho-salko-to); and decreased concentrations of phenytoin when combined with the Ayurvedic syrup shankhapushpi. Anthranoid-containing plants (including senna [Cassia senna] and cascara [Rhamnus purshiana]) and soluble fibres (including guar gum and psyllium) can decrease the absorption of drugs. Many reports of herb-drug interactions are sketchy and lack laboratory analysis of suspect preparations. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against mixing herbs and pharmaceutical drugs.

  16. The noradrenaline precursor L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine exhibits antinociceptive activity via central alpha-adrenoceptors in the mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Kawabata, A.; Kasamatsu, K.; Umeda, N.; Takagi, H.

    1994-01-01

    1. Systemic (s.c. or p.o.) administration of L-threo-3,4-dihydroxyphenylserine (droxidopa, L-threo-DOPS; L-DOPS), a noradrenaline precursor, at a dose-range of 100-800 mg kg-1, produced naloxone-resistant antinociception in a dose-dependent manner in the mouse, as assessed by the tail flick test, kaolin-induced writhing test and formalin-induced nociception test. 2. Antinociception elicited by L-DOPS (400 mg kg-1, s.c.) was not affected by s.c. injection of benserazide, a peripherally preferential L-aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, but was suppressed by its intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection. 3. I.c.v. or intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the non-selective alpha-blocker, phentolamine, significantly reduced L-DOPS-induced antinociception. 4. I.c.v. administration of the alpha 1-blocker, prazosin, but not the alpha 2-blocker, yohimbine, abolished the antinociceptive effects of L-DOPS. In contrast, both blockers, when administered i.t., exhibited significant inhibitory effects. 5. These results suggest that systemic L-DOPS produces opioid-independent antinociception, mediated by supraspinal alpha 1-adrenoceptors and by spinal alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors and may predict additional therapeutic applications of L-DOPS as an analgesic. PMID:7911717

  17. Analysis of the mechanism of antinociceptive action of niga-ichigoside F1 obtained from Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Ardenghi, Juliana Vargas; Kanegusuku, Márcia; Niero, Rivaldo; Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Monache, Franco Delle; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; De Souza, Márcia Maria

    2006-12-01

    We have previously verified that niga-ichigoside F(1) (NI), a triterpene isolated from Rubus imperialis, exhibits significant and potent antinociceptive action when evaluated in some pharmacological models of pain in mice. This effect was confirmed in other experimental models and also the mechanism of action has been evaluated. The antinociception caused by NI (60 mg kg(-1)) in both phases of the formalin test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal injection of mice with haloperidol (a dopaminergic antagonist, 0.20 mg kg(-1)) and L-arginine (precursor of nitric oxide, 600 mg kg(-1)). Regarding the cholinergic system, atropine (a cholinergic antagonist 60 mg kg(-1)) reverted only the second phase. The effect of NI was not affected by treatment of mice with yohimbine (an alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, 0.15 mg kg(-1)). The same pharmacological profile was observed for the administration of naloxone (an opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg kg(-1)). On the other hand, intraperitoneal injection caused dose-related and significant effects against glutamate- and capsaicin-induced pain, respectively. In conclusion, the marked antinociception of NI appears to be related to the dopaminergic, cholinergic, glutamatergic, tachykininergic and oxinitrergic systems, supporting the ethnomedical use of Rubus imperialis (Rosaceae).

  18. Octopamine and tyramine influence the behavioral profile of locomotor activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Fussnecker, Brendon L; Smith, Brian H; Mustard, Julie A

    2006-10-01

    The biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine are believed to play a number of important roles in the behavior of invertebrates including the regulation of motor function. To investigate the role of octopamine and tyramine in locomotor behavior in honey bees, subjects were injected with a range of concentrations of octopamine, tyramine, mianserin or yohimbine. Continuous observation of freely moving worker bees was used to examine the effects of these treatments on the amount of time honey bees spent engaged in different locomotor behaviors such as walking, grooming, fanning and flying. All treatments produced significant shifts in behavior. Decreases in time spent walking and increases in grooming or stopped behavior were observed for every drug. However, the pattern of the shift depended on drug, time after injection and concentration. Flying behavior was differentially affected with increases in flying seen in octopamine treated bees, whereas those receiving tyramine showed a decrease in flying. Taken together, these data provide evidence that octopamine and tyramine modulate motor function in the honey bee perhaps via interaction with central pattern generators or through effects on sensory perception.

  19. Octopamine and tyramine influence the behavioral profile of locomotor activity in the honey bee (Apis mellifera)

    PubMed Central

    Fussnecker, Brendon L.; Smith, Brian H.; Mustard, Julie A.

    2006-01-01

    The biogenic amines octopamine and tyramine are believed to play a number of important roles in the behavior of invertebrates including the regulation of motor function. To investigate the role of octopamine and tyramine in locomotor behavior in honey bees, subjects were injected with a range of concentrations of octopamine, tyramine, mianserin or yohimbine. Continuous observation of freely moving worker bees was used to examine the effects of these treatments on the amount of time honey bees spent engaged in different locomotor behaviors such as walking, grooming, fanning and flying. All treatments produced significant shifts in behavior. Decreases in time spent walking and increases in grooming or stopped behavior were observed for every drug. However, the pattern of the shift depended on drug, time after injection and concentration. Flying behavior was differentially effected with increases in flying seen in octopamine treated bees, whereas those receiving tyramine showed a decrease in flying. Taken together, these data provide evidence that octopamine and tyramine modulate motor function in the honey bee perhaps via interaction with central pattern generators or through effects on sensory perception. PMID:17028016

  20. Effects of co-treatment with mirtazapine and low doses of risperidone on immobility time in the forced swimming test in mice.

    PubMed

    Rogóż, Zofia

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of mirtazapine (MIR) and risperidone (an atypical antipsychotic drug), given separately or jointly, on immobility time in the forced swimming test in male C57BL/6J mice. Fluoxetine (FLU) was used as a reference drug. MIR (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) and FLU (5 and 10 mg/kg), or risperidone in low doses (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) given alone did not change the immobility time of mice in the forced swimming test. Joint administration of MIR (5 and 10 mg/kg) or FLU (10 mg/kg) and risperidone (0.1 mg/kg) produced antidepressant-like activity in the forced swimming test. WAY100636 (a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) inhibited, while yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic receptor antagonist) potentiated the antidepressant-like effect induced by co-administration of MIR and risperidone. Active behavior in that test did not reflect an increase in general activity, since combined administration of antidepressants and risperidone failed to enhance the locomotor activity of mice. The obtained results indicate that risperidone applied in a low dose enhances the antidepressant-like activity of MIR and that, among other mechanisms, 5-HT(1A)-, and α(2)-adrenergic receptors may play a role in this effect.

  1. Pioglitazone attenuates the opioid withdrawal and vulnerability to relapse to heroin seeking in rodents.

    PubMed

    de Guglielmo, Giordano; Kallupi, Marsida; Scuppa, Giulia; Demopulos, Gregory; Gaitanaris, George; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Relapse to opioids is often driven by the avoidance of the aversive states of opioid withdrawal. We recently demonstrated that activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by pioglitazone reduces the motivation for heroin and attenuates its rewarding properties. However, the role of PPARγ in withdrawal and other forms of relapse to heroin is unknown. To further address this issue, we investigated the role of PPARγ on the development and expression of morphine withdrawal in mice and the effect of pioglitazone on several forms of heroin relapse in rats. We induced physical dependence to morphine in mice by injecting morphine twice daily for 6 days. Withdrawal syndrome was precipitated on day 6 with an injection of naloxone. In addition, different groups of rats were trained to self-administer heroin and, after the extinction, the relapse was elicited by cues, priming, or stress. The effect of different doses of pioglitazone was tested on these different paradigms. Data show that chronic and acute administration of pioglitazone attenuates morphine withdrawal symptoms, and these effects are mediated by activation of PPARγ receptors. Activation of PPARγ by pioglitazone also abolishes yohimbine-induced reinstatement of heroin seeking and reduces heroin-induced reinstatement, while it does not affect cue-induced relapse. These findings provide new insights on the role of PPARγ on opioid dependence and suggest that pioglitazone may be useful for the treatment of opioid withdrawal in opioid-addicted individuals.

  2. Anti-inflammatory actions of clonidine, guanfacine and B-HT 920 against various inflammagen-induced acute paw oedema in rats.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S K; Mehta, A K; Kunchandy, J

    1986-02-01

    Clonidine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) exhibited anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan-, formalin-, 5-HT- and histamine-induced paw oedema in rats. Similarly, other two alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, guanfacine and B-HT 920, also displayed an anti-inflammatory action in these models. The anti-inflammatory effect of all the three alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists was reversed by yohimbine. However, prazosin failed to block the anti-inflammatory effect of clonidine. Intracerebroventricularly administered clonidine had a delayed onset of anti-inflammatory action, starting only from 60 min post carrageenan administration. This was in contrast to the systemically administered clonidine which was effective against both phases of carrageenan-induced oedema. On the other hand, irrespective of the route of administration, i.e. peripheral or central, guanfacine and B-HT 920 were effective against the early as well as against the delayed phases of the inflammatory reaction. The studies suggest that it is not the imidazoline moiety but the activation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors which is essential for the anti-inflammatory action of these agents.

  3. Quantification and characterization of alkaloids from roots of Rauwolfia serpentina using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-photo diode array-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Satyanarayanaraju; Avula, Bharathi; Wang, Yan-Hong; Khan, Ikhlas A

    2016-01-01

    A new UHPLC-UV method has been developed for the simultaneous analysis of seven alkaloids [ajmaline (1), yohimbine (2), corynanthine (3), ajmalicine (4), serpentine (5), serpentinine (6), and reserpine (7)] from the root samples of Rauwolfia serpentina (L.) Benth. ex Kurz. The chromatographic separation was achieved using a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase of water and acetonitrile, both containing 0.05% formic acid. The seven compounds were completely separated within 8 min at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min with a 2-μL injection volume. The method is validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, limits of detection (LOD), and limits of quantification (LOQ). Seven plant samples and 21 dietary supplements claiming to contain Rauwolfia roots were analyzed and content of total alkaloids (1-7) varied, namely, 1.57-12.1 mg/g dry plant material and 0.0-4.5 mg/day, respectively. The results indicated that commercial products are of variable quality. The developed analytical method is simple, economic, fast, and suitable for quality control analysis of Rauwolfia samples and commercial products. The UHPLC-QToF-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (ESI) interface method is described for the confirmation and characterization of alkaloids from plant samples. This method involved the detection of [M + H](+) or M(+) ions in the positive mode.

  4. Long-term stability in biomass and production of terpene indole alkaloids by hairy root culture of Rauvolfia serpentina and cost approximation to endorse commercial realism.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pallavi; Kaur, Ranjeet; Singh, Sailendra; Chattopadhyay, Sunil Kumar; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Banerjee, Suchitra

    2014-07-01

    The effect of 6 years of cultivation and use of table-sugar (TS) on the biomass/terpene alkaloid productivities and rol gene expression were studied in a hairy root (HR) clone of Rauvolfia serpentina. The media cost could be reduced >94 % by replacing sucrose (SUC) with TS—an unexplored avenue for HR cultivation. The overall productivities increased over long-term cultivation with sugar proving superior to SUC for biomass (24.4 ± 2.11 g/l DW after 40 days to 17.31 % higher) and reserpine (0.094 ± 0.008 % DW after 60 days to 193.8 % more) production. The latter however revealed comparatively better yields concerning ajmaline (0.507 ± 0.048 % DW after 60 days to 61.98 % higher) and yohimbine (0.628 ± 0.062 % DW after 60 days to 38.32 % higher), respectively. PCR amplification of rol genes confirmed long-term expression stability.

  5. Desipramine increases cardiac parasympathetic activity via α2-adrenergic mechanism in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawada, Toru; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Shimizu, Shuji; Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Kamiya, Atsunori; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2017-07-01

    Desipramine (DMI) is a blocker of neuronal norepinephrine (NE) uptake transporter. Although intravenous DMI has been shown to cause centrally-mediated sympathoinhibition and peripheral NE accumulation, its parasympathetic effect remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that intravenous DMI activates the cardiac vagal nerve via an α 2 -adrenergic mechanism. Using a cardiac microdialysis technique, changes in myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels in the left ventricular free wall in response to intravenous DMI (1mg·kg -1 ) were examined in anesthetized rats. In rats with intact vagi (n=7), intravenous DMI increased ACh from 1.67±0.43 to 2.48±0.66nM (P<0.01). In rats with vagotomy (n=5), DMI did not significantly change ACh (from 0.92±0.16 to 0.85±0.23nM). In rats with intact vagi pretreated with intravenous yohimbine (2mg·kg -1 ), DMI did not significantly change ACh (from 1.25±0.23 to 1.13±0.15nM). In conclusion, while DMI is generally considered to be an agent that predominantly affects sympathetic neurotransmission, it can activate the cardiac vagal nerve via α 2 -adrenergic stimulation in experimental settings in vivo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. α1-Adrenergic receptor downregulates hepatic FGF21 production and circulating FGF21 levels in mice.

    PubMed

    Nonogaki, Katsunori; Kaji, Takao

    2017-01-18

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is primarily secreted by the liver as an endocrine hormone and is suggested as a promising target for the treatment of metabolic diseases. FGF21 acts centrally to exert its effects on energy expenditure and body weight via the sympathetic nervous system in mice. Here we show that intraperitoneal injection of phentolamine (an α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels compared with the saline controls in C57BL6J mice, whereas alprenolol (a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 6mg/kg) had no effect. In addition, intraperitoneal injection of prazosin (an α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels compared with the controls, whereas yohimbine (an α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, 5mg/kg) had no effect. Moreover, the treatment with prazosin significantly increased the expression of hepatic FGF21, while having no effect on the expression of hepatic PPARα and PPARγ. After a 5-h fast, intraperitoneal injection of prazosin significantly increased plasma FGF21 levels and impaired glucose tolerance compared with controls. These findings suggest that α1-adrenergic receptor downregulates the expression of hepatic FGF21 and plasma FGF21 levels independently of feeding and hepatic PPARα and PPARγ expression in mice, and that the increases in circulating FGF21 levels might be related to impaired glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vinpocetine and piracetam exert antinociceptive effect in visceral pain model in mice.

    PubMed

    Abdel Salam, Omar M E

    2006-01-01

    The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam on thermal and visceral pain was studied in mice. In the hot plate test, vinpocetine (0.9 and 1.8 mg/kg), but not piracetam, produced a reduction in nociceptive response. Vinpocetine (0.45-1.8 mg/kg, ip) or piracetam (75-300 mg/kg, ip) caused dose-dependent inhibition of the abdominal constrictions evoked by ip injection of acetic acid. The effect of vinpocetine or piracetam was markedly potentiated by co-administration of propranolol, guanethidine, atropine, naloxone, yohimbine or prazosin. The marked potentiation of antinociception occurred upon a co-administration of vinpocetine and baclofen (5 or 10 mg/kg). In contrast, piracetam antagonized antinociception caused by the low (5 mg/kg), but not the high (10 mg/kg) dose of baclofen. The antinociception caused by vinpocetine was reduced by sulpiride; while that of piracetam was enhanced by haloperidol or sulpiride. Either vinpocetine or piracetam enhanced antinociception caused by imipramine. The antinociceptive effects of vinpocetine or piracetam were blocked by prior administration of theophylline. Low doses of either vinpocetine or piracetam reduced immobility time in the Porsolt's forced-swimming test. This study indicates that vinpocetine and piracetam possess visceral antinociceptive properties. This effect depends on activation of adenosine receptors. Piracetam in addition inhibits GABA-mediated antinociception.

  8. Combined Effects of Glucocorticoid and Noradrenergic Activity on Loss Aversion.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; Nave, Gideon; Van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Schwabe, Lars; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    Loss aversion is a well-known behavioral regularity in financial decision making, describing humans' tendency to overweigh losses compared to gains of the same amount. Recent research indicates that stress and associated hormonal changes affect loss aversion, yet the underlying neuroendocrine mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the causal influence of two major stress neuromodulators, cortisol and noradrenaline, on loss aversion during financial decision making. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled between-subject design, we orally administered either the α2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine (increasing noradrenergic stimulation), hydrocortisone, both substances, or a placebo to healthy young men. We tested the treatments' influence on a financial decision-making task measuring loss aversion and risk attitude. We found that both drugs combined, relative to either drug by itself, reduced loss aversion in the absence of an effect on risk attitude or choice consistency. Our data suggest that concurrent glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activity prompts an alignment of reward- with loss-sensitivity, and thus diminishes loss aversion. Our results have implications for the understanding of the susceptibility to biases in decision making.

  9. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals

    PubMed Central

    Amat-ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD. PMID:26325402

  10. Designing Second Generation Anti-Alzheimer Compounds as Inhibitors of Human Acetylcholinesterase: Computational Screening of Synthetic Molecules and Dietary Phytochemicals.

    PubMed

    Amat-Ur-Rasool, Hafsa; Ahmed, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), a big cause of memory loss, is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The disease leads to irreversible loss of neurons that result in reduced level of acetylcholine neurotransmitter (ACh). The reduction of ACh level impairs brain functioning. One aspect of AD therapy is to maintain ACh level up to a safe limit, by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme that is naturally responsible for its degradation. This research presents an in-silico screening and designing of hAChE inhibitors as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs. Molecular docking results of the database retrieved (synthetic chemicals and dietary phytochemicals) and self-drawn ligands were compared with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs against AD as controls. Furthermore, computational ADME studies were performed on the hits to assess their safety. Human AChE was found to be most approptiate target site as compared to commonly used Torpedo AChE. Among the tested dietry phytochemicals, berberastine, berberine, yohimbine, sanguinarine, elemol and naringenin are the worth mentioning phytochemicals as potential anti-Alzheimer drugs The synthetic leads were mostly dual binding site inhibitors with two binding subunits linked by a carbon chain i.e. second generation AD drugs. Fifteen new heterodimers were designed that were computationally more efficient inhibitors than previously reported compounds. Using computational methods, compounds present in online chemical databases can be screened to design more efficient and safer drugs against cognitive symptoms of AD.

  11. The action of 5-hydroxytryptamine and some of its antagonists on the umbilical vessels of the human placenta

    PubMed Central

    Åström, A.; Samelius, U.

    1957-01-01

    The vasoconstrictor action of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the human placental preparation is about 10 times stronger than that of adrenaline and is antagonized by anti-adrenaline compounds like phentolamine. Both 5-HT and adrenaline are antagonized by yohimbine and chlorpromazine. Specific and strong anti-5-HT action is demonstrated for lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and tryptamine. Both LSD and tryptamine in larger doses have a vasoconstrictor action. Mescaline has no certain modifying effect on the action of 5-HT, but itself causes vasoconstriction in large doses. The antihistamine drug phenbenzamine in histamine blocking doses abolishes the action of 5-HT in half the preparations tested. The ganglionic blocking agent trimetaphan in large doses antagonizes the action of 5-HT added subsequently, and also, to a lesser degree, the effect of adrenaline. Hexamethonium and tetraethylammonium bromides are ineffective in this preparation. No certain modifying action of reserpine on subsequently added 5-HT could be demonstrated, and the same was true for heparin even in very high concentrations. PMID:13489166

  12. 6-[N,S-dimethyl-N'-cyanothioureidomethyl]-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz[b,e]azepine hydrochloride (Fran 12): a histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist with pressor properties.

    PubMed

    Law, S C; Guyett, F J; King, R G; Boura, A L; Jackson, W R; Hodgson, W C

    1992-01-01

    We have synthesized and examined some of the pharmacological properties of 6-[N,S-dimethyl-N'-cyanoisothioureidomethyl]-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz(b,e)azepine hydrochloride (Fran 12), a derivative of 6-methylaminomethyl-6,11-dihydro-5H- dibenz[b,e,]azepine. In the guinea-pig isolated ileum, Fran 12 (10(-7)-10(-5) M) caused parallel rightward shifts of the concentration-response curves to histamine. A Schild plot gave a pA2 of 7.48, with a slope not significantly different from -1.0. In the rat stomach fundus strip and in endothelium-denuded aortic rings, Fran 12 inhibited contractile responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine in a non-competitive manner. In both chloralose-anaesthetized and pithed rats, it inhibited pressor responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine. It had no effect on depressor responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine in anaesthetized rats. In pithed rats, Fran 12 (0.25-2 mg/kg, i.v.) produced dose-dependent increases in blood pressure. These were not inhibited by i.v. phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, methysergide, pentolinium or atropine but were inhibited by verapamil. These results indicate that Fran 12 is a histamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine antagonist which also exerts pressor effects via a peripheral action. The pressor action does not appear to be mediated via effects on alpha 1- or alpha 2-adrenoceptors, muscarinic or nicotinic cholinoceptors or 5-hydroxytryptamine receptors, although calcium channel activation may play a role.

  13. Effect of intravenously-administered putative and potential antagonists of ethanol on sleep time in ethanol-narcotized mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, R.C.; Jernigan, A.D.

    Groups of male CD-1 mice (n = 12/group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with 5 g ethanol/kg of body weight. After loss of righting reflex, they were given vehicle or one of 2-3 doses of reputed or potential antagonists of ethanol intravenously (IV). Sleep time was measured from loss to return of righting reflex. Mean sleep time (MST) was increased significantly by a large dose of dl-amphetamine and by 4-aminopyridine. Significant increases were also produced by small and large doses of aminophylline and by yohimbine. MST was not altered significantly by small and medium doses of dl-amphetamine, a medium dose ofmore » aminophylline, or by any doses of naloxone, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, propranolol, physostigmine, doxapram, or Ro 15-4513. When Ro 15-4513 was given IP 15 minutes before ethanol (n = 6/group), onset and duration of narcosis were not altered. None of the compounds tested was an effective IV antidote for deep ethanol narcosis because of drug side effects, toxicity, prolongation of MST, or insufficient shortening of MST. 36 references, 1 table.« less

  14. Lesion of the rostromedial tegmental nucleus increases voluntary ethanol consumption and accelerates extinction of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Chandni; Furlong, Teri M; Keefe, Kristen A; Taha, Sharif A

    2016-10-01

    Ethanol has rewarding and aversive properties, and the balance of these properties influences voluntary ethanol consumption. Preclinical and clinical evidence show that the aversive properties of ethanol limit intake. The neural circuits underlying ethanol-induced aversion learning are not fully understood. We have previously shown that the lateral habenula (LHb), a region critical for aversive conditioning, plays an important role in ethanol-directed behaviors. However, the neurocircuitry through which LHb exerts its actions is unknown. In the present study, we investigate a role for the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a major LHb projection target, in regulating ethanol-directed behaviors. Rats received either sham or RMTg lesions and were studied during voluntary ethanol consumption; operant ethanol self-administration, extinction, and yohimbine-induced reinstatement of ethanol-seeking; and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA). RMTg lesions increased voluntary ethanol consumption and accelerated extinction of ethanol-induced CTA. The RMTg plays an important role in regulating voluntary ethanol consumption, possibly by mediating ethanol-induced aversive conditioning.

  15. Adhesion of human platelets to albumin is synergistically increased by lysophosphatidic acid and adrenaline in a donor-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Andreas C; Whiss, Per A; Nilsson, Ulrika K

    2006-07-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and adrenaline are weak platelet activators considered important for thrombus formation, and were previously shown to synergistically increase platelet aggregation. Here we investigate synergistic activation by LPA and adrenaline when measuring platelet adhesion. Platelet-rich plasma from healthy blood donors together with adrenaline and/or LPA were added to protein-coated microplates. Platelets were allowed to adhere and the amount of adhesion detected enzymatically. The LPA and adrenaline combination induced a synergistic increase of platelet adhesion to a normally non-adhesive albumin surface. The degree of synergy varied markedly between individuals; these variations could not be explained by age, gender, blood type or different amounts of platelets, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, insulin or glucose in plasma. There was a trend indicating increased synergistic effect for platelets sensitive to adrenaline stimulation. The synergistic effect was blocked by the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine and inhibited by the ADP scavenger system creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase and antibodies against alphaIIbbeta3. Furthermore, platelets adhering to albumin after adrenaline and LPA treatment expressed P-selectin. In conclusion, LPA and adrenaline act synergistically to increase alphaIIbbeta3-mediated platelet adhesion to albumin, dependent on alpha2-adrenoceptor signalling and platelet secretion. We also confirm that synergistic platelet activation achieved with LPA and adrenaline is highly donor dependent.

  16. Remote chemical immobilisation method for free-ranging Australian cattle.

    PubMed

    Hampton, J O; Skroblin, A; Perry, A L; De Ridder, T R

    2016-12-01

    Many situations are encountered in Australia where the capture and restraint of free-ranging cattle (Bos taurus/Bos indicus) is required. Chemical immobilisation via darting is a potentially useful tool for managing and researching large wild herbivores; however, there is no reliable method for its application to Australian cattle. The aim of this study was to develop an efficacious, humane, cost-effective ground darting method for free-ranging cattle. The 30 female cattle were darted and captured on a pastoral station in north-west Australia from a vehicle. Xylazine (0.59 mg/kg) and ketamine (3.59 mg/kg) were used to capture animals and yohimbine (0.10 mg/kg) was used as an antagonist to xylazine to reduce recumbent time. Cattle became recumbent at a mean time of 8 min and a mean distance of 260 m from darting. The mortality rate was zero on the day of capture and 7% at 14 days post-capture. The majority of darted cattle were successfully immobilised with one dart and recovered within 30 min, with consumables costing approximately A$30 per captured animal. The technique developed represents a rapid and humane method for capturing free-ranging cattle and, with consideration for legislation surrounding use of veterinary chemicals, could be applied in many contexts across Australia. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Extinction and Reinstatement of Cocaine-seeking in Self-administering Mice is Associated with Bidirectional AMPAR-mediated Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell.

    PubMed

    Ebner, Stephanie R; Larson, Erin B; Hearing, Matthew C; Ingebretson, Anna E; Thomas, Mark J

    2018-06-07

    Experience-dependent synaptic plasticity is an important component of both learning and motivational disturbances found in addicted individuals. Here, we investigated the role of cocaine experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses in the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) in relapse-related behavior in mice with a history of volitional cocaine self-administration. Using an extinction/reinstatement paradigm of cocaine-seeking behavior, we demonstrate that cocaine-experienced mice with extinguished cocaine-seeking behavior show potentiation of synaptic strength at excitatory inputs onto NAcSh medium spiny neurons (MSNs). Conversely, we found that exposure to various distinct types of reinstating stimuli (cocaine, cocaine-associated cues, yohimbine "stress") after extinction can produce a relative depotentiation of NAcSh synapses that is strongly associated with the magnitude of cocaine-seeking behavior exhibited in response to these challenges. Furthermore, we show that these effects are due to α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-specific mechanisms that differ depending on the nature and context of the reinstatement-inducing stimuli. Together, our findings identify common themes as well as differential mechanisms that are likely important for the ability of diverse environmental stimuli to drive relapse to addictive-like cocaine-seeking behavior. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Agmatine, a bioactive metabolite of arginine. Production, degradation, and functional effects in the kidney of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Lortie, M J; Novotny, W F; Peterson, O W; Vallon, V; Malvey, K; Mendonca, M; Satriano, J; Insel, P; Thomson, S C; Blantz, R C

    1996-01-01

    Until recently, conversion of arginine to agmatine by arginine decarboxylase (ADC) was considered important only in plants and bacteria. In the following, we demonstrate ADC activity in the membrane-enriched fraction of brain, liver, and kidney cortex and medulla by radiochemical assay. Diamine oxidase, an enzyme shown here to metabolize agmatine, was localized by immunohistochemistry in kidney glomeruli and other nonrenal cells. Production of labeled agmatine, citrulline, and ornithine from [3H]arginine was demonstrated and endogenous agmatine levels (10(-6)M) in plasma ultrafiltrate and kidney were measured by HPLC. Microperfusion of agmatine into renal interstitium and into the urinary space of surface glomeruli of Wistar-Frömter rats produced reversible increases in nephron filtration rate (SNGFR) and absolute proximal reabsorption (APR). Renal denervation did not alter SNGFR effects but prevented APR changes. Yohimbine (an alpha 2 antagonist) microperfusion into the urinary space produced opposite effects to that of agmatine. Microperfusion of urinary space with BU-224 (microM), a synthetic imidazoline2 (I2) agonist, duplicated agmatine effects on SNGFR but not APR whereas an I1 agonist had no effect. Agmatine effects on SNGFR and APR are not only dissociable but appear to be mediated by different mechanisms. The production and degradation of this biologically active substance derived from arginine constitutes a novel endogenous regulatory system in the kidney. PMID:8567962

  19. Effect of agmatine on acute and mononeuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Korcegez, Eylem; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Ozyalcin, Suleyman

    2003-12-01

    Agmatine is a polycationic amine synthesized from L-arginine by arginine decarboxylase in brain and several tissues. It binds to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamatergic, alpha(2)-adrenergic and imidazoline (I) receptors. The present study was designed to investigate effect of agmatine on acute and mononeuropathic pain after chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI was created by four loose ligations around the right sciatic nerve. The analgesic threshold in rats was evaluated by using thermal hyperalgesia/allodynia (THA) at 4 degrees C. The evaluations were made preoperatively, on postoperative day 15, and after drug administration. Agmatine (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days beginning on postoperative day 15. Agmatine significantly reduced the hyperalgesia in all doses applied. When agmatine was injected intraperitoneally (10, 20, 40, 80, and 100 mg/kg), it increased the nociceptive threshold in the tail-immersion test in a dose-dependent manner, but it had no effect in the hot-plate test. This effect of agmatine in the tail-immersion test was blocked by both yohimbine (1 mg/kg) and idazoxan (0.5 mg/kg). When agmatine was administered intracerebroventricularly (25-200 microg/10 microL), it increased the nociceptive threshold in the hot-plate but not in the tail-immersion test. We conclude that agmatine, an endogenous substance derived from arginine, can modulate both acute and chronic pain.

