Sample records for young alluvial basin-fill

  1. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill-Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill-hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin such as alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  2. Geologic Characterization of Young Alluvial Basin-Fill Deposits from Drill Hole Data in Yucca Flat, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Drake II, Ronald M.

    2007-01-01

    Yucca Flat is a topographic and structural basin in the northeastern part of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) in Nye County, Nevada, that has been the site of numerous underground nuclear tests; many of these tests occurred within the young alluvial basin-fill deposits. The migration of radionuclides to the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through this thick, heterogeneous section of Tertiary and Quaternary rock. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of young alluvial basin-fill deposits will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating ground-water flow in the Yucca Flat area. This report by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, presents data and interpretation regarding the three-dimensional variability of the shallow alluvial aquifers in areas of testing at Yucca Flat, data that are potentially useful in the understanding of the subsurface flow system. This report includes a summary and interpretation of alluvial basin-fill stratigraphy in the Yucca Flat area based on drill hole data from 285 selected drill holes. Spatial variations in lithology and grain size of the Neogene basin-fill sediments can be established when data from numerous drill holes are considered together. Lithologic variations are related to different depositional environments within the basin including alluvial fan, channel, basin axis, and playa deposits.

  3. Estimation of alluvial-fill thickness in the Mimbres ground-water basin, New Mexico, from interpretation of isostatic residual gravity anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heywood, Charles E.

    2002-01-01

    The geologic structure of the Mimbres ground-water basin in southwest New Mexico is characterized by north- and northwest-trending structural subbasins. Sedimentation of Miocene and Pliocene age has filled and obscured the boundaries of these subbasins and formed poten- tially productive aquifers of varied thickness. The location and depth of the subbasins can be esti- mated from analysis of isostatic residual gravity anomalies. Density contrasts of various basement lithologies generate complex regional gravity trends, which are convolved with the gravity signal from the Miocene and Pliocene alluvial fill. An iterative scheme was used to separate these regional gravity trends from the alluvial-fill grav- ity signal, which was inverted with estimated depth-density relations to compute the thickness of the alluvial fill at 1-kilometer spacing. The thickness estimates were constrained by explor- atory drill-hole information, interpreted seismic- refraction profiles, and location of bedrock lithol- ogy from surficial geologic mapping. The result- ing map of alluvial-fill thickness suggests large areas of thin alluvium that separate deep structural subbasins.

  4. Three-dimensional geologic mapping of the Cenozoic basin fill, Amargosa Desert basin, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Emily M.; Sweetkind, Donald S.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the subsurface geologic framework of the Cenozoic basin fill that underlies the Amargosa Desert in southern Nevada and southeastern California has been improved by using borehole data to construct three-dimensional lithologic and interpreted facies models. Lithologic data from 210 boreholes from a 20-kilometer (km) by 90-km area were reduced to a limited suite of descriptors based on geologic knowledge of the basin and distributed in three-dimensional space using interpolation methods. The resulting lithologic model of the Amargosa Desert basin portrays a complex system of interfingered coarse- to fine-grained alluvium, playa and palustrine deposits, eolian sands, and interbedded volcanic units. Lithologic units could not be represented in the model as a stacked stratigraphic sequence due to the complex interfingering of lithologic units and the absence of available time-stratigraphic markers. Instead, lithologic units were grouped into interpreted genetic classes, such as playa or alluvial fan, to create a three-dimensional model of the interpreted facies data. Three-dimensional facies models computed from these data portray the alluvial infilling of a tectonically formed basin with intermittent internal drainage and localized regional groundwater discharge. The lithologic and interpreted facies models compare favorably to resistivity, aeromagnetic, and geologic map data, lending confidence to the interpretation.

  5. Late Quaternary landscape evolution in the Kunlun Mountains and Qaidam Basin, Northern Tibet: A framework for examining the links between glaciation, lake level changes and alluvial fan formation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Finkel, R.C.; Haizhou, M.; Barnard, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    The Qaidam Basin in Northern Tibet is one of the largest hyper-arid intermontane basins on Earth. Alluvial fans, pediment surfaces, shorelines and a thick succession of sediments within the basin, coupled with moraines and associated landforms in the adjacent high mountain catchments of the Kunlun Mountains, record a complex history of Late Quaternary paleoenvironmental change and landscape evolution. The region provides an ideal natural laboratory to examine the interaction between tectonics and climate within a continent-continent collision zone, and to quantify rates of landscape evolution as controlled by climate and the associated glacial and hydrological changes in hyper-arid and adjacent high-altitude environments. Geomorphic mapping, analysis of landforms and sediments, and terrestrial cosmogenic radionuclide surface exposure and optically stimulated luminescence dating serve to define the timing of formation of Late Quaternary landforms along the southern and northwestern margins of the Qaidam Basin, and in the Burhan Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains adjacent to the basin on the south. These dates provide a framework that suggests links between climatic amelioration, deglaciation, lake desiccation and alluvial fan evolution. At least three glacial advances are defined in the Burham Budai Shan of the Kunlun Mountains. On the northern side of this range these occurred in the penultimate glacial cycle or early in the last glacial cycle, during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)/Lateglacial and during the Holocene. On the south side of the range, advances occurred during the penultimate glacial cycle, MIS-3, and possibly the LGM, Lateglacial or Holocene. Several distinct phases of alluvial fan sedimentation are likewise defined. Alluvial fans formed on the southern side of the Kunlun Mountains prior to 200 ka. Ice-contact alluvial fans formed during the penultimate glacial and during MIS-3. Extensive incised alluvial fans that form the main valley fills north of

  6. Feast to famine: Sediment supply control on Laramide basin fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, Alan R.; Chetel, Lauren M.; Elliot Smith, M.

    2006-03-01

    Erosion of Laramide-style uplifts in the western United States exerted an important first-order influence on Paleogene sedimentation by controlling sediment supply rates to adjacent closed basins. During the latest Cretaceous through Paleocene, these uplifts exposed thick intervals of mud-rich Upper Cretaceous foreland basin fill, which was quickly eroded and redeposited. Cretaceous sedimentary lithologies dominate Paleocene conglomerate clast compositions, and the volume of eroded foreland basin strata is approximately twice the volume of preserved Paleocene basin fill. As a result of this sediment oversupply, clastic alluvial and paludal facies dominate Paleocene strata, and are associated with relatively shallow and ephemeral freshwater lake facies. In contrast, large, long-lived, carbonate-producing lakes occupied several of the basins during the Eocene. Basement-derived clasts (granite, quartzite, and other metamorphic rocks) simultaneously became abundant in lower Eocene conglomerate. We propose that Eocene lakes developed primarily due to exposure of erosion-resistant lithologies within cores of Laramide uplifts. The resultant decrease in erosion rate starved adjacent basins of sediment, allowing the widespread and prolonged deposition of organic-rich lacustrine mudstone. These observations suggest that geomorphic evolution of the surrounding landscape should be considered as a potentially important influence on sedimentation in many other interior basins, in addition to more conventionally interpreted tectonic and climatic controls.

  7. Water resources in basin-fill deposits in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orr, B.R.; Myers, R.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Tularosa Basin, a faulted intermontane depression in south-central New Mexico, contains a thick sequence of alluvial and lacustrine deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age. Most of these sediments are saturated with very saline water. Freshwater supplies (dissolved solids concentration < 1000 mg/L) principally are found in alluvial fans located around the basin margin. On the eastern side of the Tularosa Basin, fresh groundwater supplies are limited to alluvial fan deposits from Grapevine Canyon to about 3 mi south of Alamogordo. Data from surface geophysical surveys indicate that about 1.4 to 2.1 million acre-ft of freshwater may be in storage in this area, not all of which is recoverable. An additional 3.6 to 5.4 million acre-ft of slightly saline water (dissolved solids concentration 1000 to 3000 mg/L) may be in storage in the same area, again not all of which is recoverable. On the western side of the Tularosa Basin, alluvial fans in the vicinity of Rhodes Canyon may contain freshwater. Geophysical data indicate the freshwater zone may be as thick as 1500 ft in places; however, the limited number of wells in this area precludes a precise definition of the volume of freshwater in storage. To the south, freshwater is present in alluvial fans associated with the Ash Canyon drainage system. Geophysical data indicate that perhaps as much as 450,000 acre-ft of freshwater, not all recoverable, may be in storage in this area. Fan deposits between Ash Canyon and Rhodes canyon may contain additional freshwater supplies. Possibly 10.7 million acre-ft of freshwater, not all of which is recoverable, may be in storage on the western side of the Tularosa Basin. Possibly 180 million acre-ft of brine (concentrations of dissolved solids exceeding 35,000 mg/L), not all of which is recoverable, may be in storage in the Tularosa Basin. Information is sparse concerning the capability of saline aquifers in the Tularosa Basin to store and transmit fluid. (Author 's abstract)

  8. Fault-sourced alluvial fans and their interaction with axial fluvial drainage: An example from the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Tuscany, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidolini, Francesco; Ghinassi, Massimiliano; Aldinucci, Mauro; Billi, Paolo; Boaga, Jacopo; Deiana, Rita; Brivio, Lara

    2013-05-01

    The present study deals with the fault-sourced, alluvial-fan deposits of the Plio-Pleistocene Upper Valdarno Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy). Different phases of alluvial fan aggradation, progradation and backstep are discussed as possible effects of the interaction among fault-generated accommodation space, sediment supply and discharge variations affecting the axial fluvial drainage. The Upper Valdarno Basin, located about 35 km SE of Florence, is filled with 550 m palustrine, lacustrine and alluvial deposits forming four main unconformity-bounded units (i.e. synthems). The study alluvial-fan deposits belong to the two uppermost synthems (Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems) and are Early to Middle Pleistocene in age. These deposits are sourced from the fault-bounded, NE margin of the basin and interfinger with axial fluvial deposits. Alluvial fan deposits of the Montevarchi Synthem consist of three main intervals: i) a lower interval, which lacks any evidence of a depositional trend and testify balance between the subsidence rate (i.e. fault activity) and the amount of sediment provided from the margin; ii) a coarsening-upward middle interval, pointing to a decrease in subsidence rate associated with an augment in sediment supply; iii) a fining-upward, upper interval (locally preserved), documenting a phase of tectonic quiescence associated with a progressive re-equilibration of the tectonically-induced morphological profile. The basin-scale unconformity, which separates the Montevarchi and Torrente Ciuffenna synthems was due to the entrance of the Arno River into the basin as consequence of a piracy. This event caused a dramatic increase in water discharge of the axial fluvial system, and its consequent embanking. Such an erosional surface started to develop in the axial areas, and propagated along the main tributaries, triggering erosion of the alluvial fan deposits. Alluvial-fan deposits of the Torrente Ciuffenna Synthem accumulated above the

  9. Avulsion Clusters in Alluvial Systems: An Example of Large-Scale Self-Organization in Ancient and Experimental Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, E.; Heller, P.; Huzurbazar, S.; Sheets, B.; Paola, C.

    2006-12-01

    . However cursory examination of other ancient systems suggests that such structure may be common in the rock record. Understanding mechanisms driving avulsion clustering will shed light on the dominant processes in alluvial basins over long time scales. Furthermore, characterizing autogenic avulsion clusters will be an important factor to consider when interpreting allogenic signals in ancient basin fills.

  10. Alluvial fan facies of the Yongchong Basin: Implications for tectonic and paleoclimatic changes during Late Cretaceous in SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liuqin; Steel, Ronald J.; Guo, Fusheng; Olariu, Cornel; Gong, Chenglin

    2017-02-01

    Late Cretaceous continental redbeds, the Guifeng Group of the Yongchong Basin in SE China have been investigated to conduct detailed fan facies description and interpretation. Tectonic activities determined the alluvial fan development along the basin margin, but the alluvial facies was linked with paleoclimate changes. The Guifeng Group is divided into the Hekou, Tangbian and Lianhe formations in ascending order. The Hekou conglomerates are typically polymict, moderately sorted with erosional bases, cut-and-fill features, normal grading and sieve deposits, representing dominant stream-flows on alluvial fans during the initial opening stage of the basin infill. The Tangbian Formation, however, is characterized by structureless fine-grained sediments with dispersed coarse clasts, and couplets of conglomerate and sandstone or siltstone and mudstone, recording a change to a playa and ephemeral lake environments with occasional stream flooding, thus indicating a basin expanding stage. The hallmark of the Lianhe Formation is disorganized, poorly sorted conglomerates lack of erosional bases, and a wide particle-size range from clay to boulders together reflect mud-rich debris-flows accumulating on fans, likely related to reactivation of faulting along the northwestern mountain fronts during a post-rift stage. The depositional system changes from stream-flows up through playa with ephemeral streams to debris-flows during the accumulation of the three formations are thus attributed to different source rocks and climatic conditions. Therefore, the fluvial-dominated fans of the Hekou Formation recorded a subhumid paleoclimate (Coniacian-Santonian Age). The dominant semiarid climate during the Campanian Age produced abundant fine-grained sediments in the playa and ephemeral lake environments of the Tangbian Formation. A climatic change towards more humidity during the late stage of the Guifeng Group (Maastrichtian Age) probably yielded high deposition rate of coarse clasts in

  11. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  12. Valley-fill alluviation during the Little Ice Age (ca. A.D. 1400-1880), Paria River basin and southern Colorado Plateau, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hereford, R.

    2002-01-01

    Valley-fill alluvium deposited from ca. A.D. 1400 to 1880 is widespread in tributaries of the Paria River and is largely coincident with the Little Ice Age epoch of global climate variability. Previous work showed that alluvium of this age is a mappable stratigraphic unit in many of the larger alluvial valleys of the southern Colorado Plateau. The alluvium is bounded by two disconformities resulting from prehistoric and historic arroyo cutting at ca. A.D. 1200-1400 and 1860-1910, respectively. The fill forms a terrace in the axial valleys of major through-flowing streams. This terrace and underlying deposits are continuous and interfinger with sediment in numerous small tributary valleys that head at the base of hillslopes of sparsely vegetated, weakly consolidated bedrock, suggesting that eroded bedrock was an important source of alluvium along with in-channel and other sources. Paleoclimatic and high-resolution paleoflood studies indicate that valley-fill alluviation occured during a long-term decrease in the frequency of large, destructive floods. Aggradation of the valleys ended about A.D. 1880, if not two decades earlier, with the beginning of historic arroyo cutting. This shift from deposition to valley entrenchment near the close of the Little Ice Age generally coincided with the beginning of an episode of the largest floods in the preceding 400-500 yr, which was probably caused by an increased recurrence and intensity of flood-producing El Nin??o events beginning at ca. A.D. 1870.

  13. Recycling an uplifted early foreland basin fill: An example from the Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roigé, M.; Gómez-Gras, D.; Remacha, E.; Boya, S.; Viaplana-Muzas, M.; Teixell, A.

    2017-10-01

    In the northern Jaca basin (Southern Pyrenees), the replacement of deep-marine by terrestrial environments during the Eocene records a main drainage reorganization in the active Pyrenean pro-wedge, which leads to recycling of earlier foreland basin sediments. The onset of late Eocene-Oligocene terrestrial sedimentation is represented by four main alluvial fans: Santa Orosia, Canciás, Peña Oroel and San Juan de la Peña, which appear diachronously from east to west. These alluvial fans are the youngest preserved sediments deposited in the basin. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources for the late Eocene-Oligocene alluvial fans and precursor deltas of the Jaca basin. Sandstone petrography allows identification of the interplay of axially-fed sediments from the east with transversely-fed sediments from the north. Compositional data for the alluvial fans reflects a dominating proportion of recycled rock fragments derived from the erosion of a lower to middle Eocene flysch depocentre (the Hecho Group), located immediately to the north. In addition, pebble composition allows identification of a source in the North Pyrenean Zone that provided lithologies from the Cretaceous carbonate flysch, Jurassic dolostones and Triassic dolerites. Thus we infer this zone as part of the source area, located in the headwaters, which would have been unroofed from turbidite deposits during the late Eocene-Oligocene. These conclusions provide new insights on the response of drainage networks to uplift and topographic growth of the Pyrenees, where the water divide migrated southwards to its present day location.

  14. Geospatial data to support analysis of water-quality conditions in basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers study area consists of most of California and Nevada and parts of Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado; it is about 409,000 square miles. The Basin-fill aquifers extend through about 201,000 square miles of the study area and are the primary source of water for cities and agricultural communities in basins in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Southwest). The demand on limited ground-water resources in areas in the southwestern United States has increased significantly. This increased demand underscores the importance of understanding factors that affect the water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region, which are being studied through the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program. As a part of this study, spatial datasets of natural and anthropogenic factors that may affect ground-water quality of the basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States were developed. These data include physical characteristics of the region, such as geology, elevation, and precipitation, as well as anthropogenic factors, including population, land use, and water use. Spatial statistics for the alluvial basins in the Southwest have been calculated using the datasets. This information provides a foundation for the development of conceptual and statistical models that relate natural and anthropogenic factors to ground-water quality across the Southwest. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to determine and illustrate the spatial distribution of these basin-fill variables across the region. One hundred-meter resolution raster data layers that represent the spatial characteristics of the basins' boundaries, drainage areas, population densities, land use, and water use were developed for the entire Southwest.

  15. Revisiting a classification scheme for U.S.-Mexico alluvial basin-fill aquifers.

    PubMed

    Hibbs, Barry J; Darling, Bruce K

    2005-01-01

    Intermontane basins in the Trans-Pecos region of westernmost Texas and northern Chihuahua, Mexico, are target areas for disposal of interstate municipal sludge and have been identified as possible disposal sites for low-level radioactive waste. Understanding ground water movement within and between these basins is needed to assess potential contaminant fate and movement. Four associated basin aquifers are evaluated and classified; the Red Light Draw Aquifer, the Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer, the Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer, and the El Cuervo Aquifer. Encompassed on all but one side by mountains and local divides, the Red Light Draw Aquifer has the Rio Grande as an outlet for both surface drainage and ground water discharge. The river juxtaposed against its southern edge, the basin is classified as a topographically open, through-flowing basin. The Northwest Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically closed and drained basin because surface drainage is to the interior of the basin and ground water discharge occurs by interbasin ground water flow. Mountains and ground water divides encompass this basin aquifer on all sides; yet, depth to ground water in the interior of the basin is commonly >500 feet. Negligible ground water discharge within the basin indicates that ground water discharges from the basin by vertical flow and underflow to a surrounding basin or basins. The most likely mode of discharge is by vertical, cross-formational flow to underlying Permian rocks that are more porous and permeable and subsequent flow along regional flowpaths beneath local ground water divides. The Southeast Eagle Flat Aquifer is classified as a topographically open and drained basin because surface drainage and ground water discharge are to the adjacent Wildhorse Flat area. Opposite the Eagle Flat and Red Light Draw aquifers is the El Cuervo Aquifer of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. The El Cuervo Aquifer has interior drainage to Laguna El Cuervo, which is a phreatic

  16. Characterisation of the sedimentary processes responsible for the filling and excavation of two intra mountainous basins (Agua Amarga and Collon Cura) in the Andes of Neuquén (Argentina) during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnel, C.; Huyghe, D.; Nivière, B.; Messager, G.; Dhont, D.; Fasentieux, B.; Hervouët, Y.; Xavier, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Intramontane basins constitute potential good recorders of orogenic systems deformation history through the documentation of their remnant sedimentary filling and observation of syntectonic growth strata. In this work, we focus on the Neuquén basin, located on the eastern flank of the Andes between 32°S and 41°S latitude. It has been structured since the late Triassic, first as back arc basin and as compressive foreland basin since the upper Cretaceous. Most of the sedimentary filling is composed of Mesozoic sediments, which have been importantly studied because of their hydrocarbon potential. On the contrary, Cenozoic tectonic and sedimentologic evolutions remain poorly documented in regard to the Mesozoic. The structural inheritance is very important and strongly influences the deformation and shortening rates from the North to the South of the basin. Thus, the northern part exhibits a classical configuration from the western high Andes, to younger fold and thrust belts and piggy-back basins to the East. On the contrary, no fold and thrust belt exist in the southern part of the basin and the deformation is restricted to the internal domain. Nevertheless, contemporaneous intramontane basins (the Agua Amarga to the North and the Collon Cura basin to the South) existed in these two parts of the basin and seem to have followed a similar evolution despite of a different structural context. To the North, the partial closing of the Agua Amarga basin by the growth of the Chuihuidos anticlines during the Miocene is characterised by the deposition of a fining upward continental sequence of ~250 m thick, from lacustrine environment at the base to alluvial and fluviatile environments in the upper part of the section. In the Collon Cura, the sedimentary filling, due to the rising of the Piedra del Aguila basement massif, reach at maximum 500 m and consist in fluvial tuffaceous material in the lower part to paleosoils and coarse conglomeratic fluvial deposits in the upper

  17. Water availability and use pilot; methods development for a regional assessment of groundwater availability, southwest alluvial basins, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D.; Cordova, Jeffrey T.; Leake, Stanley A.; Thomas, Blakemore E.; Callegary, James B.

    2011-01-01

    Executive Summary: Arizona is located in an arid to semiarid region in the southwestern United States and is one of the fastest growing States in the country. Population in Arizona surpassed 6.5 million people in 2008, an increase of 140 percent since 1980, when the last regional U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) groundwater study was done as part of the Regional Aquifer System Analysis (RASA) program. The alluvial basins of Arizona are part of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province and cover more than 73,000 mi2, 65 percent of the State's total land area. More than 85 percent of the State's population resides within this area, accounting for more than 95 percent of the State's groundwater use. Groundwater supplies in the area are expected to undergo further stress as an increasing population vies with the State's important agricultural sector for access to these limited resources. To provide updated information to stakeholders addressing issues surrounding limited groundwater supplies and projected increases in groundwater use, the USGS Groundwater Resources Program instituted the Southwest Alluvial Basins Groundwater Availability and Use Pilot Program to evaluate the availability of groundwater resources in the alluvial basins of Arizona. The principal products of this evaluation of groundwater resources are updated groundwater budget information for the study area and a proof-of-concept groundwater-flow model incorporating several interconnected groundwater basins. This effort builds on previous research on the assessment and mapping of groundwater conditions in the alluvial basins of Arizona, also supported by the USGS Groundwater Resources Program. Regional Groundwater Budget: The Southwest Alluvial Basins-Regional Aquifer System Analysis (SWAB-RASA) study produced semiquantitative groundwater budgets for each of the alluvial basins in the SWAB-RASA study area. The pilot program documented in this report developed new quantitative estimates of groundwater

  18. Sedimentary and tectonic evolution of Plio Pleistocene alluvial and lacustrine deposits of Fucino Basin (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavinato, Gian Paolo; Carusi, Claudio; Dall'Asta, Massimo; Miccadei, Enrico; Piacentini, Tommaso

    2002-04-01

    The Fucino Basin was the greatest lake of the central Italy, which was completely drained at the end of 19th century. The basin is an intramontane half-graben filled by Plio-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits located in the central part of the Apennines chain, which was formed in Upper Pliocene and in Quaternary time by the extensional tectonic activity. The analysis of the geological surface data allows the definition of several stratigraphic units grouped in Lower Units and Upper Units. The Lower Units (Upper Pliocene) are exposed along the northern and north-eastern basin margins. They consist of open to marginal lacustrine deposits, breccia deposits and fluvial deposits. The Upper Units (Lower Pliocene-Holocene) consist of interbedded marginal lacustrine deposits and fluvial deposits; thick coarse-grained fan-delta deposits are interfingered at the foot of the main relief with fluvial-lacustrine deposits. Most of the thickness of the lacustrine sequences (more than 1000-m thick) is buried below the central part of the Fucino Plain. The basin is bounded by E-W, WSW-ENE and NW-SE fault systems: Velino-Magnola Fault (E-W) and Tremonti-Celano-Aielli Fault (WSW-ENE) and S. Potito-Celano Fault (NW-SE) in the north; the Trasacco Fault, the Pescina-Celano Fault and the Serrone Fault (NW-SE) in the south-east. The geometry and kinematic indicators of these faults indicate normal or oblique movements. The study of industrial seismic profiles across the Fucino Basin gives a clear picture of the subsurface basin geometry; the basin shows triangular-shaped basin-fill geometry, with the maximum deposits thickness toward the main east boundary fault zones that dip south-westward (Serrone Fault, Trasacco Fault, Pescina-Celano Fault). On the basis of geological surface data, borehole stratigraphy and seismic data analysis, it is possible to recognize and to correlate sedimentary and seismic facies. The bottom of the basin is well recognized in the seismic lines

  19. Large Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    Several dozen distinct alluvial fans, 10 to greater than 40 km long downslope are observed exclusively in highlands craters. Within a search region between 0 deg. and 30 deg. S, alluvial fan-containing craters were only found between 18 and 29 S, and they all occur at around plus or minus 1 km of the MOLA-defined Martian datum. Within the study area they are not randomly distributed but instead form three distinct clusters. Fans typically descend greater than 1 km from where they disgorge from their alcoves. Longitudinal profiles show that their surfaces are very slightly concave with a mean slope of 2 degrees. Many fans exhibit very long, narrow low-relief ridges radially oriented down-slope, often branching at their distal ends, suggestive of distributaries. Morphometric data for 31 fans was derived from MOLA data and compared with terrestrial fans with high-relief source areas, terrestrial low gradient alluvial ramps in inactive tectonic settings, and older Martian alluvial ramps along crater floors. The Martian alluvial fans generally fall on the same trends as the terrestrial alluvial fans, whereas the gentler Martian crater floor ramps are similar in gradient to the low relief terrestrial alluvial surfaces. For a given fan gradient, Martian alluvial fans generally have greater source basin relief than terrestrial fans in active tectonic settings. This suggests that the terrestrial source basins either yield coarser debris or have higher sediment concentrations than their Martian counterpoints. Martian fans and Basin and Range fans have steeper gradients than the older Martian alluvial ramps and terrestrial low relief alluvial surfaces, which is consistent with a supply of coarse sediment. Martian fans are relatively large and of low gradient, similar to terrestrial fluvial fans rather than debris flow fans. However, gravity scaling uncertainties make the flow regime forming Martian fans uncertain. Martian fans, at least those in Holden crater, apparently

  20. Effects of natural and human factors on groundwater quality of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States-conceptual models for selected contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2011-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the factors that affect water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States. The SWPA study area includes four principal aquifers of the United States: the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; and the California Coastal Basin and Central Valley aquifer systems in California. Similarities in the hydrogeology, land- and water-use practices, and water-quality issues for alluvial basins within the study area allow for regional analysis through synthesis of the baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. Resulting improvements in the understanding of the sources, movement, and fate of contaminants are assisting in the development of tools used to assess aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability.This report synthesizes previously published information about the groundwater systems and water quality of 15 information-rich basin-fill aquifers (SWPA case-study basins) into conceptual models of the primary natural and human factors commonly affecting groundwater quality with respect to selected contaminants, thereby helping to build a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to those contaminants. Four relatively common contaminants (dissolved solids, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium) and two contaminant classes (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticide compounds) were investigated for sources and controls affecting their occurrence and distribution above specified levels of concern in groundwater of the case-study basins. Conceptual models of factors that are important to aquifer vulnerability with respect to those contaminants and contaminant classes were subsequently formed. The

  1. Hydrogeology and quality of ground water in the upper Arkansas River basin from Buena Vista to Salida, Colorado, 2000-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, Kenneth R.

    2005-01-01

    The upper Arkansas River Basin between Buena Vista and Salida, Colorado, is a downfaulted basin, the Buena Vista-Salida structural basin, located between the Sawatch and Mosquito Ranges. The primary aquifers in the Buena Vista-Salida structural basin consist of poorly consolidated to unconsolidated Quaternary-age alluvial and glacial deposits and Tertiary-age basin-fill deposits. Maximum thickness of the alluvial, glacial, and basin-fill deposits is about 5,000 feet, but 95 percent of the water-supply wells in Chaffee County are no more than 300 feet deep. Hydrologic conditions in the 149-square mile study area are described on the basis of hydrologic and geologic data compiled and collected during September 2000 through September 2003. The principal aquifers described in this report are the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers. An estimated 3,443 wells pumped about 690 to 1,240 acre-feet for domestic and household use in Chaffee County during 2003. By 2030, projected increases in the population of Chaffee County, Colorado, may require use of an additional 4,000 to 5,000 wells to supply an additional 800 to 1,800 acre-feet per year of ground water for domestic and household supply. The estimated specific yield of the upper 300 feet of the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers ranged from about 0.02 to 0.2. Current (2003) and projected (2030) ground-water withdrawals by domestic and household wells are less than 1 percent of the estimated 472,000 acre-feet of drainable ground water in the upper 300 feet of the subsurface. Locally, little water is available in the upper 300 feet. In densely populated areas, well interference could result in decreased water levels and well yields, which may require deepening or replacement of wells. Infiltration of surface water diverted for irrigation and from losing streams is the primary source of ground-water recharge in the semiarid basin. Ground-water levels in the alluvial-outwash and basin-fill aquifers vary seasonally

  2. Alluvial and bedrock aquifers of the Denver Basin; eastern Colorado's dual ground-water resource

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.

    1989-01-01

    Large volumes of ground water are contained in alluvial and bedrock aquifers in the semiarid Denver basin of eastern Colorado. The bedrock aquifer, for example, contains 1.2 times as much water as Lake Erie of the Great Lakes, yet it supplies only about 9 percent of the ground water used in the basin. Although this seems to indicate underutilization of this valuable water supply, this is not necessarily the case, for many factors other than the volume of water in the aquifer affect the use of the aquifer. Such factors as climatic conditions, precipitation runoff, geology and water-yielding character of the aquifers, water-level conditions, volume of recharge and discharge, legal and economic constraints, and water-quality conditions can ultimately affect the decision to use ground water. Knowledge of the function and interaction of the various parts of this hydrologic system is important to the proper management and use of the ground-water resources of the region. The semiarid climatic conditions on the Colorado plains produce flash floods of short duration and large peak-flow rates. However, snowmelt runoff from the Rocky Mountains produces the largest volumes of water and is typically of longer duration with smaller peak-flow rates. The alluvial aquifer is recharged easily from both types of runoff and readily stores and transmits the water because it consists of relatively thin deposits of gravel, sand, and clay located in the valleys of principal streams. The bedrock aquifer is recharged less easily because of its greater thickness (as much as 3,000 feet) and prevalent layers of shale which retard the downward movement of water in the formations. Although the bedrock aquifer contains more than 50 times as much water in storage as the alluvial aquifer, it does not store and transmit water as readily as the alluvial aquifer. For example, about 91 percent of the water pumped from wells is obtained from the alluvial aquifer, yet water-level declines generally have

  3. Petroleum geology of the Southern Bida Basin, Nigeria

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Braide, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    The Southern Bida basin is located in central Nigeria and is a major sedimentary area with a 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. However, it is the least understood of Nigeria's sedimentary basins because serious oil and gas exploration has not been undertaken in the basin. The surrounding Precambrian basement rocks experienced severe deformation during the Late Panafrican phase (600 {plus minus} 150 m.y.), and developed megashears that were reactivated during the Late Campanian-Maestrichtian. The ensuing wrenchfault tectonics formed the basin. The sedimentary fill, which comprises the Lokoja Formation are chiefly, if not wholly, nonmarine clastics. These have been characterized into facies thatmore » rapidly change from basin margin to basin axis, and have undergone only relatively mild tectonic distortion. Subsurface relations of the Lokoja Formation are postulated from outcrop study. The potential source rocks are most likely within the basinal axis fill and have not been deeply buried based on vitrinite reflectance of <0.65%. These findings, with the largely nonmarine depositional environment, suggest gas and condensate are the most likely hydrocarbons. Alluvial fans and deltaic facies that interfinger with lacustrine facies provide excellent reservoir capabilities. Potential traps for hydrocarbon accumulation were formed by a northwest-southeast-trending Campanian-Maestrichtian wrench system with associated northeast-southwest-oriented normal faults. The traps include strata in alluvial fans, fractured uplifted basement blocks, and arched strata over uplifted blocks. However, the size of hydrocarbon accumulations could be limited to some extent by a lack of effective hydrocarbon seal, because the dominant seals in the formation are unconformities.« less

  4. Hydrogeologic features of the alluvial deposits in the Nowood River drainage area, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, M.E.; Head, William J.

    1979-01-01

    In the Nowood River drainage area, Wyoming, the principal deposits comprising the alluvial aquifer include the flood-plain and younger (generally undissected) alluvial-fan deposits and a unique boulder-fan gravel. Other deposits mapped, but virtually nonwater yielding, are the older (dissected) alluvial-fan, pediment, and terrace deposits. Terraces are capped by gravel and form levels at 30-40, 45-100, 120-150, 200-260, and 280-330 feet above the Nowood River. The thickness of the alluvial aquifer indicated from the sparse well-log data and 42 surface resistivity measurements is between 25 and 50 feet along the Nowood River and more than 60 feet along Tensleep and Paint Rock Creeks. The resistivity measurements indicate a buried bedrock ridge below the boulder-fan gravel between Paint Rock and Medicine Lodge Creeks and a buried channel filled by alluvium along Tensleep Creek. Well yields from the alluvial aquifer are estimated to be low. The most favorable areas for ground-water development are from the flood-plain alluvium along Tensleep Creek and from the boulder-fan gravel and adjoining flood-plain alluvium along Paint Rock and Medicine Creeks. Along the Nowood River the flood-plain alluvium, although its yields are small, has the best potential for ground-water development. (Kosco-USGS)

  5. Hydrogeology and simulation of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers in the upper Black Squirrel Creek basin, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    Anticipated increases in pumping from the bedrock aquifers in El Paso County potentially could affect the direction and rate of flow between the alluvial and bedrock aquifers and lower water levels in the overlying alluvial aquifer. The alluvial aquifer underlies about 90 square miles in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin of eastern El Paso County. The alluvial aquifer consists of unconsolidated alluvial deposits that unconformably overlie siltstones, sandstones, and conglomerate (bedrock aquifers) and claystone, shale, and coal (bedrock confining units) of the Denver Basin. The bedrock aquifers (Dawson, Denver, Arapahoe, and Laramie-Fox Hills aquifers) are separated by confining units (upper and lower Denver and the Laramie confining units) and overlie a relatively thick and impermeable Pierre confining unit. The Pierre confining unit is assumed to be a no-flow boundary at the base of the alluvial/ bedrock aquifer system. During 1949-90, substantial water-level declines, as large as 50 feet, in the alluvial aquifer resulted from withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation and municipal supplies. Average recharge to the alluvial aquifer from infiltration of precipitation and surface water was an estimated 11.97 cubic feet per second and from the underlying bedrock aquifers was an estimated 0.87 cubic foot per second. Water-level data from eight bedrock observation wells and eight nearby alluvial wells indicate that, locally, the alluvial and bedrock aquifers probably are hydraulically connected and that the alluvial aquifer in the upper Black Squirrel Creek Basin receives recharge from the Denver and Arapahoe aquifers but-locally recharges the Laramie-Fox Hills aquifer. Subsurface-temperature profiles were evaluated as a means of estimating specific discharge across the bedrock surface (the base of the alluvial aquifer). However, assumptions of the analytical method were not met by field conditions and, thus, analyses of subsurface-temperature profiles

  6. Regional groundwater-flow model of the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and alluvial basin aquifer systems of northern and central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pool, D.R.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Leake, Stanley A.; Graser, Leslie F.

    2011-01-01

    A numerical flow model (MODFLOW) of the groundwater flow system in the primary aquifers in northern Arizona was developed to simulate interactions between the aquifers, perennial streams, and springs for predevelopment and transient conditions during 1910 through 2005. Simulated aquifers include the Redwall-Muav, Coconino, and basin-fill aquifers. Perennial stream reaches and springs that derive base flow from the aquifers were simulated, including the Colorado River, Little Colorado River, Salt River, Verde River, and perennial reaches of tributary streams. Simulated major springs include Blue Spring, Del Rio Springs, Havasu Springs, Verde River headwater springs, several springs that discharge adjacent to major Verde River tributaries, and many springs that discharge to the Colorado River. Estimates of aquifer hydraulic properties and groundwater budgets were developed from published reports and groundwater-flow models. Spatial extents of aquifers and confining units were developed from geologic data, geophysical models, a groundwater-flow model for the Prescott Active Management Area, drill logs, geologic logs, and geophysical logs. Spatial and temporal distributions of natural recharge were developed by using a water-balance model that estimates recharge from direct infiltration. Additional natural recharge from ephemeral channel infiltration was simulated in alluvial basins. Recharge at wastewater treatment facilities and incidental recharge at agricultural fields and golf courses were also simulated. Estimates of predevelopment rates of groundwater discharge to streams, springs, and evapotranspiration by phreatophytes were derived from previous reports and on the basis of streamflow records at gages. Annual estimates of groundwater withdrawals for agriculture, municipal, industrial, and domestic uses were developed from several sources, including reported withdrawals for nonexempt wells, estimated crop requirements for agricultural wells, and estimated per

  7. Dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams in the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Bauch, Nancy J.; Gerner, Steven J.; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Hamlin, Scott N.; Moore, Stephanie J.; Schaefer, Donald H.; Anderholm, Scott K.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program performed a regional study in the Southwestern United States (Southwest) to describe the status and trends of dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams and to determine the natural and human factors that affect dissolved solids. Basin-fill aquifers, which include the Rio Grande aquifer system, Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, and California Coastal Basin aquifers, are the most extensively used ground-water supplies in the Southwest. Rivers, such as the Colorado, the Rio Grande, and their tributaries, are also important water supplies, as are several smaller river systems that drain internally within the Southwest, or drain externally to the Pacific Ocean in southern California. The study included four components that characterize (1) the spatial distribution of dissolved-solids concentrations in basin-fill aquifers, and dissolved-solids concentrations, loads, and yields in streams; (2) natural and human factors that affect dissolved-solids concentrations; (3) major sources and areas of accumulation of dissolved solids; and (4) trends in dissolved-solids concentrations over time in basin-fill aquifers and streams, and the relation of trends to natural or human factors.

  8. Old Basin Filled by Smooth Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Old basin, 190 km in diameter, filled by smooth plains at 43 degrees S, 55 degrees W. The basin's hummocky rim is partly degraded and cratered by later events. Mariner 10 frame 166607.

    The Mariner 10 mission, managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for NASA's Office of Space Science, explored Venus in February 1974 on the way to three encounters with Mercury-in March and September 1974 and in March 1975. The spacecraft took more than 7,000 photos of Mercury, Venus, the Earth and the Moon.

    Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

  9. Quantifying sediment dynamics on alluvial fans, Iglesia basin, south Central Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, Rebekah; Kirstein, Linda; Whittaker, Alex; Attal, Mikael; Peralta, Silvio

    2017-04-01

    Qualitative interpretations of environmental change drawn from alluvial fan stratigraphy typically tie the deposition of greater volumes of coarser sediment to wetter climatic periods. For example, step changes in sediment flux and discharge associated with glacial-interglacial cycles are often linked to the progradation and back stepping of a fan's toe (Harvey et al, 2002). Indeed, more recent quantitative stratigraphic models demonstrate changes in the volume and calibre of sediment fluxed from an uplifted catchment can produce predictable shifts in the rate at which fluvial deposits fine downstream (Duller et al. 2010, Armitage et al. 2011). These interpretations, however, make three important assumptions: 1) the volume and calibre of the sediment transferred from an eroding mountain belt to a depositional basin is directly related to climate through some value of time-averaged discharge or catchment wetness; 2) lateral sources of sediment, such as tributaries, do not significantly influence the pattern of deposition in a basin and, similarly, 3) the reworking of older fan surfaces is minimal and does not impact the depositional pattern of younger deposits. Here we demonstrate each of these assumptions underestimates the importance of variance in transportable grain sizes in influencing the local and basin-wide deposited grain size trends. Using the Iglesia basin in the Argentine south Central Andes as a natural laboratory, we compare three large, adjacent, alluvial fan systems whose catchments experience the same background tectonic and climatic forcing. We find regional climate forcing is not expressed uniformly in the downstream grain size fining rates of their modern systems. Furthermore, we observe the variance in transportable grain sizes supplied from each primary catchment and the variance of material introduced by tributaries and fan surfaces downstream can act as first order controls on the rate of downstream fining. We also raise the importance of

  10. Stages of the development of alluvial soils in the Bikin River valley (the Amur River basin) in the Middle and Late Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarkina, A. V.; Belyanin, P. S.

    2014-05-01

    The evolution of alluvial soils in the Bikin River basin in the Middle and the Late Holocene is discussed. On the basis of biostratigraphic data, four pollen zones have been identified in the soils: Pinus koraiensis- Picea, Pinus koraiensis- Quercus- Sphagnum, Betula- Alnus- Alnaster, and Quercus. A set of soil characteristics (texture, acid-base properties, and the organic matter content and group composition) have also been determined. These data allow us to distinguish between four stages of alluvial soil formation in the Bikin River basin. They characterize humus-forming conditions in the Middle and the Late Holocene. Reconstruction of ancient vegetation conditions makes it possible to conclude that climatic fluctuations were synchronous with changes in the soil characteristics. During the Holocene climatic optimum, humus was formed in a slightly acid medium, and humic acids predominated. In cold periods with increased precipitation, fulvic acids predominated in the composition of humus, and the portion of insoluble residue was high because of the more acid medium. The stages of alluvial pedogenesis in the Bikin River valley follow the sedimentation model of soil evolution. Alluvial gray humus soils evolved from typical gray humus soils under meadow communities during warm periods to gleyic and gleyed soils under birch shrubs and alder groves in colder and wetter periods.

  11. Stratigraphy and tectonic history of the Tucson Basin, Pima County, Arizona, based on the Exxon state (32)-1 well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houser, Brenda B.; Peters, Lisa; Esser, Richard P.; Gettings, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    sedimentary rocks consist of alluvial-fan, alluvial-plain, and playa facies. The uppermost unit, a 341-m-thick (1,120-ft) lower Pleistocene and upper Pliocene alluvial-fan deposit (named the Cienega Creek fan in this study), is an important aquifer in the Tucson basin. The facies change at the base of the alluvial fan may prove to be recognizable in well data throughout much of the basin. The well data show that a sharp boundary at 908 m (2,980 ft) separates relatively unconsolidated and undeformed upper basin fill from denser, significantly faulted lower basin fill, indicating that there were two stages of basin filling in the Tucson basin as in other basins of the region. The two stages apparently occurred during times of differing tectonic style in the region. In the Tucson area the Pantano Formation, which contains an andesite flow dated at about 25 Ma, fills a syntectonic basin in the hanging wall of the Catalina detachment fault, reflecting middle Tertiary extension on the fault. The formation in the well is 636 m thick (2,086 ft) and consists of alluvial-fan, playa, and lacustrine sedimentary facies, a lava flow, and rock- avalanche deposits. Analysis of the geophysical logs indicates that a K-Ar date of 23.4 Ma reported previously for the Pantano interval of the well was obtained on selected cuttings collected from a rock-avalanche deposit near the base of the unit and, thus, does not date the Pantano Formation. The middle Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary rocks have an aggregate thickness of 540 m (1,770 ft). We obtained a new 40Ar/ 39Ar age of 26.91+0.18 Ma on biotite sampled at a depth of 2,584-2,609 m (8,478-8,560 ft) from a 169-m-thick (554-ft) silicic tuff in this interval. The volcanic rocks probably correlate with other middle Tertiary volcanic rocks of the area, and the sedimentary rocks may correlate with the Cloudburst and Mineta Formations exposed on the flanks of the San Pedro Basin to the northeast. The Bisbee Group in the Exxon well is 602 m (1,975 f

  12. Transient electromagnetic study of basin fill sediments in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, M.W.; Gray, F.

    2011-01-01

    The Upper San Pedro River Basin in Mexico and the United States is an important riparian corridor that is coming under increasing pressure from growing populations and the associated increase in groundwater withdrawal. Several studies have produced three-dimensional maps of the basin fill sediments in the US portion of the basin but little work has been done in the Mexican portion of the basin. Here, the results of a ground-based transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey in the Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico are presented. These basin fill sediments are characterized by a 10-40 m deep unsaturated surficial zone which is composed primarily of sands and gravels. In the central portion of the basin this unsaturated zone is usually underlain by a shallow clay layer 20-50 m thick. Beneath this may be more clay, as is usually the case near the San Pedro River, or interbedded sand, silt, and clay to a depth of 200-250 m. As you move away from the river, the upper clay layer disappears and the amount of sand in the sediments increases. At 1-2 km away from the river, sands can occupy up to 50% of the upper 200-250 m of the sediment fill. Below this, clays are always present except where bedrock highs are observed. This lower clay layer begins at a depth of about 200 m in the central portion of the basin (250 m or more at distances greater than 1-2 km from the river) and extends to the bottom of most profiles to depths of 400 m. While the depth of the top of this lower clay layer is probably accurate, its thickness observed in the models may be overestimated due to the relatively low magnetic moment of the TEM system used in this study. The inversion routine used for interpretation is based on a one-dimensional geologic model. This is a layer based model that is isotropic in both the x and y directions. Several survey soundings did not meet this requirement which invalidates the inversion process and the resulting interpretation at these locations. The results from these

  13. Conceptual understanding and groundwater quality of selected basin-fill aquifers in the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey has been conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems in the southwestern United States (hereinafter, “Southwest”) since 2005. Part of the NAWQA Program, the objective of the Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is to develop a better understanding of water quality in basin-fill aquifers in the region by synthesizing information from case studies of 15 basins into a common set of important natural and human-related factors found to affect groundwater quality.The synthesis consists of three major components:1. Summary of current knowledge about the groundwater systems, and the status of, changes in, and influential factors affecting quality of groundwater in basin-fill aquifers in 15 basins previously studied by NAWQA (this report).2. Development of a conceptual model of the primary natural and human-related factors commonly affecting groundwater quality, thereby building a regional understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contaminants.3. Development of statistical models that relate the concentration or occurrence of specific chemical constituents in groundwater to natural and human-related factors linked to the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to contamination.Basin-fill aquifers occur in about 200,000 mi2 of the 410,000 mi2 SWPA study area and are the primary source of groundwater supply for cities and agricultural communities. Four of the principal aquifers or aquifer systems of the United States are included in the basin-fill aquifers of the study area: (1) the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona; (2) the Rio Grande aquifer system in New Mexico and Colorado; (3) the California Coastal Basin aquifers; and (4) the Central Valley aquifer system in California. Because of the generally limited availability of surface-water supplies in

  14. Regional potentiometric-surface map of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in Snake Valley and surrounding areas, Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, Philip M.; Masbruch, Melissa D.; Plume, Russell W.; Buto, Susan G.

    2011-01-01

    Water-level measurements from 190 wells were used to develop a potentiometric-surface map of the east-central portion of the regional Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system in and around Snake Valley, eastern Nevada and western Utah. The map area covers approximately 9,000 square miles in Juab, Millard, and Beaver Counties, Utah, and White Pine and Lincoln Counties, Nevada. Recent (2007-2010) drilling by the Utah Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey has provided new data for areas where water-level measurements were previously unavailable. New water-level data were used to refine mapping of the pathways of intrabasin and interbasin groundwater flow. At 20 of these locations, nested observation wells provide vertical hydraulic gradient data and information related to the degree of connection between basin-fill aquifers and consolidated-rock aquifers. Multiple-year water-level hydrographs are also presented for 32 wells to illustrate the aquifer system's response to interannual climate variations and well withdrawals.

  15. Aerial Transient Electromagnetic Surveys of Alluvial Aquifers in Rural Watersheds of Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D. R.; Callegary, J. B.; Groom, R. W.

    2006-12-01

    Development in rural areas of Arizona has led the State of Arizona (Arizona Department of Water Resources), in cooperation with the Arizona Water Science Center of the U.S. Geological Survey, to sponsor investigations of the hydrogeologic framework of several alluvial-basin aquifers. An efficient method for mapping the aquifer extent and lithology was needed due to sparse subsurface information. Aerial Transient Electro-Magnetic (ATEM) methods were selected because they can be used to quickly survey large areas and with a great depth of investigation. Both helicopter and fixed-wing ATEM methods are available. A fixed-wing method (GEOTEM) was selected because of the potential for a depth of investigation of 300 m or more and because previous surveys indicated the method is useful in alluvial basins in southeastern Arizona. About 2,900 km of data along flight lines were surveyed across five alluvial basins, including the Middle San Pedro and Willcox Basins in southeastern Arizona, and Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Basins in northwestern Arizona. Data initially were analyzed by the contractor (FUGRO Airborne Surveys) to produce conductivity-depth-transforms, which approximate the general subsurface electrical-property distribution along profiles. Physically based two-dimensional physical models of the profile data were then developed by PetRos- Eikon by using EMIGMA software. Hydrologically important lithologies can have different electrical properties. Several types of crystalline and sedimentary rocks generally are poor aquifers that have low porosity and high electrical resistivity. Good alluvial aquifers of sand and gravel generally have an intermediate electrical resistivity. Poor aquifer materials, such as silt and clay, and areas of poor quality water have low electrical resistivity values. Several types of control data were available to constrain the models including drill logs, electrical logs, water levels , and water quality information from wells; and

  16. Geology and Geophysical Surveys to Infer the Structure of the Upper San Pedro River Basin, Sonora, Mexico for Use in a Ground-Water-Flow Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pool, D.; Gray, F.; Callegary, J. B.

    2005-05-01

    Data on geology and geophysics in the San Pedro River Basin in Sonora, Mexico were combined to develop a three-dimensional conceptual model of the alluvial-fill aquifer in the basin that is being used to construct a regional ground-water-flow model. In Mexico, the headwater region of the river encompasses approximately 1,800 square kilometers of an ungaged catchment system. This feeds a 58 kilometer-long series of intermittent and perennial stream reaches in the United States that extend from just north of the international border to the town of St. David, Arizona. The river forms part of a north-south riparian corridor that provides habitat for more than 100 resident and 250 migratory bird species. Ground water in the basin is used extensively on both sides of the border and information on basin structure and composition will help to address questions regarding ground- and surface-water sustainability and planning. Interpretations of bedrock and alluvial-fill geometry indicate that a significant portion of the catchment area in Mexico is underlain by bedrock composed of highly indurated (compacted) Cretaceous sedimentary, volcanic, volcano-sedimentary, and granitic intrusive rocks. Aeromagnetic surveys were used to estimate depth to bedrock underlying alluvial sediments. Satellite photographs, older geologic maps, and recent field observations were used to delineate the boundaries between bedrock and alluvium. About 655 square kilometers, or 36 percent, of the Mexican portion of the river basin is underlain by alluvial fill. In the southern part of the study area, detailed information on thickness and composition of subsurface layers to depths of 500 meters was derived from drill logs. An extensive network of vertical electrical soundings covering much of the central part of the basin allowed for estimates of the location and thickness of clay layers that are confining units within the aquifer system. Across much of the area, the thickness of the silt and

  17. Conceptual model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Brooks, Lynette E.

    2011-01-01

    A conceptual model of the Great Basin carbonate and alluvial aquifer system (GBCAAS) was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for a regional assessment of groundwater availability as part of a national water census. The study area is an expansion of a previous USGS Regional Aquifer Systems Analysis (RASA) study conducted during the 1980s and 1990s of the carbonate-rock province of the Great Basin. The geographic extent of the study area is 110,000 mi2, predominantly in eastern Nevada and western Utah, and includes 165 hydrographic areas (HAs) and 17 regional groundwater flow systems.A three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework was constructed that defines the physical geometry and rock types through which groundwater moves. The diverse sedimentary units of the GBCAAS study area are grouped into hydrogeologic units (HGUs) that are inferred to have reasonably distinct hydrologic properties due to their physical characteristics. These HGUs are commonly disrupted by large-magnitude offset thrust, strike-slip, and normal faults, and locally affected by caldera formation. The most permeable aquifer materials within the study area include Cenozoic unconsolidated sediments and volcanic rocks, along with Mesozoic and Paleozoic carbonate rocks. The framework was built by extracting and combining information from digital elevation models, geologic maps, cross sections, drill hole logs, existing hydrogeologic frameworks, and geophysical data.

  18. Characterization of hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium and basin fill, Pinal Creek Basin near Globe, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angeroth, Cory E.

    2002-01-01

    Acidic waters containing elevated concentrations of dissolved metals have contaminated the regional aquifer in the Pinal Creek Basin, which is in Gila County, Arizona, about 100 kilometers east of Phoenix. The aquifer is made up of two geologic units: unconsolidated stream alluvium and consolidated basin fill. To better understand how contaminants are transported through these units, a better understanding of the distribution of hydraulic conductivity and processes that affect it within the aquifer is needed. Slug tests were done in September 1997 and October 1998 on 9 wells finished in the basin fill and 14 wells finished in the stream alluvium. Data from the tests were analyzed by using either the Bouwer and Rice (1976) method, or by using an extension to the method developed by Springer and Gellhar (1991). Both methods are applicable for unconfined aquifers and partially penetrating wells. The results of the analyses show wide variability within and between the two geologic units. Hydraulic conductivity estimates ranged from 0.5 to 250 meters per day for the basin fill and from 3 to 200 meters per day for the stream alluvium. Results of the slug tests also show a correlation coefficient of 0.83 between the hydraulic conductivity and the pH of the ground water. The areas of highest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of lowest pH, and the areas of lowest hydraulic conductivity coincide with the areas of highest pH, suggesting that the acidic water is increasing the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer by dissolution of carbonate minerals.

  19. Mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin, central New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderholm, Scott K.

    2000-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge, which generally occurs along the margins of alluvial basins, can be a large part of total recharge to the aquifer system in such basins. Mountain-front recharge occurs as the result of infiltration of flow from streams that have headwaters in the mountainous areas adjacent to alluvial basins and ground- water flow from the aquifers in the mountainous areas to the aquifer in the alluvial basin. This report presents estimates of mountain-front recharge to the basin-fill aquifer along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin in central New Mexico. The basin is a structural feature that contains a large thickness of basin-fill deposits, which compose the main aquifer in the basin. The basin is bounded along the eastern side by mountains composed of crystalline rocks of Precambrian age and sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age. Precipitation is much larger in the mountains than in the basin; many stream channels debouch from the mountainous area to the basin. Chloride-balance and water-yield regression methods were used to estimate mountain-front recharge. The chloride-balance method was used to calculate a chloride balance in watersheds in the mountainous areas along the eastern side of the basin (subareas). The source of chloride to these watersheds is bulk precipitation (wet and dry deposition). Chloride leaves these watersheds as mountain-front recharge. The water-yield regression method was used to determine the streamflow from the mountainous watersheds at the mountain front. This streamflow was assumed to be equal to mountain-front recharge because most of this streamflow infiltrates and recharges the basin-fill aquifer. Total mountain-front recharge along the eastern side of the Middle Rio Grande Basin was estimated to be about 11,000 acre- feet per year using the chloride-balance method and about 36,000 and 38,000 acre-feet per year using two water-yield regression equations. There was a large range in the recharge estimates in a

  20. A postglacial chronology for some alluvial valleys in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere; Miller, John P.

    1954-01-01

    Alluvial terraces were studied in several major river basins in eastern Wyoming. Three terraces are present along nearly all the streams and large tributaries. There are several extensive dissected erosion surfaces in the area, but these are much older than, and stand well above, the recent alluvial terraces with which this report is concerned.The three alluvial terraces stand respectively about 40, 10, and 5 feet above the present streams. The uppermost and oldest is a fill terrace comprised of three stratigraphic units of varying age. The oldest unit is Pleistocene and the youngest unit postdates the development of a soil zone, or paleosol, which is characterized by strong accumulation of calcium carbonate and gypsum. This paleosol is an important stratigraphic marker. The middle terrace is generally a cut terrace and is developed on the material making up the youngest alluvium of the high terrace. The lowest is a fill terrace, the surface of which is only slightly higher than the present flood plain.The oldest terrace can tentatively be traced into mountain valleys of the Bighorn Range on the basis of discontinuous remnants. The terrace remnants occur far upstream from the youngest moraine in the valleys studied. On this basis, the terrace sequence is considered to postdate the last Wisconsin ice in the Bighorn Mountains. The paleosol is tentatively correlated with Altithermal time, called in Europe the Climatic Optimum. The terrace sequence is very similar to that suggested by various workers in the southwestern United States.Two streams, Clear Creek and the Powder River, deposited comparable silty alluvium, the surface of which now comprises the highest alluvial terrace. The gradients of these former flood plains differed markedly between the two streams despite the comparability in size of material deposited. This difference in gradient is believed to have required different relative contributions of water from mountain and plain areas than now exist

  1. Diffraction of seismic waves from 3-D canyons and alluvial basins modeled using the Fast Multipole-accelerated BEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaillat, S.; Bonnet, M.; Semblat, J.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic wave propagation and amplification in complex media is a major issue in the field of seismology. To compute seismic wave propagation in complex geological structures such as in alluvial basins, various numerical methods have been proposed. The main advantage of the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is that only the domain boundaries (and possibly interfaces) are discretized, leading to a reduction of the number of degrees of freedom. The main drawback of the standard BEM is that the governing matrix is full and non- symmetric, which gives rise to high computational and memory costs. In other areas where the BEM is used (electromagnetism, acoustics), considerable speedup of solution time and decrease of memory requirements have been achieved through the development, over the last decade, of the Fast Multipole Method (FMM). The goal of the FMM is to speed up the matrix-vector product computation needed at each iteration of the GMRES iterative solver. Moreover, the governing matrix is never explicitly formed, which leads to a storage requirement well below the memory necessary for holding the complete matrix. The FMM-accelerated BEM therefore achieves substantial savings in both CPU time and memory. In this work, the FMM is extended to the 3-D frequency-domain elastodynamics and applied to the computation of seismic wave propagation in 3-D. The efficiency of the present FMM-BEM is demonstrated on seismology- oriented examples. First, the diffraction of a plane wave or a point source by a 3-D canyon is studied. The influence of the size of the meshed part of the free surface is studied, and computations are performed for non- dimensional frequencies higher than those considered in other studies (thanks to the use of the FM-BEM), with which comparisons are made whenever possible. The method is also applied to analyze the diffraction of a plane wave or a point source by a 3-D alluvial basin. A parametrical study is performed on the effect of the shape of the basin

  2. Evolution and palaeoenvironment of the Bauru Basin (Upper Cretaceous, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Luiz Alberto; Magalhães Ribeiro, Claudia Maria

    2015-08-01

    The Bauru Basin was one of the great Cretaceous desert basins of the world, evolved in arid zone called Southern Hot Arid Belt. Its paleobiological record consists mainly of dinosaurs, crocodiles and turtles. The Bauru Basin is an extensive region of the South American continent that includes parts of the southeast and south of Brazil, covering an area of 370,000 km2. It is an interior continental basin that developed as a result of subsidence of the central-southern part of the South-American Platform during the Late Cretaceous (Coniacian-Maastrichtian). This sag basin is filled by a sandy siliciclastic sequence with a preserved maximum thickness of 480 m, deposited in semiarid to desert conditions. Its basement consists of volcanic rocks (mainly basalts) of the Lower Cretaceous (Hauterivian) Serra Geral basalt flows, of the Paraná-Etendeka Continental Flood Basalt Province. The sag basin was filled by an essentially siliciclastic psammitic sequence. In lithostratigraphic terms the sequence consists of the Caiuá and Bauru groups. The northern and northeastern edges of the basin provide a record of more proximal original deposits, such as associations of conglomeratic sand facies from alluvial fans, lakes, and intertwined distributary river systems. The progressive basin filling led to the burial of the basaltic substrate by extensive blanket sand sheets, associated with deposits of small dunes and small shallow lakes that retained mud (such as loess). Also in this intermediate context between the edges (more humid) and the interior (dry), wide sand sheet areas crossed by unconfined desert rivers (wadis) occurred. In the central axis of the elliptical basin a regional drainage system formed, flowing from northeast to southwest between the edges of the basin and the hot and dry inner periphery of the Caiuá desert (southwest). Life in the Bauru Basin flourished most in the areas with the greatest water availability, in which dinosaurs, crocodiles, turtles, fish

  3. Study plan for the regional aquifer-system analysis of alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and adjacent states

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, T.W.