  20. Preventive mechanisms of agmatine against ischemic acute kidney injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takahiro; Kobuchi, Shuhei; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Takaoka, Masanori; Fujii, Toshihide; Hayashi, Kentaro; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2009-01-28

    The excitation of renal sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in the development of ischemic acute kidney injury in rats. Recently, we found that agmatine, an adrenaline alpha(2)/imidazoline I(1)-receptor agonist, has preventive effects on ischemic acute kidney injury by suppressing the enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity during renal ischemia and by decreasing the renal venous norepinephrine overflow after reperfusion. In the present study, we investigated preventive mechanisms of agmatine against ischemic acute kidney injury in rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury was induced by clamping the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after the contralateral nephrectomy. Pretreatment with efaroxan (30 mumol/kg, i.v.), an alpha(2)/I(1)-receptor antagonist, abolished the suppressive effects of agmatine on the enhanced renal sympathetic nerve activity during renal ischemia and on the elevated norepinephrine overflow after reperfusion, and eliminated the preventing effects of agmatine on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction and histological damage. On the other hand, pretreatment with yohimbine (6 mumol/kg, i.v.), an alpha(2)-receptor antagonist, eliminated the preventing effects of agmatine on the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury and norepinephrine overflow, without affecting the lowering effect of agmatine on renal sympathetic nerve activity. These results indicate that agmatine prevents the ischemic renal injury by sympathoinhibitory effect probably via I(1) receptors in central nervous system and by suppressing the norepinephrine overflow through alpha(2) or I(1) receptors on sympathetic nerve endings.

  1. Effect of progesterone-carbachol derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated rat heart: via activation of the M2 muscarinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Valverde, Lauro; Diaz-Cedillo, Francisco; Garcia-Cervera, Elodia; Gomez, Eduardo Pool; Lopez-Ramos, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of progesterone-carbachol derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in rats. An additional aim was to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. The Langendorff model was used to measure perfusion pressure and coronary resistance changes in isolated rat heart after progesterone-carbachol derivative alone and after the following compounds; mifepristone (progesterone receptor blocker), yohimbine (α2 adreno-receptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 (selective β2 receptor blocker), atropine (non-selective muscarinic receptor antagonist), methoctramine (antagonist of M2 receptor) and L-NAME (inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase). The results show that progesterone-carbachol derivative [10(-9) mM] significantly decreased perfusion pressure (P=0.005) and coronary resistance (P=0.006) in isolated rat heart. Additionally, the effect of progesterone-carbachol on perfusion pressure [10(-9) to 10(-4) mM] was only blocked in the presence of methoctramine and L-NAME. These data suggest that progesterone derivative exert its effect on perfusion pressure via activation of the M2 muscarinic. In addition, this phenomenon involves stimulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS).

  2. Pharmacological characterization of a tyramine receptor from the southern cattle tick, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus.

    PubMed

    Gross, Aaron D; Temeyer, Kevin B; Day, Tim A; Pérez de León, Adalberto A; Kimber, Michael J; Coats, Joel R

    2015-08-01

    The southern cattle tick (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) is a hematophagous external parasite that vectors the causative agents of bovine babesiosis or cattle tick fever, Babesia bovis and B. bigemina, and anaplasmosis, Anaplasma marginale. The southern cattle tick is a threat to the livestock industry in many locations throughout the world. Control methods include the use of chemical acaricides including amitraz, a formamidine insecticide, which is proposed to activate octopamine receptors. Previous studies have identified a putative octopamine receptor from the southern cattle tick in Australia and the Americas. Furthermore, this putative octopamine receptor could play a role in acaricide resistance to amitraz. Recently, sequence data indicated that this putative octopamine receptor is probably a type-1 tyramine receptor (TAR1). In this study, the putative TAR1 was heterologously expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells, and the expressed receptor resulted in a 39-fold higher potency for tyramine compared to octopamine. Furthermore, the expressed receptor was strongly antagonized by yohimbine and cyproheptadine, and mildly antagonized by mianserin and phentolamine. Tolazoline and naphazoline had agonistic or modulatory activity against the expressed receptor, as did the amitraz metabolite, BTS-27271; however, this was only observed in the presence of tyramine. The southern cattle tick's tyramine receptor may serve as a target for the development of anti-parasitic compounds, in addition to being a likely target of formamidine insecticides. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hormonal regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis in the carp, Cyprinus carpio

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, P.A.; Lowrey, P.

    1987-04-01

    Carp (Cyprinus carpio) liver maintained normal glycogen content and enzyme complement for several days in organ culture. Epinephrine-stimulated glycogenolysis, phosphorylase activation, and cyclic AMP (cAMP) accumulation in a concentration-dependent manner with EC/sub 50/s of 100, 100, and 500 nM, respectively. These actions were blocked by the ..beta..-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol, but not by the ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine. Glycogenolysis and tissue cAMP were uninfluenced by 10/sup -6/ M arginine vasotocin, arginine vasopressin, lysine vasotocin, lysine vasopressin, mesotocin, or oxytocin, but were slightly increased by 10/sup -5/ M isotocin and slightly decreased by 10/sup -6/ M angiotensin II. (/sup 125/I)-iodocyanopindolol (ICP), amore » ..beta..-adrenergic ligand, bound to isolated carp liver membranes with a K/sub D/ of 83 pM. Maximum binding of 45 fmol/mg protein was at 600 pM. Propranolol, isoprenaline, epinephrine, phenylephrine, norepinephrine, and phenoxybenzamine displaced ICP with K/sub D/s of 100 nM, 2, 20, 20, 60, and 200 ..mu..M, respectively. The ..cap alpha..-adrenergic antagonists, yohimbine and prazosin, showed no specific binding. These data provide evidence that catecholamines act via ..beta..-adrenergic receptors in carp liver and that ..cap alpha..-adrenergic receptors are not present. Vasoactive peptides play no significant role in regulation of carp liver glycogenolysis.« less

  4. Regulation of (/sup 3/H)GABA release from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, J.; Taniyama, K.; Iwai, S.

    1988-12-01

    The presence of receptors that regulate the release of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was studied in strips of the guinea pig urinary bladder. GABA (10(-8)-10(-5) M) and muscimol (10(-8)-10(-5) M), but not baclofen (10(-5) M), reduced the Ca2+-dependent, tetrodotoxin-resistant release of (/sup 3/H)GABA evoked by high K+ from the urinary bladder strips preloaded with (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline and potentiated by diazepam, clonazepam, and pentobarbital sodium. The potentiating effect of clonazepam was antagonized by Ro 15-1788. Acetylcholine (ACh) inhibited the high K+-evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of ACh was antagonized bymore » atropine sulfate and pirenzepine but not by hexamethonium. Norepinephrine (NE) inhibited the evoked release of (/sup 3/H)GABA. The inhibitory effect of NE was mimicked by clonidine, but not by phenylephrine, and was antagonized by yohimbine but not by prazosin. These results provide evidence that the release of GABA from strips of guinea pig urinary bladder is regulated via the bicuculline-sensitive GABAA receptor, M1-muscarinic, and alpha 2-adrenergic receptors.« less

  5. E-Mail Molecules—Individualizing the Large Lecture Class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wamser, Carl C.

    2003-11-01

    All students in the organic chemistry class are assigned a unique set of nine molecules to report on as optional extra credit assignments. The molecules are taken from a list containing over 200 molecules on the class Web site; they represent an assortment of biologically relevant compounds, from acetaminophen to yohimbine. Once a week, students may submit information about one of the molecules for two points extra credit (where the course includes a total of over 600 points from traditional quizzes and exams). The information requested about the molecules varies slightly each term as student expertise grows, for example, molecular formula, hybridizations, functional groups, or number of stereocenters, but always includes biological relevance and sources of information. Initially students submitted data directly to the instructor by e-mail, but submissions now are handled by a Web-based course management system (WebCT). The goal is to give students individualized assignments that are relatively realistic in light of their future careers in health sciences. Nearly all of the students do some of the molecules, and many students do all of them. About 30 40% of the students who do the assignments regularly gain a grade benefit. Student responses to the exercise have been positive.

  6. Octopamine and tyramine regulate the activity of reproductive visceral muscles in the adult female blood-feeding bug, Rhodnius prolixus.

    PubMed

    Hana, Sam; Lange, Angela B

    2017-05-15

    The role of octopamine and tyramine in regulating spontaneous contractions of reproductive tissues was examined in the female Rhodnius prolixus Octopamine decreased the amplitude of spontaneous contractions of the oviducts and reduced RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tyramine only reduced the RhoprFIRFa-induced contractions. Both octopamine and tyramine decreased the frequency of spontaneous bursal contractions and completely abolished the contractions at 5×10 -7  mol l -1 and above. Phentolamine, an octopamine receptor antagonist, attenuated the inhibition induced by octopamine on the oviducts and the bursa. Octopamine also increased the levels of cAMP in the oviducts, and this effect was blocked by phentolamine. Dibutyryl cyclic AMP mimicked the effects of octopamine by reducing the frequency of bursal contractions, suggesting that the octopamine receptor may act by an Octβ receptor. The tyramine receptor antagonist yohimbine failed to block the inhibition of contractions induced by tyramine on the bursa, suggesting that tyramine may be acting on the Octβ receptor in the bursa. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  7. Determination of indole alkaloids and highly volatile compounds in Rauvolfia verticillata by HPLC-UV and GC-MS.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bo; Li, Wenjing; Song, Aihua; Zhao, Chunjie

    2013-01-01

    Rauvolfia verticillata (Lour.) Baill. (also called Luofumu in Chinese) is commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine for lowering blood pressure. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography assay using ultraviolet detection is described for the simultaneous measurement of the five bioactive indole alkaloids (sarpagine, yohimbine, ajmaline, ajmalicine and reserpine) in Rauvolfia. The detection of all five compounds was conducted at 280 nm. In quantitative analysis, the five compounds showed good regressions (R(2) > 0.9988) within the test ranges, and the recovery of the method was in the range of 90.4-101.4%. In addition, a simple gas chromatography mass method using a DB-1 silica capillary column (30 m × 0.25 mm i.d., 0.25 µm) is described for the identification of the highly volatile compounds in Rauvolfia. In qualitative analysis, more than 39 compounds were assayed and identified using the mass function and the National Institute of Standards and Technology database search system. The results demonstrated that the combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses offered an efficient way to evaluate the quality and consistency of Rauvolfia verticillata.

  8. HPTLC method for the simultaneous determination of four indole alkaloids in Rauwolfia tetraphylla: a study of organic/green solvent and continuous/pulse sonication.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Shanker, Karuna; Srivastava, Santosh K

    2012-07-01

    A new validated high-performance thin-layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for the simultaneous quantitation of four antipsychotic indole alkaloids (IAs), reserpiline (RP, 1), α-yohimbine (YH, 2), isoreserpiline (IRP, 3) and 10-methoxy tetrahydroalstonine (MTHA, 4) as markers in the leaves of Rauwolfia tetraphylla. Extraction efficiency of the targeted IAs from the leaf matrix with organic and ecofriendly (green) solvents using percolation, ultrasonication and microwave techniques were studied. Non-ionic surfactants, viz. Triton X-100, Triton X-114 and Genapol X-80 were used for extraction and no back-extraction or liquid chromatographic steps were used to remove the targeted IAs from the surfactant-rich extractant phase. The optimized cloud point extraction was found a potentially useful methodology for the preconcentration of the targeted IAs. The separation was achieved on silica gel 60F(254) HPTLC plates using hexane-ethylacetate-methanol (5:4:1, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The quantitation of IAs (1-4) was carried out using the densitometric reflection/absorption mode at 520 nm after post chromatographic derivatization using Dragendorff's reagent. The method was validated for peak purity, precision, accuracy, robustness, limit of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ). Method specificity was confirmed using retention factor (R(f)) and visible spectral (post chromatographic scan) correlation of marker compounds in the samples and standard tracks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dissociable roles of glucocorticoid and noradrenergic activation on social discounting.

    PubMed

    Margittai, Zsofia; van Wingerden, Marijn; Schnitzler, Alfons; Joëls, Marian; Kalenscher, Tobias

    2018-04-01

    People often exhibit prosocial tendencies towards close kin and friends, but generosity decreases as a function of increasing social distance between donor and recipient, a phenomenon called social discounting. Evidence suggests that acute stress affects prosocial behaviour in general and social discounting in particular. We tested the causal role of the important stress neuromodulators cortisol (CORT) and noradrenaline (NA) in this effect by considering two competing hypotheses. On the one hand, it is possible that CORT and NA act in concert to increase generosity towards socially close others by reducing the aversiveness of the cost component in costly altruism and enhancing the emotional salience of vicarious reward. Alternatively, it is equally plausible that CORT and NA exert dissociable, opposing effects on prosocial behaviour based on prior findings implicating CORT in social affiliation, and NA in aggressive and antagonistic tendencies. We pharmacologically manipulated CORT and NA levels in a sample of men (N = 150) and found that isolated hydrocortisone administration promoted prosocial tendencies towards close others, reflected in an altered social discount function, but this effect was offset by concurrent noradrenergic activation brought about by simultaneous yohimbine administration. These results provide inceptive evidence for causal, opposing roles of these two important stress neuromodulators on prosocial behaviour, and give rise to the possibility that, depending on the neuroendocrine response profile, stress neuromodulator action can foster both tend-and-befriend and fight-or-flight tendencies at the same time. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. alpha2-Adrenoceptors control the release of noradrenaline but not neuropeptide Y from perivascular nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Donoso, M Veronica; Carvajal, Andrés; Paredes, Alfonso; Tomic, Alexander; Koenig, Cecilia S; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo

    2002-09-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and noradrenaline (NA) are co-transmitters at many sympathetic synapses, but it is not yet clear if their release is independently regulated. To address this question, we quantified the electrically evoked release of these co-transmitters from perivascular nerve terminals to the mesenteric circulation in control and drug-treated rats. 6-Hydroxydopamine reduced the tissue content and the electrically evoked release of ir-NPY and NA as well as the rise in perfusion pressure. A 0.001 mg/kg reserpine reduced the content of ir-NPY and NA, but did not modify their release nor altered the rise in perfusion pressure elicited by the electrical stimuli. However, 0.1mg/kg reserpine reduced both the content and release of NA but decreased only the content but not the release of ir-NPY; the rise in perfusion pressure was halved. Clonidine did not affect the release of ir-NPY while it lowered the outflow of NA, not altering the rise in perfusion pressure elicited by the electrical stimuli. Yohimbine, did not modify the release of ir-NPY but increased the NA outflow, it antagonized the clonidine effect. Therefore, presynaptic alpha2-adrenoceptors modulate the release of NA but not NPY, implying separate regulatory mechanisms.

  11. Molecular characterization and localization of the first tyramine receptor of the American cockroach (Periplaneta americana).

    PubMed

    Rotte, C; Krach, C; Balfanz, S; Baumann, A; Walz, B; Blenau, W

    2009-09-15

    The phenolamines octopamine and tyramine control, regulate, and modulate many physiological and behavioral processes in invertebrates. Vertebrates possess only small amounts of both substances, and thus, octopamine and tyramine, together with other biogenic amines, are referred to as "trace amines." Biogenic amines evoke cellular responses by activating G-protein-coupled receptors. We have isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) that encodes a biogenic amine receptor from the American cockroach Periplaneta americana, viz., Peatyr1, which shares high sequence similarity to members of the invertebrate tyramine-receptor family. The PeaTYR1 receptor was stably expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells, and its ligand response has been examined. Receptor activation with tyramine reduces adenylyl cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner (EC(50) approximately 350 nM). The inhibitory effect of tyramine is abolished by co-incubation with either yohimbine or chlorpromazine. Receptor expression has been investigated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The mRNA is present in various tissues including brain, salivary glands, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and leg muscles. The effect of tyramine on salivary gland acinar cells has been investigated by intracellular recordings, which have revealed excitatory presynaptic actions of tyramine. This study marks the first comprehensive molecular, pharmacological, and functional characterization of a tyramine receptor in the cockroach.

  12. Differential Effects of Various Typical and Atypical Antipsychotics on Plasma Glucose and Insulin Levels in the Mouse: Evidence for the Involvement of Sympathetic Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Savoy, Yvette E.; Ashton, Michael A.; Miller, Matthew W.; Nedza, Frank M.; Spracklin, Douglas K.; Hawthorn, Mark H.; Rollema, Hans; Matos, F. Fatima; Hajos-Korcsok, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic treatment has been associated with serious metabolic adverse events, such as glucose dysregulation and development of type 2 diabetes. As part of our studies on possible underlying mechanisms, we investigated the acute effects of various typical and atypical antipsychotics on plasma glucose and insulin in FVB/N mice, a strain that showed a more pronounced hyperglycemic response to clozapine than C57BL/6 and CD-1 mice. Acute administration of high doses of clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, perphenazine, or chlorpromazine significantly increased plasma glucose by 100%–140% above basal levels without significant effects on insulin levels. In contrast, risperidone reduced plasma glucose (−30%) and markedly enhanced plasma insulin levels. Doses of ziprasidone that gave 50-fold higher free plasma concentrations than therapeutic plasma levels, as well as high doses of aripiprazole and haloperidol, did not significantly alter either glucose or insulin levels. Clozapine- and olanzapine-induced hyperglycemia occurred at free plasma concentrations that were within, or one order of magnitude above, the range of therapeutic plasma levels. Pretreatment with either the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium, or the α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist yohimbine, blocked the clozapine- and chlorpromazine-induced increase in glucose levels. Taken together, these results suggest that typical and atypical antipsychotics with known metabolic liability produce acute hyperglycemia in mice and that this effect is likely driven by activation of the sympathetic autonomic nervous system via a central mechanism. PMID:18703666

  13. Network Biomarkers of Bladder Cancer Based on a Genome-Wide Genetic and Epigenetic Network Derived from Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng-Wei; Chen, Bor-Sen

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic and microRNA (miRNA) regulation are associated with carcinogenesis and the development of cancer. By using the available omics data, including those from next-generation sequencing (NGS), genome-wide methylation profiling, candidate integrated genetic and epigenetic network (IGEN) analysis, and drug response genome-wide microarray analysis, we constructed an IGEN system based on three coupling regression models that characterize protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs), gene regulatory networks (GRNs), miRNA regulatory networks (MRNs), and epigenetic regulatory networks (ERNs). By applying system identification method and principal genome-wide network projection (PGNP) to IGEN analysis, we identified the core network biomarkers to investigate bladder carcinogenic mechanisms and design multiple drug combinations for treating bladder cancer with minimal side-effects. The progression of DNA repair and cell proliferation in stage 1 bladder cancer ultimately results not only in the derepression of miR-200a and miR-200b but also in the regulation of the TNF pathway to metastasis-related genes or proteins, cell proliferation, and DNA repair in stage 4 bladder cancer. We designed a multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, yohimbine, and fulvestrant for treating stage 1 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects, and another multiple drug combination comprising gefitinib, estradiol, chlorpromazine, and LY294002 for treating stage 4 bladder cancer with minimal side-effects.

  14. Deepened extinction following compound stimulus presentation: Noradrenergic modulation

    PubMed Central

    Janak, Patricia H.; Corbit, Laura H.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral extinction is an active form of new learning involving the prediction of nonreward where reward has previously been present. The expression of extinction learning can be disrupted by the presentation of reward itself or reward-predictive stimuli (reinstatement) as well as the passage of time (spontaneous recovery) or contextual changes (renewal). The following experiments replicated the demonstration that presenting multiple previously rewarded stimuli in compound during extinction enhances extinction learning. To explore the pharmacological basis for this we next examined the effects of pharmacological treatments that either facilitated or blocked noradrenergic activity to test the hypothesis that increased noradrenergic activity at the time of extinction training would improve, whereas blockade of noradrenergic activity would impair the extinction of appetitive stimulus–reward memories. Different groups of rats were trained in a discriminative stimulus paradigm to lever-press for food reward. Once stable responding was achieved, responding was extinguished for 2 d. Prior to a third extinction session, rats received systemic administration of either saline, yohimbine (α2 antagonist), atomoxetine (norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor), or propranolol (β-receptor antagonist). Spontaneous recovery of responding to the stimuli was tested 4 wk later. Our results indicate that increasing noradrenergic activity during extinction augments extinction learning resulting in less recovery of responding at test. These results have important implications for models of relapse to drug seeking and the development of extinction-based therapies. PMID:21224211

  15. Role of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal axis and corticotropin-releasing factor stress system on cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking.

    PubMed

    Galesi, Fernanda L; Ayanwuyi, Lydia O; Mijares, Miriam Garcia; Cippitelli, Andrea; Cannella, Nazzareno; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo

    2016-10-05

    A large body of evidence has shown that the Corticotropin Releasing Factor (CRF) system, which plays a key role in stress modulation, is deeply involved in relapse to alcohol seeking induced by exposure to stressful events such as foot shock or yohimbine injections. Exposure to environmental cues is also known to be a trigger for alcohol relapse, nevertheless, the relationship between the relapse evoked by the cue-induced model and the CRF stress systems remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in male Wistar rats, the involvement of the CRF system and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis in relapse induced by environmental cues. Antalarmin, a selective CRF1 receptor antagonist, Metyrapone, a corticosterone (CORT) synthesis inhibitor and CORT were evaluated for their effects on the reinstatement test in a cue-induced relapse model. Antalarmin (20mg/kg) blocked relapse to alcohol seeking induced by environmental cues. Metyrapone (50 and 100mg/kg) also blocked relapse in Wistar rats but only at the highest dose (100mg/kg). Corticosterone had no effect on relapse at the doses tested. The results obtained from this study suggest that the CRF stress system and the HPA axis are involved in cue-induced alcohol relapse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Saw palmetto is an indirectly acting sympathomimetic in the rat-isolated prostate gland.

    PubMed

    Cao, Nga; Haynes, John M; Ventura, Sabatino

    2006-02-01

    To investigate whether saw palmetto that inhibits alpha1-adrenoceptor binding in vitro affects contractility of the rat prostate gland. The effects of a commercially available saw palmetto extract were examined on the contractility of rat-isolated prostate glands. The extract was tested in the presence and absence of phentolamine, prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol, hexamethonium, cocaine, desipramine, nifedipine, guanethidine, atropine, and alpha,beta-methylene ATP to evaluate the mechanism of action. Isolated preparations of rat vas deferens and bladder were used for comparison. Unexpectedly, saw palmetto extract caused contractions of the rat prostate gland that could be attenuated by prazosin, phentolamine, nifedipine, guanethidine, cocaine, and desipramine but not by any of the other pharmacological tools. Similar contractile effects were observed in rat-isolated vas deferens preparations but not in rat-isolated bladder preparations. In the rat prostate gland, saw palmetto extract causes indirect alpha1-adrenoceptor-mediated contractions via the release of noradrenaline from sympathetic neurons. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The subtype of alpha-adrenoceptor involved in the neural control of renal tubular sodium reabsorption in the rabbit.

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, I F; Johns, E J

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken in pentobarbitone anaesthetized rabbits, undergoing a saline diuresis, to determine the subtype of alpha-adrenoceptor mediating renal tubular sodium reabsorption. Stimulation of the renal nerves at low rates, to cause an 11% fall in renal blood flow, did not change glomerular filtration rate but significantly reduced urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretions by approximately 40%. These responses were reproducible in different groups of animals and with time. Renal nerve stimulation during an intra-renal arterial infusion of prazosin, to block alpha 1-adrenoceptors, had no effect on the renal haemodynamic response but completely abolished the reductions in urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretion. During intra-renal arterial infusion of yohimbine, to block renal alpha 2-adrenoceptors, stimulation of the renal nerves to cause similar renal haemodynamic changes resulted in significantly larger reductions in urine flow rate, and absolute and fractional sodium excretion of about 52-58%. These results indicate that in the rabbit alpha 1-adrenoceptors are present on the renal tubules, which mediate the increase in sodium reabsorption caused by renal nerve stimulation. They further suggest the presence of presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptors on those nerves innervating the renal tubules. PMID:6086915

  18. The protective effect of dexmedetomidine in a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Zhou, Xinqiao; Zhou, Wenjuan; Pang, Qingfeng; Wang, Zhiping

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine (Dex) in a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. An IL-2 ex vivo lung perfusion system was used to establish a rat ex vivo lung model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Drugs were added to the perfusion solution for reperfusion. Lung injury was assessed by histopathological changes, airway pressure (Res), lung compliance (Compl), perfusion flow (Flow), pulmonary venous oxygen partial pressure (PaO2), and lung wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio. The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) were measured, respectively. The introduction of Dex attenuated the post-ischemia-reperfusion lung damage and MDA level, improved lung histology, W/D ratio, lung injury scores and SOD activity. Decreased mRNA and protein levels of GRP78 and CHOP compared with the IR group were observed after Dex treatment. The effect of Dex was dosage-dependence and a high dose of Dex (10 nM) was shown to confer the strongest protective effect against lung damage (P<0.05). Yohimbine, an α2 receptor antagonist, significantly reversed the protective effect of Dex in lung tissues (P<0.05). Dex reduced ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat ex vivo lungs.

  19. RU 24969-induced emesis in the cat - 5-HT1 sites other than 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B or 5-HT1C implicated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucot, James B.

    1990-01-01

    RU 24969 was administered s.c. to cats and found to elicit emesis with a maximally effective dose of 1.0 mg/kg 5-Methoxytryptamine was found to have lower efficacy and to produce a higher incidence of nonspecific effects while trifluoromethylphenylpiperizine (TFMPP) was devoid of emetic effects. The emesis elicited by 1.0 mg/kg of RU 24969 was not altered by pretreatment with phentolamine, haloperidol, yohimbine or (-)-propranolol, indicating that catecholamines played no role in this response. The emesis was prevented by metergoline and methysergide but not by ketanserin, cyproheptadine, mesulergine, ICS 205 930, methiothepin, trimethobenzamide or BMY 7378. An indirect argument is presented that implicates a role for 5-HT1D sites. This conclusion must remain tentative until drugs selective for this site are synthesized and tested. The emesis was also prevented by 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamine)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), confirming that this drug has a general antiemetic effect in cats.

  20. The sympathetic mechanism in the isolated pulmonary artery of the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Bevan, J. A.; Su, C.