    1980-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has started a 4-year study of the alluvial basins in south-central Arizona and parts of California , Nevada, and New Mexico to describe the hydrologic setting, available groundwater resources, and effects of historical development on the groundwater system. To aid in the study, mathematical models of selected basins will be developed for appraising local and regional flow systems. Major components necessary to accomplish the study objectives include the accumulation of existing data on groundwater quantity and quality, entering the data into a computer file, identification of data deficiencies, and development of a program to remedy the deficiencies by collection of additional data. The approach to the study will be to develop and calibrate models of selected basins for which sufficient data exist and to develop interpretation-transfer techniques whereby general predevelopment and postdevelopment conceptual models of the hydrologic system in other basins may be synthesized. The end result of the project will be a better definition of the hydrologic parameters and a better understanding of the workings of the hydrologic system. The models can be used to study the effects of management alternatives and water-resources development on the system. (USGS)

  4. Magnetostratigraphy of The Astronomically-forced Alluvial Fan To Lacustrine Sequences of The Teruel Basin (late Miocene, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, J.; Aziz, H. Abdul; Hilgen, F. J.; Krijgsman, W.

    During the last years, more and more examples of allocyclic, astronomical forced variations in the continental record have been documented. Sedimentary hiatuses, tra- ditionally regarded as the primary reason for the absence of clear patterns of orbital signature in the terrestrial domain, may be absent or short, given the appropriate set- ting. Spanish endoreic basins, for instance, form a ideal setting for the registration of orbital-forced climate change, as has been demonstrated for the Middle Miocene distal-alluvial fan-floodplain to lacustrine deposits of the Calatayud Basin. Astronom- ical forcing of sedimentary cycles has also been demonstrated in the Late Miocene distal alluvial fan to lacustrine sequences of the Teruel Basin. The early Late Miocene Cascante and Cañizar sections South of the town of Teruel show distinct cyclic bed- ding of red and/or green mottled mudstones alternating with white carbonate beds, whereby the alternation is mainly controlled by precession and eccentricity. The car- bonate beds are interpreted as (shallow) lake highstands, which occur in response to submergence of the alluvial fan distal plain. Small mammal teeth have been recov- ered from organic-richer layers at the base of the carbonate cycles in the Cascante and Cañizar sections. The recovery of mammal remains in terrestrial Milankovitch forced settings is crucial for several reasons: 1) it provides a first approximate age estimation for the sequence, thereby constraining other sources of temporal information such as magnetostratigraphy; 2) it infers very accurate ages of the mammal localities after as- tronomical tuning of the cyclic patterns; 3) it formulates hypotheses on the climatic regime and its variability using precise correlations to the insolation curve and in- terpretation of phase relations; and 4) it confronts the astronomically-based climatic reconstruction with the paleoecological reconstructions and faunal changes observed in the mammals themselves

  5. Groundwater quality in the Basin and Range Basin-Fill Aquifers, southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers constitute one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 20 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 49 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  6. Analysis of the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin, Monterey County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kapple, Glenn W.; Mitten, Hugh T.; Durbin, Timothy J.; Johnson, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional, finite-element, digital model was developed for the Carmel Valley alluvial ground-water basin using measured, computed, and estimated discharge and recharge data for the basin. Discharge data included evapotranspiration by phreatophytes and agricultural, municipal, and domestic pumpage. Recharge data included river leakage, tributary runoff, and pumping return flow. Recharge from subsurface boundary flow and rainfall infiltration was assumed to be insignificant. From 1974 through 1978, the annual pumping rate ranged from 5,900 to 9,100 acre-feet per year with 55 percent allotted to municipal use principally exported out of the valley, 44 percent to agricultural use, and 1 percent to domestic use. The pumpage return flow within the valley ranged from 900 to 1,500 acre-feet per year. The aquifer properties of transmissivity (about 5,900 feet squared per day) and of the storage coefficient (0.19) were estimated from an average alluvial thickness of 75 feet and from less well-defined data on specific capacity and grain-size distribution. During calibration the values estimated for hydraulic conductivity and storage coefficient for the lower valley were reduced because of the smaller grain size there. The river characteristics were based on field and laboratory analyses of hydraulic conductivity and on altitude survey data. The model is intended principally for simulation of flow conditions using monthly time steps. Time variations in transmissivity and short-term, highrecharge potential are included in the model. The years 1974 through 1978 (including "pre-" and "post-" drought) were selected because of the extreme fluctuation in water levels between the low levels measured during dry years and the above-normal water levels measured during the preceding and following wet years. Also, during this time more hydrologic information was available. Significantly, computed water levels were generally within a few feet of the measured levels, and computed

  7. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a regional analysis of water quality in the principal aquifer systems across the United States. The Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study is building a better understanding of the susceptibility and vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the region to groundwater contamination by synthesizing baseline knowledge of groundwater-quality conditions in 16 basins previously studied by the NAWQA Program. The improved understanding of aquifer susceptibility and vulnerability to contamination is assisting in the development of tools that water managers can use to assess and protect the quality of groundwater resources.Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate con­tamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamina­tion and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explana­tory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions. The classifiers were unbiased and fit the observed data well, and misclassifications were primarily due to statistical sampling error in the training datasets.The classifiers were designed to predict concentrations to be in one of six classes for nitrate, and one of seven classes for arsenic. Each classification scheme allowed for identification of areas with concentrations that were equal to or exceeding

  8. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    Paleoclimatic reconstructions from terrestrial records are crucial to assess the regional variability of past climates. Despite the apparent direct connection between continental sedimentary environments and climate, interpreting the climatic signature in ancient non-marine sedimentary sequences is often overprinted by source-area related signals. In this regard, foreland basins appear as non-ideal targets as tectonically-driven subsidence and uplift play a major control on the distribution and evolution of sedimentary environments and facies. Foreland basins, however, often yield among the thickest and most continuous stratigraphic records available on continents. The Ebro Basin (north-eastern Spain) is of particular interest among the circum-mediterranean alpine foreland basins because it evolved into a land-locked closed basin since the late Eocene, leading to the accumulation of an exceptionally thick (>5500 m) and continuous sequence of alluvial-lacustrine sediments over a period of about 25 Myr. In this paper we present a detailed cyclostratigraphic study of a 115 m thick section in the Bardenas Reales de Navarra region (western Ebro Basin) in order to test orbital forcing in the Milankovitch frequency band. The study section corresponds to the distal alluvial-playa mud flats which developed in the central sector of the western Ebro Basin, with sediments sourced from both the Pyrenean and Iberian Ranges. Sediments consist of brown-red alluvial clay packages containing minor fine-grained laminated sandstones sheet-beds and channels, grey marls and thin bedded lacustrine limestones arranged in 10 to 20 m thick fining-upwards sequences. Red clayed intervals contain abundant nodular gypsum interpreted as representing a phase of arid and low lake level conditions, while grey marls and limestones indicate wetter intervals recording the expansion of the inner shallow lakes. A magnetostratigraphy-based chronology indicates that the Peñarroya section represents a

  9. Impacts of hydroelectric dams on alluvial riparian plant communities in Eastern Brazilian Amazonian.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leandro Valle; Cunha, Denise A; Chaves, Priscilla P; Matos, Darley C L; Parolin, Pia

    2013-09-01

    The major rivers of the Amazon River basin and their biota are threatened by the planned construction of large hydroelectric dams that are expected to have strong impacts on floodplain plant communities. The present study presents forest inventories from three floodplain sites colonized by alluvial riparian vegetation in the Tapajós, Xingu and Tocantins River basins in eastern Amazonian. Results indicate that tree species of the highly specialized alluvial riparian vegetation are clearly distinct among the three river basins, although they are not very distinct from each other and environmental constraints are very similar. With only 6 of 74 species occurring in all three inventories, most tree and shrub species are restricted to only one of the rivers, indicating a high degree of local distribution. Different species occupy similar environmental niches, making these fragile riparian formations highly valuable. Conservation plans must consider species complementarily when decisions are made on where to place floodplain forest conservation units to avoid the irreversible loss of unique alluvial riparian vegetation biodiversity.

  10. Maps of estimated nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Anning, David W.; Paul, Angela P.; McKinney, Tim S.; Huntington, Jena M.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Thiros, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Human-health concerns and economic considerations associated with meeting drinking-water standards motivated a study of the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment in the southwestern United States. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid representing about 190,600 square miles of basin-fill aquifers in parts of Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah. The statistical models, referred to as classifiers, reflect natural and human-related factors that affect aquifer vulnerability to contamination and relate nitrate and arsenic concentrations to explanatory variables representing local- and basin-scale measures of source and aquifer susceptibility conditions. Geochemical variables were not used in concentration predictions because they were not available for the entire study area. The models were calibrated to assess model accuracy on the basis of measured values.Only 2 percent of the area underlain by basin-fill aquifers in the study area was predicted to equal or exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard for nitrate as N (10 milligrams per liter), whereas 43 percent of the area was predicted to equal or exceed the standard for arsenic (10 micrograms per liter). Areas predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for nitrate include basins in central Arizona near Phoenix; the San Joaquin Valley, the Santa Ana Inland, and San Jacinto Basins of California; and the San Luis Valley of Colorado. Much of the area predicted to equal or exceed the drinking-water standard for arsenic is within a belt of basins along the western portion of the Basin and Range Physiographic Province that includes almost all of Nevada and parts of California and Arizona. Predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations are substantially lower than the drinking-water standards in much of

  11. Nature and tectonic implications of uneven sedimentary filling of the South China Sea oceanic basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shaoru; Li, Jiabiao; Ding, Weiwei; Fang, Yinxia

    2017-04-01

    The IODP Expedition 349 in 2014, for the first time, illustrated significant differences of sediment rate and lithology in the central South China Sea (SCS) oceanic basin. Based on seismic reflection profiles tied to IODP349 drilling data, we investigated characteristics of sedimentary filling of the whole SCS oceanic basin, and examined their implications for tectonics. Results show that sediments fill the SCS oceanic basin mainly in three depositional patterns. Firstly, during the Oligocene to middle Miocene, sediments amassed almost solely and then connected like a band parallel to the continent in a low average sediment rate (<10 m/Myr) in the northern oceanic basin. These sediments were deposited mainly in the form of submarine fans and mass transport deposits. Sediments were predominately supplied by the Red and Pearl Rivers and the Dongsha Islands. The sedimentary characteristics likely reflect the latest early Miocene end of seafloor spreading of the SCS and the first-phase rapid uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Secondly, during the late Miocene, deposition mainly occurred in the Northwest Sub-basin and extended southeastward with a middle average sediment rate ( 30 m/Myr). Sediments were mostly transported by the Red River and Xisha Trough and deposited in the form of submarine fans. The abnormal increase of sediment rate in the Northwest Sub-basin reflects late Miocene slip reversal of the Red River Fault. Finally, since the Pliocene, sediments gradually propagated northeastward in the Southwestern Sub-basin, and accumulated rapidly in the southeastern and northeastern basin, especially in the northern Manila Trench during the Quaternary, in an average sediment rate about 60-80 m/Myr. These sediments were transported mainly by submarine canyons and settled in the form of submarine fans and canyon-overbank deposition. Sediments came from four major sources, including Taiwan, Dongsha Islands, Mekong River, and northern Palawan. The Pliocene to Quaternary

  12. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P.

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas ofmore » Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.« less

  13. Sedimentation and tectonics in the southern Bida Basin, Nigeria: depositional response to varying tectonic context

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Braide, S.P.

    1990-05-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Bida basin of central Nigeria is sandwiched between the Precambrian schist belts of the Northern Nigerian massif and the West African craton. Of interest is the southern part of the basin, which developed in continental settings, because the facies architecture of the sedimentary fill suggests a close relation between sedimentation dynamics and basin margin tectonics. This relationship is significant to an understanding of the basin's origin, which has been controversial. A simple sag and rift origin has been suggested, and consequently dominated the negative thinking on the hydrocarbon prospects of the basin which were considered poor. Thismore » detailed study of the facies indicates rapid basin-wide changes from various alluvial fan facies through flood-basin and deltaic facies to lacustrine facies. Paleogeographic reconstruction suggests lacustrine environments were widespread and elongate. Lacustrine environments occurred at the basin's axis and close to the margins. This suggests the depocenter must have migrated during the basin's depositional history and subsided rapidly to accommodate the 3.5-km-thick sedimentary fill. Although distinguishing pull-apart basins from rift basins, based solely on sedimentologic grounds, may be difficult, the temporal migration of the depocenter, as well as the basin architecture of upward coarsening cyclicity, show a strong tectonic and structural overprint that suggests a tectonic framework for the Southern Bida basin similar in origin to a pull-apart basin.« less

  14. Insights into alluvial fan dynamics: Evolution of the Miocene Elephant Trees Formation, Anza Borrego Desert, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steel, E.; Simkins, L. M.; Reynolds, L.; Fidler, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    The Cenozoic Fish Creek - Vallecito Basin formed through extension and transtention associated with the localization of the Pacific-North American plate boundary in the Salton Trough region of Southern California. The exhumation of this basin along the hanging wall of the West Salton Detachment Fault since 1 Ma exposed a well-preserved sedimentary sequence that records an abrupt shift from the alluvial and fluvial deposits of the Elephant Trees Formation to the marine turbidites of the Latrania Formation. This transition marks the rapid marine incursion into the Gulf of California at 6.3 Ma (Dorsey et al., 2011). The Elephant Trees Formation is, therefore, a key transitional unit for understanding environmental change during the early stages of basin formation and the initial opening of the Gulf of California. Here, we present a detailed investigation of the characteristics of the Elephant Trees Formation, including bed thickness, clast size, paleoflow indicators, sedimentary structures, and sorting to understand the changing depositional environments associated with the onset of relative plate motion in the Gulf of California - Salton Trough corridor. This study aims to answer key questions regarding both regional tectonics and the dynamics of alluvial fan progradation, including 1) Does the Elephant Trees Formation record initiation of rapid basin subsidence and basinward progradation of alluvial fans? And 2) if so, what insights can the Elephant Trees Formation provide regarding the dynamics of debris flows and alluvial fan evolution? Our results improve understanding of proximal to distal facies variations within alluvial fan deposits and further refine the paleogeography during time of deposition of the Elephant Trees Formation ( 6.3 - 8.0 Ma) leading up to the timing of rapid marine incursion.

  15. Geochemistry of ground water in alluvial basins of Arizona and adjacent parts of Nevada, New Mexico, and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Frederick N.

    1991-01-01

    Chemical and isotope analyses of ground water from 28 basins in the Basin and Range physiographic province of Arizona and parts of adjacent States were used to evaluate ground-water quality, determine processes that control ground-water chemistry, provide independent insight into the hydrologic flow system, and develop information transfer. The area is characterized by north- to northwest-trending mountains separated by alluvial basins that form a regional topography of alternating mountains and valleys. On the basis of ground-water divides or zones of minimal basin interconnection, the area was divided into 72 basins, each representing an individual aquifer system. These systems are joined in a dendritic pattern and collectively constitute the major water resource in the region. Geochemical models were developed to identify reactions and mass transfer responsible for the chemical evolution of the ground water. On the basis of mineralogy and chemistry of the two major rock associations of the area, a felsic model and a mafic model were developed to illustrate geologic, climatic, and physiographic effects on ground-water chemistry. Two distinct hydrochemical processes were identified: (1) reactions of meteoric water with minerals and gases in recharge areas and (2) reactions of ground water as it moves down the hydraulic gradient. Reactions occurring in recharge and downgradient areas can be described by a 13-component system. Major reactions are the dissolution and precipitation of calcite and dolomite, the weathering of feldspars and ferromagnesian minerals, the formation of montmorillonite, iron oxyhydroxides, and probably silica, and, in some basins, ion exchange. The geochemical modeling demonstrated that relatively few phases are required to derive the ground-water chemistry; 14 phases-12 mineral and 2 gas-consistently account for the chemical evolution in each basin. The final phases were selected through analysis of X-ray diffraction and fluorescence data

  16. A Hydrological Tomography Collocated with Time-varying Gravimetry for Hydrogeology -An Example in Yun-Lin Alluvial Plain and Ming-Ju Basin in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K. H.; Cheng, C. C.; Hwang, C.

    2016-12-01

    A new inversion technique featured by the collocation of hydrological modeling and gravimetry observation is presented in this report. Initially this study started from a project attempting to build a sequence of hydrodynamic models of ground water system, which was applied to identify the supplement areas of alluvial plains and basins along the west coast of Taiwan. To calibrate the decent hydro-geological parameters for the modeling, geological evolution were carefully investigated and absolute gravity observations, along with other on-site hydrological monitoring data were specially introduced. It was discovered in the data processing that the time-varying gravimetrical data are highly sensitive to certain boundary conditions in the hydrodynamic model, which are correspondent with respective geological features. A new inversion technique coined by the term "hydrological tomography" is therefore developed by reversing the boundary condition into the unknowns to be solved. An example of accurate estimate for water storage and precipitation infiltration of a costal alluvial plain Yun-Lin is presented. In the mean time, the study of an anticline structure of the upstream basin Ming-Ju is also presented to demonstrate how a geological formation is outlined when the gravimetrical data and hydrodynamic model are re-directed into an inversion.

  17. Preliminary results on quaternary studies from Bajestan Basin (Kavir-e Namak), Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid Padashi, Seyed; Büdel, Christian; Ullmann, Tobias; Tintrup, Angela; Baumhauer, Roland

    2017-04-01

    The increasing population and demand for developing infrastructures on the one hand, and the recent issues on water and air quality on the other hand, in addition to droughts and the shrinking of many wetlands and lakes, have encouraged Iran recently to invest more in palaeoenvironmental research - specifically on quaternary basins. Preliminary results of our study through field work, satellite imagery processing, SRTM data analysis and drilling, have created new insights on the Iranian playas and the history of the lakes. A combined geological and geomorphological approach for studying young lakes and playas of Iran has led to the identification of at least five major types of lakes and playas in different parts of Iran; for example the Bajestan basin which ranks the second biggest playa of Iran, is placed in the edge of the central Iranian microplate and Lut structural block. The Bajestan Playa (Kavir-e Namak) is surrounded by cretaceous limestones in the south and Paleozoic formations in the north. The basin comprises several kinds of quaternary deposits including sand dunes and Aeolian deposits, fluvial sediments, alluvial fans and lake sediments. The aeolian activity in the basin is primarily shaping landforms in the southwest and the north of the area. The major fluvial activity is considered to be driven from east and south of the playa. The integration of field observations and data derived from the analysis of SRTM digital elevation model (90m) and Landsat satellite imagery shows that the major part of the playa has flat slope. In addition, the morphometric assessment and the hydrological modelling showed that the major current alluvial channels have SW/NE trend with the highest density and intensity of activity in south west of the basin. The major alluvial deposits in the north and south of the playa represent a dissimilar geomorphology. While the northern part of the basin, from the rock unit outcrops to the edge of playa, is occupied by a narrow

  18. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Neuquén basin (Argentina) between 39°S and 41°S during the Neogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huyghe, D.; Bonnel, C.; Nivière, B.; Messager, G.; Dhont, D.; Fasentieux, B.; Hervouët, Y.; Xavier, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    are observed from the outer part of the foreland to the intra-mountainous basins. Tertiary sedimentation begins at the end of the Oligocene until the end of the middle Miocene in the Picun Leufu basin. During the paroxysm of the Quechua tectonic phase, (middle Miocene to Pliocene) the Picun Leufu basin is characterised by a sedimentary hiatus of ~10 Ma that illustrates the closure of the Collon Cura basin and a migration to the internal zone of the range of the depocentres. The filling of the Collon Cura basin is characterised by a continental fining upward sequence of a thickness of several hundred meters. This sedimentation begins with lacustrine and alluvial plain paleoenvironments with some syn-eruptive events (ignimbrites) and ends with continental conglomerates and paleosoils. A first reconnexion with the foreland basin occurs at the beginning of the Pliocene, with the deposition of an alluvial fan. Since the end of the Pliocene another anticline grew in the Picun Leufu basin and controlled the deposition of more recent alluvial fans with the arrival of coarse conglomerates (Pampa Curaco and Bayo Messa Formations). The modern drainage network is established during the Pleistocene in the Collon Cura and Picun Leufu basins, which are since only characterised by the construction of erosional surfaces (terraces) and the apparition of the Rio Limay system on the Miocene and Cretaceous deposits.

  19. Tectonic setting of Cretaceous basins on the NE Tibetan Plateau: Insights from the Jungong basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Craddock, W.H.; Kirby, E.; Dewen, Z.; Jianhui, L.

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying the Cenozoic growth of high topography in the Indo-Asian collision zone remains challenging, due in part to significant shortening that occurred within Eurasia before collision. A growing body of evidence suggests that regions far removed from the suture zone experienced deformation before and during the early phases of Himalayan orogenesis. In the present-day north-eastern Tibetan Plateau, widespread deposits of Cretaceous sediment attest to significant basin formation; however, the tectonic setting of these basins remains enigmatic. We present a study of a regionally extensive network of sedimentary basins that are spatially associated with a system of SE-vergent thrust faults and are now exposed in the high ranges of the north-eastern corner of the Tibetan Plateau. We focus on a particularly well-exposed basin, located ~20km north of the Kunlun fault in the Anyemaqen Shan. The basin is filled by ~900m of alluvial sediments that become finer-grained away from the basin-bounding fault. Additionally, beds in the proximal footwall of the basin-bounding fault exhibit progressive, up-section shallowing and several intraformational unconformities which can be traced into correlative conformities in the distal part of the basin. The observations show sediment accumulated in the basin during fault motion. Regional constraints on the timing of sediment deposition are provided by both fossil assemblages from the Early Cretaceous, and by K-Ar dating of volcanic rocks that floor and cross-cut sedimentary fill. We argue that during the Cretaceous, the interior NE Tibetan Plateau experienced NW-SE contractional deformation similar to that documented throughout the Qinling-Dabie orogen to the east. The Songpan-Ganzi terrane apparently marked the southern limit of this deformation, such that it may have been a relatively rigid block in the Tibetan lithosphere, separating regions experiencing deformation north of the convergent Tethyan margin from regions deforming

  20. Sequential filling of a late paleozoic foreland basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mars', J. C.; Thomas, W.A.

    1999-01-01

    Through the use of an extensive data base of geophysical well logs, parasequence-scale subdivisions within a late Paleozoic synorogenic clastic wedge resolve cycles of sequential subsidence of a foreland basin, sediment progradation, subsidence of a carbonate shelf edge, diachronously subsiding discrete depositional centers, and basinwide transgression. Although temporal resolution of biostratigraphic markers is less precise in Paleozoic successions than in younger basins, parasequence-scale subdivisions provide more detailed resolution within marker-defined units in Paleozoic strata. As an example, the late Paleozoic Black Warrior basin in the foreland of the Ouachita thrust belt is filled with a synorogenic clastic wedge, the lower part of which intertongues with the fringe of a cratonic carbonate facie??s in the distal part of the basin. The stratal geometry of one tongue of the carbonate facie??s (lower tongue of Bangor Limestone) defines a ramp that grades basinward into a thin black shale. An overlying tongue of the synorogenic clastic wedge (lower tongue of Parkwood Formation) consists of cyclic delta and delta-front deposits, in which parasequences are defined by marine-flooding surfaces above coarsening- and shallow ing-upward successions of mudstone and sandstone. Within the lower Parkwood tongue, two genetic stratigraphie sequences (A and B) are defined by parasequence offlap and downlap patterns and are bounded at the tops by basinwide maximum-flooding surfaces. The distribution of parasequences within sequences A and B indicates two cycles of sequential subsidence (deepening) and progradation, suggesting subsidence during thrust advance and progradation during thrust quiescence. Parasequence stacking in sequences A and B also indicates diachronous differential tectonic subsidence of two discrete depositional centers within the basin. The uppermost sequence (C) includes reworked sandstones and an overlying shallow-marine limestone, a vertical succession

  1. Facies analysis of Tertiary basin-filling rocks of the Death Valley regional ground-water system and surrounding areas, Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sweetkind, Donald S.; Fridrich, Christopher J.; Taylor, Emily

    2001-01-01

    Existing hydrologic models of the Death Valley region typically have defined the Cenozoic basins as those areas that are covered by recent surficial deposits, and have treated the basin-fill deposits that are concealed under alluvium as a single unit with uniform hydrologic properties throughout the region, and with depth. Although this latter generalization was known to be flawed, it evidently was made because available geologic syntheses did not provide the basis for a more detailed characterization. As an initial attempt to address this problem, this report presents a compilation and synthesis of existing and new surface and subsurface data on the lithologic variations between and within the Cenozoic basin fills of this region. The most permeable lithologies in the Cenozoic basin fills are freshwater limestones, unaltered densely welded tuffs, and little-consolidated coarse alluvium. The least permeable lithologies are playa claystones, altered nonwelded tuffs, and tuffaceous and clay-matrix sediments of several types. In all but the youngest of the basin fills, permeability probably decreases strongly with depth owing to a typically increasing abundance of volcanic ash or clay in the matrices of the clastic sediments with increasing age (and therefore with increasing depth in general), and to increasing consolidation and alteration (both hydrothermal and diagenetic) with increasing depth and age. This report concludes with a categorization of the Cenozoic basins of the Death Valley region according to the predominant lithologies in the different basin fills and presents qualitative constraints on the hydrologic properties of these major lithologic categories.

  2. Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed. Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless. All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency

  3. Lower Eocene alluvial paleosols (Willwood Formation, Northwest Wyoming, U.S.A.) and their significance for paleoecology, paleoclimatology, and basin analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, Thomas M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of northwest Wyoming is a 700 m thick accumulation of alluvial floodplain and channel mudstones and sandstones, nearly all of which show paleopedogenic modifications. Pedogenesis of Willwood sandstones is indicated by taproot and vertebrate and invertebrate bioturbation, early local cementation by calcium carbonate, and thin illuviation cutans on clastic grains. Pedogenesis in Willwood mudstones is indicated by plant bioturbation, insect and other invertebrate burrow casts and lebensspuren; free iron, aluminum, and manganese mobilization, including hydromorphic gleying; sesquioxide and calcareous glaebule formation in lower parts of the solum; presence of clay-rich and organic carbon-rich zones; and well differentiated epipedons and albic and spodic horizons. Probable A horizons are also locally well developed.Occurrence of variegated paleosol units in thick floodplain mudstone deposits and their association with thin, lenticular, and unconnected fluvial sandstones in the Willwood Formation of the central and southeast Bighorn Basin suggest that these soils formed during times of rapid sediment accumulation. The tabular geometry and lateral persistence of soil units as well as the absence of catenization indicate that Willwood floodplains were broad and essentially featureless.All Willwood paleosols were developed on alluvial parent materials and are complex in that B horizons of younger paleosols were commonly superimposed upon and mask properties of suspected A and B horizons of the next older paleosols. The soils appear to be wet varieties of the Spodosol and Entisol groups (aquods and ferrods, and aquents, respectively), though thick, superposed and less mottled red, purple, and yellow paleosols resemble some ultisols. Most Willwood paleosols resemble warm temperate to subtropical alluvial soils that form today under alternating wet and dry conditions and (or) fluctuating water tables. The up-section decrease in frequency of

  4. Climatic controls on arid continental basin margin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Amy; Clarke, Stuart; Richards, Philip; Milodowski, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial fans are both dominant and long-lived within continental basin margin systems. As a result, they commonly interact with a variety of depositional systems that exist at different times in the distal extent of the basin as the basin evolves. The deposits of the distal basin often cycle between those with the potential to act as good aquifers and those with the potential to act as good aquitards. The interactions between the distal deposits and the basin margin fans can have a significant impact upon basin-scale fluid flow. The fans themselves are commonly considered as relatively homogeneous, but their sedimentology is controlled by a variety of factors, including: 1) differing depositional mechanisms; 2) localised autocyclic controls; 3) geometrical and temporal interactions with deposits of the basin centre; and, 4) long-term allocyclic climatic variations. This work examines the basin margin systems of the Cutler Group sediments of the Paradox Basin, western U.S.A and presents generalised facies models for the Cutler Group alluvial fans as well as for the zone of interaction between these fans and the contemporaneous environments in the basin centre, at a variety of scales. Small-scale controls on deposition include climate, tectonics, base level and sediment supply. It has been ascertained that long-term climatic alterations were the main control on these depositional systems. Models have been constructed to highlight how both long-term and short-term alterations in the climatic regime can affect the sedimentation in the basin. These models can be applied to better understand similar, but poorly exposed, alluvial fan deposits. The alluvial fans of the Brockram Facies, northern England form part of a once-proposed site for low-level nuclear waste decommissioning. As such, it is important to understand the sedimentology, three-dimensional geometry, and the proposed connectivity of the deposits from the perspective of basin-scale fluid flow. The developed

  5. Evolution of the alluvial fans of the Luo River in the Weihe Basin, central China, controlled by faulting and climate change - A reevaluation of the paleogeographical setting of Dali Man site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rits, Daniël S.; van Balen, Ronald T.; Prins, Maarten A.; Zheng, Hongbo

    2017-06-01

    The Luo River is located in the southern part of the Chinese Loess Plateau and the northern part of the Weihe Basin, in Central China. In the basin it flows proximal to the site of the Luyang Wetland core, which is an important archive of climate change over the past 1 Myr in this region. In this paper, the contribution of the Luo River to the sedimentary record is analyzed by reconstructing the evolution of this river during the Middle to Late Pleistocene. It is argued that an alluvial fan of the Luo River has contributed to the sedimentary archive until approximately 200-240 ka. From this moment onwards, the fan became incised and terraces began to form. The formation of a new alluvial fan further downstream led to the disconnection of the Luo River from the Luyang Wetland core site. We propose that this series of events was caused by the displacement of an intra-basinal fault and the resultant faulting-forced folding, which caused increased relative subsidence, and thus increased sedimentation rates at the core site. Therefore, a complete sediment record in the 'Luyang Wetland' was preserved, despite the disconnection from the Luo River. The chronology of the fans and terraces was established using existing age control (U-series, ESR, OSL, pIRIR290 and magnetic susceptibility correlation), and through correlation of the loess-paleosol cover to marine isotope stages. Based on sedimentological characteristics of the fluvial sequence, we suggest that incision of the Luo River occurred in two steps. Small incisions took place at transitions to interglacials and the main incision phases occur at the transition from an interglacial to glacial climate. Due to the incision, basal parts of the oldest Luo River alluvial fan are exposed, and it is in one of these exposures that the famous Dali Man skull was retrieved. This study shows that the Dali Man did not live on a river terrace as previously thought, but on an aggrading alluvial fan, during wet, glacial conditions.

  6. Recognition of oolite-filled channels, Ste. Genevieve Formation, Illinois basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bandy, W.F. Jr.

    1991-03-01

    Porous oolitic grainstones in the Ste. Genevieve Formation (Mississippian) of the Illinois basin have typically been viewed as bar-shaped reservoirs. However, a reservoir discovered in the Allendale Pool, southern Lawrence County, is an oolitic grainstone with a channel geometry. A similar, oolite-filled channel has been recognized in southern Lawrence field, approximately 4 miles north of the Allendale channel. This reservoir, previously thought to be a bar, was discovered over 80 years ago is much larger than the Allendale channel. Both reservoirs have proven prolific, with high initial and cumulative productions and relatively little water. In contrast to oolitic bars, whichmore » are convex downward, with relatively greater average thickness and porosities. Laterally, bars thin gradually, whereas channels may thin very abruptly. Similar, undiscovered channels probably occur elsewhere in the Illinois basin.« less

  7. Geomorphologic, stratigraphic and sedimentologic evidences of tectonic activity in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in Middle Ganga Plain, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Sudarsan; Saha, Dipankar

    2014-08-01

    The basement of the Ganga basin in the Himalayan foreland is criss-crossed by several faults, dividing the basin into several sub-blocks forming horsts, grabens, or half-grabens. Tectonic perturbations along basement faults have affected the fluvial regime and extent of sediment fill in different parts of the basin during Late Quaternary. The East Patna Fault (EPF) and the West Patna Fault (WPF), located in Sone-Ganga alluvial tract in the southern marginal parts of Middle Ganga Plain (MGP), have remained tectonically active. The EPF particularly has acted significantly and influenced in evolving the geomorphological landscape and the stratigraphic architecture of the area. The block bounded by the two faults has earlier been considered as a single entity, constituting a half-graben. The present investigation (by morpho-stratigraphic and sedimentologic means) has revealed the existence of yet another fault within the half-graben, referred to as Bishunpur-Khagaul Fault (BKF). Many of the long profile morphological characters (e.g., knick-zone, low width-depth ratio) of the Sone River at its lower reaches can be ascribed to local structural deformation along BKF. These basement faults in MGP lie parallel to each other in NE-SW direction.

  8. Tectonic controls of a backarc trough-fill turbidite system: The Pliocene Tamugigawa Formation in the Niigata Shin'etsu inverted rift basin, Northern Fossa Magna, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Osamu; Tateishi, Masaaki; Endo, Masataka

    2005-05-01

    The Pliocene Tamugigawa Formation in the Niigata-Shin'etsu inverted rift basin, Northern Fossa Magna, located in the junction zone of the NE and SW Japan arcs, demonstrates a trough-fill turbidite system, which is topographically controlled in depositional style and shows notable contrasts in depositional architecture from sandy radial-fan-type turbidite systems. The Tamugigawa trough-fill turbidite system shows an elongated morphology parallel to the basin extent and facies associations consisting of trough-fill, lateral-supply and trough-side elements. The trough-fill elements comprise thick-bedded sheet sandstone and sheet-flow turbidite associations, which show sheet-like sedimentation configuration, instead of depositional lobes, without distinct upward fining and coarsening successions. The lateral-supply elements form an intra-trough small fan along a lateral sediment-supply system into the troughs, and consist mainly of coarser-grained distributary-channel fills and sheet sandstones. The trough-side elements consist of slope-mudstone and spillover associations, which were deposited on the structural highs beside the troughs. The Tamugigawa trough-fill turbidites were deposited through three phases: (a) initial ponding stage with thick, sheet sandstones provided by the lateral-supply system, (b) main filling stage with sheet-flow turbidites provided by the longitudinal supply system, and (c) filled-up stage characterized by minor-scale channel-levee systems. Basin-wide tectono-sedimentary studies reveal that the trough-fill turbidites were characteristically formed during the compressional-stress-field stage related to basin inversion. The compressional stress induced basin-floor syndepositional folding and coarse clastic supply from the uplifted provenance, resulting in topographically restricted turbidite deposition within the troughs. In contrast, turbidites of the post-rift stage, prior to basin inversion, show no topographical control because of the

  9. Petrographic and geochemical analyisis for determination of provenance of the Slovenj Gradec Miocene Basin fill (Western Central Paratethys)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivančič, Kristina; Trajanova, Mirka; Skaberne, Dragomir; Šmuc, Andrej

    2017-04-01

    The Slovenj Gradec Basin (SGB) is located in northern Slovenia between eastern margin of the Northern Karavanke and the western Pohorje Mts. Structurally, it belongs to Eastern Alps. It is filled with Miocene clastic sediments. Modal composition of sandstones was determined on thin sections by point-counter and presented with the QFL and QmFLt diagrams. Their geochemical composition was determined by classical method and by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Based on petrography, sedimentary fill of the SGB consists mostly of lithic grains and quartz, derived from metamorphic and carbonate rocks. Locally, fragments of granitoids occur. Binder consists of carbonate, subordinately quartz cement, and carbonate matrix. Recycled orogen (lithic and transitional recycled) provenance of the grains was determined. Geochemical composition shows that: - Sandstones from the SGB belong to the fields of shale, wacke, litharenite, arkose and subarkose (Pettijohn, 1972). - In the ternary diagram of weathering trends (cf. Nesbitt & Young 1984), the samples group near the CaO+Na2OAl2O3 conjunctive. Calculated minimum CIA (Fedo et al., 1995) is 40.06, indicating that the source rocks were not subjected to considerable weathering. - According to discriminant function (cf. Roser & Korsch, 1988) all samples from SGB originate from quartzose sedimentary rocks. - For determination of tectonic setting of source rocks (Verma & Armstrong-Altrin, 2013) the studied samples plot in the field of collision zone. - In the multidimensional discriminant function diagram for the discrimination of active and passive margin after Verma and Armstrong (2016), the samples plot into the field of passive margin. The data indicate that source rocks of the SGB sedimentary fill were derived from Eastern Alps and Southern Alps. It is suggested that SGB was detached from the Styrian and Mura-Zala Basins in the course of the Pohorje Mts. oblique transpressive uplift during the late Miocene to Pliocene

  10. Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for predicted nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers of the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale vector spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  11. The depositional setting of the Late Quaternary sedimentary fill in southern Bannu basin, Northwest Himalayan fold and thrust belt, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Farid, Asam; Khalid, Perveiz; Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Jouini, Mohammed Soufiane

    2014-10-01

    Geostatistical variogram and inversion techniques combined with modern visualization tools have made it possible to re-model one-dimensional electrical resistivity data into two-dimensional (2D) models of the near subsurface. The resultant models are capable of extending the original interpretation of the data to depict alluvium layers as individual lithological units within the 2D space. By tuning the variogram parameters used in this approach, it is then possible to visualize individual lithofacies and geomorphological features for these lithologic units. The study re-examines an electrical resistivity dataset collected as part of a groundwater study in an area of the Bannu basin in Pakistan. Additional lithological logs from boreholes throughout the area have been combined with the existing resistivity data for calibration. Tectonic activity during the Himalayan orogeny uplifted and generated significant faulting in the rocks resulting in the formation of a depression which subsequently has been filled with clay-silt and dirty sand facies typical of lacustrine and flood plain environments. Streams arising from adjacent mountains have reworked these facies which have been eroded and replaced by gravel-sand facies along channels. It is concluded that the sediments have been deposited as prograding fan shaped bodies, flood plain, and lacustrine deposits. Clay-silt facies mark the locations of paleo depressions or lake environments, which have changed position over time due to local tectonic activity and sedimentation. The Lakki plain alluvial system has thus formed as a result of local tectonic activity with fluvial erosion and deposition characterized by coarse sediments with high electrical resistivities near the mountain ranges and fine sediments with medium to low electrical resistivities towards the basin center.

  12. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 μg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  13. Evaluation of the importance of clay confining units on groundwaterflow in alluvial basins using solute and isotope tracers: the case of Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopkins, Candice B.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Eastoe, Chris; Dickinson, Jesse; Meixner, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As groundwater becomes an increasingly important water resource worldwide, it is essential to understand how local geology affects groundwater quality, flowpaths and residence times. This study utilized multiple tracers to improve conceptual and numerical models of groundwater flow in the Middle San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona (USA) by determining recharge areas, compartmentalization of water sources, flowpaths and residence times. Ninety-five groundwater and surface-water samples were analyzed for major ion chemistry (water type and Ca/Sr ratios) and stable (18O, 2H, 13C) and radiogenic (3H, 14C) isotopes, and resulting data were used in conjunction with hydrogeologic information (e.g. hydraulic head and hydrostratigraphy). Results show that recent recharge (<60 years) has occurred within mountain systems along the basin margins and in shallow floodplain aquifers adjacent to the San Pedro River. Groundwater in the lower basin fill aquifer (semi confined) was recharged at high elevation in the fractured bedrock and has been extensively modified by water-rock reactions (increasing F and Sr, decreasing 14C) over long timescales (up to 35,000 years BP). Distinct solute and isotope geochemistries between the lower and upper basin fill aquifers show the importance of a clay confining unit on groundwater flow in the basin, which minimizes vertical groundwater movement.

  14. Structural and sedimentary evolution of the Malay Basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ismail, M.T.; Rudolph, K.W.; Abdullah, S.A.

    1994-07-01

    The Malay Basin is a back-arc basin that formed via Eocene ( ) through Oligocene extension. This early extensional episode is characterized by large east-west and northwest-southeast-trending normal fault systems with associated block rotation. Extensional subbasins are filled with a thick succession of alluvial and fluvial sediments that show increasing lacustrine influence toward the central basin dep. In the early Miocene, the basin entered a passive sag phase in which depositional relief decreased, and there is the first evidence of widespread marine influence. Lower Miocene sediments consist of cyclic offshore marine, tidal-estuarine, and coastal plain fluvial sediments with very widemore » facies tracts. The middle Miocene is dominated by increasing compressional inversion, in which preexisting extensional lows were folded into east-west anticlines. This compression continues well into the Pliocene-Pleistocene, especially in the northwest portion of the basin and is accompanied by an increase in basin-wide subsidence. There is significant thinning over the crest of the growing anticlines and an angular unconformity near the top of the middle Miocene in the southeast portion of the basin. Middle Miocene sedimentary facies are similar to those seen in the lower Miocene, but are influenced by the contemporaneous compressional folding and normal faulting. Based on this study, there is no evidence of through-going wrench-fault deformation in the Malay Basin. Instead, localized strike-slip faulting is a subsidiary phenomenon associated with the extensional and compressional tectonic episodes.« less

  15. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers. Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association. Published 2011. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  16. Paleoecological inferences of recent alluvial damming of a lake basin due to retrogressive permafrost thaw slumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinlan, R.; Delaney, S.; Lamoureux, S. F.; Kokelj, S. V.; Pisaric, M. F.

    2014-12-01

    Expected climate impacts of future warming in the Arctic include thawing of permafrost landscapes in northern latitudes. Thawing permafrost is expected to have major consequences on hydrological dynamics, which will affect the limnological conditions of Arctic lakes and ponds. In this study we obtained a sediment core from a small lake (informally named "FM1") near Fort McPherson, Northwest Territories, Canada, with a large retrogressive thaw slump (nearly 1 kilometre in diameter) within its catchment. A radiocarbon date from the base of the FM1 sediment core suggests the lake formed between 990-1160 Cal AD. The analysis of aerial photographs indicate the thaw slump initiated between 1970-1990, and sediment geochemistry analysis indicated major changes in sediment content at 54-cm sediment core depth. Analyses of subfossil midge (Chironomidae) fossils inferred that, pre-slump, lake FM1 was shallow with a large bog or wetland environment, with midge assemblages dominated by taxa such as Limnophyes and Parametriocnemus. Post-thaw midge assemblages were dominated by subfamily Chironominae (Tribe Tanytarsini and Tribe Chironomini) taxa, and the appearance of deepwater-associated taxa such as Sergentia suggests that lake FM1 deepened, possibly as a result of alluvial damming from slump materials washing into the lake near its outlet. Most recent stratigraphic intervals infer a reversion back to shallower conditions, with a slight recovery of bog or wetland-associated midge taxa, possibly due to rapid basin infilling from increased deposition rates of catchment-derived materials. Results emphasize that there may be a variety of different outcomes to Arctic lake and pond ecosystems as a result of permafrost thawing, contingent on system-specific characteristics such as slump location relative to the lake basin, and relative inflow and outflow locations within the lake basin.

  17. Integration of channel and floodplain suites. I. Developmental sequence and lateral relations of alluvial paleosols.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The lower Eocene Willwood Formation of the Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, consists of about 770 m of alluvial rocks that exhibit extensive mechanical and geochemical modifications resulting from Eocene pedogenesis. Five arbitrary stages are proposed to distinguish these soils of different maturities in the Willwood Formation. An inverse relationship exists between soil maturity and short-term sediment accumulation rate. Illustrates several important principles of soil-sediment interrelationships in aggrading alluvial systems that have broad application to other deposits.-from Authors

  18. Distinguishing Long-Term Controls on Fluvial Architecture in the Lance Formation, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McHarge, J. L.; Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P. L.

    2007-12-01

    Allogenic processes are considered a prime control on the stratigraphic distribution of channel bodies, however, recent studies have indicated that autogenic stratigraphic organization may occur within fluvial systems on basin- filling time scales (105-106 years). Groupings or clusters of closely-spaced channel bodies can be produced by several different mechanisms, including both allogenic and autogenic processes. Commonly, sand- dominated intervals in stratigraphic successions are interpreted as incised-valley fills produced by base-level changes. In contrast, long-timescale organization of river avulsion can generate similar stratigraphic patterns. For example, sand-dominated intervals in the fluvial Lance Formation (Maastrichtian; Bighorn Basin, WY) have been interpreted as incised-valley fills formed during sea-level lowstand. However, closely-spaced sand bodies in the Ferris Formation (Lance equivalent; Hanna Basin, WY) are interpreted as aggradational in origin, and have been compared to autogenic avulsion stratigraphy produced in experimental basins. We evaluate the Lance Formation in the southern Bighorn Basin in an effort to determine whether these sand-dominated intervals are truly incised- valley fills resulting from sea-level changes, or if they were generated by autogenic processes. The Lance Formation crops out in the western and southern margins of the basin, exposing relatively proximal and distal portions of the system. By comparing alluvial architecture between exposures, we evaluate similarities and differences from upstream to downstream and look for evidence of intrinsic and extrinsic controls on deposition. In both localities, the Lance Formation comprises multi-story sheet sandstones and smaller, single-story sandstones. Observed changes from upstream to downstream in the system include: 1) increasing paleoflow depths (from ~30-60 cm to ~70-120 cm); 2) decreasing preservation of fine-grained material within channel bodies; 3) increasing

  19. Geodynamics and synchronous filling of rift-type basin evolved through compression tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papdimitriou, Nikolas; Nader, Fadi; Gorini, Christian; Deschamps, Remy

    2016-04-01

    The Levant Basin falls in the category of frontier basins, and is bounded by the Eratosthenes seamount to the West, the Nile cone delta to the south, Cyprus to the north and Lebanon to the east. The Levant Basin was initially a rift type basin, which is located at a major plate boundary since the Late Triassic. It evolved later on through compression tectonics. The post-rift phase prevailed since the Late Jurassic and is expressed by the gradual initiation of a passive margin. A thick infill, mostly of deep water sediments (about 12 km thick) is accounted for the Levant Basin. The post-rift sediments are pinching-out along the slope of the well preserved (and imaged) eastern margin of the Eratosthenes seamount, which is essentially made up of Mesozoic platform carbonates (about 5 km). Thus, the Eratosthenes carbonate platform was adjacent to the deep marine facies of the Levant Basin until the late Cretaceous/Cenozoic. At that time, both the Eratosthenes seamount and the Levant Basin became part of a foreland basin along the Cyprus Arc zone as a result of the collision of the African and Eurasian plates. The objective of this contribution is to investigate the timing and the mechanisms of flexural subsidence as well as the sedimentary filling of Levant Basin (through a source-to-sink approach) in a well-deformed tectonic region. The interpretation of twenty-four 2D seismic profiles coupled with the available ODP wells, offshore Cyprus, aims to define the primary reflectors and seismic packages. Then, concepts of seismic stratigraphy and sequence stratigraphy are applied to achieve a better understanding of the tectonostratigraphy and sedimentary architecture of the Eratosthenes seamount (as an isolated carbonate platform) and its surroundings. Recent offshore discoveries south of the Eratosthenes seamount (e.g., Zhor) have confirmed the presence of gas accumulations exceeding 30Tcf in subsalt Lower Miocene carbonate buildups, making out the understanding of the

  20. Comparison of peak discharges among sites with and without valley fills for the July 8-9, 2001 flood in the headwaters of Clear Fork, Coal River basin, mountaintop coal-mining region, southern West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.; Brogan, Freddie D.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of mountaintop-removal mining practices on the peak discharges of streams were investigated in six small drainage basins within a 7-square-mile area in southern West Virginia. Two of the small basins had reclaimed valley fills, one basin had reclaimed and unreclaimed valley fills, and three basins did not have valley fills. Indirect measurements of peak discharge for the flood of July 8-9, 2001, were made at six sites on streams draining the small basins. The sites without valley fills had peak discharges with 10- to 25-year recurrence intervals, indicating that rainfall intensities and totals varied among the study basins. The flood-recurrence intervals for the three basins with valley fills were determined as though the peak discharges were those from rural streams without the influence of valley fills, and ranged from less than 2 years to more than 100 years.

  1. Accretionary prism-forearc interactions as reflected in the sedimentary fill of southern Thrace Basin (Lemnos Island, NE Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maravelis, A. G.; Pantopoulos, G.; Tserolas, P.; Zelilidis, A.

    2015-06-01

    Architecture of the well-exposed ancient forearc basin successions of northeast Aegean Sea, Greece, provides useful insights into the interplay between arc magmatism, accretionary prism exhumation, and sedimentary deposition in forearc basins. The upper Eocene-lower Oligocene basin fill of the southern Thrace forearc basin reflects the active influence of the uplifted accretionary prism. Deep-marine sediments predominate the basin fill that eventually shoals upwards into shallow-marine sediments. This trend is related to tectonically driven uplift and compression. Field, stratigraphic, sedimentological, petrographic, geochemical, and provenance data on the lower Oligocene shallow-marine deposits revealed the accretionary prism (i.e. Pindic Cordillera or Biga Peninsula) as the major contributor of sediments into the forearc region. Field investigations in these shallow-marine deposits revealed the occurrence of conglomerates with: (1) mafic and ultramafic igneous rock clasts, (2) low-grade metamorphic rock fragments, and (3) sedimentary rocks. The absence of felsic volcanic fragments rules out influence of a felsic source rock. Geochemical analysis indicates that the studied rocks were accumulated in an active tectonic setting with a sediment source of mainly mafic composition, and palaeodispersal analysis revealed a NE-NNE palaeocurrent trend, towards the Rhodopian magmatic arc. Thus, these combined provenance results make the accretionary prism the most suitable candidate for the detritus forming these shallow-marine deposits.

  2. Flow characteristics and longitudinal sorting patterns associated with stable alluvial-bedrock and bedrock-alluvial transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarinik, S.; Viparelli, E.

    2017-12-01

    Recent research recognized the existence of bedrock channels in low-slope rivers, but little is known about the morphodynamics of bedrock-alluvial and alluvial-bedrock transitions in these systems. Bedrock-alluvial and alluvial-bedrock transitions are fluvial features separating bedrock and alluvial reaches. In the bedrock reach the river bed is partially covered with alluvium. An increase in sediment supply to an alluvial reach results in channel bed aggradation. An increase in sediment supply to a bedrock reach, on the other hand, results in a reduction of the exposed bedrock. Mathematical modeling of the alluvial morphodynamics of bedrock reaches reveals that these transitions can characterize transient or equilibrium conditions. Model results show that the magnitude of the alluvial equilibrium slope and the depth of the bedrock surface relative to the downstream water surface base level have a primary control on the equilibrium conditions. Further, numerical results show that when a stable bedrock-alluvial transition forms, the bed material transport capacity in bedrock reach decreases in the flow direction. On the contrary, when a stable alluvial-bedrock transition forms the bed material transport capacity in the bedrock reach increases in the flow direction. These spatial changes in bed material transport capacity are associated with spatial changes in alluvial cover and flow hydrodynamics. Here we present a one-dimensional formulation of alluvial morphodynamics that accounts for the non-uniformity of the bed material and for the spatial change in flow resistances associated with the spatial and temporal changes in flow hydrodynamics of the bedrock reaches. This change in flow resistances can be associated with 1) changes in skin friction due to longitudinal changes in the grain size distribution of the bed surface, and/or 2) changes in bedform geometry associated with the interaction between the alluvial cover and the underlying bedrock. The model has been

  3. Late Quaternary environments and biogeography in the Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. S.; Mead, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Plant and animal remains found in packrat ( Neotoma spp.) middens and cave fill from the eastern and southern Great Basin region reveal the presence of subalpine conifers and boreal mammals at relatively low elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Limber pine ( Pinus flexilis) and bristlecone pine ( P. longaeva) were important in the late Pleistocene plant communities throughout this region. Spruce ( Picea cf. engelmannii) and common juniper ( Juniperus communis) were present in some of the more northerly localities, and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) and white fir ( Abies concolor) were present in southern and eastern localities. Single needle pinyon pine ( Pinus monophylla), common across this region today, was apparently not present north of the Sheep Range of southern Nevada during the Late Wisconsin. Pikas ( Ochotona cf. princeps), small boreal mammals present in only a few Great Basin mountain ranges today, were common throughout the region. Heather voles ( Phenacomys cf. intermedius) have been found in two cave fill deposits in Nevada, though they are unknown in the Great Basin today. Limber and bristlecone pines are generally restricted to rocky substrates in modern subalpine habitats in the Great Basin, and this may also have been the case when these plants grew at lower elevations during the Late Wisconsin. Subalpine conifers were present on the rock outcrops sampled by the packrat middens, but shrub communities, perhaps dominated by sagebrush ( Artemisia spp.), may have been present on alluvial valley-bottom substrates. Forested habitats would thus have been isolated habitat islands, as they are today. Boreal small mammals, including pikas and heather voles, were able to colonize the Great Basin mountain ranges during the late Pleistocene. We suggest that these mammals were able to survive in the intervening valley-bottoms under a cool-summer climatic regime, and that continuous forest or woodland corridors were not necessary for migration.

  4. Probable flood predictions in ungauged coastal basins of El Salvador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.; Smith, M.E.; Chica, A.M.E.; Litke, D.

    2008-01-01

    A regionalization procedure is presented and used to predict probable flooding in four ungauged coastal river basins of El Salvador: Paz, Jiboa, Grande de San Miguel, and Goascoran. The flood-prediction problem is sequentially solved for two regions: upstream mountains and downstream alluvial plains. In the upstream mountains, a set of rainfall-runoff parameter values and recurrent peak-flow discharge hydrographs are simultaneously estimated for 20 tributary-basin models. Application of dissimilarity equations among tributary basins (soft prior information) permitted development of a parsimonious parameter structure subject to information content in the recurrent peak-flow discharge values derived using regression equations based on measurements recorded outside the ungauged study basins. The estimated joint set of parameter values formed the basis from which probable minimum and maximum peak-flow discharge limits were then estimated revealing that prediction uncertainty increases with basin size. In the downstream alluvial plain, model application of the estimated minimum and maximum peak-flow hydrographs facilitated simulation of probable 100-year flood-flow depths in confined canyons and across unconfined coastal alluvial plains. The regionalization procedure provides a tool for hydrologic risk assessment and flood protection planning that is not restricted to the case presented herein. ?? 2008 ASCE.

  5. Subsurface temperature distribution in a tropical alluvial fan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wenfu; Chang, Minhsiang; Chen, Juier; Lu, Wanchung; Huang, Chihc; Wang, Yunshuen

    2017-04-01

    As a groundwater intensive use country, Taiwan's 1/3 water supplies are derived from groundwater. The major aquifers consist of sand and gravel formed in alluvial fans which border the fronts of central mountains. Thanks to high density of monitoring wells which provide a window to see the details of the subsurface temperature distribution and the thermal regime in an alluvial fan system. Our study area, the Choshui Alluvial Fan, is the largest groundwater basin in Taiwan and, located within an area of 2,000 km2, has a population of over 1.5 million. For this work, we investigated temperature-depth profiles using 70 groundwater monitoring wells during 2000 to 2015. Our results show that the distribution of subsurface temperature is influenced by various factors such as groundwater recharge, groundwater flow field, air temperature and land use. The groundwater recharge zone, hills to the upper fan, contains disturbed and smaller geothermal gradients. The lack of clay layers within the upper fan aquifers and fractures that developed in the hills should cause the convection and mixing of cooler recharge water to groundwater, resulting in smaller geothermal gradients. The groundwater temperatures at a depth to 300 m within the upper fan and hill were approximately only 23-24 °C while the current mean ground surface temperature is approximately 26 °C.

  6. INFLUENCE OF SEDIMENT SUPPLY, LITHOLOGY, AND WOOD DEBRIS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF BEDROCK AND ALLUVIAL CHANNELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field surveys in the Willapa River basin, Washington State, indicate that the drainage area?channel slope threshold describing the distribution of bedrock and alluvial channels is influenced by the underlying lithology and that local variations in sediment supply can overwhelm ba...

  7. Anatomy of major coal successions: Facies analysis and sequence architecture of a brown coal-bearing valley fill to lacustrine tract (Upper Valdarno Basin, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ielpi, Alessandro

    2012-07-01

    A late Pliocene incised valley fill to lacustrine succession, which contains an interbedded brown coal seam (< 20 m thick), is examined in terms of facies analysis, physical stratigraphy and sequence architecture. The succession (< 50 m thick) constitutes the first depositional event of the Castelnuovo Synthem, which is the oldest unconformity bounded stratigraphic unit of the nonmarine Upper Valdarno Basin, Northern Apennines (Italy). The integration of field surveys and borehole logs identified the following event sequence: first valley filling stages by coarse alluvial fan and channelised streams; the progressive setting of low gradient floodbasins with shallow floodplain lakes; subsequent major waterlogging and extensive peat mire development; and system drowning and establishment of permanent lacustrine conditions. The deposits are grouped in a set of nested valley fills and are arranged as high-frequency depositional sequences. The sequences are bounded by minor erosive truncations and have distinctive upward trends: lowstand system tract thinning; transgressive system tract thickening; highstand system tract thinning and eventual non-deposition; and the smoothing of along-sequence boundary sub-aerial incisions. Such features fit in with the notion of an idealised model where second-order (high-frequency) fluctuations, modulated by first-order (low-frequency) base-level rising, have short-lived standing + falling phases and prolonged transgressions, respectively. Furthermore, the general sequence architecture reveals how a mixed palustrine-siliciclastic system differs substantially from a purely siliciclastic one. In the transgressive phases, terrigenous starvation induces prevailing peat accumulation, generating abnormally thick transgressive system tracts that eventually come to occupy much of the same transgression-generated accommodation space. In the highstand phases, the development of thick highstand system tracts is then prevented by sediment upstream

  8. Cenozoic North American Drainage Basin Evolution, Sediment Yield, and Accumulation in the Gulf of Mexico Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, W.; Ganey-Curry, P. E.

    2010-12-01

    The Cenozoic fill of the Gulf of Mexico basin contains a continuous record of sediment supply from the North American continental interior for the past 65 million years. Regional mapping of unit thickness and paleogeography for 18 depositional episodes defines patterns of shifting entry points of continental fluvial systems and quantifies the total volume of sediment supplied during each episode. Eight fluvio-deltaic depocenters, named for geographic similarities to entry points and drainage basins of modern rivers, are present. From southwest to northeast, they are the Rio Bravo, Rio Grande, Guadalupe, Colorado, Houston-Brazos, Red, Mississippi, and Tennessee axes. Sediment volume was calculated from hand-contoured unit thickness maps compiled from basin-wide well and seismic control. Using a GIS algorithm to sum volumes within polygons bounding interpreted North American river contribution, the total extant volume was then calculated. General compaction factors were used to convert modern volume to quantitative approximations of total grain volume. Grain volume rate of supply for each depositional episode was then calculated. Values vary by more than an order of magnitude. Supply rate has commonly varied by two-fold or more between successive depositional episodes. Sediment supply is a significant, independent variable in development of stratigraphic sequences within the Gulf basin. Paleogeographic maps of the continental interior for eleven Cenozoic time intervals display the evolving and complex interplay of intracontinental tectonism, climate change, and drainage basin evolution. Five tectono-climatic eras are differentiated: Paleocene late Laramide era; early to middle Eocene terminal Laramide era; middle Cenozoic (Late Eocene—Early Miocene) dry, volcanogenic era; middle Neogene (Middle—Late Miocene) arid, extensional era; and late Neogene (Plio—Pleistocene) monsoonal, epeirogenic uplift era. Sediment supply to the GOM reflects the interplay of (1

  9. Near-decadal changes in nitrate and pesticide concentrations in the South Platte River alluvial aquifer, 1993-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paschke, S.S.; Schaffrath, K.R.; Mashbum, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    The lower South Platte River basin of Colorado and Nebraska is an area of intense agriculture supported by surface-water diversions from the river and ground-water pumping from a valley-fill alluvial aquifer. Two well networks consisting of 45 wells installed in the South Platte alluvial aquifer were sampled in the early 1990s and again in the early 2000s to examine near-decadal ground-water quality changes in irrigated agricultural areas. Ground-water age generally increases and dissolved-oxygen content decreases with distance along flow paths and with depdi below the water table, and denitrification is an important natural mitigation mechanism for nitrate in downgradient areas. Ground-water travel time from upland areas to the river ranges from 12 to 31 yr on the basis of apparent ground-water ages. Ground-water nitrate concentrations for agricultural land-use wells increased significantly for oxidized samples over the decade, and nitrogen isotope ratios for oxidized samples indicate synthetic fertilizer as the predominant nitrate source. Ground-water concentrations of atrazine, DEA, and prometon decreased significandy. The decrease in pesticide concentrations and a significant increase in the ratio of DEA to atrazine suggest decreases in pesticide concentrations are likely caused by local decreases in application rates and/or degradation processes and that atrazine degradation is promoted by oxidizing conditions. The difference between results for oxidizing and nitrate-reducing conditions indicates redox state is an important variable to consider when evaluating ground-water quality trends for redox-sensitive constituents such as nitrate and pesticides in the South Platte alluvial aquifer. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  10. Miocene to recent history of the western Altiplano in northern Chile revealed by lacustrine sediments of the Lauca basin (18°15' 18°40' S/69°30' 69°05'W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kött, A.; Gaupp, R.; Wörner, G.

    1995-12-01

    The intramontane Lauca Basin at the western margin of the northern Chilean Altiplano lies to the west of and is topographically isolated from the well-known Plio-Pleistocene lake system of fluvio-lacustrine origin that covers the Bolivian Altiplano from Lake Titicaca to the north for more than 800 km to the Salar de Uyuni in the south. The Lauca Basin is filled by a sequence of some 120 m of mainly upper Miocene to Pliocene elastic and volcaniclastic sediments of lacustrine and alluvial origin. Volcanic rocks, partly pyroelastic, provide useful marker horizons. In the first period (6 4 Ma) of its evolution, the ‘Lago Lauca’ was a shallow ephemeral lake. Evaporites indicate temporarily closed conditions. After 4 Ma the lake changed to a perennial water body surrounded by alluvial plains. In the late Pleistocene and Holocene (2-0 Ma) there was only marginal deposition of alluvial and glacial sediments. The basin formed as a half-graben or by pull-apart between 10 and 15 Ma (tectonic displacement of the basal ignimbrite sequence during the ‘Quechua Phase’) and 6.2 Ma (maximum K/Ar ages of biotites of tuff horizons in the deepest part of the basin). Apart from this early basin formation, there has been surprisingly little displacement during the past 6 Ma close to the Western Cordillera of the Altiplano. Also, climate indicators (pollen, evaporites, sedimentary facies) suggest that an arid climate has existed for the past 6 Ma on the Altiplano. Together, these pieces of evidence indicate the absence of large scale block-faulting, tilt and major uplift during the past 5 6 Ma in this area.

  11. Miocene to Recent history of the western Altiplano in northern Chile revealed by lacustrine sediments of the Lauca Basin (18°15'-18°40'S/69°30'-69°05'W)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kött, A.; Gaupp, R.; Wörner, G.

    The intramontane Lauca Basin at the western margin of the northern Chilean Altiplano lies to the west of and is topographically isolated from the well-known Plio-Pleistocene lake system of fluvio-lacustrine origin that covers the Bolivian Altiplano from Lake Titicaca to the north for more than 800km to the Salar de Uyuni in the south. The Lauca Basin is filled by a sequence of some 120m of mainly upper Miocene to Pliocene clastic and volcaniclastic sediments of lacustrine and alluvial origin. Volcanic rocks, partly pyroclastic, provide useful marker horizons. In the first period (6-4Ma) of its evolution, the 'Lago Lauca' was a shallow ephemeral lake. Evaporites indicate temporarily closed conditions. After 4Ma the lake changed to a perennial water body surrounded by alluvial plains. In the late Pleistocene and Holocene (2-0Ma) there was only marginal deposition of alluvial and glacial sediments. The basin formed as a half-graben or by pull-apart between 10 and 15Ma (tectonic displacement of the basal ignimbrite sequence during the 'Quechua Phase') and 6.2Ma (maximum K/Ar ages of biotites of tuff horizons in the deepest part of the basin). Apart from this early basin formation, there has been surprisingly little displacement during the past 6Ma close to the Western Cordillera of the Altiplano. Also, climate indicators (pollen, evaporites, sedimentary facies) suggest that an arid climate has existed for the past 6Ma on the Altiplano. Together, these pieces of evidence indicate the absence of large scale block-faulting, tilt and major uplift during the past 5-6Ma in this area.

  12. Late Pleistocene-Holocene alluvial stratigraphy of southern Baja California, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinao, José Luis; McDonald, Eric; Rhodes, Edward J.; Brown, Nathan; Barrera, Wendy; Gosse, John C.; Zimmermann, Susan

    2016-08-01

    A late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial stratigraphy has been established for the basins of La Paz and San José del Cabo, in the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula, Mexico. Six discrete alluvial units (Qt1 through Qt6) were differentiated across the region using a combination of geomorphologic mapping, sedimentological analysis, and soil development. These criteria were supported using radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and cosmogenic depth-profile geochronology. Major aggradation started shortly after ∼70 ka (Qt2), and buildup of the main depositional units ended at ∼10 ka (Qt4). After deposition of Qt4, increasing regional incision of older units and the progressive development of a channelized alluvial landscape coincide with deposition of Qt5 and Qt6 units in a second, incisional phase. All units consist of multiple 1-3 m thick alluvial packages deposited as upper-flow stage beds that represent individual storms. Main aggradational units (Qt2-Qt4) occurred across broad (>2 km) channels in the form of sheetflood deposition while incisional stage deposits are confined to channels of ∼0.5-2 km width. Continuous deposition inside the thicker (>10 m) pre-Qt5 units is demonstrated by closely spaced dates in vertical profiles. In a few places, disconformities between these major units are nevertheless evident and indicated by partly eroded buried soils. The described units feature sedimentological traits similar to historical deposits formed by large tropical cyclone events, but also include characteristics of upper-regime flow sedimentation not shown by historical sediments, like long (>10 m) wavelength antidunes and transverse ribs. We interpret the whole sequence as indicating discrete periods during the late Pleistocene and Holocene when climatic conditions allowed larger and more frequent tropical cyclone events than those observed historically. These discrete periods are associated with times when insolation at the tropics was

  13. Hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, Afghanistan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Flanagan, Sarah M.; Chalmers, Ann T.

    2014-01-01

    The hydrogeology and water quality of the Chakari Basin, a 391-square-kilometer (km2) watershed near Kabul, Afghanistan, was assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Afghanistan Geological Survey to provide an understanding of the water resources in an area of Afghanistan with considerable copper and other mineral resources. Water quality, chemical, and isotopic samples were collected at eight wells, four springs, one kareze, and the Chakari River in a basin-fill aquifer in the Chakari Basin by the Afghanistan Geological Survey. Results of water-quality analyses indicate that some water samples in the basin had concentrations of chemical constituents that exceeded World Health Organization guidelines for nitrate, sodium, and dissolved solids and some of the samples also had elevated concentrations of trace elements, such as copper, selenium, strontium, uranium, and zinc. Chemical and isotopic analyses, including for tritium, chlorofluorocarbons, and carbon-14, indicate that most wells contain water with a mixture of ages from young (years to decades) to old (several thousand years). Three wells contained groundwater that had modeled ages ranging from 7,200 to 7,900 years old. Recharge from precipitation directly on the basin-fill aquifer, which covers an area of about 150 km2, is likely to be very low (7 × 10-5 meters per day) or near zero. Most recharge to this aquifer is likely from rain and snowmelt on upland areas and seepage losses and infiltration of water from streams crossing the basin-fill aquifer. It is likely that the older water in the basin-fill aquifer is groundwater that has travelled along long and (or) slow flow paths through the fractured bedrock mountains surrounding the basin. The saturated basin-fill sediments in most areas of the basin are probably about 20 meters thick and may be about 30 to 60 meters thick in most areas near the center of the Chakari Basin. The combination of low recharge and little storage indicates that groundwater

  14. Late Quaternary alluviation and offset along the eastern Big Pine fault, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLong, S.B.; Minor, S.A.; Arnold, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Determining late Quaternary offset rates on specific faults within active mountain belts is not only a key component of seismic hazard analysis, but sheds light on regional tectonic development over geologic timescales. Here we report an estimate of dip-slip rate on the eastern Big Pine oblique-reverse fault in the upper Cuyama Valley within the western Transverse Ranges of southern California, and its relation to local landscape development. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of sandy beds within coarse-grained alluvial deposits indicates that deposition of alluvium shed from the Pine Mountain massif occurred near the southern margin of the Cuyama structural basin at the elevation of the Cuyama River between 25 and 14??ka. This alluvial deposit has been offset ??? 10??m vertically by the eastern Big Pine fault, providing a latest Quaternary dip-slip rate estimate of ??? 0.9??m/ky based on a 50?? fault dip. Incision of the adjacent Cuyama River has exposed a section of older Cuyama River sediments beneath the Pine Mountain alluvium that accumulated between 45 and 30??ka on the down-thrown footwall block of the eastern Big Pine fault. Corroborative evidence for Holocene reverse-slip on the eastern Big Pine fault is ??? 1??m of incised bedrock that is characteristically exposed beneath 2-3.5??ka fill terraces in tributaries south of the fault. The eastern Big Pine fault in the Cuyama Valley area has no confirmed record of historic rupture; however, based on our results, we suggest the likelihood of multiple reverse-slip rupture events since 14??ka. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orientale Impact Basin: Topographic Characterization from Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) Data and Implications for Models of Basin Formation and Filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, James; Smith, David; Zuber, Maria; Neumann, Gregory; Fassett, Caleb; Whitten, Jennifer; Garrick-Bethell, Ian

    2010-05-01

    The 920 km diameter Orientale basin is the youngest and most well-preserved large multi-ringed impact basin on the Moon; it has not been significantly filled with mare basalts, as have other lunar impact basins, and thus the basin interior deposits and ring structures are very well-exposed and provide major insight into the formation and evolution of planetary multi-ringed impact basins. We report here on the acquisition of new altimetry data for the Orientale basin from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) on board the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Pre-basin structure had a major effect on the formation of Orientale; we have mapped dozens of impact craters underlying both the Orientale ejecta (Hevelius Formation-HF) and the unit between the basin rim (Cordillera ring-CR) and the Outer Rook ring (OR) (known as the Montes Rook Formation-MRF), ranging up in size to the 630 km diameter Mendel-Rydberg basin just to the south of Orientale; this crater-basin topography has influenced the topographic development of the basin rim (CR), sometimes causing the basin rim to lie at a topographically lower level than the inner basin rings (OR and Inner Rook-IR). In contrast to some previous interpretations, the distribution of these features supports the interpretation that the OR ring is the closest approximation to the basin excavation cavity. The total basin interior topography is highly variable and typically ranges ~6-7 km below the surrounding pre-basin surface, with significant variations in different quadrants. The inner basin depression is about 2-4 km deep below the IR plateau. These data aid in the understanding of the transition from peak-ring to multi-ringed basins and permit the quantitative assessment of post-basin-formation thermal response to impact energy input and uplifted isotherms. The Maunder Formation (MF) consists of smooth plains (on the inner basin depression walls and floor) and corrugated deposits (on the IR plateau); also observed are depressions

  16. Alluvial Fans on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Moore and Howard [1] reported the discovery of large alluvial fans in craters on Mars. Their initial survey from 0-30 S found that these fans clustered in three distinct regions and occurred at around the +1 km MOLA defined Mars datum. However, due to incomplete image coverage, Moore and Howard [1]could not conduct a comprehensive survey. They also recognized, though did not quantitatively address, gravity scaling issues. Here, we briefly discuss the identification of alluvial fans on Mars, then consider the general equations governing the deposition of alluvial fans and hypothesize a method for learning about grain size in alluvial fans on Mars.

  17. Groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges Basins, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Recharge to the groundwater system is primarily from mixture of ambient sources, including direct percolation of precipitation and irrigation waters, infiltration of runoff from surrounding hills/areas, seepage from rivers and creeks, and subsurface inflow (from non-alluvial geologic units that bound the alluvial basins). The primary sources of discharge are evaporation, discharge to streams, and water pumped for municipal supply and irrigation.

  18. Sedimentary Record of the Back-Arc Basins of South-Central Mexico: an Evolution from Extensional Basin to Carbonate Platform.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sierra-Rojas, M. I.; Molina-Garza, R. S.; Lawton, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Cretaceous depositional systems of southwestern Oaxaquia, in south-central Mexico, were controlled by tectonic processes related to the instauration of a continental arc and the accretion of the Guerrero arc to mainland Mexico. The Atzompa Formation refers to a succession of conglomerate, sandstone, siltstone, and limestone that crop out in southwestern Mexico with Early Cretaceous fauna and detrital zircon maximum depositional ages. The sedimentary record shows a transition from early fluvial/alluvial to shallow marine depositional environments. The first stage corresponds to juvenile fluvial/alluvial setting followed by a deep lacustrine depositional environment, suggesting the early stages of an extensional basin. The second stage is characterized by anabranched deposits of axial fluvial systems flowing to the NE-SE, showing deposition during a period of rapid subsidence. The third and final stage is made of tidal deposits followed, in turn, by abrupt marine flooding of the basin and development of a Barremian-Aptian carbonate ramp. We interpret the Tentzo basin as a response to crustal extension in a back-arc setting, with high rates of sedimentation in the early stages of the basin (3-4 mm/m.y), slower rates during the development of starved fluvial to tidal systems and carbonate ramps, and at the top of the Atzompa Formation an abrupt deepening of the basin due to flexural subsidence related to terrane docking and attendant thrusting to the west. These events were recorded in the back-arc region of a continental convergent margin (Zicapa arc) where syn-sedimentary magmatism is indicated by Early Cretaceous detrital and volcanic clasts from alluvial fan facies west of the basin. Finally, and as a response to the accretion of the Guerrero superterrane to Oaxaquia during the Aptian, a carbonate platform facing toward the Gulf of Mexico was established in central to eastern Oaxaquia.

  19. Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Mid-Cretaceous deposits of the Yukon-Koyukuk Basin, west central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tor H.

    1989-11-01

    The northeast trending Yukon-Koyukuk basin of west central Alaska consists of two subbasins, the Kobuk-Koyukuk subbasin to the north and east and the Lower Yukon subbasin to the southwest. The subbasins are separated by an arcuate Lower Cretaceous volcanic pile, the Hogatza trend, which is thought to be an accreted volcanic arc. The oldest part of the sedimentary fill of the subbasins consists of Valanginian to lower Albian(?) volcaniclastic rocks deposited on the flanks of the Hogatza trend. Following subsidence of the Hogatza trend, mid-Cretaceous clastic sedimentary strata of mainly Albian and Cenomanian age, and possibly as thick as 8000 m, were shed into the basin; these deposits were derived from surrounding uplands or borderlands in the Seward Peninsula to the west, the Brooks Range to the north, and the Ruby geanticline to the southeast. These mid-Cretaceous basin fill deposits can be divided into four main facies: (1) basin margin conglomerate facies, chiefly alluvial fan deposits that were transported basinward and rest in part unconformably on the surrounding uplands; (2) shelf facies, chiefly cross-stratified and hummocky cross-stratified sandstone deposited by wave-generated currents on a shelf that rimmed the basin on its western and northern margins; (3) deltaic facies, chiefly sandstone and shale deposited in delta plain and delta front environments on a large constructional delta that prograded westward from the eastern basin margin across both subbasins and across the subsided southern part of the Hogatza trend; and (4) turbidite facies, chiefly interbedded sandstone and shale deposited as elongate deep-sea fans and related deep-sea clastic systems by flows that transported sediment to the axial parts of both subbasins, northeastward in the Lower Yukon subbasin and eastward to southward in the Kobuk-Koyukuk subbasin. Sedimentation appears to have ended in the Santonian, followed by uplift, folding, and faulting of the basin fill. Less deformed

  20. Alluvial aquifers in the Mzingwane catchment: Their distribution, properties, current usage and potential expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyce, William; Mangeya, Pride; Owen, Richard; Love, David

    The Mzingwane River is a sand filled channel, with extensive alluvial aquifers distributed along its banks and bed in the lower catchment. LandSat TM imagery was used to identify alluvial deposits for potential groundwater resources for irrigation development. On the false colour composite band 3, band 4 and band 5 (FCC 345) the alluvial deposits stand out as white and dense actively growing vegetation stands out as green making it possible to mark out the lateral extent of the saturated alluvial plain deposits using the riverine fringe and vegetation . The alluvial aquifers form ribbon shaped aquifers extending along the channel and reaching over 20 km in length in some localities and are enhanced at lithological boundaries. These alluvial aquifers extend laterally outside the active channel, and individual alluvial aquifers have been measured with area ranging from 45 ha to 723 ha in the channels and 75 ha to 2196 ha on the plains. The alluvial aquifers are more pronounced in the Lower Mzingwane, where the slopes are gentler and allow for more sediment accumulation. Estimated water resources potential ranges between 175,000 m 3 and 5,430,000 m 3 in the channels and between 80,000 m 3 and 6,920,000 m 3 in the plains. Such a water resource potential can support irrigation ranging from 18 ha to 543 ha for channels alluvial aquifers and 8 ha to 692 ha for plain alluvial aquifers. Currently, some of these aquifers are being used to provide water for domestic use, livestock watering and dip tanks, commercial irrigation and market gardening. The water quality of the aquifers in general is fairly good due to regular recharge and flushing out of the aquifers by annual river flows and floodwater. Water salinity was found to increase significantly in the end of the dry season, and this effect was more pronounced in water abstracted from wells on the alluvial plains. During drought years, recharge is expected to be less and if the drought is extended water levels in the

  1. Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Los Angeles Basin study unit is approximately 860 square miles and consists of the Santa Monica, Hollywood, West Coast, Central, and Orange County Coastal Plain groundwater basins (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The basins are bounded in part by faults, including the Newport-Inglewood fault zone, and are filled with Holocene-, Pleistocene-, and Pliocene-age marine and alluvial sediments. The Central Basin and Orange County Coastal Plain are divided into a forebay zone on the northeast and a pressure zone in the center and southwest. The forebays consist of unconsolidated coarser sediment, and the pressure zones are characterized by lenses of coarser sediment divided into confined to semi-confined aquifers by lenses of finer sediments. The primary aquifer system in the study unit is defined as those parts of the aquifer system corresponding to the perforated intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database of public-supply wells. The majority of public-supply wells are drilled to depths of 510 to 1,145 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 300 to 510 feet, and are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the primary aquifer system may differ from that in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer systems.

  2. Investigation of the structure and lithology of bedrock concealed by basin fill, using ground-based magnetic-field-profile data acquired in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bultman, Mark W.

    2013-01-01

    Data on the Earth’s total-intensity magnetic field acquired near ground level and at measurement intervals as small as 1 m include information on the spatial distribution of nearsurface magnetic dipoles that in many cases are unique to a specific lithology. Such spatial information is expressed in the texture (physical appearance or characteristics) of the data at scales of hundreds of meters to kilometers. These magnetic textures are characterized by several descriptive statistics, their power spectrum, and their multifractal spectrum. On the basis of a graphical comparison and textural characterization, ground-based magnetic-field profile data can be used to estimate bedrock lithology concealed by as much as 100 m of basin fill in some cases, information that is especially important in assessing and exploring for concealed mineral deposits. I demonstrate that multifractal spectra of ground-based magnetic-field-profile data can be used to differentiate exposed lithologies and that the shape and position of the multifractal spectrum of the ground-based magnetic-field-profile of concealed lithologies can be matched to the upward-continued multifractal spectrum of an exposed lithology to help distinguish the concealed lithology. In addition, ground-based magnetic-field-profile data also detect minute differences in the magnetic susceptibility of rocks over small horizontal and vertical distances and so can be used for precise modeling of bedrock geometry and structure, even when that bedrock is concealed by 100 m or more of nonmagnetic basin fill. Such data contain valuable geologic information on the bedrock concealed by basin fill that may not be so visible in aeromagnetic data, including areas of hydrothermal alteration, faults, and other bedrock structures. Interpretation of these data in the San Rafael Basin, southeastern Arizona, has yielded results for estimating concealed lithologies, concealed structural geology, and a concealed potential mineral

  3. Estimating natural recharge in San Gorgonio Pass watersheds, California, 1913–2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Christensen, Allen H.

    2015-12-21

    The SGPWM was used to simulate a 100-year water budget, including recharge and runoff, for water years 1913 through 2012. Results indicated that most recharge came from episodic infiltration of surface-water runoff in the larger stream channels. Results also indicated periods of great variability in recharge and runoff in response to variability in precipitation. More recharge was simulated for the area of the groundwater basin underlying the more permeable alluvial fill of the valley floor compared to recharge in the neighboring upland areas of the less permeable mountain blocks. The greater recharge was in response to the episodic streamflow that discharged from the mountain block areas and quickly infiltrated the permeable alluvial fill of the groundwater basin. Although precipitation at the higher altitudes of the mountain block was more than double precipitation at the lower altitudes of the valley floor, recharge for inter-channel areas of the mountain block was limited by the lower permeability bedrock underlying the thin soil cover, and most of the recharge in the mountain block was limited to the main stream channels underlain by alluvial fill.

  4. Distal alluvial fan sediments in early Proterozoic red beds of the Wilgerivier formation, Waterberg Group, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Der Neut, M.; Eriksson, P. G.; Callaghan, C. C.

    The 1900 - 1700 M.a. Waterberg Group belongs to a series of southern African cratonic cover sequences of roughly equivalent age. Red beds of the Wilgerivier Formation comprise sandstones, interbedded with subordinate conglomerates and minor mudrocks. These immature sedimentary rocks exhibit lenticular bedding, radial palaeocurrent patterns and features indicative of both streamflow and gravity-flow deposition. A distal wet alluvial fan palaeoenvironmental setting is envisaged, with fan-deltas forming where alluvial lobes prograded into a lacustrine basin. Intrastratal, diagenetic alteration of ferromagnesian detrital grains and ferruginous grain coatings led to the red colouration of the Wilgerivier sediments.

  5. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of a new fossiliferous late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtelela, Cassy; Roberts, Eric M.; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; Downie, Robert; Hendrix, Marc S.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed sedimentologic investigation of a newly identified, fossiliferous Late Neogene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania. This synrift deposit is a rare and significant new example of a fossiliferous succession of this age in the Western Branch of East Africa Rift System. The unit, informally termed the lower Lake Beds succession, is late Miocene to Pliocene in age based on cross-cutting relationships, preliminary biostratigraphy, and U-Pb geochronology. An angular unconformity separates the lower Lake Beds from underlying Cretaceous and Oligocene strata. Deposition was controlled by rapid generation of accommodation space and increased sediment supply associated with late Cenozoic tectonic reactivation of the Rukwa Rift and synchronous initiation of the Rungwe Volcanic Centre. The lower Lake Beds, which have thus far only been identified in three localities throughout the Rukwa Rift Basin, are characterized by two discrete lithologic members (herein A and B). The lower Member A is a volcanic-rich succession composed mostly of devitrified volcanic tuffs, and volcaniclastic mudstones and sandstones with minor conglomerates. The upper Member B is a siliciclastic-dominated succession of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and minor volcanic tuffs. Detailed facies analysis of the lower Lake Beds reveals various distinctive depositional environments that can be grouped into three categories: 1) alluvial fan; 2) fluvial channel; and 3) flood basin environments, characterized by volcanoclastic-filled lakes and ponds, abandoned channel-fills and pedogenically modified floodplains. Member A represents a shallow lacustrine setting filled by tuffaceous sediments, which grade up into a system of alluvial fans and high-energy, proximal gravel-bed braided rivers. An unconformity marks the contact between the two members. Member B shows an upward transition from a high-energy, gravel-bed braided river system to a sandy

  6. Avulsion vs Continuous Shifting: the Dynamics of Delta Distributary Channels Controlled by Basin Water Depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, T.; Naruse, H.

    2015-12-01

    An open question in the experimental study of surface processes is how basin water depth controls the dynamics of delta distributary channels. A recently suggested idea as to the issue is that, if a set of peculiar conditions is assumed, all of delta progradation, channel migration, alluvial aggradation and attainment of, or how close to, alluvial grade can be given by an identical formula with the same numerical value that is specified with dimensionless basin water depth. As one step ahead from this notion, we here report the finding obtained from a new series of tank experiments that basin water depth can also affect the modes by which active distributary channels change their locations, i.e. which one of avulsion and continuous shifting is predominant over the other. The results of the experiments clearly indicate that continuous shifting tends to become more predominant over avulsion as basin water depth increases. This tendency is related to a progressive decrease/increase in rate of alluvial aggradation which directly controls avulsion frequency. The present experimental notion can be examined with stratigraphic records of river deltas that accumulated with increasing or decreasing basin water depth.

  7. MX Siting Investigation. Geotechnical Evaluation of Luke Bombing and Gunnery Range. Geotechnical Report, Lechuguilla Desert, Arizona. Volume I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-20

    8217-5000 -150 C KILOETERS , 1 2 V i asagerat- EXPLANATION i SURFICIAL BASIN FILL; Alluvial tans and playa lacustrine deposits; average seismic velocity...Undetermined e Velocity zone I represents alluvial fan deposits and possible playa /lacustrine materials underlying the unconsolidated, thin 1younger...alluvial fan unit (A5y, A5yf). Velocity zone 2 seems to represert older, playa /lacustrine deposits overlying Veloc- ity zone 3, which may be the well

  8. The quality of our Nation's waters: Water quality in basin-fill aquifers of the southwestern United States: Arizona, California, Colorado, Nevada, New Mexico, and Utah, 1993-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thiros, Susan A.; Paul, Angela P.; Bexfield, Laura M.; Anning, David W.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwest Principal Aquifers consist of many basin-fill aquifers in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Demands for irrigation and drinking water have substantially increased groundwater withdrawals and irrigation return flow to some of these aquifers. These changes have increased the movement of contaminants from geologic and human sources to depths used to supply drinking water in several basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest.

  9. New perspectives on the geometry of the Albuquerque Basin, Rio Grande rift, New Mexico: Insights from geophysical models of rift-fill thickness

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V. J.; Connell, Sean D.

    2013-01-01

    Discrepancies among previous models of the geometry of the Albuquerque Basin motivated us to develop a new model using a comprehensive approach. Capitalizing on a natural separation between the densities of mainly Neogene basin fill (Santa Fe Group) and those of older rocks, we developed a three-dimensional (3D) geophysical model of syn-rift basin-fill thickness that incorporates well data, seismic-reflection data, geologic cross sections, and other geophysical data in a constrained gravity inversion. Although the resulting model does not show structures directly, it elucidates important aspects of basin geometry. The main features are three, 3–5-km-deep, interconnected structural depressions, which increase in size, complexity, and segmentation from north to south: the Santo Domingo, Calabacillas, and Belen subbasins. The increase in segmentation and complexity may reflect a transition of the Rio Grande rift from well-defined structural depressions in the north to multiple, segmented basins within a broader region of crustal extension to the south. The modeled geometry of the subbasins and their connections differs from a widely accepted structural model based primarily on seismic-reflection interpretations. Key elements of the previous model are an east-tilted half-graben block on the north separated from a west-tilted half-graben block on the south by a southwest-trending, scissor-like transfer zone. Instead, we find multiple subbasins with predominantly easterly tilts for much of the Albuquerque Basin, a restricted region of westward tilting in the southwestern part of the basin, and a northwesterly trending antiform dividing subbasins in the center of the basin instead of a major scissor-like transfer zone. The overall eastward tilt indicated by the 3D geophysical model generally conforms to stratal tilts observed for the syn-rift succession, implying a prolonged eastward tilting of the basin during Miocene time. An extensive north-south synform in the

  10. End-Pleistocene to Holocene paleoenvironmental record from piston corer samples and the challenge of stratigraphic correlation of playa sediment data with a connected alluvial apron from Damghan Basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Wennrich, Volker; Majid Padashi, Sajed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2015-04-01

    The study yields a first characterization and correlation of the end-Pleistocene to Holocene sediment archive of playa and playa lake deposits in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The Basin sediments are deposited since Mio- and Pliocene, which is valid for the connected alluvial fans, too. These are covering the area between the playa and mountains and while prograding from the mountain ranges they deliver gravels and fine-sediments to the basins sink. The processes on the studied alluvial apron are described and dated already and can be explained in seven morphodynamic phases, which are linked to a general lake level high-stand in north-east Iran at about 8000-9000 years ago. If and how these phases are passed on from the alluvial record down to the playa sediment record is aim of this study. Today the salt pans margins are highly affected by salt tectonic drifting and access was suboptimal. Only here drilling could be performed through about 280 centimeters of salt-crust unfrequently intercalated with loamy layers. For yielding undisturbed playa sediment records sampling was performed with inliner-tubes deployed in a piston corer (Kullenberg type). Thus at two different drilling sites in summation seven cores could be taken, down to a maximum depth of 129 cm and 1000 cm. Back in Germany the cores had been opened and initially described, photographed and optically scanned with a core logger. Regarding future studies, the aim was a best possible comprehensive documentation of the cores. Therefore basically grainsize measurements (laser diffraction), multi element analyses (XRF, ICP-OES, titrimetry) and mineralogical measurements (XRD) had been deployed on samples taken from every single previously identified layer. Continuous elemental data was secured by use of a XRF-scanning core logger. The sedimentological description together with laboratory element analyses shows saline conditions in the first three meters coincide with general coarser grain sizes. The next

  11. Alluvial to lacustrine sedimentation in an endorheic basin during the Mio-Pliocene: The Toro Negro Formation, Central Andes of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccioli, Patricia L.; Marenssi, Sergio A.; Amidon, William H.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Kylander-Clark, Andrew

    2018-07-01

    A 2400 m-thick sedimentary column belonging to the Toro Negro Formation was recorded along the Quebrada del Yeso, Sierra de Los Colorados (Vinchina Basin), La Rioja province, NW Argentina. The Vinchina basin is a good example of a closed basin surrounded by the Precordillera fold and thrust belt to the west and basement-cored blocks to the north, south (Western Sierras Pampeanas) and east (Sierra de Famatina). Seven facies associations (FA) are described and interpreted to represent fluvial, lacustrine and alluvial environments developed in the southern part of the Vinchina basin from the Late Miocene until the earliest Pleistocene. The depositional evolution of the formation was divided in four phases. Phase I (∼7-6.6 Ma) represents sedimentation in medial (FA I) to distal (FA II) parts of a southward directed distributive fluvial system with a retrogradational pattern. During phase II (6.6-6.1Ma), the distributive fluvial system was replaced by a mixed clastic-evaporitic shallow lake (FA III) in a high aggradational basin. In phase III (∼6.1-5 Ma) the eastward progradation of a fluvial system (FA IV) was recorded as a distal clastic wedge. Finally, phase IV (∼5-2.4Ma) records two depositional cycles of proximal clastic wedge progradation of fluvial-dominated piedmonts (FAV, FAVII) from the southwest (Sierra de Umango) and/or the west (Precordillera) with an intervening playa lake (FA VI). Two new U-Pb ages obtained from zircons in volcanic ash layers confirm the Late Miocene age of the lower member of the Toro Negro Formation and permit a tight correlation with the central part of the basin (Quebrada de La Troya section). The sedimentation rate calculated for the dated lacustrine-fluvial interval is higher than the corresponding one in La Troya area suggesting a higher subsidence in the southern part of the basin. During the Late Miocene (∼7-6.6Ma) the ephemeral drainage was controlled by an arid to semiarid climate and initially dissipated mostly

  12. Influence of alluvial cover and lithology on the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial bedrock channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sean P.; Rennie, Colin D.

    2017-05-01

    A growing body of research has focused on evaluating the adjustment characteristics of semi-alluvial channels containing proximate bedrock, mixed, and alluvial sections. Active orogens have been the focus of most empirical field-based studies with comparatively less focus on semi-alluvial bedrock channels located in other regions. In this study, we present an inventory of channel geometry data collected from semi-alluvial bedrock channels in Ontario and Québec, Canada, which are not subject to tectonic uplift. Data were sourced from a variety of physiographic settings, permitting evaluation of the influence of alluvial cover, lithology, and gradient on cross-sectional channel form. Our results show no substantial difference in channel width or scaling behaviour amongst bedrock, mixed, and alluvial channels included in our study, except for sedimentary bedrock channels virtually bare of alluvial cover that represent a uniquely wide, distinct subgroup. Channel gradient does not appear to exhibit any observable control on channel width amongst our study rivers, suggesting that sedimentary bedrock channels form a distinct subgroup because of lithology. Comparatively, the widths of our bedrock channels formed in igneous/metamorphic bedrock are comparable to the widths of mixed channels and alluvial channels for a given discharge and drainage area. Our findings also suggest that cross-sectional adjustment of sedimentary bedrock channels is achieved through lateral erosion of the channel banks and downward erosion of the channel bed, whereas cross-sectional adjustment of igneous/metamorphic bedrock is primarily achieved through downward erosion of the bed with limited lateral erosion of the banks.

  13. The Hack's law applied to young volcanic basin: the Tahiti case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, F.; Sichoix, L.; Barriot, J.; Serafini, J.

    2010-12-01

    We study the channel morphology over the Tahiti island from the Hack’s law perspective. The Hack’s law is an empirical power relationship between basin drainage area and the length of its main channel. It had also been shown that drainage area becomes more elongate with increasing basin size. For typical continental basins, the exponent value lies between 0.47 for basins larger than 260,000 km2 and 0.7 for those spanning less than 20,720 km2 (Muller, 1973). In Tahiti, we extracted 27 principal basins ranging from 7 km2 to 90 km2 from a Digital Terrain Model of the island with a 5 m-resolution. We demonstrate that the Hack’s law still apply for such small basins (correlation coefficient R2=0.7) with an exponent value being approximately 0.5. It appears that the exponent value is influenced by the local geomorphic condition, and does not follow the previous study results (the exponent value decreases with increasing drainage area.) Our exponent value matches the result found w.r.t. debris-flow basins of China for drainage areas less than 100 km2 (Li et al., 2008). Otherwise, the young volcanic basins of Tahiti do not become longer and narrower with increasing basin size (R2=0.1). Besides, there is no correlation between the basin area and the basin convexity (R2=0). This means that there is no statistical change in basin shape with basin size. We present also the drainage area-slope relationship with respect to sediment or transport-limited processes. Key words: Hack’s law, channel morphology, DTM

  14. Depositional environment and sedimentary of the basinal sediments in the Eibiswalder Bucht (Radl Formation and Lower Eibiswald Beds), Miocene Western Styrian Basin, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stingl, K.

    1994-12-01

    The Eibiswald Bucht is a small subbasin of the Western Styrian Basin exposing sediments of Lower Miocene age. In the past the entire sequence exposed in the Eibiswalder Bucht has been interpreted as being of fluvial/lacustrine origin; here, results are presented of detailed sedimentological investigations that lead to a revision of this concept. The lowermost siliciclastic sedimentary unit of the Eibiswalder Bucht sequence is the Radl Formation. It is overlain by the Eibiswald Beds, which are subdivided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Eibiswald Beds. The Radl Formation and the Lower Eibiswald Beds are interpreted as a fan delta complex deposited along NNW-SSE striking faults. Based on the sedimentary facies this fan delta can be subdivided into a subaerial alluvial fan facies group, a proximal delta facies group and a distal delta/prodelta facies group. The Radl Formation comprises the alluvial fan and proximal delta facies groups, the Lower Eibiswald Beds the distal delta/prodelta facies group. The alluvial fan and the proximal delta consist of diverse deposits of gravelly flows. The distal delta/prodelta consists of wave-reworked, bioturbated, low density turbidites intercalated with minor gravelly mass flows. The prodelta can be regarded as as the basin facies of the small and shallow Eibiswalder Bucht, where marine conditions prevailed. The basin was probably in part connected with the Eastern Styrian Basin, the contemporary depositional environment of the Styrian Schlier (mainly turbiditic marine offshore sediments in the Eastern Styrian Basin). Analysis of the clast composition, in conjunction with the paleotransport direction of the coarse delta mass flows of the Radl Formation, shows that the source rocks were exclusively crystalline rocks ranging from greenschists to eclogites.

  15. Geohydrologic framework of the Roswell ground-water basin, Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Welder, G.E.

    This report describes the geohydrology of the Roswell ground-water basin and shows the long-term hydrostatic-head changes in the aquifers. The Roswell ground-water basin consists of a carbonate artesian aquifer overlain by a leaky confining bed, which, in turn is overlain by an alluvial water-table aquifer. The water-table aquifer is hydraulically connected to the Pecos River. Ground-water pumpage from about 1500 wells in the basin was about 378,000 acre-feet in 1978. Irrigation use on about 122,000 acres accounted for 95% of that pumpage. Permeable zones in the artesian aquifer are generally controlled by lithologic changes in the Permian San Andres Limestonemore » and Grayburg Formation and by fractures in the carbonate rock. The thickness of the artesian aquifer in the more heavily pumped part of the basin ranges from 260 to 460 feet. The confining bed is composed of slightly to moderately permeable rocks of the Permian Grayburg, Queen, and Seven Rivers Formations. The shallow aquifer is composed of permeable beds of sand and gravel in the valley-fill alluvium, which is Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene in age. In 1975, the maximum saturated thickness of the valley fill was about 250 feet in depressions northeast of Roswell, south of Dexter, and at Artesia. Hydrostatic heads in the artesian aquifer declined 230 feet in the south part of the basin from 1905 to 1975. The maximum decline in the head of the shallow aquifer from 1938 to 1975 was 120 feet. The chloride concentration of ground-water samples collected in 1978 ranged from 15 to 7000 milligrams per liter for the artesian aquifer and from 20 to 3700 milligrams per liter for the shallow aquifer. The chloride content has gradually increased through the years in the eastern parts of both aquifers. 31 refs., 28 figs., 1 tab.« less

  16. Using 3D geological modelling and geochemical mixing models to characterise alluvial aquifer recharge sources in the upper Condamine River catchment, Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jorge L; Raiber, Matthias; Cendón, Dioni I

    2017-01-01

    The influence of mountain front recharge on the water balance of alluvial valley aquifers located in upland catchments of the Condamine River basin in Queensland, Australia, is investigated through the development of an integrated hydrogeological framework. A combination of three-dimensional (3D) geological modelling, hydraulic gradient maps, multivariate statistical analyses and hydrochemical mixing calculations is proposed for the identification of hydrochemical end-members and quantification of the relative contributions of each end-member to alluvial aquifer recharge. The recognised end-members correspond to diffuse recharge and lateral groundwater inflows from three hydrostratigraphic units directly connected to the alluvial aquifer. This approach allows mapping zones of potential inter-aquifer connectivity and areas of groundwater mixing between underlying units and the alluvium. Mixing calculations using samples collected under baseflow conditions reveal that lateral contribution from a regional volcanic aquifer system represents the majority (41%) of inflows to the alluvial aquifer. Diffuse recharge contribution (35%) and inflow from two sedimentary bedrock hydrostratigraphic units (collectively 24%) comprise the remainder of major recharge sources. A detailed geochemical assessment of alluvial groundwater evolution along a selected flowpath of a representative subcatchment of the Condamine River basin confirms mixing as a key process responsible for observed spatial variations in hydrochemistry. Dissolution of basalt-related minerals and dolomite, CO 2 uptake, ion-exchange, precipitation of clay minerals, and evapotranspiration further contribute to the hydrochemical evolution of groundwater in the upland alluvial aquifer. This study highlights the benefits of undertaking an integrated approach that combines multiple independent lines of evidence. The proposed methods can be applied to investigate processes associated with inter-aquifer mixing, including

  17. Combined Detrital U/Pb Zircon and 40Ar/39Ar Mica Geoochronology to Test Structural Models for a Devonian Orogenic Collapse Basin in the Norwegian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templeton, J.; Anders, M.; Fossen, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Hornelen basin is the largest of the Devonian 'Old Red' sandstone basins in Norway, comprising 25 km of alluvial-fluvial deposits which are organized into basin-wide, coarsening-upward megacycles. Hornelen sits with several smaller basins in the hanging wall a major extensional shear zone along which the ultra-high pressure metamorphic core of subducted Baltican crust was rapidly exhumed during the extensional collapse of the Caledonian orogeny. The timing of orogenic collapse corresponds closely to the timing of the basins, which are loosely constrained by sparse trace-fossil assemblages to a mid-Devonian age. Further, the basins are now in brittle fault contact with the underlying mylonitic shear zone and the metamorphic core, implying that they are the upper-crustal expression of large-scale extension and deep-crustal exhumation. Two distinct structural models have been proposed for Hornelen to account for these observations. The strike-slip model juxtaposes different source terranes across the basin-controlling fault and predicts spatially changing provenance within chronostratigraphic units. The supradetachment model links the filling of the basin directly to unroofing of the metamorphic core on a low-angle detachment fault, and predicts basin-wide changes in provenance through time with progressive exhumation of the metamorphic hinterland. We present an extensive new provenance dataset, spanning the Hornelen basin strata through space and time. Detrital zircon U/Pb ages from 18 new samples comprise three distinct populations (1.6, 1.0, and 0.43 Ga) with the Caledonian-aged zircons (ca 0.43 Ga) present mainly along the northern margin of the basin, representing an Upper Allochthon source not found on the southern or eastern margins of the basin. Juxtaposition of different source terranes across the basin supports the strike-slip model. 40Ar/39Ar detrital white mica from the same sample set documents a younging of the dominant age peak from 432 Ma in the

  18. The Young's Modulus, Fracture Stress, and Fracture Strain of Gellan Hydrogels Filled with Whey Protein Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Lam, Cherry Wing Yu; Ikeda, Shinya

    2017-05-01

    Texture modifying abilities of whey protein microparticles are expected to be dependent on pH during heat-induced aggregation of whey protein in the microparticulation process. Therefore, whey protein microparticles were prepared at either pH 5.5 or 6.8 and their effects on small and large deformation properties of gellan gels containing whey protein microparticles as fillers were investigated. The majority of whey protein microparticles had diameters around 2 μm. Atomic force microscopy images showed that whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 6.8 partially collapsed and flatted by air-drying, while those prepared at pH 5.5 did not. The Young's modulus of filled gels adjusted to pH 5.5 decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles, while those of filled gels adjusted to pH 6.8 increased with increasing volume fraction of filler particles. These results suggest that filler particles were weakly bonded to gel matrices at pH 5.5 but strongly at pH 6.8. Whey protein microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 showed more enhanced increases in the Young's modulus than those prepared at pH 6.8 at volume fractions between 0.2 and 0.4, indicating that microparticles prepared at pH 5.5 were mechanically stronger. The fracture stress of filled gels showed trends somewhat similar to those of the Young's modulus, while their fracture strains decreased by the addition of whey protein microparticles in all examined conditions, indicating that the primary effect of these filler particles was to enhance the brittleness of filled gels. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  19. Human-induced stream channel abandonment/capture and filling of floodplain channels within the Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroes, Daniel E.; Kraemer, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    The Atchafalaya River Basin is a distributary system of the Mississippi River containing the largest riparian area in the lower Mississippi River Valley and the largest remaining forested bottomland in North America. Reductions in the area of open water in the Atchafalaya have been occurring over the last 100 years, and many historical waterways are increasingly filled by sediment. This study examines two cases of swamp channels (3/s) that are filling and becoming unnavigable as a result of high sediment loads and slow water velocities. The water velocities in natural bayous are further reduced because of flow capture by channels constructed for access. Bathymetry, flow, suspended sediment, deposited bottom-material, isotopes, and photointerpretation were used to characterize the channel fill. On average, water flowing through these two channels lost 23% of the suspended sediment load in the studied reaches. Along one of the studied reaches, two constructed access channels diverted significant flow out of the primary channel and into the adjacent swamp. Immediately downstream of each of the two access channels, the cross-sectional area of the studied channel was reduced. Isotopic analyses of bottom-material cores indicate that bed filling has been rapid and occurred after detectable levels of Cesium-137 were no longer being deposited. Interpretation of aerial photography indicates that water is bypassing the primary channels in favor of the more hydraulically efficient access channels, resulting in low or no-velocity flow conditions in the primary channel. These swamp channel conditions are typical in the Atchafalaya River Basin where relict large channel dimensions result in flow velocities that are normally too low to carry fine-grained sediment. Constructed channels increase the rate of natural channel avulsion and abandonment as a result of flow capture.

  20. Geologic structure of the Yucaipa area inferred from gravity data, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mendez, Gregory O.; Langenheim, V.E.; Morita, Andrew; Danskin, Wesley R.

    2016-09-30

    In the spring of 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Bernardino Valley Municipal Water District, began working on a gravity survey in the Yucaipa area to explore the three-dimensional shape of the sedimentary fill (alluvial deposits) and the surface of the underlying crystalline basement rocks. As water use has increased in pace with rapid urbanization, water managers have need for better information about the subsurface geometry and the boundaries of groundwater subbasins in the Yucaipa area. The large density contrast between alluvial deposits and the crystalline basement complex permits using modeling of gravity data to estimate the thickness of alluvial deposits. The bottom of the alluvial deposits is considered to be the top of crystalline basement rocks. The gravity data, integrated with geologic information from surface outcrops and 51 subsurface borings (15 of which penetrated basement rock), indicated a complex basin configuration where steep slopes coincide with mapped faults―such as the Crafton Hills Fault and the eastern section of the Banning Fault―and concealed ridges separate hydrologically defined subbasins.Gravity measurements and well logs were the primary data sets used to define the thickness and structure of the groundwater basin. Gravity measurements were collected at 256 new locations along profiles that totaled approximately 104.6 km (65 mi) in length; these data supplemented previously collected gravity measurements. Gravity data were reduced to isostatic anomalies and separated into an anomaly field representing the valley fill. The ‘valley-fill-deposits gravity anomaly’ was converted to thickness by using an assumed, depth-varying density contrast between the alluvial deposits and the underlying bedrock.To help visualize the basin geometry, an animation of the elevation of the top of the basement-rocks was prepared. The animation “flies over” the Yucaipa groundwater basin, viewing the land surface

  1. Interpretation of massive sandstones in ephemeral fluvial settings: A case study from the Upper Candelária Sequence (Upper Triassic, Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Goldberg, Karin; Schultz, Cesar Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers display a wide range of upper- and lower-flow regime structures due to great flow-velocity changes during the floods. The development of flow structures in these setting is yet to be understood, especially in the formation of thick, massive sandstones. The Upper Triassic of Southern Gondwana was marked by a climate with great seasonal changes, yet there is no description of river systems with seasonal characteristics in Southern Gondwana. This work aims to characterize a ephemeral alluvial system of the Upper Triassic of the Paraná Basin. The characteristics of the deposits are discussed in terms of depositional processes through comparison with similar deposits from literature, flow characteristics and depositional signatures compared to flume experiments. The alluvial system is divided in four facies associations: (1) channels with wanning fill, characterized by low width/thickness ratio, tabular bodies, scour-and-fill structures with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms; (2) channels with massive fill, characterized by low w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies, scour-and-fill structures with massive sandstones; (3) proximal sheetfloods, characterized by moderate w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms and (4) distal sheetfloods, characterized by high w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with lower-flow regime bedforms. Evidence for the seasonal reactivation of the riverine system includes the scarcity of well-developed macroforms and presence of in-channel mudstones, thick intraformational conglomerates, and the occurrence of well- and poorly-preserved vertebrate bones in the same beds. The predominantly massive sandstones indicate deposition from a hyperconcentrated flow during abrupt changes in flow speed, caused by de-confinement or channel avulsion, whereas turbulent portions of the flow formed the upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms after the deposition of the massive layers. The upper portion of the Candelária Sequence

  2. Patterns and Processes of Width Adjustment to Increased Streamflows in Semi-Alluvial Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, S. A.; Belmont, P.

    2015-12-01

    While it is understood that river channel width is determined by fluxes of water and sediment, predictive models of channel width, and especially changes in width under non-stationary conditions, have proven elusive. Classic hydraulic geometry relations commonly used in numerical models and channel design typically scale width as a power law function of discharge, without consideration of bank properties. This study investigates the role of bank material in determining spatial and temporal variability in channel width and widening rates for semi-alluvial rivers that have experienced increases in flow. The 45,000 km2 Minnesota River Basin contains many semi-alluvial rivers that have been rapidly incising into fine-grained glacial deposits over the last 13,400 years in response to a catastrophic base level drop. Large, recent increases in streamflows have caused significant channel widening and migration, exacerbated erosion of channel (alluvial) banks and (consolidated till) bluffs, and dramatically increased sediment supply. Here we leverage multiple decades of aerial photos, repeat lidar surveys, Structure from Motion photogrammetry and sediment gaging to examine past, and predict future, changes in channel width. We use empirical observations and a simple model to examine whether semi-alluvial channels tend toward a single, or multiple, equilibrium channel width(s). Preliminary results suggest that under stationary hydrologic conditions (1930s - 1970s) channel width was relatively consistent among reaches underlain by alluvium versus consolidated till. Since the late 1970s the study area has undergone profound hydrologic changes, with geomorphically-active flows nearly doubling in magnitude. Alluvial reaches widened relatively quickly in response to the increase in flows, whereas reaches underlain by till have not seen the same amount of widening. Aerial lidar-based geomorphic change detection between 2005 - 2012 records channel width changes in response to an

  3. Volcanic facies architecture of an intra-arc strike-slip basin, Santa Rita Mountains, Southern Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busby, Cathy J.; Bassett, Kari N.

    2007-09-01

    The three-dimensional arrangement of volcanic deposits in strike-slip basins is not only the product of volcanic processes, but also of tectonic processes. We use a strike-slip basin within the Jurassic arc of southern Arizona (Santa Rita Glance Conglomerate) to construct a facies model for a strike-slip basin dominated by volcanism. This model is applicable to releasing-bend strike-slip basins, bounded on one side by a curved and dipping strike-slip fault, and on the other by curved normal faults. Numerous, very deep unconformities are formed during localized uplift in the basin as it passes through smaller restraining bends along the strike-slip fault. In our facies model, the basin fill thins and volcanism decreases markedly away from the master strike-slip fault (“deep” end), where subsidence is greatest, toward the basin-bounding normal faults (“shallow” end). Talus cone-alluvial fan deposits are largely restricted to the master fault-proximal (deep) end of the basin. Volcanic centers are sited along the master fault and along splays of it within the master fault-proximal (deep) end of the basin. To a lesser degree, volcanic centers also form along the curved faults that form structural highs between sub-basins and those that bound the distal ends of the basin. Abundant volcanism along the master fault and its splays kept the deep (master fault-proximal) end of the basin overfilled, so that it could not provide accommodation for reworked tuffs and extrabasinally-sourced ignimbrites that dominate the shallow (underfilled) end of the basin. This pattern of basin fill contrasts markedly with that of nonvolcanic strike-slip basins on transform margins, where clastic sedimentation commonly cannot keep pace with subsidence in the master fault-proximal end. Volcanic and subvolcanic rocks in the strike-slip basin largely record polygenetic (explosive and effusive) small-volume eruptions from many vents in the complexly faulted basin, referred to here as multi

  4. Hydrogeologic Framework and Ground Water in Basin-Fill Deposits of the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tumbusch, Mary L.; Plume, Russell W.

    2006-01-01

    The Diamond Valley flow system, an area of about 3,120 square miles in central Nevada, consists of five hydrographic areas: Monitor, Antelope, Kobeh, and Diamond Valleys and Stevens Basin. Although these five areas are in a remote part of Nevada, local government officials and citizens are concerned that the water resources of the flow system eventually could be further developed for irrigation or mining purposes or potentially for municipal use outside the study area. In order to better understand the flow system, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka, Lander, and Nye Counties and the Nevada Division of Water Resources, is conducting a multi-phase study of the flow system. The principal aquifers of the Diamond Valley flow system are in basin-fill deposits that occupy structural basins comprised of carbonate rocks, siliciclastic sedimentary rocks, igneous intrusive rocks, and volcanic rocks. Carbonate rocks also function as aquifers, but their extent and interconnections with basin-fill aquifers are poorly understood. Ground-water flow in southern Monitor Valley is from the valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large area of discharge by evapotranspiration (ET) that is formed south of a group of unnamed hills near the center of the valley. Ground-water flow from northern Monitor Valley, Antelope Valley, and northern and western parts of Kobeh Valley converges to an area of ground-water discharge by ET in central and eastern Kobeh Valley. Prior to irrigation development in the 1960s, ground-water flow in Diamond Valley was from valley margins toward the valley axis and then northward to a large discharge area at the north end of the valley. Stevens Basin is a small upland basin with internal drainage and is not connected with other parts of the flow system. After 40 years of irrigation pumping, a large area of ground-water decline has developed in southern Diamond Valley around the irrigated area. In this part of Diamond

  5. Cadmium accumulation and growth responses of a poplar (Populus deltoidsxPopulus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fuzhong; Yang, Wanqin; Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Liqiang

    2010-05-15

    To characterize the phytoextraction efficiency of a hybrid poplar (Populus deltoidsxPopulus nigra) in cadmium contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, a pot experiment in field was carried out in Sichuan basin, western China. After one growing period, the poplar accumulated the highest of 541.98+/-19.22 and 576.75+/-40.55 microg cadmium per plant with 110.77+/-12.68 and 202.54+/-19.12 g dry mass in these contaminated purple soil and alluvial soil, respectively. Higher phytoextraction efficiency with higher cadmium concentration in tissues was observed in poplar growing in purple soil than that in alluvial soil at relative lower soil cadmium concentration. The poplar growing in alluvial soil had relative higher tolerance ability with lower reduction rates of morphological and growth characters than that in purple soil, suggesting that the poplar growing in alluvial soil might display the higher phytoextraction ability when cadmium contamination level increased. Even so, the poplars exhibited obvious cadmium transport from root to shoot in both soils regardless of cadmium contamination levels. It implies that this examined poplar can extract more cadmium than some hyperaccumulators. The results indicated that metal phytoextraction using the poplar can be applied to clean up soils moderately contaminated by cadmium in these purple soil and alluvial soil. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Reworked calcretes: their significance in the reconstruction of alluvial sequences (Permian and Triassic, Minorca, Balearic Islands, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Gras, D.; Alonso-Zarza, A. M.