    1964-01-01

    The nature of postganglionic sympathetic nervous transmission to vascular muscle in vitro was studied using the recurrent cardiac nerve-pulmonary artery preparation of the rabbit. Experiments, similar to those which in other tissues have provided evidence to support a role for acetylcholine at the sympathetic postganglionic nerve-effector cell junction, were carried out. The contractile response of the isolated artery to acetylcholine was blocked completely by atropine. High concentrations of acetylcholine and of hemicholinium had no effect on the contractile response to sympathetic nerve stimulation. Physostigmine, atropine and hemicholinium were without influence on the relationship between nerve stimulus frequency and response. Yohimbine, bretylium and reserpine blocked completely the response to nerve stimulation but did not affect that to applied acetylcholine. These results support the view that transmission in this preparation at the sympathetic postganglionic nerve-effector cell junction is mediated by an adrenaline-like transmitter and provide no evidence for the view that acetylcholne is involved at this site. PMID:14126048

  1. Regulation of eye and jaw colouration in three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Franco-Belussi, L; De Oliveira, C; Sköld, H N

    2018-03-25

    Fish can change their skin and eye colour for background matching and signalling. Males of Gasterosteus aculeatus develop ornamental blue eyes and a red jaw during the reproductive season, colours that are further enhanced during courtship. Here, the effects of different hormones on physiological colour changes in the eyes and jaws of male and female G. aculeatus were investigated in vitro. In an in vivo experiment, G. aculeatus were injected with a receptor blocker of a pivotal hormone (noradrenaline) that controls colour change. In males, noradrenaline had aggregating effects on melanophore and erythrophore pigments resulting in blue eyes and a pale jaw, whereas melanocyte-concentrating hormone (MCH) and melatonin resulted in a pale jaw only. When noradrenalin was combined with melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH) or prolactin, the jaw became red, while the eyes remained blue. In vivo injection of yohimbine, an alpha-2 adrenoreceptor blocker, resulted in dispersion of melanophore pigment in the eyes and inhibited the blue colouration. Altogether, the data suggest that noradrenalin has a pivotal role in the short-term enhancement of the ornamental colouration of male G. aculeatus, potentially together with MSH or prolactin. This study also found a sex difference in the response to MCH, prolactin and melatonin, which may result from different appearance strategies in males, versus the more cryptic females. © 2018 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Tyraminergic modulation of agonistic outcomes in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Momohara, Yuto; Aonuma, Hitoshi; Nagayama, Toshiki

    2018-05-01

    Octopamine, a biogenic amine, modulates various behaviors, ranging from locomotion and aggression to learning and memory in invertebrates. Several studies recently demonstrated that tyramine, the biological precursor of octopamine, also affects behaviors independent of octopamine. Here we investigated the involvement of tyramine in agonistic interaction of the male crayfish Procambarus clarkii. When male crayfish fight, larger animals (3-7% difference in body length) are more likely to win. By contrast, direct injection of tyramine or octopamine counteracted the physical advantage of larger animals. Tyramine or octopamine-injected naive large animals were mostly beaten by untreated smaller naive animals. This pharmacological effect was similar to the loser effect in which subordinate larger animals are frequently beaten by smaller animals. Furthermore, loser effects were partly eliminated by either injection of epinastine, an octopamine blocker, or yohimbine, a tyramine blocker, and significantly diminished by injection of a mixture of both blockers. We also observed that tyramine levels in the subesophageal ganglion were remarkably increased in subordinate crayfish after losing a fight. These results suggest that tyramine modulates aggressive levels of crayfish and contributes to the loser effect in parallel with octopamine.

  3. Involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in myometrial responses in the pro-oestral rat.

    PubMed Central

    Acritopoulou-Fourcroy, S.; Marçais-Collado, H.

    1988-01-01

    1. Myometrial responses to different agents acting on adrenoceptors were examined in vivo in the pro-oestrous rat. Changes in spontaneous uterine mechanical activity were recorded isometrically and evaluated in terms of amplitude and duration of uterine contractions. 2. Phenylephrine (10 micrograms kg-1) markedly increased the amplitude and duration of contractions and 40 micrograms kg-1 gave rise to tetanic contractions. 3. Administration of either nicergoline (400 micrograms kg-1) or phentolamine (1000 micrograms kg-1) to phenylephrine-primed rat uterus reduced the strength of contractions and phentolamine abolished the phenylephrine-induced uterine contracture. 4. Following blockade of alpha 2-adrenoceptors by yohimbine (1000 micrograms kg-1) and beta-adrenoceptors by propranolol (2400 micrograms kg-1), a single injection of phenylephrine (100 micrograms kg-1) increased the amplitude of uterine contractions by 30%. 5. Noradrenaline reduced the amplitude of contractions and caused elevation of the baseline level. The response of myometrium to the combination of both propranolol and noradrenaline was the establishment of uterine contracture with subsequent increase of the duration of contractions. 6. These results clearly demonstrate the involvement of alpha-adrenoceptors in the myometrial activity of the rat in vivo during pro-oestrus. PMID:2832026

  4. Neuronally mediated contraction responses of guinea-pig stomach smooth muscle preparations: modification by benzamide derivatives does not reflect a dopamine antagonist action.

    PubMed

    Costall, B; Naylor, R J; Tan, C C

    1984-06-15

    The actions of the substituted benzamide derivatives metoclopramide, clebopride, YM-09151-2, tiapride, (+)- and (-)-sulpiride and (+)- and (-)-sultopride, and the dopamine antagonists haloperidol and domperidone, were studied on the responses to field stimulation (0.125-10 Hz) of smooth muscle strips taken from cardia, fundus, body and antral regions of the longitudinal and circular muscle of guinea-pig stomach. Field stimulation of the longitudinal strips caused contraction responses which were antagonised by atropine (but not by prazosin, yohimbine, propranolol or methysergide) to indicate a muscarinic cholinergic involvement. Antagonism of the contractions revealed or enhanced relaxation responses mediated via unidentified mechanisms (resistant to cholinergic and adrenergic antagonists). Metoclopramide enhanced the field stimulation-induced contractions of the stomach smooth muscle preparations via atropine sensitive mechanisms but failed to attenuate the field stimulation-induced relaxation responses. Clebopride's action closely followed that of metoclopramide but YM-09151-2 only enhanced the contraction responses of the longitudinal muscle preparations. Other dopamine antagonists, (+)- and (-)-sulpiride, (+)- and (-)-sultopride, tiapride, haloperidol and domperidone failed to facilitate contraction to field stimulation of any stomach tissue. Thus, the actions of metoclopramide, clebopride and YM-09151-2 to facilitate contraction to field stimulation of stomach smooth muscle are mediated via a muscarinic cholinergic mechanism and are not the consequence of an antagonism at any recognisable dopamine receptor.

  5. ELECTRICAL PHENOMENA IN NERVE

    PubMed Central

    Shanes, Abraham M.

    1949-01-01

    The action of a number of agents, which may be classified as "stabilizers" and "unstabilizers" on the electrical oscillations and after-potentials in the squid giant axon has been examined. The effects on the spike, "positive overshoot," and "potassium potential" were also observed, but where possible concentrations were employed which left these phenomena unaltered. Veratrine augmented the oscillations and the negative after-potential, particularly with repetitive stimulation. Yohimbine caused a small long lasting positive after-potential and depressed the oscillations, effects also enhanced with repetitive activity. Cocaine and procaine suppressed the oscillations and the negative after-potential but DDT was completely inert. An elevation in the medium calcium depressed the oscillations and the naturally occurring negative after-potential; negative after-potentials induced with veratrine were increased by calcium. A decrease in the potassium augmented the oscillations and the negative after-potential. A hypothesis is presented in which these effects are interpreted in terms of potassium concentration at the fiber surface as regulated by a labile permeability and metabolism. This is discussed in relation to the available evidence for these factors. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the author's indebtedness to Dr. D. E. S. Brown, Director, and to his staff at the Bermuda Biological Station for Research for the cooperation and special facilities provided during the initiation of this work. Dr. T. Baylor of Princeton University very kindly provided the camera and film used in Bermuda. PMID:18139008

  6. Effects of sympathetic nerve stimulation on long posterior ciliary artery blood flow in cats.

    PubMed

    Koss, Michael C

    2002-04-01

    A new technique using ultrasonic flowmetry was developed in order to directly measure blood flow in the long posterior ciliary artery (LPCA) of anesthetized cats. Basal LPCA blood flow averaged about 0.6 ml/min and was stable over the experimental period. Electrical stimulation of the cervical preganglionic cervical sympathetic nerve produced frequency-dependent anterior segment ocular vasoconstrictor responses. Ipsilateral nictitating membrane contractions were simultaneously measured as a well-established index of neural sympathetic activation. LPCA frequency-response relationships were shifted to the right in comparison with those for the nictitating membrane. When elicited at two min intervals, submaximal evoked responses of both systems were stable for more than 90 min. Ocular vasoconstrictor and nictitating membrane responses were blocked in a dose-dependent fashion by intravenous treatment with the non-selective a-adrenoceptor antagonist, phentolamine (0.3-3.0 mg/kg), as well as with the selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin (3-30 microg/kg). In contrast, neither evoked response was further antagonized by subsequent administration of the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (500 microg/kg). These results demonstrate the usefulness of ultrasonic flowmetry to study mechanisms controlling ocular anterior segment circulation and suggest that, as previously established for the nictitating membrane and anterior choroid, adrenergic neurogenic vasoconstriction in tissues perfused by the LPCA is mediated predominantly by alpha1-adrenoceptors.

  7. Characterization of adrenergic receptors of the cat iris and nictitating membrane.

    PubMed

    Koss, M C; Hey, J A; Gherezghiher, T

    1990-01-01

    Graded pupillary dilations and nictitating membrane (NM) contractions were elicited in anesthetized cats by electrical stimulation of the preganglionic sympathetic nerve or by i.a. administration of norepinephrine (NE) or phenylephrine into the carotid artery. Pupil and NM responses were measured simultaneously from the same side. Alpha-adrenoceptor antagonists were administered intravenously. All of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockers tested produced a dose-related reduction of NM responses to both neural and agonist activation; the potency rank order was prazosin greater than WB-4101 greater than phentolamine greater than phenoxybenzamine (PBZ). In contrast, responses of the iris dilator were antagonized only by WB-4101 and PBZ. The iris was almost totally refractory to doses of prazosin and phentolamine that blocked NM responses by more than 75% of control. Neither alpha 2- nor beta-adrenoceptor antagonism produced significant inhibition of neural or agonist activation of either organ (with the exception of high doses of yohimbine on the NM). These results suggest that the postjunctional adrenoceptors of the NM are exclusively of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtype. In contrast, those of the iris dilator muscle cannot be easily classified pharmacologically as either alpha 1 or alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

  8. Antidiarrhoeal activity of aqueous leaf extract of Caladium bicolor (Araceae) and its possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Salako, Olanrewaju A; Akindele, Abidemi J; Shitta, Omotoyosi M; Elegunde, Olajumoke O; Adeyemi, Olufunmilayo O

    2015-12-24

    Caladium bicolor (Araceae) is a horticulture plant also used by some traditional medicine practitioners in the treatment of diarrhoea and other gastrointestinal disorders. This study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrhoeal activity of the aqueous leaf extract of C. bicolor and its possible mechanisms of action in rodents. Normal and castor oil-induced intestinal transit and castor oil-induced diarrhoea tests were carried out in mice while gastric emptying and enteropooling tests were conducted in rats following the administration of distilled water (10 ml/kg, p.o.), C. bicolor extract (1-50mg/kg, p.o.) and loperamide (5mg/kg, p.o.). The probable mechanisms of action of C. bicolor was investigated following pre-treatment with yohimbine (10mg/kg, s.c.; α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), pilocarpine (1mg/kg, s.c.; non-selective muscarinic receptor agonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, s.c.; α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and propranolol (1mg/kg, i.p.; non-selective β-adrenoceptor antagonist) 15 min prior to administration of C. bicolor extract (50mg/kg, p.o.). After 30 min of pre-treatment with these drugs, the mice were subjected to the castor oil-induced intestinal transit test. C. bicolor extract did not produce significant (p>0.05) effect on normal intestinal transit unlike loperamide which caused significant (p<0.001) inhibition (61.57%). The extract caused significant (p<0.001) dose-dependent inhibition of castor oil-induced intestinal transit with peak effect, 100% inhibition, elicited at the dose of 50mg/kg compared to 86.97% inhibition for loperamide. Yohimbine and pilocarpine most significantly (p<0.001) reversed this effect of the extract. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, the extract (1mg/kg) and loperamide significantly (p<0.05, 0.01) delayed the onset of diarrhoea. For diarrhoea score, the extract (1 and 50mg/kg) inhibited diarrhoea development (47.53% and 43.83% inhibition, respectively) like loperamide (5mg/kg; 54.94%). The in vivo antidiarrhoeal index of

  9. Antinociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) in Rodents: possible mechanism of actions.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Olayemi, Sunday O; Oreagba, Ibrahim A; Ifeanyi, Chikaodili I; Popoola, Temidayo O

    2015-12-20

    The leaves of Clausena anisata (Willd.) Hook. f. ex Benth (Rutaceae) is used in Traditional African medicine for the treatment of various ailments including arthritis. The present study sought to investigate the antinociceptive and anti-arthritic properties of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Clausena anisata (HeCA). HeCA (100, 200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before intraplantar injection of formalin 1%v/v in saline to evaluate antinociceptive effect. Moreover, its possible mechanism of antinociceptive action was investigated through pretreatment of mice with antagonists of receptors implicated in nociception. Anti¬inflammatory effect of the extract was investigated using the carrageenan-induced paw oedema and complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis models in rats. HeCA (400 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the duration of paw licking/biting during both in the early (42.12%) and late (75.79%) phases of formalin-induced nociception. However, the antinociceptive effect elicited by HeCA was reverse by pretreatment of mice with naloxone, prazosin, yohimbine, ketanserin, L-arginine, and parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA). HeCA produced dose-dependent and time course decrease in carrageenan-induced paw oedema. Pre- and post-treatment of rats with HeCA ameliorated CFA-induced arthritis evidenced in the significant decrease in arthritic index comparatively similar to the effect of celecoxib. CFA- induced oxidative and nitrosative stress were attenuated by subchronic treatment with HeCA. Findings from this study shows that C. anisata possesses antinociceptive activity through possible interaction with opioidergic, noradrenergic, L-arginine-nitric oxide and serotonergic pathways as well as anti-arthritic property which could be attributed to its ability to prevent the release of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress.

  10. Molecular cloning and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker).

    PubMed

    Wu, Shun-Fan; Huang, Jia; Ye, Gong-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Tyramine (TA) and octopamine (OA) are considered to be the invertebrate counterparts of the vertebrate adrenergic transmitters. Because these two phenolamines are the only biogenic amines whose physiological significance is presumably restricted to invertebrates, the attention of pharmacologists has been focused on the corresponding receptors, which are believed to represent promising targets for novel insecticides. For example, the formamidine pesticides, such as chlordimeform and amitraz, have been shown to activate OA receptors. A full-length cDNA (designated CsTyR1) from the rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis (Walker), has been obtained through homology cloning in combination with rapid amplification of cDNA ends/polymerase chain reaction (RACE-PCR). The mRNA of CsTyR1 is present in various tissues, including hemocytes, fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules, nerve cord and epidermis, and it is found predominantly in the larval nerve cord with 16-80-fold enrichment compared with other tissues. The authors generated a HEK 293 cell line stably expressing CsTyR1 in order to examine functional and pharmacological properties of this receptor. Both TA and OA at 0.01-100 µM can reduce forskolin-stimulated intracellular cAMP levels in a dose-dependent manner (TA, EC(50) = 369 nM; OA, EC(50) = 978 nM). In agonist assays, activation of CsTyR1 by clonidine and amitraz but not by naphazoline and chlordimeform can also significantly inhibit forskolin-stimulated cAMP production. The inhibitory effect of TA at 10 µM is eliminated by coincubation with yohimbine, phentolamine or chlorpromazine (each 10 µM). This study represents a comprehensive molecular and pharmacological characterisation of a tyramine receptor in the rice stem borer. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats

    PubMed Central

    Arrant, Andrew E.; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L.; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28–34) and adult (PN67–74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α2 adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. PMID:23721963

  12. Use of the light/dark test for anxiety in adult and adolescent male rats.

    PubMed

    Arrant, Andrew E; Schramm-Sapyta, Nicole L; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-11-01

    The light/dark (LD) test is a commonly used rodent test of unconditioned anxiety-like behavior that is based on an approach/avoidance conflict between the drive to explore novel areas and an aversion to brightly lit, open spaces. We used the LD test to investigate developmental differences in behavior between adolescent (postnatal day (PN) 28-34) and adult (PN67-74) male rats. We investigated whether LD behavioral measures reflect anxiety-like behavior similarly in each age group using factor analysis and multiple regression. These analyses showed that time in the light compartment, percent distance in the light, rearing, and latency to emerge into the light compartment were measures of anxiety-like behavior in each age group, while total distance traveled and distance in the dark compartment provided indices of locomotor activity. We then used these measures to assess developmental differences in baseline LD behavior and the response to anxiogenic drugs. Adolescent rats emerged into the light compartment more quickly than adults and made fewer pokes into the light compartment. These age differences could reflect greater risk taking and less risk assessment in adolescent rats than adults. Adolescent rats were less sensitive than adults to the anxiogenic effects of the benzodiazepine inverse agonist N-methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxamide (FG-7142) and the α₂ adrenergic antagonist yohimbine on anxiety-like behaviors validated by factor analysis, but locomotor variables were similarly affected. These data support the results of the factor analysis and indicate that GABAergic and noradrenergic modulation of LD anxiety-like behavior may be immature during adolescence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  14. Lack of synergistic interaction between the two mechanisms of action of tapentadol in gastrointestinal transit.

    PubMed

    Cowan, A; Raffa, R B; Tallarida, C S; Tallarida, R J; Christoph, T; Schröder, W; Tzschentke, T M

    2014-09-01

    A multi-mechanistic approach offers potential enhancement of analgesic efficacy, but therapeutic gain could be offset by an increase in adverse events. The centrally acting analgesic tapentadol [(-)-(1R,2R)-3-(3-dimethylamino-1-ethyl-2-methyl-propyl)-phenol hydrochloride] combines μ-opioid receptor (MOR) agonism and neuronal noradrenaline reuptake inhibition (NRI), both of which contribute to its analgesic effects. Previously, isobolographic analysis of occupation-effect data and a theoretically equivalent methodology determining interactions from the effect scale demonstrated pronounced synergistic interaction between the two mechanisms of action of tapentadol in two models of antinociception (low-intensity tail-flick and spinal nerve ligation). The present study investigated the nature of interaction of the two mechanisms on a surrogate measure for gastrointestinal adverse effect (inhibition of gastrointestinal transit). Dose-response curves were generated in rats for tapentadol alone or in combination with the opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, or the α2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine, to reveal the effect of tapentadol based upon MOR agonism, NRI, and combined mechanisms. The dose-effect curve of tapentadol was shifted to the right by both antagonists, thereby providing data to distinguish between MOR agonism and NRI. Analysis revealed a simple additive interaction between the two mechanisms on this endpoint, in contrast to the synergistic interaction previously demonstrated for antinociception. We believe this is the first published evaluation of mechanistic interaction for a surrogate measure of adverse effect of a single compound with two mechanisms of action, and the results suggest that there is a greater separation between the analgesic and gastrointestinal effects of tapentadol than expected based upon its analgesic efficacy. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  15. Natural aphrodisiacs.

    PubMed

    Shamloul, Rany

    2010-01-01

    The search for a remedy or a prescription that can enhance sexual function and/or treat male erectile dysfunction has been an obsession throughout known history. Whether it was an Eastern civilization or a Western one, religious or atheist, man's aspiration for a better or best "manhood" has been a history-time goal. This review will discuss the current research done on the most popular natural aphrodisiacs and examine the weight of evidence to support or discourage the use of any of these substances to enhance sexual desire and/or function. Review of the current evidence on the use of natural substances as aphrodisiacs. Efficacy of natural aphrodisiacs in enhancing sexual function in men and women. There is little evidence from literature to recommend the usage of natural aphrodisiacs for the enhancement of sexual desire and/or performance. Data on yohimbine's efficacy does not support the wide use of the drug, which has only mild effects in the treatment of psychogenic ED. Although there's a positive trend towards recommending ginseng as an effective aphrodisiac, however, more in depth studies involving large number of subjects and its mechanism of action are needed before definite conclusions could be reached. Data on the use of natural aphrodisiacs in women is limited. The current body of objective evidence does not support the use of any natural aphrodisiac as an effective treatment for male or female sexual dysfunctions. Potent men and men with ED will continue the search for natural aphrodisiacs despite the current disappointing data on their effectiveness. Care should be taken regarding the fraud addition of sildenafil analogues to natural aphrodisiacs.

  16. A Urologist's Guide to Ingredients Found in Top-Selling Nutraceuticals for Men's Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Cui, Tao; Kovell, Robert C; Brooks, David C; Terlecki, Ryan P

    2015-11-01

    Use of supplements is common among men seeking urologic evaluation for sexual health matters. With a dizzying array of formulations available and little regulation on the dosage, purity, or ingredients found in these products, the health effects of nutraceuticals are often confusing to patients and medical practitioners alike. In this review, we set out to concisely summarize the data on ingredients found within the top-selling nutraceutical agents marketed for men's sexual health in order to provide a clinical guide for urologists. We used sales data from the most popular retail provider of men's health supplements to identify the top-selling products marketed toward improvement of men's sexual health. We summarized the available information related to the ingredients, dosage, cost, and mechanism of action for these substances and performed an extensive literature search to identify and review the current evidence available for each of the most common ingredients found in these nutraceuticals. The top-selling nutraceuticals marked for men's sexual health contain a blend of multiple supplements (up to 33 in one formulation identified), the most common being ginseng, tribulus, zinc, horny goat weed, B complex vitamins/trace minerals, fenugreek, L-arginine, maca, DHEA, ginkgo, and yohimbine. The currently available medical literature evaluating the efficacy of these substances is generally of low quality. Despite the dearth of evidence supporting nutraceutical agents in the men's health arena, these substances are still commonly used by patients. As these products can affect the health and well-being of men presenting to a urology clinic, a familiarity with commonly used agents can help the urologist appropriately counsel their patients. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Pharmacology of cognitive enhancers for exposure-based therapy of fear, anxiety and trauma-related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Singewald, N.; Schmuckermair, C.; Whittle, N.; Holmes, A.; Ressler, K.J.

    2015-01-01

    Pathological fear and anxiety are highly debilitating and, despite considerable advances in psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy they remain insufficiently treated in many patients with PTSD, phobias, panic and other anxiety disorders. Increasing preclinical and clinical evidence indicates that pharmacological treatments including cognitive enhancers, when given as adjuncts to psychotherapeutic approaches [cognitive behavioral therapy including extinction-based exposure therapy] enhance treatment efficacy, while using anxiolytics such as benzodiazepines as adjuncts can undermine long-term treatment success. The purpose of this review is to outline the literature showing how pharmacological interventions targeting neurotransmitter systems including serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, histamine, glutamate, GABA, cannabinoids, neuropeptides (oxytocin, neuropeptides Y and S, opioids) and other targets (neurotrophins BDNF and FGF2, glucocorticoids, L-type-calcium channels, epigenetic modifications) as well as their downstream signaling pathways, can augment fear extinction and strengthen extinction memory persistently in preclinical models. Particularly promising approaches are discussed in regard to their effects on specific aspects of fear extinction namely, acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, including long-term protection from return of fear (relapse) phenomena like spontaneous recovery, reinstatement and renewal of fear. We also highlight the promising translational value of the preclinial research and the clinical potential of targeting certain neurochemical systems with, for example d-cycloserine, yohimbine, cortisol, and L-DOPA. The current body of research reveals important new insights into the neurobiology and neurochemistry of fear extinction and holds significant promise for pharmacologically-augmented psychotherapy as an improved approach to treat trauma and anxiety-related disorders in a more efficient and persistent way promoting enhanced symptom

  18. Photoaffinity labelling of MSH receptors on Anolis melanophores: effects of catecholamines, calcium and forskolin.

    PubMed

    Eberle, A N; Girard, J

    1985-01-01

    Photoaffinity labelling of MSH receptors on Anolis melanophores was used as a tool for studying the effects of catecholamines, calcium and forskolin on hormone-receptor interaction and receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling. Covalent attachment of photoreactive alpha-MSH to its receptor was suppressed in calcium-free buffer but was hardly influenced by catecholamines or forskolin. The longlasting signal generated by the covalent MSH-receptor complex was readily and reversibly abolished by adrenaline, noradrenaline, dopamine or clonidine or by the absence of calcium. The suppression of pigment dispersion by catecholamines was blocked by the simultaneous presence of yohimbine but not prazosin, indicating that the catecholamines antagonize the alpha-MSH signal by inhibitory action on the adenylate cyclase system through an alpha-2 receptor. Forskolin, which stimulates melanophores by direct action on the catalytic unit of the adenylate cyclase and at about the same speed as alpha-MSH, produced a slower and weaker response in the presence of noradrenaline. If MSH receptors were covalently labelled and then exposed to noradrenaline, the characteristics of the forskolin-induced response were identical to those of unlabelled cells that had not been exposed to noradrenaline. This may point to a partial restoration of receptor-adenylate cyclase coupling by forskolin. The results show that the longlasting stimulation of Anolis melanophores by photoaffinity labelling proceeds via a permanently stimulated adenylate-cyclase system whose coupling to the receptor depends on calcium and is abolished by alpha-2 receptor agonists. Calcium is also essential for hormone-receptor binding.

  19. Simultaneous determination of intestinal permeability and potential drug interactions of complex mixtures using Caco-2 cells and high-resolution mass spectrometry: Studies with Rauwolfia serpentina extract.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Thomas J; Vohra, Sanah N

    2018-06-25

    Caco-2 cells are a commonly used model for estimating the intestinal bioavailability of single chemical entity pharmaceuticals. Caco-2 cells, when induced with calcitriol, also express other biological functions such as phase I (CYP) and phase II (glucuronosyltransferases) drug metabolizing enzymes which are relevant to drug-supplement interactions. Intestinal bioavailability is an important factor in the overall safety assessment of products consumed orally. Foods, including herbal dietary supplements, are complex substances with multiple chemical components. Because of potential interactions between components of complex mixtures, more reliable safety assessments can be obtained by studying the commercial products "as consumed" rather than by testing individual chemical components one at a time. The present study evaluated the apparent intestinal permeability (P app ) of a model herbal extract, Rauwolfia serpentina, using both whole plant extracts and the individual purified Rauwolfia alkaloids. All test compounds, endpoint substrates, and their metabolites were quantified using liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The P app values for individual Rauwolfia alkaloids were comparable whether measured individually or as components of the complete extract. Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except yohimbine inhibited CYP3A4 activity (midazolam 1'-hydroxylation). Both Rauwolfia extract and all individual Rauwolfia alkaloids except corynanthine and reserpic acid significantly increased glucuronosyltransferase activity (glucuronidation of 4-methylumbelliferone). The positive control, ketoconazole, significantly inhibited both CYP3A4 and glucuronosyltransferase activities. These findings suggest that the Caco-2 assay is capable of simultaneously identifying both bioavailability and potentially hazardous intestinal drug-supplement interactions in complex mixtures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Determination of phytochemicals, antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Andrographis paniculata using chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Kurzawa, Marzanna; Filipiak-Szok, Anna; Kłodzińska, Ewa; Szłyk, Edward

    2015-07-15

    Antioxidant activity, total phenolics content and selected phytochemicals (alkaloids and andrographolides) were determined in Andrographis paniculata and in dietary supplements containing this plant. Antioxidant activity was measured by FRAP, CUPRAC and DPPH procedures and ranged from 503.36 to 6164.09μmol TE/100g d.m. depending on methods, part of plant and kind of dietary supplement. The total phenolics (175.13-1723.79mg GAE/100g) and andrographolides content (19.44-85.13mg/g) in the studied samples were correlated with antioxidant activities determined by CUPRAC, FRAP and DPPH (r>0.95, p<0.05 level). Purine alkaloids: caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and indole alkaloids: harmine, harmane, harmol, yohimbine, brucine and strychnine were detected in the studied samples by different chromatographic techniques (HPLC-DAD, LC-MS/MS, GC-MS). The total alkaloids content in APs-roots and APs-leaves varies from 50.71±0.36mg/g d.m. to 78.71±0.48mg/g d.m., respectively, whereas for dietary supplements (Pn and DK) TAC was found between 19.52±0.15mg/g and 22.18±0.15mg/g d.m.. The highest concentration of andrographolides was found in A. paniculata leaves, whereas the lowest in dietary supplement Pn. Moreover principal component analysis, cluster analysis and one-way ANOVA follow by Duncan's tests were also performed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Amitraz poisoning: A case report of an unusual pesticide poisoning in Sri Lanka and literature review.