    2003-05-01

    The Permian and Triassic of Minorca (Balearic Islands) consists of a 670-m-thick, red, alluvial succession that includes in situ calcrete profiles and reworked calcrete material. In the Permian succession, the calcretes vary from laminar forms developed on the Carboniferous basement to weakly developed nodular calcretes in fluvial sediments. The palaeosols in the Triassic are mostly dolomitic, and the profiles reach up to Stage III of soil development (Spec. Pap.-Geol. Surv. Am. 203, (1995) 1). The clasts, formed through reworking of the palaeosol profiles, are about 0.5-10 cm across and include mosaics of calcite/dolomite crystals, brecciated clasts, rhizolith fragments, and aggregates of clay and/or silt. These clasts appear in three different types of deposits. Type 1 corresponds to lenticular bodies that fill small scour surfaces, and consists only of intraformational conglomerates. These deposits are interpreted as ephemeral channels and sheet-floods that represent the interfluvial drainage systems that captured only the precipitation falling on the alluvial plain. Type 2 includes sand dune 3-D bodies with flat bottoms and convex tops. These bodies are about 20 cm high and 2 m wide, and were formed by floodwaters that flowed down the levees of the major streams. Type 3 channel deposits contain reworked calcretes and extrabasinal clasts, which overlie erosive surfaces and are found in layers within cross-bedded sandstones and conglomerates. These are interpreted as channel-floor lag deposits of major channels that entered from distant uplands and drained the alluvial plain. Variations in the aggradation rates of the floodplain resulted in five different infill stages. In the lowstand to early transgressive interval, as in stages I (P1) and IV (B1), the fluvial deposits filled palaeovalleys; calcretes and reworked calcrete deposits were of difficult formation (apart from terraces) and preservation. Accommodation space was at its greatest in the transgressive

  7. Facies architecture and paleohydrology of a synrift succession in the Early Cretaceous Choyr Basin, southeastern Mongolia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ito, M.; Matsukawa, M.; Saito, T.; Nichols, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The Choyr Basin is one of several Early Cretaceous rift basins in southwestern Mongolia that developed in specific regions between north-south trending fold-and-thrust belts. The eastern margin of the basin is defined by high-angle normal and/or strike-slip faults that trend north-to-south and northeast-to-southwest and by the overall geometry of the basin, which is interpreted to be a half graben. The sedimentary succession of the Choyr Basin documents one of the various types of tectono-sedimentary processes that were active in the rift basins of East Asia during Early Cretaceous time. The sedimentary infill of the Choyr Basin is newly defined as the Khalzan Uul and Khuren Dukh formations based on detailed mapping of lateral and vertical variations in component lithofacies assemblages. These two formations are heterotopic deposits and constitute a third-order fluvio-lacustrine sequence that can be divided into transgressive and highstand systems tracts. The lower part of the transgressive systems tract (TST) is characterized by sandy alluvial-fan and braided-river systems on the hanging wall along the western basin margin, and by a gravelly alluvial-fan system on the footwall along the eastern basin margin. The alluvial-fan and braided-river deposits along the western basin margin are fossiliferous and are interpreted to have developed in association with a perennial fluvial system. In contrast, alluvial-fan deposits along the eastern basin margin do not contain any distinct faunas or floras and are interpreted to have been influenced by a high-discharge ephemeral fluvial system associated with fluctuations in wetting and drying paleohydrologic processes. The lower part of the TST deposit fines upward to siltstone-dominated flood-plain and ephemeral-lake deposits that constitute the upper part of the TST and the lower part of the highstand systems tract (HST). These mudstone deposits eventually reduced the topographic irregularities typical of the early stage of

  8. Geologic map of the La Mesita Negra SE Quadrangle, Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.; Thompson, Ren A.; Schmidt, Dwight L.; Personius, Stephen F.; Maldonado, Florian; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2003-01-01

    Geologic mapping, in support of the USGS Middle Rio Grande Basin Geologic Mapping Project, shows the spatial distribution of artificial-fill, alluvial, colluvial, and eolian deposits, lava flows and related sediments of the Albuquerque volcanoes, and upper Santa Fe Group sediments. These deposits are on, beneath, and along the West Mesa (Llano de Albuquerque) just west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Artificial fill deposits are mapped chiefly beneath and near segments of Interstate 40, in an inactive landfill (or dump) north of Interstate 40 near the eastern boundary of the map area, and in the active Cerro Colorado landfill near the southwestern corner of the map area. Alluvial deposits are mapped in stream channels, beneath treads of terraces, and on hill slopes. They include alluvium in stream channels and beneath treads of low terraces, terrace alluvium, sheetwash deposits, gravelly alluvium, and old alluvium and calcic soils of the Llano de Albuquerque. Alluvial and colluvial deposits are mapped on hill slopes. They include young alluvial-slope deposits, alluvium and colluvium, undivided, and old alluvial-slope deposits. Colluvial deposits are also mapped on hill slopes. They include colluvial deposits, undivided, as well as alluvial deposits, eolian sand, and calcic soils associated with fault scarps. Eolian deposits as well as eolian and alluvial deposits mantle gently slopping surfaces on the Llano de Albuquerque. They include active eolian sand, active and inactive eolian sand and sheetwash deposits, undivided, and inactive eolian sand and sheetwash deposits, undivided. Lava flows and related sediments of the Albuquerque volcanoes were mapped near the southeast corner of the map area. They include five young lava flows, two young cinder deposits, and old lava flows. Upper Santa Fe Group sediments are well exposed and mapped in the western part of the map area. They include a gravel unit, a pebbly sand unit, and a mud and sand unit. Undivided upper Santa Fe

  9. Palaeohydrological and palaeoecological studies on South Cameroonian alluvial sedimentary basins - New evidence on the palaeoenvironmental evolution of western Central Africa since the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangen, M.

    2009-04-01

    A new valuable and innovative contribution will be presented to ascertain the timing and extension of climatic and ecological changes in western equatorial Africa. Main focus is laid on the dynamics of climate, fluvial systems and the high sensitive tropical ecosystems (dense evergreen and semi-deciduous rain forest and savanna-rain forest margin) since the Late Pleistocene (~50 kyrs. BP). For this purpose extended fieldworks were carried out in South Cameroon (2004-2008) by the ReSaKo-Project (sub-project of DFG-Project 510) with abundant investigations on alluvial sedimentary basins of equatorial tropical fluvial systems. Suitable alluvial sediment-archives for palaeoenvironmental research were uncovered along selected braiding, meandering and anabranching/anastomosing reaches of major southwestern, into the Gulf of Guinea (Ntem, Nyong and Sanaga) and southeastern, into the Congo basin (Boumba, Dja and Ngoko) draining rivers (RUNGE et al. 2006, SANGEN 2008). Among geomorphological investigations and cross section discussions, 150 corings (Edelman, 20 cm layers) reaching maximum depths of 550 cm were carried out on river benches, levees, cut-off and periodical branches, islands and terraces as well as in seasonal inundated floodplains and backswamps. Corresponding sedimentary profiles and catenae recovered multilayered, sandy to clayey alluvia containing sedimentary form-units and palaeosurfaces which contribute to the reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions in western equatorial Africa. Several (59) radiocarbon (AMS) dated samples (Erlangen and Lecce) from fossil organic layers and macro-rests embedded in these units yielded Late Pleistocene to recent ages (14C-ages around 48 to 0.2 kyrs. BP), spanning also the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and Holocene record. Abrupt grain-size modifications and alternating form-units (sandy and clayey layers, palaeosurfaces) in the stratigraphic records display fluctuations in the fluvial-morphological response of the

  10. Sedimentation and basin-fill history of the Neogene clastic succession exposed in the southeastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin, Bangladesh: a high-resolution sequence stratigraphic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royhan Gani, M.; Mustafa Alam, M.

    2003-02-01

    The Tertiary basin-fill history of the Bengal Basin suffers from oversimplification. The interpretation of the sedimentary history of the basin should be consistent with the evolution of its three geo-tectonic provinces, namely, western, northeastern and eastern. Each province has its own basin generation and sediment-fill history related mainly to the Indo-Burmese and subordinately to the Indo-Tibetan plate convergence. This paper is mainly concerned with facies and facies sequence analysis of the Neogene clastic succession within the subduction-related active margin setting (oblique convergence) in the southeastern fold belt of the Bengal Basin. Detailed fieldwork was carried out in the Sitapahar anticline of the Rangamati area and the Mirinja anticline of the Lama area. The study shows that the exposed Neogene succession represents an overall basinward progradation from deep marine through shallow marine to continental-fluvial environments. Based on regionally correlatable erosion surfaces the entire succession (3000+ m thick) has been grouped into three composite sequences C, B and A, from oldest to youngest. Composite sequence C begins with deep-water base-of-slope clastics overlain by thick slope mud that passes upward into shallow marine and nearshore clastics. Composite sequence B characteristically depicts tide-dominated open-marine to coastal depositional systems with evidence of cyclic marine regression and transgression. Repetitive occurrence of incised channel, tidal inlet, tidal ridge/shoal, tidal flat and other tidal deposits is separated by shelfal mudstone. Most of the sandbodies contain a full spectrum of tide-generated structures (e.g. herringbone cross-bedding, bundle structure, mud couplet, bipolar cross-lamination with reactivation surfaces, 'tidal' bedding). Storm activities appear to have played a subordinate role in the mid and inner shelf region. Rizocorallium, Rosselia, Planolites and Zoophycos are the dominant ichnofacies within the

  11. Lateral Erosion Encourages Vertical Incision in a Bimodal Alluvial River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gran, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    Sand can have a strong impact on gravel transport, increasing gravel transport rates by orders of magnitude as sand content increases. Recent experimental work by others indicates that adding sand to an armored bed can even cause armor to break-up and mobilize. These two elements together help explain observations from a bimodal sand and gravel-bedded river, where lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium breaks up the armor layer, encouraging further incision into the bed. Detailed bedload measurements were coupled with surface and subsurface grain size analyses and cross-sectional surveys in a seasonally-incised channel carved into the upper alluvial fan of the Pasig-Potrero River at Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Pinatubo erupted in 1991, filling valleys draining the flanks of the volcano with primarily sand-sized pyroclastic flow debris. Twenty years after the eruption, sand-rich sediment inputs are strongly seasonal, with most sediment input to the channel during the rainy season. During the dry season, flow condenses from a wide braided planform to a single-thread channel in most of the upper basin, extending several km onto the alluvial fan. This change in planform creates similar unit discharge ranges in summer and winter. Lower sediment loads in the dry season drive vertical incision until the bed is sufficiently armored. Incision proceeds downstream in a wave, with increasing sediment transport rates and decreasing grain size with distance downstream, eventually reaching a gravel-sand transition and return to a braided planform. Incision depths in the gravel-bedded section exceeded 3 meters in parts of a 4 km-long study reach, a depth too great to be explained by predictions from simple winnowing during incision. Instead, lateral migration into sand-rich alluvium provides sufficient fine sediment to break up the armor surface, allowing incision to start anew and increasing the total depth of the seasonally-incised valley. Lateral migration is recorded in a

  12. Stratigraphic framework and evolution of the Cretaceous continental sequences of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana, and Parecis basins, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batezelli, Alessandro; Ladeira, Francisco Sergio Bernardes

    2016-01-01

    With the breakup of the supercontinent Gondwana, the South American Plate has undergone an intense process of tectonic restructuring that led to the genesis of the interior basins that encompassed continental sedimentary sequences. The Brazilian Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins during Late Cretaceous have had their evolution linked to this process of structuring and therefore have very similar sedimentary characteristics. The purpose of this study is to establish a detailed understanding of alluvial sedimentary processes and architecture within a stratigraphic sequence framework using the concept of the stratigraphic base level or the ratio between the accommodation space and sediment supply. The integration of the stratigraphic and facies data contributed to defining the stratigraphic architecture of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins, supporting a model for continental sequences that depicts qualitative changes in the sedimentation rate (S) and accommodation space (A) that occurred during the Cretaceous. This study discusses the origin of the unconformity surfaces (K-0, K-1 and K-1A) that separate Sequences 1, 2A and 2B and the sedimentary characteristics of the Bauru, Sanfranciscana and Parecis Basins from the Aptian to the Maastrichtian, comparing the results with other Cretaceous Brazilian basins. The lower Cretaceous Sequence 1 (Caiuá and Areado groups) is interpreted as a low-accommodation systems tract compound by fluvial and aeolian systems. The upper Cretaceous lacustrine, braided river-dominated alluvial fan and aeolian systems display characteristics of the evolution from high-to low-accommodation systems tracts (Sequences 2A and 2B). Unconformity K-0 is related to the origin of the Bauru Basin itself in the Early Cretaceous. In Sanfranciscana and Parecis basins, the unconformity K-0 marks the contact between aeolian deposits from Lower Cretaceous and Upper Cretaceous alluvial systems (Sequences 1 and 2). Unconformity K-1, which was

  13. Vertical movement in mare basins: relation to mare emplacement, basin tectonics, and lunar thermal history

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Solomon, S.C.

    1979-04-10

    The spatial and temporal relationships of linear rilles and mare ridges in the Serenitatis basin region of the moon are explained by a combination of lithospheric flexure in response to basin loading by basalt fill and a time-dependent global stress due to the thermal evolution of the lunar interior. The pertinent tectonic observations are the radial distance of basin concentric rilles or graben from the mare center; the location and orientation of mare ridges, interpreted as compressive features; and the restriction of graben formation to times older than 3.6 +- 0.2 b.y. ago, while ridge formation continued after emplacement ofmore » the youngest mare basalt unit (approx.3 b.y. ago). The locations of the graben are consistent with the geometry of the mare basalt load expected from the dimensions of multiring basins for values of the thickness of the elastic lithosphere beneath Serenitatis in the range 25--50 km at 3.6--3.8 b.y. ago. The locations and orientations of mare ridges are consistent with the load inferred from surface mapping and subsurface radar reflections for values of the elastic lithosphere thickness near 100 km at 3.0--3.4 b.y. ago. The thickening of the lithosphere beneath a major basin during the evolution of mare volcanism is thus clearly evident in the tectonics. The cessation of rille formation and the prolonged period of ridge formation are attributed to a change in the global horizontal thermal stress from extension to compression as the moon shifted from net expansion to overall cooling and contraction. Severe limits as placed on the range of possible lunar thermal histories. The zone of horizontal extensional stresses peripheral to mare loads favors the edge of mare basins as the preferred sites for mare basalt magma eruption in the later stages of mare fill, although subsidence may lead to accumulation of such young lavas in basin centers.« less

  14. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km(2)) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  15. Inference of lithologic distributions in an alluvial aquifer using airborne transient electromagnetic surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dickinson, Jesse; Pool, D.R.; Groom, R.W.; Davis, L.J.

    2010-01-01

    An airborne transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey was completed in the Upper San Pedro Basin in southeastern Arizona to map resistivity distributions within the alluvial aquifer. This investigation evaluated the utility of 1D vertical resistivity models of the TEM data to infer lithologic distributions in an alluvial aquifer. Comparisons of the resistivity values and layers in the 1D resistivity models of airborne TEM data to 1D resistivity models of ground TEM data, borehole resistivity logs, and lithologic descriptions in drill logs indicated that the airborne TEM identified thick conductive fine-grained sediments that result in semiconfined groundwater conditions. One-dimensional models of ground-based TEM surveys and subsurface lithology at three sites were used to determine starting models and constraints to invert airborne TEM data using a constrained Marquardt-styleunderparameterized method. A maximum structural resolution of six layers underlain by a half-space was determined from the resistivity structure of the 1D models of the ground TEM data. The 1D resistivity models of the airborne TEM data compared well with the control data to depths of approximately 100 m in areas of thick conductive silt and clay and to depths of 200 m in areas of resistive sand and gravel. Comparison of a 3D interpolation of the 1D resistivity models to drill logs indicated resistive (mean of 65 ohm-m ) coarse-grained sediments along basin margins and conductive (mean of 8 ohm-m ) fine-grained sediments at the basin center. Extents of hydrologically significant thick silt and clay were well mapped by the 1D resistivity models of airborne TEM data. Areas of uncertain lithology remain below conductive fine-grained sediments where the 1D resistivity structure is not resolved: in areas where multiple lithologies have similar resistivity values and in areas of high salinity.

  16. Impact of land-use on groundwater quality: GIS-based study from an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Arina; Khan, Haris Hasan; Umar, Rashid

    2017-12-01

    In this study, groundwater quality of an alluvial aquifer in the western Ganges basin is assessed using a GIS-based groundwater quality index (GQI) concept that uses groundwater quality data from field survey and laboratory analysis. Groundwater samples were collected from 42 wells during pre-monsoon and post-monsoon periods of 2012 and analysed for pH, EC, TDS, Anions (Cl, SO4, NO3), and Cations (Ca, Mg, Na). To generate the index, several parameters were selected based on WHO recommendations. The spatially variable grids of each parameter were modified by normalizing with the WHO standards and finally integrated into a GQI grid. The mean GQI values for both the season suggest good groundwater quality. However, spatial variations exist and are represented by GQI map of both seasons. This spatial variability was compared with the existing land-use, prepared using high-resolution satellite imagery available in Google earth. The GQI grids were compared to the land-use map using an innovative GIS-based method. Results indicate that the spatial variability of groundwater quality in the region is not fully controlled by the land-use pattern. This probably reflects the diffuse nature of land-use classes, especially settlements and plantations.

  17. Response of the Indian Creek alluvial fan, Nevada, to glacial-interglacial climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Roda-Boluda, Duna; Whittaker, Alexander; Brooke, Sam

    2017-04-01

    Alluvial fans have been shown to record signals of glacial-interglacial climate changes. Specifically, it has been suggested that their down-system grain size fining patterns may record changes in sediment flux. However, very few field studies have tested this because they require (i) robust fan chronologies, (ii) constraints on basin subsidence and 3D fan geometry, and (iii) a suitable model for inverting grain size fining for sediment flux. Here, we present a case study from the fluvially-dominated Indian Creek fan system in Fish Lake Valley, Nevada, which satisfies these criteria. We measure grain size fining patterns on a surface dating to the mid-glacial period ˜71 kyr ago, and a surface dating to the Holocene, which between them represent an overall warming (˜3 ˚ C) and drying (˜30%) of the regional climate. We use constraints on basin subsidence and a self-similar model of grain size fining to reconstruct sediment fluxes to the alluvial fan during the time periods captured by the two surfaces. Our results indicate a decline in sediment flux of ˜38% between the deposition of the ˜71 kyr and Holocene surfaces, implying significant sensitivity to climatic forcing over time periods of >10 kyr. This could represent a decrease in catchment erosion rates and/or a decrease in sediment export as the climate dried. Our results offer quantitative new constraints on how simple landscapes react to known glacial-interglacial climate shifts.

  18. Complex response of a midcontinent north America drainage system to late Wisconsinan sedimentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bettis, E. Arthur; Autin, W.J.

    1997-01-01

    The geomorphic evolution of Mud Creek basin in eastern Iowa, U.S.A. serves to illustrate how geomorphic influences such as sediment supply, valley gradient, climate, and vegetation are recorded in the alluvial stratigraphic record. Sediment supply to the fluvial system increased significantly during the late Wisconsinan through a combination of periglacial erosion and loess accumulation. Subsequent evolution of the Holocene alluvial stratigraphic record reflects long-term routing of the late Wisconsinan sediment through the drainage basin in a series of cut-and-fill cycles whose timing was influenced by hydrologic response to change in climate and vegetation. When viewed in a regional context, the alluvial stratigraphic record appears to reflect a long-term complex response of the fluvial system to increased sediment supply during the late Wisconsinan. Hydrologic and sediment-supply changes accompanying the spread of Euroamerican agriculture to the basin in the 180Os dramatically upset trends in sedimentation and channel behavior established during the Holocene. Copyright ?? 1997, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  19. Water resources in the Big Lost River Basin, south-central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.; Thomas, C.A.; Dyer, K.L.

    1970-01-01

    The Big Lost River basin occupies about 1,400 square miles in south-central Idaho and drains to the Snake River Plain. The economy in the area is based on irrigation agriculture and stockraising. The basin is underlain by a diverse-assemblage of rocks which range, in age from Precambrian to Holocene. The assemblage is divided into five groups on the basis of their hydrologic characteristics. Carbonate rocks, noncarbonate rocks, cemented alluvial deposits, unconsolidated alluvial deposits, and basalt. The principal aquifer is unconsolidated alluvial fill that is several thousand feet thick in the main valley. The carbonate rocks are the major bedrock aquifer. They absorb a significant amount of precipitation and, in places, are very permeable as evidenced by large springs discharging from or near exposures of carbonate rocks. Only the alluvium, carbonate rock and locally the basalt yield significant amounts of water. A total of about 67,000 acres is irrigated with water diverted from the Big Lost River. The annual flow of the river is highly variable and water-supply deficiencies are common. About 1 out of every 2 years is considered a drought year. In the period 1955-68, about 175 irrigation wells were drilled to provide a supplemental water supply to land irrigated from the canal system and to irrigate an additional 8,500 acres of new land. Average. annual precipitation ranged from 8 inches on the valley floor to about 50 inches at some higher elevations during the base period 1944-68. The estimated water yield of the Big Lost River basin averaged 650 cfs (cubic feet per second) for the base period. Of this amount, 150 cfs was transpired by crops, 75 cfs left the basin as streamflow, and 425 cfs left as ground-water flow. A map of precipitation and estimated values of evapotranspiration were used to construct a water-yield map. A distinctive feature of the Big Lost River basin, is the large interchange of water from surface streams into the ground and from the

  20. Sedimentary facies and depositional environments of early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup basins, eastern North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smoot, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The early Mesozoic Newark Supergroup consists of continental sedimentary rocks and basalt flows that occupy a NE-trending belt of elongate basins exposed in eastern North America. The basins were filled over a period of 30-40 m.y. spanning the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic, prior to the opening of the north Atlantic Ocean. The sedimentary rocks are here divided into four principal lithofacies. The alluvial-fan facies includes deposits dominated by: (1) debris flows; (2) shallow braided streams; (3) deeper braided streams (with trough crossbeds); or (4) intense bioturbation or hyperconcentrated flows (tabular, unstratified muddy sandstone). The fluvial facies include deposits of: (1) shallow, ephemeral braided streams; (2) deeper, flashflooding, braided streams (with poor sorting and crossbeds); (3) perennial braided rivers; (4) meandering rivers; (5) meandering streams (with high suspended loads); (6) overbank areas or local flood-plain lakes; or (7) local streams and/or colluvium. The lacustrine facies includes deposits of: (1) deep perennial lakes; (2) shallow perennial lakes; (3) shallow ephemeral lakes; (4) playa dry mudflats; (5) salt-encrusted saline mudflats; or (6) vegetated mudflats. The lake margin clastic facies includes deposits of: (1) birdfoot deltas; (2) stacked Gilbert-type deltas; (3) sheet deltas; (4) wave-reworked alluvial fans; or (5) wave-sorted sand sheets. Coal deposits are present in the lake margin clastic and the lacustrine facies of Carnian age (Late Triassic) only in basins of south-central Virginia and North and South Carolina. Eolian deposits are known only from the basins in Nova Scotia and Connecticut. Evaporites (and their pseudomorphs) occur mainly in the northern basins as deposits of saline soils and less commonly of saline lakes, and some evaporite and alkaline minerals present in the Mesozoic rocks may be a result of later diagenesis. These relationships suggest climatic variations across paleolatitudes, more humid to the

  1. The origin of groundwater in Zhangye Basin, northwestern China, using isotopic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiansheng; Liu, Xiaoyan; Sun, Xiaoxu; Su, Zhiguo; Yong, Bin

    2014-03-01

    Zhangye Basin, in arid northwestern China, has recently been repeatedly flooded by rising groundwater. Isotope signatures of sampled waters gained insight into the recharge source of the groundwater. The summer Heihe River water and most of the spring water in Zhangye and Yongchang basins plotted above the global meteoric water line (GMWL) on the δ18O-δD plot. The spring water had R/Ra ratio >1, low TDS and high tritium, which indicates origin from Qilian Mountain glacier meltwater. The groundwater of Qilian Mountains was transported to the Hexi Corridor (in which Zhangye Basin is located) through underground fault zones. Additionally, some of the groundwater in the alluvial plain, and all spring water surrounding Zhangye Basin, plotted below the GMWL on the δ18O-δD plot along an evaporation line, and had R/Ra ratio < 1 and high TDS. It is proposed that the Tibetan rivers or lakes source the Hexi Corridor groundwater through either the NE-trending or NW-trending buried fault zones. The isotopic signatures presented as part of this study rule out the conventional viewpoint that groundwater of the Zhangye Basin was recharged by local precipitation and infiltration of Heihe River water on the alluvial plain.

  2. 100-kyr fluvial fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, Toro Basin, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-04-01

    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable sedimentary and geomorphic archives that record tectonic and/or climate- driven changes of river networks and their adjacent hillslopes. However, the rarely complete preservation of such geomorphic features, often combined with large distances from sediment source areas, complicates the identification of causal links between tectonic/climatic forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over timescales of 105 to 106 years. The intermontane Quebrada del Toro Basin in the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina contains at least five fluvial terrace-surface remnants that have been sculpted into a succession of several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary gravel conglomerate. These terraces can be followed over several tens of kilometers and are located in the higher part of the basin, close to the sediment source areas. In this study, we determined the onset of multiple river incision phases by dating the abandonment of the three most extensive and best preserved terrace surfaces with nine cosmogenic 10Be-depth profiles. The timing of terrace-gravel deposition is based on four cosmogenic 26Al/10Be burial ages and U-Pb zircon age estimates of three intercalated volcanic ashes in the conglomeratic fill. The 10Be depth profile ages suggest a successive abandonment of these terrace surfaces with a 100-kyr-cyclicity between 487 ± 34 ka and 75 ± 7 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages, range from 936 ± 170 ka to 18 ± 141ka. They show a clear overlap with the terrace-surface abandonment ages and thus indicate the existence of multiple cut-and-fill cycles. Although the initial onset of aggradation of the Quaternary gravel conglomerate at ˜1 Ma and the overall net fluvial incision since ˜0.5 Ma can be linked to tectonic processes affecting the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100-kyr-cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by

  3. Lower Cretaceous paleo-Vertisols and sedimentary interrelationships in stacked alluvial sequences, Utah, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joeckel, R. M.; Ludvigson, G. A.; Kirkland, J. I.

    2017-11-01

    The Yellow Cat Member of the Cedar Mountain Formation in Poison Strip, Utah, USA, consists of stacked, erosionally bounded alluvial sequences dominated by massive mudstones (lithofacies Fm) with paleo-Vertisols. Sediment bodies within these sequences grade vertically and laterally into each other at pedogenic boundaries, across which color, texture, and structures (sedimentary vs. pedogenic) change. Slickensides, unfilled (sealed) cracks, carbonate-filled cracks, and deeper cracks filled with sandstone; the latter features suggest thorough desiccation during aridification. Thin sandstones (Sms) in some sequences, typically as well as laminated to massive mudstones (Flm) with which they are interbedded in some cases, are interpreted as avulsion deposits. The termini of many beds of these lithofacies curve upward, parallel to nearby pedogenic slickensides, as the features we call ;turnups.; Turnups are overlain or surrounded by paleosols, but strata sheltered underneath beds with turnups retain primary sedimentary fabrics. Turnups were produced by movement along slickensides during pedogenesis, by differential compaction alongside pre-existing gilgai microhighs, or by a combination of both. Palustrine carbonates (lithofacies C) appear only in the highest or next-highest alluvial sequences, along with a deep paleo-Vertisol that exhibits partially preserved microrelief at the base of the overlying Poison Strip Member. The attributes of the Yellow Cat Member suggest comparatively low accommodation, slow accumulation, long hiatuses in clastic sedimentation, and substantial time intervals of subaerial exposure and pedogenesis; it appears to be distinct among the members of the Cedar Mountain Formation in these respects.

  4. Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, Tim S.; Anning, David W.

    2012-01-01

    This product "Digital spatial data for observed, predicted, and misclassification errors for observations in the training dataset for nitrate and arsenic concentrations in basin-fill aquifers in the Southwest Principal Aquifers study area" is a 1:250,000-scale point spatial dataset developed as part of a regional Southwest Principal Aquifers (SWPA) study (Anning and others, 2012). The study examined the vulnerability of basin-fill aquifers in the southwestern United States to nitrate contamination and arsenic enrichment. Statistical models were developed by using the random forest classifier algorithm to predict concentrations of nitrate and arsenic across a model grid that represents local- and basin-scale measures of source, aquifer susceptibility, and geochemical conditions.

  5. Lake Murray, Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-12-01

    Lake Murray, a manmade reservoir, lies between the Fly and Strickland River Basins, Papua, New Guinea (7.0S, 141.5E). The region, photographed in sunglint, shows the water level in the reservoir and the full extent of the drainage basins of both river systems as the rivers meander through wide alluvial floodplains. Some forest clearing can be seen in places throughout the region, but most of the area remains in closed canopy forest.

  6. RECONNAISSANCE ASSESSMENT OF CO2 SEQUESTRATION POTENTIAL IN THE TRIASSIC AGE RIFT BASIN TREND OF SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, AND NORTHERN FLORIDA

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Blount, G.; Millings, M.

    2011-08-01

    A reconnaissance assessment of the carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration potential within the Triassic age rift trend sediments of South Carolina, Georgia and the northern Florida Rift trend was performed for the Office of Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). This rift trend also extends into eastern Alabama, and has been termed the South Georgia Rift by previous authors, but is termed the South Carolina, Georgia, northern Florida, and eastern Alabama Rift (SGFAR) trend in this report to better describe the extent of the trend. The objectives of the study were to: (1) integrate all pertinent geologic information (literaturemore » reviews, drilling logs, seismic data, etc.) to create an understanding of the structural aspects of the basin trend (basin trend location and configuration, and the thickness of the sedimentary rock fill), (2) estimate the rough CO{sub 2} storage capacity (using conservative inputs), and (3) assess the general viability of the basins as sites of large-scale CO{sub 2} sequestration (determine if additional studies are appropriate). The CO{sub 2} estimates for the trend include South Carolina, Georgia, and northern Florida only. The study determined that the basins within the SGFAR trend have sufficient sedimentary fill to have a large potential storage capacity for CO{sub 2}. The deeper basins appear to have sedimentary fill of over 15,000 feet. Much of this fill is likely to be alluvial and fluvial sedimentary rock with higher porosity and permeability. This report estimates an order of magnitude potential capacity of approximately 137 billion metric tons for supercritical CO{sub 2}. The pore space within the basins represent hundreds of years of potential storage for supercritical CO{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} stored in aqueous form. There are many sources of CO{sub 2} within the region that could use the trend for geologic storage. Thirty one coal fired power plants are located within 100 miles of the deepest

  7. Depositional architecture of a mixed travertine-terrigenous system in a fault-controlled continental extensional basin (Messinian, Southern Tuscany, Central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croci, Andrea; Della Porta, Giovanna; Capezzuoli, Enrico

    2016-03-01

    The extensional Neogene Albegna Basin (Southern Tuscany, Italy) includes several thermogene travertine units dating from the Miocene to Holocene time. During the late Miocene (Messinian), a continental fault-controlled basin (of nearly 500-km2 width) was filled by precipitated travertine and detrital terrigenous strata, characterized by a wedge-shaped geometry that thinned northward, with a maximum thickness of nearly 70 m. This mixed travertine-terrigenous succession was investigated in terms of lithofacies types, depositional environment and architecture and the variety of precipitated travertine fabrics. Deposited as beds with thickness ranging from centimetres to a few decimetres, carbonates include nine travertine facies types: F1) clotted peloidal micrite and microsparite boundstone, F2) raft rudstone/floatstone, F3) sub-rounded radial coated grain grainstone, F4) coated gas bubble boundstone, F5) crystalline dendrite cementstone, F6) laminated boundstone, F7) coated reed boundstone and rudstone, F8) peloidal skeletal grainstone and F9) calci-mudstone and microsparstone. Beds of terrigenous deposits with thickness varying from a decimetre to > 10 m include five lithofacies: F10) breccia, F11) conglomerate, F12) massive sandstone, F13) laminated sandstone and F14) claystone. The succession recorded the following three phases of evolution of the depositional setting: 1) At the base, a northward-thinning thermogene travertine terraced slope (Phase I, travertine slope lithofacies association, F1-F6) developed close to the extensional fault system, placed southward with respect to the travertine deposition. 2) In Phase II, the accumulation of travertines was interrupted by the deposition of colluvial fan deposits with a thickness of several metres (colluvial fan lithofacies association, F10 and F12), which consisted of massive breccias, adjacent to the alluvial plain lithofacies association (F11-F14) including massive claystone and sandstone and channelized

  8. Preliminary groundwater flow model of the basin-fill aquifers in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys, Mohave County, northwestern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillman, Fred D.; Garner, Bradley D.; Truini, Margot

    2013-01-01

    Preliminary numerical models were developed to simulate groundwater flow in the basin-fill alluvium in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valleys in northwestern Arizona. The purpose of this exercise was to gather and evaluate available information and data, to test natural‑recharge concepts, and to indicate directions for improving future regional groundwater models of the study area. Both steady-state and transient models were developed with a single layer incorporating vertically averaged hydraulic properties over the model layer. Boundary conditions for the models were constant-head cells along the northern and western edges of the study area, corresponding to the location of the Colorado River, and no-flow boundaries along the bedrock ridges that bound the rest of the study area, except for specified flow where Truxton Wash enters the southern end of Hualapai Valley. Steady-state conditions were simulated for the pre-1935 period, before the construction of Hoover Dam in the northwestern part of the model area. Two recharge scenarios were investigated using the steady-state model—one in which natural aquifer recharge occurs directly in places where water is available from precipitation, and another in which natural aquifer recharge from precipitation occurs in the basin-fill alluvium that drains areas of available water. A transient model with 31 stress periods was constructed to simulate groundwater flow for the period 1935–2010. The transient model incorporates changing Colorado River, Lake Mead, and Lake Mohave water levels and includes time-varying groundwater withdrawals and aquifer recharge. Both the steady-state and transient models were calibrated to available water-level observations in basin-fill alluvium, and simulations approximate observed water-level trends throughout most of the study area.

  9. Aquifer depletion in the Lower Mississippi River Basin: challenges and solutions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Lower Mississippi River Basin (LMRB) is an internationally-important region of intensive agricultural crop production that relies heavily on the underlying Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer (MRVAA) for irrigation. Extensive irrigation coupled with the region’s geology have led to signifi...

  10. Site characterisation in north-western Turkey based on SPAC and HVSR analysis of microtremor noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asten, Michael W.; Askan, Aysegul; Ekincioglu, E. Ezgi; Sisman, F. Nurten; Ugurhan, Beliz

    2014-02-01

    The geology of the north-western Anatolia (Turkey) ranges from hard Mesozoic bedrock in mountainous areas to large sediment-filled, pull-apart basins formed by the North Anatolian Fault zone system. Düzce and Bolu city centres are located in major alluvial basins in the region, and both suffered from severe building damage during the 12 November 1999 Düzce earthquake (Mw = 7.2). In this study, a team consisting of geophysicists and civil engineers collected and interpreted passive array-based microtremor data in the cities of Bolu and Düzce, both of which are localities of urban development located on topographically flat, geologically young alluvial basins of Miocene age. Interpretation of the microtremor data under an assumption of dominant fundamental-mode Rayleigh-wave noise allowed derivation of the shear-wave velocity (Vs) profile. The depth of investigation was ~100 m from spatially-averaged coherency (SPAC) data alone. High-frequency microtremor array data to 25 Hz allows resolution of a surface layer with Vs < 200 m/s and thickness 5 m (Bolu) and 6 m (Düzce). Subsequent inclusion of spectral ratios between horizontal and vertical components of microtremor data (HVSR) in the curve fitting process extends useful frequencies up to a decade lower than those for SPAC alone. This allows resolution of two interfaces of moderate Vs contrasts in soft Miocene and Eocene sediments, first, at a depth in the range 136-209 m, and second, at a depth in the range 2000 to 2200 m.

  11. Three depositional states and sedimentary processes of the western Taiwan foreland basin system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yi-Jung; Wu, Pei-Jen; Yu, Ho-Shing

    2010-05-01

    The western Taiwan foreland basin formed during the Early Pliocene as the flexural response to the loading of Taiwan orogen on the Eurasian plate. What makes Taiwan interesting is the oblique collision, which allows the foreland basin to be seen at different stages in its evolution at the present day. Due to oblique arc-continent collision from north to south, the western Taiwan foreland basin has evolved into three distinct subbasins: an over-filled basin proximal to the Taiwan orogen, mainly distributed in the Western Foothills and Coastal Plain provinces, a filled basin occupying the shallow Taiwan Strait continental shelf west of the Taiwan orogen and an under-filled basin distal to the Taiwan orogen in the deep marine Kaoping Slope offshore southwest Taiwan, respectively. The over-filled depositional phase is dominated by fluvial environments across the structurally controlled piggy-back basins. The filled depositional state in the Taiwan Strait is characterized by shallow marine environments and is filled by Pliocene-Quaternary sediments up to 4,000 m thick derived from the Taiwan orogen with an asymmetrical and wedge-shaped cross section. The under-filled depositional state is characteristic of deep marine environments in the wedge-top basins accompanied by active structures of thrust faults and mud diapers. Sediments derived from the Taiwan orogen have progressively filled the western Taiwan foreland basin across and along the orogen. Sediment dispersal model suggests that orogenic sediments derived from oblique dischronous collisional highlands are transported in two different ways. Transport of fluvial and shallow marine sediments is perpendicular to hill-slope and across-strike in the fluvial and shallow marine environments proximal to the orogen. Fine-grained sediments mainly longitudinally transported into the deep marine environments distal to the orogen. The present sedimentary processes in the over-filled basin on land are dominated by fluvial

  12. Geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits of the North Canadian River from Oklahoma City to Eufaula Lake, central Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Havens, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to describe the geohydrology of the alluvial and terrace deposits along the North Canadian River between Lake Overholser and Eufaula Lake, an area of about 1,835 square miles, and to determine the maximum annual yield of ground water. A 1982 water-level map of the alluvial and terrace aquifer was prepared using field data and published records. Data from test holes and other data from the files of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Water Resources Board were used to establish the approximate thickness of the alluvial and terrace deposits. The North Canadian River from Lake Overholser, near Oklahoma City, to Eufaula Lake is paralleled by a 2- to 3-mile wide band of alluvium. Scattered terrace deposits on either side of the alluvium reach an extreme width of 8 miles. Rocks of Permian age bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from the west to the midpoint of the study area; Pennsylvanian rocks bound the alluvial and terrace deposits from that point eastward. Three major aquifers are present in the study area: the alluvial and terrace aquifer, consisting of alluvium and terrace deposits of Quaternary age in a narrow band on either side of the North Canadian River; the Garber-Wellington aquifer of Permian age, consisting of an upper unconfined zone and a lower confined zone separated by relatively impermeable shales; and the Ada-Vamoosa aquifer of Pennsylvanian age. At locations were the alluvial and terrace aquifer overlies either of the other aquifers, there is hydraulic continuity between the alluvial and terrace aquifer and the other aquifers, and water levels are the same. Most large-scale municipal and industrial pumping from the Garber-Wellington aquifer is from the lower zone and has little discernible effect upon the alluvial and terrace aquifer. The total estimated base flow of the North Canadian River for the studied reach is 264 cubic feet per second. Evapotranspiration from the basin in August is about 60 cubic

  13. Stratigraphy of the Caloris Basin, Mercury: Implications for Volcanic History and Basin Impact Melt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ernst, Carolyn M.; Denevi, Brett W.; Barnouin, Olivier S.; Klimczak, Christian; Chabot, Nancy L.; Head, James W.; Murchie, Scott L.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Prockter, Louis M.; Robinson, Mark S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Caloris basin, Mercury's youngest large impact basin, is filled by volcanic plains that are spectrally distinct from surrounding material. Post-plains impact craters of a variety of sizes populate the basin interior, and the spectra of the material they have excavated enable the thickness of the volcanic fill to be estimated and reveal the nature of the subsurface. The thickness of the interior volcanic plains is consistently at least 2.5 km, reaching 3.5 km in places, with thinner fill toward the edge of the basin. No systematic variations in fill thickness are observed with long-wavelength topography or azimuth. The lack of correlation between plains thickness and variations in elevation at large horizontal scales within the basin indicates that plains emplacement must have predated most, if not all, of the changes in long-wavelength topography that affected the basin. There are no embayed or unambiguously buried (ghost) craters with diameters greater than 10 km in the Caloris interior plains. The absence of such ghost craters indicates that one or more of the following scenarios must hold: the plains are sufficiently thick to have buried all evidence of craters that formed between the Caloris impact event and the emplacement of the plains; the plains were emplaced soon after basin formation; or the complex tectonic deformation of the basin interior has disguised wrinkle-ridge rings localized by buried craters. That low-reflectance material (LRM) was exposed by every impact that penetrated through the surface volcanic plains provides a means to explore near-surface stratigraphy. If all occurrences of LRM are derived from a single layer, the subsurface LRM deposit is at least 7.5-8.5 km thick and its top likely once made up the Caloris basin floor. The Caloris-forming impact would have generated a layer of impact melt 3-15 km thick; such a layer could account for the entire thickness of LRM. This material would have been derived from a combination of lower crust

  14. Multiconfiguration electromagnetic induction survey for paleochannel internal structure imaging: a case study in the alluvial plain of the River Seine, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejiba, Fayçal; Schamper, Cyril; Chevalier, Antoine; Deleplancque, Benoit; Hovhannissian, Gaghik; Thiesson, Julien; Weill, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    The La Bassée floodplain area is a large groundwater reservoir controlling most of the water exchanged between local aquifers and hydrographic networks within the Seine River basin (France). Preferential flows depend essentially on the heterogeneity of alluvial plain infilling, whose characteristics are strongly influenced by the presence of mud plugs (paleomeander clayey infilling). These mud plugs strongly contrast with the coarse sand material that composes most of the alluvial plain, and can create permeability barriers to groundwater flows. A detailed knowledge of the global and internal geometry of such paleomeanders can thus lead to a comprehensive understanding of the long-term hydrogeological processes of the alluvial plain. A geophysical survey based on the use of electromagnetic induction was performed on a wide paleomeander, situated close to the city of Nogent-sur-Seine in France. In the present study we assess the advantages of combining several spatial offsets, together with both vertical and horizontal dipole orientations (six apparent conductivities), thereby mapping not only the spatial distribution of the paleomeander derived from lidar data but also its vertical extent and internal variability.

  15. Groundwater and surface water interaction in a basin surrounded by steep mountains, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Tsujimura, Maki; Kaeriyama, Toshiaki; Nakano, Takanori

    2015-04-01

    Mountainous headwaters and lower stream alluvial plains are important as water recharge and discharge areas from the view point of groundwater flow system. Especially, groundwater and surface water interaction is one of the most important processes to understand the total groundwater flow system from the mountain to the alluvial plain. We performed tracer approach and hydrometric investigations in a basin with an area 948 square km surrounded by steep mountains with an altitude from 250m to 2060m, collected 258 groundwater samples and 112 surface water samples along four streams flowing in the basin. Also, Stable isotopes ratios of oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) and strontium (Sr) were determined on all water samples. The 18O and D show distinctive values for each sub-basin affected by different average recharge altitudes among four sub-basins. Also, Sr isotope ratio shows the same trend as 18O and D affected by different geological covers in the recharge areas among four sub-basins. The 18O, D and Sr isotope values of groundwater along some rivers in the middle stream region of the basin show close values as the rivers, and suggesting that direct recharge from the river to the shallow groundwater is predominant in that region. Also, a decreasing trend of discharge rate of the stream along the flow supports this idea of the groundwater and surface water interaction in the basin.

  16. Quality of groundwater in the Denver Basin aquifer system, Colorado, 2003-5

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne; Bauch, Nancy J.; Mashburn, Shana L.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality data were synthesized to evaluate factors that affect spatial and depth variability in water quality and to assess aquifer vulnerability to contaminants from geologic materials and those of human origin. The quality of shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifer and shallow bedrock aquifer system has been adversely affected by development of agricultural and urban areas. Land use has altered the pattern and composition of recharge. Increased recharge from irrigation water has mobilized dissolved constituents and increased concentrations in the shallow groundwater. Concentrations of most constituents associated with poor or degraded water quality in shallow groundwater decreased with depth; many of these constituents are not geochemically conservative and are affected by geochemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction reactions. Groundwater age tracers provide additional insight into aquifer vulnerability and help determine if young groundwater of potentially poor quality has migrated to deeper parts of the bedrock aquifers used for drinking-water supply. Age-tracer results were used to group samples into categories of young, mixed, and old groundwater. Groundwater ages transitioned from mostly young in the water-table wells to mostly mixed in the shallowest bedrock aquifer, the Dawson aquifer, to mostly old in the deeper bedrock aquifers. Although the bedrock aquifers are mostly old groundwater of good water quality, several lines of evidence indicate that young, contaminant-bearing recharge has reached shallow to moderate depths in some areas of the bedrock aquifers. The Dawson aquifer is the most vulnerable of the bedrock aquifers to contamination, but results indicate that the older (deeper) bedrock aquifers are also vulnerable to groundwater contamination and that mixing with young recharge has occurred in some areas. Heavy pumping has caused water-level declines in the bedrock aquifers in some parts of the Denver Basin, which has the potential

  17. Diagenetic contrast of sandstones in hydrocarbon prospective Mesozoic rift basins (Ethiopia, UK, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolela, A.

    2014-11-01

    Diagenetic studied in hydrocarbon-prospective Mesozoic rift basins were carried out in the Blue Nile Basin (Ethiopia), Ulster Basin (United Kingdom) and Hartford Basin (United States of America). Alluvial fan, single and amalgamated multistorey meandering and braided river, deep and shallow perennial lake, shallow ephemeral lake, aeolian and playa mud-flat are the prominent depositional environments. The studied sandstones exhibit red bed diagenesis. Source area geology, depositional environments, pore-water chemistry and circulation, tectonic setting and burial history controlled the diagenetic evolution. The diagenetic minerals include: facies-related minerals (calcrete and dolocrete), grain-coating clay minerals and/or hematite, quartz and feldspar overgrowths, carbonate cements, hematite, kaolinite, illite-smectite, smectite, illite, chlorite, actinolite, laumontite, pyrite and apatite. Diversity of diagenetic minerals and sequence of diagenetic alteration can be directly related to depositional environment and burial history of the basins. Variation in infiltrated clays, carbonate cements and clay minerals observed in the studied sandstones. The alluvial fan and fluviatile sandstones are dominated by kaolinite, illite calcite and ferroan calcite, whereas the playa and lacustrine sandstones are dominated by illite-smectite, smectite-chlorite, smectite, chlorite, dolomite ferroan dolomite and ankerite. Albite, pyrite and apatite are predominantly precipitated in lacustrine sandstones. Basaltic eruption in the basins modified mechanically infiltrated clays to authigenic clays. In all the studied sandstones, secondary porosity predominates over primary porosity. The oil emplacement inhabited clay authigenesis and generation of secondary porosity, whereas authigenesis of quartz, pyrite and apatite continued after oil emplacement.

  18. Hydrologic Setting and Conceptual Hydrologic Model of the Walker River Basin, West-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Allander, Kip K.

    2009-01-01

    The Walker River is the main source of inflow to Walker Lake, a closed-basin lake in west-central Nevada. Between 1882 and 2008, agricultural diversions resulted in a lake-level decline of more than 150 feet and storage loss of 7,400,000 acre-ft. Evaporative concentration increased dissolved solids from 2,500 to 17,000 milligrams per liter. The increase in salinity threatens the survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a native species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. This report describes the hydrologic setting of the Walker River basin and a conceptual hydrologic model of the relations among streams, groundwater, and Walker Lake with emphasis on the lower Walker River basin from Wabuska to Hawthorne, Nevada. The Walker River basin is about 3,950 square miles and straddles the California-Nevada border. Most streamflow originates as snowmelt in the Sierra Nevada. Spring runoff from the Sierra Nevada typically reaches its peak during late May to early June with as much as 2,800 cubic feet per second in the Walker River near Wabuska. Typically, 3 to 4 consecutive years of below average streamflow are followed by 1 or 2 years of average or above average streamflow. Mountain ranges are comprised of consolidated rocks with low hydraulic conductivities, but consolidated rocks transmit water where fractured. Unconsolidated sediments include fluvial deposits along the active channel of the Walker River, valley floors, alluvial slopes, and a playa. Sand and gravel deposited by the Walker River likely are discontinuous strata throughout the valley floor. Thick clay strata likely were deposited in Pleistocene Lake Lahontan and are horizontally continuous, except where strata have been eroded by the Walker River. At Walker Lake, sediments mostly are clay interbedded with alluvial slope, fluvial, and deltaic deposits along the lake margins. Coarse sediments form a multilayered, confined-aquifer system that could extend several miles from the shoreline

  19. Facies architecture of the fluvial Missão Velha Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fambrini, Gelson Luís; Neumann, Virgínio Henrique M. L.; Menezes-Filho, José Acioli B.; Da Silva-Filho, Wellington F.; De Oliveira, Édison Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeast Brazil) is the aim of this paper through detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and paleocurrent data. The main facies recognized were: (i) coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstones, locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks and several large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications and predominantly lenticular geometry; (ii) lenticular coarse-to-medium sandstones with some granules, abundant silicified fossil wood, and large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications, cut-and fill features and mud drapes on the foresets of cross-strata, (iii) poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebbles and with horizontal stratification, (iv) fine to very fine silty sandstones, laminated, interlayered with (v) decimetric muddy layers with horizontal lamination and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Nine architectural elements were recognized: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel bars and bed forms, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB (p): sand bedform with planar cross-stratification, OF: Overbank flow, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet, LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. The lithofacies types and facies associations were interpreted as having been generated by alluvial systems characterized by (i) high energy perennial braided river systems and (ii) ephemeral river systems. Aeolian sand dunes and sand sheets generated by the reworking of braided alluvial deposits can also occur. The paleocurrent measurements show a main dispersion pattern to S, SE and SW, and another to NE/E. These features imply a paleodrainage flowing into the basins of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá.

  20. Assessment of uncertainties in soil erosion and sediment yield estimates at ungauged basins: an application to the Garra River basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swarnkar, Somil; Malini, Anshu; Tripathi, Shivam; Sinha, Rajiv

    2018-04-01

    High soil erosion and excessive sediment load are serious problems in several Himalayan river basins. To apply mitigation procedures, precise estimation of soil erosion and sediment yield with associated uncertainties are needed. Here, the revised universal soil loss equation (RUSLE) and the sediment delivery ratio (SDR) equations are used to estimate the spatial pattern of soil erosion (SE) and sediment yield (SY) in the Garra River basin, a small Himalayan tributary of the River Ganga. A methodology is proposed for quantifying and propagating uncertainties in SE, SDR and SY estimates. Expressions for uncertainty propagation are derived by first-order uncertainty analysis, making the method viable even for large river basins. The methodology is applied to investigate the relative importance of different RUSLE factors in estimating the magnitude and uncertainties in SE over two distinct morphoclimatic regimes of the Garra River basin, namely the upper mountainous region and the lower alluvial plains. Our results suggest that average SE in the basin is very high (23 ± 4.7 t ha-1 yr-1) with higher values in the upper mountainous region (92 ± 15.2 t ha-1 yr-1) compared to the lower alluvial plains (19.3 ± 4 t ha-1 yr-1). Furthermore, the topographic steepness (LS) and crop practice (CP) factors exhibit higher uncertainties than other RUSLE factors. The annual average SY is estimated at two locations in the basin - Nanak Sagar Dam (NSD) for the period 1962-2008 and Husepur gauging station (HGS) for 1987-2002. The SY at NSD and HGS are estimated to be 6.9 ± 1.2 × 105 t yr-1 and 6.7 ± 1.4 × 106 t yr-1, respectively, and the estimated 90 % interval contains the observed values of 6.4 × 105 t yr-1 and 7.2 × 106 t yr-1, respectively. The study demonstrated the usefulness of the proposed methodology for quantifying uncertainty in SE and SY estimates at ungauged basins.

  1. Summary of Hydrologic Data for the Tuscarawas River Basin, Ohio, with an Annotated Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haefner, Ralph J.; Simonson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    The Tuscarawas River Basin drains approximately 2,600 square miles in eastern Ohio and is home to 600,000 residents that rely on the water resources of the basin. This report summarizes the hydrologic conditions in the basin, describes over 400 publications related to the many factors that affect the groundwater and surface-water resources, and presents new water-quality information and a new water-level map designed to provide decisionmakers with information to assist in future data-collection efforts and land-use decisions. The Tuscarawas River is 130 miles long, and the drainage basin includes four major tributary basins and seven man-made reservoirs designed primarily for flood control. The basin lies within two physiographic provinces-the Glaciated Appalachian Plateaus to the north and the unglaciated Allegheny Plateaus to the south. Topography, soil types, surficial geology, and the overall hydrology of the basin were strongly affected by glaciation, which covered the northern one-third of the basin over 10,000 years ago. Within the glaciated region, unconsolidated glacial deposits, which are predominantly clay-rich till, overlie gently sloping Pennsylvanian-age sandstone, limestone, coal, and shale bedrock. Stream valleys throughout the basin are filled with sands and gravels derived from glacial outwash and alluvial processes. The southern two-thirds of the basin is characterized by similar bedrock units; however, till is absent and topographic relief is greater. The primary aquifers are sand- and gravel-filled valleys and sandstone bedrock. These sands and gravels are part of a complex system of aquifers that may exceed 400 feet in thickness and fill glacially incised valleys. Sand and gravel aquifers in this basin are capable of supporting sustained well yields exceeding 1,000 gallons per minute. Underlying sandstones within 300 feet of the surface also provide substantial quantities of water, with typical well yields of up to 100 gallons per minute

  2. Variations in fluvial deposition on an alluvial plain: an example from the Tongue River Member of the Fort Union Formation (Paleocene), southeastern Powder River Basin, Wyoming, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.A.; Pierce, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    The Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is an important coal-bearing sedimentary unit in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming and Montana. We studied the depositional environments of a portion of this member at three sites 20 km apart in the southeastern part of the basin. Six lithofacies are recognized that we assign to five depositional facies categorized as either channel or interchannel-wetlands environments. (1) Type A sandstone is cross stratified and occurs as lenticular bodies with concave-upward basal surfaces; these bodies are assigned to the channel facies interpreted to be the product of low-sinuosity streams. (2) Type B sandstone occurs in parallel-bedded units containing mudrock partings and fossil plant debris; these units constitute the levee facies. (3) Type C sandstone typically lacks internal structure and occurs as tabular bodies separating finer grained deposits; these bodies represent the crevasse-splay facies. (4) Gray mudrock is generally nonlaminated and contains ironstone concretions; these deposits constitute the floodplain facies. (5) Carbonaceous shale and coal are assigned to the swamp facies. We recognize two styles of stream deposition in our study area. Laterally continuous complexes of single and multistoried channel bodies occur at our middle study site and we interpret these to be the deposits of sandy braided stream systems. In the two adjacent study sites, single and multistoried channel bodies are isolated in a matrix of finer-grained interchannel sediment suggesting deposition by anastomosed streams. A depositional model for our study area contains northwest-trending braided stream systems. Avulsions of these systems created anastomosed streams that flowed into adjacent interchannel areas. We propose that during late Paleocene a broad alluvial plain existed on the southeastern flank of the Powder River Basin. The braided streams that crossed this surface were tributaries to a northward-flowing, basin

  3. Spatial distribution of sediment storage types and quantification of valley fill deposits in an alpine basin, Reintal, Bavarian Alps, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrott, Lothar; Hufschmidt, Gabi; Hankammer, Martin; Hoffmann, Thomas; Dikau, Richard

    2003-09-01

    Spatial patterns of sediment storage types and associated volumes using a novel approach for quantifying valley fill deposits are presented for a small alpine catchment (17 km 2) in the Bavarian Alps. The different sediment storage types were analysed with respect to geomorphic coupling and sediment flux activity. The most landforms in the valley in terms of surface area were found to be talus slopes (sheets and cones) followed by rockfall deposits and alluvial fans and plains. More than two-thirds of the talus slopes are relict landforms, completely decoupled from the geomorphic system. Notable sediment transport is limited to avalanche tracks, debris flows, and along floodplains. Sediment volumes were calculated using a combination of polynomial functions of cross sections, seismic refraction, and GIS modelling. A total of, 66 seismic refraction profiles were carried out throughout the valley for a more precise determination of sediment thicknesses and to check the bedrock data generated from geomorphometric analysis. We calculated the overall sediment volume of the valley fill deposits to be 0.07 km 3. This corresponds to a mean sediment thickness of 23.3 m. The seismic refraction data showed that large floodplains and sedimentation areas, which have been developed through damming effects from large rockfalls, are in general characterised by shallow sediment thicknesses (<20 m). By contrast, the thickness of several talus slopes is more than twice as much. For some locations (e.g., narrow sections of valley), the polynomial-generated cross sections resulted in overestimations of up to one order of magnitude; whereas in sections with a moderate valley shape, the modelled cross sections are in good accordance with the obtained seismic data. For the quantification of valley fill deposits, a combined application of bedrock data derived from polynomials and geophysical prospecting is highly recommended.

  4. Exploring Unconventional Hydrocarbons in the Makó Trough, Pannonian basin, Hungary: Results and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, Anita; Bada, Gabor; Szafian, Peter; Sztano, Orsolya; Law, Ben; Wallis, Rod

    2010-05-01

    subsidence (Endrőd Formation). The basin was then almost completely filled by the turbidites of a prograding delta system (Szolnok Formation), followed by the sediments from the pro-delta (Algyő Formation) and the delta plain (Újfalu Formation). During the Plio- and Pleistocene, the area continued to subside at a decreased rate, providing a limited accumulation space filled by a thick sequence of alluvial deposits similar to the paleo-environment of the Tisza River and its tributaries prior to regulation. Our modeling of basin evolution in terms of subsidence, thermal and maturation history based on the results of geochemical, petrophysical, and paleontological investigations reveals that the organic matter accumulated in the trough underwent exceptionally rapid maturation during the last 5 to 7 million years. In fact, source rocks continue to mature at present time, and the hydrocarbons they generate continue to migrate and trap. The rather young age of the Pannonian Basin and its hydrocarbon system makes it quite different from the other examples of basin-centered gas accumulation, such as the classic Rocky Mountains in the U.S., or the Karoo Basin in South Africa, the Beetaloo Basin in Australia, making up the exploration portfolio of Falcon.

  5. Ground water for irrigation in the Snake River Basin in Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mundorff, Maurice John; Crosthwaite, E.G.; Kilburn, Chabot

    1964-01-01

    discharge of some springs has more than doubled. Large-scale development of ground water began after World War II, and it is estimated that in 1959 about 1,500,000 acre-feet of ground water was pumped for irrigation of the 600,000 acres irrigated wholly with ground water in addition to a substantial amount of ground water pumped to supplement surface-water supplies. Ground water is also the principal source of supply for municipal, industrial, and domestic use. The water regimen in the Snake River basin is greatly influenced by the geology. The rocks forming the mountains are largely consolidated rocks of low permeability; however, a fairly deep and porous subsoil has formed on them by decay and disintegration of the parent rock. Broad intermontane valleys and basins are partly filled with alluvial sand and gravel. The subsoil and alluvial materials are utilized very little as a source of water supply but are important as seasonal ground-water reservoirs because they store water during periods of high rainfall and snowmelt. Discharge from these reservoirs maintains stream flow during periods of surface runoff. Because these aquifers are fairly thin, they drain rapidly and are considerably depleted at the end of each dry cycle. The plain and plateau areas and tributary valleys, on the other hand, are underlain chiefly by rocks of high permeability and porosity. These rocks, mostly basaltic lava flows and alluvial materials, constitute a reservoir which fluctuates only slightly from season to season. Large amounts' of water are withdrawn from them for irrigation and other uses, and discharge from the Snake Plain aquifer is an important part of the total flow of the Snake River downstream from Hagerman Valley. The ultimate source of ground water in the basin is precipitation on the basin. In the mountainous areas, aquifers mostly are recharged directly by precipitation. On the other hand, in the plains, lowlands, and valleys which contain the principal aquifers

  6. Texture and depositional history of near-surface alluvial deposits in the central part of the western San Joaquin Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laudon, Julie; Belitz, Kenneth

    1989-01-01

    Saline conditions and associated high levels of selenium and other soluble trace elements in soil, shallow ground water, and agricultural drain water of the western San Joaquin Valley, California, have prompted a study of the texture of near-surface alluvial deposits in the central part of the western valley. Texture is characterized by the percentage of coarse-grained sediment present within a specified subsurface depth interval and is used as a basis for mapping the upper 50 feet of deposits. Resulting quantitative descriptions of the deposits are used to interpret the late Quaternary history of the area. Three hydrogeologic units--Coast Range alluvium, flood-basin deposits, and Sierran sand--can be recognized in the upper 50 feet of deposits in the central part of the western San Joaquin Valley. The upper 30 feet of Coast Range alluvium and the adjacent 5 to 35 feet of flood-basin deposits are predominantly fine grained. These fine-grained Coast Range deposits are underlain by coarse-grained channel deposits. The fine-grained flood basin deposits are underlain by coarse-grained Sierran sand. The extent and orientation of channel deposits below 20 feet in the Coast Range alluvium indicate that streams draining the Coast Range may have been tributary to the axial stream that deposited the Sierran sand and that streamflow may have been to the southeast. The fining-upward stratigraphic sequence in the upper 50 feet of deposits and the headward retreat of tributary stream channels from the valley trough with time support a recent hypothesis of climatic control of alluviation in the western San Joaquin Valley.