    PubMed

    Herath, H M M T B; Pahalagamage, S P; Yogendranathan, Nilukshana; Wijayabandara, M D M S; Kulatunga, Aruna

    2017-01-23

    Amitraz is a pesticide used worldwide on animals and in agriculture. It contains triazapentadiene, which is a centrally acting alpha-2 adrenergic agonist. Amitraz poisoning is fairly uncommon in humans and occurs via oral, dermal or inhalational routes. Only a limited number of case reports of human intoxication have been published and most of them are of accidental ingestion by children. A twenty-year-old Sri Lankan female presented following self-ingestion of 20 ml of amitraz resulting in 37.8 mg/ kg of amitraz poisoning. She lost consciousness after 20 min of ingestion, developed bradycardia and hypotension, which needed intravenous fluid resuscitation and dobutamine. Gastric lavage was performed. Her bradycardia persisted for 36 h and she was drowsy for 48 h. She did not develop respiratory depression, convulsions or hypothermia and the urine output was normal. Arterial blood gas revealed mild respiratory alkalosis. She recovered fully within 48 h and was discharged on day 3. The clinical manifestations of amitraz (impaired consciousness, drowsiness, vomiting, disorientation, miosis, mydriasis, hypotension, bradycardia, respiratory depression, hypothermia, generalized seizures, hyperglycemia and glycosuria) can be explained by the agonist action of amitraz on α1 and α2 receptors. Management of amitraz poisoning is still considered to be supportive and symptomatic with monitoring of nervous system, cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Activated charcoal may still be considered for treatment and the place for gastric lavage is controversial. Atropine is effective for symptomatic bradycardia and inotropic support is needed for hypotension that does not respond to fluid resuscitation. Diazepam or Lorazepam is used for convulsions and some patients may require intubation and ICU care. Several α2 adrenergic antagonists like yohimbine have been tried on animals, which have successfully reversed the effects of amitraz. Since the majority of amitraz

  2. Evidence that the human cutaneous venoarteriolar response is not mediated by adrenergic mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, C. G.; Shibasaki, M.; Yen, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    The venoarteriolar response causes vasoconstriction to skin and muscle via local mechanisms secondary to venous congestion. The purpose of this project was to investigate whether this response occurs through alpha-adrenergic mechanisms. In supine individuals, forearm skin blood flow was monitored via laser-Doppler flowmetry over sites following local administration of terazosin (alpha(1)-antagonist), yohimbine (alpha(2)-antagonist), phentolamine (non-selective alpha-antagonist) and bretylium tosylate (inhibits neurotransmission of adrenergic nerves) via intradermal microdialysis or intradermal injection. In addition, skin blood flow was monitored over an area of forearm skin that was locally anaesthetized via application of EMLA (2.5 % lidocaine (lignocaine) and 2.5 % prilocaine) cream. Skin blood flow was also monitored over adjacent sites that received the vehicle for the specified drug. Each trial was performed on a minimum of seven subjects and on separate days. The venoarteriolar response was engaged by lowering the subject's arm from heart level such that the sites of skin blood flow measurement were 34 +/- 1 cm below the heart. The arm remained in this position for 2 min. Selective and non-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonism and presynaptic inhibition of adrenergic neurotransmission did not abolish the venoarteriolar response. However, local anaesthesia blocked the venoarteriolar response without altering alpha-adrenergic mediated vasoconstriction. These data suggest that the venoarteriolar response does not occur through adrenergic mechanisms as previously reported. Rather, the venoarteriolar response may due to myogenic mechanisms associated with changes in vascular pressure or is mediated by a non-adrenergic, but neurally mediated, local mechanism.

  3. Cocaine self-administration and reinstatement in female rats selectively bred for high and low voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Smethells, J R; Zlebnik, N E; Miller, D K; Will, M J; Booth, F; Carroll, M E

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has found that rats behaviorally screened for high (vs. low) wheel running were more vulnerable to cocaine abuse. To assess the extent to which a genetic component is involved in this drug-abuse vulnerability, rats selectively bred for high or low voluntary running (HVR or LVR, respectively) were examined for differences in cocaine seeking in the present study. Female rats were trained to lever press for food and then were assessed for differences in acquisition of cocaine (0.4mg/kg; i.v.) self-administration across 10 sessions. Once acquired, rats self-administered cocaine for a 14-day maintenance phase, followed by a 14-day extinction phase when cocaine was no longer available. Subsequently, reinstatement of cocaine seeking was examined with priming injections of cocaine (5, 10 & 15mg/kg), caffeine (30mg/kg), yohimbine (2.5mg/kg) and cocaine-paired cues. A greater percentage of LVR rats met the acquisition criteria for cocaine self-administration and in fewer sessions than HVR rats. No differences in responding for cocaine were observed between phenotypes during maintenance. However, during extinction LVR rats initially responded at higher rates and persisted in cocaine seeking for a greater number of sessions. No phenotype differences were observed following drug and cue-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking. In general, LVR rats were more sensitive to the reinforcing effects of cocaine than HVR rats during periods of transition into and out of cocaine self-administration. Thus, LVR rats sometimes showed a greater vulnerability cocaine seeking than HVR rats. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Antinociceptive synergism of MD-354 and clonidine. Part II. The alpha-adrenoceptor component.

    PubMed

    Young, Shawquia; Vainio, Minna; Scheinin, Mika; Dukat, Małgorzata

    2010-08-01

    Previously, we reported that antinociceptive synergism of a 5-HT(3)/alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligand MD-354 (m-chlorophenylguanidine) and clonidine combination occurs, in part, through a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist mechanism. In the present investigation, a possible role for alpha(2)-adrenoceptors was examined. Mechanistic studies using yohimbine (a subtype non-selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), BRL 44408 (a preferential alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist) and imiloxan (a preferential alpha(2B/C)-adrenoceptor antagonist) on the antinociceptive actions of a MD-354/clonidine combination were conducted. Subcutaneous pre-treatment with all three antagonists inhibited the antinociceptive synergism of MD-354 and clonidine in the mouse tail-flick assay in a dose-dependent manner (AD(50) = 0.33, 2.1, and 0.17 mg/kg, respectively). Enhancement of clonidine antinociception by MD-354 did not potentiate clonidine's locomotor suppressant activity in a mouse locomotor assay. When [ethyl-3H]RS-79948-197 was used as radioligand, MD-354 displayed almost equal affinity to alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors (K(i) = 110 and 220 nM) and showed lower affinity at alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors (K(i) = 4,700 nM). MD-354 had no subtype-selectivity for the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtypes as an antagonist in functional [35S]GTPgammaS binding assays. MD-354 was a weak partial agonist at alpha(2A)-adrenoceptors. Overall, in addition to the 5-HT(3) receptor component, the present investigation found MD-354 to be a weak partial alpha(2A)-adrenoceptor agonist that enhances clonidine's thermal antinociceptive actions through an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor-mediated mechanism without augmenting sedation.

  5. The drug treatment of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Elsaied, Moustafa A.; Mostafa, Taymour

    2016-01-01

    Delayed ejaculation (DE) is an uncommon and a challenging disorder to treat. It is often quite concerning to patients and it can affect psychosocial well-being. Here we reviewed how DE is treated pharmacologically .We also highlighted specific settings where drugs could be introduced to medical practice. Electronic databases were searched from 1966 to February 2016, including PubMed MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBCSO Academic Search Complete, Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, and Google Scholar using key words; delayed ejaculation, retarded ejaculation, inhibited ejaculation, drugs, treatment, or pharmacology. To achieve the maximum sensitivity of the search strategy and to identify all studies, we combined “delayed ejaculation” as Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms or keywords with each of “testosterone” or “cabergoline” or “bupropion” or “amantadine” or “cyproheptadine” or “midodrine” or “imipramine” or “ephedrine” or “pseudoephedrine” or “yohimbine” or “buspirone” or “oxytocin” or “bethanechol” as MeSH terms or keywords. There are a number of drugs to treat patients with DE including: testosterone, cabergoline, bupropion, amantadine, cyproheptadine, midodrine, imipramine, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, yohimbine, buspirone, oxytocin, and bethanechol. Although there are many pharmacological treatment options, the evidence is still limited to small trials, case series or case reports. Review of literature showed that evidence level 1 (Double blind randomized clinical trial) studies were performed with testosterone, oxytocin, buspirone or bethanechol treatment. It is concluded that successful drug treatment of DE is still in its infancy. The clinicians need to be aware of the pathogenesis of DE and the pharmacological basis underlying the use of different drugs to extend better care for these patients. Various drugs are available to address such problem, however their evidence of efficacy is still limited and their

  6. Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) increases pain behavior and the blood glucose level: possible involvement of sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2012-07-01

    The relationship between interleukin-1β (IL-1β)-induced nociception and the blood glucose level was studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection of IL-1β increased pain behavior. In addition, i.t. IL-1β injection caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. The time-course study showed that maximal blood glucose level was observed 30 and 60 min after i.t. IL-1β administration. Furthermore, i.t. injection of IL-1β enhanced the blood glucose level when mice were orally fed with d-glucose. The i.t. administration of IL-1β antagonist (AF12198) inhibited the hyperglycemia and pain behaviors induced by IL-1β. We found in the present study that adrenal tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA level was also increased by i.t. IL-1β injection. Furthermore, intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment with phentolamine (an α(1)-adrenergic blocker) or yohimbine (an α(2)-adrenergic blocker) significantly attenuated the blood glucose level and pain behavior induced by IL-1β administered i.t. However, the blood glucose level and pain behavior were not affected by butoxamine (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker), whereas metoprolol (a β(2)-adrenergic blocker) enhanced IL-1β-induced blood glucose level and pain behavior in mice fed with d-glucose. However, its effect was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that IL-1β administered i.t. increases the blood glucose level via an activation of α adrenergic nervous system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Pharmacological characterization of a β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor in Plutella xylostella.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qing-Ting; Ma, Hai-Hao; Deng, Xi-Le; Zhu, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhou, Yong; Zhou, Xiao-Mao

    2018-04-25

    The β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptor (OA2B2) belongs to the class of G-protein coupled receptors. It regulates important physiological functions in insects, thus is potentially a good target for insecticides. In this study, the putative open reading frame sequence of the Pxoa2b2 gene in Plutella xylostella was cloned. Orthologous sequence alignment, phylogenetic tree analysis, and protein sequence analysis all showed that the cloned receptor belongs to the OA2B2 protein family. PxOA2B2 was transiently expressed in HEK-293 cells. It was found that PxOA2B2 could be activated by both octopamine and tyramine, resulting in increased intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels, whereas dopamine and serotonin were not effective in eliciting cAMP production. Further studies with series of PxOA2B2 agonists and antagonists showed that all four tested agonists (e.g., naphazoline, clonidine, 2-phenylethylamine, and amitraz) could activate the PxOA2B2 receptor, and two of tested antagonists (e.g., phentolamine and mianserin) had significant antagonistic effects. However, antagonist of yohimbine had no effects. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that Pxoa2b2 gene was expressed in all developmental stages of P. xylostella and that the highest expression occurred in male adults. Further analysis with fourth-instar P. xylostella larvae showed that the Pxoa2b2 gene was mainly expressed in Malpighian tubule, epidermal, and head tissues. This study provides both a pharmacological characterization and the gene expression patterns of the OA2B2 in P. xylostella, facilitating further research for insecticides using PxOA2B2 as a target. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [The influence of single moderate exercise on the sympathetic nervous system activity in patients with essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2002-12-01

    Sympathetic nervous system may play an important role in development and maintenance of hypertension. Its activity can be assessed by plasma levels of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y (NPY) and adrenergic receptor density. Hypertensive subjects may be more prone to reveal overactivity of sympathetic nervous system, for instance as a result of physical stress. The aim of the study was to determine the activity of sympathetic nervous system in young patients with newly recognized, untreated mild hypertension. The study was carried out in 22 patients (age 38.5 +/- 10.3 years) and 20 normotensive volunteers (age 38.5 +/- 8.6 years) as a control group, matched for sex. Density of alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors using 3H-yohimbine and 125I-cyanopindolol respectively, total catecholamines and plasma renin activity using radioenzymatic assay, neuropeptide Y and aldosterone using radioimmunoassay were assessed in the blood taken in the supine position and after moderate bicycle ergometer exercise. Plasma concentration of NPY at rest did not differ between the groups, but increased significantly after exercise and was greater in hypertensive patients (p < 0.05). The density of alpha 2- and beta-adrenergic receptors at rest and after exercise in hypertensive subjects was unchanged when comparing to healthy individuals. The plasma concentrations of endogenous catecholamines, plasma renin activity and aldosterone level increase during exercise in both studied groups (p < 0.05). Aldosterone level was higher in hypertensive patients at rest (p < 0.05). There was a negative correlation between baseline aldosterone and NPY levels in hypertensive patients (r = -0.44, p < 0.05). Moderate exercise in hypertensive subjects causes the hyperactivity of sympathetic nervous system expressed as increase of NPY plasma level.

  9. 5-HT receptors as novel targets for optimizing pigmentary responses in dorsal skin melanophores of frog, Hoplobatrachus tigerinus

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Sharique A; Salim, Saima; Sahni, Tarandeep; Peter, Jaya; Ali, Ayesha S

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Biochemical identification of 5-HT has revealed similar projection patterns across vertebrates. In CNS, 5-HT regulates major physiological functions but its peripheral functions are still emerging. The pharmacology of 5-HT is mediated by a diverse range of receptors that trigger different responses. Interestingly, 5-HT receptors have been detected in pigment cells indicating their role in skin pigmentation. Hence, we investigated the role of this monoaminergic system in amphibian pigment cells, melanophores, to further our understanding of its role in pigmentation biology together with its evolutionary significance. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Pharmacological profiling of 5-HT receptors was achieved using potent/selective agonists and antagonists. In vitro responses of melanophores were examined by Mean Melanophores Size Index assay. The melanophores of lower vertebrates are highly sensitive to external stimuli. The immediate cellular responses to drugs were defined in terms of pigment translocation within the cells. KEY RESULTS 5-HT exerted strong concentration-dependent pigment dispersion at threshold dose of 1 × 10−6 g·mL−1. Specific 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonists, sumatriptan and myristicin. also induced dose-dependent dispersion. Yohimbine and metergoline synergistically antagonized sumatriptan-mediated dispersion, whereas trazodone partially blocked myristicin-induced dispersion. Conversely, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptor agonists, 1 (3 chlorophenyl) biguanide (1,3 CPB) and 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), caused a dose-dependent pigment aggregation. The aggregatory effect of 1,3 CPB was completely blocked by ondansetron, whereas L-lysine partially blocked the effect of 5-MT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The results suggest that 5-HT-induced physiological effects are mediated via distinct classes of receptors, which possibly participate in the modulation of pigmentary responses in amphibian. PMID:21880033

  10. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng Gao; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a variety of actions in the body such as cardiotonic, host-defensive, radioprotective and glucose-regulatory effects. However, its action in the central nervous system remains to be characterized. In the present study, we tested to see whether taurine exerts anti-anxiety effects and to explore its mechanism of anti-anxiety activity in vivo. The staircase test and elevated plus maze test were performed to test the anti-anxiety action of taurine. Convulsions induced by strychnine, picrotoxin, yohimbine and isoniazid were tested to explore the mechanism of anti-anxiety activity of taurine. The Rotarod test was performed to test muscle relaxant activity and the passive avoidance test was carried out to test memory activity in response to taurine. Taurine (200 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly reduced rearing numbers in the staircase test while it increased the time spent in the open arms as well as the number of entries to the open arms in the elevated plus maze test, suggesting that it has a significant anti-anxiety activity. Taurine's action could be due to its binding to and activating of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo as it inhibited convulsion caused by strychnine; however, it has little effect on picrotoxin-induced convulsion, suggesting its anti-anxiety activity may not be linked to GABA receptor. It did not alter memory function and muscle activity. Taken together, these results suggest that taurine could be beneficial for the control of anxiety in the clinical situations. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed Central

    Sierralta, F.; Naquira, D.; Pinardi, G.; Miranda, H. F.

    1996-01-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level. PMID:8894177

  12. alpha-Adrenoceptor and opioid receptor modulation of clonidine-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, F; Naquira, D; Pinardi, G; Miranda, H F

    1996-10-01

    1. The antinociceptive action of clonidine (Clon) and the interactions with alpha 1, alpha 2 adrenoceptor and opioid receptor antagonists was evaluated in mice by use of chemical algesiometric test (acetic acid writhing test). 2. Clon produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive action and the ED50 for intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) was lower than for intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration (1 ng kg-1 vs 300 ng kg-1). The parallelism of the dose-response curves indicates activation of a common receptor subtype. 3. Systemic administration of prazosin and terazosin displayed antinociceptive activity. Pretreatment with prazosin produced a dual action: i.c.v. Clon effect did not change, and i.p. Clon effect was enhanced. Yohimbine i.c.v. or i.p. did not induce antinonciception, but antagonized Clon-induced activity. These results suggest that alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors, either located at the pre- and/or post-synaptic level, are involved in the control of spinal antinociception. 4. Naloxone (NX) and naltrexone (NTX) induced antinociceptive effects at low doses (microgram kg-1 range) and a lower antinociceptive effect at higher doses (mg kg-1 range). Low doses of NX or NTX antagonized Clon antinociception, possibly in relation to a preferential mu opioid receptor antagonism. In contrast, high doses of NX or NTX increased the antinociceptive activity of Clon, which could be due to an enhanced inhibition of the release of substance P. 5. The results obtained in the present work suggest the involvement of alpha 1-, alpha 2-adrenoceptor and opioid receptors in the modulation of the antinociceptive activity of clonidine, which seems to be exerted either at spinal and/or supraspinal level.

  13. In vivo microdialysis of noradrenaline overflow: effects of alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists measured by cumulative concentration-response curves.

    PubMed Central

    van Veldhuizen, M. J.; Feenstra, M. G.; Heinsbroek, R. P.; Boer, G. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of several alpha-adrenoceptor agonists and antagonists on cerebral cortical overflow of endogenous noradrenaline (NA) in freely moving rats. One or two days after the implantation of transcerebral dialysis tubes in the frontoparietal cortex, extracellular NA levels were monitored on-line with high performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. The drugs were applied locally via the dialysis membrane, and effects on NA overflow were determined in cumulative concentration-response curves. 2. The average basal cortical NA overflow of all experiments was 0.25 pg min-1. The alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists caused a concentration-dependent decrease in NA levels. UK-14,304 was the most potent and B-HT 933 the least potent agonist. The maximal decrease in NA overflow was to 10-15% of control levels after UK-14,304 or moxonidine, to 30% after clonidine and to 50% after B-HT 933 administration. Continuous activation of the presynaptic alpha 2-adrenoceptor with 10(-6) M UK-14,304 caused a decrease in NA levels to 40-50% of basal levels. This decrease was reached within 1 h and remained stable for the entire 3 h measurement period. The alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists, phenylephrine and methoxamine, induced an increase in NA levels to 225% and 300%, respectively, at a concentration of 10(-3) M. 3. Local application of alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists caused an increase in NA levels, with idazoxan being more potent than piperoxan. Yohimbine did not cause any significant change. 4. All drugs used in these in vivo experiments had in vitro recoveries across the dialysis membrane between 10 and 20%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8102934

  14. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Clinacanthus nutans Leaves: Possible Mechanisms of Action Involved

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Rahim, Mohammad Hafiz; Roosli, Rushduddin Al Jufri; Othman, Fezah

    2018-01-01

    Methanolic extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (MECN) has been proven to possess antinociceptive activity that works via the opioid and NO-dependent/cGMP-independent pathways. In the present study, we aimed to further determine the possible mechanisms of antinociception of MECN using various nociceptive assays. The antinociceptive activity of MECN was (i) tested against capsaicin-, glutamate-, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-, bradykinin-induced nociception model; (ii) prechallenged against selective antagonist of opioid receptor subtypes (β-funaltrexamine, naltrindole, and nor-binaltorphimine); (iii) prechallenged against antagonist of nonopioid systems, namely, α2-noradrenergic (yohimbine), β-adrenergic (pindolol), adenosinergic (caffeine), dopaminergic (haloperidol), and cholinergic (atropine) receptors; (iv) prechallenged with inhibitors of various potassium channels (glibenclamide, apamin, charybdotoxin, and tetraethylammonium chloride). The results demonstrated that the orally administered MECN (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the nociceptive effect of all models in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the antinociceptive activity of 500 mg/kg MECN was significantly (p < 0.05) inhibited by (i) antagonists of μ-, δ-, and κ-opioid receptors; (ii) antagonists of α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and (iii) blockers of different K+ channels (voltage-activated-, Ca2+-activated, and ATP-sensitive-K+ channels, resp.). In conclusion, MECN-induced antinociception involves modulation of protein kinase C-, bradykinin-, TRVP1 receptors-, and glutamatergic-signaling pathways; opioidergic, α2-noradrenergic, β-adrenergic, adenosinergic, dopaminergic, and cholinergic receptors; and nonopioidergic receptors as well as the opening of various K+ channels. The antinociceptive activity could be associated with the presence of several flavonoid-based bioactive compounds and their

  15. Cannabidiol, extracted from Cannabis sativa, selectively inhibits inflammatory hypermotility in mice.

    PubMed

    Capasso, R; Borrelli, F; Aviello, G; Romano, B; Scalisi, C; Capasso, F; Izzo, A A

    2008-07-01

    Cannabidiol is a Cannabis-derived non-psychotropic compound that exerts a plethora of pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and antitumour effects, with potential therapeutic interest. However, the actions of cannabidiol in the digestive tract are largely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol on intestinal motility in normal (control) mice and in mice with intestinal inflammation. Motility in vivo was measured by evaluating the distribution of an orally administered fluorescent marker along the small intestine; intestinal inflammation was induced by the irritant croton oil; contractility in vitro was evaluated by stimulating the isolated ileum, in an organ bath, with ACh. In vivo, cannabidiol did not affect motility in control mice, but normalized croton oil-induced hypermotility. The inhibitory effect of cannabidiol was counteracted by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist rimonabant, but not by the cannabinoid CB2 receptor antagonist SR144528 (N-[-1S-endo-1,3,3-trimethyl bicyclo [2.2.1] heptan-2-yl]-5-(4-chloro-3-methylphenyl)-1-(4-methylbenzyl)-pyrazole-3-carboxamide), by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone or by the alpha2-adrenergic antagonist yohimbine. Cannabidiol did not reduce motility in animals treated with the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitor N-arachidonoyl-5-hydroxytryptamine, whereas loperamide was still effective. In vitro, cannabidiol inhibited ACh-induced contractions in the isolated ileum from both control and croton oil-treated mice. Cannabidiol selectively reduces croton oil-induced hypermotility in mice in vivo and this effect involves cannabinoid CB1 receptors and FAAH. In view of its low toxicity in humans, cannabidiol may represent a good candidate to normalize motility in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Combined antiallodynic effect of Neurotropin® and pregabalin in rats with L5-spinal nerve ligation.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Ryohei; Namba, Hiroyoshi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Okai, Hisashi; Taguchi, Kazuki; Kawamura, Minoru

    2013-03-12

    In this study, we investigated the combined effect of Neurotropin® and pregabalin for L5-spinal nerve ligation (L5-SNL) model in rats and thiopental-induced sleep in mice. The left fifth lumbar nerve of rats was tightly ligated with silk sutures under pentobarbital anesthesia. The hindpaw withdrawal threshold was measured by application of von Frey filaments. Thiopental sodium was intravenously administered in mice and sleeping time was measured. In L5-SNL rats, an isobolographic analysis was performed to clarify the combined antiallodynic effect of Neurotropin and pregabalin 14 days after ligation in rats. In isobolographic analysis and thiopental-induced sleep test, Neurotropin and pregabalin were orally administered to coincide with the timing of the peak effect of each drug. Neurotropin (50-200 NU/kg) and pregabalin (2.5-10mg/kg) showed a dose-dependent antiallodynic action in L5-SNL rats. The antiallodynic effect of pregabalin was reversed by intrathecal injection of yohimbine or ondansetron. Isobolographic analysis suggested that the combined antiallodynic effect of Neurotropin and pregabalin in L5-SNL rats may have been more than a mere additive effect. Neurotropin (50-400 NU/kg) had no effect on thiopental-induced sleeping time whereas pregabalin (30-100mg/kg) significantly prolonged it. When the dose of pregabalin was 30 mg/kg, Neurotropin (50-400 NU/kg) did not further exacerbate the prolongation effect of pregabalin on thiopental-induced sleep. It was suggested that when Neurotropin was administered in combination with pregabalin, it might provide more effective pain relief than that obtained with each agent alone in neuropathic pain without aggravating adverse effects of pregabalin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A fighter's comeback: dopamine is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat in crickets.

    PubMed

    Rillich, Jan; Stevenson, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Social defeat, i.e. losing an agonistic dispute with a conspecific, is followed by a period of suppressed aggressiveness in many animal species, and is generally regarded as a major stressor, which may play a role in psychiatric disorders such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Despite numerous animal models, the mechanisms underlying loser depression and subsequent recovery are largely unknown. This study on crickets is the first to show that a neuromodulator, dopamine (DA), is necessary for recovery of aggression after social defeat. Crickets avoid any conspecific male just after defeat, but regain their aggressiveness over 3 h. This recovery was prohibited after depleting nervous stores of DA and octopamine (OA, the invertebrate analogue of noradrenaline) with α-methyl-tyrosine (AMT). Loser recovery was also prohibited by the insect DA-receptor (DAR) antagonist fluphenazine, but not the OA-receptor (OAR) blocker epinastine, or yohimbine, which blocks receptors for OA's precursor tyramine. Conversely, aggression was restored prematurely in both untreated and amine depleted losers given either chlordimeform (CDM), a tissue permeable OAR-agonist, or the DA-metabolite homovanillyl alcohol (HVA), a component of the honeybee queen mandibular pheromone. As in honeybees, HVA acts in crickets as a DAR-agonist since its aggression promoting effect on losers was selectively blocked by the DAR-antagonist, but not by the OAR-antagonist. Conversely, CDM's aggression promoting effect was selectively blocked by the OAR-antagonist, but not the DAR-antagonist. Hence, only DA is necessary for recovery of aggressiveness after social defeat, although OA can promote loser aggression independently to enable experience dependent adaptive responses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantification of extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats: a dialysis study of circadian variation and stress-induced modulation.

    PubMed

    Bouchez, Gaëlle; Millan, Mark J; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Billiras, Rodolphe; Boulanger, Raphaël; Gobert, Alain

    2012-05-03

    Corticosterone influences emotion and cognition via actions in a diversity of corticolimbic structures, including the amygdala. Since extracellular levels of corticosterone in brain have rarely been studied, we characterized a specific and sensitive enzymatic immunoassay for microdialysis quantification of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex of freely-moving rats. Corticosterone levels showed marked diurnal variation with an evening (dark phase) peak and stable, low levels during the day (light phase). The "anxiogenic agents", FG7142 (20 mg/kg) and yohimbine (10 mg/kg), and an environmental stressor, 15-min forced-swim, induced marked and sustained (1-3 h) increases in dialysis levels of corticosterone in basolateral amygdaloid complex. They likewise increased dialysis levels of dopamine and noradrenaline, but not serotonin and GABA. As compared to basal corticosterone levels of ~200-300 pg/ml, the elevation provoked by forced-swim was ca. 20-fold and this increase was abolished by adrenalectomy. Interestingly, stress-induced rises of corticosterone levels in basolateral amygdaloid complex were abrogated by combined but not separate administration of the corticotrophin releasing factor(1) (CRF(1)) receptor antagonist, CP154,526, and the vasopressin(1b) (V(1b)) receptor antagonist, SSR149,415. Underpinning their specificity, they did not block forced-swim-induced elevations in dopamine and noradrenaline. In conclusion, extracellular levels of corticosterone in the basolateral amygdaloid complex display marked diurnal variation. Further, they are markedly elevated by acute stressors, the effects of which are mediated (in contrast to concomitant elevations in levels of monoamines) by co-joint recruitment of CRF(1) and V(1b) receptors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydroethanolic extract of Carthamus tinctorius induces antidepressant-like effects: modulation by dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in tail suspension test in mice.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Maleki, Saeid; Mousavi, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Studies indicate that major deficiency in the levels of monoaminergic transmitters is a reason for severe depression. On the other hand, it is shown that Carthamus tinctorius L. (CT) may improve neuropsychological injuries by regulation of the monoamine transporter action. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect of CT extract in the tail suspension test (TST) in mice. The mice were intraperitoneally (IP) treated with CT extract (100-400 mg/kg) 1 hr before the TST. To investigate the involvement of monoaminergic systems in antidepressant-like effect, the mice were treated with receptor antagonists 15 min before CT extract treatment (400 mg/kg, IP) and 1 hr before the TST. Findings showed that CT extract (100-400 mg/kg, IP), dose-dependently induced antidepressant-like effect ( P <0.001), but it was not accompanied by alterations in spontaneous locomotor activity in the open-field test. Pretreatment of mice with SCH23390, sulpiride, haloperidol, WAY100135, cyproheptadine, ketanserin and p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA) inhibited the antidepressant-like effect of CT extract (400 mg/kg, IP), but not with prazosin and yohimbine. Co-administration of CT extract (100 mg/kg, IP) with sub-effective doses of fluoxetine (5 mg/kg, IP) or imipramine (5 mg/kg, IP) increased their antidepressant-like response. Our findings firstly showed that components (especially N-Hexadecanoic acid) of CT extract induce antidepressant-like effects by interaction with dopaminergic (D1 and D2) and serotonergic (5HT1A, 5-HT2A receptors) systems. These findings validate the folk use of CT extract for the management of depression.

  20. Evidence for a possible neurotransmitter/neuromodulator role of tyramine on the locust oviducts.

    PubMed

    Donini, Andrew; Lange, Angela B

    2004-04-01

    Visualization of the tyraminergic innervation of the oviducts was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry, and the presence of tyramine was confirmed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. Oviducts incubated in high-potassium saline released tyramine in a calcium-dependent manner. Stimulation of the oviducal nerves also resulted in tyramine release, suggesting that tyramine might function as a neurotransmitter/neuromodulator at the locust oviducts. Tyramine decreased the basal tension, and also attenuated proctolin-induced contractions in a dose-dependent manner over a range of doses between 10(-7) and 10(-4) M. Low concentrations of tyramine attenuated forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in a dose-dependent manner. This effect was not blocked by yohimbine. High concentrations of tyramine increased basal cyclic AMP levels of locust oviducts in a dose-dependent manner; however, the increases in cyclic AMP were only evident at the highest concentrations tested, 5 x 10(-5) and 10(-4) M tyramine. The tyramine-induced increase in cyclic AMP shared a similar pharmacological profile with the octopamine-induced increase in cyclic AMP. Tyramine increased the amplitude of excitatory junction potentials at low concentrations while hyperpolarizing the membrane potential by 2-5 mV. A further increase in the amplitude of the excitatory junction potentials and the occurrence of an active response was seen upon washing tyramine from the preparation. These results suggest that tyramine can activate at least three different endogenous receptors on the locust oviducts a putative tyramine receptor at low concentrations, a different tyramine receptor to inhibit muscle contraction, and an octopamine receptor at high concentrations.

  1. Assessment of the Authenticity of Herbal Dietary Supplements: Comparison of Chemical and DNA Barcoding Methods.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Rahul S; Handy, Sara M; Cheng, Raymond; Shyong, Nicole; Grundel, Erich

    2017-07-01

    About 7 % of the U. S. population reports using botanical dietary supplements. Increased use of such supplements has led to discussions related to their authenticity and quality. Reports of adulteration with substandard materials or pharmaceuticals are of concern because such substitutions, whether inadvertent or deliberate, may reduce the efficacy of specific botanicals or lead to adverse events. Methods for verifying the identity of botanicals include macroscopic and microscopic examinations, chemical analysis, and DNA-based methods including DNA barcoding. Macroscopic and microscopic examinations may fail when a supplement consists of botanicals that have been processed beyond the ability to provide morphological characterizations. Chemical analysis of specific marker compounds encounters problems when these compounds are not distinct to a given species or when purified reference standards are not available. Recent investigations describing DNA barcoding analysis of botanical dietary supplements have raised concerns about the authenticity of the supplements themselves as well as the appropriateness of using DNA barcoding techniques with finished botanical products. We collected 112 market samples of frequently consumed botanical dietary supplements of ginkgo, soy, valerian, yohimbe, and St. John's wort and analyzed each for specific chemical markers (i.e., flavonol glycosides, total isoflavones, total valerenic acids, yohimbine, and hypericins, respectively). We used traditional DNA barcoding techniques targeting the nuclear ITS2 gene and the chloroplast gene psb A- trn H on the same samples to determine the presence of DNA of the labelled ingredient. We compared the results obtained by both methods to assess the contribution of each in determining the identity of the samples. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. DA1 receptors modulation in rat isolated trachea.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Gloria A; Velasco, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that low dose of inhaled dopamine (0.5-2 microg kg(-1) min(-1)) induces broncodilatacion in patients with acute asthma attack, suggesting that this dopamine effect is mediated by dopaminergic rather than by adrenergic receptors. To understand better these dopamine effect, rat tracheal smooth muscle was used as a model to evaluate the responses of beta2-, alpha1-, alpha2-adrenergic and DA1 and DA2 dopaminergic antagonists. Tracheal rings from male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 90) were excised and placed in an organ bath containing modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer at 37 degrees C, and gassed with O2 (95%) and CO2 (5%). Contractile responses were recorded with an isometric transducer in a polygraph (Letica, Spain). Contraction was induced by accumulative doses of acetylcholine (0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 mM) or by electric field stimulation (10 Hz at 2 milliseconds), and accumulative doses of dopamine were added to the bath. Low concentration (0.1-0.3 mM) elicited a small initial contraction, followed by a marked relaxation. Cholinergic contraction was completely reversed at 6 mM of dopamine. This biphasic dopaminergic response was not blocked by incubation with beta2-adrenergic antagonist propranolol (0.1 microM), alpha1-antagonist, terazosin (0.1 mM), alpha2-antagonist, yohimbine (0.1 mM), or by DA2 antagonist metoclopramide (1-8 mM); DA1 antagonist SCH23390 (0.1 microM) produced a sustained increase of basal tone but did not block initial dopaminergic contraction and partially inhibited bronchodilator effect of dopamine. Dopaminergic relaxation in rat trachea is mediated by DA1 rather than by DA2 receptors; and adrenergic receptors are not involved in such dopamine-induced response. Finally, DA1 antagonist SCH23390 exerts intrinsic contractile activity on airway smooth muscle that deserves further research.

  3. Additive anticonvulsant effects of agmatine and lithium chloride on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizure in mice: involvement of α₂-adrenoceptor.

    PubMed

    Bahremand, Arash; Ziai, Pouya; Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Amouzegar, Afsaneh; Khezrian, Mina; Montaser-Kouhsari, Laleh; Meibodi, Maryam Aghaei; Ebrahimi, Ali; Ghasemi, Abbas; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2011-09-01

    After 60 years, lithium is still the mainstay in the treatment of mood disorders and widely used in clinic. In addition to its mood stabilizer effects, lithium also shows some anticonvulsant properties. Similar to lithium, agmatine also plays a protective role in the CNS against seizures and has been reported to enhance the effect of different antiepileptic agents. Moreover, both agmatine and lithium have modulatory effects on α(2)-adrenoceptors. So, we designed this study: 1) to investigate whether agmatine and lithium show an additive effect against clonic seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole; 2) to assess whether this additive effect is mediated through the α(2)-adrenoceptor or not. In our study, acute administration of a single effective dose of lithium chloride (30 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the seizure threshold. Pre-treatment with low and, per se, non-effective doses of agmatine (1 and 3mg/kg) potentiated a sub-effective dose of lithium (10mg/kg). Interestingly, the anticonvulsant effects of these effective combinations of lithium and agmatine were prevented by pre-treatment with low and non-effective doses of yohimbine [α(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist] (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg). On the other hand, clonidine [α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a sub-effective combination of lithium (5mg/kg i.p.) and agmatine (1mg/kg) at relatively low doses (0.1 and 0.25mg/kg). In summary, our findings demonstrate that agmatine and lithium chloride exhibit additive anticonvulsant properties which seem to be mediated through α(2)-adrenoceptor. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Icilin-evoked behavioral stimulation is attenuated by alpha2-adrenoceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae; Cowan, Alan; Lisek, Renata; Raymondi, Natalie; Rosenthal, Aaron; Hirsch, Daniel D.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Icilin is a transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M (TRPM8) agonist that produces behavioral activation in rats and mice. Its hallmark overt pharmacological effect is wet-dog shakes (WDS) in rats. The vigorous shaking associated with icilin is dependent on NMDA receptor activation and nitric oxide production, but little else is known about the biological systems that modulate the behavioral phenomenon. The present study investigated the hypothesis that alpha2-adrenoceptor activation inhibits icilin-induced WDS. Rats injected with icilin (0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 mg/kg, i.p.) displayed dose-related WDS that were inhibited by pretreatment with a fixed dose of clonidine (0.15 mg/kg, s.c.). Shaking behavior caused by a fixed dose (2.5 mg/kg) of icilin was also inhibited in a dose-related manner by clonidine pretreatment (0.03–0.15 mg/kg, s.c.) and reduced by clonidine posttreatment (0.15 mg/kg, s.c.). Pretreatment with a peripherally restricted alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist, ST91 (0.075, 0.15 mg/kg), also decreased the incidence of shaking elicited by 2.5 mg/kg of icilin. Pretreatment with yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) enhanced the shaking induced by a low dose of icilin (0.5 mg/kg). The imidazoline site agonists, agmatine (150 mg/kg, i.p.) and 2-BFI (7 mg/kg, i.p.), did not affect icilin-evoked shaking. These results suggest that alpha2-adrenoceptor activation inhibits shaking induced by icilin and that increases in peripheral, as well as central, alpha2-adrenoceptor signaling oppose the behavioral stimulant effect of icilin. PMID:21315691

  5. Physiological and anatomical studies of the development of the sympathetic innervation to rat iris arterioles.

    PubMed

    Sandow; Hill

    1999-09-24

    The development of the sympathetic innervation to rat irideal arterioles has been investigated using histochemical and in vitro pharmacological and electrophysiological methods. A plexus of fibres and varicosities appeared over the surface of the vessels after the first postnatal week and increased to reach a maximum density during the fourth postnatal week. Transmural nerve stimulation produced small, consistent contractions that were first recorded in arterioles of 7-day old rats. Contractions became larger and faster, reaching the adult form during the fourth postnatal week. Contractions became more sensitive to the alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, prazosin and naftopidil, and less sensitive to the alpha1A/D antagonist, WB4101 and alpha2 antagonist, yohimbine, during development. At both 10 and 21 days, contractile responses resulted from the release of intracellular calcium as they were abolished by caffeine (10(-3) M), thapsigargin (2 x 10(-6) M) and cyclopiazonic acid (3 x 10(-6) M), but not by nifedipine (10(-6) M). Intracellular recordings showed that nerve stimulation produced large, slow depolarizations at all ages tested. Time to peak potential decreased during development, while the amplitude of the depolarizations did not vary significantly. Results suggest that, throughout development, sympathetic nerves cause constriction of iris arterioles due to the release of noradrenaline and activation of alpha-adrenoceptors on the smooth muscle cells. Early responses involved both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors, while later responses were due to alpha1-adrenoceptors only. Irrespective of these changes in adrenoceptor subtypes, smooth muscle contraction resulted from the mobilization of intracellular calcium suggesting that both alpha1- and alpha2-adrenoceptors were coupled to pathways which accessed this source of calcium.

  6. cap alpha. /sub 2/-Adrenergic receptor-mediated sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.B.; Toews, M.L.; Turner, J.T.

    1987-03-01

    Preincubation of HT29 human colonic adenocarcinoma cells with ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic agonists resulted in a 10- to 20-fold increase in forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production as compared to cells preincubated without agonist. Similar results were obtained using either a (/sup 3/H)adenine prelabeling assay or a cyclic AMP radioimmunoassay to measure cyclic AMP levels. This phenomenon, which is termed sensitization, is ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-mediated and rapid in onset and reversal. Yohimbine, an ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptor-selective antagonist, blocked norepinephrine-induced sensitization, whereas prazosin (..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic) and sotalol (..beta..-adrenergic) did not. The time for half-maximal sensitization was 5 min and the half-timemore » for reversal was 10 min. Only a 2-fold sensitization of cyclic AMP production stimulated by vasoactive intestinal peptide was observed, indicating that sensitization is relatively selective for forskolin. Sensitization reflects an increased production of cyclic AMP and not a decreased degradation of cyclic AMP, since incubation with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and forskolin did not mimic sensitization. Increasing the levels of cyclic AMP during the preincubation had no effect on sensitization, indicating that sensitization is not caused by decreased cyclic AMP levels during the preincubation. This rapid and dramatic sensitization of forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP production is a previously unreported effect that can be added to the growing list of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic responses that are not mediated by a decrease in cyclic AMP.« less

  7. In vitro monoamine oxidase inhibition potential of alpha-methyltryptamine analog new psychoactive substances for assessing possible toxic risks.

    PubMed

    Wagmann, Lea; Brandt, Simon D; Kavanagh, Pierce V; Maurer, Hans H; Meyer, Markus R

    2017-04-15

    Tryptamines have emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are distributed and consumed recreationally without preclinical studies or safety tests. Within the alpha-methylated tryptamines, some of the psychoactive effects of the prototypical alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) have been described decades ago and a contributing factor of its acute toxicity appears to involve the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). However, detailed information about analogs is scarce. Therefore, thirteen AMT analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit MAO. An in vitro assay analyzed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The AMT analogs were incubated with recombinant human MAO-A or B and kynuramine, a non-selective MAO substrate to determine the IC 50 values. The known MAO-A inhibitors 5-(2-aminopropyl)indole (5-IT), harmine, harmaline, yohimbine, and the MAO-B inhibitor selegiline were tested for comparison. AMT and all analogs showed MAO-A inhibition properties with IC 50 values between 0.049 and 166μM, whereas four analogs inhibited also MAO-B with IC 50 values between 82 and 376μM. 7-Me-AMT provided the lowest IC 50 value against MAO-A comparable to harmine and harmaline and was identified as a competitive MAO-A inhibitor. Furthermore, AMT, 7-Me-AMT, and nine further analogs inhibited MAO activity in human hepatic S9 fraction used as model for the human liver which expresses both isoforms. The obtained results suggested that MAO inhibition induced by alpha-methylated tryptamines might be clinically relevant concerning possible serotonergic and adrenergic effects and interactions with drugs (of abuse) particularly acting as monoamine reuptake inhibitors. However, as in vitro assays have only limited conclusiveness, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the methanolic extract of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) and its mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Ishola, I O; Akinyede, A A; Sholarin, A M

    2014-07-01

    The whole plant of Momordica charantia Linn (Cucurbitaceae) is used in traditional African medicine in the management of depressive illness. Momordica charantia (MC) (50-400 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before behavioural studies using the forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) to investigate antidepressant-like effect while the anxiolytic-like effect was evaluated with elevated plus maze test (EPM), hole-board test (HBT), and light-dark test (LDT). Acute treatment with MC (50-400 mg/kg) significantly increased swimming time (86.51%) and reduced the duration of immobility (52.35%) in FST and TST with peak effects observed at 200 mg/kg, respectively, in comparison to control. The pretreatment of mice with either sulpiride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist), or metergoline (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or cyproheptadine (5-HT2 receptor antagonist), or prazosin (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), or yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), and atropine (muscarinic cholinergic receptor antagonist) 15 min before oral administration of MC (200 mg/kg) significantly blocked its anti-immobility effect. Similarly, MC (200 mg/kg) significantly reduced anxiety by increasing the open arm exploration (64.27%) in EPM, number of head-dips in HBT (34.38%), and time spent in light compartment (29.38%) in the LDT. However, pretreatment with flumazenil (GABAA receptor antagonist) 15 min before MC (200 mg/kg) significantly blocked (54.76%) its anxiolytic effect. The findings in this study showed that MC possesses antidepressant-like effect that is dependent on the serotonergic (5-HT2 receptor), noradrenergic (α1- and α2-adrenoceptors), dopaminergic (D2 receptor), and muscarinic cholinergic systems and an anxiolytic-like effect that might involve an action on benzodiazepine-type receptor. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Impaired diffuse noxious inhibitory controls in specific alternation of rhythm in temperature-stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Itomi, Yasuo; Tsukimi, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Toru

    2016-08-05

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. A hypofunction in descending pain inhibitory systems is considered to be involved in the chronic pain of fibromyalgia. We examined functional changes in descending pain inhibitory systems in rats with specific alternation of rhythm in temperature (SART) stress, by measuring the strength of diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNIC). Hindpaw withdrawal thresholds to mechanical von Frey filament or fiber-specific electrical stimuli by the Neurometer system were used to measure the pain response. To induce DNIC, capsaicin was injected into the intraplantar of the forepaw. SART-stressed rats were established by exposure to repeated cold stress for 4 days. In the control rats, heterotopic intraplantar capsaicin injection increased withdrawal threshold, indicative of analgesia by DNIC. The strength of DNIC was reduced by naloxone (μ-opioid receptor antagonist, intraperitoneally and intracerebroventricularly), yohimbine (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist, intrathecally), and WAY-100635 (5-HT1A receptor antagonist, intrathecally) in the von Frey test. In SART-stressed rats, capsaicin injection did not increase withdrawal threshold in the von Frey test, indicating deficits in DNIC. In the Neurometer test, deficient DNIC in SART-stressed rats were observed only for Aδ- and C-fibers, but not Aβ-fibers stimulation. Analgesic effect of intracerebroventricular morphine was markedly reduced in SART-stressed rats compared with the control rats. Taken together, in SART-stressed rats, capsaicin-induced DNIC were deficient, and a hypofunction of opioid-mediated central pain modulation system may cause the DNIC deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Functional characterization of substance P receptors in the rabbit ear artery.

    PubMed

    Illes, P; von Falkenhausen, S

    1986-05-01

    Rabbit isolated ear arteries were perfused at a constant flow and stimulated with field pulses (5 Hz, 5 impulses). Different tachykinins and capsaicin depressed stimulation-induced vasoconstriction, substance P (SP) being the most potent inhibitor. The rank order of potency of the tachykinins was, SP approximately equal to physalaemin approximately equal to eledoisin greater than SP-methyl ester; that of SP and its C-terminal fragments, SP approximately equal to SP-(2-11) approximately equal to SP-(4-11) greater than SP-(6-11). SP-(1-9) was inactive. The SP antagonist (Arg5,D-Trp7,9,Nle11)SP-(5-11) 10 mumol/l shifted the concentration-response curve of SP to the right (pA2 = 5.43), whereas it did not reduce the action of capsaicin. Another SP antagonist (D-Pro4,D-Trp7,9,10)SP-(4-11) 10 mumol/l failed to affect the SP depression. Neither antagonist changed vasoconstriction by itself. Pretreatment of the arteries with a mixture of yohimbine, propranolol, atropine, diphenhydramine, burimamide, methysergide and indomethacin, all 1 mumol/l, did not influence the effect of SP or capsaicin. Only the inhibition by SP, but not that by capsaicin was abolished after mechanical destruction of the endothelium. SP, physalaemin and eledoisin, all 3 mumol/l, reduced vasoconstriction by noradrenaline or histamine; capsaicin 30 mumol/l depressed noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. In arteries preincubated with 3H-noradrenaline, electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 120 pulses) triggered an increase in the outflow of tritium and evoked vasoconstriction. SP 1 mumol/l did not change either basal or stimulation-evoked tritium outflow, whereas it reduced vasoconstriction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Neural modulation of salt secretion in teleostopercular epithelium by 2-adrenergic receptors and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate

    PubMed

    Marshall; Duquesnay; Gillis; Bryson; Liedtke

    1998-05-21

    Opercular epithelia from seawater-adapted killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were dissected with the nerve intact, mounted in Ussing-style membrane chambers and bathed in symmetrical saline solutions. Nerve stimulation rapidly inhibited transepithelial current (a measure of Cl- secretion rate) by 27.3+/-3.3 % (N=22), and the effect could be sustained for more than 10 min using intermittent pulse trains at 10 Hz. The effect was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by yohimbine, but not by propranolol, atropine or tubocurarine, indicating mediation by 2-adrenergic receptors. The effect was also present, but significantly diminished, in opercular membranes from animals that had been transferred to sea water for 48 h (18+/-8.6 % inhibition, N=14). The resting current and the effect were absent in membranes from freshwater-adapted animals. The addition of clonidine (1.0 micromol l-1 serosal side) started to inhibit Cl- current after 40-60 s; immediately before this, at 30 s, there was a significant rise (P<0.05, N=14) in tissue inositol 1,4,5, -trisphosphate (InsP3) level, but no change at later times, compared with LiCl-treated control membranes and measured by radiolabeled receptor assay. The results indicate that seawater-adapted killifish can decrease their Cl- secretion rate through the action of the sympathetic nervous system, a response appropriate for the entry of estuarine fish to fresh water, and that the effect is mediated by 2-adrenoceptors via InsP3. The results imply that euryhaline fish entering fresh water can undergo an autonomic reflex reduction in salt secretion that does not require a stress response.

  12. Opposite Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice Depending on Fruit Maturity Stage on Gastrointestinal Physiological Parameters in Rat.

    PubMed

    Rtibi, Kais; Selmi, Slimen; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-06-01

    The phytochemical composition and the effect of the green and ripe Opuntia ficus-indica juice on some gastrointestinal (GI) physiological parameters such as stomach emptying and small-intestinal motility and permeability were determined in rats administered multiple concentrations of the prickly pear juice (5, 10, and 20 mL kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). Other separate groups of rats were received, respectively; sodium chloride (0.9%, b.w., p.o.), clonidine (α- 2 -adrenergic agonist, 1 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), yohimbine (α- 2 -adrenergic antagonist, 2 mg kg -1 , b.w., i.p.), and loperamide (5 mg kg -1 , b.w., p.o.). In vivo reverse effect of juice on GI physiological parameters was investigated using a charcoal meal test, phenol-red colorimetric method, loperamide-induced acute constipation, and castor oil-caused small-bowel hypersecretion. However, the opposite in vitro influence of juice on intestinal permeability homeostasis was assessed by the Ussing chamber system. Mature prickly pear juice administration stimulated significantly and dose dependently the GI transit (GIT; 8-26%) and gastric emptying (0.9-11%) in a rat model. Conversely, the immature prickly pear juice reduced gastric emptying (7-23%), GIT (10-28%), and diarrhea (59-88%). Moreover, the standard drugs have produced their antagonistic effects on GI physiological functions. The permeability of the isolated perfused rat small-intestine has a paradoxical response flowing prickly pear juices administration at diverse doses and maturity grade. Most importantly, the quantitative phytochemical analyses of both juices showed a different composition depending on the degree of maturity. In conclusion, the prickly pear juice at two distinct phases of maturity has different phytochemical characteristics and opposite effects on GI physiological actions in rat.

  13. Topiramate via NMDA, AMPA/kainate, GABAA and Alpha2 receptors and by modulation of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathway exerts neuroprotective effects against methylphenidate-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Motaghinejad, Majid; Motevalian, Manijeh; Fatima, Sulail; Beiranvand, Tabassom; Mozaffari, Shiva

    2017-11-01

    Chronic abuse of methylphenidate (MPH) often causes neuronal cell death. Topiramate (TPM) carries neuroprotective effects, but its exact mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, the role of various doses of TPM and its possible mechanisms, receptors and signaling pathways involved against MPH-induced hippocampal neurodegeneration were evaluated in vivo. Thus, domoic acid (DOM) was used as AMPA/kainate receptor agonist, bicuculline (BIC) as GABA A receptor antagonist, ketamine (KET) as NMDA receptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH) as α 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist and haloperidol (HAL) was used as dopamine D 2 receptor antagonist. Open field test (OFT) was used to investigate the disturbances in motor activity. Hippocampal neurodegenerative parameters were evaluated. Protein expressions of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 signaling pathways were also evaluated. Cresyl violet staining was performed to show and confirm the changes in the shape of the cells. TPM (70 and 100 mg/kg) reduced MPH-induced rise in lipid peroxidation, oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG), IL-1β and TNF-α levels, Bax expression and motor activity disturbances. In addition, TPM treatment increased Bcl-2 expression, the level of reduced form of glutathione (GSH) and the levels and activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase enzymes. TPM also inhibited MPH-induced hippocampal degeneration. Pretreatment of animals with DOM, BIC, KET and YOH inhibited TPM-induced neuroprotection and increased oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuroapoptosis and neurodegeneration while reducing CREB, BDNF and Akt protein expressions. Also pretreatment with DOM, BIC, KET and YOH inhibited TPM-induced decreases in GSK3. It can be concluded that the mentioned receptors by modulation of CREB/BDNF and Akt/GSK3 pathways, are involved in neuroprotection of TPM against MPH-induced neurodegeneration.

  14. Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Octacosanol from the Leaves of Sabicea grisea var. grisea in Mice

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Anderson Marques; Conserva, Lucia M.; de Souza Ferro, Jamylle N.; de Almeida Brito, Fabíola; Lyra Lemos, Rosângela P.; Barreto, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    Sabicea species are used in the Amazon for treatment of fever and malaria, which suggests that its chemical constituents may have some effect on pain and inflammation. Phytochemical analysis of the hexane fraction obtained from the crude ethanol extract from Sabicea grisea var. grisea Cham. & Schltdl (Rubiaceae), an endemic plant in Brazil, resulted in the isolation of octacosanol. This study investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol in different experimental models. The crude ethanolic extract and hexane fraction obtained from the leaves of S. grisea produced an inhibition of acetic acid-induced pain. Moreover, octacosanol isolated from the hexane fraction produced a significant inhibition of pain response elicited by acetic acid. Pre-treatment with yohimbine, an alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, notably reversed the antinociceptive activity induced by octacosanol in the abdominal constriction test. Furthermore, mice treated with octacosanol did not exhibit any behavioral alteration during the hot plate and rota-rod tests, indicating non-participation of the supraspinal components in the modulation of pain by octacosanol with no motor abnormality. In the formalin test, octacosanol did not inhibit the licking time in first phase (neurogenic pain), but significantly inhibited the licking time in second phase (inflammatory pain) of mice. The anti-inflammatory effect of octacosanol was evaluated using carrageenan-induced pleurisy. The octacosanol significantly reduced the total leukocyte count and neutrophils influx, as well as TNF-α levels in the carrageenan-induced pleurisy. This study revealed that the mechanism responsible for the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of the octacosanol appears to be partly associated with an inhibition of alpha 2-adrenergic transmission and an inhibition of pathways dependent on pro-inflammatory cytokines. Finally, these results demonstrated that the octacosanol from the

  15. Involvement of monoaminergic systems in anxiolytic and antidepressive activities of the standardized extract of Cocos nucifera L.

    PubMed

    Lima, Eliane Brito Cortez; de Sousa, Caren Nádia Soares; Meneses, Lucas Nascimento; E Silva Pereira, Yuri Freitas; Matos, Natália Castelo Branco; de Freitas, Rayanne Brito; Lima, Nycole Brito Cortez; Patrocínio, Manoel Cláudio Azevedo; Leal, Luzia Kalyne Almeida Moreira; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes

    2017-01-01

    Extracts from the husk fiber of Cocos nucifera are used in folk medicine, but their actions on the central nervous system have not been studied. Here, the anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the standardized hydroalcoholic extract of C. nucifera husk fiber (HECN) were evaluated. Male Swiss mice were treated with HECN (50, 100, or 200 mg/kg) 60 min before experiments involving the plus maze test, hole-board test, tail suspension test, and forced swimming test (FST). HECN was administered orally (p.o.) in acute and repeated-dose treatments. The forced swimming test was performed with dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists, as well as a serotonin release inhibitor. Administration of HECN in the FST after intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of mice with sulpiride (50 mg/kg), prazosin (1 mg/kg), or p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg) caused the actions of these three agents to be reversed. However, this effect was not observed after pretreating the animals with SCH23390 (15 µg/kg, i.p.) or yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) The dose chosen for HECN was 100 mg/kg, p.o., which increased the number of entries as well as the permanence in the open arms of the maze after acute and repeated doses. In both the forced swimming and the tail suspension tests, the same dose decreased the time spent immobile but did not disturb locomotor activity in an open-field test. The anxiolytic effect of HECN appears to be related to the GABAergic system, while its antidepressant effect depends upon its interaction with the serotoninergic, noradrenergic (α1 receptors), and dopaminergic (D2 dopamine receptors) systems.

  16. Bioactivity guided isolation of antipsychotic constituents from the leaves of Rauwolfia tetraphylla L.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shikha; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Maurya, Anupam; Bawankule, Dnyaneshwar Umrao; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Pal, Anirban; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This study was undertaken to ascertain the antipsychotic properties of Rauwolfia tetraphylla L. leaves and to isolate and characterize the antipsychotic constituents. Among the MeOH extract and some alkaloidal fractions at different pHs, the alkaloidal CHCl(3) fraction at pH-9 (2C) showed the highest antipsychotic activity against dopaminergic (DA-D(2)) and serotonergic (5-HT(2A)) receptors in-vitro and amphetamine induced hyperactive mouse model in-vivo. The activity guided isolation of CHCl(3) fraction (2C) afforded six indole alkaloids: 10-methoxytetrahydroalstonine (1), isoreserpiline (2), an isomeric mixture of 11-demethoxyreserpiline (3) and 10-demethoxyreserpiline (4), α-yohimbine (5) and reserpiline (6). Given orally, alkaloids 3-6 showed significant antipsychotic activity in a dose dependent manner. None of the extract, alkaloidal fractions or alkaloids showed any extra pyramidal symptoms at the tested doses. It was also observed that MeOH extract was behaving similar to other clinically used novel atypical antipsychotics in having 5-HT(2A) occupancy greater than the DA-D(2) receptor at the tested doses. Further toxicity and safety evaluation studies of MeOH extracts of R. tetraphylla leaves at different doses (10, 100, 300 and 2000 mg/kg) on female Swiss albino mice showed that MeOH extract is non toxic. The isolated alkaloids, 3-6 could serve as a promising lead structure for drug development of treating psychotic conditions in human. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. AmTAR2: Functional characterization of a honeybee tyramine receptor stimulating adenylyl cyclase activity.