  7. Geohydrologic framework of the Roswell ground-water basin, Chaves and Eddy Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Welder, G.E.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the geohydrology of the Roswell ground-water basin and shows the long-term hydrostatic-head changes in the aquifers. The Roswell ground-water basin consists of a carbonate artesian aquifer overlain by a leaky confining bed, which, in turn is overlain by an alluvial water-table aquifer. The water-table aquifer is hydraulically connected to the Pecos River. Ground-water pumpage from about 1,500 wells in the basin was about 378,000 acre-feet in 1978. Irrigation use on about 122,000 acres accounted for 95 percent of that pumpage.

  8. Braided fluvial sedimentation in the lower paleozoic cape basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vos, Richard G.; Tankard, Anthony J.

    1981-07-01

    Lower Paleozoic braided stream deposits from the Piekenier Formation in the Cape Province, South Africa, provide information on lateral and vertical facies variability in an alluvial plain complex influenced by a moderate to high runoff. Four braided stream facies are recognized on the basis of distinct lithologies and assemblages of sedimentary structures. A lower facies, dominated by upward-fining conglomerate to sandstone and mudstone channel fill sequences, is interpreted as a middle to lower alluvial plain deposit with significant suspended load sedimentation in areas of moderate to low gradients. These deposits are succeeded by longitudinal conglomerate bars which are attributed to middle to upper alluvial plain sedimentation with steeper gradients. This facies is in turn overlain by braid bar complexes of large-scale transverse to linguoid dunes consisting of coarse-grained pebbly sandstones with conglomerate lenses. These bar complexes are compared with environments of the Recent Platte River. They represent a middle to lower alluvial plain facies with moderate gradients and no significant suspended load sedimentation or vegetation to stabilize channels. These bar complexes interfinger basinward with plane bedded medium to coarse-grained sandstones interpreted as sheet flood deposits over the distal portions of an alluvial plain with low gradients and lacking fine-grained detritus or vegetation.

  9. Alluvial Bars of the Obed Wild and Scenic River, Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfe, W.J.; Fitch, K.C.; Ladd, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2004, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Park Service (NPS) initiated a reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed Wild and Scenic River (Obed WSR), in Cumberland and Morgan Counties, Tennessee. The study was partly driven by concern that trapping of sand by upstream impoundments might threaten rare, threatened, or endangered plant habitat by reducing the supply of sediment to the alluvial bars. The objectives of the study were to: (1) develop a preliminary understanding of the distribution, morphology, composition, stability, and vegetation structure of alluvial bars along the Obed WSR, and (2) determine whether evidence of human alteration of sediment dynamics in the Obed WSR warrants further, more detailed examination. This report presents the results of the reconnaissance study of alluvial bars along the Obed River, Clear Creek, and Daddys Creek in the Obed WSR. The report is based on: (1) field-reconnaissance visits by boat to 56 alluvial bars along selected reaches of the Obed River and Clear Creek; (2) analysis of aerial photographs, topographic and geologic maps, and other geographic data to assess the distribution of alluvial bars in the Obed WSR; (3) surveys of topography, surface particle size, vegetation structure, and ground cover on three selected alluvial bars; and (4) analysis of hydrologic records.

  10. Impact of structural and autocyclic basin-floor topography on the depositional evolution of the deep-water Valparaiso forearc basin, central Chile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laursen, J.; Normark, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Valparaiso Basin constitutes a unique and prominent deep-water forearc basin underlying a 40-km by 60-km mid-slope terrace at 2.5-km water depth on the central Chile margin. Seismic-reflection data, collected as part of the CONDOR investigation, image a 3-3.5-km thick sediment succession that fills a smoothly sagged, margin-parallel, elongated trough at the base of the upper slope. In response to underthrusting of the Juan Ferna??ndez Ridge on the Nazca plate, the basin fill is increasingly deformed in the seaward direction above seaward-vergent outer forearc compressional highs. Syn-depositional growth of a large, margin-parallel monoclinal high in conjunction with sagging of the inner trough of the basin created stratal geometries similar to those observed in forearc basins bordered by large accretionary prisms. Margin-parallel compressional ridges diverted turbidity currents along the basin axis and exerted a direct control on sediment depositional processes. As structural depressions became buried, transverse input from point sources on the adjacent upper slope formed complex fan systems with sediment waves characterising the overbank environment, common on many Pleistocene turbidite systems. Mass failure as a result of local topographic inversion formed a prominent mass-flow deposit, and ultimately resulted in canyon formation and hence a new focused point source feeding the basin. The Valparaiso Basin is presently filled to the spill point of the outer forearc highs, causing headward erosion of incipient canyons into the basin fill and allowing bypass of sediment to the Chile Trench. Age estimates that are constrained by subduction-related syn-depositional deformation of the upper 700-800m of the basin fill suggest that glacio-eustatic sea-level lowstands, in conjunction with accelerated denudation rates, within the past 350 ka may have contributed to the increase in simultaneously active point sources along the upper slope as well as an increased

  11. Chemostratigraphy of the Sudbury impact basin fill: Volatile metal loss and post-impact evolution of a submarine impact basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Edel M.; Goodhue, Robbie; Ames, Doreen E.; Kamber, Balz S.

    2016-06-01

    The 1.85 Ga Sudbury structure provides a unique opportunity to study the sequence of events that occurred within a hydrothermally active subaqueous impact crater during the late stages of an impact and in its aftermath. Here we provide the first comprehensive chemostratigraphic study for the lower crater fill, represented by the ca. 1.4 km thick Onaping Formation. Carefully hand-picked ash-sized matrix of 81 samples was analysed for major elements, full trace elements and C isotopes. In most general terms, the composition of the clast-free matrix resembles that of the underlying melt sheet. However, many elements show interesting chemostratigraphies. The high field strength element evolution clearly indicates that the crater rim remained intact during the deposition of the entire Onaping Formation, collapsing only at the transition to the overlying Onwatin Formation. An interesting feature is that several volatile metals (e.g., Pb, Sb) are depleted by >90% in the lower Onaping Formation, suggesting that the impact resulted in a net loss of at least some volatile species, supporting the idea of ;impact erosion,; whereby volatile elements were vaporised and lost to space during impact. Reduced C contents in the lower Onaping Formation are low (<0.1 wt%) but increase to 0.5-1 wt% up stratigraphy, where δ13C becomes constant at -31‰, indicating a biogenic origin. Elevated Y/Ho and U/Th require that the ash interacted with saline water, most likely seawater. Redox-sensitive trace metal chemostratigraphies (e.g., V and Mo) suggest that the basin was anoxic and possibly euxinic and became inhabited by plankton, whose rain-down led to a reservoir effect in certain elements (e.g., Mo). This lasted until the crater rim was breached, the influx of fresh seawater promoting renewed productivity. If the Sudbury basin is used as an analogue for the Hadean and Eoarchaean Earth, our findings suggest that hydrothermal systems, capable of producing volcanogenic massive sulphides

  12. Utopia and Hellas basins, Mars: Twins separated at birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searls, Mindi L.; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Phillips, Roger J.

    2006-08-01

    Using topography and gravity data as constraints, we formulate spherical harmonic thin elastic-shell models to determine the subsurface structure of the Hellas and Utopia basins. For Hellas, we show that our model is consistent with the elastic thickness results of McGovern et al. (2002, 2004). The thin elastic lithosphere at the time of formation implies that Hellas is close to isostatic. Since Utopia formed earlier, we argue that an isostatic assumption is justified for the Utopia basin before it was filled. From this supposition, we derive a system of equations that allows us to solve for the amount of fill, the prefill topography, and the amount of flexure due to the fill within the Utopia basin. An analysis of the parameter space shows that the fill density and the amount of fill is strongly dependent on the elastic thickness at the time of infilling. A thinner elastic lithosphere favors a denser fill, while a thicker lithosphere will allow for less dense material. Likewise, larger crustal thickness values lead to smaller fill density values. The presence of quasi-circular depressions, interpreted as impact craters, within the Utopia basin indicates that the majority of the material within Utopia was deposited prior to 4.04-4.11 Ga. The early timing for the deposition combined with the heat imparted by the basin forming event argues for a thinner lithosphere which could, in turn, suggest fill densities that are more consistent with a volcanic load than with pure sediment or ice-rich material. These results are supported using an alternative method of determining the amount of fill and flexure within Utopia. This model assumes that Hellas and Utopia were initially identical and that the only difference in their subsequent evolution was the addition of material in the Utopia basin. The volume of material needed to fill Utopia is immense (on the order of 50 million km3 or more). The high density obtained for the fill requires that it contain a large igneous

  13. Well installation, single-well testing, and particle-size analysis for selected sites in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, north-central Colorado, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes results from a groundwater data-collection program completed in 2003-2004 by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the South Platte Decision Support System and in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. Two monitoring wells were installed adjacent to existing water-table monitoring wells. These wells were installed as well pairs with existing wells to characterize the hydraulic properties of the alluvial aquifer and shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin. Single-well tests were performed in the 2 newly installed wells and 12 selected existing monitoring wells. Sediment particle size was analyzed for samples collected from the screened interval depths of each of the 14 wells. Hydraulic-conductivity and transmissivity values were calculated after the completion of single-well tests on each of the selected wells. Recovering water-level data from the single-well tests were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method because test data most closely resembled those obtained from traditional slug tests. Results from the single-well test analyses for the alluvial aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.8 x 10-5 feet per second and geometric mean hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.4 x 10-5 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values in the alluvial aquifer were 8.6 x 10-4 feet squared per second and 4.9 x 10-4 feet squared per second, respectively. Single-well test results for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 5.4 x 10-6 feet per second and geometric mean value of 4.9 x 10-6 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer were 4.0 x 10-5 feet squared per second and 5.9 x 10-5 feet squared per second, respectively. Hydraulic-conductivity values for the alluvial aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated

  14. Depositional setting and diagenetic evolution of some Tertiary unconventional reservoir rocks, Uinta Basin, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitman, Janet K.; Fouch, T.D.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The Douglas Creek Member of the Tertiary Green River Formation underlies much of the Uinta basin, Utah, and contains large volumes of oil and gas trapped in a complex of fractured low-permeability sandstone reservoirs. In the SE part of the basin at Pariette Bench, the Eocene Douglas Creek Member is a thick sequence of fine- grained alluvial sandstone complexly intercalated with lacustrine claystone and carbonate rock. Sediments were deposited in a subsiding intermontane basin along the shallow fluctuating margin of ancient Lake Uinta. Although the Uinta basin has undergone postdepositional uplift and erosion, the deepest cored rocks at Pariette Bench have never been buried more than 3000m.-from Authors

  15. Basin analysis of tertiary strata in the Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chonchawalit, A.; Bustin, R.M.

    The stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Pattani basin, the most prolific petroleum basin in Thailand, reflects the extensional tectonics of continental southeast Asia. East-west extension, a product of the northward collision of India with Eurasia since the early Tertiary resulted in the formation of a series of north-south-trending sedimentary basins including the Pattani basin. Subsidence and thermal histories of the basin can generally be accounted for by nonuniform lithospheric stretching. The validity of nonuniform lithospheric stretching as a mechanic for the formation of the Pattani basin is confirmed by a reasonably good agreement between modeled and observed vitrinite reflectancemore » at various depths and locations. The amount of stretching and surface heat flow generally increases from the basin margin to the basin center. Crustal stretching factor ([beta]) ranges from 1.3 at the basin margin to 2.8 in the center. Subcrustal stretching factor ([sigma]) ranges from 1.3 at the margin to more than 3.0 in the center. The stretching of the lithosphere may have extended basement rocks as much as 45 to 90 km and may have caused the upwelling of asthenosphere, resulting in high heat flow. The sedimentary succession in the Pattani basin is divisible into synrift and postrift sequences. The synrift sequences comprise (1) late Eocene ( ) to early Oligocene alluvial fan, braided river, and flood-plain deposits; (2) late Oligocene to early Miocene floodplain and channel deposits; and (3) an early Miocene regressive package of marine to nonmarine sediments. Deposition of synrift sequences corresponded to rifting and extension, which included episodic block faulting and rapid subsidence. Postrift succession comprises (1) an early to middle Miocene regressive package of shallow marine to nonmarine sediments, (2) a late early Miocene transgressive package; and (3) a late Miocene to Pleistocene transgression succession.« less

  16. Geomorphologic flood-hazard assessment of alluvial fans and piedmonts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, J.J.; Pearthree, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    Geomorphologic studies are an excellent means of flood-hazard assessment on alluvial fans and piedmonts in the southwestern United States. Inactive, flood-free, alluvial fans display well developed soils, desert pavement, rock varnish, and tributary drainage networks. These areas are easily distinguished from flood-prone active alluvial fans on aerial photographs and in the field. The distribution of flood-prone areas associated with alluvial fans is strongly controlled by fanhead trenches dissecting the surface. Where fanhead trenches are permanent features cut in response to long-term conditions such as tectonic quiescence, flood-prone surfaces are situated down-slope from the mountain front and their positions are stable for thousands of years. Since the length and permanency of fanhead trenches can vary greatly between adjacent drainages, it is not appropriate to use regional generalizations to evaluate the distribution and stability of flood-hazard zones. Site-specific geomorphologic studies must be carried out if piedmont areas with a high risk of flooding are to be correctly identified and losses due to alluvial-fan flooding minimized. To meet the growing demand for trained professionals to complete geomorphologic maps of desert piedmonts, undergraduate and graduate geomorphology courses should adopt an instructional unit on alluvial-fan flood hazards that includes: 1) a review of geomorphologic characteristics that vary with surface age; 2) a basic mapping exercise; and 3) a discussion of the causes of fanhead trenching.

  17. The migration, dissolution, and fate of chlorinated solvents in the urbanized alluvial valleys of the southwestern USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, R. E.

    The migration, dissolution, and subsequent fate of spilled chlorinated solvents in the urban alluvial valleys of the southwestern U.S. appear to be governed by a unique set of hydrogeologic and geochemical processes occurring within terrigeneous clastic depositional systems. The alluvial and lacustrine fill of the basins, the trapping of solvents in fine-grained sediments beneath the urbanized valley centers, the oxic conditions typical of the deeper alluvium, and the contaminant-transport patterns produced by large-scale basin pumping combine to produce long aqueous-phase plumes derived from the dissolution of trapped chlorinated solvents. Although of limited aqueous solubility, these dense solvents are sufficiently mobile and soluble in the southwestern alluvial valleys to have produced aqueous plumes that have migrated several kilometers through the deeper alluvium and have contaminated valuable water-supply well fields in California, Arizona, and New Mexico. The typical length of these plumes and the presence of oxic groundwater indicate that it is unlikely that natural attenuation will be a practical remedial option in the southwestern alluvial valleys or in other alluvial systems in which similar hydrogeologic and geochemical conditions exist. Résumé La migration, la dissolution et l'évolution consécutive des rejets de solvants chlorés dans les vallées alluviales du sud-ouest des États-Unis paraissent déterminées par un même ensemble de processus hydrogéologiques et géochimiques intervenant dans des formations de dépôts clastiques terrigènes. Les remplissages alluviaux et lacustres des bassins, le piégeage des solvants par des sédiments fins sous les centres des vallées urbanisées, les conditions oxiques typiques des alluvions plus profondes et les types de transport de contaminants provoqués par le pompage à l'échelle du bassin se combinent pour produire des panaches, étendus dans la phase aqueuse, provenant de la dissolution de

  18. Water quality in alluvial aquifers of the southern Rocky Mountains Physiographic Province, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado, 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori Estelle; Bails, Jeffrey B.

    2000-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected in the summer of 1997 from 45 sites (43 wells and 2 springs) in selected alluvial aquifers throughout the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic province of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The objective of this study was to assess the water-quality conditions in selected alluvial aquifers in the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic province. Alluvial aquifers are productive aquifers in the Southern Rocky Mountains physiographic province and provide for easily developed wells. Water-quality samples were collected from areas where ground water is used predominantly for domestic or public water supply. Twenty-three of the 45 sites sampled were located in or near mining districts. No statistical differences were observed between the mining sites and sites not associated with mining activities for the majority of the constituents analyzed. Water samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, bacteria, and methylene blue active substances. In addition, field parameters consisting of water temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, turbidity, and alkalinity were measured at all sites.Specific conductance for the ground-water sites ranged from 57 to 6,650 microsiemens per centimeter and had higher concentrations measured in areas such as the northwestern part of the study unit. Dissolved oxygen ranged from 0.1 to 6.0 mg/L (milligrams per liter) and had a median concentration of 2.9 mg/L. The pH field values ranged from 6.1 to 8.1; about 4 percent of the sites (2 of 45) had pH values outside the range of 6.5 to 8.5 and so did not meet the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency secondary maximum contaminant level standard for drinking water. About 5 percent (2 of 43) of the samples exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended

  19. Alluvial fan in China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-09-05

    This image captures the beauty of a major alluvial fan in Tsinghai, a province located in Northwestern China. This archival image was taken from NASA Space Shuttle in 1997 as part of its ISS EarthKAM mission.

  20. How to Recharge a Confined Alluvial Aquifer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maples, S.; Fogg, G. E.; Liu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Greater water storage capacity is needed to offset future decreases in snowpack-water storage in California. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) in California's Central Valley aquifer system is a promising alternative to new surface reservoir storage because it has the potential to both reduce overdraft conditions observed in many Central Valley groundwater basins and offset continued decreases in snowpack storage. MAR to the Central Valley's productive confined-aquifer system remains a challenge because, like most alluvial aquifer systems, it is composed mostly of silt and clay sediments that form nearly ubiquitous, multiple confining layers that inhibit direct recharge of the interconnected sand and gravel body networks. Several studies have mapped surficial soil types in the Central Valley that are conducive to MAR, but few studies have evaluated how subsurface geologic heterogeneity controls recharge to the confined aquifer system. Here, we use a transition probability Markov-chain geostatistical model conditioned with 1200 well logs to create a physically-realistic representation of the subsurface geologic heterogeneity in the American and Cosumnes River watersheds on the east side of the Sacramento Valley, CA, where studies have shown the presence of massive, interconnected, highly-permeable gravel deposits that are potentially conducive to considerably higher rates of regional recharge than would be possible over the rest of the landscape. Such localized stratigraphic features to support accelerated recharge occur throughout the Central Valley, but are mostly still undiscovered. A variably-saturated, fully-integrated, groundwater/surface-water code, ParFlow, was used to simulate MAR dynamics in this system. Results show the potential for (1) accelerated, high-volume recharge through interconnected gravels where they outcrop at land surface, and (2) regional repressurization of the deeper confined aquifer system. These findings provide insight into the critical

  1. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, 2004: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Michael T.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    characterize the quality of groundwater resources within the primary aquifers of the San Diego study unit, not the treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The second component of this study-the understanding assessment-identified the natural and human factors that affect groundwater quality by evaluating land use, well construction, and geochemical conditions of the aquifer. Results from these evaluations were used to help explain the occurrence and distribution of selected constituents in the study unit. Relative-concentrations (sample concentration divided by benchmark concentration) were used as the primary metric for relating concentrations of constituents in groundwater samples to water-quality benchmarks for those constituents that have Federal and (or) California benchmarks. For organic and special-interest constituents, relative-concentrations were classified as high (> 1.0), moderate (> 0.1 and ≤1.0), and low (≤0.1). For inorganic constituents, relative concentrations were classified as high (> 1.0), moderate (> 0.5 and ≤1.0), and low (≤0.5). Grid-based and spatially weighted approaches were then used to evaluate the proportion of the primary aquifers (aquifer-scale proportions) with high, moderate, and low relative-concentrations for individual compounds and classes of constituents. One or more of the inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks were high (relative to those benchmarks) in 17.6 percent of the primary aquifers in the Temecula Valley, Warner Valley, and Alluvial Basins study areas (hereinafter also collectively referred to as the Alluvial Fill study areas because they are composed of alluvial fill aquifers), and in 25.0 percent of the Hard Rock study area. Inorganic constituents with health-based benchmarks that were frequently detected at high relative-concentrations included vanadium (V), arsenic (As), and boron (B). Vanadium and As concentrations were not significantly correlated to either urban or

  2. A dam in the drylands: Effects of soil geomorphic actions on a mediterranean alluvial scrubland and the endangered Santa Ana woolly star (Eriastrum densifolium spp. sanctorum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R. R.; Sandquist, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    When dams preclude natural flow, maintenance of river ecosystems adapted to infrequent, catastrophic floods poses unique challenges. Further, riparian mediterranean ecosystems with high inter-annual and seasonal precipitation variability, coupled with complicated patterns of biotic and abiotic heterogeneity, intensify challenges for management under disrupted flow regimes. In this study, we evaluated the impact of six unique soil geomorphic actions on the rare Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub plant community, which includes the endangered Santa Ana River woolly star (Eriastrum densifolium spp. sanctorum [Eds]) after 5, 7.5, and 13 years of response. We implemented a complete randomized block design, with each block incorporating six geomorphic treatments: cleared, diked, cut, filled (10 cm soil), filled (20 cm soil), and filled (30 cm soil), mimicking one of more physical disturbance process occurring after a natural flood event. We performed native and exotic plant community surveys on full plots in summer 2006, representing 7.5 years of response from the original 1999 disturbance, and on (re-disturbed half) plots in fall 2012, representing (5 years) 13 years of response. We found that recruitment of Eds into late-successional (i.e., control) plots is highly limited (0.0, 4.1, and 2.5% cover) after 5, 7.5, and 13 years, respectively, with implications for the persistence of this species, whereas the cut treatment showed significantly higher cover of Eds (25.3, 53.4, 14.3%, respectively). Our results also suggest that exotic annual grasses may inhibit Eds and other Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub plant community members under a disrupted flow regime but that soil geomorphic treatment of late-successional habitat can be effective in facilitating Eds and Riversidian alluvial fan sage scrub establishment.

  3. Hydrology of the Bayou Bartholomew alluvial aquifer-stream system, Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broom, M.E.; Reed, J.E.

    1973-01-01

    The study area comprises about 3,200 square miles of the Mississippi Alluvial Plain in southeast Arkansas. About 90 percent of the area drains south to the Ouachita River in Louisiana. The alluvial aquifer and the streams are hydraulically connected and are studied as an aquifer-stream system. Bayou Bartholomew is a principal stream of the system. The aquifer is underlain by confining strata of the Jackson Group and Cockfield Formation. The mean annual surface-water yield of the area that drains to the Ouachita River basin is nearly 2 million acre-feet. Flood-control projects have significantly reduced flooding in the area. Basin boundaries and low-flow characteristics of streams have been altered as a result of the flood-control projects and streamflow diversion for irrigation. The direction of ground-water flow generally is southward. Bayou Bartholomew functions mostly as a drain for ground-water flow from the west and as a recharge source to the aquifer east of the bayou. As a result of navigation pools, the Arkansas River is mostly a steady-recharge source to the aquifer. Pumpage from the aquifer and streams increased from about 20,000 acre-feet in 1941 to 237,000 acre-feet in 1970. Estimates of flow, derived from analog analysis but lacking field verification, indicate that recharge to the aquifer in 1970 was about 161,000 acre-feet. About 70 percent of the recharge was by capture from streams as a result of ground-water pumpage. Discharge from the aquifer was about 233,000 acre-feet. About 80 percent of the discharge was through wells. Stream diversion in 1970 from capture and open channel, excluding capture from the Arkansas and Mississippi Rivers, was about 110,000 acre-feet. Return flow to streams from rice irrigation and fishponds was about 60,000 acre-feet. The chemical quality of streamflows is excellent for irrigation. Water from the aquifer generally ranges from permissible to excellent for irrigation. The use of water from the aquifer in the flood

  4. Quantifying alluvial fan sensitivity to climate in Death Valley, California, from field observations and numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, Sam; Whittaker, Alexander; Armitage, John; D'Arcy, Mitch; Watkins, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    A quantitative understanding of landscape sensitivity to climate change remains a key challenge in the Earth Sciences. The stream-flow deposits of coupled catchment-fan systems offer one way to decode past changes in external boundary conditions as they comprise simple, closed systems that can be represented effectively by numerical models. Here we combine the collection and analysis of grain size data on well-dated alluvial fan surfaces in Death Valley, USA, with numerical modelling to address the extent to which sediment routing systems record high-frequency, high-magnitude climate change. We compile a new database of Holocene and Late-Pleistocene grain size trends from 11 alluvial fans in Death Valley, capturing high-resolution grain size data ranging from the Recent to 100 kyr in age. We hypothesise the observed changes in average surface grain size and fining rate over time are a record of landscape response to glacial-interglacial climatic forcing. With this data we are in a unique position to test the predictions of landscape evolution models and evaluate the extent to which climate change has influenced the volume and calibre of sediment deposited on alluvial fans. To gain insight into our field data and study area, we employ an appropriately-scaled catchment-fan model that calculates an eroded volumetric sediment budget to be deposited in a subsiding basin according to mass balance where grain size trends are predicted by a self-similarity fining model. We use the model to compare predicted trends in alluvial fan stratigraphy as a function of boundary condition change for a range of model parameters and input grain size distributions. Subsequently, we perturb our model with a plausible glacial-interglacial magnitude precipitation change to estimate the requisite sediment flux needed to generate observed field grain size trends in Death Valley. Modelled fluxes are then compared with independent measurements of sediment supply over time. Our results

  5. Interbasin flow in the Great Basin with special reference to the southern Funeral Mountains and the source of Furnace Creek springs, Death Valley, California, U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belcher, W.R.; Bedinger, M.S.; Back, J.T.; Sweetkind, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Interbasin flow in the Great Basin has been established by scientific studies during the past century. While not occurring uniformly between all basins, its occurrence is common and is a function of the hydraulic gradient between basins and hydraulic conductivity of the intervening rocks. The Furnace Creek springs in Death Valley, California are an example of large volume springs that are widely accepted as being the discharge points of regional interbasin flow. The flow path has been interpreted historically to be through consolidated Paleozoic carbonate rocks in the southern Funeral Mountains. This work reviews the preponderance of evidence supporting the concept of interbasin flow in the Death Valley region and the Great Basin and addresses the conceptual model of pluvial and recent recharge [Nelson, S.T., Anderson, K., Mayo, A.L., 2004. Testing the interbasin flow hypothesis at Death Valley, California. EOS 85, 349; Anderson, K., Nelson, S., Mayo, A., Tingey, D., 2006. Interbasin flow revisited: the contribution of local recharge to high-discharge springs, Death Valley, California. Journal of Hydrology 323, 276-302] as the source of the Furnace Creek springs. We find that there is insufficient modern recharge and insufficient storage potential and permeability within the basin-fill units in the Furnace Creek basin for these to serve as a local aquifer. Further, the lack of high sulfate content in the spring waters argues against significant flow through basin-fill sediments and instead suggests flow through underlying consolidated carbonate rocks. The maximum temperature of the spring discharge appears to require deep circulation through consolidated rocks; the Tertiary basin fill is of insufficient thickness to generate such temperatures as a result of local fluid circulation. Finally, the stable isotope data and chemical mass balance modeling actually support the interbasin flow conceptual model rather than the alternative presented in Nelson et al. [Nelson

  6. Evaluation of site effects in Loja basin (southern Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guartán, J.; Navarro, M.; Soto, J.

    2013-05-01

    Site effect assessment based on subsurface ground conditions is often crucial for estimating the urban seismic hazard. In order to evaluate the site effects in the intra-mountain basin of Loja (southern Ecuador), geological and geomorphological survey and ambient noise measurements were carried out. A classification of shallow geologic materials was performed through a geological cartography and the use of geotechnical data and geophysical surveys. Seven lithological formations have been analyzed, both in composition and thickness of existing materials. The shear-wave velocity structure in the center of the basin, composed by alluvial materials, was evaluated by means of inversion of Rayleigh wave dispersion data obtained from vertical-component array records of ambient noise. VS30 structure was estimated and an average value of 346 m s-1 was obtained. This value agrees with the results obtained from SPT N-value (306-368 m s-1). Short-period ambient noise observations were performed in 72 sites on a 500m × 500m dimension grid. The horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) method was applied in order to determine a ground predominant period distribution map. This map reveals an irregular distribution of predominant period values, ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 s, according with the heterogeneity of the basin. Lower values of the period are found in the harder formation (Quillollaco formation), while higher values are predominantly obtained in alluvial formation. These results will be used in the evaluation of ground dynamic properties and will be included in seismic microzoning of Loja basin. Keywords: Landform classification, Ambient noise, SPAC method, Rayleigh waves, Shear velocity profile, Ground predominant period. ;

  7. A basin on an unstable ground: Correlation of the Middle Archaean Moodies Basin, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnemueller, Frank; Heubeck, Christoph; Kirstein, Jens; Gamper, Antonia

    2010-05-01

    The 3.22 Ga-old Moodies Group, representing the uppermost part of the Barberton Supergroup of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (BGB), is the oldest well-exposed, relatively unmetamorphosed, quartz-rich sedimentary unit on Earth. Moodies facies (north of the Inyoka Fault) were thought to be largely of alluvial, fluvial, deltaic or shallow-marine origin (Anhaeusser, 1976; Eriksson, 1980; Heubeck and Lowe, 1994) and in its upper part syndeformational. However, units can only locally be correlated, and the understanding of the interplay between Moodies sedimentation and deformation is thus limited. We mapped and measured Moodies units in the northern BGB. They partly consist of extensive turbiditic deepwater deposits, including graded bedding, flame structures, and slumped beds, interbedded with jaspilites. These contrast with shallow-water environments, south-facing progressive unconformities and overlying alluvial-fan conglomerates along the northern margin of the Saddleback Syncline further south. The palaeogeographic setting in which late BGB deformation was initiated therefore appears complex and cannot be readily explained by a simple southward-directed shortening event. In order to constrain Moodies basin setting before and during late-Moodies basin collapse, we correlated ~15 measured sections in the northern and central BGB. Most units below the Moodies Lava (MdL, ca. 3230.6+-6 Ma) can be correlated throughout although facies variations are apparent. Above the Moodies Lava, coarse-grained units can only be correlated through the Eureka Syncline and the Moodies Hills Block but not with the Saddleback Syncline. Fine-grained and jaspilitic units can be correlated throughout the northern BGB. Moodies below-wavebase deposition occurred largely north of the Saddleback Fault. The observations are consistent with a pronounced basin compartmentalization event following the eruption of the MdL which appeared to have blanketed most of the Moodies basin(s) in middle Moodies

  8. Impact of Sand and Gravel Mining on Groundwater Resources in La Bassée Alluvial Plain, France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, A.; Wang, S.; Labarthe, B.; Flipo, N.

    2016-12-01

    The alluvial plain of La Bassée, in the middle reach of the Seine River (France), is both of environmental importance as a major wetland and at the centre of strategic issues regarding inland waterways transport, flood prevention, water and granular resources. The sand and gravel mining industry has been productive for more than five decades over the area and contributes to 40% of the regional production of natural aggregates. Former and active gravel pits cover about 10% of the areal extent of the plain. Gravel pit lakes interact with groundwater from the surrounding alluvial aquifer and the underlying chalk aquifer. By exposing groundwater to the atmosphere, they can act as a sink/source for the groundwater system through atmospheric exchange. We develop a model-based approach using the EauDyssée platform for determining the impact of such lakes on groundwater resources in terms of quantity and how they affect groundwater level and flow paths. Over the alluvial plain area of La Bassée a local model is built, which takes its hydrodynamic parameters from an inverse calibration procedure and its boundary conditions from a coarser regional model run on the whole Seine basin. To efficiently simulate lake-groundwater exchange, the modelling platform was extended by a lake module. The effet of gravel excavation is investigated by quantifying the gravel pit lakes water budget and by simulating groundwater transient response over almost two decades.

  9. Effects of alluvial knickpoint migration on floodplain ecology and geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Annegret; May, Jan-Hendrick

    2016-04-01

    Alluvial knickpoints are well described as erosional mechanism within discontinuous ephemeral streams in the semi-arid SW USA. However, alluvial knickpoints occur globally in a wide range of settings and of climate zones, including temperate SE Australia, subtropical Africa, and tropical Australia. Much attention has been given in the scientific literature to the trigger mechanisms of alluvial knickpoints, which can be summarized as: i) threshold phenomena, ii) climate variability and iii) land-use change, or to a combination of these factors. Recently, studies have focused on the timescale of alluvial knickpoint retreat, and the processes, mechanisms and feedbacks with ecology, geomorphology and hydrology. In this study, we compile data from a global literature review with a case study on a tropical river system in Australia affected by re-occurring, fast migrating (140 myr-1) alluvial knickpoint. We highlight the importance of potential water table declines due to channel incision following knickpoint migration, which in turn leads to the destabilization of river banks, and a shift in floodplain vegetation and fire incursion. We hypothesize that the observed feedbacks might also help to understand the broader impacts of alluvial knickpoint migration in other regions, and might explain the drastic effects of knickpoint migration on land cover and land-use in semi-arid areas.

  10. Basin-fill Aquifer Modeling with Terrestrial Gravity: Assessing Static Offsets in Bulk Datasets using MATLAB; Case Study of Bridgeport, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlawsky, E. T.; Louie, J. N.; Pohll, G.; Carlson, C. W.; Blakely, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding the potential availability of water resources in Eastern California aquifers is of critical importance to making water management policy decisions and determining best-use practices for California, as well as for downstream use in Nevada. Hydrologic well log data can provide valuable information on aquifer capacity, but is often proprietarily inaccessible or economically unfeasible to obtain in sufficient quantity. In the case of basin-fill aquifers, it is possible to make estimates of aquifer geometry and volume using geophysical surveys of gravity, constrained by additional geophysical and geological observations. We use terrestrial gravity data to model depth-to-basement about the Bridgeport, CA basin for application in preserving the Walker Lake biome. In constructing the model, we assess several hundred gravity observations, existing and newly collected. We regard these datasets as "bulk," as the data are compiled from multiple sources. Inconsistencies among datasets can result in "static offsets," or artificial bull's-eye contours, within the gradient. Amending suspect offsets requires the attention of the modeler; picking these offsets by hand can be a time-consuming process when modeling large-scale basin features. We develop a MATLAB script for interpolating the residual Bouguer anomaly about the basin using sparse observation points, and leveling offset points with a user-defined sensitivity. The script is also capable of plotting gravity profiles between any two endpoints within the map extent. The resulting anomaly map provides an efficient means of locating and removing static offsets in the data, while also providing a fast visual representation of a bulk dataset. Additionally, we obtain gridded basin gravity models with an open-source alternative to proprietary modeling tools.

  11. Arsenic in ground-water under oxidizing conditions, south-west United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, F.N.

    1989-01-01

    Concentrations of dissolved arsenic in ground-water in alluvial basins of Arizona commonly exceed 50 ??g L-1 and reach values as large as 1,300 ??g L-1. Arsenic speciation analyses show that arsenic occurs in the fully oxidized state of plus 5 (As+5), most likely in the form of HAsO4???2, under existing oxidizing and pH conditions. Arsenic in source areas presumably is oxidized to soluble As before transport into the basin or, if after transport, before burial. Probable sources of arsenic are the sulphide and arsenide deposits in the mineralized areas of the mountains surrounding the basins. Arsenic content of alluvial material ranged from 2 to 88 ppm. Occurrence and removal of arsenic in ground-water are related to the pH and the redox condition of the ground-water, the oxidation state of arsenic, and sorption or exchange. Within basins, dissolved arsenic correlates (P<0.01) with dissolved molybdenum, selenium, vanadium, and fluoride and with pH, suggesting sorption of negative ions. The sorption hypothesis is further supported by enrichment of teachable arsenic in the basin-fill sediments by about tenfold relative to the crustal abundance and by as much as a thousandfold relative to concentrations found in ground-water. Silicate hydrolysis reactions, as defined within the alluvial basins, under closed conditions cause increases in pH basinward and would promote desorption. Within the region, large concentrations of arsenic are commonly associated with the central parts of basins whose chemistries evolve under closed conditions. Arsenic does not correlate with dissolved iron (r = 0.09) but may be partly controlled by iron in the solid phase. High solid-phase arsenic contents were found in red clay beds. Large concentrations of arsenic also were found in water associated with red clay beds. Basins that contain the larger concentrations are bounded primarily by basalt and andesite, suggesting that the iron content as well as the arsenic content of the basin fill may

  12. Ground water in the Verdigris River basin, Kansas and Oklahoma

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fader, Stuart Wesley; Morton, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    Ground water in the Verdigris River basin occurs in consolidated rocks and unconsolidated deposits ranging in age from Mississippian to Quaternary. Water for municipal, industrial, and irrigation supplies generally can be obtained in limited quantities from the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys. Except for water in the alluvial deposits in the stream valleys and in the outcrop areas of the bedrock aquifers, the groundwater is generally of poor chemical quality. Owing to the generally poor chemical quality of water and low yields to wells, an increase in the use of ground water from the consolidated rocks is improbable. The unconsolidated rocks in the Verdigris River basin receive about 166,000 acre-feet of recharge annually, and about 1 million acre-fee of water is in temporary storage in the deposits. In 1968 about 4,200 acre-feet of ground was withdrawn for all uses. About 800 acre-feet of ground and 5,000 acre-feet of surface water were pumped for irrigation of 5,300 acres of cropland. The total annual withdrawal of ground water for irrigation may be 2,000 acre-feet by the year 2000.

  13. REACH SPECIFIC CHANNEL STABILIZATION BASED ON COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF VALLEY FILL HISTORY, ALLUVIAL ARCHITECTURE AND GROUNDWATER HYDROLOGY IN A MOUNTAIN STREAM IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN, NEVADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kingston meadow, located in the Toiyabe Range, is one of many wet meadow complexes threatened by rapid channel incision in the mountain ranges of the central Great Basin. Channel incision can lower the baselevel for groundwater discharge and de-water meadow complexes resulting in...

  14. Hydrology of the Sevier-Sigurd ground-water basin and other ground-water basins, central Sevier Valley, Utah.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambert, P.M.; Mason, J.L.; Puchta, R.W

    1995-01-01

    The hydrologic system in the central Sevier Valley, and more specifically the Sevier-Sigurd basin, is a complex system in which surface- and ground-water systems are interrelated. Seepage from an extensive irrigation system is the primary source of recharge to the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin.Water-quality data indicate that inflow from streams and subsurface inflow that intersect evaporite deposits in the Arapien Shale does not adversely affect ground-water quality in the Sevier-Sigurd basin. Stable-isotope data indicate that large sulfate concentrations in water from wells are from the dissolution of gypsum within the basin fill rather than inflow from the Arapien Shale.A ground-water-flow model of the basin-fill aquifer in the Sevier-Sigurd basin was calibrated to steady-state conditions and transient conditions using yearly water-level changes from 1957-88 and monthly water-level changes from 1958-59. Predictive simulations were made to test the effects of reduced recharge from irrigation and increased well discharge. To simulate the effects of conversion from flood to sprinkler irrigation, recharge from irrigated fields was reduced by 50 percent. After twenty years, this reduction resulted in water-level declines of 1 to 8 feet in most of the basin, and a reduction in ground-water discharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr. Water-level declines of as much as 12 feet and a reduction in recharge to the Sevier River of 4,800 acre-ft/yr were the result of increasing well discharge near Richfield and Monroe by 25,000 acre-ft/yr. 

  15. Late Wisconsin and Early Holocene runoff through the upper Ohio River basin

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kite, J.S.

    A tentative absolute chronology is emerging from radiocarbon dates on glacial, alluvial and colluvial sediments in the upper Ohio River basin. Radiocarbon dates for Gallipolis Lock and Dam indicate the river eroded down to its present bedrock floor before 22,400 yr B.P. Data from several sites indicate aggradation began soon after 22,400 yr B.P., coincident with, or just before, a glacier advance into the upper Ohio basin. Sand and gravel aggraded in glaciated tributaries and the main valley, whereas silt, fine sand, and clay accumulated in unglaciated tributaries. Slope instability and colluvial deposition were extensive at this time. Aggradation continuedmore » until 25 to 40 m of sediments filled the Ohio River Valley. The paucity of radiocarbon dates prohibits precise determination of when peak aggradation occurred and how that peak related to glacial and climatic events. Although the Laurentide Ice Sheet retreated out of the basin by about 14,000 yr B.P., the river remained braided until at least 13,000 yr B.P., possibly because of slope instability in a cold late Wisconsin climate or the time required for the river to adjust to reduced outwash sediment supply. Coarse late-glacial channel deposits may reflect increased flood discharges after 13,000 B.P. and onset of the transition from a braided system to a meandering channel. However, the upper Ohio River seems not to have taken on its modern morphology until the early Holocene. Most dated overbank deposits on tributaries are younger than 10,000 yr B.P.; most on the Ohio River are younger than 8,500 yr B.P.« less

  16. Geologic and physiographic controls on bed-material yield, transport, and channel morphology for alluvial and bedrock rivers, western Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connor, James E.; Mangano, Joseph F.; Anderson, Scott A.; Wallick, J. Rose; Jones, Krista L.; Keith, Mackenzie K.

    2014-01-01

    The rivers of western Oregon have diverse forms and characteristics, with channel substrates ranging from continuous alluvial gravel to bare bedrock. Analysis of several measurable morphologic attributes of 24 valley reaches on 17 rivers provides a basis for comparing nonalluvial and alluvial channels. Key differences are that alluvial reaches have greater bar area, greater migration rates, and show systematic correlation among variables relating grain size to bed-material transport capacity. We relate these differences between channel types to bed-material transport rates as derived from a coupled regional analysis of empirical sediment yield measurements and physical experiments of clast attrition during transport. This sediment supply analysis shows that overall bed-material transport rates for western Oregon are chiefly controlled by (1) lithology and basin slope, which are the key factors for bed-material supply into the stream network, and (2) lithologic control of bed-material attrition from in-transport abrasion and disintegration. This bed-material comminution strongly affects bed-material transport in the study area, reducing transport rates by 50%–90% along the length of the larger rivers in the study area. A comparison of the bed-material transport estimates with the morphologic analyses shows that alluvial gravel-bed channels have systematic and bounding relations between bed-material transport rate and attributes such as bar area and local transport capacity. By contrast, few such relations are evident for nonalluvial rivers with bedrock or mixed-bed substrates, which are apparently more influenced by local controls on channel geometry and sediment supply. At the scale of western Oregon, the physiographic and lithologic controls on the balance between bed-material supply and transport capacity exert far-reaching influence on the distribution of alluvial and nonalluvial channels and their consequently distinctive morphologies and behaviors

  17. Morphologic expression of Quaternary deformation in the northwestern foothills of the Ysyk-Köl basin, Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korjenkov, A. M.; Povolotskaya, I. E.; Mamyrov, E.

    2007-03-01

    The Tien Shan is one of the most active intracontinental mountain belts exhibiting numerous examples of Quaternary fault-related folding. To provide insight into the deformation of the Quaternary intermontane basins, the territory of the northwestern Ysyk-Köl region, where the growing Ak-Teke Anticline divided the piedmont apron of alluvial fans, is studied. It is shown that the Ak-Teke Hills are a sharply asymmetric anticline, which formed as a result of tectonic uplift and erosion related to motions along the South Ak-Teke Thrust Fault. The tectonic uplift gave rise to the local deviation of the drainage network in front of the northern limb of the fold. Optical (luminescent) dating suggests that the tectonic uplifting of the young anticline and the antecedent downcutting started 157 ka ago. The last upthrow of the high floodplain of the Toru-Aygyr River took place 1300 years ago. The structure of the South Ak-Teke Fault is examined by means of seismologic trenching and shallow seismic profiling across the fault. A laser tachymeter is applied to determine the vertical deformation of alluvial terraces in the Toru-Aygyr River valley at its intersection with the South Ak-Teke Fault. The rates of vertical deformation and an inferred number of strong earthquakes, which resulted in the upthrow of Quaternary river terraces of different ages, are calculated. The study territory is an example of changes in fluvial systems on growing folds in piedmont regions. As a result of shortening of the Earth’s crust in the mountainous belt owing to thrusting, new territories of previous sedimentation are involved in emergence. The tectonic activity migrates with time from the framing ridges toward the axial parts of intramontane basins.

  18. Morphostructural characterization of the Charco basin and its surrounding areas in the Chihuahua segment of north Mexican Basin and Range Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesco; Menichetti, Marco

    2014-05-01

    The Chihuahua Basin and Range (CBR) is the eastern branch of the northern Mexican Basin and Range Province that, from a morphostructural point of view, presently is one amongst the lesser-known zones of the southern portion of the North America Basin and Range Province. The study area covers an approximately 800 km2-wide portion of the CBR and encompasses the fault-bounded Charco basin and its surrounding areas. The bedrock of the area pertains to the large siliceous-igneous province of the Sierra Madre Occidental and consists of volcanoclastic rocks including Oligocene dacite, rhyolite, rhyolitic tuffs, and polimitic conglomerates. The region is characterized by a series of NW-SE oriented valleys delimited by tilted monoclinal blocks bounded by high angle, SW-dipping, normal faults. Abrupt changes in elevation, alternating between narrow faulted mountain chains and flat arid valleys or basins are the main morphological elements of the area. The valleys correspond to structural grabens filled with Plio-Pleistocene continental sediments. These grabens are about 10 km wide, while the extensional fault system extend over a distance of more than 15 km. The mountain ranges are in most cases continuous over distances that range from 10 to 70 km including different branches of the extensional and transfer faults. The morphogenesis is mainly erosive in character: erosional landforms (such as rocky scarps, ridges, strath-terraces, erosional pediment, reverse slopes, landslide scar zones, litho-structural flat surfaces) dominate the landscape. In contrast, Quaternary depositional landforms are mainly concentrated within the flat valleys or basins. The Quaternary deposits consist of wide alluvial fans extending to the foot of the main ridges, fluvial and debris-slope deposits. The morphostructural characterization of the area integrated different methodologies, including: i) geomorphological and structural field analyses; ii) remote sensing and geo-morphometric investigations

  19. Geologic implications of gas hydrates in the offshore of India: Krishna-Godavari Basin, Mahanadi Basin, Andaman Sea, Kerala-Konkan Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Collett, Timothy S.; Boswell, Ray; Cochran, James R.; Lall, Malcolm; Mazumdar, Aninda; Ramana, Mangipudi Venkata; Ramprasad, Tammisetti; Riedel, Michael; Sain, Kalachand; Sathe, Arun Vasant; Vishwanath, Krishna; Yadav, U.S.

    2014-01-01

    NGHP-01 yielded evidence of gas hydrate from downhole log and core data obtained from all the sites in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, the Mahanadi Basin, and in the Andaman Sea. The site drilled in the Kerala–Konkan Basin during NGHP-01 did not yield any evidence of gas hydrate. Most of the downhole log-inferred gas hydrate and core-recovered gas hydrate were characterized as either fracture-filling in clay-dominated sediments or as pore-filling or grain-displacement particles disseminated in both fine- and coarse-grained sediments. Geochemical analyses of gases obtained from sediment cores recovered during NGHP-01 indicated that the gas in most all of the hydrates in the offshore of India is derived from microbial sources; only one site in the Andaman Sea exhibited limited evidence of a thermogenic gas source. The gas hydrate petroleum system concept has been used to effectively characterize the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrates in the offshore of India.

  20. Timing and nature of alluvial fan development along the Chajnantor Plateau, northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesta, Jason M.; Ward, Dylan J.

    2016-11-01

    Alluvial systems in the Atacama Desert provide a unique opportunity to elucidate the sedimentary response to climate variability, particularly changes in precipitation, in hyperarid environments. Alluvial fans along the eastern margin of the Salar de Atacama, adjacent to the Chajnantor Plateau in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile, provide an archive of climate-modulated sediment transfer and erosion at an extreme of Earth's climate. Three regional alluvial fan surfaces (Qf1 [oldest] to Qf3 [youngest]) were mapped along the western flank of the Chajnantor Plateau. The alluvial fans were examined with geomorphic and terrestrial cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating methods to define the timing of alluvial fan formation and to determine the role of climatic processes on fan development in a hyperarid environment. Alluvial fans in the study area are comprised of hyperconcentrated flow and boulder-rich debris flow deposits that reflect deposition transitioning between cohesive and noncohesive regimes. Alluvial fan surfaces yield exposure ages that range from 49.6 ± 4.4 to 194 ± 12 ka, while debris flow boulders yield exposure ages ranging from 12.4 ± 2.1 to 229 ± 53 ka. Cosmogenic 36Cl exposure ages indicate that abandonment of alluvial fan surfaces Qf1, Qf2, and Qf3 date to 175 ± 22.6 ka (MIS 6), 134.5 ± 9.18 ka (MIS 6), and 20.07 ± 6.26 ka (MIS 2), respectively. A 36Cl concentration-depth profile through alluvial fan Qf1 suggests a simple depositional history with minimal nuclide inheritance implying relatively rapid aggradation (6 m in ca. 25 kyr) followed by surface abandonment ca. 180-200 ka. Our data support a strong climatic control on alluvial fan evolution in the region, and we propose that the alluvial fans along the margins of the Salar de Atacama form according to the humid model of fan formation.

  1. Geologic map of the Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle, Taos County, New Mexico, and Conejos and Costilla Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Ren A.; Turner, Kenzie J.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Lee, John P.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ute Mountain 7.5' quadrangle is located in the south-central part of the San Luis Basin of northern New Mexico, in the Rio Grande del Norte National Monument, and contains deposits that record volcanic, tectonic, and associated alluvial and colluvial processes over the past four million years. Ute Mountain has the distinction of being one of the largest intermediate composition eruptive centers of the Taos Plateau, a largely volcanic tableland occupying the southern portion of the San Luis Basin. Ute Mountain rises to an elevation in excess of 3,000 m, nearly 700 m above the basaltic plateau at its base, and is characterized by three distinct phases of Pliocene eruptive activity recorded in the stratigraphy exposed on the flanks of the mountain and in the Rio Grande gorge. Unconformably overlain by largely flat-lying lava flows of Servilleta Basalt, the area surrounding Ute Mountain records a westward thickening of basin-fill volcanic deposits interstratified in the subsurface with Pliocene basin-fill sedimentary deposits derived from older Tertiary and Precambrian sources to the east. Superimposed on this volcanic stratigraphy are alluvial and colluvial deposits derived from the flanks of Ute Mountain and more distally-derived alluvium from the uplifted Sangre de Cristo Mountains to the east, that record a complex temporal and stratigraphic succession of Quaternary basin deposition and erosion. Pliocene and younger basin deposition was accommodated along predominantly north-trending fault-bounded grabens. These poorly exposed fault scarps cutting lava flows of Ute Mountain volcano. The Servilleta Basalt and younger surficial deposits record largely down-to-east basinward displacement. Faults are identified with varying confidence levels in the map area. Recognizing and mapping faults developed near the surface in young, brittle volcanic rocks is difficult because: (1) they tend to form fractured zones tens of meters wide rather than discrete fault planes, (2

  2. Cenozoic sedimentary dynamics of the Ouarzazate foreland basin (Central High Atlas Mountains, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Harfi, A.; Lang, J.; Salomon, J.; Chellai, E. H.

    2001-06-01

    Cenozoic continental sedimentary deposits of the Southern Atlas named "Imerhane Group" crop out (a) in the Ouarzazate foreland basin between the Precambrian basement of the Anti Atlas and the uplifted limestone dominated High Atlas, and (b) in the Aït Kandoula and Aït Seddrat nappes where Jurassic strata detached from the basement have been thrust southwards over the Ouarzazate Basin. New biostratigraphic and geochronological data constraining the final Eocene marine regression, the characterization of the new "Aït Ouglif Detrital Formation" presumed to be of Oligocene age, and the new stratigraphic division proposed for the Continental Imerhane Group clarify the major tectonogenetic alpidic movements of the Central High Atlas Range. Four continental formations are identified at regional scale. Their emplacement was governed principally by tectonic but also by eustatic controls. The Hadida and Aït Arbi formations (Upper Eocene) record the major Paleogene regression. They are composed of margino-littoral facies (coastal sabkhas and fluviatile systems) and reflect incipient erosion of the underlying strata and renewed fluvial drainage. The Aït Ouglif Formation (presumed Oligocene) had not been characterized before. It frequently overlies all earlier formations with an angular unconformity. It includes siliciclastic alluvial deposits and is composed predominantly of numerous thin fining-upward cycles. The Aït Kandoula Formation (Miocene-Pliocene) is discordant, extensive, and represents a thick coarsening-upward megasequence. It is composed of palustro-lacustrine deposits in a context of alluvial plain with localized sabkhas, giving way to alluvial fans and fluviatile environments. The Upper Conglomeratic Formation (Quaternary) is the trace of a vast conglomeratic pediment, forming an alluvial plain and terraces. The second and third formations correspond to two megasequences engendered by the uplift of the Central High Atlas in two major compressive phases

  3. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, John A.

    2017-10-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes. Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture-laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  4. Facies analysis, depositional environments and paleoclimate of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - Basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shettima, B.; Abubakar, M. B.; Kuku, A.; Haruna, A. I.

    2018-01-01

    Facies analysis of the Cretaceous Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub -basin of the Northern Benue Trough northeastern Nigeria indicated that the Lower Bima Member is composed of alluvial fan and braided river facies associations. The alluvial fan depositional environment dominantly consists of debris flow facies that commonly occur as matrix supported conglomerate. This facies is locally associated with grain supported conglomerate and mudstone facies, representing sieve channel and mud flow deposits respectively, and these deposits may account for the proximal alluvial fan region of the Lower Bima Member. The distal fan facies were represented by gravel-bed braided river system of probably Scot - type model. This grade into sandy braided river systems with well developed floodplains facies, forming probably at the lowermost portion of the alluvial fan depositional gradient, where it inter-fingers with basinal facies. In the Middle Bima Member, the facies architecture is dominantly suggestive of deep perennial sand-bed braided river system with thickly developed amalgamated trough crossbedded sandstone facies fining to mudstone. Couplets of shallow channels are also locally common, attesting to the varying topography of the basin. The Upper Bima Member is characterized by shallow perennial sand-bed braided river system composed of successive succession of planar and trough crossbedded sandstone facies associations, and shallower channels of the flashy ephemeral sheetflood sand - bed river systems defined by interbedded succession of small scale trough crossbedded sandstone facies and parallel laminated sandstone facies. The overall stacking pattern of the facies succession of the Bima Formation in the Gongola Sub - basin is generally thinning and fining upwards cycles, indicating scarp retreat and deposition in a relatively passive margin setting. Dominance of kaolinite in the clay mineral fraction of the Bima Formation points to predominance of humid sub - tropical

  5. Constraints on Environmental Conditions on Mars during Periods of Alluvial Fan Formation: Results from Landform Evolution Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. M.; Howard, A. D.; Moore, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    As depositional systems forming within enclosed crater basins, the Late Noachian and Hesperian -aged [1] alluvial fans on Mars (including the Peace Vallis fan in Gale crater) may be representative of the last vestiges of widespread fluvial activity on the planet's surface, an era during which the climate transitioned from a wetter early Mars to the cold and dry planet we observe today. We have constructed a landform evolution model that combines sediment transport with channel avulsion to study the evolution of a fan-forming channel network over timescales of decades to hundreds of thousands of years. We aim to address two related questions: (1) what were the characteristics of water discharge (flow magnitude and duration); and (2) what are the associated implications for the responsible climatic environment (e.g. amount and frequency of precipitation sourcing the fans). The model uses a cellular network with a grid spacing set equal to the channel width. Two end-members of sediment are transported through the channel network: gravel bedload and fine grained material that is deposited overbank as a function of distance and elevation difference from an active channel. Overbank deposition creates channel levees, which must be overtopped for the channel to undergo an avulsion. By recording the relative amounts of bedload and overbank deposition, the 3-D stratigraphy is recorded as the fan is constructed. Using measures such as channel width, relative proportions of channel versus overbank deposited sediment, and frequency of channel branching, output is statistically compared with digital elevation models that we been produced from high-resolution CTX and HiRISE stereo pairs. Our modeling suggests that the fans formed from many flow events over many thousands of years, in agreement with estimations based on geomorphological observations by [2]. We are continuing to refine the model to test for varying patterns of precipitation, duricrusts, and limits on sediment

  6. Distribution and Orientation of Alluvial Fans in Martian Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraal, E. R.; Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.; Asphaug, E. I.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of the complete survey of Martian alluvial fans from 0-30 S, initiated by Moore and Howard. Nineteen impact craters contain alluvial fans. They are regionally grouped into three distinct areas. We present our initial results regarding their distribution and orientation in order to understand what controls their formation. Since alluvial fans are formed by water transport of sediment, these features record wetter episodes of Martian climate. In addition, their enigmatic distribution (in regional groups and in some craters, but not similar adjacent ones) needs to be understood, to see how regional geology, topographic characteristics, and/or climate influence their formation and distribution.

  7. Geology of the Pennsylvanian and Permian Culter Group and Permian Kaibab Limestone in the Paradox Basin, southeastern Utah and southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Condon, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    The Cutler Formation is composed of thick, arkosic, alluvial sandstones shed southwestward from the Uncompahgre highlands into the Paradox Basin. Salt tectonism played an important role in deposition of the Cutler in some areas. In the northeast part of the basin, more than 8,000 ft, and as much as 15,000 ft, of arkose was trapped between rising salt anticlines - this arkose is thin to absent over the crests of some anticlines. In the western and southern parts of the basin, the Cutler is recognized as a Group consisting of, in ascending order: the lower Cutler beds, Cedar Mesa Sandstone, Organ Rock Formation, White Rim Sandstone, and De Chelly Sandstone. The aggregate thickness of these formations is less than 2,000 ft. The formations of the Cutler Group were deposited in a complex system of alluvial, eolian, and marine environments characterized by abrupt vertical and lateral lithologic changes. The basal Cutler is Pennsylvanian in age, but the bulk of the Group was deposited during the Permian. The Cutler is conformably underlain by the Pennsylvanian Hermosa Group across most of the basin. It is overlain unconformably by the Permian Kaibab Limestone in the western part of the Paradox Basin. The Cutler or Kaibab are overlain unconformably by the Triassic Moenkopi or Chinle Formations.

  8. Sedimentology and reservoir heterogeneity of a valley-fill deposit-A field guide to the Dakota Sandstone of the San Rafael Swell, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Schenk, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Valley-fill deposits form a significant class of hydrocarbon reservoirs in many basins of the world. Maximizing recovery of fluids from these reservoirs requires an understanding of the scales of fluid-flow heterogeneity present within the valley-fill system. The Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone in the San Rafael Swell, Utah contains well exposed, relatively accessible outcrops that allow a unique view of the external geometry and internal complexity of a set of rocks interpreted to be deposits of an incised valley fill. These units can be traced on outcrop for tens of miles, and individual sandstone bodies are exposed in three dimensions because of modern erosion in side canyons in a semiarid setting and by exhumation of the overlying, easily erodible Mancos Shale. The Dakota consists of two major units: (1) a lower amalgamated sandstone facies dominated by large-scale cross stratification with several individual sandstone bodies ranging in thickness from 8 to 28 feet, ranging in width from 115 to 150 feet, and having lengths as much as 5,000 feet, and (2) an upper facies composed of numerous mud-encased lenticular sandstones, dominated by ripple-scale lamination, in bedsets ranging in thickness from 5 to 12 feet. The lower facies is interpreted to be fluvial, probably of mainly braided stream origin that exhibits multiple incisions amalgamated into a complex sandstone body. The upper facies has lower energy, probably anastomosed channels encased within alluvial and coastal-plain floodplain sediments. The Dakota valley-fill complex has multiple scales of heterogeneity that could affect fluid flow in similar oil and gas subsurface reservoirs. The largest scale heterogeneity is at the formation level, where the valley-fill complex is sealed within overlying and underlying units. Within the valley-fill complex, there are heterogeneities between individual sandstone bodies, and at the smallest scale, internal heterogeneities within the bodies themselves. These

  9. The “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum”, a New Subterranean Habitat

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño, Vicente M.; Gilgado, José D.; Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Sendra, Alberto; Pérez-Suárez, Gonzalo; Herrero-Borgoñón, Juan J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new type of subterranean habitat associated with dry watercourses in the Eastern Iberian Peninsula, the “Alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum” (alluvial MSS). Historical observations and data from field sampling specially designed to study MSS fauna in the streambeds of temporary watercourses support the description of this new habitat. To conduct the sampling, 16 subterranean sampling devices were placed in a region of Eastern Spain. The traps were operated for 12 months and temperature and relative humidity data were recorded to characterise the habitat. A large number of species was captured, many of which belonged to the arthropod group, with marked hygrophilous, geophilic, lucifugous and mesothermal habits. In addition, there was also a substantial number of species showing markedly ripicolous traits. The results confirm that the network of spaces which forms in alluvial deposits of temporary watercourses merits the category of habitat, and here we propose the name of “alluvial MSS”. The “alluvial MSS” may be covered or not by a layer of soil, is extremely damp, provides a buffer against above ground temperatures and is aphotic. In addition, compared to other types of MSS, it is a very unstable habitat. It is possible that the “alluvial MSS” may be found in other areas of the world with strongly seasonal climatic regimes, and could play an important role as a biogeographic corridor and as a refuge from climatic changes. PMID:24124544

  10. A review of the sedimentology of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group, Transvaal Sequence, South Africa: implications for tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Schreiber, U. M.; van der Neut, M.

    The sedimentary rocks of the Early Proterozoic Pretoria Group form the floor rocks to teh 2050 M.a. Bushveld Complex. An overall alluvial fan-fan-delta - lacustrine palaeoenvironmental model is postulated for the Pretoria Group. This model is compatible with a continental half-graben tectonic setting, with steep footwall scarps on the southern margin and a lower gradient hanging wall developed to the north. The latter provided much of the basin-fill detritus. It is envisaged that the southern boundary fault system migrated southwards by footwall collapse as sedimentation continued. Synsedimentary mechanical rifting, associated with alluvial and deltaic sedimentation (Rooihoogte-Strubenkop Formations) was followed by thermal subsidence, with concomitant transgressive lacustrine deposition (Daspoort-Magaliesberg Formations). The proposed half-graben basin was probably related to the long-lived Thabazimbi-Murchison and Sugarbush-Barberton lineaments, which bound the preserved outcrops of the Pretoria Group.

  11. Subsurface mapping of the Ross Island flexural basin, southwest Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenman, Christopher P.

    Ross Island is a post-Miocene (< 4.6 Ma) volcanic island located in the Ross Sea region of southwest Antarctica. This region of Antarctica borders the western edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, along the Transantarctic Mountain front. Marine and over-ice multi-channel seismic reflection surveys and borehole studies targeting the Ross Sea region over the last 30+ years have been used in this study to develop a seismic stratigraphic model of the development and evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. Four key stratigraphic horizons were identified and mapped to fully capture the basin-fill, as well as strata lying above and below the flexural basin. From oldest to youngest these horizons are named RIB-m, RIM-g, RIM-b and RIB-r. Time structure, isochron and isochore maps were created for the horizons and the stratigraphic intervals they bound. The seismic stratigraphic record shows the Ross Island flexural moat formation post-dates the main tectonic subsidence phase within the Victoria Land Basin. The maps presented here are the first to fully illustrate the evolution of the Ross Island flexural basin. The maps highlight depositional patterns of two distinct periods of flexural subsidence and basin-filling superimposed on the older N-S trending Victoria Land Basin depocenter. Two units of flexural basin fill, Unit FFI between horizons RIM-g and RIM-b (the oldest flexural basin fill), and Unit FFII between horizons RIM-b and RIB-r (the youngest flexural basin fill) are associated with the two periods of flexural subsidence. Flexural moat subsidence and subsequent filling occurred episodically during periods of active volcanism on the island. Unit FFI is estimated to range from ca. 4 to 2 Ma, corresponding with formation of the Mt. Bird volcanic edifice on Ross Island. Unit FFII ranges in age from ca. 2 to 1 Ma, and is related to Mt. Terror, Mt. Erebus, and Hut Point Peninsula volcanism. The isochore maps suggest the depocenter of the flexural basin during

  12. 40Ar/39Ar Temporal Constraints on Eocene Uplift, Subsidence, and Paleohydrology in the Laramide Foreland, Western U. S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. E.; Carroll, A. R.; Singer, B. S.

    2004-12-01

    : Fresh water spilled consistently from Lake Gosiute into an expanding Lake Uinta. The saline, organic-rich Mahoghany zone of the Parachute Creek Member was deposited over an interval of 0.6 ± 0.3 m.y. coincident with deposition of the freshwater upper LaClede bed of the Laney Member and alluvial Bridger Formation in the greater Green River Basin. 5) ˜48.4-46.3: Fluvial volcaniclastic sediments progressively filled the greater Green River and Piceance Creek basins. Alluvial and freshwater lacustrine deposition dominated both basins. Saline lake deposition continued unabated in the Uinta Basin. 6) ˜46.3-45.0 Ma: Lake Uinta, limited to the western Uinta Basin, became hydrologic closed as evidenced by bedded evaporite deposition. The change to evaporite deposition coincided with an increase in differential subsidence, reflecting a renewal of tectonic deformation. The up-section disappearance of west-directed volcaniclastic input into the eastern Uinta Basin at ˜46.3 Ma suggests that drainage diversion may also have contributed to hydrologic closure. 7) Following ˜45.0 Ma, Lake Uinta returned to fluvial-lacustrine deposition and was subsequently filled with alluvial deposits.

  13. Digital-model simulation of the Toppenish alluvial aquifer, Yakima Indian Reservation, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bolke, E.L.; Skrivan, James A.

    1981-01-01

    Increasing demands for irrigating additional lands and proposals to divert water from the Yakima River by water users downstream from the Yakima Indian Reservation have made an accounting of water availability important for present-day water management in the Toppenish Creek basin. A digital model was constructed and calibrated for the Toppenish alluvial aquifer to help fulfill this need. The average difference between observed and model-calculated aquifer heads was about 4 feet. Results of model analysis show that the net gain from the Yakima River to the aquifer is 90 cubic feet per second, and the net loss from the aquifer to Toppenish Creek is 137 cubic feet per second. Water-level declines of about 5 feet were calculated for an area near Toppenish in response to a hypothetical tenfold increase in 1974 pumping rates. (USGS)

  14. Alluvial Fan, China

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-03-03

    Image taken 5/2/2002 by ASTER: A vast alluvial fan blossoms across the desolate landscape between the Kunlun and Altun mountain ranges that form the southern border of the Taklimakan Desert in China's XinJiang Province. This image can be found on ASTER Path 143 Row 34, center: 37.43 N, 84.30 E. To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/

  15. Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reinecke, K.J.; Kaminski, R.M.; Moorhead, D.J.; Hodges, J.D.; Nasser, J.R.; Smith, L.M.; Pederson, R.L.; Kaminski, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    Available data are summarized according to the following major topics: (1) characteristics of the Mississippi Alluvial Valley (MAV); (2) waterfowl populations associated with the MAV; (3) habitat requirements of migrating and wintering waterfowl in the MAV; (4) current habitat management practices in the MAV, including croplands, moist-soil impoundments, and forested wetlands; (5) status and classification of winter habitat in the MAV; and (6) research and management information needs.

  16. Alluvial Fans in Mojave Crater

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-05-20

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a landscape that is pervasively eroded, right up to the tops of the ridges, with channels extending down into depositional fans much like alluvial fans in the Mojave Desert.

  17. Subsurface Structure and the Stress State of the Utopia Basin, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searls, M. L.; Phillips, R. J.

    2005-12-01

    A great deal of work has been done in determining the resurfacing history of the northern lowlands; however, most of the previous research has focused on the depth and characteristics of the Hesperian and Amazonian plains units that cover an older, heavily cratered Noachian surface (e.g. Tanaka et. al. 2003). An analysis of the amount and density of fill within the Utopia Basin could provide valuable insight to the depositional environment of the northern lowlands during the earliest epoch of martian history. In the present study we use the topography and gravity data from recent Mars' missions to analyze the subsurface structure of the Utopia basin, focusing on the volume and density of fill that causes the shallowness of the basin. Using the assumption that the initial isostatic state of Utopia was similar to that of the Hellas basin allows us to construct a model for Utopia that facilitates investigation of its interior configuration. Based on the spherical harmonic, thin-shell elastic model of Banerdt (1986), we developed a system of equations that allows us to solve for the original basin shape, the amount of fill within Utopia basin, the amount of flexure due to the fill material, the total vertical load and the horizontal load potential. The presence of quasi-circular depressions within the Utopia basin (Frey 2004) indicates that the majority of the material within Utopia was deposited early in the Noachian when the elastic lithosphere of Mars was (presumably) relatively thin (<50 km). Given this constraint along with constraints placed on the system due to the pre-fill isostatic assumption, we can place a lower bound on the density of the fill within Utopia basin of 2800 kg/m3. This indicates that the amount of fill within the Utopia basin is >15 km, with a corresponding lithospheric flexure/membrane deformation of >14 km. The high density obtained for the fill requires that it contain a large igneous component, the source of which is problematic. Relaxing

  18. Attributes of an alluvial river and their relation to water policy and management

    PubMed Central

    Trush, William J.; McBain, Scott M.; Leopold, Luna B.

    2000-01-01

    Rivers around the world are being regulated by dams to accommodate the needs of a rapidly growing global population. These regulatory efforts usually oppose the natural tendency of rivers to flood, move sediment, and migrate. Although an economic benefit, river regulation has come at unforeseen and unevaluated cumulative ecological costs. Historic and contemporary approaches to remedy environmental losses have largely ignored hydrologic, geomorphic, and biotic processes that form and maintain healthy alluvial river ecosystems. Several commonly known concepts that govern how alluvial channels work have been compiled into a set of “attributes” for alluvial river integrity. These attributes provide a minimum checklist of critical geomorphic and ecological processes derived from field observation and experimentation, a set of hypotheses to chart and evaluate strategies for restoring and preserving alluvial river ecosystems. They can guide how to (i) restore alluvial processes below an existing dam without necessarily resorting to extreme measures such as demolishing one, and (ii) preserve alluvial river integrity below proposed dams. Once altered by dam construction, a regulated alluvial river will never function as before. But a scaled-down morphology could retain much of a river's original integrity if key processes addressed in the attributes are explicitly provided. Although such a restoration strategy is an experiment, it may be the most practical solution for recovering regulated alluvial river ecosystems and the species that inhabit them. Preservation or restoration of the alluvial river attributes is a logical policy direction for river management in the future. PMID:11050220

  19. 78 FR 9883 - Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice; Solicitation of nominees to the Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...) announces solicitation of nominees to fill vacancies on the Lake Tahoe Basin Federal Advisory Committee...

  20. Extent and source of saltwater intrusion into the alluvial aquifer near Brinkley, Arkansas, 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morris, E.E.; Bush, W.V.

    1986-01-01

    An approximate area of 56 sq mi of the alluvial aquifer just north of Brinkley, Arkansas, has been contaminated by saltwater (chloride concentration > or = 50 mg/L) intruded from underlying aquifers. The contamination was mapped from water quality data for 217 wells. Saltwater problems appear to have spread rapidly in the alluvial aquifer since the late 1940's. Chemical comparisons indicate that the alluvial aquifer was contaminated by water from the Sparta aquifer which in turn was contaminated by the underlying Nacatoch aquifer. The possibility of intrusion into the alluvial aquifer through abandoned oil and gas test wells was investigated but no evidence could be found to support this possibility. Upward movement into the alluvial aquifer from the underlying Sparta aquifer through the thinned or absent Jackson confining unit appears to be the principal reason for saltwater in the alluvial aquifer. Increased withdrawals of water from the alluvial aquifer for irrigation and public supply appear to have contributed to this upward movement. (Author 's abstract)

  1. Interaction of fine sediment with alluvial streambeds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jobson, Harvey E.; Carey, William P.

    1989-01-01

    More knowledge is needed about the physical processes that control the transport of fine sediment moving over an alluvial bed. The knowledge is needed to design rational sampling and monitoring programs that assess the transport and fate of toxic substances in surface waters because the toxics are often associated with silt- and clay-sized particles. This technical note reviews some of the past research in areas that may contribute to an increased understanding of the processes involved. An alluvial streambed can have a large capacity to store fine sediments that are extracted from the flow when instream concentrations are high and it can gradually release fine sediment to the flow when the instream concentrations are low. Several types of storage mechanisms are available depending on the relative size distribution of the suspended load and bed material, as well as the flow hydraulics. Alluvial flow tends to segregate the deposited material according to size and density. Some of the storage locations are temporary, but some can store the fine sediment for very long periods of time.

  2. Young (<7 Ma) gold deposits and active geothermal systems of the Great Basin: Enigmas, questions, and exploration potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, Mark F.; Vikre, Peter G.; Faulds, James E.

    2011-01-01

    Young gold systems in the Great Basin (£ 7 Ma), though not as well studied as their older counterparts, comprise a rapidly growing and in some ways controversial group. The gold inventory for these systems has more than doubled in the last 5 years from roughly 370 tonnes (12 Moz) to 890 tonnes (29 Moz). Although these deposits are characterized by low grades, tonnages can be high and stripping ratios low, and they have been mined profitably, as exemplified by Florida Canyon and Hycroft. Active geothermal systems in the Great Basin also comprise a rapidly growing group, as evidenced by a number of recent discoveries of geothermal groundwater and a more than 50% increase in electricity production capacity from these systems in the last 5 years. Many young gold deposits are closely associated with active geothermal systems, suggesting that gold deposits may be forming today in the Great Basin. Measured or estimated geothermal reservoir temperatures commonly approach or exceed 200∞C, and other characteristics and processes (advanced argillic caps, hydrothermal eruption breccias) of these young deposits resemble those of nearby Tertiary precious metal deposits. Nonetheless, many young gold systems, especially in Nevada, are not associated with coeval igneous rocks. Similarly, almost all electricity-grade geothermal systems in Nevada are not associated with Quaternary silicic volcanic rocks, and have lower temperature gradients, lower 3He/4He ratios, and lower dissolved trace element concentrations than most magmatic-heated geothermal systems elsewhere in the world. The increasing economic significance of young gold deposits and active geothermal systems justifies more research to better understand their origins, particularly because in some aspects they remain enigmatic and controversial. Are young gold deposits in Nevada truly amagmatic, or have they received metal and fluid contributions from magmas deeper within the crust? Has gold in these deposits been

  3. New exploration approach: Pennsylvanian Lower Tyler central Montana

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shepard, W.

    Modern exploration methods utilizing a plate tectonics structural model and a recent alluvial valley analog, the Brazos from the Texas Gulf Coast, have helped revive interest in Pennsylvanian Lower Tyler exploration in the central Montana petroleum province. The central Montana trough is now visualized as an aulacogen, reaching from the Rocky Mountain trench near Butte, Montana, eastward to the Williston basin. It is 60 mi wide by about 400 mi long. Pennsylvanian Lower Tyler sediments occur in this narrow east-west-trending rift system. The regional setting is an aulacogen, or intracratonic rift, that connected the Williston basin to the Cordilleran geosynclinemore » during much of geologic time, beginning in late Precambrian. The Lower Tyler is a westward-draining Pennsylvanian (Morrowan) alluvial valley-fill system consisting of a number of river valleys that funneled into the topographic low of the aulacogen. Rift-controlled, estuarine, euxinic limestones and shales above and below the Lower Tyler provide petroleum-rich source rocks. These source rocks are mature and have generated oil, probably in the Paleocene and early Eocene. The modern Brazos River Valley of southeastern Texas is a near mirror-image analog for Lower Tyler alluvial valley fill. The Brazos valleys are 6 mi wide, 150 to 300 ft thick, and contain 60 to 70% backswamp shales and silts. Point-bar sands constitute a relatively small portion of the valley fill; the sands are 60 to 70 ft thick and about 3000 ft wide. Diagenesis has decreased net porosity distribution in the Lower Tyler to less than that of the Brazos, yet porosity parameters may still be applied to exploration in the Tyler sandstones.« less

  4. Martian stepped-delta formation by rapid water release.

    PubMed

    Kraal, Erin R; van Dijk, Maurits; Postma, George; Kleinhans, Maarten G

    2008-02-21

    Deltas and alluvial fans preserved on the surface of Mars provide an important record of surface water flow. Understanding how surface water flow could have produced the observed morphology is fundamental to understanding the history of water on Mars. To date, morphological studies have provided only minimum time estimates for the longevity of martian hydrologic events, which range from decades to millions of years. Here we use sand flume studies to show that the distinct morphology of martian stepped (terraced) deltas could only have originated from a single basin-filling event on a timescale of tens of years. Stepped deltas therefore provide a minimum and maximum constraint on the duration and magnitude of some surface flows on Mars. We estimate that the amount of water required to fill the basin and deposit the delta is comparable to the amount of water discharged by large terrestrial rivers, such as the Mississippi. The massive discharge, short timescale, and the associated short canyon lengths favour the hypothesis that stepped fans are terraced delta deposits draped over an alluvial fan and formed by water released suddenly from subsurface storage.

  5. Classical seismic sequence stratigraphic interpretation of intraslope basin fill: Deepwater Nigeria

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Duncan, E.A.

    Detailed interpretation of seismic facies patterns performed within the workstation environment provides an observation based methodology for constructing depositional models of turbidite and other reservoir bearing systems expected in deepwater Nigeria. The increased fidelity of the workstation allows greater detail and accuracy to be imposed onto depositional model construction by vastly improving the discrimination of depositional from structural seismic reflection geometries. In deepwater Nigeria interslope basins, depositional cyclicity is clearly indicated by vertical seismic facies successions in the same way as can be recognized in bed thickness trends from outcrop or well log data. The recognition of the seismic faciesmore » successions appears to break the stratigraphy into at least fourth and fifth order scale sequences. Highly {open_quotes}zoomed{close_quotes} instantaneous phase displays enhance the reflection character so that near outcrop scale (resolution less than 50 mters) interpretations of depositional facies can be made. Common seismic facies and geologic interpretation include: (1) low angle erosional surfaces as channel scour or mass wasting detachment; (2) low relief mounds, often in compensation cycle overlapping stacks reflecting compacted channelbelt fill; (3) unidirectional, low angle clinoform sets suggesting laterial accretion within a channel belt or possible contourite mounds; (4) abrupt, shingled blocks illustrating tilted fault blocks of small scale intraformation slumping; and (5) high reflection amplitude and continuous, parallel reflections of pelagic and hemipelagic condensed sections. There are other subtle seismic facies resolvable given the incraesed fidelity of the workstation interpretation. Mapping and translation of these geometries into more robust stratigraphic predictions should have positive impact on exploration and development success.« less

  6. Geology and ground-water resources of upper Grande Ronde River Basin, Union County, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hampton, E.R.; Brown, S.G.

    1964-01-01

    The upper Grande Ronde River basin is a 1,400-square-mile area in northeastern Oregon, between the Blue Mountains to the west and the Wallowa Mountains to the east. The area is drained by the Grande Ronde River, which flows northeast through this region and is tributary to the Snake River. The climate is generally moderate; temperature extremes recorded at La Grande are 22?F. below zero and 108?F. above. The average annual precipitation ranges from 13 to 20 inches in the Grande Ronde Valley to . more than 35 inches in the mountain highlands surrounding the valley. The topography of. the area is strongly controlled by the geologic structures, principally those related to block faulting. The terrain ranges from the nearly flat floors of the Grande Ronde and Indian Valleys, whose elevations are 2,600 to about 2,750 feet, to the mountainous uplands, whose average elevations are about 5,000 feet and which have local prominences exceeding 6,500 feet. The rocks in the upper Grande Ronde River basin, from oldest to youngest, are metamorphic rocks of pre-Tertiary age; igneous masses of diorite and granodiorite that intruded the metamorphic rocks; tuff-breccia, welded and silicified tuff, and andesite and dacite flows, of Tertiary age; the Columbia River basalt of Miocene and possibly early Pliocene age; fanglomerate and lacustrine deposits of Pliocene and Pleistocene age; and younger deposits . of alluvium, colluvium, and welded tuff. In the graben known as the Grande Ronde Valley, which is the principal populated district in the area, the valley fill deposits are as thick as 2,000 feet. The valley is bordered by the scarps of faults, the largest of which have displacements of more than 4.000 feet. Most of the wells in the area obtain small to moderate supplies of water from unconfined aquifers in the val1ey fill and alluvial fan deposits. Moderate to large quantities of water are obtained from aquifers carrying artesian water in the fan alluvium and the Columbia River

  7. Basin fill evolution and paleotectonic patterns along the Samfrau geosyncline: the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Gamundí, O. R.; Rossello, E. A.

    As integral parts of du Toit's (1927) ``Samfrau Geosyncline'', the Sauce Grande basin-Ventana foldbelt (Argentina) and Karoo basin-Cape foldbelt (South Africa) share similar paleoclimatic, paleogeographic, and paleotectonic aspects related to the Late Paleozoic tectono-magmatic activity along the Panthalassan continental margin of Gondwanaland. Late Carboniferou-earliest Permian glacial deposits were deposited in the Sauce Grande (Sauce Grande Formation) and Karoo (Dwyka Formation) basins and Falkland-Malvinas Islands (Lafonia Formation) during an initial (sag) phase of extension. The pre-breakup position of the Falkland (Malvinas) Islands on the easternmost part of the Karoo basin (immediately east of the coast of South Africa) is supported by recent paleomagnetic data, lithofacies associations, paleoice flow directions and age similarities between the Dwyka and the Lafonia glacial sequences. The desintegration of the Gondwanan Ice Sheet (GIS) triggered widespread transgressions, reflected in the stratigraphic record by the presence of inter-basinally correlatable, open marine, fine-grained deposits (Piedra Azul Formation in the Sauce Grande basin, Prince Albert Formation in the Karoo basin and Port Sussex Formation in the Falkland Islands) capping glacial marine sediments. These early postglacial transgressive deposits, characterised by fossils of the Eurydesma fauna and Glossopteris flora, represent the maximum flooding of the basins. Cratonward foreland subsidence was triggered by the San Rafael orogeny (ca. 270 Ma) in Argentina and propogated along the Gondwanan margin. This subsidence phase generated sufficient space to accommodate thick synorogenic sequences derived from the orogenic flanks of the Sauce Grande and Karoo basins. Compositionally, the initial extensional phase of these basins was characterized by quartz-rich, craton-derived detritus and was followed by a compressional (foreland) phase characterized by a paleocurrent reversal and dominance of

  8. Hydrogeologic framework and estimates of groundwater storage for the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Beard, L. Sue; Kennedy, Jeffrey; Anning, Dave W.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated the hydrogeology of the Hualapai Valley, Detrital Valley, and Sacramento Valley basins of Mohave County in northwestern Arizona to develop a better understanding of groundwater storage within the basin fill aquifers. In our investigation we used geologic maps, well-log data, and geophysical surveys to delineate the sedimentary textures and lithology of the basin fill. We used gravity data to construct a basin geometry model that defines smaller subbasins within the larger basins, and airborne transient-electromagnetic modeled results along with well-log lithology data to infer the subsurface distribution of basin fill within the subbasins. Hydrogeologic units (HGUs) are delineated within the subbasins on the basis of the inferred lithology of saturated basin fill. We used the extent and size of HGUs to estimate groundwater storage to depths of 400 meters (m) below land surface (bls). The basin geometry model for the Hualapai Valley basin consists of three subbasins: the Kingman, Hualapai, and southern Gregg subbasins. In the Kingman subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,200 m deep, saturated basin fill consists of a mixture of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. The Hualapai subbasin, which is the largest of the subbasins, contains a thick halite body from about 400 m to about 4,300 m bls. Saturated basin fill overlying the salt body consists predominately of fine-grained older playa deposits. In the southern Gregg subbasin, which is estimated to be 1,400 m deep, saturated basin fill is interpreted to consist primarily of fine- to coarse-grained sedimentary deposits. Groundwater storage to 400 m bls in the Hualapai Valley basin is estimated to be 14.1 cubic kilometers (km3). The basin geometry model for the Detrital Valley basin consists of three subbasins: northern Detrital, central Detrital, and southern Detrital subbasins. The northern and central Detrital subbasins are characterized by a predominance of playa evaporite and fine

  9. Multispectral studies of selected crater- and basin-filling lunar Maria from Galileo Earth-Moon encounter 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. A.; Greeley, R.; Neukum, G.; Wagner, R.

    1993-01-01

    New visible and near-infrared multispectral data of the Moon were obtained by the Galileo spacecraft in December, 1990. These data were calibrated with Earth-based spectral observations of the nearside to compare compositional information to previously uncharacterized mare basalts filling craters and basins on the western near side and eastern far side. A Galileo-based spectral classification scheme, modified from the Earth-based scheme developed by Pieters, designates the different spectral classifications of mare basalt observed using the 0.41/0.56 micron reflectance ratio (titanium content), 0.56 micron reflectance values (albedo), and 0.76/0.99 micron reflectance ratio (absorption due to Fe(2+) in mafic minerals and glass). In addition, age determinations from crater counts and results of a linear spectral mixing model were used to assess the volcanic histories of specific regions of interest. These interpreted histories were related to models of mare basalt petrogenesis in an attempt to better understand the evolution of lunar volcanism.

  10. Organic petrology and geochemistry of mudrocks from the lacustrine Lucaogou Formation, Santanghu Basin, northwest China: Application to lake basin evolution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hackley, Paul C.; Fishman, Neil; Wu, Tao; Baugher, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Exploration for tight oil in the frontier Santanghu Basin of northwest China has resulted in recent commercial discoveries sourced from the lacustrine Upper Permian Lucaogou Formation, already considered a “world class source rock” in the Junggar Basin to the west. Here we apply an integrated analytical program to carbonate-dominated mudrocks from the Lucaogou Formation in Santanghu Basin to document the nature of organic matter (OM) in the context of an evolving lake system. The organic-rich samples (TOC 2.8–11.4 wt%; n = 10) were widely spaced from an ~ 200 m cored section, interpreted from textural and mineralogical evidence to document transition from a lower under-filled to an overlying balanced-filled lake. Organic matter is dominated by moderate to strongly fluorescent amorphous material with Type I geochemical signature (HI values 510–755; n = 10) occurring in a continuum from lamellar stringers, 10–20 μm thick, some ≥ 1 mm in length (possible microbial mat; preserved only in lower under-filled section) to finely-disseminated amorphous groundmass intimately intermixed with mineral matrix. Biomarkers for methanotrophs and photosynthetic cyanobacteria indicate a complex microbial consortium. A unicellular prasinophyte green alga(?), similar to Tasmanites in marine rocks, is present as discrete flattened discs 50–100 μm in diameter. Type III OM including vitrinite (some fluorescent) and inertinite also is abundant. Solid bitumen, indicating local kerogen conversion, fills voids and occurs throughout the cored section. Vitrinite reflectance values are 0.47–0.58%, consistent with strong OM fluorescence but may be “suppressed”. Other proxies, e.g., biomarker parameters, indicate the Lucaogou Formation is in the early oil window at this location. On average, slightly more amorphous OM and telalginite are present in the lower section, consistent with a shallow, stratified, saline environment with low sediment dilution. More

  11. Quantifying relief on alluvial fans using airborne lidar to reveal patterns of sediment accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelan, A. E., III; Oskin, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    We present a method of quantifying detailed surface relief on alluvial fans from high-resolution topography. Average slope and curvature of the fan are used together to empirically derive an idealized, radially symmetric fan surface, from which we compute residual topography. Maps produced using this technique highlight spatial patterns of fan deposition and avulsion. Regions of high residual topography reveal active and abandoned sediment lobes accumulated from recent depositional events, often with well-defined channels at their apex. Preliminary observations suggest that surface relief is uniform across a collection of fans in a given region and source lithology. Alluvial fans with granitic catchment lithologies in eastern California (n=12), each with varying source catchment size and mean fan slope, all show relief of around 4 meters. A collection of fans from the Carrizo Plain in central California (n=12), with source catchments set within Miocene marine and nonmarine sedimentary rocks, show significantly lower relief values around 2 meters. We hypothesize that particle grain size determines this contrasting relief through its control on the thickness of fan-building debris flows. In both settings we find that sediment lobes tend to extend toward the fan toe. This pattern supports a process, observed in analog experiments, of fan deposition dominated by back-filling and overtopping of distributary channels by debris-flows.

  12. Temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of a Rio Grande rift sub-basin, Guadalupe Mountain area, northern New Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, R. A.; Turner, K. J.; Cosca, M. A.; Drenth, B.; Hudson, M. R.; Lee, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Taos Plateau volcanic field (TPVF) in the southern San Luis Valley of northern New Mexico is the most voluminous of the predominantly basaltic Neogene (6-1 Ma) volcanic fields of the Rio Grande rift. Volcanic deposits of the TPVF are intercalated with alluvial deposits of the Santa Fe Group and compose the N-S-trending San Luis Basin, the largest basin of the northern rift (13,500 km2 in area). Pliocene volcanic rocks of the Guadalupe Mountain area of northern New Mexico are underlain by the southern end of one of the larger sub-basins of the San Luis Valley, the Sunshine sub-basin (~ 450 km2 in area) juxtaposed against the down-to-west frontal fault of the Precambrian-cored Sangre de Cristo Range. The sub-basin plunges northward and extends to near the Colorado-New Mexico border. The western margin (~15 km west of the Sangre de Cristo fault) is constrained by outcrops of Oligocene to Miocene volcanic rocks of the Latir volcanic field, interpreted here as a broad pre-Pliocene intra-rift platform underlying much of the northern TPVF. The southern sub-basin border is derived, in part, from modeling of gravity and aeromagnetic data and is interpreted as a subsurface extension of this intra-rift platform that extends southeastward to nearly the Sangre de Cristo range front. Broadly coincident with this subsurface basement high is the northwest-trending, curvilinear terminus of the down-to-northeast Red River fault zone. South of the gravity high, basin-fill alluvium and ~3.84 Ma Servilleta basalt lava flows thicken along a poorly exposed, down-to-south, basin-bounding fault of the northern Taos graben, the largest of the San Luis Valley sub-basins. The uppermost, western sub-basin fill is exposed along steep canyon walls near the confluence of the Rio Grande and the Red River. Unconformity-bound, lava flow packages are intercalated with paleo Red River fan alluvium and define six eruptive sequences in the Guadalupe Mountain area: (1) Guadalupe Mtn. lavas (dacite ~5

  13. Sedimentology, geochemistry and OSL dating of the alluvial succession in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) - A record to evaluate the sensitivity of a semiarid fluvial system to the climatic and tectonic forcing since the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Falguni; Shukla, Anil D.; Patel, R. C.; Rastogi, B. K.; Juyal, Navin

    2017-11-01

    The alluvial successions in the northern Gujarat alluvial plain (western India) have been investigated for reconstructing the climatic fluctuations during the last 40 ka. Alluvial architecture and geochemical proxies indicate prevalence of a strengthened Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with fluctuations between the late Marine Isotopic Stage 3 (MIS 3; 37 ka) to the early MIS 2 (27 ka). A gradual onset of aridity (declining ISM) after 27 ka with peak aridity at 22 ka is observed. A gradual strengthening of ISM at around 18 and > 12 ka followed by a short reversal in ISM intensity between 12 and 11 ka, is attributed to the Younger-Dryas (YD) cooling event. The aeolian sand sheet dated to 6 and 3.5 ka represents the onset of regional aridity. Following this, a short-lived humid phase was observed after 2 ka, which includes the Medieval Warm Period (MWP). The study suggests that the variability in the ISM to the latitudinal migration of the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone was caused by insolation-driven cooling and warming events in the North Atlantic. The incision of the valley fill alluvium occurred in two distinct phases. The older incision phase occurred after 11 ka and before 6 ka, whereas the younger incision phase that led to the development of present day topography is bracketed between 3.5 ka and before 1 ka. The older incision phase is ascribed to the early to mid-Holocene enhanced ISM (climatically driven), whereas the younger incision seems to be modulated by the activation of basement faults (tectonically driven).

  14. Hydrocarbon Status of Alluvial Soils in the Istra Morphostructural Node (Moscow Oblast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikovskiy, Yu. I.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Kovach, R. G.; Khlynina, N. I.; Khlynina, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of the current block structure of the earth's crust and its most active sites (morphostructural nodes) on the natural hydrocarbon status of alluvial soils has been considered. Studies have been performed in the Istra district of Moscow oblast within the Istra morphostructural node. The node represents an area of increased geodynamic activity of the earth's crust located at the convergence or intersection of block boundaries: mobile linear zones following large river valleys with alluvial soils. Soil cover mainly consists of alluvial humic-gley soils (Eutric Gleyic Fluvisols) of different depths and alluvial mucky-gley soils (Eutric Gleyic Histic Fluvisols). Some soils manifest stratification. Two factors forming the hydrocarbon status of soils are considered: soil processes and the effect of geodynamic activity, which is manifested within the morphostructural node. The contents of bitumoids and retained methane and butanes in alluvial soils appreciably increase at the entry of river valley into the node. The occurrence frequency of 5-6-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (perylene and benzo[ghi]perylene) in mineral horizons increases. It has been concluded that alluvial soils within the Istra morphostructural node are characterized by the biogeochemical type of hydrocarbon status with signs of emanation type at sites with the highest geodynamic activity.

  15. Radiogenic 3He/4He Estimates and Their Effect on Calculating Plio-Pleistocene Cosmogenic 3He Ages of Alluvial-Fan Terraces in the Lower Colorado River Basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, C.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-12-01

    Several alluvial-fan terraces near Topock, AZ were created by successive entrenchment of Pliocene and Pleistocene alluvial-fan gravels shed from the adjacent Black Mountains along the lower Colorado River corridor below Hoover Dam. These fans interfinger with and overlie main-stem Colorado River sands and gravels and grade to terrace levels that correspond with pre-existing elevations of the Colorado River. Absolute dates for the ages of Quaternary deposits on the lower Colorado River are rare and cosmogenic 3He age estimates of these surfaces would help constrain the timing of aggradation and incision in the lower Colorado River corridor. We analyzed individual basalt boulders from several terrace surfaces for total 3He/4He concentrations to calculate cosmogenic 3He ages of each fan terrace; 3He/4He values, expressed as R/Ra where Ra is the 3He/4He of air, range from 0.29 to 590. Black Mountain volcanic rocks have reported K-Ar ages between 15 and 30 Ma and basalt samples from adjacent alluvial fans contain 0.42 to 47× 1012 at/g of 4He, which has likely accumulated due to nuclear processes. The amount of radiogenic 3He/4He can be significant in old rocks with young exposure ages and can complicate determination of cosmogenic 3 He content. Alpha-decay of U, Th, and their daughter isotopes produces large amounts of 4He, whereas significant amounts of radiogenic 3He are only produced through the neutron bombardment of Li and subsequent beta-decay of tritium. We measured Li, U, Th, major and rare-earth element concentrations in whole-rock basalts and mineral separates. These concentrations are used to estimate the ratio of radiogenic helium contributed to the total helium system in our samples. Li concentrations typically range from 6 to 17 ppm, with one outlier of 62 ppm. U contents range from <0.1 to 2.7 ppm and Th contents range from 0.4 to 15.3 ppm. Based on these values, our calculations predict that the average radiogenic helium (R/Ra) contributed to the total

  16. Timing of the Cenozoic basins of Southern Mexico and its relationship with the Pacific truncation process: Subduction erosion or detachment of the Chortís block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Hernández-Marmolejo, Yoalli Bianii; de la Rosa-Mora, Orestes Antonio; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Bonifacio-Serralde, Carlos; López-García, Nallely; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the central sector of the Sierra Madre del Sur in Southern Mexico, between approximately 36 and 16 Ma ago and in the west to east direction, a diachronic process of the formation of ∼north-south trending fault-bounded basins occurred. No tectono-sedimentary event in the period between 25 and 20 Ma is recognized in the study region. A period during which subduction erosion truncated the continental crust of southern Mexico has been proposed. The chronology, geometry and style of the formation of the Eocene Miocene fault-bounded basins are more congruent with crustal truncation by the detachment of the Chortís block, thus bringing into question the crustal truncation hypothesis of the Southern Mexico margin. Between Taxco and Tehuacán, using seven new Laser Ablation- Inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb ages in magmatic zircons, we refine the stratigraphy of the Tepenene, Tehuitzingo, Atzumba and Tepelmeme basins. The analyzed basins present similar tectono-sedimentary evolutions as follows: Stage 1, depocenter formation and filling by clastic rocks accumulated as alluvial fans and Stage 2, lacustrine sedimentation characterized by calcareous and/or evaporite beds. Based on our results, we propose the following hypothesis: in Southern Mexico, during Eocene-Miocene times, the diachronic formation of fault-bounded basins with general north-south trend occurred within the framework of the convergence between the plates of North and South America, and once the Chortís block had slipped towards the east, the basins formed in the cortical crust were recently left behind. On the other hand, the beginning of the basins' formation process related to left strike slip faults during Eocene-Oligocene times can be associated with the thermomechanical maturation cortical process that caused the brittle/ductile transition level in the continental crust to shallow.

  17. Artificial recharge experiments on the Ship Creek alluvial fan, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Gary S.

    1977-01-01

    During the summers of 1973 and 1974, water from Ship Creek was diverted at an average rate of approximately 6 cubic feet per second to an 11-acre recharge basin. Maximum sustained unit recharge for the basin was approximately 1.4 feet per day. Dur-ing 1975 a second basin of 8 acres was also used for recharge, and the total diversion rate was increased to as much as 30 cubic feet per second. The second basin was never completely filled, but the unit recharge rate was estimated to be at least four times as great as that in the first basin.During 1973 and 1974, when only one recharge basin was in operation, a maximum rise of 18 feet was observed in the ground-water table near the basin. In 1975, when both basins were being used, the maximum rise was 30 feet in the same area. During 1973 and 1974, the water-level rise was 12 and 8 feet in the unconfined and confined systems, respectively, at a point 4.400 feet downgradient from the basins; in 1975 the rise at the same point was 31 and 16 feet, respectively.It was originally believed that because of the location of the recharge ponds within the natural recharge zone of the area's confined aquifer system, the source of the major portion of Anchorage's public water supply, most of the artificially recharged water would enter that system. However, water-level data and changes in saturation conditions interpreted from borehole geophysical logs indicate that most of the recharged water remained in the unconfined aquifer. In addition, the potentiometric rise that was achieved in the confined aquifer during summer operation of the recharge basins was quickly dissipated when diversion stopped and the basins drained. Thus the benefits of recharge would not persist into late winter, the critical period of water availability in Anchorage, unless diversion to the basins could be continued until January or February.

  18. Alluvial Fan Delineation from SAR and LIDAR-Derived Digital Elevation Models in the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aquino, D. T.; Ortiz, I.; Timbas, N.; Gacusan, R.; Montalbo, K.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of floods and debris flows leading to the formation of alluvial fans at the base of mountains naturally improve fertility of alluvial plains. However, these formations also have detrimental effects to communities within these zones like the case of Barangay (village) Andap, New Bataan, Compostela Valley where the whole village was wiped out by debris flow when it was hit by Supertyphoon Bopha in 2012. Hence, demarcating the boundaries of alluvial fans is crucial in disaster preparedness and mitigation. This study describes a method to delineate alluvial fans through contour maps from SAR and LiDAR-derived digital elevation models. Based on this data, we used hydrographic apex point polygons to plot the outflow points of upstream watersheds. The watershed and alluvial fan polygons were used to simulate debris flows in the study sites. The fans generated from the flood simulation were consistent with the polygons delineated from the digital elevation model. Satellite imagery and evidences of alluvial deposits found on site revealed 392 alluvial fans in the country. Widest among these is the sprawling 760 sq km fan identified in Cagayan Valley threatening about 434,329 persons at risk of debris flow. Other fans include those identified in Calapan, Mindoro (531 sq km), Kaliwanagan, Pangasinan (436 sq km), Pampanga Alluvial Fan (325 sq km), Mina, Iloilo (315 sq km), Lamsugod, S. Cotabato (286 sq km), in Tignaman, Oton and Alimodian in Iloilo (272 sq km), and the bajada, a series of alluvial fan coalescing to form a larger fan, identified in Ilocos Norte (218 sq km).

  19. Potential for a significant deep basin geothermal system in Tintic Valley, Utah

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardwick, C.; Kirby, S.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of regionally high heat flow, deep basins, and permeable reservoir rocks in the eastern Great Basin may yield substantial new geothermal resources. We explore a deep sedimentary basin geothermal prospect beneath Tintic Valley in central Utah using new 2D and 3D models coupled with existing estimates of heat flow, geothermometry, and shallow hydrologic data. Tintic Valley is a sediment-filled basin bounded to the east and west by bedrock mountain ranges where heat-flow values vary from 85 to over 240 mW/m2. Based on modeling of new and existing gravity data, a prominent 30 mGal low indicates basin fill thickness may exceed 2 km. The insulating effect of relatively low thermal conductivity basin fill in Tintic Valley, combined with typical Great Basin heat flow, predict temperatures greater than 150 °C at 3 km depth. The potential reservoir beneath the basin fill is comprised of Paleozoic carbonate and clastic rocks. The hydrology of the Tintic Valley is characterized by a shallow, cool groundwater system that recharges along the upper reaches of the basin and discharges along the valley axis and to a series of wells. The east mountain block is warm and dry, with groundwater levels just above the basin floor and temperatures >50 °C at depth. The west mountain block contains a shallow, cool meteoric groundwater system. Fluid temperatures over 50 °C are sufficient for direct-use applications, such as greenhouses and aquaculture, while temperatures exceeding 140°C are suitable for binary geothermal power plants. The geologic setting and regionally high heat flow in Tintic Valley suggest a geothermal resource capable of supporting direct-use geothermal applications and binary power production could be present.

  20. Restoring the Mississippi River Basin from the Catchment to the Coast Defines Science and Policy Issues of Ecosystem Services Associated with Alluvial and Coastal Deltaic Floodplains: Soil Conservation, Nutrient Reduction, Carbon Sequestration, and Flood Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Twilley, R.

    2014-12-01

    Large river systems are major economic engines that provide national economic wealth in transporting commerce and providing extensive agriculture production, and their coastal deltas are sites of significant ports, energy resources and fisheries. These coupled natural and social systems from the catchment to the coast depend on how national policies manage the river basins that they depend. The fundamental principle of the Mississippi River Basin, as in all basins, is to capitalize on the ability of fertile soil that moves from erosional regions of a large watershed, through downstream regions of the catchment where sediment transport and storage builds extensive floodplains, to the coastal region of deposition where deltas capture sediment and nutrients before exported to the oceans. The fate of soil, and the ability of that soil to do work, supports the goods and services along its path from the catchment to the coast in all large river basin and delta systems. Sediment is the commodity of all large river basin systems that together with the seasonal pulse of floods across the interior of continents provide access to the sea forming the assets that civilization and economic engines have tapped to build national and global wealth. Coastal landscapes represent some of the most altered ecosystems worldwide and often integrate the effects of processes over their entire catchment, requiring systemic solutions to achieve restoration goals from alluvial floodplains upstream to coastal deltaic floodplains downstream. The urgent need for wetland rehabilitation at landscape scales has been initiated through major floodplain reclamation and hydrologic diversions to reconnect the river with wetland processes. But the constraints of sediment delivery and nutrient enrichment represent some critical conflicts in earth surface processes that limit the ability to design 'self sustaining' public work projects; particularly with the challenges of accelerated sea level rise. Only

  1. Controls on alluvial fan long-profiles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stock, J.D.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.

    2008-01-01

    Water and debris flows exiting confined valleys have a tendency to deposit sediment on steep fans. On alluvial fans where water transport of gravel predominates, channel slopes tend to decrease downfan from ???0.10-0.04 to ???0.01 across wide ranges of climate and tectonism. Some have argued that this pattern reflects grain-size fining downfan such that higher threshold slopes are required just to entrain coarser particles in the waters of the upper fan, whereas lower slopes are required to entrain finer grains downfan (threshold hypothesis). An older hypothesis is that slope is adjusted to transport the supplied sediment load, which decreases downfan as deposition occurs (transport hypothesis). We have begun to test these hypotheses for alluvial fan long-profiles using detailed hydraulic and particle-size data in sediment transport models. On four alluvial fans in the western U.S., we find that channel hydraulic radiiare largely 0.5-0.9 m at fan heads, decreasing to 0.1-0.2 m at distal margins. We find that median gravel diameter does not change systematically along the upper 60%-80% of active fan channels as slope declines, so downstream gravel fining cannot explain most of the observed channel slope reduction. However, as slope declines, channel-bed sand cover increases systematically downfan from areal fractions of <20% above fan heads to distal fan values in excess of 70%. As a result, entrainment thresholds for bed material might decrease systematically downfan, leading to lower slopes. However, current models of this effect alone tend to underpredict downfan slope changes. This is likely due to off-channel gravel deposition. Calculations that match observed fan long-profiles require an exponential decline in gravel transport rate, so that on some fans approximately half of the load must be deposited off channel every -0.20-1.4 km downfan. This leads us to hypothesize that some alluvial fan long-proffies are statements about the rate of overbank deposition of

  2. Spatiotemporal Assessment of Groundwater Resources in the South Platte Basin, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruybal, C. J.; McCray, J. E.; Hogue, T. S.

    2015-12-01

    The South Platte Basin is one of the most economically diverse and fastest growing basins in Colorado. Strong competition for water resources in an over-appropriated system brings challenges to meeting future water demands. Balancing the conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater from the South Platte alluvial aquifer and the Denver Basin aquifer system is critical for meeting future demands. Over the past decade, energy development in the basin has added to the competition for water resources, highlighting the need to advance our understanding of the availability and sustainability of groundwater resources. Current work includes evaluating groundwater storage changes and recharge regimes throughout the South Platte Basin under competing uses, e.g. agriculture, oil and gas, urban, recreational, and environmental. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellites in conjunction with existing groundwater data is used to evaluate spatiotemporal variability in groundwater storage and identify areas of high water stress. Spatiotemporal data will also be utilized to develop a high resolution groundwater model of the region. Results will ultimately help stakeholders in the South Platte Basin better understand groundwater resource challenges and contribute to Colorado's strategic future water planning.

  3. Sediment yield and runoff frequency of small drainage basins in the Mojave Desert, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffiths, P.G.; Hereford, R.; Webb, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    Sediment yield from small arid basins, particularly in the Mojave Desert, is largely unknown owing to the ephemeral nature of these fluvial systems and long recurrence interval of flow events. We examined 27 reservoirs in the northern and eastern Mojave Desert that trapped sediment from small (< 1 km2) drainage basins on alluvial fans over the past 100 yr, calculated annual sediment yield, and estimated the average recurrence interval (RI) of sediment-depositing flow events. These reservoirs formed where railbeds crossed and blocked channels, causing sediment to be trapped and stored upslope. Deposits are temporally constrained by the date of railway construction (1906-1910), the presence of 137Cs in the reservoir profile (post-1952 sediment), and either 1993, when some basins breached during regional flooding, or 2000-2001, when stratigraphic analyses were performed. Reservoir deposits are well stratified at most sites and have distinct fining-upward couplets indicative of discrete episodes of sediment-bearing runoff. Average RI of runoff events for these basins ranges from 2.6 to 7.3 yr and reflects the incidence of either intense or prolonged rainfall; more than half the runoff events occurred before 1963. A period of above-normal precipitation, from 1905 to 1941, may have increased runoff frequency in these basins. Mean sediment yield (9 to 48 tons km-2 yr-1) is an order of magnitude smaller than sediment yields calculated elsewhere and may be limited by reduced storm intensity, the presence of desert pavement, and shallow gradient of fan surfaces. Sediment yield decreases as drainage area increases, a trend typical of much larger drainage basins where sediment-transport processes constrain sediment yield. Coarse substrate and low-angle slopes of these alluvial fan surfaces likely limit sediment transport capacity through transmission losses and channel storage. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Residence times and alluvial architecture of a sediment superslug in response to different flow regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.

    2017-01-01

    A superslug was deposited in a basin in the Colorado Front Range Mountains as a consequence of an extreme flood following a wildfire disturbance in 1996. The subsequent evolution of this superslug was measured by repeat topographic surveys (31 surveys from 1996 through 2014) of 18 cross sections approximately uniformly spaced over 1500 m immediately above the basin outlet. These surveys allowed the identification within the superslug of chronostratigraphic units deposited and eroded by different geomorphic processes in response to different flow regimes.Over the time period of the study, the superslug went through aggradation, incision, and stabilization phases that were controlled by a shift in geomorphic processes from generally short-duration, episodic, large-magnitude floods that deposited new chronostratigraphic units to long-duration processes that eroded units. These phases were not contemporaneous at each channel cross section, which resulted in a complex response that preserved different chronostratigraphic units at each channel cross section having, in general, two dominant types of alluvial architecture—laminar and fragmented. Age and transit-time distributions for these two alluvial architectures evolved with time since the extreme flood. Because of the complex shape of the distributions they were best modeled by two-parameter Weibull functions. The Weibull scale parameter approximated the median age of the distributions, and the Weibull shape parameter generally had a linear relation that increased with time since the extreme flood. Additional results indicated that deposition of new chronostratigraphic units can be represented by a power-law frequency distribution, and that the erosion of units decreases with depth of burial to a limiting depth. These relations can be used to model other situations with different flow regimes where vertical aggradation and incision are dominant processes, to predict the residence time of possible contaminated

  5. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-01

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift succession is dominated by a thick (1-5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.

  6. Characterization of the Highway 95 Fault in lower Fortymile Wash using electrical and electromagnetic methods, Nye County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Macy, Jamie P.; Kryder, Levi; Walker, Jamieson

    2012-01-01

    Coordinated application of electrical and electromagnetic geophysical methods provided better characterization of the Highway 95 Fault. The comparison of dipole-dipole resistivity, TEM, and CSAMT data confirm faulting of an uplifted block of resistive Paleozoic Carbonate that lies beneath a more conductive sandstone unit. A more resistive alluvial basin-fill unit is found above the sandstone unit, and it constitutes only about 150 m of the uppermost subsurface.

  7. Laboratory alluvial fans in one dimension.

    PubMed

    Guerit, L; Métivier, F; Devauchelle, O; Lajeunesse, E; Barrier, L

    2014-08-01

    When they reach a flat plain, rivers often deposit their sediment load into a cone-shaped structure called alluvial fan. We present a simplified experimental setup that reproduces, in one dimension, basic features of alluvial fans. A mixture of water and glycerol transports and deposits glass beads between two transparent panels separated by a narrow gap. As the beads, which mimic natural sediments, get deposited in this gap, they form an almost one-dimensional fan. At a moderate sediment discharge, the fan grows quasistatically and maintains its slope just above the threshold for sediment transport. The water discharge determines this critical slope. At leading order, the sediment discharge only controls the velocity at which the fan grows. A more detailed analysis reveals a slight curvature of the fan profile, which relates directly to the rate at which sediments are transported.

  8. Low frequency amplification in deep alluvial basins: an example in the Po Plain (Northern Italy) and consequences for site specific SHA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascandola, Claudia; Massa, Marco; Barani, Simone; Lovati, Sara; Santulin, Marco

    2016-04-01

    This work deals with the problem of long period seismic site amplification that potentially might involve large and deep alluvial basins in case of strong earthquakes. In particular, it is here presented a case study in the Po Plain (Northern Italy), one of the most extended and deep sedimentary basin worldwide. Even if the studied area shows a low annul seismicity rate with rare strong events (Mw>6.0) and it is characterized by low to medium seismic hazard conditions, the seismic risk is significant for the high density of civil and strategic infrastructures (i.e. high degree of exposition) and the unfavourable geological conditions. The aim of this work is to provide general considerations about the seismic site response of the Po Plain, with particular attention on deep discontinuities (i.e. geological bedrock), in terms of potential low frequency amplification and their incidence on the PSHA. The current results were obtained through active and passive geophysical investigations performed near Castelleone, a site where a seismic station, which is part of the INGV (National Institute for Geophysics and Volcanology) Seismic National Network, is installed from 2009. In particular, the active analyses consisted in a MASW and a refraction survey, whereas the passive ones consisted in seismic ambient noise acquisitions with single stations and arrays of increasing aperture. The results in terms of noise HVSR indicate two main peaks, the first around 0.17 Hz and the second, as already stated in the recent literature, around 0.7 Hz. In order to correlate the amplified frequencies with the geological discontinuities, the array acquisitions were processed to obtain a shear waves velocity profile, computed with a joint inversion, considering the experimental dispersion curves and the HVSR results. The obtained velocity profile shows two main discontinuities: the shallower at ~165 m of depth, which can be correlated to the seismic bedrock (i.e. Vs > 800 m/) and the deeper

  9. Great Basin paleoenvironmental studies project; Third quarterly technical progress report, December 1993--February 1994

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    Examination of the paleolithic and geomorphic records to determine the local and regional impact of past climates will advance assessment of Yucca Mountain`s suitability as a high-level nuclear waste repository. The project includes the integration of botanical, faunal, and geomorphic components to accomplish this goal. Paleobotanical studies will reconstruct the response of vegetation to climate change at the community and the organismal levels by integrating data obtained from nearly continuous sediment records of pollen, plant macrofossils, and stable isotopes from fossil woodrat middens. The goal of the paleofaunas study is to construct a history of Great Basin vertebrates, particularly mammals,more » that will provide empirical evidence of past environmental and climatic conditions within the Great Basin as it is recorded by the animals. Taxonomic composition of archaeological and paleontological faunas from various areas within the Great Basin and morphological change within individual mammalian taxa at specific localities are being investigated to monitor faunal response to changing environmental conditions. The objective of the geomorphology component of the paleoenvironmental program is to document the responses of surficial processes and landforms to the climatic changes documented by studies of packrat middens, pollen, and faunal distributions. The project will focus on: (1) stratigraphic relationships between lake deposits and aeolian or fluvial sediments and landforms; (2) cut and fill sequences in floodplain and river-channel deposits; (3) identification of periods of dune mobility and stability; (4) documentation of episodes of alluvial fan and terrace development and erosion; and (5) correlation of (3) and (4) to climatically driven lake-level fluctuation as revealed by shoreline features such as strandlines and beach ridges. Accomplishments for this period are presented for these studies.« less

  10. Construction at Turn Basin

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-06-14

    Modifications are underway at the Launch Complex 39 turn basin wharf at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to prepare for the arrival of the agency's massive Space Launch System (SLS) core stage aboard the barge Pegasus. Precast concrete poles are being driven to a depth of about 70 feet into the bedrock below the water around the turn basin; later filled with concrete. The upgrades are necessary to accommodate the increased weight of the core stage along with ground support and transportation equipment aboard the modified barge Pegasus. The Ground Systems Development and Operations Program is overseeing the upgrades to the turn basin wharf.

  11. Experimental alluvial fan evolution: Channel dynamics, slope controls, and shoreline growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Meredith D.; Jerolmack, Douglas J.

    2012-06-01

    River deltas and alluvial fans have channelization and deposition dynamics that are not entirely understood, but which dictate the evolution of landscapes of great social, economic, and ecologic value. Our lack of a process-based understanding of fan dynamics hampers our ability to construct accurate prediction and hazard models, leaving these regions vulnerable. Here we describe the growth of a series of experimental alluvial fans composed of a noncohesive grain mixture bimodal in size and density. We impose conditions that simulate a gravel/sand fan prograding into a static basin with constant water and sediment influx, and the resulting fans display realistic channelization and avulsion dynamics. We find that we can describe the dynamics of our fans in terms of a few processes: (1) an avulsion sequence with a timescale dictated by mass conservation between incoming flux and deposit volume; (2) a tendency for flow to reoccupy former channel paths; and (3) bistable slopes corresponding to separate entrainment and deposition conditions for grains. Several important observations related to these processes are: an avulsion timescale that increases with time and decreases with sediment feed rate; fan lobes that grow in a self-similar, quasi-radial pattern; and channel geometry that is adjusted to the threshold entrainment stress. We propose that the formation of well-defined channels in noncohesive fans is a transient phenomenon resulting from incision following avulsion, and can be directly described with dual transport thresholds. We present a fairly complete, process-based description of the mechanics of avulsion and its resulting timescale on our fans. Because the relevant dynamics depend only on threshold transport conditions and conservation of mass, we show how results may be directly applied to field-scale systems.