    PubMed

    Reim, Tina; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    The biogenic monoamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. Insects such as honeybees do not synthesize these neuroactive substances. Instead, they employ octopamine and tyramine for comparable physiological functions. These biogenic amines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on pharmacological data obtained on heterologously expressed receptors, α- and β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are better activated by octopamine than by tyramine. Conversely, GPCRs forming the type 1 tyramine receptor clade (synonymous to octopamine/tyramine receptors) are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. More recently, receptors were characterized which are almost exclusively activated by tyramine, thus forming an independent type 2 tyramine receptor clade. Functionally, type 1 tyramine receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, leading to a decrease in intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP] i ). Type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . We here provide evidence that the honeybee tyramine receptor 2 (AmTAR2), when heterologously expressed in flpTM cells, exclusively causes an increase in [cAMP] i . The receptor displays a pronounced preference for tyramine over octopamine. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists, of which mianserin and yohimbine are most efficient. The functional characterization of two tyramine receptors from the honeybee, AmTAR1 (previously named AmTYR1) and AmTAR2, which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels in opposite direction, is an important step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in honeybee behavior and physiology, particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of the reinforcing properties of nicotine and cigarette smoke extract in rats.

    PubMed

    Costello, Matthew R; Reynaga, Daisy D; Mojica, Celina Y; Zaveri, Nurulain T; Belluzzi, James D; Leslie, Frances M

    2014-07-01

    Tobacco dependence is difficult to treat, with the vast majority of those who try to quit relapsing within the first year. Improvements in smoking cessation therapies may be achieved by improving current preclinical research methods. However, most experimental tests in animals use nicotine alone, ignoring the 8000 other constituents found in tobacco smoke. To improve on this model, we have used self-administration to test the reinforcing properties of aqueous cigarette smoke extract (CSE) in rats, made by bubbling cigarette smoke through a saline solution. CSE is more potent than nicotine alone in both the acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, but did not exhibit higher progressive ratio responding. Mecamylamine and varenicline had similar potencies to block nicotine and CSE self-administration, indicating the involvement of nicotinic receptors in CSE reinforcement. Following extinction of responding, reinstatement was triggered by exposing animals to a pharmacological stressor, yohimbine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), alone and in combination with cues. Animals that self-administered CSE were significantly more sensitive to stress-induced reinstatement than those that self-administered nicotine. Ligand binding autoradiography studies showed nicotine and CSE to have similar affinities for different nicotinic receptor types. CSE significantly reduced MAO-A and MAO-B activities in vitro, whereas nicotine did not. Although CSE inhibition of MAO-A activity in vitro was found to be partially irreversible, irreversible inhibition was not observed in vivo. These experiments show that CSE is an effective reinforcer acting via nicotinic receptors. Furthermore, it better models MAO inhibition and is more sensitive to stress-induced reinstatement than nicotine alone, which is a potent trigger for relapse in smokers.

  19. Reverse Effect of Opuntia ficus-indica L. Juice and Seeds Aqueous Extract on Gastric Emptying and Small-Bowel Motility in Rat.

    PubMed

    Rtibi, Kaïs; Selmi, Slimen; Saidani, Khouloud; Grami, Dhekra; Amri, Mohamed; Sebai, Hichem; Marzouki, Lamjed

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effects of juice and seeds on gastric emptying, small-bowel motility and intestinal ion transport. Separate groups of rats were randomized to receive NaCl, increasing doses of juice (5, 10, and 20 mL/kg, b.w.) or seeds aqueous extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, b.w.). Simultaneously, two other groups were received, the reference drugs; clonidine (1 mg/kg) and yohimbine (2 mg/kg). The charcoal meal was used as a suspension for gastrointestinal motility test. The purgative action of juice was confirmed using the loperamide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) induced constipation. To evaluate the antisecretory effect, we were used as a hypersecretion agent, the castor oil at the dose of 5 mL/kg. Compared to the control and standard groups, we were showed that the prickly pear has an opposite effect on small-bowel motility and gastric emptying. Indeed, the juice at various doses has a laxative effect of gastrointestinal transit in healthy and constipated-rats. However, the aqueous extract of the seeds leads to a reduction of motility in normal rats which gives it a remarkable antidiarrhoeal activity, a notable intestinal fluid accumulation decline and electrolyte concentrations reestablishment. Moreover, orally juice administered at different doses accelerated the stomach emptying time in contrast to the seeds aqueous extract. More importantly, a significant variation in the phytochemical constituents levels between juice and seeds was found. These findings confirm the reverse therapeutic effects of this fruit in the treatment of digestive disturbances such as difficulty stool evacuation and massive intestinal secretion, likewise, the gastric emptying process perturbation. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  20. Inhibitory effects of atropine and hexamethonium on the angiotensin II-induced contractions of rat anococcygeus smooth muscles.

    PubMed

    de Godoy, Márcio Augusto Fressatto; Accorsi-Mendonça, Daniela; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2003-02-01

    We have evaluated the interaction between angiotensin II (Ang II) and the cholinergic transmission in anococcygeus smooth muscles isolated from rats treated (sympathectomised group) or not (vehicle group) with reserpine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine. For this, we contracted the tissues with Ang II in the presence and absence of atropine and hexamethonium. Ang II induced concentration-dependent contractions, which did not undergo temporal changes in tissues isolated from both groups of rats. In the vehicle group, Ang II induced more potent contractions than in the sympathectomised group. In the sympathectomised rat group, atropine inhibited the contractions induced by Ang II in a concentration-dependent fashion with no decrease in E(max). Additionally, hexamethonium inhibited the contraction induced by Ang II in a concentration-dependent fashion with a decrease in E(max). Association of atropine and hexamethonium produced Ang II-induced curves with rightward shifts from the control curve with a decrease in E(max). Incubation with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) reversed the effects of atropine and hexamethonium association. Conversely, in the vehicle group of rats, atropine and hexamethonium did not produce any significant effect. However, in the presence of yohimbine, atropine shifted the Ang II-induced curves to the right of the control curve with no E(max) decrease. Results suggest that there is a positive interaction between Ang II and cholinergic transmission in the rat anococcygeus smooth muscle mediated by angiotensin receptors located on pre-ganglionic cells.

  1. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls and nerve injury: restoring an imbalance between descending monoamine inhibitions and facilitations.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Kirsty; Patel, Ryan; Goncalves, Leonor; Townson, Louisa; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2015-09-01

    Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls (DNICs) utilize descending inhibitory controls through poorly understood brain stem pathways. The human counterpart, conditioned pain modulation, is reduced in patients with neuropathy aligned with animal data showing a loss of descending inhibitory noradrenaline controls together with a gain of 5-HT3 receptor-mediated facilitations after neuropathy. We investigated the pharmacological basis of DNIC and whether it can be restored after neuropathy. Deep dorsal horn neurons were activated by von Frey filaments applied to the hind paw, and DNIC was induced by a pinch applied to the ear in isoflurane-anaesthetized animals. Spinal nerve ligation was the model of neuropathy. Diffuse noxious inhibitory control was present in control rats but abolished after neuropathy. α2 adrenoceptor mechanisms underlie DNIC because the antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole, markedly attenuated this descending inhibition. We restored DNIC in spinal nerve ligated animals by blocking 5-HT3 descending facilitations with the antagonist ondansetron or by enhancing norepinephrine modulation through the use of reboxetine (a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, NRI) or tapentadol (μ-opioid receptor agonist and NRI). Additionally, ondansetron enhanced DNIC in normal animals. Diffuse noxious inhibitory controls are reduced after peripheral nerve injury illustrating the central impact of neuropathy, leading to an imbalance in descending excitations and inhibitions. Underlying noradrenergic mechanisms explain the relationship between conditioned pain modulation and the use of tapentadol and duloxetine (a serotonin, NRI) in patients. We suggest that pharmacological strategies through manipulation of the monoamine system could be used to enhance DNIC in patients by blocking descending facilitations with ondansetron or enhancing norepinephrine inhibitions, so possibly reducing chronic pain.

  2. Antidepressant-like effect of the extract from leaves of Schinus molle L. in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Machado, Daniele G; Kaster, Manuella P; Binfaré, Ricardo W; Dias, Munique; Santos, Adair R S; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Brighente, Inês M C; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2007-03-30

    Schinus molle L. (Anacardiaceae), among other uses, is popularly employed for the treatment of depression. In this study, the antidepressant-like effect of the hexanic extract from leaves of S. molle was investigated in the mouse tail suspension test (TST), a predictive model of depression. The immobility time in the TST was significantly reduced by the extract (dose range 30-600 mg/kg, p.o.), without accompanying changes in ambulation when assessed in an open-field test. The efficacy of extract was found to be comparable to that of fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, p.o.). The anti-immobility effect of the extract (100 mg/kg, p.o.) was prevented by pretreatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, for four consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), WAY100635 (0.1 mg/kg, s.c., a selective 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist), ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist), MDL72222 (0.1 mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist), prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a D(2) receptor antagonist). It may be concluded that the hexanic extract of S. molle produces an antidepressant-like effect that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the serotonergic, noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems. These results provide evidence that the extract from S. molle shares with established antidepressants some pharmacological effects, at least at a preclinical level.

  3. Antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract from Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Açaí) in a rodent model of acute and neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Roberto T; Neto, Miguel L; Monteiro, Carlos E S; Amaral, Rachel V; Resende, Ângela C; Souza, Pergentino J C; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Moura, Roberto S

    2015-07-02

    Plants rich in flavonoids, such as açaí (Euterpe oleraceae Mart.), can induce antinociception in experimental animals. Here, we tested an extract obtained from the stones of açaí fruits (açaí stone extract, ASE), a native plant from the Amazon region of Brazil, in models of acute/inflammatory and chronic pain. Antinociceptive effects of ASE were evaluated in the hot plate, formalin, acetic acid writhing, carrageenan, and neuropathic pain models, as well as in thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia models induced by spinal nerve ligation. Antinociceptive activities were modulated by the administration of cholinergic, adrenergic, opioid, and L-arginine-NO antagonists. Oral administration of ASE (30, 100, or 300 mg.kg(-1)) dose-dependently reduced nociceptive responses to acute/inflammatory pain in mice, including thermal hyperalgesia, acetic acid-induced writhing, and carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. Moreover, ASE reduced the neurogenic and inflammatory phases after intraplantar injection of formalin in mice. The antinociceptive effect of ASE (100 mg · kg(-1)) in a hot plate protocol, was inhibited by pre-treatment with naloxone (1 mg · kg(-1)), atropine (2 mg · kg(-1)), yohimbine (5 mg · kg(-1)), or L-NAME (30 mg · kg(-1)). Furthermore, ASE prevented chronic pain in a rat spinal nerve ligation model, including thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. ASE showed significant antinociceptive effect via a multifactorial mechanism of action, indicating that the extract may be useful in the development of new analgesic drugs.

  4. Antidepressant activity of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, istradefylline (KW-6002) on learned helplessness in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Koji; Kobayashi, Minoru; Shiozaki, Shizuo; Ohta, Teruko; Mori, Akihisa; Jenner, Peter; Kanda, Tomoyuki

    2014-07-01

    Istradefylline, an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist, improves motor function in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD) and in patients with PD. In addition, some A2A antagonists exert antidepressant-like activity in rodent models of depression, such as the forced swim and the tail suspension tests. We have investigated the effect of istradefylline on depression-like behaviors using the rat learned helplessness (LH) model. Acute, as well as chronic, oral administration of istradefylline significantly improved the inescapable shock (IES)-induced escape deficit with a degree of efficacy comparable to chronic treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and the selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Both the A1/A2A receptor nonspecific antagonist theophylline and the moderately selective antagonist CGS15943, but not the A1 selective antagonist DPCPX, ameliorated the IES-induced escape deficit. The enhancement of escape response by istradefylline was reversed by a local injection of the A2A specific agonist CGS21680 either into the nucleus accumbens, the caudate-putamen, or the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, but not by the A1 specific agonist R-PIA into the nucleus accumbens. Moreover, neither the 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist methysergide or the adrenergic α 2 antagonist yohimbine, nor the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol, affected the improvement of escape response induced by istradefylline. Istradefylline exerts antidepressant-like effects via modulation of A2A receptor activity which is independent of monoaminergic transmission in the brain. Istradefylline may represent a novel treatment option for depression in PD as well as for the motor symptoms.

  5. Beta-lactam antibiotic-induced platelet dysfunction: Evidence for irreversible inhibition of platelet activation in vitro and in vivo after prolonged exposure to penicillin

    SciTech Connect

    Burroughs, S.F.; Johnson, G.J.

    beta-Lactam antibiotics cause platelet dysfunction with bleeding complications. Previous in vitro studies documented reversible inhibition of agonist-receptor interaction. This mechanism is inadequate to explain the effect of beta-lactam antibiotics in vivo. Platelet function does not return to normal immediately after drug treatment, implying irreversible inhibition of platelet function. We report here evidence of irreversible platelet functional and biochemical abnormalities after in vitro and in vivo exposure to beta-lactam antibiotics. Irreversible binding of (14C)-penicillin (Pen) occurred in vitro. After 24 hours' in vitro incubation with 10 to 20 mmol/L Pen, or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment, irreversible functional impairment occurred; butmore » no irreversible inhibition of alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, measured with (3H)-yohimbine, or high-affinity thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors, measured with agonist (3H)-U46619 and antagonist (3H)-SQ29548, occurred. However, low-affinity platelet TXA2/PGH2 receptors were decreased 40% after Pen exposure in vitro or in vivo, indicating irreversible membrane alteration. Two postreceptor biochemical events were irreversibly inhibited in platelets incubated with Pen for 24 hours in vitro or ex vivo after antibiotic treatment. Thromboxane synthesis was inhibited 28.3% to 81.7%. Agonist-induced rises in cytosolic calcium ((Ca2+)i) were inhibited 40.1% to 67.5% in vitro and 26.6% to 52.2% ex vivo. Therefore, Pen binds to platelets after prolonged exposure, resulting in irreversible dysfunction attributable to inhibition of TXA2 synthesis and impairment of the rise in (Ca2+)i. The loss of low-affinity TXA2/PGH2 receptors suggests that the primary site of action of these drugs is on the platelet membrane.« less

  6. Electrical properties of purinergic transmission in smooth muscle of the guinea-pig prostate.

    PubMed

    Lam, Michelle; Mitsui, Retsu; Hashitani, Hikaru

    2016-01-01

    Prostatic smooth muscle develops spontaneous myogenic tone which is modulated by autonomic neuromuscular transmission. This study aimed to investigate the role of purinergic transmission in regulating electrical activity of prostate smooth muscle and whether its contribution may be altered with age. Intracellular recordings were simultaneously made with isometric tension recordings in smooth muscle preparations of the guinea-pig prostate. Immunostaining for P2X1 receptors on whole mount preparations was also performed. In prostate preparations which generated spontaneous slow waves, electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) which were abolished by guanethidine (10 μM), α-β-methylene ATP (10 μM) or pyridoxal phosphate-6-azophenyl-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS, 10 μM) but not phentolamine (1 μM). Consistently, immunostaining revealed the expression of P2X1 receptors on prostatic smooth muscle. EJPs themselves did not cause contractions, but EJPs could sum to trigger a slow wave and associated contraction. Yohimbine (1 μM) and 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX, 10 μM) but not propranolol (1 μM) potentiated EJPs. Although properties of EJPs were not different between young and aging guinea-pig prostates, ectoATPase inhibitor ARL 67156 (100 μM) augmented EJP amplitudes by 64.2 ± 29.6% in aging animals, compared to 22.1 ± 19.9% in young animals. These results suggest that ATP released from sympathetic nerves acts on P2X1 purinoceptors located on prostate smooth muscle to evoke EJPs, while pre-junctional α2-adrenergic and adenosine A2 receptors may play a role in preventing excessive transmitter release. Age-related up-regulation of enzymatic ATP breakdown may be a compensatory mechanism for the enhanced purinergic transmission which would cause hypercontractility arising from increased ATP release in older animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potentials of Mangifera indica in the treatment of depressive-anxiety disorders: possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Ishola, Ismail O; Awodele, Olufunsho; Eluogu, Chinedum O

    2016-09-01

    Mangifera indica (Anacardiaceae) is an important herb in the traditional African and Ayurvedic medicines. The stem barks are used in the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, tumour, depression, rheumatism and as a tonic. This study was carried out to investigate antidepressant- and anxiolytic-like effect of the hydroethanol stem bark extract of M. indica (HeMI) in mice. HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered 1 h before subjecting the animal to the forced swim test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and elevated plus maze tests (EPM). HeMI (12.5-100 mg/kg, p.o.) treatment produced significant reduction in immobility time [F(6.56)=8.35, p<0.001], [F(6,56)=7.55, p<0.001] in the FST and TST, respectively. Moreover, co-administration of sub-therapeutic doses of imipramine or fluoxetine with HeMI (3.125 mg/kg) elicited significant reduction in time spent immobile in the FST. However, pretreatment of mice with parachlorophenylalanine, metergoline, yohimbine or sulpiride abolished the antidepressant-like effect elicited by HeMI. In the EPM, HeMI produced significant [F(5,42)=8.91, p<0.001] increase in open arms exploration by 75.55 % and this effect was blocked by pretreatment of mice with flumazenil or metergoline. Findings from this study showed antidepressant-like effect of M. indica through interaction with 5-HT2 receptor, α2-adrenoceptor and dopamine D2-receptors. Also, an anxiolytic-like effect through its affinity for 5-HT2 and benzodiazepine receptors. Hence, M. indica could be a potential phytotherapeutic agent in the treatment of mixed anxiety-depressive illness.

  8. The CB1 Neutral Antagonist AM4113 Retains the Therapeutic Efficacy of the Inverse Agonist Rimonabant for Nicotine Dependence and Weight Loss with Better Psychiatric Tolerability.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Aliou B; Pryslawsky, Yaroslaw; Trigo, Jose M; Poulia, Nafsika; Delis, Foteini; Antoniou, Katerina; Loureiro, Michael; Laviolette, Steve R; Vemuri, Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Le Foll, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Multiple studies suggest a pivotal role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating the reinforcing effects of various substances of abuse. Rimonabant, a CB 1 inverse agonist found to be effective for smoking cessation, was associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression. Here we evaluated the effects of the CB 1 neutral antagonist AM4113 on the abuse-related effects of nicotine and its effects on anxiety and depressive-like behavior in rats. Rats were trained to self-administer nicotine under a fixed-ratio 5 or progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement. A control group was trained to self-administer food. The acute/chronic effects of AM4113 pretreatment were evaluated on nicotine taking, motivation for nicotine, and cue-, nicotine priming- and yohimbine-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. The effects of AM4113 in the basal firing and bursting activity of midbrain dopamine neurons were evaluated in a separate group of animals treated with nicotine. Anxiety/depression-like effects of AM4113 and rimonabant were evaluated 24h after chronic (21 days) pretreatment (0, 1, 3, and 10mg/kg, 1/d). AM4113 significantly attenuated nicotine taking, motivation for nicotine, as well as cue-, priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. These effects were accompanied by a decrease of the firing and burst rates in the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in response to nicotine. On the other hand, AM4113 pretreatment did not have effects on operant responding for food. Importantly, AM4113 did not have effects on anxiety and showed antidepressant-like effects. Our results indicate that AM4113 could be a promising therapeutic option for the prevention of relapse to nicotine-seeking while lacking anxiety/depression-like side effects. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of CINP.

  9. The CB1 Neutral Antagonist AM4113 Retains the Therapeutic Efficacy of the Inverse Agonist Rimonabant for Nicotine Dependence and Weight Loss with Better Psychiatric Tolerability

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Aliou B.; Pryslawsky, Yaroslaw; Trigo, Jose M.; Poulia, Nafsika; Delis, Foteini; Antoniou, Katerina; Loureiro, Michael; Laviolette, Steve R.; Vemuri, Kiran; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple studies suggest a pivotal role of the endocannabinoid system in regulating the reinforcing effects of various substances of abuse. Rimonabant, a CB1 inverse agonist found to be effective for smoking cessation, was associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression. Here we evaluated the effects of the CB1 neutral antagonist AM4113 on the abuse-related effects of nicotine and its effects on anxiety and depressive-like behavior in rats. Methods: Rats were trained to self-administer nicotine under a fixed-ratio 5 or progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement. A control group was trained to self-administer food. The acute/chronic effects of AM4113 pretreatment were evaluated on nicotine taking, motivation for nicotine, and cue-, nicotine priming- and yohimbine-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. The effects of AM4113 in the basal firing and bursting activity of midbrain dopamine neurons were evaluated in a separate group of animals treated with nicotine. Anxiety/depression-like effects of AM4113 and rimonabant were evaluated 24h after chronic (21 days) pretreatment (0, 1, 3, and 10mg/kg, 1/d). Results: AM4113 significantly attenuated nicotine taking, motivation for nicotine, as well as cue-, priming- and stress-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior. These effects were accompanied by a decrease of the firing and burst rates in the ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons in response to nicotine. On the other hand, AM4113 pretreatment did not have effects on operant responding for food. Importantly, AM4113 did not have effects on anxiety and showed antidepressant-like effects. Conclusion: Our results indicate that AM4113 could be a promising therapeutic option for the prevention of relapse to nicotine-seeking while lacking anxiety/depression-like side effects. PMID:27493155

  10. Tipepidine, a non-narcotic antitussive, exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Kawaura, Kazuaki; Ogata, Yukino; Honda, Sokichi; Soeda, Fumio; Shirasaki, Tetsuya; Takahama, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-treated rats, which is known as a treatment-resistant depression model, and we studied the pharmacological mechanisms of the effects of tipepidine. Male Wistar rats (5-7 weeks old) were used in this study. Tipepidine (20 and 40 mg/kg, i.p.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was blocked by a catecholamine-depleting agent, alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine (300 mg/kg, s.c.), but not by a serotonin-depleting agent, p-chlorophenylalanine. The anti-immobility effect of tipepidine was also blocked by a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390 (0.02 mg/kg, s.c.) and an adrenaline α2 receptor antagonist, yohimbine (2 mg/kg, i.p.). In microdialysis technique, tipepidine (40 mg/kg, i.p.) increased the extracellular dopamine level of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in ACTH-treated rats. These results suggest that tipepidine exerts an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ACTH-treated rats, and that the effect of tipepidine is mediated by the stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors and adrenaline α2 receptors. The results also suggest that an increase in the extracellular dopamine level in the NAc may be involved in the antidepressant-like effect of tipepidine in ACTH-treated rats. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Screening approach by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the blood quantification of thirty-four toxic principles of plant origin. Application to forensic toxicology.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Jérémy; Guitton, Jérôme; Romeuf, Ludovic; Bévalot, Fabien; Boyer, Baptiste; Fanton, Laurent; Gaillard, Yvan

    2015-01-15

    Plant poisonings have left their mark on history and still cause many deaths, whether intentional or accidental. The means to show toxicological evidence of such poisonings should be implemented with great care. This article presents a technique for measuring thirty-nine toxic principles of plant origin in the blood, covering a large amount of toxins from local or exotic plants: α-lobeline, α-solanine, aconitine, ajmaline, atropine, brucine, cephalomannine, colchicine, convallatoxin, cymarine, cytisine, digitoxin, digoxin, emetine, gelsemine, ibogaine, jervine, kavain, lanatoside C, lupanine, mitragynine, neriifolin, oleandrin, ouabain, paclitaxel, physostigmine, pilocarpine, podophyllotoxin, proscillaridin A, reserpine, retrorsine, ricinine, scopolamine, senecionine, sparteine, strophanthidin, strychnine, veratridine and yohimbine. Analysis was carried out using an original ultra-high performance liquid chromatography separation coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection. Extraction was a standard solid phase extraction performed on Oasis(®) HLB cartridge. Thirty-four of the thirty-nine compounds were put through a validation procedure. The assay was linear in the calibration curve range from 0.5 or 5 μg/L to 1000 μg/L according to the compounds. The method is sensitive (LOD from 0.1 to 1.6 μg/L). The within-day precision of the assay was less than 22.5% at the LLOQ, and the between-day precision was less than 21.5% for 10 μg/L for all the compounds included. The assay accuracy was in the range of 87.4 to 119.8% for the LLOQ. The extraction recovery and matrix effect ranged from 30 to 106% and from -30 to 14%, respectively. It has proven useful and effective in several difficult forensic cases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sympathetic, sensory, and nonneuronal contributions to the cutaneous vasoconstrictor response to local cooling.

    PubMed

    Johnson, John M; Yen, Tony C; Zhao, Kun; Kosiba, Wojciech A

    2005-04-01

    Previous work indicates that sympathetic nerves participate in the vascular responses to direct cooling of the skin in humans. We evaluated this hypothesis further in a four-part series by measuring changes in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) from forearm skin locally cooled from 34 to 29 degrees C for 30 min. In part 1, bretylium tosylate reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14 +/- 6.6% control CVC, first 5 min) to one of vasodilation (+19.7 +/- 7.7%) but did not affect the response at 30 min (-30.6 +/- 9% control, -38.9 +/- 6.9% bretylium; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between treatments). In part 2, yohimbine and propranolol (YP) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-14.3 +/- 4.2% control) to vasodilation (+26.3 +/- 12.1% YP), without a significant effect on the 30-min response (-26.7 +/- 6.1% YP, -43.2 +/- 6.5% control; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between sites). In part 3, the NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBP 3226 had no significant effect on either phase of vasoconstriction (P > 0.05 between sites both times). In part 4, sensory nerve blockade by anesthetic cream (Emla) also reversed the initial vasoconstriction (-20.1 +/- 6.4% control) to one of vasodilation (+213.4 +/- 87.0% Emla), whereas the final levels did not differ significantly (-37.7 +/- 10.1% control, -37.2 +/- 8.7% Emla; both P < 0.05, P > 0.05 between treatments). These results indicate that local cooling causes cold-sensitive afferents to activate sympathetic nerves to release norepinephrine, leading to a local cutaneous vasoconstriction that masks a nonneurogenic vasodilation. Later, a vasoconstriction develops with or without functional sensory or sympathetic nerves.

  13. Activated cranial cervical cord neurons affect left ventricular infarct size and the potential for sudden cardiac death

    PubMed Central

    Southerland, E. Marie; Gibbons, David D.; Smith, S. Brooks; Sipe, Adam; Williams, Carole Ann; Beaumont, Eric; Armour, J. Andrew; Foreman, Robert D.; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate whether cervical spinal neurons can influence cardiac indices and myocyte viability in the acutely ischemic heart, the hearts of anesthetized rabbits subjected to 30 min of LAD coronary arterial occlusion (CAO) were studied 3 hours after reperfusion. Control animals were compared to those exposed to pre-emptive high cervical cord stimulation (SCS; the dorsal aspect of the C1-C2 spinal cord was stimulated electrically at 50 Hz; 0.2 ms; 90% of motor threshold, starting 15 min prior to and continuing throughout CAO). Four groups of animals were so tested: 1) neuroaxis intact; 2) prior cervical vagotomy; 3) prior transection of the dorsal spinal columns at C6; and 4) following pharmacological treatment [muscarinic (atropine) or adrenergic (atenolol, prazosin or yohimbine) receptor blockade]. Infarct size (IS) was measured by tetrazolium, expressed as percentage of risk zone. C1-C2 SCS reduced acute ischemia induced IS by 43%, without changing the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). While SCS-induced reduction in IS was unaffected by vagotomy, it was no longer evident following transection of C6 dorsal columns or atropinization. Beta-adrenoceptor blockade eliminated ischemia induced SCD, while alpha-receptor blockade doubled its incidence. During SCS, myocardial ischemia induced SCD was eliminated following vagotomy while remaining unaffected by atropinization. These data indicate that, in contrast to thoracic spinal neurons, i) cranial cervical spinal neurons affect both adrenergic and cholinergic motor outflows to the heart such that ii) their activation modifies ventricular infarct size and lethal arrhythmogenesis. PMID:22502863

  14. Nuance and behavioral cogency: How the Visible Burrow System inspired the Stress-Alternatives Model and conceptualization of the continuum of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, James M.; Prince, Melissa A.; Achua, Justin K.; Carpenter, Russ E.; Arendt, David H.; Smith, Justin P.; Summers, Torrie L.; Summers, Tangi R.; Summers, Cliff H.