  12. Hydrogeologic setting and hydrologic data of the Smoke Creek Desert basin, Washoe County, Nevada, and Lassen County, California, water years 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maurer, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Smoke Creek Desert is a potential source of water for urban development in Washoe County, Nevada. Hydrogeologic data were collected from 1988 to 1990 to learn more about surface- and ground-water flow in the basin. Impermeable rocks form a boundary to ground-water flow on the east side of the basin and at unknown depths at the base of the flow system. Permeable volcanic rocks on the west and north sides of the basin represent a previously unrecognized aquifer and provide potential avenues for interbasin flow. Geophysical data indicate that basin-fill sediments are about 2,000 feet thick near the center of the basin. The geometry of the aquifers, however, remains largely unknown. Measurements of water levels, pressure head, flow rate, water temperature, and specific conductance at 19 wells show little change from 1988 to 1990. Chemically, ground water begins as a dilute sodium and calcium bicarbonate water in the mountain blocks, changes to a slightly saline sodium bicarbonate solution beneath the alluvial fans, and becomes a briny sodium chloride water near the playa. Concentrations of several inorganic constituents in the briny water near the playa commonly exceed Nevada drinking-water standards. Ground water in the Honey Lake basin and Smoke Creek Desert basin has similar stable-isotope composition, except near Sand Pass. If interbasin flow takes place, it likely occurs at depths greater than 400-600 feet beneath Sand Pass or through volcanic rocks to the north of Sand Pass. Measure- ments of streamflow indicate that about 2,800 acre-feet/year discharged from volcanic rocks to streamflow and a minimum of 7.300 acre-feet/year infiltrated and recharged unconsolidated sediments near Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks during the period of study. Also about 1,500 acre-feet per year was lost to evapotranspiration along the channel of Smoke Creek, and about 1,680 acre-feet per year of runoff from Smoke, Buffalo, and Squaw Creeks was probably lost to evaporation from the

  13. Ground-water conditions and geologic reconnaissance of the Upper Sevier River basin, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Carl H.; Robinson, Gerald B.; Bjorklund, Louis Jay

    1967-01-01

    The upper Sevier River basin is in south-central Utah and includes an area of about 2,400 .square miles of high plateaus and valleys. It comprises the entire Sevier River drainage basin above Kingston, including the East Fork Sevier River and its tributaries. The basin was investigated to determine general ground-water conditions, the interrelation of ground water and surface water, the effects of increasing the pumping of ground water, and the amount of ground water in storage.The basin includes four main valleys - Panguitch Valley, Circle Valley, East Fork Valley, and Grass Valley - which are drained by the Sevier River, the East Fork Sevier River, and Otter Creek. The plateaus surrounding the valleys consist of sedimentary and igneous rocks that range in age from Triassic to Quaternary. The valley fill, which is predominantly alluvial gravel, sand, silt, and clay, has a maximum thickness of more than 800 feet.The four main valleys constitute separate ground-water basins. East Fork Valley basin is divided into Emery Valley, Johns Valley, and Antimony subbasins, and Grass Valley basin is divided into Koosharem and Angle subbasins. Ground water occurs under both artesian and water-table conditions in all the basins and subbasins except Johns Valley, Emery Valley, and Angle subbasins, where water is only under water-table conditions. The water is under artesian pressure in beds of gravel and sand confined by overlying beds of silt and clay in the downstream parts of Panguitch Valley basin, Circle Valley basin, and Antimony subbasin, and in most of Koosharem subbasin. Along the sides and upstream ends of these basins, water is usually under water-table conditions.About 1 million acre-feet of ground water that is readily available to wells is stored in the gravel and sand of the upper 200 feet of saturated valley fill. About 570,000 acre-feet is stored in Panguitch Valley basin, about 210,000 in Circle Valley basin, about 6,000 in Emery Valley subbasin, about 90

  14. Cenozoic foreland basin evolution during Andean shortening in the Malargüe region of western Argentina (35°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, S. G.; Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.

    2015-12-01

    Cenozoic clastic deposits in western Argentina provide key opportunities to evaluate the timing and duration of Andean deformation and uplift. We studied the Malargüe segment of the Andean foreland basin at 35°S to better understand latest Cretaceous to Pliocene deformation and eastward propagation of Andean retroarc shortening. Our multi-technique approach included logging of a well-exposed ~1500m Paleocene-Miocene stratigraphic succession, paleocurrent measurements, conglomerate clast counts, and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronological analyses of basin fill exposed in the Sosneado region along the Rio Atuel. The Pircala and Coihueco Formations define the lowermost ~180 m of the section and are represented by fine to medium sandstones, siltstones, claystones and marls interpreted as distal fluvial floodplain and localized lacustrine deposits. Pircala paleocurrents show a major reversal from west- to east-directed flow. These finer deposits of the lower succession are separated from the overlying coarser-grained ~800 m thick Agua de la Piedra Formation by a conspicuous unconformity that spans up to roughly 20 Myr. The Agua de la Piedra Formation is composed of upward-coarsening amalgamated beds of massive medium to coarse sandstones and lenticular conglomerates interpreted as a prograding proximal fluvial to alluvial fan system. Conglomerate clast counts show initial dominance by Mesozoic detritus from the pre-Andean Neuquen basin system, with a progressive upsection increase in Cenozoic volcanic detritus from the Andean magmatic arc. Collectively, the paleocurrents, clast compositions, sedimentary facies associations, and emerging U-Pb results suggest a long-term shift, commencing in the Paleocene, from eastern cratonic sources to magmatic-arc and thrust-belt sources during a systematic eastward propagation of deformation, with a pronounced phase of Miocene magmatism and shortening that incorporated the proximal foreland basin into the advancing thrust belt.

  15. Controls on alluvial fans morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Lajeunesse, E.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2017-12-01

    Using laboratory experiments, we investigate the influence of water and sediment discharges on the morphology of an alluvial fan. In our flume, a single-thread laminar river deposits corundum sand (0.4 mm) into a conical fan. We record the fan progradation with top-view images, and measure its shape using the deformation of a Moiré pattern. The fan remains virtually self-affine as it grows, with a nearly constant slope. We find that, when the sediment discharge is small, the longitudinal slope of the fan remains close to that of a river at the threshold for sediment transport. A higher sediment discharge causes the fan's slope to depart from the threshold value. Due to the downstream decrease of the sediment load, this slope gets shallower towards the fan's toe. This mechanism generates a slightly concave fan profile. This suggests that the proximal slope of an alluvial fan could be a proxy for the sediment flux that feeds the fan.Finally, we discuss the applicability of these results to natural systems.

  16. Ephemeral-stream channel and basin-floor infiltration and recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed of the Upper San Pedro Basin, Southeastern Arizona: Chapter J in Ground-water recharge in the arid and semiarid southwestern United States (Professional Paper 1703)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coes, A.L.; Pool, D.R.; Stonestrom, David A.; Constantz, Jim; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Leake, Stanley A.

    2007-01-01

    The timing and location of streamflow in the San Pedro River are partially dependent on the aerial distribution of recharge in the Sierra Vista subwatershed. Previous investigators have assumed that recharge in the subwatershed occurs only along the mountain fronts by way of stream-channel infiltration near the contact between low-permeability rocks of the mountains and the basin fill. Recent studies in other alluvial basins of the Southwestern United States, however, have shown that significant recharge can occur through the sediments of ephemeral stream channels at locations several kilometers distant from the mountains. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spatial distribution of infiltration and subsequent recharge through the ephemeral channels in the Sierra Vista subwatershed.Infiltration fluxes in ephemeral channels and through the basin floor of the subwatershed were estimated by using several methods. Data collected during the drilling and coring of 16 boreholes included physical, thermal, and hydraulic properties of sediments; chloride concentrations of sediments; and pore-water stable-isotope values and tritium activity. Surface and subsurface sediment temperatures were continuously measured at each borehole.Twelve boreholes were drilled in five ephemeral stream channels to estimate infiltration within ephemeral channels. Active infiltration was verified to at least 20 meters at 11 of the 12 borehole sites on the basis of low sediment-chloride concentrations, high soil-water contents, and pore-water tritium activity similar to present-day precipitation. Consolidated sediments at the twelfth site prevented core recovery and estimation of infiltration. Analytical and numerical methods were applied to determine the surface infiltration flux required to produce the observed sediment-temperature fluctuations at six sites. Infiltration fluxes were determined for summer ephemeral flow events only because no winter flows were recorded at the sites

  17. Potential incremental seepage losses in an alluvial channel in the Rio Grande Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gold, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional, digital, cross-sectional model was used to simulate seepage of water from an alluvial channel, which had the general characteristic of the Rio Grande channel, into the underlying alluvium within the reach from Cochiti Dam to Elephant Butte Reservoir. Seepage rates were determined for losing and gaining reaches, and reaches affected by pumping of ground water. The seepage rates were computed for stream surcharges (height of additional water applied on top of base flow) ranging from 0.5 foot to 3 feet and for application periods ranging from 1 to 100 days. The net seepage rates, which were nearly identical for each type of reach, ranged from 0.0 cubic foot per second per mile of channel length for a 0.5 foot surcharge applied for 1 day to 0.37 cubic foot per second per mile of channel length for a 3 feet surcharge applied for 100 days, followed by a 180 day seepage return flow from the aquifer. (USGS)

  18. Regional deformation of late Quaternary fluvial sediments in the Apennines foreland basin (Emilia, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Marco; Minarelli, Luca; Fontana, Alessandro; Hajdas, Irka

    2018-04-01

    Our research is aimed at estimating the vertical deformation affecting late Quaternary units accumulated into the foreland basin of the Northern Apennines chain. Beneath the study alluvial plain, compressive fault-fold structures are seismically active. We reconstructed the stratigraphic architecture and the depositional evolution of the alluvial deposits, which accumulated in the first 40 m of subsurface, through the last 45,000 years, from before the Last Glacial Maximum to the present. A 58 km-long stratigraphic profile was correlated from the foothill belt near Bologna to the vicinity of the Po River. The analysis of the profile documents subsidence movements through the last 12,000 years, exceeding - 18 m in syncline areas, with subsidence rates of at least 1.5 m/ka. Anticlines areas experienced a much lower subsidence than the syncline ones.

  19. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  20. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  1. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  2. 44 CFR 65.13 - Mapping and map revisions for areas subject to alluvial fan flooding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. 65.13 Section 65.13 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL... areas subject to alluvial fan flooding. This section describes the procedures to be followed and the... provides protection from the base flood in an area subject to alluvial fan flooding. This information must...

  3. Sediment transport-storage functions for alluvial reservoirs

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Michael Church

    2000-01-01

    In a drainage network, sediment is routed through a linked series of channel/valley segments (alluvial reservoirs) that are distinguished from their neighbors by their capacity to store and transport sediment.

  4. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  5. Late Quaternary faulting in the Vallo di Diano basin (southern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villani, F.; Pierdominici, S.; Cinti, F. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Vallo di Diano is the largest Quaternary extensional basin in the southern Apennines thrust-belt axis (Italy). This portion of the chain is highly seismic and is currently subject to NE-extension, which triggers large (M> 6) normal-faulting earthquakes along NW-trending faults. The eastern edge of the Vallo di Diano basin is bounded by an extensional fault system featuring three main NW-trending, SW-dipping, right-stepping, ~15-17 km long segments (from north to south: Polla, Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults). Holocene activity has been documented so far only for the Polla segment. We have therefore focused our geomorphological and paleoseismological study on the southern portion of the system, particularly along the ~ 4 km long Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults overlap zone. The latter is characterized by a complex system of coalescent alluvial fans, Middle Pleistocene to Holocene in age. Here we recognized a > 4 km long and 0.5-1.4 km wide set of scarps (ranging in height between 1 m and 2.5 m) affecting Late Pleistocene - Holocene alluvial fans. In the same area, two Late Pleistocene volcanoclastic layers at the top of an alluvial fan exposed in a quarry are affected by ~ 1 m normal displacements. Moreover, a trench excavated across a 2 m high scarp affecting a Holocene fan revealed warping of Late Holocene debris flow deposits, with a total vertical throw of about 0.3 m. We therefore infer the overlap zone of the Atena Lucana-Sala Consilina and Padula faults is a breached relay ramp, generated by hard-linkage of the two fault segments since Late Pleistocene. This ~ 32 km long fault system is active and is capable of generating Mw ≥6.5 earthquakes.

  6. Topographic and hydraulic controls over alluviation on a bedrock template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, David; Heritage, George; Entwistle, Neil; Tooth, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels found in dryland rivers are characterised by an over-wide channel cut into the host rock containing a network of interconnecting bedrock sub-channels separated by bedrock influenced interfluve areas. Whilst the channels remain largely free of sediment the interfluves display varying levels of alluviation ranging from bare rock, sand sheets and silt drapes through to consolidated bedrock core bars, islands and lateral deposits. Examination of the sedimentary units associated with the bedrock anastomosed reaches of the Sabie river in the Kruger National Park, South Africa reveal a repeating sequence of coarse sand / fine gravel grading through to silt representing successive flood related depositional units. Unit development in relation to the bedrock template was investigated using pre-flood aerial imagery of bedrock core bar locations and post flood LiDAR data of bedrock anastomosed sites stripped during the 2000 and 2012 extreme flood events. This revealed a propensity for bar development associated with bedrock hollows disconnected from the principal high-energy sub-channels. 2-D morpho-dynamic modelling was used to further investigate spatial patterns of deposition over the bedrock template. Although topographic lows displayed mid-range velocities during peak flow events, these are likely to be preferential routing areas, with sediments stalling in low energy areas on the falling limb of floods. It is also likely that vegetation development plays a fundamental role in the development of alluviated zones, through increasing strength of alluvial units and capturing new sediments. With these results in mind we present a conceptual model for the development of bedrock-core bars, the fundamental unit in bedrock-alluvial anastomosed channels.

  7. Assessing groundwater recharge in an Andean closed basin using isotopic characterization and a rainfall-runoff model: Salar del Huasco basin, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, Javier; Muñoz, José F.; Gironás, Jorge; Oyarzún, Ricardo; Aguirre, Evelyn; Aravena, Ramón

    2015-11-01

    Closed basins are catchments whose drainage networks converge to lakes, salt flats or alluvial plains. Salt flats in the closed basins in arid northern Chile are extremely important ecological niches. The Salar del Huasco, one of these salt flats located in the high plateau (Altiplano), is a Ramsar site located in a national park and is composed of a wetland ecosystem rich in biodiversity. The proper management of the groundwater, which is essential for the wetland function, requires accurate estimates of recharge in the Salar del Huasco basin. This study quantifies the spatio-temporal distribution of the recharge, through combined use of isotopic characterization of the different components of the water cycle and a rainfall-runoff model. The use of both methodologies aids the understanding of hydrological behavior of the basin and enabled estimation of a long-term average recharge of 22 mm/yr (i.e., 15 % of the annual rainfall). Recharge has a high spatial variability, controlled by the geological and hydrometeorological characteristics of the basin, and a high interannual variability, with values ranging from 18 to 26 mm/yr. The isotopic approach allowed not only the definition of the conceptual model used in the hydrological model, but also eliminated the possibility of a hydrogeological connection between the aquifer of the Salar del Huasco basin and the aquifer that feeds the springs of the nearby town of Pica. This potential connection has been an issue of great interest to agriculture and tourism activities in the region.

  8. Measuring Paleolandscape Relief in Alluvial River Systems from the Stratigraphic Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, E. A.; Trampush, S. M.; Chamberlin, E.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Aggradational alluvial river systems sometimes generate relief in the vicinity of their channel belts (i.e. alluvial ridges) and it has been proposed that this process may define important thresholds in river avulsion. The compensation scale can be used to estimate the maximum relief across a landscape and can be connected to the maximum scale of autogenic organization in experimental and numerical systems. Here we use the compensation scale - measured from outcrops of Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene fluvial deposits - to estimate the maximum relief that characterized ancient fluvial landscapes. In some cases, the compensation scale significantly exceeds the maximum channel depth observed in a deposit, suggesting that aggradational alluvial systems organize to sustain more relief than might be expected by looking only in the immediate vicinity of the active channel belt. Instead, these results indicate that in some systems, positive topographic relief generated by multiple alluvial ridge complexes and/or large-scale fan features may be associated with landscape-scale autogenic organization of channel networks that spans multiple cycles of channel avulsion. We compare channel and floodplain sedimentation patterns among the studied ancient fluvial systems in an effort to determine whether avulsion style, channel migration, or floodplain conditions influenced the maximum autogenic relief of ancient landscapes. Our results emphasize that alluvial channel networks may be organized at much larger spatial and temporal scales than previously realized and provide an avenue for understanding which types of river systems are likely to exhibit the largest range of autogenic dynamics.

  9. Filling box stratification fed by a gravity current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Charlie; Huppert, Herbert; Imberger, Jorg

    2012-11-01

    Fluids in confined basins can be stratified by the filling box mechanism. The source of dense fluid in geophysical applications, such as a cold river entering a warmer lake, can be a gravity current running over a shallow slope. Filling box models are often, however, based on the dynamics of vertically falling, unconfined, plumes which entrain fluid by a different mechanism to gravity currents on shallow slopes. Laboratory tank experiments of a filling box fed by a gravity current running over a shallow slope were carried out using a dye attenuation technique to investigate the development of the stratification of the ambient. These results demonstrate the differences in the stratification generated by a gravity current compared to that generated by a plume and demonstrate the nature of entrainment into gravity currents on shallow slopes.

  10. PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest. Wood fill rises ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Cooling Tower detail. Camera facing southwest. Wood fill rises from foundation piers of cold water basin. Photographer: Kirsh. Date: May 1, 1969. INEEL negative no. 69-2826 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  11. Intelligent mapping of alluvial aquifer characteristics in the Otago region, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Michael; Rawlinson, Zara; Westerhoff, Rogier

    2015-04-01

    We adopt a hybrid approach to map the 3D hydrostratigraphy of an alluvial aquifer using big data collected in the Ettrick basin, Otago New Zealand. First, a subset (1%) of the 18 million regional helicopter frequency-domain electromagnetic (HEM) sounding measurements (300 Hz, Horizontal co-planar; 3300 Hz, vertical co-planar; 8200 Hz, horizontal co-planar; 40 kHz, horizontal co-planar; 137 kHz horizontal coplanar) and their numerically-inverted 1D resistivity (50¬-100 Ω-m) profiles are randomly split. For example, 50% of these data are used for training an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network, and 50% of these data are used for performance at independent locations. The remaining set of HEM measurements are then presented to the vetted ML network to estimate regional resistivity structure which is compared to previously inverted resistivity. Second, about 50 borehole autocorrelation functions are computed based on cross-component correlations of quantized borehole locations sampled for lithology and HEM sounding data. Third, an unsupervised ML network is trained and performance tested using sparse borehole lithology (fractions of sand, silt, clay, mudstone, schist) and hydraulic properties (storage, hydraulic conductivity), and those HEM sounding data occurring within a radius defined by the maximum borehole autocorrelation distances. Fourth, this ML network is then used together with independent HEM sounding measurements to map the spatial distribution of physical aquifer properties and hydraulic properties across the basin.

  12. Pliocene and Quaternary Deposits in the Northern Part of the San Juan Basin in Southwestern Colorado and Northwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Glenn R.; Moore, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Unconsolidated late Cenozoic deposits in the northern part of the San Juan Basin range in age from late Pliocene to Holocene. Most of the deposits are alluvial gravel composed of resistant quartzite, sandstone, and igneous, metamorphic, and volcanic rocks derived from the uplifted central core of the San Juan Mountains 20-50 miles (32-80 kilometers) north of the basin. Alluvial deposits are most voluminous in the Animas Valley, but deposits of gravel of the same general age are present in the La Plata, Florida, Los Pinos, and Piedra River valleys as well. Alluvial gravel forms tabular deposits, generally about 20 feet (6 meters) thick, that are exposed beneath a sequence of terraces at many levels above the rivers. Gravel layers 360 feet (110 meters) or less above the Animas River are glacial outwash. The gravel layers begin at the south toes of end moraines and extend discontinuously downvalley at least 10-20 miles (16-32 kilometers). Farther south, distinction between outwash and nonglacial alluvium is problematical. Alluvial gravel beneath higher terraces does not grade to end moraines. Glacial till forms a series of end moraines at the north edge of the town of Durango. The oldest moraines are farthest downvalley, are higher above the river, and have more mature surficial soils than do moraines farther north. The two youngest moraines, the Animas City moraines, are interpreted to be Pinedale in age. They have narrow, ridgelike crests and form nearly unbroken arcs across the valley floor. Small segments of still more weathered moraines, the Spring Creek moraines, are 170-230 feet (52-70 meters) above the river and are 660-990 feet (200-300 meters) farther downvalley. The oldest moraines, the Durango moraines, are on the north end of the unnamed mesa on which Fort Lewis College is located. The base is about 180 feet (55 meters) above the river. These oldest moraines may be of Bull Lake age. Alluvial fans, pediment gravel, and landslides are scattered at several

  13. Effects of potential surface coal mining on dissolved solids in Otter Creek and in the Otter Creek alluvial aquifer, southeastern Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, M.R.

    1985-01-01

    Otter Creek drains an area of 709 square miles in the coal-rich Powder River structural basin of southeastern Montana. The Knobloch coal beds in the Tongue River Member of the Paleocene Fort Union Formation is a shallow aquifer and a target for future surface mining in the downstream part of the Otter Creek basin. A mass-balance model was used to estimate the effects of potential mining on the dissolved solids concentration in Otter Creek and in the alluvial aquifer in the Otter Creek valley. With extensive mining of the Knobloch coal beds, the annual load of dissolved solids to Otter Creek at Ashland at median streamflow could increase by 2,873 tons, or a 32-percent increase compared to the annual pre-mining load. Increased monthly loads of Otter Creek, at the median streamflow, could range from 15 percent in February to 208 percent in August. The post-mining dissolved solids load to the subirrigated part of the alluvial valley could increase by 71 percent. The median dissolved solids concentration in the subirrigated part of the valley could be 4,430 milligrams per liter, compared to the pre-mining median concentration of 2,590 milligrams per liter. Post-mining loads from the potentially mined landscape were calculated using saturated-paste-extract data from 506 overburdened samples collected from 26 wells and test holes. Post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley likely would continue at increased rates for hundreds of years after mining. If the actual area of Knobloch coal disturbed by mining were less than that used in the model, post-mining loads to the Otter Creek valley would be proportionally smaller. (USGS)

  14. ["The Talpiot medical leadership program"--advancing the brightest young physicians and researchers to fill future leadership roles].

    PubMed

    Adler, Yehuda; Kinori, Michael; Zimlichman, Eyal; Rosinger, Avivit; Shalev, Guzu; Talmi, Rachel; Noy, Shlomo; Rotstein, Zeev

    2015-02-01

    The modern medical world is dynamic and boundless. There is a need for the medical training system currently existing in Israel to undergo a thorough conceptual change in order to strive for excellence and innovation on the one hand and to prevent the "brain drain" from Israel on the other. To report on the "Talpiot" program at the "Sheba Medical Center", which identifies, promotes and prepares the most talented young doctors to fill key positions in the fields of medicine and health in Israel. This study is based on a project with the same name in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF). It promotes an elite group of physicians and researchers at the medical center and includes the provision of scholarships, personal guidance and customized educational opportunities for its members. Conversely, every member in the program is committed to complete five years of training followed by another five years as a senior physician or a researcher at the medical center. Since 2002, there have been six cycles of "Talpionaires". The current 46 members of the program fill key leadership roles in the medical center and are considered leaders in their field. Among the program's alumni are managers of institutes, units and research institutes. This group is responsible for the publication of hundreds of scientific papers studies and dozens of patents in medical technology. Some of them have progressed academically far beyond their peers. Excellence programs are an integral part of any institution which considers itself a leader, both in medicine and beyond. The exciting and visionary "Talpiot" program is Sheba's contribution to the quality of the medical system in the country of Israel in the long run. Promoting young doctors and researchers to become leaders in the Israeli medical system is an integral part of national interests.

  15. Statistic inversion of multi-zone transition probability models for aquifer characterization in alluvial fans

    DOE PAGES

    Zhu, Lin; Dai, Zhenxue; Gong, Huili; ...

    2015-06-12

    Understanding the heterogeneity arising from the complex architecture of sedimentary sequences in alluvial fans is challenging. This study develops a statistical inverse framework in a multi-zone transition probability approach for characterizing the heterogeneity in alluvial fans. An analytical solution of the transition probability matrix is used to define the statistical relationships among different hydrofacies and their mean lengths, integral scales, and volumetric proportions. A statistical inversion is conducted to identify the multi-zone transition probability models and estimate the optimal statistical parameters using the modified Gauss–Newton–Levenberg–Marquardt method. The Jacobian matrix is computed by the sensitivity equation method, which results in anmore » accurate inverse solution with quantification of parameter uncertainty. We use the Chaobai River alluvial fan in the Beijing Plain, China, as an example for elucidating the methodology of alluvial fan characterization. The alluvial fan is divided into three sediment zones. In each zone, the explicit mathematical formulations of the transition probability models are constructed with optimized different integral scales and volumetric proportions. The hydrofacies distributions in the three zones are simulated sequentially by the multi-zone transition probability-based indicator simulations. Finally, the result of this study provides the heterogeneous structure of the alluvial fan for further study of flow and transport simulations.« less

  16. Hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the Chehalis River basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gendaszek, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    The Chehalis River has the largest drainage basin of any river entirely contained within the State of Washington with a watershed of approximately 2,700 mi2 and has correspondingly diverse geology and land use. Demands for water resources have prompted the local citizens and governments of the Chehalis River basin to coordinate with Federal, State and Tribal agencies through the Chehalis Basin Partnership to develop a long-term watershed management plan. The recognition of the interdependence of groundwater and surface-water resources of the Chehalis River basin became the impetus for this study, the purpose of which is to describe the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater/surface-water interactions of the Chehalis River basin. Surficial geologic maps and 372 drillers' lithostratigraphic logs were used to generalize the basin-wide hydrogeologic framework. Five hydrogeologic units that include aquifers within unconsolidated glacial and alluvial sediments separated by discontinuous confining units were identified. These five units are bounded by a low permeability unit comprised of Tertiary bedrock. A water table map, and generalized groundwater-flow directions in the surficial aquifers, were delineated from water levels measured in wells between July and September 2009. Groundwater generally follows landsurface-topography from the uplands to the alluvial valley of the Chehalis River. Groundwater gradients are highest in tributary valleys such as the Newaukum River valley (approximately 23 cubic feet per mile), relatively flat in the central Chehalis River valley (approximately 6 cubic feet per mile), and become tidally influenced near the outlet of the Chehalis River to Grays Harbor. The dynamic interaction between groundwater and surface-water was observed through the synoptic streamflow measurements, termed a seepage run, made during August 2010, and monitoring of water levels in wells during the 2010 Water Year. The seepage run revealed an overall gain of 56

  17. Late Pleistocene dune-sourced alluvial fans in coastal settings: Sedimentary facies and related processes (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, F.; del Valle, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Gómez-Pujol, L.

    2018-05-01

    Aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interaction results in the formation of deposits characterized by typical alluvial sedimentary structures, but is composed of conspicuous amounts of aeolian sediments. The literature on this topic is limited and most works relate more with continental aeolian dunes or fluvial dune interference with fan bodies. Furthermore, there is a lack of examples of aeolian-alluvial sedimentary interference in coastal settings. In the western Mediterranean, there are many Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits built up partly by sediment originating from coastal dunes dismantled by alluvial streams. Very often, these deposits show a continuous sedimentary sequence through which we can derive the contribution and predominance of coastal, alluvial-colluvial and aeolian processes and their controls on landscape formation. This is an outstanding feature within coastal systems since it shows marine sediments reworked and integrated within coastal dune fields by aeolian transport, and the latter built up into alluvial fan bodies. In this sense, aeolian-alluvial interaction is the geomorphic-sedimentary expression of the coexistence and overlapping of alluvial and aeolian environments resulting in deposits sharing sedimentary features from both environments. The aim of this paper is to unravel the contribution of coastal dunes in the construction of alluvial fans bodies and identify the main sedimentary facies that constitute these deposits, as well as their climatic controls. For this reason, Es Caló fan (northern Mallorca) has been selected due to its well-exposed deposits exhibiting the alternation of aeolian, alluvial and colluvial deposits. Sedimentological and stratigraphic analyses based on 33 logs and complementary analyses demonstrate that most of the facies constituting the fan body are made up completely of marine bioclastic sands. These deposits record an alluvial fan sedimentary environment characterized by sediments inputs that do not proceed

  18. Evolution of a Miocene sag basin in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, D.; Gorini, C.; Jolivet, L.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; d'Acremont, E.; Auxietre, J. L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Estrada, F.; Elabassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Jabour, H.; Vendeville, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Alboran domain represents the westernmost termination of the peri-Mediterranean Alpine orogen. Its arcuate shape, delimited to the North by the Betic range and to the South by the Rif range, is the result of subduction, collision and slab migration processes. During the Neogene, several sedimentary basins formed on the Betics metamorphic basement, mainly due to the extensional collapse of the previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The major sedimentary depocentre, the Western Alboran Basin (WAB), is surrounded by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge, and is partly affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2-D seismic profiles acquired along the Moroccan margin during the last decade reveal a complete history of the basin. Our study deals with the analysis of seismic profiles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the Mediterranean Moroccan margin. The stratigraphy was calibrated using well data from offshore Spain and Morocco. Our study focuses particularly on the tectono-stratigraphic reconstruction of the basin. The formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). A massive unit of Early Miocene to Lower Langhian shales and olistostromes forms a thick mobile décollement layer that controls and accommodates deformation of the basin fill. From the Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian, the basin is filled by a thick sequence of siliciclastic deposits. Stratigraphic geometries identified on seismic data clearly indicate that deformation of the basin fill started during deposition of Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian clastics. Shale tectonic deformation was re-activated recently, during the Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (and the following catastrophic Pliocene reflooding) or during the Quaternary contourite deposition The sedimentary layers gently dip towards the basin centre and "onlaps" onto the basin margin, especially onto the basement high

  19. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  20. Hydrogeology and steady-state numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, Weld, Adams, and Arapahoe Counties, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arnold, L.R.

    2010-01-01

    The Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin (Lost Creek basin) is an important alluvial aquifer for irrigation, public supply, and domestic water uses in northeastern Colorado. Beginning in 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Lost Creek Ground Water Management District and the Colorado Water Conservation Board, collected hydrologic data and constructed a steady-state numerical groundwater flow model of the Lost Creek basin. The model builds upon the work of previous investigators to provide an updated tool for simulating the potential effects of various hydrologic stresses on groundwater flow and evaluating possible aquifer-management strategies. As part of model development, the thickness and extent of regolith sediments in the basin were mapped, and data were collected concerning aquifer recharge beneath native grassland, nonirrigated agricultural fields, irrigated agricultural fields, and ephemeral stream channels. The thickness and extent of regolith in the Lost Creek basin indicate the presence of a 2- to 7-mile-wide buried paleovalley that extends along the Lost Creek basin from south to north, where it joins the alluvial valley of the South Platte River valley. Regolith that fills the paleovalley is as much as about 190 ft thick. Average annual recharge from infiltration of precipitation on native grassland and nonirrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using the chloride mass-balance method to range from 0.1 to 0.6 inch, which represents about 1-4 percent of long-term average precipitation. Average annual recharge from infiltration of ephemeral streamflow was estimated by using apparent downward velocities of chloride peaks to range from 5.7 to 8.2 inches. Average annual recharge beneath irrigated agricultural fields was estimated by using passive-wick lysimeters and a water-balance approach to range from 0 to 11.3 inches, depending on irrigation method, soil type, crop type, and the net quantity of irrigation water applied

  1. Field, Laboratory and Imaging spectroscopic Analysis of Landslide, Debris Flow and Flood Hazards in Lacustrine, Aeolian and Alluvial Fan Deposits Surrounding the Salton Sea, Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, B. E.; Hooper, D. M.; Mars, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution satellite imagery, field spectral measurements using a portable ASD spectrometer, and 2013 hyperspectral AVIRIS imagery were used to evaluate the age of the Martinez Mountain Landslide (MML) near the Salton Sea, in order to determine the relative ages of adjacent alluvial fan surfaces and the potential for additional landslides, debris flows, and floods. The Salton Sea (SS) occupies a pluvial lake basin, with ancient shorelines ranging from 81 meters to 113 meters above the modern lake level. The highest shoreline overlaps the toe of the 0.24 - 0.38 km3 MML deposit derived from hydrothermally altered granites exposed near the summit of Martinez Mountain. The MML was originally believed to be of early Holocene age. However, AVIRIS mineral maps show abundant desert varnish on the top and toe of the landslide. Desert varnish can provide a means of relative dating of alluvial fan (AF) or landslide surfaces, as it accumulates at determinable rates over time. Based on the 1) highest levels of desert varnish accumulation mapped within the basin, 2) abundant evaporite playa minerals on top of the toe of the landslide, and 3) the highest shoreline of the ancestral lake overtopping the toe of the landslide with gastropod and bivalve shells, we conclude that the MML predates the oldest alluvial fan terraces and lake sediments exposed in the Coachella and Imperial valleys and must be older than early Holocene (i.e. Late Pleistocene?). Thus, the MML landslide has the potential to be used as a spectral endmember for desert varnish thickness and thus proxy for age discrimination of active AF washes versus desert pavements. Given the older age of the MML landslide and low water levels in the modern SS, the risk from future rockslides of this size and related seiches is rather low. However, catastrophic floods and debris flows do occur along the most active AF channels; and the aftermath of such flows can be identified spectrally by montmorillonite crusts forming in

  2. Analysis of alluvial hydrostratigraphy using indicator geostatistics, with examples from Santa Clara Valley, California

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    Current trends in hydrogeology seek to enlist sedimentary concepts in the interpretation of permeability structures. However, existing conceptual models of alluvial deposition tend to inadequately account for the heterogeneity caused by complex sedimentological and external factors. This dissertation presents three analyses of alluvial hydrostratigraphy using indicator geostatistics. This approach empirically acknowledges both the random and structured qualities of alluvial structures at scales relevant to site investigations. The first analysis introduces the indicator approach, whereby binary values are assigned to borehole-log intervals on the basis of inferred relative permeability; it presents a case study of indicator variography at a well-documented ground-watermore » contamination site, and uses indicator kriging to interpolate an aquifer-aquitard sequence in three dimensions. The second analysis develops an alluvial-architecture context for interpreting semivariograms, and performs comparative variography for a suite of alluvial sites in Santa Clara Valley, California. The third analysis investigates the use of a water well perforation indicator for assessing large-scale hydrostratigraphic structures within relatively deep production zones.« less

  3. Effect of basin physical characteristics on solute fluxes in nine alpine/subalpine basins, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sueker, J.K.; Clow, D.W.; Ryan, J.N.; Jarrett, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Alpine/subalpine basins may exhibit substantial variability in solute fluxes despite many apparent similarities in basin characteristics. An evaluation of controls on spatial patterns in solute fluxes may allow development of predictive tools for assessing basin sensitivity to outside perturbations such as climate change or deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Relationships between basin physical characteristics, determined from geographical information system (GIS) tools, and solute fluxes and mineral weathering rates were explored for nine alpine/subalpine basins in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, using correlation analyses for 1993 and 1994 data. Stream-water nitrate fluxes were correlated positively with basin characteristics associated with the talus environment; i.e., the fractional amounts of steep slopes (??? 30??), unvegetated terrain and young debris (primarily Holocene till) in the basins, and were correlated negatively with fractional amounts of subalpine meadow terrain. Correlations with nitrate indicate the importance of the talus environment in promoting nitrate flux and the mitigating effect of areas with established vegetation, such as subalpine meadows. Total mineral weathering rates for the basins ranged from about 300 to 600 mol ha-1 year -1. Oligoclase weathering accounted for 30 to 73% of the total mineral weathering flux, and was positively correlated with the amount of old debris (primarily Pleistocene glacial till) in the basins. Although calcite is found in trace amounts in bedrock, calcite weathering accounted for up to 44% of the total mineral weathering flux. Calcite was strongly correlated with steep slope, unvegetated terrain, and young debris-probably because physical weathering in steep-gradient areas exposes fresh mineral surfaces that contain calcite for chemical weathering. Oligoclase and calcite weathering are the dominant sources of alkalinity in the basins. However, atmospherically deposited acids consume much of the

  4. Effect of basin physical characteristics on solute fluxes in nine alpine/subalpine basins, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sueker, Julie K.; Clow, David W.; Ryan, Joseph N.; Jarrett, Robert D.

    2001-10-01

    Alpine/subalpine basins may exhibit substantial variability in solute fluxes despite many apparent similarities in basin characteristics. An evaluation of controls on spatial patterns in solute fluxes may allow development of predictive tools for assessing basin sensitivity to outside perturbations such as climate change or deposition of atmospheric pollutants. Relationships between basin physical characteristics, determined from geographical information system (GIS) tools, and solute fluxes and mineral weathering rates were explored for nine alpine/subalpine basins in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, using correlation analyses for 1993 and 1994 data. Stream-water nitrate fluxes were correlated positively with basin characteristics associated with the talus environment; i.e., the fractional amounts of steep slopes ( 30°), unvegetated terrain and young debris (primarily Holocene till) in the basins, and were correlated negatively with fractional amounts of subalpine meadow terrain. Correlations with nitrate indicate the importance of the talus environment in promoting nitrate flux and the mitigating effect of areas with established vegetation, such as subalpine meadows. Total mineral weathering rates for the basins ranged from about 300 to 600 mol ha-1 year-1. Oligoclase weathering accounted for 30 to 73% of the total mineral weathering flux, and was positively correlated with the amount of old debris (primarily Pleistocene glacial till) in the basins. Although calcite is found in trace amounts in bedrock, calcite weathering accounted for up to 44% of the total mineral weathering flux. Calcite was strongly correlated with steep slope, unvegetated terrain, and young debris - probably because physical weathering in steep-gradient areas exposes fresh mineral surfaces that contain calcite for chemical weathering. Oligoclase and calcite weathering are the dominant sources of alkalinity in the basins. However, atmospherically deposited acids consume much of the

  5. Response of groundwater level and surface-water/groundwater interaction to climate variability: Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tao; Raiber, Matthias; Pagendam, Dan; Gilfedder, Mat; Rassam, David

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the response of groundwater levels in alluvial and sedimentary basin aquifers to climatic variability and human water-resource developments is a key step in many hydrogeological investigations. This study presents an analysis of groundwater response to climate variability from 2000 to 2012 in the Queensland part of the sedimentary Clarence-Moreton Basin, Australia. It contributes to the baseline hydrogeological understanding by identifying the primary groundwater flow pattern, water-level response to climate extremes, and the resulting dynamics of surface-water/groundwater interaction. Groundwater-level measurements from thousands of bores over several decades were analysed using Kriging and nonparametric trend analysis, together with a newly developed three-dimensional geological model. Groundwater-level contours suggest that groundwater flow in the shallow aquifers shows local variations in the close vicinity of streams, notwithstanding general conformance with topographic relief. The trend analysis reveals that climate variability can be quickly reflected in the shallow aquifers of the Clarence-Moreton Basin although the alluvial aquifers have a quicker rainfall response than the sedimentary bedrock formations. The Lockyer Valley alluvium represents the most sensitively responding alluvium in the area, with the highest declining (-0.7 m/year) and ascending (2.1 m/year) Sen's slope rates during and after the drought period, respectively. Different surface-water/groundwater interaction characteristics were observed in different catchments by studying groundwater-level fluctuations along hydrogeologic cross-sections. The findings of this study lay a foundation for future water-resource management in the study area.

  6. Nucleation of Waterfalls at Fault Scarps Temporarily Shielded By Alluvial Fan Aggradation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malatesta, L. C.; Lamb, M. P.

    2014-12-01

    Waterfalls are important components of mountain river systems and they can serve as an agent to transfer tectonic, climatic, or authigenic signals upstream through a catchment. Retreating waterfalls lower the local base level of the adjacent hillslopes, and temporarily increase sediment delivery to the fluvial system. Their creation is often attributed to seismic ruptures, lithological boundaries, or the coalescence of multiple smaller steps. We explore here a mechanism for the nucleation of waterfalls that does not rely on sudden seismic slip but on the build-up of accumulated slip during periods of fault burial by fluvial aggradation. Alluvial fans are common features at the front of mountain ranges bound by normal or thrust faults. Climate change or internal forcing in the mountain catchment modifies the equilibrium slope of alluvial fans. When alluvial fans aggrade, they shield the active fault scarp from fluvial erosion allowing the scarp to grow undisturbed. The scarp may then be exposed when the channel incises into the fan exposing a new bedrock waterfall. We explore this mechanism analytically and using a numerical model for bedrock river incision and sediment deposition. We find that the creation of waterfalls by scarp burial is limited by three distinct timescales: 1) the critical timescale for the scarp to grow to the burial height, 2) the timescale of alluvial re-grading of the fan, and 3) the timescale of the external or internal forcing, such as climate change. The height of the waterfall is controlled by i) the difference in equilibrium alluvial-fan slopes, ii) the ratio of the respective fan and catchment sizes, iii) the catchment wide denudation rate, and iv) the fault slip rate. We test whether an individual waterfall could be produced by alluvial shielding of a scarp, and identify the tectonic, climatic, or authigenic nature of waterfalls using example field sites in the southwest United States.

  7. Ground-water hydrology of the Willamette basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conlon, Terrence D.; Wozniak, Karl C.; Woodcock, Douglas; Herrera, Nora B.; Fisher, Bruce J.; Morgan, David S.; Lee, Karl K.; Hinkle, Stephen R.

    2005-01-01

    The Willamette Basin encompasses a drainage of 12,000 square miles and is home to approximately 70 percent of Oregon's population. Agriculture and population are concentrated in the lowland, a broad, relatively flat area between the Coast and Cascade Ranges. Annual rainfall is high, with about 80 percent of precipitation falling from October through March and less than 5 percent falling in July and August, the peak growing season. Population growth and an increase in cultivation of crops needing irrigation have produced a growing seasonal demand for water. Because many streams are administratively closed to new appropriations in summer, ground water is the most likely source for meeting future water demand. This report describes the current understanding of the regional ground-water flow system, and addresses the effects of ground-water development. This study defines seven regional hydrogeologic units in the Willamette Basin. The highly permeable High Cascade unit consists of young volcanic material found at the surface along the crest of the Cascade Range. Four sedimentary hydrogeologic units fill the lowland between the Cascade and Coast Ranges. Young, highly permeable coarse-grained sediments of the upper sedimentary unit have a limited extent in the floodplains of the major streams and in part of the Portland Basin. Extending over much of the lowland where the upper sedimentary unit does not occur, silts and clays of the Willamette silt unit act as a confining unit. The middle sedimentary unit, consisting of permeable coarse-grained material, occurs beneath the Willamette silt and upper sedimentary units and at the surface as terraces in the lowland. Beneath these units is the lower sedimentary unit, which consists of predominantly fine-grained sediments. In the northern part of the basin, lavas of the Columbia River basalt unit occur at the surface in uplands and beneath the basin-fill sedimentary units. The Columbia River basalt unit contains multiple

  8. Al-khwarizmi: a new-found basin on the lunar far side.

    PubMed

    El-Baz, F

    1973-06-15

    Apollo 16 and Apollo 17 photographs of the far side of the moon reveal a double-ringed basin 500 kilometers in diameter centered at 1 degrees N, 112 degrees E. The structure is very old and subdued; it is probably Pre-Nectarian in age and appears to have been filled and modified by younger events. The heights of the basin's rings are based on laser altimeter data from Apollo missions 15 through 17; these data suggest a third outer ring, approximately 1000 kilometers in diameter. Laser measurements also indicate that the filled basin separates the relatively low terrain on the eastern limb of the moon from the higher, more rugged highlands to the east.

  9. An alluvial record of El Niño events from northern coastal Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Lisa E.

    1987-12-01

    Overbank flood deposits of northern coastal Peru provide the potential for the development of a late Quaternary chronology of El Niño events. Alluvial deposits from the 1982-1983 El Niño event are the basis for establishing a type El Niño deposit. Sedimentary structures suggesting depositional processes range from sheet flows to debris flows, with sheet flood deposits being the most common. The 1982-1983 deposits are characterized by a 50- to 100-cm- thick basal gravel, overlain by a 10- to 100-cm-thick sand bed, grading into a 1- to 10-cm-thick silty sand bed and capped by a very thin layer of silt or clay. The surface of the deposit commonly displays the original shear flow lines crosscut by postdepositional mud cracks and footprints (human and animal). Stacked sequences of flood deposits are present in Pleistocene and Holocene alluvial fill, suggesting that El Niño type events likely occurred throughout the late Quaternary. A relative chronology of the deposits is developed based on terrace and soil stratigraphy and on the degree of preservation of surficial features. A minimum of 15 El Niño events occurred during the Holocene; a minimum of 21 events occurred during the late Pleistocene. Timing of the Holocene events is bracketed by isochrons derived from the archaeologic stratigraphy. Corrected radiocarbon ages from included detrital wood provide the following absolute dates for El Niño events: 1720 ± 60 A.D., 1460 ± 20 A.D., 1380 ± 140 A.D. (error overlaps with the A.D. 1460 event; these may represent a single event), and 1230 ± 60 B.C.

  10. Seismic investigation of the buried horst between the Jornada del Muerto and Mesilla ground-water basins near Las Cruces, Dona Ana County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, D.G.; Myers, R.G.

    1997-01-01

    Six seismic reflection profiles were collected in the vicinity of the Jornada Horst between Goat Mountain and Tortugas Mountain (northeast and east of Las Cruces, New Mexico) to delineate more precisely the geometry of the horst and to determine whether large, buried channels have been incised into the top of the horst. The Jornada fault zone separates the southern Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin from the Mesilla ground-water basin in the Mesilla drainage basin. The upper part of the Jornada Horst is composed of Tertiary volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks; these rocks overlie Permian sedimentary rocks. The horst, in turn, is overlain by unconsolidated sediments of the upper Santa Fe Group. Some test holes indicate that little or no ground water flows from the Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin to the Mesilla ground-water basin over some portions of the horst. However, some ground water flows through the upper Santa Fe Group deposits above some portions of the horst. Ground-water flow immediately east of the horst near U.S. Highway 70 is deflected northward in the southern Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin presumably because of the change from higher hydraulic-conductivity values of aquifer materials in the southern basin to lower hydraulic-conductivity values of materials in the horst. Incised, buried channels, if present on the horst, could be filled with alluvial material with higher hydraulic- conductivity values than those of the material in the horst. Incised, buried channels would allow ground water to readily move from the Jornada del Muerto ground-water basin to the Mesilla ground-water basin. The gross geometry of the horst--eastern extent, constraints on the western extent, and general altitude of the top--was discerned by interpretations of the seismic profiles. The presence or absence of large channels incised into the top of the horst could not be confirmed by these interpretations. However, the seismic interpretations suggest that the

  11. Recharge of valley-fill aquifers in the glaciated northeast from upland runoff

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, J.H.; Morrissey, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Channeled and unchanneled runoff from till-covered bedrock uplands is a major source of recharge to valley-fill aquifers in the glaciated northeastern United States. Streamflow measurements and model simulation of average steady-state conditions indicate that upland runoff accounted for more recharge to two valley-fill aquifers in moderately high topographic-relief settings than did direct infiltration of precipitation. Recharge from upland runoff to a modeled valley-fill aquifer in an area of lower relief was significant but less than that from direct infiltration of precipitation. The amount of upland runoff available for recharging valley-fill aquifers in the glaciated Northeast ranges from about 1.5 to 2.5 cubic feet per second per square mile of drainage area that borders the aquifer. Stream losses from tributaries that drain the uplands commonly range from 0.3 to 1.5 cubic feet per second per 1,000 feet of wetted channel where the tributaries cross alluvial fans in the main valleys. Recharge of valley-fill aquifers from channeled runoff was estimated from measured losses and average runoff rates and was represented in aquifer models as specified fluxes or simulated by head-dependent fluxes with streamflow routing in the model cells that represent the tributary streams. Unchanneled upland runoff, which includes overland and subsurface flow, recharges the valley-fill aquifers at the contact between the aquifer and uplands near the base of the bordering till-covered hillslopes. Recharge from unchanneled runoff was estimated from average runoff rates and the hillslope area that borders the aquifer and was represented as specified fluxes to model-boundary cells along the valley walls.

  12. Late movement of basin-edge lobate scarps on Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegan, E. R.; Rothery, D. A.; Marchi, S.; Massironi, M.; Conway, S. J.; Anand, M.

    2017-05-01

    Basin-edge lobate scarps are a sub-type of tectonic shortening structure on the surface of Mercury that have formed at the edge of volcanic units that fill or partly fill impact basins. We have performed a global survey of these features and find that they are widespread in basins across the planet. We obtained model ages from crater size-frequency distribution analysis for a subset of our surveyed basins, for both the smooth plains infill and for the last resolvable tectonic activity on the associated basin-edge scarps. Our results indicate that some of these lobate scarps were still accumulating strain in the late Mansurian (approximately 1 Ga). From a photogeological assessment, we find that the orientations of these basin-edge lobate scarps are similar to those reported for the global population of lobate scarps in earlier studies, appearing to align ∼north-south at low latitudes and ∼east-west at higher latitudes. However, reassessing these landforms' orientation with artificially illuminated topographic data does not allow us to rule out the effect of illumination bias. We propose that these landforms, the result of crustal shortening in response to global contraction, formed along the interface between the basin floor and the smooth plains unit, which acted as a mechanical discontinuity along which shortening strains were concentrated.

  13. Comment on: Geoarchaeological and chronometrical evidence of early human occupation on Lanzarote (Canary Islands), by Zöller et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carracedo, Juan-Carlos; Meco, Joaquín.; Lomoschitz, Alejandro; Antonia Perera, María.; Ballester, Javier; Betancort, Juan-Francisco

    2004-10-01

    In a recent paper Zöller et al. (2003) present their results of the stratigraphic, sedimentologic, soil mineralogy and IRSL dating of several soil beds filling a basin located near the village of Guatiza, at the eastern flank of the Famara shield, in the island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands). According to these authors, the soils correspond to a desert loess-palaeosol sequence with many coarse alluvial fan deposits, accumulated as scoria cones encircled the open ancient valley extending from SW to NE near Guatiza and their lava flowed to form the Vega de Guatiza endoreic basin. According to these authors, this depression served as a sediment trap from its formation.

  14. Active transtensional intracontinental basins: Walker Lane in the western Great Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jayko, Angela S.; Bursik, Marcus

    2012-01-01

    The geometry and dimensions of sedimentary basins within the Walker Lane are a result of Plio-Pleistocene transtensive deformation and partial detachment of the Sierra Nevada crustal block from the North American plate. Distinct morpho-tectonic domains lie within this active transtensive zone. The northeast end of the Walker Lane is partly buried by active volcanism of the southern Cascades, and adjacent basins are filled or poorly developed. To the south, the basin sizes are moderate, 25–45km × 15–10 km, with narrow 8-12km wide mountain ranges mainly oriented N-S to NNE. These basins form subparallel arrays in discrete zones trending about 300° and have documented clockwise rotation. This is succeeded to the south by a releasing stepover domain ∼85-100km wide, where the basins are elongated E-W to ENE, small (∼15-30km long, 5-15km wide), and locally occupied by active volcanic centers. The southernmost part of the Walker Lane is structurally integrated, with high to extreme relief. Adjacent basins are elongate, 50-200km long and ∼5 -20km wide. Variations in transtensive basin orientations in the Walker Lane are largely attributable to variations in strain partitioning. Large basins in the Walker Lane have 2-6km displacement across basin bounding faults with up to 3 km of clastic accumulation based on gravity and drill hole data. The sedimentary deposits of the basins may include interbedded volcanic deposits with bimodal basaltic and rhyolitic associations. The basins may include lacustrine deposits that record a wide range of water chemistry from cold fresh water conditions to saline-evaporative

  15. Fates of eroded soil organic carbon: Mississippi Basin case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S.V.; Sleezer, R.O.; Renwick, W.H.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a mass balance analysis of organic carbon (OC) across the five major river subsystems of the Mississippi (MS) Basin (an area of 3.2 ?? 106 km2). This largely agricultural landscape undergoes a bulk soil erosion rate of ???480 t??km -2??yr-1 (???1500 ?? 106 t/yr, across the MS Basin), and a soil organic carbon (SOC) erosion rate of ???7 t??km-2??yr-1 (???22 ?? 106 t/yr). Erosion translocates upland SOC to alluvial deposits, water impoundments, and the ocean. Soil erosion is generally considered to be a net source of CO2 release to the atmosphere in global budgets. However, our results indicate that SOC erosion and relocation of soil apparently can reduce the net SOC oxidation rate of the original upland SOC while promoting net replacement of eroded SOC in upland soils that were eroded. Soil erosion at the MS Basin scale is, therefore, a net CO2 sink rather than a source. ?? 2005 by the Ecological Society of America.

  16. Quaternary glacial, lacustrine, and fluvial interactions in the western Noatak basin, Northwest Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, T.D.

    2001-01-01

    The 130 km long Noatak basin is surrounded by mountains of the western Brooks Range. Middle and late Pleistocene glaciers flowing southeast into the basin dammed a succession of proglacial lakes defined by shorelines, outlet channels and upper limits of wave erosion. More than 60 bluffs along the Noatak River and its principal tributaries expose glacial and glaciolacustrine sediments that exhibit cut-and-fill relationships with interglacial and interstadial river-channel and floodplain deposits. This report focuses on the western Noatak basin, where high bluffs created by deep postglacial erosion record four major glacial advances. During the Cutler advance, a floating ice tongue terminated in a large proglacial lake that filled the Noatak basin. The retreating glacier abandoned a trough along the valley center that subsequently filled with about 40m of sediment during several younger glaciations and probably two major interglacial episodes. Alluvium that formed near the beginning of the younger interglaciation contains the 140,000 yr old Old Crow tephra. The subsequent closely spaced Okak and Makpik advances are clearly younger than the maximum of the last interglaciation, but they preceded a middle Wisconsin (36-30 ka) nonglacial interval in the Noatak basin. The Okak advance terminated in an extensive lake, whereas glaciers of the Makpik and the subsequent Anisak advances flowed into much narrower lakes that filled only the basin center. The Anisak advance, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of about 35 and 13.6 ka, represents the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) in the western Noatak basin. Correlations with the oldest and youngest glacial deposits of the central Brooks Range are clear, but relationships to events of intermediate age are more tenuous. Early Pleistocene and older glacial advances from the central Brooks Range must have filled the Noatak basin and overflowed northward through Howard Pass. A younger glacial advance, of inferred middle Pleistoscene

  17. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  18. Experimental Study of Alluvial Fan Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delorme, P.; Devauchelle, O.; Barrier, L.; Métivier, F.

    2015-12-01

    At the outlet of mountain ranges, rivers flow onto flatter lowlands. The associated change of slope causes sediment deposition. As the river is free to move laterally, it builds conical sedimentary structures called alluvial fans. Their location at the interface between erosional and depositional areas makes them valuable sedimentary archives. To decipher these sedimentary records, we need to understand the dynamics of their growth. Most natural fans are built by braided streams. However, to avoid the complexity of braided rivers, we develop a small-scale experiment in which an alluvial fan is formed by a single channel. We use a mixture of water and glycerol to produce a laminar river. The fluid is mixed with corindon sand (~ 300 μm) in a tilted channel and left free to form a fan around its outlet. The sediment and water discharges are constant during an experimental run. We record the fan progradation and the channel morphology with top-view pictures. We also generate an elevation map with an optical method based on the deformation of a moiré pattern. We observe that, to leading order, the fan remains self-affine as it grows, with a constant slope. We compare two recent studies about the formation of one-dimensionnal fan [Guerit et al. 2014] and threshold rivers [Seizilles et al. 2013] to our experimental findings. In particular, we propose a theory witch relates the fan morphology to the control parameters ( fluid and sediment discharges, grain size). Our observation accord with the predictions, suggesting that the fan is built near the threshold of sediment motion. Finally, we intend to expand our interpretation to alluvial fans build by single-thread channels ( Okavango, Bostwana; Taquari and Paraguay, Brasil; Pastaza, Peru).

  19. The Role of Slope in the Fill and Spill Process of Linked Submarine Minibasins. Model Validation and Numerical Runs at Laboratory Scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianon, E.; Viparelli, E.; Cantelli, A.; Imran, J.

    2015-12-01

    Primarily motivated by applications to hydrocarbon exploration, submarine minibasins have been widely studied during recent decades to understand the physical phenomenon that characterizes their fill process. Minibasins were identified in seismic records in the Gulf of Mexico, Angola, Trinidad and Tobago, Ireland, Nigeria and also in outcrops (e.g., Tres Pasos Formation, southern Chile). The filling of minibasis is generally described as the 'fill-and-spill' process, i.e. turbidity currents enter, are reflected on the minibasin flanks, pond and deposit suspended sediment. As the minibasin fills the turbidity current spills on the lowermost zone of the basin flank -spill point - and start filling the next basin downdip. Different versions of this simplified model were used to interpret field and laboratory data but it is still unclear how the minibasin size compared to the magnitude of the turbidity currents, the position of each basin in the system, and the slope of the minibasin system affects the characteristics of the deposit (e.g., geometry, grain size). Here, we conduct a numerical study to investigate how the 'fill-and-spill' model changes with increase in slopes of the minibasin system. First, we validate our numerical results against laboratory experiment performed on two linked minibasins located on a horizontal platform by comparing measured and simulated deposit geometries, suspended sediment concentration profiles and grain sizes. We then perform numerical simulations by increasing the minibasin system slope: deposit and flow characteristics are compared with the case of horizontal platform to identify how the depositional processes change. For the numerical study we used a three-dimensional numerical model of turbidity currents that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for dilute suspensions. Turbulence is modeled by a buoyancy-modified k-ɛ closure. The numerical model has a deforming bottom boundary, to model the changes in the bed

  20. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Seismic Velocities and Thicknesses of Alluvial Deposits along Baker Creek in the Great Basin National Park, East-Central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allander, Kip K.; Berger, David L.