    2015-01-01

    By creating the Visible Burrow System (VBS) Bob Blanchard found a way to study the interaction of genetics, physiology, environment, and adaptive significance in a model with broad validity. The VBS changed the way we think about anxiety and affective disorders by allowing the mechanisms which control them to be observed in a dynamic setting. Critically, Blanchard used the VBS and other models to show how behavioral systems like defense are dependent upon context and behavioral elements unique to the individual. Inspired by the VBS, we developed a Stress Alternatives Model (SAM) to further explore the multifaceted dynamics of the stress response with a dichotomous choice condition. Like the VBS, the SAM is a naturalistic model built upon risk-assessment and defensive behavior, but with a choice of response: escape or submission to a large conspecific aggressor. The anxiety of novelty during the first escape must be weighed against fear of the aggressor, and a decision must be made. Both outcomes are adaptively significant, evidenced by a 50/50 split in outcome across several study systems. By manipulating the variables of the SAM, we show that a gradient of anxiety exists that spans the contextual settings of escaping an open field, escaping from aggression, and submitting to aggression. These findings correspond with increasing levels of corticosterone and increasing levels of NPS and BDNF in the central amygdala as the context changes. Whereas some anxiolytics were able to reduce the latency to escape for some animals, only with the potent anxiolytic drug antalarmin (CRF1R-blocker) and the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (α2 antagonist) were we able to reverse the outcome for a substantial proportion of individuals. Our findings promote a novel method for modeling anxiety, offering a distinction between low-and-high levels, and accounting for individual variability. The translational value of the VBS is immeasurable, and it guided us and many other researchers to seek

  15. Telemetry video-electroencephalography (EEG) in rats, dogs and non-human primates: methods in follow-up safety pharmacology seizure liability assessments.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Leanne; Troncy, Eric; Pouliot, Mylene; Paquette, Dominique; Ascah, Alexis; Authier, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Non-clinical seizure liability studies typically aim to: 1) confirm the nature of EEG activity during abnormal clinical signs, 2) identify premonitory clinical signs, 3) measure plasma levels at seizure onset, 4) demonstrate that drug-induced seizures are self-limiting, 5) confirm that conventional drugs (e.g. diazepam) can treat drug-induced seizures and 6) confirm the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) at EEG. Our aim was to originally characterize several of these items in a three species comparative study. Cynomolgus monkey, Beagle dog and Sprague-Dawley rat with EEG telemetry transmitters were used to obtain EEG using the 10-20 system. Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) was used to determine seizure threshold or as a positive seizurogenic agent. Clinical signs were recorded and premonitory signs were evaluated. In complement, other pharmacological agents were used to illustrate various safety testing strategies. Intravenous PTZ doses required to induce clonic convulsions were 36.1 (3.8), 56.1 (12.7) and 49.4 (11.7) mg/kg, in Beagle dogs, cynomolgus monkeys and Sprague-Dawley rats, respectively. Premonitory clinical signs typically included decreased physical activity, enhanced physiological tremors, hypersalivation, ataxia, emesis (except in rats) and myoclonus. In Sprague-Dawley rats, amphetamine (PO) increased high (approximately 40-120Hz), and decreased low (1-14Hz) frequencies. In cynomolgus monkeys, caffeine (IM) increased power in high (14-127Hz), and attenuated power in low (1-13Hz) frequencies. In the rat PTZ infusion seizure threshold model, yohimbine (SC and IV) and phenobarbital (IP) confirmed to be reliable positive controls as pro- and anticonvulsants, respectively. Telemetry video-EEG for seizure liability investigations was characterized in three species. Rats represent a first-line model in seizure liability assessments. Beagle dogs are often associated with overt susceptibility to seizure and are typically used in seizure liability studies only if

  16. Homologous regulation of the α2C-adrenoceptor subtype in human hepatocarcinoma, HepG2

    PubMed Central

    Cayla, Cécile; Schaak, Stéphane; Roquelaine, Cyril; Gales, Céline; Quinchon, Françoise; Paris, Hervé

    1999-01-01

    Previous studies of the regulation of the α2C-adrenoceptor in OK and in transfected cells have led to discrepant conclusions. In the present work, we examined the homologous regulation of the human α2C-adrenoceptor in the hepatocarcinoma cell-line, HepG2; a model which expresses this subtype spontaneously.Short-period treatment of the cells with UK14304 provoked neither a diminution of the potency of the α2-agonist to inhibit forskolin-induced cyclic AMP-accumulation nor a change in the degree of receptor coupling to G-proteins.Long-period exposure to UK14304 resulted in a large reduction of [3H]MK912 binding sites (55% decrease). The action of UK14304 was dose-dependent (EC50=190±45 nM), rapid (t1/2 =4.2 h) and reversible. Receptor down-regulation was also observed with clonidine or (−)adrenaline (38 and 36% decrease, respectively) and was blocked by the addition of α2-antagonists.Conversely to that observed with α2-agonists, treatment of the cells with RX821002 or yohimbine alone, but not with phentolamine, promoted a significant increase of the receptor expression.The observed alterations of receptor density are not the reflection of changes at the α2C4 mRNA level. Estimation of the receptor protein turnover and measurement of its half-life demonstrated that down-regulation by α2-agonists and up-regulation by α2-antagonists, with inverse-agonist efficacy, are respectively the consequence of increased and decreased rate of receptor degradation.In conclusion, our data show that α2C-adrenoceptor does not undergo desensitization but is down-regulated in HepG2. The lack of desensitization agrees with previous results obtained in cells transfected with the α2C4 gene, but not with observations made in OK cells. Inversely, down-regulation fits with results obtained in OK but not in transfected cells. The reasons for these discrepancies are discussed. Our results also demonstrated that certain α2-antagonists behave as inverse agonist on the HepG2 model

  17. Spinal α2-adrenergic and muscarinic receptors and the NO release cascade mediate supraspinally produced effectiveness of gabapentin at decreasing mechanical hypersensitivity in mice after partial nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Takasu, Keiko; Honda, Motoko; Ono, Hideki; Tanabe, Mitsuo

    2006-01-01

    After partial nerve injury, the central analgesic effect of systemically administered gabapentin is mediated by both supraspinal and spinal actions. We further evaluate the mechanisms related to the supraspinally mediated analgesic actions of gabapentin involving the descending noradrenergic system. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered gabapentin (100 μg) decreased thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity in a murine chronic pain model that was prepared by partial ligation of the sciatic nerve. These effects were abolished by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of either yohimbine (3 μg) or idazoxan (3 μg), α2-adrenergic receptor antagonists. Pretreatment with atropine (0.3 mg kg−1, i.p. or 0.1 μg, i.t.), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, completely suppressed the effect of i.c.v.-injected gabapentin on mechanical hypersensitivity, whereas its effect on thermal hypersensitivity remained unchanged. Similar effects were obtained with pirenzepine (0.1 μg, i.t.), a selective M1-muscarinic receptor antagonist, but not with methoctramine (0.1 and 0.3 μg, i.t.), a selective M2-muscarinic receptor antagonist. The cholinesterase inhibitor neostigmine (0.3 ng, i.t.) potentiated only the analgesic effect of i.c.v. gabapentin on mechanical hypersensitivity, confirming spinal acetylcholine release downstream of the supraspinal action of gabapentin. Moreover, the effect of i.c.v. gabapentin on mechanical but not thermal hypersensitivity was reduced by i.t. injection of L-NAME (3 μg) or L-NMMA (10 μg), both of which are nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors. Systemically administered naloxone (10 mg kg−1, i.p.), an opioid receptor antagonist, failed to suppress the analgesic actions of i.c.v. gabapentin, indicating that opioid receptors are not involved in activation of the descending noradrenergic system by gabapentin. Thus, the supraspinally mediated effect of gabapentin on mechanical hypersensitivity involves activation of spinal α2

  18. A Role for Adrenergic Receptors in the Uterotonic Effects of Ergometrine in Isolated Human Term Nonlaboring Myometrium.

    PubMed

    Fanning, Rebecca A; Sheehan, Florike; Leyden, Claire; Duffy, Niamh; Iglesias-Martinez, Luis F; Carey, Michael F; Campion, Deirdre P; O'Connor, John J

    2017-05-01

    Ergometrine is a uterotonic agent that is recommended in the prevention and management of postpartum hemorrhage. Despite its long-standing use, the mechanism by which it acts in humans has never been elucidated fully. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of adrenoreceptors in ergometrine's mechanism of action in human myometrium. The study examined the hypothesis that α-adrenoreceptor antagonism would result in the reversal of the uterotonic effects of ergometrine. Myometrial samples were obtained from women undergoing elective cesarean delivery. The samples were then dissected into strips and mounted in organ bath chambers. After the generation of an ergometrine concentration-response curve (10 to 10 M), strips were treated with increasing concentrations of ergometrine (10 to 10 M) alone and ergometrine (10 to 10 M) in the presence of phentolamine (10 M), prazosin (10 M), propranolol (10 M), or yohimbine (10 M). The effects of adding ergometrine and the effect of drug combinations were analyzed using linear mixed effects models with measures of amplitude (g), frequency (contractions/10 min), and motility index (g×contractions/10 min). A total of 157 experiments were completed on samples obtained from 33 women. There was a significant increase in the motility index (adding 0.342 g × counts/10 min/μM; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.253-0.431, P < .001), amplitude (0.078 g/μM; 95% CI, 0.0344-0.121, P = 5e-04), and frequency (0.051 counts/10 min/μM; 95% CI, 0.038-0.063, P < .001) in the presence of ergometrine. The α-adrenergic antagonist phentolamine and the more selective α1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin inhibited the ergometrine mediated increase in motility index, amplitude, and frequency (-1.63 g × counts/10 min/μM and -16.70 g × counts/10 min/μM for motility index, respectively). These results provide novel evidence for a role for α-adrenergic signaling mechanisms in the action of ergometrine on human myometrial smooth muscle in

  19. [Female sexual dysfunction: a systematic overview of classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Marthol, H; Hilz, M J

    2004-03-01

    and laboratory studies. Physiologic monitoring of parameters of arousal potentially allows to diagnose organic diseases. Recordings at baseline and following sexual stimulation are recommended to determine pathologic changes that occur with arousal. Duplex Doppler sonography, photoplethysmography or the measurement of vaginal and minor labial oxygen tension may help to evaluate genital blood flow. Moreover, measurements of vaginal pH and compliance should be performed. Neurophysiological examination, e.g. measurement of the bulbocavernosus reflex and pudendal evoked potentials, genital sympathetic skin response (SSR), warm, cold and vibratory perception thresholds as well as testing of the pressure and touch sensitivity of the external genitalia, should be performed to evaluate neurogenic etiologies. Medical management of female sexual dysfunction so far is primarily based on hormone replacement therapy. Application of estrogen results in decreased pain and burning during intercourse. The efficacy of various other medications, e.g. sildenafil, L-arginine, yohimbine, phentolamine, apomorphine and prostaglandin E1, in the treatment of female sexual dysfunction is still under investigation.

  20. Sex differences in methamphetamine seeking in rats: Impact of oxytocin

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Brittney M.; Young, Amy B.; See, Ronald E.; Reichel, Carmela M.

    2013-01-01

    Previous evidence in an animal model of drug self-administration and drug seeking showed that acute oxytocin decreased methamphetamine (meth) seeking in male rats, suggesting potential clinical efficacy for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, based on the well-established role of oxytocin in reproduction and pair bond formation, it is important to know how this effect extrapolates to females. Here, we tested whether oxytocin (1 mg/kg, IP) would decrease meth seeking in female rats across various stages of the estrous cycle (Experiment 1). Freely cycling Long Evans female rats self-administered meth (IV) in 2-h daily sessions, followed by daily extinction sessions. Following extinction, rats received oxytocin (0, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg, IP) 30 min before a meth priming injection (1 mg/kg, IP) to assess reinstatement of meth seeking. Next, we examined the effects of oxytocin on motivated meth- and sucrose-taking and seeking in male and female rats. In separate experiments, males and females self-administered meth (Experiment 2) or sucrose (Experiment 3) until responding was stabilized along a fixed ratio (FR) 5 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats received either oxytocin or vehicle prior to self-administration along a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. Rats were subsequently tested for cue-, meth-, and stress-induced reinstatement after pretreatment with oxytocin or vehicle. While oxytocin reduced meth seeking in females, we found that estrous cycle stage (as determined from vaginal cytology) did not influence meth-primed reinstatement or the ability of oxytocin to decrease reinstatement of meth seeking. Oxytocin reduced PR responding for meth only in females. Females responded more than males during cue-induced reinstatement of meth and sucrose seeking, and oxytocin reduced this responding only in meth females. In both sexes, oxytocin attenuated meth seeking in response to a meth prime and yohimbine (a pharmacological stressor

  1. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Rok; Schriefer, Johnhenry M; Gunnels, Trint A; Harvey, Innocence C; Bloomer, Richard J

    2013-10-21

    Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist-possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6-8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine contributes little to the increase in these

  2. Acute oral intake of a higenamine-based dietary supplement increases circulating free fatty acids and energy expenditure in human subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Higenamine, also known as norcoclaurine, is an herbal constituent thought to act as a beta-2 adrenergic receptor agonist—possibly stimulating lipolysis. It was the purpose of this study to determine the impact of a higenamine-based dietary supplement on plasma free fatty acids and energy expenditure following acute oral ingestion. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (8 men; 26.1 ± 2.5 yrs; 8 women 22.4 ± 3.1 yrs) ingested a dietary supplement containing a combination of higenamine, caffeine (270 mg), and yohimbe bark extract or a placebo, on two separate occasions in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over design, separated by 6–8 days. Blood samples were collected immediately before ingestion, and at 30, 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion, and analyzed for plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and glycerol. Breath samples were collected at the same times for a measure of kilocalorie expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) using indirect calorimetry. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded at all times. Data collection occurred in the morning following a 10 hour overnight fast. Results A condition effect was noted for both FFA (p < 0.0001) and kilocalorie expenditure (p = 0.001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo at 60, 120, and 180 minutes post ingestion. No statistically significant effects were noted for glycerol or RER (p > 0.05). A condition effect was noted for heart rate (p = 0.03) and systolic blood pressure (p < 0.0001), with values higher for supplement compared to placebo. Conclusion Ingestion of a higenamine-based dietary supplement stimulates lipolysis and energy expenditure, as evidenced by a significant increase in circulating FFA and kilocalorie expenditure. The same supplement results in a moderate increase in heart rate (~3 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (~12 mmHg), which is consistent with previous studies evaluating moderate doses of caffeine and yohimbine, suggesting that higenamine

  3. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura leaves: further elucidation of the possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved. Methods The methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) was prepared in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The role of bradykinin, protein kinase C, pottasium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the extract’s antinociceptive activity was determined using several antinociceptive assays. Results are presented as Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The one-way ANOVA test with Dunnett's multiple comparison was used to analyze and compare the data, with P < 0.05 as the limit of significance. Results The MEMC, at all doses, demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in both the bradykinin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociception. Pretreatment of the 500 mg/kg MEMC with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor), the antagonist of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (namely 10 mg/kg β-funaltrexamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole and 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (namely 3 mg/kg caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic antagonist), and 1 mg/kg pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociception. However, 10 mg/kg atropine (a non-selective cholinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg prazosin (an α1-noradrenergic antagonist) and 20 mg/kg haloperidol (a non-selective dopaminergic antagonist) did not affect the extract's antinociception. The phytochemicals screening revealed the

  4. Nuance and behavioral cogency: How the Visible Burrow System inspired the Stress-Alternatives Model and conceptualization of the continuum of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Robertson, James M; Prince, Melissa A; Achua, Justin K; Carpenter, Russ E; Arendt, David H; Smith, Justin P; Summers, Torrie L; Summers, Tangi R; Summers, Cliff H

    2015-07-01

    By creating the Visible Burrow System (VBS) Bob Blanchard found a way to study the interaction of genetics, physiology, environment, and adaptive significance in a model with broad validity. The VBS changed the way we think about anxiety and affective disorders by allowing the mechanisms which control them to be observed in a dynamic setting. Critically, Blanchard used the VBS and other models to show how behavioral systems like defense are dependent upon context and behavioral elements unique to the individual. Inspired by the VBS, we developed a Stress Alternatives Model (SAM) to further explore the multifaceted dynamics of the stress response with a dichotomous choice condition. Like the VBS, the SAM is a naturalistic model built upon risk assessment and defensive behavior, but with a choice of response: escape or submission to a large conspecific aggressor. The anxiety of novelty during the first escape must be weighed against fear of the aggressor, and a decision must be made. Both outcomes are adaptively significant, evidenced by a 50/50 split in outcome across several study systems. By manipulating the variables of the SAM, we show that a gradient of anxiety exists that spans the contextual settings of escaping an open field, escaping from aggression, and submitting to aggression. These findings correspond with increasing levels of corticosterone and increasing levels of NPS and BDNF in the central amygdala as the context changes.Whereas some anxiolytics were able to reduce the latency to escape for some animals, only with the potent anxiolytic drug antalarmin (CRF1R-blocker) and the anxiogenic drug yohimbine (α2 antagonist) were we able to reverse the outcome for a substantial proportion of individuals. Our findings promote a novel method for modeling anxiety, offering a distinction between low-and-high levels, and accounting for individual variability. The translational value of the VBS is immeasurable, and it guided us and many other researchers to seek

  5. THE USE OF KETAMINE-XYLAZINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE TO IMMOBILIZE AMERICAN BLACK BEARS ( URSUS AMERICANUS).

    PubMed

    Williamson, Ryan H; Muller, Lisa L; Blair, Coy

    2018-04-04

      Wildlife anesthetic protocols must offer rapid inductions and recoveries, be physiologically safe, and be minimally regulated. With this in mind, we evaluated differences in induction and recovery times and physiological parameters in 33 American black bears ( Ursus americanus) anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine (KX) or immobilized with a commercial drug combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM). Dose was based on mass estimated from field observations. Bears were housed at Appalachian Bear Rescue, Townsend, Tennessee, US, or free-ranging within the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (Tennessee and North Carolina, US) and chemically immobilized for management purposes. From 11 April to 29 June 2016, we immobilized bears with injection via pole syringe or disposable dart projected from an air-powered dart rifle. Once immobilized, we measured each bear's temperature, respiration (breaths/min), heart rate (beats/min), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (via pulse oximetry), arterial blood gases, and mass (kg). We found no differences in the induction parameters, partial pressures of CO 2 , and rectal temperatures. The BAM-treated bears had lower heart and respiratory rates that led to lower hemoglobin oxygen saturation levels (from blood gas analysis, SaO 2 ). The SaO 2 after treatment with BAM (91.1±0.8%) was lower than with KX (93.4±0.9%). After handling, we reversed KX-treated bears with a x̄=0.2±0.02 mg/kg yohimbine and BAM-treated bears with x̄=1.5±0.1 mg/kg atipamezole and 0.8±0.1 mg/kg naltrexone. We found no differences in the recovery times to increased respiration and to the bear assuming a head-up position. The BAM-treated bears stood and recovered quicker than did KX-treated animals. Based on our observations, BAM appears to offer safe, predictable immobilizations with fewer drawbacks and faster recovery times than KX-treated bears.

  6. The antidepressant-like effect of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine in the mouse forced swimming test is mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems.

    PubMed

    Pesarico, Ana Paula; Sampaio, Tuane Bazanella; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Mantovani, Anderson C; Zeni, Gilson; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-10-03

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of monoaminergic system in the antidepressant-like action of 7-fluoro-1,3-diphenylisoquinoline-1-amine (FDPI), a derivative of isoquinoline class, in Swiss mice. The antidepressant-like effect of FDPI was characterized in the modified forced swimming test (FST) and the possible mechanism of action was investigated by using serotonergic, dopaminergic and noradrenergic antagonists. Monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity and [(3)H]serotonin (5-HT) uptake were determined in prefrontal cortices of mice. The results showed that FDPI (1, 10 and 20mg/kg, i.g.) reduced the immobility time and increased the swimming time but did not alter climbing time in the modified FST. These effects were similar to those of paroxetine (8mg/kg, i.p.), a positive control. Pretreatments with p-chlorophenylalanine (100mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis), WAY100635 (0.1mg/kg, s.c., 5-HT1A antagonist), ondansetron (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist), haloperidol (0.2mg/kg, i.p., a non-selective D2 receptor antagonist) and SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., a D1 receptor antagonist) were effective to block the antidepressant-like effect of FDPI at a dose of 1mg/kg in the FST. Ritanserin (1mg/kg, i.p., a 5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist), sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., a D2 and D3 receptor antagonist), prazosin (1mg/kg, i.p., an α1 receptor antagonist), yohimbine (1mg/kg, i.p., an α2 receptor antagonist) and propranolol (2mg/kg, i.p., a β receptor antagonist) did not modify the effect of FDPI in the FST. FDPI did not change synaptosomal [(3)H]5-HT uptake. At doses of 10 and 20mg/kg FDPI inhibited MAO-A and MAO-B activities. These results suggest that antidepressant-like effect of FDPI is mediated mostly by serotonergic and dopaminergic systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Clonidine-induced nitric oxide-dependent vasorelaxation mediated by endothelial α2-adrenoceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Xavier F; Poblete, M Inés; Boric, Mauricio P; Mendizábal, Victoria E; Adler-Graschinsky, Edda; Huidobro-Toro, J Pablo

    2001-01-01

    To assess the involvement of endothelial α2-adrenoceptors in the clonidine-induced vasodilatation, the mesenteric artery of Sprague Dawley rats was cannulated and perfused with Tyrode solution (2 ml min−1). We measured perfusion pressure, nitric oxide (NO) in the perfusate using chemiluminescence, and tissue cyclic GMP by RIA.In phenylephrine-precontracted mesenteries, clonidine elicited concentration-dependent vasodilatations associated to a rise in luminal NO. One hundred nM rauwolscine or 100 μM Lω-nitro-L-arginine antagonized the clonidine-induced vasodilatation. Guanabenz, guanfacine, and oxymetazoline mimicked the clonidine-induced vasorelaxation.In non-contracted mesenteries, 100 nM clonidine elicited a maximal rise of NO (123±13 pmol); associated to a peak in tissue cyclic GMP. Endothelium removal, Lω-nitro-L-arginine, or rauwolscine ablated the rise in NO. One hundred nM aminoclonidine, guanfacine, guanabenz, UK14,304 and oxymetazoline mimicked the clonidine-induced surge of NO. Ten μM ODQ obliterated the clonidine-induced vasorelaxation and the associated tissue cyclic GMP accumulation; 10 – 100 nM sildenafil increased tissue cyclic GMP accumulation without altering the clonidine-induced NO release.α2-Adrenergic blockers antagonized the clonidine-induced rise in NO. Consistent with a preferential α2D-adrenoceptor activation, the KBs for yohimbine, rauwolscine, phentolamine, WB-4101, and prazosin were: 6.8, 24, 19, 165, and 1489 nM, respectively.Rat pretreatment with 100 mg kg−1 6-hydroxydopamine reduced 95% tissue noradrenaline and 60% neuropeptide Y. In these preparations, 100 nM clonidine elicited a rise of 91.9±15.5 pmol NO. Perfusion with 1 μM guanethidine or 1 μM guanethidine plus 1 μM atropine did not modify the NO surge evoked by 100 nM clonidine.Clonidine and congeners activate endothelial α2D-adrenoceptors coupled to the L-arginine pathway, suggesting that the antihypertensive action of

  8. Evidence for the gastric cytoprotective effect of centrally injected agmatine.

    PubMed

    Zádori, Zoltán S; Tóth, Viktória E; Fehér, Ágnes; Philipp, Kirsch; Németh, József; Gyires, Klára

    2014-09-01

    Agmatine (decarboxylated arginine) exerts cytoprotective action in several tissues, such as in the brain, heart or kidneys, but there is still controversy over the effects of agmatine on the gastric mucosa. The aim of the present study was to reveal the potential gastroprotective action of agmatine by using an acid-independent ulcer model to clarify which receptors and peripheral factors are involved in it. Gastric mucosal damage was induced by acidified ethanol. Mucosal levels of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and somatostatin were determined by radioimmunoassay. For analysis of gastric motor activity the rubber balloon method was used. It was found that agmatine given intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v., 0.044-220 nmol/rat) significantly inhibited the development of ethanol-induced mucosal damage, while in the case of intraperitoneal injection (0.001-50mg/kg i.p.) it had only a minor effect. The central gastroprotective action of agmatine was completely antagonized by mixed alpha2-adrenoceptor and imidazoline I1 receptor antagonists (idazoxan, efaroxan), but only partially by yohimbine (selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist) and AGN 192403 (selective I1 receptor ligand, putative antagonist). It was also inhibited by the non-selective opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone and the selective δ-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole, but not by β-funaltrexamine and nor-Binaltorphimine (selective μ- and κ-opioid receptor antagonists, respectively). Furthermore, the effect of agmatine was antagonized by bilateral cervical vagotomy and by pretreatment with indomethacin and NG-nitro-l-arginine. Agmatine also reversed the ethanol-induced reduction of gastric mucosal CGRP and somatostatin content, but did not have any significant effect on gastric motor activity. These results indicate that agmatine given centrally induces gastric cytoprotection, which is mediated by central imidazoline I1 receptors, alpha2-adrenoceptors and δ-opioid receptors. Activation of

  9. An animal model of panic vulnerability with chronic disinhibition of the dorsomedial/perifornical hypothalamus

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Philip L.; Shekhar, Anantha

    2013-01-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a severe anxiety disorder characterized by susceptibility to induction of panic attacks by subthreshold interoceptive stimuli such as sodium lactate infusions or hypercapnia induction. Here we review a model of panic vulnerability in rats involving chronic inhibition of GABAergic tone in the dorsomedial/ perifornical hypothalamic (DMH/PeF) region that produces enhanced anxiety and freezing responses in fearful situations, as well as a vulnerability to displaying acute panic-like increases in cardioexcitation, respiration activity and “flight” associated behavior following subthreshold interoceptive stimuli that do not elicit panic responses in control rats. This model of panic vulnerability was developed over 15 years ago and has provided an excellent preclinical model with robust face, predictive and construct validity. The model recapitulates many of the phenotypics features of panic attacks associated with human panic disorder (face validity) including greater sensitivity to panicogenic stimuli demonstrated by sudden onset of anxiety and autonomic activation following an administration of a sub-threshold (i.e., do not usually induce panic in healthy subjects) stimulus such as sodium lactate, CO2, or yohimbine. The construct validity is supported by several key findings; DMH/PeF neurons regulate behavioral and autonomic components of a normal adaptive panic response, as well as being implicated in eliciting panic-like responses in humans. Additionally, Patients with PD have deficits in central GABA activity and pharmacological restoration of central GABA activity prevents panic attacks, consistent with this model. The model’s predictive validity is demonstrated by not only showing panic responses to several panic-inducing agents that elicit panic in patients with PD, but also by the positive therapeutic responses to clinically used agents such as alprazolam and antidepressants that attenuate panic attacks in patients. More importantly

  10. Acute effectiveness of a "fat-loss" product on substrate utilization, perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion at rest and during exercise.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Seijo, Marcos; Larumbe, Eneko; Naclerio, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Achieving fat-loss outcomes by ingesting multi-ingredient mixtures may be further enhanced during exercise. This study tested the acute thermogenic effectiveness of a commercially available multi-ingredient product (Shred-Matrix®), containing Green Tea Extract, Yerba Maté, Guarana Seed Extract, Anhydrous caffeine, Saw palmetto, Fo-Ti, Eleuthero root, Cayenne Pepper, and Yohimbine HCI, on fatty acid oxidation (FAO), perception of hunger, mood state and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) at rest and during 30 min of submaximal exercise. Following institutional ethical approval, twelve healthy recreationally active participants, five females and seven males, were randomized to perform two separate experimental ergometry cycling trials, and to ingest 1.5 g (3 × capsules) of either a multi-ingredient supplement (SHRED) or placebo (PL). Participants rested for 3 h, before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to their individually-determined intensity based on their maximal fat oxidation (Fatmax). Fatty acid oxidation (FAO) was determined at rest, 3 h before exercise (Pre1), immediately before exercise (Pre2) and during exercise (Post), using expired gasses and indirect calorimetry. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured every 3 min during the 30-min exercise. Additionally both mood state and perception of hunger were assessed at Pre1, Pre2 and Post exercise. A repeated measures ANOVA design and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to analyze potential differences between times and treatment conditions. FAO increased in SHRED from Pre1 to Pre2 [0.56 ± 0.26 to 0.96 ± 0.37, (p = 0.003, d =1.34)] but not in PL [0.67 ± 0.25 to 0.74 ± 0.19, (p = 0.334) d = 0.49], with no differences were found between conditions (p = 0.12, d = 0.49). However, Cohen's d = 0.77 revealed moderate effect size in favor of SHRED from Pre to Post exercise. RPE values were lower in SHRED compared to Pl (p< 0.001). Mood state and perception of hunger were not different between

  11. Convergent functional genomics of anxiety disorders: translational identification of genes, biomarkers, pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Le-Niculescu, H; Balaraman, Y; Patel, S D; Ayalew, M; Gupta, J; Kuczenski, R; Shekhar, A; Schork, N; Geyer, M A; Niculescu, A B

    2011-05-24

    Anxiety disorders are prevalent and disabling yet understudied from a genetic standpoint, compared with other major psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. The fact that they are more common, diverse and perceived as embedded in normal life may explain this relative oversight. In addition, as for other psychiatric disorders, there are technical challenges related to the identification and validation of candidate genes and peripheral biomarkers. Human studies, particularly genetic ones, are susceptible to the issue of being underpowered, because of genetic heterogeneity, the effect of variable environmental exposure on gene expression, and difficulty of accrual of large, well phenotyped cohorts. Animal model gene expression studies, in a genetically homogeneous and experimentally tractable setting, can avoid artifacts and provide sensitivity of detection. Subsequent translational integration of the animal model datasets with human genetic and gene expression datasets can ensure cross-validatory power and specificity for illness. We have used a pharmacogenomic mouse model (involving treatments with an anxiogenic drug--yohimbine, and an anti-anxiety drug--diazepam) as a discovery engine for identification of anxiety candidate genes as well as potential blood biomarkers. Gene expression changes in key brain regions for anxiety (prefrontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus) and blood were analyzed using a convergent functional genomics (CFG) approach, which integrates our new data with published human and animal model data, as a translational strategy of cross-matching and prioritizing findings. Our work identifies top candidate genes (such as FOS, GABBR1, NR4A2, DRD1, ADORA2A, QKI, RGS2, PTGDS, HSPA1B, DYNLL2, CCKBR and DBP), brain-blood biomarkers (such as FOS, QKI and HSPA1B), pathways (such as cAMP signaling) and mechanisms for anxiety disorders--notably signal transduction and reactivity to environment, with a prominent role for the

  12. Standing sedation in African elephants (Loxodonta africana) using detomidine-butorphanol combinations.

    PubMed

    Neiffer, Donald L; Miller, Michele A; Weber, Martha; Stetter, Mark; Fontenot, Deidre K; Robbins, P K; Pye, Geoffrey W

    2005-06-01

    Standing sedation was provided for 14 clinical procedures in three African elephants (Loxodonta africana) managed by combined protected and modified-protected contact and trained through operant conditioning. An initial hand-injection of detomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate at a ratio of 1:1 on a microg:microg basis was administered intramuscularly, with a dosage range of 50-70 mg (12.9-19.7 microg/kg) for each drug. The initial injection resulted in adequate sedation for initiation and completion of eight procedures, whereas supplemental doses were required for the remaining procedures. The dosage range for the supplemental injections of each drug was 4.0-7.3 microg/kg. Initial effect was noted within 3.0-25 min (mean = 11.6 min, SD +/- 5.9 min), with maximal effect occurring at 25-30 min for those procedures not requiring supplementation. In all but one procedure, this effect was maintained until the end of the procedure, which ranged from 47 to 98 min (mean = 74.7 min, SD +/- 18.8 min). No cardiac or respiratory depression was appreciated. Recovery after administration of reversal agents was rapid and complete, ranging from 2 to 20 min (mean = 9.0 min, SD +/- 7.0 min). On the basis of the authors' experience, recommended dosage ranges for reversal agents would be intravenous yohimbine (73.4-98.5 microg/kg), intravenous naltrexone (48.9-98.5 microg/kg), and intramuscular naltrexone (73.4-98.5 microg/kg). Approximately one-third to one-half of the total naltrexone dose should be administered intravenously. Mild adverse side effects limited to the gastrointestinal tract were observed in association with five procedures including abdominal distention with or without transient anorexia. Administration of reversal agents, encouraging exercise and water consumption, and administration of flunixin meglumine were helpful in the resolution of signs. In addition to gastrointestinal signs, slight ataxia was observed before initiation of surgical stimulation

  13. Antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Muntingia calabura leaves: further elucidation of the possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Mohd Sani, Mohd Hijaz; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Kader, Arifah Abdul; Kek, Teh Lay; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2014-02-20

    Muntingia calabura (Elaecoparceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used, particularly, by the Peruvian people to alleviate headache and cold, pain associated with gastric ulcers or to reduce the prostate gland swelling. Following the recent establishment of antinociceptive activity of M. calabura leaf, the present study was performed to further elucidate on the possible mechanisms of antinociception involved. The methanol extract of M. calabura (MEMC) was prepared in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg. The role of bradykinin, protein kinase C, pottasium channels, and various opioid and non-opioid receptors in modulating the extract's antinociceptive activity was determined using several antinociceptive assays. Results are presented as Mean ± standard error of mean (SEM). The one-way ANOVA test with Dunnett's multiple comparison was used to analyze and compare the data, with P < 0.05 as the limit of significance. The MEMC, at all doses, demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) dose-dependent antinociceptive activity in both the bradykinin- and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced nociception. Pretreatment of the 500 mg/kg MEMC with 10 mg/kg glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive K+ channel inhibitor), the antagonist of μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors (namely 10 mg/kg β-funaltrexamine, 1 mg/kg naltrindole and 1 mg/kg nor-binaltorphimine), and the non-opioid receptor antagonists (namely 3 mg/kg caffeine (a non-selective adenosinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg yohimbine (an α2-noradrenergic antagonist), and 1 mg/kg pindolol (a β-adrenoceptor antagonist)) significantly (p < 0.05) reversed the MEMC antinociception. However, 10 mg/kg atropine (a non-selective cholinergic receptor antagonist), 0.15 mg/kg prazosin (an α1-noradrenergic antagonist) and 20 mg/kg haloperidol (a non-selective dopaminergic antagonist) did not affect the extract's antinociception. The phytochemicals screening revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids

  14. Expression of alpha-AR subtypes in T lymphocytes and role of the alpha-ARs in mediating modulation of T cell function.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jing-Yin; Huang, Yan; Wang, Feng; Peng, Yu-Ping; Qiu, Yi-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that alpha-adrenoreceptors (alpha-ARs) and beta-ARs exist on lymphocytes from functional profile, and that the receptors mediate the regulation of lymphocyte function by catecholamines. In the present study, we directly examined the expression of alpha-AR subtypes, alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs, in T lymphocytes and explored the roles of the alpha-AR subtypes and intracellular signal transduction mechanisms linked to the receptors in mediating the modulation of T lymphocyte function. T lymphocytes from mesenteric lymph nodes of rats were purified by using a nylon wool column. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression of alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs in the freshly isolated T cells and the mitogen concanavalin A (Con A)-activated lymphocytes. Colorimetric methylthiazoletetrazolium assay was employed to measure lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) levels in the Con A-stimulated lymphocyte culture supernatants were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. T cells expressed both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs. The expression of both alpha(1)-AR and alpha(2)-AR mRNAs was significantly higher in the Con A-activated lymphocytes than in the resting lymphocytes. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha(1)-AR agonist, had no evident effect on lymphocyte proliferation nor on IFN-gamma and IL-4 production induced by Con A. However, the selective alpha(2)-AR agonist clonidine attenuated Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation as well as IFN-gamma and IL-4 production. The inhibited lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-gamma and IL-4 production by clonidine were blocked by yohimbine, an alpha(2)-AR antagonist. Either phospholipase C inhibitor U-73122 or protein kinase C inhibitor chelerythrine partially prevented the suppressive effect of clonidine on Con A-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation and IL-4 production. T lymphocytes express

  15. Impaired Purinergic Neurotransmission to Mesenteric Arteries in DOCA-salt Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Demel, Stacie L.; Galligan, James J.

    2009-01-01

    Sympathetic nerves release norepinephrine (NE) and ATP onto mesenteric arteries. In DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, there is increased arterial sympathetic neurotransmission due in part to impaired α2-AR function and impaired prejunctional regulation of NE release. Prejunctional regulation of the purinergic component of sympathetic neuroeffector transmission in hypertension is less well understood. We hypothesized that α2-AR dysfunction alters purinergic neurotransmission to arteries in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Mesenteric artery preparations were maintained in vitro and intracellular electrophysiological methods were used to record excitatory junction potentials (EJPs) from smooth muscle cells (SMCs). EJP amplitude was reduced in SMCs from DOCA-salt (4 ± 1 mV) compared to control arteries (9 ± 1 mV; P<0.05). When using short trains of electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz, 5 pulses), the α2-AR antagonist, yohimbine (1 μM), potentiated EJPs in control more than in DOCA-salt arteries (180 ± 35 % vs. 86 ± 7 %; P<0.05). NE (0.1 − 3 μM), the α2-AR agonist UK 14,304 (0.001−0.1 μM), the A1 adenosine receptor agonist CPA (0.3 − 100 μM) and the N-type calcium channel blocker ω–conotoxin (0.0003 − 0.1 μM) decreased EJP amplitude equally well in control and DOCA-salt arteries. Trains of stimuli (10 Hz) depleted ATP stores more completely and the latency to EJP recovery was longer in DOCA-salt compared to control arteries. These data indicate that there is reduced purinergic input to mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt rats. This is not due to increased inhibition of ATP release via prejunctional α2-ARs or adenosine receptors, but rather a decrease in ATP bioavailability in sympathetic nerves. These data highlight the potential importance of altered neural regulation of resistance arteries as a therapeutic target for drug treatment of hypertension. PMID:18606906

  16. Non-quantal release of acetylcholine in rat atrial myocardium is inhibited by noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Borodinova, Anastasia A; Abramochkin, Denis V; Sukhova, Galina S

    2013-12-01

    In the mammalian myocardium, ACh, which is the main neurotransmitter of cardiac parasympathetic postganglionic fibres, can be released via both quantal (vesicular) and non-quantal (non-vesicular) mechanisms of secretion. Non-quantal release is continuous and independent of vagus activity and exocytosis of ACh-containing vesicles. During the incubation of myocardium in the presence of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, non-quantal ACh release leads to accumulation of ACh in the myocardium and cholinergic effects, which are proportional to the intensity of non-quantal secretion. The aim of the present study was to reveal whether non-quantal release of ACh can be modulated by another major cardioregulator, noradrenaline, or whether it represents uncontrolled leakage of ACh from cholinergic fibres. Cholinergic changes of electrical activity induced by the AChE inhibitor paraoxon (5 × 10(-6) M) in isolated rat right atrial preparations were determined by means of a standard microlectrode technique and used as a measure of the intensity of non-quantal release. Noradrenaline (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) substantially suppressed, but did not abolish, effects of paraoxon via stimulation of α-adrenoceptors, because all experiments were conducted in the presence of the β-blocker propranolol (5 × 10(-6) M). A blocker of ganglionic transmission, hexamethonium bromide (10(-4) M), failed to alter the inhibitory effect of noradrenaline, indicating that only non-quantal ACh release is suppressed by this neurotransmitter. The effects of noradrenaline could be reduced by the α2-antagonist yohimbine (10(-6) M). However, both the α1-agonist phenylephrine (10(-6) M) and the α2-agonist clonidine (10(-6) M) significantly inhibited the cholinergic effects of paraoxon, indicating the possible involvement of both α-adrenoceptor subtypes in mediation of the adrenergic inhibition of non-quantal ACh release. Thus, cardiac non-quantal ACh release can be negatively regulated by

  17. Antidepressant-like effect of the organoselenium compound ebselen in mice: evidence for the involvement of the monoaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Posser, Thaís; Kaster, Manuella P; Baraúna, Sara Cristiane; Rocha, João B T; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S; Leal, Rodrigo B

    2009-01-05

    Ebselen [2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one] is a seleno-organic compound which possesses a potent antioxidant activity and has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo in a variety of pro-oxidative insults. The present study investigates a possible antidepressant activity of ebselen using two predictive tests for antidepressant activity in rodents: the forced swimming test and tail suspension test. Additionally, the mechanisms involved in the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen in mice were also assessed. Ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) decreased the immobility time in the forced swimming test without accompanying changes in ambulation in the open-field test. In contrast, the administration of ebselen (10-30 mg/kg) did not produce any effect in the tail suspension test. The anti-immobility effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) was not prevented by pre-treatment of mice with p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 100 mg/kg, i.p., an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 4 consecutive days), NAN-190 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonist) or ketanserin (5 mg/kg, i.p., a serotonin 5-HT(2A/2C) receptor antagonist). On the other hand, the pre-treatment of mice with prazosin (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p., an alpha(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist), SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg, s.c., a dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist) or sulpiride (50 mg/kg, i.p., a dopamine D(2) receptor antagonist) completely blocked the antidepressant-like effect of ebselen (10 mg/kg, s.c.) in the forced swimming test. It may be concluded that ebselen produces an antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test that seems to be dependent on its interaction with the noradrenergic and dopaminergic systems, but not with the serotonergic system.

  18. The antinociceptive effect of intravenous imipramine in colorectal distension-induced visceral pain in rats: the role of serotonergic and noradrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    İlkaya, Fatih; Bilge, S Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Baş, Duygu B; Erdal, Arzu; Çiftçioğlu, Engin; Kesim, Yüksel

    2014-07-01

    It has been shown that imipramine, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), is a potent analgesic agent. However, the effect of imipramine on visceral pain has not been extensively investigated. In the current study, our aim was to characterise the putative analgesic effect of intravenous imipramine on visceral pain in rats. Our second aim was to assess the involvement of serotonergic (5-HT₂,₃,₄) and noradrenergic (α(2A, 2B, 2C)) receptor subtypes in this putative antinociceptive effect of imipramine. Male Sprague Dawley rats (250-300 g) were implanted with venous catheters for drug administration and implanted with enamelled nichrome electrodes for electromyography of the external oblique muscles. Noxious visceral stimulation was applied via by colorectal distension (CRD). The visceromotor responses (VMRs) to CRD were quantified electromyographically before and after imipramine administration at 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min. In the antagonist groups, the agents were administered 10 min before imipramine. The administration of imipramine (5-40 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent reduction in VMR. The administration of yohimbine (a nonselective α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg), BRL-44408 (an α(2A)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg) or MK-912 (an α2C-adrenoceptor antagonist, 300 μg/kg) but not imiloxan (an α(2B)-adrenoceptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg) inhibited the antinociceptive effect of imipramine (20 mg/kg). Additionally, ketanserin (a 5-HT₂ receptor antagonist, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) and GR113808 (a 5-HT₄ receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg) enhanced, and ondansetron (a 5-HT₃ receptor antagonist, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/kg) failed to alter the imipramine-induced antinociceptive effect. Our data demonstrated that, in the CDR-induced rat visceral pain model, intravenous imipramine appeared to have antinociceptive potential and that α(2A)-/α(2C)-adrenoceptors and 5-HT₂/5-HT₄ receptors may be responsible for the antinociceptive effect of imipramine on visceral pain

  19. Nitric oxide inhibition of NaCl secretion in the opercular epithelium of seawater-acclimated killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Lucie; Jensen, Frank B; Madsen, Steffen S; Marshall, William S

    2016-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) modulates epithelial ion transport pathways in mammals, but this remains largely unexamined in fish. We explored the involvement of NO in controlling NaCl secretion by the opercular epithelium of seawater killifish using an Ussing chamber approach. Pharmacological agents were used to explore the mechanism(s) triggering NO action. A modified Biotin-switch technique was used to investigate S-nitrosation of proteins. Stimulation of endogenous NO production via the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) substrate l-arginine (2.0 mmol l -1 ), and addition of exogenous NO via the NO donor SNAP (10 -6 to 10 -4  mol l -1 ), decreased the epithelial short-circuit current (I sc ). Inhibition of endogenous NO production by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME (10 -4  mol l -1 ) increased I sc and revealed a tonic control of ion transport by NO in unstimulated opercular epithelia. The NO scavenger PTIO (10 -5  mol l -1 ) supressed the NO-mediated decrease in I sc , and confirmed that the effect observed was elicited by release of NO. The effect of SNAP on I sc was abolished by inhibitors of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), ODQ (10 -6  mol l -1 ) and Methylene Blue (10 -4  mol l -1 ), revealing NO signalling via the sGC/cGMP pathway. Incubation of opercular epithelium and gill tissues with SNAP (10 -4  mol l -1 ) led to S-nitrosation of proteins, including Na + /K + -ATPase. Blocking of NOS with l-NAME (10 -6  mol l -1 ) or scavenging of NO with PTIO during hypotonic shock suggested an involvement of NO in the hypotonic-mediated decrease in I sc Yohimbine (10 -4  mol l -1 ), an inhibitor of α 2 -adrenoceptors, did not block NO effects, suggesting that NO is not involved in the α-adrenergic control of NaCl secretion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. KW-4679-induced inhibition of tachykininergic contraction in the guinea-pig bronchi by prejunctional inhibition of peripheral sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Ikemura, T; Okarmura, K; Sasaki, Y; Ishi, H; Ohmori, K

    1996-03-01

    1. Sensory mechanisms play an important role in the vagal regulation of tracheobronchial smooth muscle tone. We examined the effect of KW-4679, an anti-allergic drug, on guinea-pig tachykinin-mediated contractile responses induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) in guinea-pig bronchial muscles. 2. EFS (8 Hz, 0.5 ms, 15 V, for 15 s) evoked biphasic contractile responses in the guinea-pig isolated main bronchus in the presence of 5 microM indomethacin. The contractions consisted of a fast phase of an atropine-sensitive transient contraction and a slow phase of a sustained contraction which was inhibited by a combination of the tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, (+/-)-CP-96,345 (1 microM) and the NK2 receptor antagonist, SR 48969 (0.1 microM). 3. KW-4679 preferentially inhibited the slow phase in a concentration-dependent manner by 43.2 +/- 7.7% at 10 microM, whereas the drug had no effect on the fast phase at concentrations up to 10 microM. KW-4679, at a concentration of 100 microM, inhibited not only the slow phase by 49.2 +/- 11.4%, but also the fast phase by 36.8 +/- 9.3% [corrected]. 4. KW-4679 (10 microM and 100 microM) did not affect the substance P-induced or neurokinin A-induced contraction. Against the acetylcholine-induced contractile responses, 100 microM KW-4679 had a marked effect producing a 10.2 fold shift to the right in the curve. 5. The inhibitory effect of KW-4679 (10 microM) on the slow phase contraction was not influenced by treatment with naloxone (100 nM), propranolol (1 microM), thioperamide (1 microM), saclofen (50 microM), yohimbine (1 microM), methiothepin (1 microM) or methysergide (1 microM). 6. The inhibitory effect of KW-4679 (10 microM) on the slow phase contraction was not influenced by treatment with intermediate or large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel blockers (charybdotoxin (10 nM) or iberiotoxin (10 nM)), but suppressed by treatment with small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K+ channel blockers, apamin (500 nM) or

  1. Potentiation by adrenaline of human platelet activation and the inhibition by the alpha-adrenergic antagonist nicergoline of platelet adhesion, secretion and aggregation.

    PubMed

    Lanza, F; Cazenave, J P; Beretz, A; Sutter-Bay, A; Kretz, J G; Kieny, R

    1986-08-01

    Adrenaline (1 to 10 microM) can induce the aggregation of human platelets suspended in citrated plasma but does not induce the aggregation of washed human platelets at doses as high as 1 mM, although these platelets respond normally to ADP, PAF-acether, collagen, arachidonic acid, thrombin, the endoperoxide analog U-46619 and the Ca2+ ionophore A23187. Adrenaline (0.5 microM) potentiates the aggregation and secretion induced by all the previous agonists in citrated platelet-rich plasma (cPRP) or in washed platelets. The activation by adrenaline of human platelets is mediated by alpha 2-adrenergic receptors, as demonstrated by inhibition with a series of adrenergic antagonists. The alpha-adrenergic antagonist nicergoline inhibits the activation of human platelets by adrenaline in the following situations: nicergoline inhibits the aggregation and secretion caused by adrenaline in cPRP (IC50 0.22 microM and 0.28 microM respectively); nicergoline inhibits the aggregation and secretion induced by the combination of adrenaline and each aggregating agent listed above in cPRP (IC50 ranging from 0.1 to 2.5 microM) or in washed platelets (IC50 ranging from 0.1 to 0.8 microM); nicergoline inhibits the binding of 3H-yohimbine to washed human platelets (IC50 0.26 microM); the intravenous administration of nicergoline (0.5 mg/kg per day) to patients inhibits significantly the ex vivo response of their platelets to adrenaline in cPRP. High concentrations of nicergoline also inhibit the aggregation and secretion induced by the aggregating agents listed above in cPRP (IC50 range 108 to 670 microM) and in washed platelets (IC50 range 27 to 140 microM) and the adhesion of platelets to collagen-coated surfaces. This latter effect is not mediated through blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors. A possible role of adrenaline in platelet activation in vivo could justify the use of nicergoline (Sermion), an alpha-adrenergic antagonist in combination therapy to prevent arterial thrombosis.

  2. Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stanhewicz, Anna E; Alexander, Lacy M; Kenney, W Larry

    2013-10-01

    Reflex vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged skin due to a functional loss of adrenergic vasoconstriction. Bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for catecholamine synthesis, is reduced with aging. Locally administered BH4 increases vasoconstriction through adrenergic mechanisms in aged human skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, a pharmaceutical BH4) would augment vasoconstriction elicited by whole-body cooling and tyramine perfusion in aged skin. Ten healthy subjects (age 75 ± 2 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following ingestion. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer, 2) 5 mM BH4, and 3) 5 mM yohimbine + 1 mM propranolol (Y+P; to inhibit adrenergic vasoconstriction). Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasoconstriction was induced by lowering and then clamping whole-body skin temperature (Tsk) using a water-perfused suit. Following whole-body cooling, subjects were rewarmed and 1 mM tyramine was perfused at each site to elicit endogenous norepinephrine release from the perivascular nerve terminal. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as change from baseline (ΔCVC). Plasma BH4 was elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (43.8 ± 3 vs. 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml; P < 0.001). Sapropterin increased reflex vasoconstriction at the Ringer site at Tsk ≤ 32.5°C (P < 0.05). Local BH4 perfusion augmented reflex vasoconstriction at Tsk ≤ 31.5°C with placebo treatment only (P < 0.05). There was no treatment effect on reflex vasoconstriction at the BH4-perfused or Y+P-perfused sites. Sapropterin increased pharmacologically induced vasoconstriction at the Ringer site (-0.19 ± 0.03 vs. -0.08 ± 0.02 ΔCVC; P = 0.01). There was no

  3. A review of commercially important African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Van Wyk, B-E

    2015-12-24

    Data on the relative importance and research status of commercially relevant African medicinal plants are needed for developing new research strategies in order to stimulate much-needed ethnopharmacological research and to promote the commercialization of African plants. To present an illustrated bird's eye view and comparative analysis of the relative popularity and importance of commercialized African medicinal plants. A comparison is made between the general popularity and commercial importance of the species (as indicated by their footprint on the World Wide Web) and their scientific popularity and importance (as indicated by the number of research publications). The inventory and review is strongly focussed to cover all or most of the medicinal plant raw materials in the international trade that are exported from African countries, with less emphasis on those that are regularly traded on local and regional markets within Africa. The review is based on literature data, Scopus and Google searches, commercial information and the author's own experience and observations. More than 5400 plant species are used in traditional medicine in Africa, of which less than 10% have been commercially developed to some extent. Africa is home to more than 80 valuable commercial species that are regularly traded on international markets, including phytomedicines (e.g. Harpagophytum procumbens and Pelargonium sidoides), functional foods (e.g. Adansonia digitata and Hibiscus sabdariffa) and sources of pure chemical entities (e.g. caffeine from Coffea arabica and yohimbine from Pausinystalia johimbe). According to the Scopus results, about 60% of all recent publications on African medicinal plants appeared in the last decade, with an average of 280 papers (28 per year) for 85 prominent species of international trade. The most popular African species for research (number of publications in brackets) were: Ricinus communis (5187), Aloe vera (2832), Catharanthus roseus (2653), Sesamum

  4. SOP conservative (medical and mechanical) treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Porst, Hartmut; Burnett, Arthur; Brock, Gerald; Ghanem, Hussein; Giuliano, Francois; Glina, Sidney; Hellstrom, Wayne; Martin-Morales, Antonio; Salonia, Andrea; Sharlip, Ira

    2013-01-01

    ) combination mixtures. There is level 3 evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of oral yohimbine in nonorganic ED. There is level 3 evidence that combination therapies of PDE5 inhibitors + either transurethral or intracavernosal injection therapy generate better efficacy rates than either monotherapy alone. There is level 4 evidence showing enhanced efficacy with the combination of vacuum-erection therapy + either PDE5 inhibitor or transurethral PGE1 or intracavernosal injection therapy. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that combination therapy of PDE5 inhibitors + L-arginine or daily dosing of tadalafil + short-acting PDE5 inhibitors pro re nata may rescue PDE5 inhibitor monotherapy failures. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that adding either PDE5 inhibitors or transurethral PGE1 may improve outcome of penile prosthetic surgery regarding soft (cold) glans syndrome. There is level 5 evidence (expert opinion) that the combination of PDE5 inhibitors and dapoxetine is effective and safe in patients suffering from both ED and premature ejaculation. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. AB028. Current status of pharmacotherapy for erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Adaikan, P Ganesan

    2016-01-01

    oxide donors, guanylate cyclase activators, potassium channel openers and Rho-kinase inhibitors with the potential to overcome some limitations of the existing measures offer significant promise of clinical application in refractory and resistant cases. The TriMix preparations usually contain PGE1, papaverine and phentolamine in formulation compounded in pharmacies. Several clinical studies have also tested the efficacy of yohimbine, L-arginine, cyclic adenosine monophosphate activators, melanocortin-stimulating hormone analogs, endothelin antagonists in addition to vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and calcitonin gene related peptide with variable success rates. Trazodone, a serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor was shown to improve premature ejaculation and erectile function in psychogenic cases of ED. Cloning of inducible nitric oxide synthase has opened a new era in the use of gene therapy for ED and the day for stem cells therapy and autologous penile tissue implants is not too far. Thus, ongoing research worldwide will continue to define new roles for various modalities targeted at specific sites in the erectile pathway and these advances will ultimately enable the clinicians to make the most appropriate therapeutic or other selections for individual patients including possible permanent reversal of organic ED.

  6. Toward a new understanding of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder pathophysiology: an important role for prefrontal cortex dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Arnsten, Amy F T

    2009-01-01

    )-receptors on the dendritic spines of PFC pyramidal cells. Stimulation of these receptors initiates a series of chemical events inside the cell. These chemical signals lead to the closing of special ion channels, thus strengthening the connectivity of network inputs to the cell. Conversely, the beneficial effects of moderate amounts of DA occur at D(1) receptors, which act by weakening irrelevant inputs to the cells on another set of spines. Genetic linkage studies of ADHD suggest that these catecholamine pathways may be altered in some families with ADHD, e.g. alterations in the enzyme that synthesizes NA (DA beta-hydroxylase) are associated with weakened PFC abilities. Pharmacological studies in animals indicate catecholamine actions in the PFC are highly relevant to ADHD. Blocking NA alpha(2A)-receptors in the PFC with yohimbine produces a profile similar to ADHD: locomotor hyperactivity, impulsivity and poor working memory. Conversely, drugs that enhance alpha(2)-receptor stimulation improve PFC function. Guanfacine directly stimulates postsynaptic alpha(2A)-receptors in the PFC and improves functioning, while methylphenidate and atomoxetine increase endogenous NA and DA levels and indirectly improve PFC function via alpha(2A)- and D(1) receptor actions. Methylphenidate and atomoxetine have more potent actions in the PFC than in subcortical structures, which may explain why proper administration of stimulant medications does not lead to abuse. Further understanding of the neurobiology of attention and impulse control will allow us to better tailor treatments for specific patient needs.

  7. Oral sapropterin augments reflex vasoconstriction in aged human skin through noradrenergic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Kenney, W. Larry

    2013-01-01

    Reflex vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged skin due to a functional loss of adrenergic vasoconstriction. Bioavailability of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor for catecholamine synthesis, is reduced with aging. Locally administered BH4 increases vasoconstriction through adrenergic mechanisms in aged human skin. We hypothesized that oral sapropterin (Kuvan, a pharmaceutical BH4) would augment vasoconstriction elicited by whole-body cooling and tyramine perfusion in aged skin. Ten healthy subjects (age 75 ± 2 yr) ingested sapropterin (10 mg/kg) or placebo in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 3 h following ingestion. Three intradermal microdialysis fibers were placed in the forearm skin for local delivery of 1) lactated Ringer, 2) 5 mM BH4, and 3) 5 mM yohimbine + 1 mM propranolol (Y+P; to inhibit adrenergic vasoconstriction). Red cell flux was measured at each site by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF) as reflex vasoconstriction was induced by lowering and then clamping whole-body skin temperature (T̄sk) using a water-perfused suit. Following whole-body cooling, subjects were rewarmed and 1 mM tyramine was perfused at each site to elicit endogenous norepinephrine release from the perivascular nerve terminal. Cutaneous vascular conductance was calculated as CVC = LDF/mean arterial pressure and expressed as change from baseline (ΔCVC). Plasma BH4 was elevated 3 h after ingestion of sapropterin (43.8 ± 3 vs. 19.1 ± 2 pmol/ml; P < 0.001). Sapropterin increased reflex vasoconstriction at the Ringer site at T̄sk ≤ 32.5°C (P < 0.05). Local BH4 perfusion augmented reflex vasoconstriction at T̄sk ≤ 31.5°C with placebo treatment only (P < 0.05). There was no treatment effect on reflex vasoconstriction at the BH4-perfused or Y+P-perfused sites. Sapropterin increased pharmacologically induced vasoconstriction at the Ringer site (−0.19 ± 0.03 vs. −0.08 ± 0.02 ΔCVC; P = 0.01). There was no