    2009-01-01

    To better understand how proposed large-scale water withdrawals in Snake Valley may affect the water resources and hydrologic processes in the Great Basin National Park, the National Park Service needs to have a better understanding of the relations between streamflow and groundwater flow through alluvium and karst topography of the Pole Canyon Limestone. Information that is critical to understanding these relations is the thickness of alluvial deposits that overlay the Pole Canyon Limestone. In mid-April 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey and National Park Service used seismic refraction along three profiles adjacent to Baker Creek to further refine understanding of the local geology. Two refractors and three distinct velocity layers were detected along two of the profiles and a single refractor and two distinct velocity layers were detected along a third profile. In the unsaturated alluvium, average velocity was 2,000 feet per second, thickness ranged from about 7 to 20 feet along two profiles downstream of the Narrows, and thickness was at least 100 feet along a single profile upstream of the Narrows. Saturated alluvium was only present downstream of the Narrows - average velocity was 4,400 feet per second, and thickness ranged from about 40 to 110 feet. The third layer probably represented Pole Canyon Limestone or Tertiary granitic rock units with an average velocity of 12,500 feet per second. Along the upstream and middle profiles (profiles 3 and 1, respectively), the depth to top of the third layer ranged from at least 60 to 110 feet below land surface and is most likely the Pole Canyon Limestone. The third layer at the farthest downstream profile (profile 2) may be a Tertiary granitic rock unit. Baker Creek is disconnected from the groundwater system along the upstream profile (profile 3) and streamflow losses infiltrate vertically downward to the Pole Canyon Limestone. Along the downstream and middle profiles (profiles 2 and 1, respectively), the presence of

  2. Petroleum prospectivity of the Canada Basin, Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grantz, A.; Hart, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    Reconnaissance seismic reflection data indicate that Canada Basin is a remnant of the Amerasia Basin of the Arctic Ocean that lies south of the Alpha-Mendeleev Large Igneous Province, which was constructed on the northern part of the Amerasia Basin between about 127 and 89-75 Ma. Canada Basin is filled with Early Jurassic to Holocene detritus from the Mackenzie River system, which drains the northern third of interior North America, with sizable contributions from Alaska and Northwest Canada. Except for the absence of a salt- and shale-bearing mobile substrate Canada Basin is analogous to the Mississippi Delta and the western Gulf of Mexico. Canada Basin contains about 7 to >14 km of sediment beneath the Mackenzie Prodelta on the southeast, 6 to 7 km of sediment beneath the abyssal plain on the west, and roughly 5 or 6 million cubic km of sediment. About three fourths of the basin fill generates low amplitude seismic reflections, interpreted to represent hemiplegic deposits, and a fourth of the fill generates interbedded lenses to extensive layers of moderate to high amplitude reflections interpreted to represent unconfined turbidite and amalgamated channel deposits. Extrapolation from Arctic Alaska and Northwest Canada suggests that three fourths of the section in Canada Basin may contain intervals of hydrocarbon source rocks and the apparent age of the basin suggests that it contains three of the six stratigraphic intervals that together provided >90?? of the World's discovered reserves of oil and gas.. Worldwide heat flow averages suggest that about two thirds of Canada Basin lies in the oil or gas window. At least five types of structural or stratigraphic features of local to regional occurrence offer exploration targets in Canada Basin. These consist of 1) a belt of late Eocene to Miocene shale-cored detachment folds containing with at least two anticlines that are capped by beds with bright spots, 2) numerous moderate to high amplitude reflection packets

  3. Depths of channels in the area of the San Juan Basin Regional Uranium Study, New Mexico, Colorado, Arizona, and Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Maurice E.

    1979-01-01

    During December 1977 and January 1978 about 280 measurements were made of the depths of channels (arroyos) more than 6 feet deep in the San Juan Basin area. More than half of the measurements were made at sites where channel depths had been previously measured Between 1964 and 1969. Some channels in the western part of the basin had Been re-measured in 1969 and in 1971. The principal areas Being dissected by arroyos are near highlands along the margins of the Basin and in uplands in the northeastern part of the Basin. The most severe dissection by arroyos and the deepest arroyos--commonly Between 40 and 60 feet deep--are in the southeastern part of the Basin. Dissection By arroyos is least in the central part of the Basin near the Chaco River where most arroyos are less than 10 feet deep. Elsewhere, moderate dissection predominates with most arroyos Between 12 and 40 feet deep. Comparison of measurements made from 1964-71 with those made in 1977-78 shows that more channels in the western San Juan Basin were filling than were downcutting. Downcutting or filling was generally less than 2 feet. About two-fifths of the sites measured showed less than half a foot of downcutting or filling. Maximum downcutting was 4 feet along the Rio San Jose in the southeastern part of the basin. Maximum filling of 7 feet was along the Chaco River at the Chaco Canyon National Monument. Along ii other streams elsewhere in the western part of the basin, channels were filled 3 to 4.5 feet. The few measurements made in the southeastern San Juan Basin indicate that since 1964 downcutting has predominated over filling. Large floods during the summer of 1977 caused some change in channel depths in the southwestern part of the San Juan Basin. Some of the channels appeared to have been filled during the years prior to the cutting that occurred from the 1977 floods. At other places, flood flows aggraded (filled) channels. The rate of erosion and arroyo formation in the entire San Juan Basin is

  4. Volcanic history of the Imbrium basin: A close-up view from the lunar rover Yutu

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinhai; Yang, Wei; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yangting; Fang, Guangyou; Li, Chunlai; Peng, Wenxi; Zhu, Sanyuan; He, Zhiping; Zhou, Bin; Lin, Hongyu; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Enhai; Xu, Yuchen; Wang, Jianyu; Yao, Zhenxing; Zou, Yongliao; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    2015-01-01

    We report the surface exploration by the lunar rover Yutu that landed on the young lava flow in the northeastern part of the Mare Imbrium, which is the largest basin on the nearside of the Moon and is filled with several basalt units estimated to date from 3.5 to 2.0 Ga. The onboard lunar penetrating radar conducted a 114-m-long profile, which measured a thickness of ∼5 m of the lunar regolith layer and detected three underlying basalt units at depths of 195, 215, and 345 m. The radar measurements suggest underestimation of the global lunar regolith thickness by other methods and reveal a vast volume of the last volcano eruption. The in situ spectral reflectance and elemental analysis of the lunar soil at the landing site suggest that the young basalt could be derived from an ilmenite-rich mantle reservoir and then assimilated by 10–20% of the last residual melt of the lunar magma ocean. PMID:25870265

  5. Volcanic history of the Imbrium basin: A close-up view from the lunar rover Yutu.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinhai; Yang, Wei; Hu, Sen; Lin, Yangting; Fang, Guangyou; Li, Chunlai; Peng, Wenxi; Zhu, Sanyuan; He, Zhiping; Zhou, Bin; Lin, Hongyu; Yang, Jianfeng; Liu, Enhai; Xu, Yuchen; Wang, Jianyu; Yao, Zhenxing; Zou, Yongliao; Yan, Jun; Ouyang, Ziyuan

    2015-04-28

    We report the surface exploration by the lunar rover Yutu that landed on the young lava flow in the northeastern part of the Mare Imbrium, which is the largest basin on the nearside of the Moon and is filled with several basalt units estimated to date from 3.5 to 2.0 Ga. The onboard lunar penetrating radar conducted a 114-m-long profile, which measured a thickness of ∼5 m of the lunar regolith layer and detected three underlying basalt units at depths of 195, 215, and 345 m. The radar measurements suggest underestimation of the global lunar regolith thickness by other methods and reveal a vast volume of the last volcano eruption. The in situ spectral reflectance and elemental analysis of the lunar soil at the landing site suggest that the young basalt could be derived from an ilmenite-rich mantle reservoir and then assimilated by 10-20% of the last residual melt of the lunar magma ocean.

  6. Holocene and latest Pleistocene oblique dextral faulting on the southern Inyo Mountains fault, Owens Lake basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacon, S.N.; Jayko, A.S.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Inyo Mountains fault (IMF) is a more or less continuous range-front fault system, with discontinuous late Quaternary activity, at the western base of the Inyo Mountains in Owens Valley, California. The southern section of the IMF trends ???N20??-40?? W for at least 12 km at the base of and within the range front near Keeler in Owens Lake basin. The southern IMF cuts across a relict early Pliocene alluvial fan complex, which has formed shutter ridges and northeast-facing scarps, and which has dextrally offset, well-developed drainages indicating long-term activity. Numerous fault scarps along the mapped trace are northeast-facing, mountain-side down, and developed in both bedrock and younger alluvium, indicating latest Quaternary activity. Latest Quaternary multiple- and single-event scarps that cut alluvium range in height from 0.5 to 3.0 m. The penultimate event on the southern IMF is bracketed between 13,310 and 10,590 cal years B.P., based on radiocarbon dates from faulted alluvium and fissure-fill stratigraphy exposed in a natural wash cut. Evidence of the most recent event is found at many sites along the mapped fault, and, in particular, is seen in an ???0.5-m northeast-facing scarp and several right-stepping en echelon ???0.5-m-deep depressions that pond fine sediment on a younger than 13,310 cal years B.P. alluvial fan. A channel that crosses transverse to this scarp is dextrally offset 2.3 ?? 0.8 m, providing a poorly constrained oblique slip rate of 0.1-0. 3 m/ k.y. The identified tectonic geomorphology and sense of displacement demonstrate that the southern IMF accommodates predominately dextral slip and should be integrated into kinematic fault models of strain distribution in Owens Valley.

  7. Hydrogeologic Framework and Occurrence and Movement of Ground Water in the Upper Humboldt River Basin, Northeastern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plume, Russell W.

    2009-01-01

    The upper Humboldt River basin encompasses 4,364 square miles in northeastern Nevada, and it comprises the headwaters area of the Humboldt River. Nearly all flow of the river originates in this area. The upper Humboldt River basin consists of several structural basins, in places greater than 5,000 feet deep, in which basin-fill deposits of Tertiary and Quaternary age and volcanic rocks of Tertiary age have accumulated. The bedrock of each structural basin and adjacent mountains is composed of carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic age and crystalline rocks of Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Cenozoic age. The permeability of bedrock generally is very low except for carbonate rocks, which can be very permeable where circulating ground water has widened fractures through geologic time. The principal aquifers in the upper Humboldt River basin occur within the water-bearing strata of the extensive older basin-fill deposits and the thinner, younger basin-fill deposits that underlie stream flood plains. Ground water in these aquifers moves from recharge areas along mountain fronts to discharge areas along stream flood plains, the largest of which is the Humboldt River flood plain. The river gains flow from ground-water seepage to its channel from a few miles west of Wells, Nevada, to the west boundary of the study area. Water levels in the upper Humboldt River basin fluctuate annually in response to the spring snowmelt and to the distribution of streamflow diverted for irrigation of crops and meadows. Water levels also have responded to extended periods (several years) of above or below average precipitation. As a result of infiltration from the South Fork Reservoir during the past 20 years, ground-water levels in basin-fill deposits have risen over an area as much as one mile beyond the reservoir and possibly even farther away in Paleozoic bedrock.

  8. Exploring the use of weathering indexes in an alluvial fan chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardenbicker, Ulrike; Watanabe, Makiko; Kotowich, Roberta

    2015-04-01

    Alluvial fan sediments can act as an archive of local environmental history. Two borehole cores (FN 350 cm and AG 850cm) from Holocene alluvial fans located in the Qu'Appelle Valley in southern Saskatchewan were analyzed in order to identify how changes in land use of upland catchment plateaus modified the pattern and rate of sediment delivery to the fan. Due to the lack of material for radiometric dating a chronology of depositional events within the alluvial fans was established by using lithostratigraphy data of soils and sediments. In order to establish a more detailed relative chronology we evaluated if weathering indexes (the Parker Index, the CaO/ZrO2 molar ratio, the Product Index) originally developed for studies of in situ weathering of bedrock, are suitable to assess sediment weathering within alluvial fan sediments. To quantify the degree of weathering within the sediment samples the three indexes of weathering were calculated using the proportions of elements measure by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and there is an inverse relationship between weathering index and sample age. For further statistical analyses the fan sediments were classified into three groups: a sheet flow facies of well sorted silt loam and sandy loam textures, bed load facies characterized by high sand and gravel content and layers with high organic matter in combination with higher clay content indicative of in situ weathering and soil development. First results show that the Product Index may be the most suitable weathering index to indicate weathering or input of less weathered sediment within the sheet flow and bed load facies. In general, the weathering indexes do not take into account complexities of the weathering processes nor the overall environmental conditions in an alluvial fan. But chemical weathering indexes accompanied by geophysical and geo-chemical information have value, especially when the amount of sample material is limited.

  9. Restoration of original 3D sedimentary geometries in deformed basin fill supporting reservoir characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Back, S.

    2009-04-01

    reconstruction ultimately provides a detailed view into the stratal architecture of middle Miocene delta clinoforms, indicating a close relationship between delta-lobe activity, clinoform morphology, and the generation of slumps and turbidites. Literature BACK, S., MORLEY, C.K., SIMMONS, M.D. & LAMBIASE, J.J. (2001): Depositional environment and sequence stratigraphy of Miocene deltaic cycles exposed along the Jerudong anticline, Brunei Darussalam. - Journal of Sedimentary Research, 71: 915-923. BACK, S., TIOE HAK JING, TRAN XUAN THANG & MORLEY, C.K. (2005): Stratigraphic development of synkinematic deposits in a large growth-fault system, onshore Brunei Darussalam. - Journal of the Geological Society, London, 162: 243-258. BACK, S., STROZYK, F., KUKLA, P.A. & LAMBIASE, J.J. (2008): 3D restoration of original sedimentary geometries in deformed basin fill, onshore Brunei Darussalam, NW Borneo. Basin Research, 20: 99-117. MORLEY, C.K., BACK, S., VANRENSBERGEN, P., CREVELLO, P. & LAMBIASE, J.J. (2003): Characteristics of repeated, detached, Miocene -Pliocene tectonic inversion events, in a large delta province on an active margin, Brunei Darussalam, Borneo. - Journal of Structural Geology, 25: 1147-1169.

  10. Bed load tracer mobility in a mixed bedrock/alluvial channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, R. I.; Sharma, B. P.; Hodge, R. A.; Hardy, R. J.; Warburton, J.

    2017-04-01

    The presence of bare or partially covered rock in an otherwise alluvial river implies a downstream change in transport capacity relative to supply. Field investigations of this change and what causes it are lacking. We used two sets of magnet-tagged tracer clasts to investigate bed load transport during the same sequence of floods in fully alluvial, bare rock, and partial-cover reaches of an upland stream. High-flow shear stresses in different reaches were calculated by using stage loggers. Tracers seeded in the upstream alluvial channel moved more slowly than elsewhere until the frontrunners reached bare rock and sped up. Tracers seeded on bare rock moved rapidly off it and accumulated just upstream from, and later in, a partial-cover zone with many boulders. The backwater effect of the boulder-rich zone is significant in reducing tracer mobility. Tracer movement over full or partial sediment cover was size selective but dispersion over bare rock was not. Along-channel changes in tracer mobility are interpreted in terms of measured differences in shear stress and estimated differences in threshold stress.

  11. Sedimentology of the mid-Carboniferous fill of the Olta paleovalley, eastern Paganzo Basin, Argentina: Implications for glaciation and controls on diachronous deglaciation in western Gondwana during the late Paleozoic Ice Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxness, Levi D.; Isbell, John L.; Pauls, Kathryn N.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Schencman, Jazmin

    2018-07-01

    Both global and regional climate drivers contributed to glaciation during the late Paleozoic Ice Age (LPIA). However, the transition from icehouse to greenhouse conditions was asynchronous across Gondwana suggesting that, in some cases, regional controls played a significant role in deglaciation. Of particular interest to understanding changing LPIA climatic conditions, is the eastern Paganzo Basin. This region was flanked by ice centers in the Precordilleran and Sierras Pampeanas regions of Argentina on the west, and major ice sheets in the Paraná, Chaco-Paraná, and Sauce Grande basins to the east, all of which resided between ∼40 and 65° S latitude. Hypotheses on the occurrence of ice in the eastern Paganzo Basin are based on interpretations of the narrow, steep-walled, Olta-Malanzán paleovalley as carved by an alpine glacier or by an outlet glacier draining an eastern ice sheet, and that glaciers deposited coarse clastics within the paleovalley. However, we found no evidence for glaciation. Rather, gravel from prograding alluvial fans/fan deltas and rock falls ponded drainage resulting in lacustrine activity in the eastern end of the valley. A transition from either subaerially or shallow subaqueously deposited sandstones to marine mudstones in the western end of the Olta paleovalley suggest a marine transgression, which, in turn, was overlain by deposits of prograding Gilbert-type deltas. Dropstones were from rock falls off valley walls and rafting by lake ice rather than from icebergs. Therefore, we conclude that the climate in western Argentina resulted from uplift induced glaciation in the Precordilleran region and along the western margin of the Paganzo Basin, and the occurrence of a precipitation shadow to the east. The disappearance of the western glaciers during the mid-Carboniferous, prior to deglaciation elsewhere at the same paleolatitude, resulted from a westward shift in the position of the active margin, collapse of the glaciated upland

  12. Some Cenozoic hydrocarbon basins on the continental shelf of Vietnam

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dien, P.T.

    1994-07-01

    The formation of the East Vietnam Sea basins was related to different geodynamic processes. The pre-Oligocene basement consists of igneous, metamorphic, and metasediment complexes. The Cretaceous-Eocene basement formations are formed by convergence of continents after destruction of the Tethys Ocean. Many Jurassic-Eocene fractured magmatic highs of the Cuulong basin basement constitute important reservoirs that are producing good crude oil. The Paleocene-Eocene formations are characterized by intramountain metamolasses, sometimes interbedded volcanic rocks. Interior structures of the Tertiary basins connect with rifted branches of the widened East Vietnam Sea. Bacbo (Song Hong) basin is predominated by alluvial-rhythmic clastics in high-constructive deltas, whichmore » developed on the rifting and sagging structures of the continental branch. Petroleum plays are constituted from Type III source rocks, clastic reservoirs, and local caprocks. Cuulong basin represents sagging structures and is predominated by fine clastics, with tidal-lagoonal fine sandstone and shalestone in high-destructive deltas that are rich in Type II source rocks. The association of the pre-Cenozoic fractured basement reservoirs and the Oligocene-Miocene clastic reservoir sequences with the Oligocene source rocks and the good caprocks is frequently met in petroleum plays of this basin. Nan Conson basin was formed from complicated structures that are related to spreading of the oceanic branch. This basin is characterized by Oligocene epicontinental fine clastics and Miocene marine carbonates that are rich in Types I, II, and III organic matter. There are both pre-Cenozoic fractured basement reservoirs, Miocene buildup carbonate reservoir rocks and Oligocene-Miocene clastic reservoir sequences, in this basin. Pliocene-Quaternary sediments are sand and mud carbonates in the shelf facies of the East Vietnam Sea back-arc basin. Their great thickness provides good conditions for maturation and

  13. Ichnofossils of the alluvial Willwood Formation (lower Eocene), Bighorn Basin, northwest Wyoming, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bown, T.M.; Kraus, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The ichnofossil assemblage of the lower Eocene Willwood Formation consists of at least nine distinct endichnia that are preserved in full relief. Four forms (three ichnogenera and four ichnospecies) are new and represent fodinichnia and domichnia of oligochaete worms, an insect or spider, an unknown vertebrate (probably a mammal), and domichnia of an unidentified organism. Other potential trace makers of the ichnofauna include insects, mollusks, and decapods. In contrast to an Egyptian Oligocene fluvial ichnofauna produced largely by animals that burrowed in stream channel deposits, the Willwood assemblage is principally of flood-plain origin. Though the ichnofauna occurs in a variety of paleosol types, most of the fossils are restricted in distribution to specific sediment and soil types and, within paleosols, to specific identifiable horizons. This attribute will make them valuable indiced of paleoenvironment once they are better known in other ancient alluvial sequences. The environment suggested by the Willwood trace fossils (damp, but not wet soils with fluctuating water tables) is consistent with the warm temperate to subtropical (possibly monsoonal) conditions that are interpreted for the Willwood Formation by independent evidence of body fossils and paleopedology. ?? 1983.

  14. Chronology of the late Turolian deposits of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain): implications for the Messinian evolution of the eastern Betics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, Miguel; Krijgsman, Wout; Agustí, Jorge

    1998-11-01

    The magnetostratigraphy of the mammal-bearing alluvial fan-fan delta sequences of the Fortuna basin (SE Spain) has yielded an accurate chronology for the late Turolian (Messinian) basin infill. From early to late Messinian (at least between 6.8 and 5.7 Ma), the Fortuna basin records the sedimentation of alluvial-palustrine deposits over a confined shallow basin. Changing environmental conditions in the latest Messinian are illustrated by the retreat of palustrine facies. A rapid progradation of the marginal clastic wedges and the initiation of an efficient basin drainage at ˜5.8 Ma (lower part of chron C3r) most likely represents the onshore response to the drastic drop of base level taking place during the Messinian salinity crisis. This study further provides improved age estimates for the late Turolian land mammal events in southern Spain. The oldest MN 13 locality in the studied sections is correlated to chron C3Ar at an age of 6.8 Ma. The entry of camels and the murid Paraethomys in southern Spain occurs in chron C3An.1n at 6.1 Ma, and gives further support for land mammal exchange between Africa and the Iberian peninsula prior to the salinity crisis, in good agreement with results from northern Africa [M. Benammi, M. Calvo, M. Prévot, J.J. Jaeger, Magnetostratigraphy and paleontology of Aı̈t Kandoula basin (High Atlas, Morocco) and the African-European late Miocene terrestrial fauna exchanges, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 145 (1996) 15-29]. The age of the studied sequences provides important constraints on the understanding of the sedimentary evolution of the eastern Betic margin, and shows that previous interpretations of the evaporitic-diatomitic sequences of the Fortuna basin, as being coeval to the late Messinian salinity crisis in the Mediterranean, are not correct. The confinement leading to the emergence of the Fortuna basin occurred in the late Tortonian to earliest Messinian, similar to other intramontane basins in the Betics. Therefore, the

  15. Analysis of ancient-river systems by 3D seismic time-slice technique: A case study in northeast Malay Basin, offshore Terengganu, Malaysia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Sulaiman, Noorzamzarina; Hamzah, Umar; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim

    2014-09-03

    Fluvial sandstones constitute one of the major clastic petroleum reservoir types in many sedimentary basins around the world. This study is based on the analysis of high-resolution, shallow (seabed to 500 m depth) 3D seismic data which generated three-dimensional (3D) time slices that provide exceptional imaging of the geometry, dimension and temporal and spatial distribution of fluvial channels. The study area is in the northeast of Malay Basin about 280 km to the east of Terengganu offshore. The Malay Basin comprises a thick (> 8 km), rift to post-rift Oligo-Miocene to Pliocene basin-fill. The youngest (Miocene to Pliocene), post-rift successionmore » is dominated by a thick (1–5 km), cyclic succession of coastal plain and coastal deposits, which accumulated in a humid-tropical climatic setting. This study focuses on the Pleistocene to Recent (500 m thick) succession, which comprises a range of seismic facies analysis of the two-dimensional (2D) seismic sections, mainly reflecting changes in fluvial channel style and river architecture. The succession has been divided into four seismic units (Unit S1-S4), bounded by basin-wide strata surfaces. Two types of boundaries have been identified: 1) a boundary that is defined by a regionally-extensive erosion surface at the base of a prominent incised valley (S3 and S4); 2) a sequence boundary that is defined by more weakly-incised, straight and low-sinuosity channels which is interpreted as low-stand alluvial bypass channel systems (S1 and S2). Each unit displays a predictable vertical change of the channel pattern and scale, with wide low-sinuosity channels at the base passing gradationally upwards into narrow high-sinuosity channels at the top. The wide variation in channel style and size is interpreted to be controlled mainly by the sea-level fluctuations on the widely flat Sunda land Platform.« less

  16. Cambrian to Devonian evolution of alluvial systems: The sedimentological impact of the earliest land plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Neil S.; Gibling, Martin R.

    2010-02-01

    In present-day alluvial environments, the impact of vegetation on sedimentological processes and deposits is well known. A vegetated catchment may decrease sediment yield, sediment erodibility, Hortonian overland flow, aeolian winnowing of fines, the proportion of sediment transported as bedload, and may increase bank stability, infiltration into substrates, and bed roughness. Vegetation also promotes the production of chemically-weathered clays and soils and the adoption of a meandering style. It is generally understood that, prior to the evolution of terrestrial vegetation during the Early Palaeozoic, ancient alluvial systems were markedly different from modern systems, with many systems adopting a "sheet-braided" style. This understanding has previously informed the interpretations of many Precambrian pre-vegetation alluvial successions, but there has been relatively little work regarding Early Palaeozoic alluvial successions laid down prior to and during the initial colonization of the Earth's surface by plants. A comprehensive review of 144 Cambrian to Devonian alluvial successions documented in published literature was combined with original field data from 34 alluvial successions across Europe and North America. The study was designed to identify changes in alluvial style during the period that vegetation was evolving and first colonizing alluvial environments. An increase in mudrock proportion and sandstone maturity is apparent, along with a decrease in overall sand grain size through the Early Palaeozoic. These trends suggest that primitive vegetation cover promoted the production and preservation of muds from the mid Ordovician onwards and increased the residence time of sand-grade sediment in alluvial systems. The compilation also enables the first stratigraphic occurrence of certain vegetation-dependent sedimentary features to be pinpointed and related to the evolution of specific palaeobotanical adaptations. The first markedly heterolithic alluvial

  17. Degradation of the Mitchell River fluvial megafan by alluvial gully erosion increased by post-European land use change, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellberg, J. G.; Spencer, J.; Brooks, A. P.; Pietsch, T. J.

    2016-08-01

    Along low gradient rivers in northern Australia, there is widespread gully erosion into unconfined alluvial deposits of active and inactive floodplains. On the Mitchell River fluvial megafan in northern Queensland, river incision and fan-head trenching into Pleistocene and Holocene megafan units with sodic soils created the potential energy for a secondary cycle of erosion. In this study, rates of alluvial gully erosion into incipiently-unstable channel banks and/or pre-existing floodplain features were quantified to assess the influence of land use change following European settlement. Alluvial gully scarp retreat rates were quantified at 18 sites across the megafan using recent GPS surveys and historic air photos, demonstrating rapid increases in gully area of 1.2 to 10 times their 1949 values. Extrapolation of gully area growth trends backward in time suggested that the current widespread phase of gullying initiated between 1880 and 1950, which is post-European settlement. This is supported by young optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dates of gully inset-floodplain deposits, LiDAR terrain analysis, historic explorer accounts of earlier gully types, and archival records of cattle numbers and land management. It is deduced that intense cattle grazing and associated disturbance concentrated in the riparian zones during the dry season promoted gully erosion in the wet season along steep banks, adjacent floodplain hollows and precursor gullies. This is a result of reduced native grass cover, increased physical disturbance of soils, and the concentration of water runoff along cattle tracks, in addition to fire regime modifications, episodic drought, and the establishment of exotic weed and grass species. Geomorphic processes operating over geologic time across the fluvial megafan predisposed the landscape to being pushed by land used change across an intrinsically close geomorphic threshold towards instability. The evolution of these alluvial gullies is discussed

  18. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  19. Geologie study off gravels of the Agua Fria River, Phoenix, AZ

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langer, W.H.; Dewitt, E.; Adams, D.T.; O'Briens, T.

    2010-01-01

    The annual consumption of sand and gravel aggregate in 2006 in the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan area was about 76 Mt (84 million st) (USGS, 2009), or about 18 t (20 st) per capita. Quaternary alluvial deposits in the modern stream channel of the Agua Fria River west of Phoenix are mined and processed to provide some of this aggregate to the greater Phoenix area. The Agua Fria drainage basin (Fig. 1) is characterized by rugged mountains with high elevations and steep stream gradients in the north, and by broad alluvial filled basins separated by elongated faultblock mountain ranges in the south. The Agua Fria River, the basin’s main drainage, flows south from Prescott, AZ and west of Phoenix to the Gila River. The Waddel Dam impounds Lake Pleasant and greatly limits the flow of the Agua Fria River south of the lake. The southern portion of the watershed, south of Lake Pleasant, opens out into a broad valley where the river flows through urban and agricultural lands to its confluence with the Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado River.

  20. Sedimentology and paleoecology of an Eocene Oligocene alluvial lacustrine arid system, Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beraldi-Campesi, Hugo; Cevallos-Ferriz, Sergio R. S.; Centeno-García, Elena; Arenas-Abad, Concepción; Fernández, Luis Pedro

    2006-10-01

    A depositional model of the Eocene-Oligocene Coatzingo Formation in Tepexi de Rodríguez (Puebla, Mexico) is proposed, based on facies analysis of one of the best-preserved sections, the Axamilpa Section. The sedimentary evolution is interpreted as the retrogradation of an alluvial system, followed by the progressive expansion of an alkaline lake system, with deltaic, palustrine, and evaporitic environments. The analysis suggests a change towards more arid conditions with time. Fossils from this region, such as fossil tracks of artiodactyls, aquatic birds and cat-like mammals, suggest that these animals traversed the area, ostracods populated the lake waters, and plants grew on incipient soils and riparian environments many times throughout the history of the basin. The inferred habitat for some fossil plants coincides with the sedimentological interpretation of an arid to semiarid climate for that epoch. This combined sedimentological-paleontological study of the Axamilpa Section provides an environmental context in which fossils can be placed and brings into attention important biotic episodes, like bird and camelid migrations or the origin of endemic but extinct plants in this area.

  1. Evaluating controls on fluvial sand-body clustering in the Ferris Formation (Cretaceous/Paleogene, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajek, E. A.; Heller, P.

    2009-12-01

    A primary goal of sedimentary geologists is to interpret past tectonic, climatic, and eustatic conditions from the stratigraphic record. Stratigraphic changes in alluvial-basin fills are routinely interpreted as the result of past tectonic movements or changes in climate or sea level. Recent physical and numerical models have shown that sedimentary systems can exhibit self-organization on basin-filling time scales, suggesting that structured stratigraphic patterns can form spontaneously rather than as the result of changing boundary conditions. The Ferris Formation (Upper Cretaceous/Paleogene, Hanna Basin, Wyoming) exhibits stratigraphic organization where clusters of closely-spaced channel deposits are separated from other clusters by intervals dominated by overbank material. In order to evaluate the role of basinal controls on deposition and ascertain the potential for self-organization in this ancient deposit, the spatial patterns of key channel properties (including sand-body dimensions, paleoflow depth, maximum clast size, paleocurrent direction, and sediment provenance) are analyzed. Overall the study area lacks strong trends sand-body properties through the stratigraphic succession and in cluster groups. Consequently there is no indication that the stratigraphic pattern observed in the Ferris Formation was driven by systematic changes in climate or tectonics.

  2. A Study of the Connection Among Basin-Fill Aquifers, Carbonate-Rock Aquifers, and Surface-Water Resources in Southern Snake Valley, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The Secretary of the Interior through the Southern Nevada Public Lands Management Act approved funding for research to improve understanding of hydrologic systems that sustain numerous water-dependent ecosystems on Federal lands in Snake Valley, Nevada. Some of the streams and spring-discharge areas in and adjacent to Great Basin National Park have been identified as susceptible to ground-water withdrawals (Elliott and others, 2006) and research has shown a high potential for ground-water flow from southern Spring Valley into southern Snake Valley through carbonate rocks that outcrop along a low topographic divide known as the Limestone Hills (Welch and others, 2007). Comprehensive geologic, hydrologic, and chemical information will be collected and analyzed to assess the hydraulic connection between basin-fill aquifers and surface-water resources, water-dependent ecological features, and the regional carbonate-rock aquifer, the known source of many high-discharge springs. Understanding these connections is important because proposed projects to pump and export ground water from Spring and Snake Valleys in Nevada may result in unintended capture of water currently supplying springs, streams, wetlands, limestone caves, and other biologically sensitive areas (fig. 1). The methods that will be used in this study may be transferable to other areas in the Great Basin. The National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and U.S. Forest Service submitted the proposal for funding this research to facilitate science-based land management. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Resources and Geologic Disciplines, and the University of Nevada, Reno, will accomplish four research elements through comprehensive data collection and analysis that are concentrated in two distinct areas on the eastern and southern flanks of the Snake Range (fig. 2). The projected time line for this research is from July 2008 through September 2011.

  3. Sex Determination of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus) in the Mississippi Alluvial Valley

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Twedt, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    I identified sexual dimorphism in wing length (unflattened chord) of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus ludovicianus) within the central Mississippi Alluvial Valley (northeast Louisiana and west-central Mississippi) and used this difference to assign a sex to captured wrens. Wrens were identified as female when wing length was less than 57.5 mm or male when wing length was greater than 58.5 mm. Verification of predicted sex was obtained from recaptures of banded individuals where sex was ascertained from the presence of a cloacal protuberance or brood patch. Correct prediction of sex was 81% for adult females and 95% for adult males. An alternative model, which categorized wrens with wing lengths of 58 and 59 mm as birds of unknown sex, increased correct prediction of females to 93% but reduced the number of individuals to which sex was assigned. These simple, predictive, wing-length-based models also correctly assigned sex for more than 88% of young (hatching-year) birds.

  4. Principal facts for gravity stations collected in 2010 from White Pine and Lincoln Counties, east-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands on the Colorado River system within the arid Southwestern United States have focused attention on finding new, alternative sources of water. Particular attention is being paid to the eastern Great Basin, where important ground-water systems occur within a regionally extensive sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks and in the Cenozoic basin-fill deposits that occur throughout the region. Geophysical investigations to characterize the geologic framework of aquifers in eastern Nevada and western Utah began in a series of cooperative agreements between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern Nevada Water Authority in 2003. These studies were intended to better understand the formation of basins, define their subsurface shape and depth, and delineate structures that may impede or enhance groundwater flow. We have combined data from gravity stations established during the current study with previously available data to produce an up-to-date isostatic-gravity map of the study area, using a gravity inversion method to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and to estimate alluvial/volcanic fill in the valleys.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework and preliminary simulation of ground-water flow in the Mimbres Basin, southwestern New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hanson, R.T.; McLean, J.S.; Miller, Ryan S.

    1994-01-01

    The bolson-fill aquifer, the major water-yielding unit in the Mimbres Basin, southwestern New Mexico, ranges in thickness from 0 to about 3,700 feet. Recharge to the bolson-fill aquifer occurs by infiltration of ephemeral streams that cross the basin margin, infiltration from precipitation and streamflow, ground-water underflow from adjacent basins, and infiltration of springflow from adjacent bedrock units within the basin. Ground water generally flows southward from the northern highland areas of the basin. Ground-water discharge consists of pumpage from wells, transpiration by plants, outflow to playas and springs in the Los Muertos Basin in Mexico, discharge to the Mimbres River, and ground-water flow to the Mesilla Basin near Mason Draw. Before 1910, ground-water recharge and discharge were approximately equal; by 1975, however, about 75 percent of the 146,000 acre-feet withdrawn annually was ground water, most of it from aquifer storage. The transmissivity of the bolson-fill aquifer determined from aquifer tests and specific-capacity data ranges from 10 to 50,000 feet squared per day. Hydraulic conductivity, calculated from saturated thickness and transmissivity, ranges from 0.03 to 800 feet per day, with median values of about 18 feet per day in the Deming area and 6 feet per day elsewhere. Reported storage-coefficient values representing confined parts of the aquifer range from 0.00036 to 0.0036, and those representing unconfined parts of the aquifer range from 0.02 to 0.24. Water quality in the north and central parts of the Mimbres Basin is suitable for most uses. Due to its large salinity and alkalinity, some of the ground water in the south and southeastern areas of the bolson-fill aquifer may not be suitable for irrigation or domestic use. A preliminary two-dimensional digital model was constructed to evaluate ground-water flow in the bolson-fill aquifer. The model was divided into zones of uniform hydraulic conductivity corresponding to the major

  6. Ground-water resources investigation in the Amran Valley, Yeman Arab Republic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tibbitts, G. Chase; Aubel, James

    1980-01-01

    A program of hydrologic studies and exploratory drilling was conducted intermittently between 1974 and 1978 to evaluate the water-bearing properties of the unconsolidated alluvial sediments and associated rocks in the semi-arid Amran Valley basin, an 800-square-kilometer area in north-central Yemen Arab Republic. Inventory data from 395 wells were compiled, observation well and rain-gage networks were established and 16 standard complete chemical analyses were made for samples from selected wells. The water resources of the area were overexploited. The chemical quality of the water is generally good. Four aquifer tests were run to determine transmissivity and storage characteristics. The pumping tests show that groundwater occurs under semi-confined leaky-aquifer conditions in the valley fill. Wells drilled in the alluvial fill of the south-central part of the valley have the highest yields. Wells penetrating the limestone and volcanic rocks generally have little or no yield except in fracture zones. Basalt flows occur interbedded with the wadi alluvium at several depths. Cropping out rocks in the Amran Valley range in age from late Jurassic to Holocene. (USGS)

  7. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  8. The Problem of Alluvial Fan Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stock, J. D.; Schmidt, K.

    2005-12-01

    Water and debris flows exiting confined valleys have a tendency to deposit sediment on steep fans. On alluvial fans, where water transport predominates, channel slopes tend to decrease downfan from ~0.08 to ~0.01 across wide ranges of climate and tectonism. Some have argued that this pattern reflects downfan grainsize fining so that higher slopes are required just to entrain coarser particles in the waters of the upper fan, while entrainment of finer grains downfan requires lower slopes (threshold hypothesis). An older hypothesis is that slope is adjusted to transport the supplied sediment load, which decreases downfan as deposition occurs (transport hypothesis). We have begun to test these hypotheses using detailed field measurements of hydraulic and sediment variables in sediment transport models. On some fans in the western U.S. we find that alluvial fan channel bankfull depths are largely 0.5-1.5 m at fan heads, decreasing to 0.1-0.2 m at distal margins. Contrary to many previous studies, we find that median gravel diameter does not change systematically along the upper 60- 80% of active fan channels. So downstream gravel fining cannot explain most of the observed channel slope reduction. However, as slope declines, surface sand cover increases systematically downfan from values of <20% above fan heads to distal fan values in excess of 70%. As a result, the threshold for sediment motion might decrease systematically downfan, leading to lower slopes. However, current models of this effect alone tend to underpredict downfan slope changes. This is likely due to off- channel gravel deposition. Calculations that match observed fan long-profiles require an exponential decline in gravel transport rate, so that on some fans approximately half of the load must be deposited off-channel every ~0.25-1.25 km downfan. This leads us to hypothesize that alluvial fan long- profiles are largely statements about the rate of deposition downfan. If so, there may be climatic and

  9. Formation and tectonic evolution of the Pattani Basin, Gulf of Thailand

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bustin, R.M.; Chonchawalit, A.

    The stratigraphic and structural evolution of the Pattani Basin, the most prolific petroleum basin in Thailand, reflects the extensional tectonic regime of continental Southeast Asia. E-W extension resulting from the northward collision of India with Eurasia since the Early Tertiary resulted in the formation of a series of N-S-trending sedimentary basins, which include the Pattani Basin. The sedimentary succession in the Pattani Basin is divisible into synrift and postrift sequences. Deposition of the synrift sequence accompanied rifting and extension, with episodic block faulting and rapid subsidence. The synrift sequence comprises three stratigraphic units: (1) Upper Eocene to Lower Olikgocene alluvial-fan,more » braided-river, and floodplain deposits; (2) Upper oligocene to Lowe Miocene floodplain and channel deposits; and (3) a Lower Miocene regressive package consisting of marine to nonmarine sediments. Post-rift succession comprises: (1) a Lower to Middle Miocene regressive package of shallow marine sediments through floodplain and channel deposits; (2) an upper Lower Miocene transgressive sequence; and (3) and Upper Miocene to Pleistocene transgressive succession. The post-rift phase is characterized by slower subsidence and decreased sediment influx. The present-day shallow-marine condition in the Gulf of Thailand is the continuation of this latest transgressive phase. The subsidence and thermal history of the Pattani Basin is consistent with a nonuniform lithospheric-stretching model. The amount of extension as well as surface heat flow generally increases from the margin to the basin center. The crustal stretching factor ({beta}) varies form 1.3 at the basin margin to 2.8 in the center. The subcrustal stretching factor ({delta}) ranges from 1.3 at the basin margin to more than 3.0 in the basin center. 31 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  10. 100 kyr fluvial cut-and-fill terrace cycles since the Middle Pleistocene in the southern Central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Savi, Sara; Pingel, Heiko; Wickert, Andrew D.; Bookhagen, Bodo; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo N.; Cottle, John; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2017-09-01

    Fluvial fill terraces in intermontane basins are valuable geomorphic archives that can record tectonically and/or climatically driven changes of the Earth-surface process system. However, often the preservation of fill terrace sequences is incomplete and/or they may form far away from their source areas, complicating the identification of causal links between forcing mechanisms and landscape response, especially over multi-millennial timescales. The intermontane Toro Basin in the southern Central Andes exhibits at least five generations of fluvial terraces that have been sculpted into several-hundred-meter-thick Quaternary valley-fill conglomerates. New surface-exposure dating using nine cosmogenic 10Be depth profiles reveals the successive abandonment of these terraces with a 100 kyr cyclicity between 75 ± 7 and 487 ± 34 ka. Depositional ages of the conglomerates, determined by four 26Al/10Be burial samples and U-Pb zircon ages of three intercalated volcanic ash beds, range from 18 ± 141 to 936 ± 170 ka, indicating that there were multiple cut-and-fill episodes. Although the initial onset of aggradation at ∼1 Ma and the overall net incision since ca. 500 ka can be linked to tectonic processes at the narrow basin outlet, the superimposed 100 kyr cycles of aggradation and incision are best explained by eccentricity-driven climate change. Within these cycles, the onset of river incision can be correlated with global cold periods and enhanced humid phases recorded in paleoclimate archives on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano, whereas deposition occurred mainly during more arid phases on the Altiplano and global interglacial periods. We suggest that enhanced runoff during global cold phases - due to increased regional precipitation rates, reduced evapotranspiration, or both - resulted in an increased sediment-transport capacity in the Toro Basin, which outweighed any possible increases in upstream sediment supply and thus triggered incision. Compared with two

  11. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  12. Effects of hydraulic and geologic factors on streamflow of the Yakima River Basin, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinnison, Hallard B.; Sceva, Jack E.

    1963-01-01

    The Yakima River basin, in south-central Washington, is the largest single river system entirely within the confines of the State. Its waters are the most extensively utilized of all the rivers in Washington. The river heads high on the eastern slope of the Cascade Mountains, flows for 180 miles in a generally southeast direction, and discharges into the Columbia River. The western part of the basin is a mountainous area formed by sedimentary, volcanic, and metamorphic rocks, which generally have a low capacity for storing and transmitting water. The eastern part of the basin is. formed by a thick sequence of lava flows that have folded into long ridges and troughs. Downwarped structural basins between many of the ridges are partly filled with younger sedimentary deposits, which at some places are many hundreds of feet thick. The Yakima River flows from structural basin to structural basin through narrow water gaps that have been eroded through the anticlinal ridges. Each basin is also a topographic basin and a ground-water subbasin. A gaging station will measure the total outflow of a drainage area only if it is located at the surface outlet of a ground-water subbasin and then only if the stream basin is nearly coextensive with the ground-water subbasin. Many gaging stations in the Yakima basin are so located. The geology, hydrology, size. and location of 25 ground-water subbasins are described. Since the settlement of the valley began, the development of the land and water resources have caused progressive changes in the natural regimen of the basin's runoff. These changes have resulted from diversion of water from the streams, the application of water on the land for irrigation, the storage and release of flood waters, the pumping of ground water, and other factors Irrigation in the Yakima basin is reported 'to have begun about 1864. In 1955 about 425,000 acres were under irrigation. During the past 60-odd years many gaging stations have been operated at

  13. Characterizing the spatiotemporal variability of groundwater levels of alluvial aquifers in different settings using drought indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haas, Johannes Christoph; Birk, Steffen

    2017-05-01

    To improve the understanding of how aquifers in different alluvial settings respond to extreme events in a changing environment, we analyze standardized time series of groundwater levels (Standardized Groundwater level Index - SGI), precipitation (Standardized Precipitation Index - SPI), and river stages of three subregions within the catchment of the river Mur (Austria). Using correlation matrices, differences and similarities between the subregions, ranging from the Alpine upstream part of the catchment to its shallow foreland basin, are identified and visualized. Generally, river stages exhibit the highest correlations with groundwater levels, frequently affecting not only the wells closest to the river, but also more distant parts of the alluvial aquifer. As a result, human impacts on the river are transferred to the aquifer, thus affecting the behavior of groundwater levels. Hence, to avoid misinterpretation of groundwater levels in this type of setting, it is important to account for the river and human impacts on it. While the river is a controlling factor in all of the subregions, an influence of precipitation is evident too. Except for deep wells found in an upstream Alpine basin, groundwater levels show the highest correlation with a precipitation accumulation period of 6 months (SPI6). The correlation in the foreland is generally higher than that in the Alpine subregions, thus corresponding to a trend from deeper wells in the Alpine parts of the catchment towards more shallow wells in the foreland. Extreme events are found to affect the aquifer in different ways. As shown with the well-known European 2003 drought and the local 2009 floods, correlations are reduced under flood conditions, but increased under drought. Thus, precipitation, groundwater levels and river stages tend to exhibit uniform behavior under drought conditions, whereas they may show irregular behavior during floods. Similarly, correlations are found to be weaker in years with little

  14. MAP OF ECOREGIONS OF THE MISSISSIPPI ALLUVIAL PLAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ecoregions of The Mississippi Alluvial Plain (73) have been identified, mapped, and described and provide a geographic structure for environmental resources research, assessment, monitoring, and management. This project is part of a larger effort by the U.S. EPA to create a ...

  15. A refined characterization of the alluvial geology of yucca flat and its effect on bulk hydraulic conductivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.A.; Halford, K.J.

    2011-01-01

    In Yucca Flat, on the Nevada National Security Site in southern Nevada, the migration of radionuclides from tests located in the alluvial deposits into the Paleozoic carbonate aquifer involves passage through a thick, heterogeneous section of late Tertiary and Quaternary alluvial sediments. An understanding of the lateral and vertical changes in the material properties of the alluvial sediments will aid in the further development of the hydrogeologic framework and the delineation of hydrostratigraphic units and hydraulic properties required for simulating groundwater flow in the Yucca Flat area. Previously published geologic models for the alluvial sediments within Yucca Flat are based on extensive examination and categorization of drill-hole data, combined with a simple, data-driven interpolation scheme. The U.S. Geological Survey, in collaboration with Stanford University, is researching improvements to the modeling of the alluvial section, incorporating prior knowledge of geologic structure into the interpolation method and estimating the uncertainty of the modeled hydrogeologic units.

  16. Historical Ground-Water Development in the Salinas Alluvial Fan Area, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 1900-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.; Gómez-Gómez, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    The Salinas alluvial fan area has historically been one of the most intensively used agricultural areas in the South Coastal Plain of Puerto Rico. Changes in agricultural practices and land use in the Salinas alluvial fan have also caused changes in the geographic distribution of ground-water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer. As a result, the ground-water balance and ground-water flow pattern have changed throughout the years and may explain the presence of saline ground water along parts of the coast at present. By providing a reconstruction of historical ground-water development in the Salinas alluvial fan area, from the initial years of aquifer development at about 1900 to the most recent conditions existing in 2005, water resources managers and planners can use the results of the analysis for a more complete understanding of aquifer conditions especially pertaining to water quality. This study effort was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Puerto Rico Department of Natural and Environmental Resources as a contribution in the management of the Jobos Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve. The study area encompasses about 20 mi2 (square miles) of the extensive South Coastal Plain alluvial aquifer system (fig. 1). The study area is bounded to the north by foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain chain, to the south by the Caribbean Sea, and to the east and west by the Rio Nigua de Salinas and the Quebrada Aguas Verdes, respectively. Fan-delta and alluvial deposits contain the principal aquifers in the study area.

  17. Earthquake geology of Kashmir Basin and its implications for future large earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, A. A.

    2013-09-01

    Two major traces of active thrust faults were identified in the Kashmir Basin (KB) using satellite images and by mapping active geomorphic features. The ~N130°E strike of the mapped thrust faults is consistent with the regional ~NE-SW convergence along the Indian-Eurasian collision zone. The ~NE dipping thrust faults have uplifted the young alluvial fan surfaces at the SW side of the KB. This created a major tectono-geomorphic boundary along the entire strike length of the KB that is characterised by (1) a low relief with sediment-filled sluggish streams to the SE and (2) an uplifted region, with actively flowing streams to the SW. The overall tectono-geomorphic expression suggests that recent activity along these faults has tilted the entire Kashmir valley towards NE. Further, the Mw 7.6 earthquake, which struck Northern Pakistan and Kashmir on 8 October 2005, also suggests a similar strike and NE dipping fault plane, which could indicate that the KB fault is continuous over a distance of ~210 km and connects on the west with the Balakot Bagh fault. However, the geomorphic and the structural evidences of such a structure are not very apparent on the north-west, which thus suggest that it is not a contiguous structure with the Balakot Bagh fault. Therefore, it is more likely that the KB fault is an independent thrust, a possible ramp on the Main Himalayan Thrust, which has uplifting the SW portion of the KB and drowning everything to the NE (e.g. Madden et al. 2011). Furthermore, it seems very likely that the KB fault could be a right stepping segment of the Balakot Bagh fault, similar to Riasi Thrust, as proposed by Thakur et al. (2010). The earthquake magnitude is measured by estimating the fault rupture parameters (e.g. Wells and Coppersmith in Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994). Therefore, the total strike length of the mapped KB fault is ~120 km and by assuming a dip of 29° (Avouac et al. in Earth Planet Sci Lett 249:514-528, 2006) and a down-dip limit

  18. The Shape of Trail Canyon Alluvial Fan, Death Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farr, Tom G.; Dohrenwend, John C.

    1993-01-01

    A modified conic equation has been fit to high-resolution digital topographic data for Trail Canyon alluvial fan in Death Valley, California. Fits were accomplished for 3 individual fan units of different age.

  19. Petroleum potential of the Reggane Basin, Algeria

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Boudjema, A.; Hamel, M.; Mohamedi, A.

    1990-05-01

    The intracratonic Reggane basin is located on the Saharan platform, southwest of Algeria. The basin covers an area of approximately 140,000 km{sup 2}, extending between the Eglab shield in the south and the Ougarta ranges in the north. Although exploration started in the early 1950s, only a few wells were drilled in this basin. Gas was discovered with a number of oil shows. The sedimentary fill, mainly Paleozoic shales and sandstones, has a thickness exceeding 5,000 m in the central part of the basin. The reservoirs are Cambrian-Ordovician, Siegenian, Emsian, Tournaisian, and Visean sandstones with prospective petrophysical characteristics. Silurian Uppermore » Devonian and, to a lesser extent Carboniferous shales are the main source rocks. An integrated study was done to assess the hydrocarbon potential of this basin. Tectonic evolution source rocks and reservoirs distribution maturation analyses followed by kinetic modeling, and hydrogeological conditions were studied. Results indicate that gas accumulations could be expected in the central and deeper part of the basin, and oil reservoirs could be discovered on the basin edge.« less

  20. Ground-Water Occurrence and Movement, 2006, and Water-Level Changes in the Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins, Mohave County, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anning, David W.; Truini, Margot; Flynn, Marilyn E.; Remick, William H.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water levels for water year 2006 and their change over time in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins of northwestern Arizona were investigated to improve the understanding of current and past ground-water conditions in these basins. The potentiometric surface for ground water in the Basin-Fill aquifer of each basin is generally parallel to topography. Consequently, ground-water movement is generally from the mountain front toward the basin center and then along the basin axis toward the Colorado River or Lake Mead. Observed water levels in Detrital, Hualapai, and Sacramento Valley Basins have fluctuated during the period of historic water-level records (1943 through 2006). In Detrital Valley Basin, water levels in monitored areas have either remained the same, or have steadily increased as much as 3.5 feet since the 1980s. Similar steady conditions or water-level rises were observed for much of the northern and central parts of Hualapai Valley Basin. During the period of historic record, steady water-level declines as large as 60 feet were found in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in areas near Kingman, northwest of Hackberry, and northeast of Dolan Springs within the Hualapai Valley Basin. Within the Sacramento Valley Basin, during the period of historic record, water-level declines as large as 55 feet were observed in wells penetrating the Basin-Fill aquifer in the Kingman and Golden Valley areas; whereas small, steady rises were observed in Yucca and in the Dutch Flat area.

  1. Mars analogue alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system, Island of Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, A. M.; Craddock, R. A.

    2016-12-01

    Alluvial fans across the martian surface act as a testament to the planet's wetter past, but the magnitude and duration of runoff events and their formative environment remain poorly constrained. Here we describe the geomorphology and interpreted formative sedimentary processes of a series of coarse grained alluvial fans along the Hilina Pali fault system at the south end of the Island of Hawaíi. The Hilina Pali is a 500m fault scarp similar in slope to the interior of a crater rim, the preferential location for fan formation on Mars. Channels feeding the fans drain the Káū Desert on the leeward side of the Kilauea volcano. These channels take advantage of lava tubes and depressions in lava flows, and subsequent lava flows preferentially flow within channels. This creates a complicated stratigraphy that is difficult to interpret solely from remote sensing data. From measured channel cross sections and woody debris we calculate feeder channel discharges of 1.6-11.4 m3/s, implying runoff production rates of up to 4cm/hour. This value is in the range of rainfall that can be delivered during large cold core winter cyclones, locally known as `Kona storms', which can generate precipitation in excess of 1m/24h. While fluid is sourced from a broad area throughout the southern Káū Desert, interpolation-derived volumes of the fans and eroded alcoves above the fans suggest that fan sediment primarily is sourced directly from edge of the pali itself. We find that similar to fans on Mars, the Hilina Pali fans are relatively large relative to their contributing basin areas. However, the Hawaiian fans vary widely in their individual relations between area, slope, and grain size. We hypothesize this is due to variations in fine grained sediment supply. The fines required for increased suspension during debris flows are sourced from sand dunes and sand sheets consisting of volcanic tephra located several hundred meters north of the pali, and these dunes are unevenly

  2. Facies analysis, palaeoenvironmental reconstruction and stratigraphic development of the Early Cretaceous sediments (Lower Bima Member) in the Yola Sub-basin, Northern Benue Trough, NE Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarki Yandoka, Babangida M.; Abubakar, M. B.; Abdullah, Wan Hasiah; Amir Hassan, M. H.; Adamu, Bappah U.; Jitong, John S.; Aliyu, Abdulkarim H.; Adegoke, Adebanji Kayode

    2014-08-01

    The Benue Trough of Nigeria is a major rift basin formed from the tension generated by the separation of African and South American plates in the Early Cretaceous. It is geographically sub-divided into Southern, Central and Northern Benue portions. The Northern Benue Trough comprises two sub-basins; the N-S trending Gongola Sub-basin and the E-W trending Yola Sub-basin. The Bima Formation is the oldest lithogenetic unit occupying the base of the Cretaceous successions in the Northern Benue Trough. It is differentiated into three members; the Lower Bima (B1), the Middle Bima (B2) and the Upper Bima (B3). Facies and their stratigraphical distribution analyses were conducted on the Lower Bima Member exposed mainly at the core of the NE-SW axially trending Lamurde Anticline in the Yola Sub-basin, with an objective to interpret the paleodepositional environments, and to reconstruct the depositional model and the stratigraphical architecture. Ten (10) lithofacies were identified on the basis of lithology, grain size, sedimentary structures and paleocurrent analysis. The facies constitute three (3) major facies associations; the gravelly dominated, the sandy dominated and the fine grain dominated. These facies and facies associations were interpreted and three facies successions were recognized; the alluvial-proximal braided river, the braided river and the lacustrine-marginal lacustrine. The stratigraphic architecture indicates a rifted (?pull-apart) origin as the facies distribution shows a progradational succession from a shallow lacustrine/marginal lacustrine (at the axial part of the basin) to alluvial fan (sediment gravity flow)-proximal braided river (gravel bed braided river) and braided river (channel and overbank) depositional systems. The facies stacking patterns depict sedimentation mainly controlled by allogenic factors of climate and tectonism.

  3. Sediment Budgeting in Dam-Affected Rivers: Assessing the Influence of Damming, Tributaries, and Alluvial Valley Sediment Storage on Sediment Regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, A. C.; Dekker, F. J.; Riebe, C. S.

    2014-12-01

    Although sediment supply is recognized as a fundamental driver of fluvial processes, measuring how dams affect sediment regimes and incorporating such knowledge into management strategies remains challenging. To determine the influences of damming, tributary supply, and valley morphology and sediment storage on downstream sediment supply in a dryland river, the Bill Williams River (BWR) in western Arizona, we measured basin erosion rates using cosmogenic nuclide analysis of beryllium-10 (10Be) at sites upstream and downstream of a dam along the BWR, as well as from tributaries downstream of the dam. Riverbed sediment mixing calculations were used to test if the dam, which blocks sediment supply from the upper 85% of the basin's drainage area, increases the proportion of tributary sediment to residual upstream sediment in mainstem samples downstream of the dam. Erosion rates in the BWR watershed are more than twice as large in the upper catchment (136 t km-2 yr-1) than in tributaries downstream of Alamo Dam (61 t km-2 yr-1). Tributaries downstream of the dam have little influence on mainstem sediment dynamics. The effect of the dam on reducing sediment supply is limited, however, because of the presence of large alluvial valleys along the mainstem BWR downstream of the dam that store substantial sediment and mitigate supply reductions from the upper watershed. These inferences, from our 10Be derived erosion rates and mixing calculations, are consistent with field observations of downstream changes in bed material size, which suggest that sediment-deficit conditions are restricted to a 10 km reach downstream of the dam, and limited reservoir bathymetry data. Many studies have suggested that tributary sediment inputs downstream of dams play a key role in mitigating dam-induced sediment deficits, but here we show that in a dryland river with ephemeral tributaries, sediment stored in alluvial valleys can also play a key role and in some cases trumps the role of

  4. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-14

    STS040-614-061 (5-14 June 1991) --- Albuquerque, New Mexico is perched on the edge of the Rio Grande floodplain, which crosses the photograph from upper left to center lower right. The reddish-brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin, a fault-bounded structural basin filled by alluvial fan and lake-bed sediments, is broken by an irregular light-toned rim River along both the Rio Grande and Rio Puerco (lower left). The rim marks the erosional edge of an ancient caliche soil that formed more than a half-million years ago, before the Rio Grande integrated its drainage from basin to basin. The upper right portion of the photograph is dominated by dark tones, representing pinyon/juniper and other timber growing on very old rocks of the Sandia Mountains. Interstate 40 can be seen passing through Sandia Pass which cuts the mountain mass.

  5. Alluvial Scrub Vegetation in Coastal Southern California

    Treesearch

    Ted L. Hanes; Richard D. Friesen; Kathy Keane

    1989-01-01

    Certain floodplain systems in southern California sustain a unique scrub vegetation rather than riparian woodlands due to a lack of perennial water. Alluvial scrub occurs on outwash fans and riverine deposits along the coastal side of major mountains of southern California. This vegetation type is adapted to severe floods and erosion, nutrient-poor substrates, and the...

  6. Active tectonics of the southeastern Upper Rhine Graben, Freiburg area (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivière, B.; Bruestle, A.; Bertrand, G.; Carretier, S.; Behrmann, J.; Gourry, J.-C.

    2008-03-01

    The Upper Rhine Graben has two Plio-Quaternary depocentres usually interpreted as resulting from tectonic reactivation. The southern basin, near Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany), contains up to 250 m of sediments. Beneath the younger alluvial deposits related to the current drainage system, a former river network deeply entrenched in the substratum reveals a very low regional base level of early Pleistocene age. The offset of channels at faults allows us to infer a Pleistocene reactivation of the syn-rift fault pattern and the estimation of slip rates. Maximum vertical movements along the faults have not exceeded 0.1 mm/yr since the middle Pleistocene. Current activity is concentrated along the westernmost faults. Morphologic markers indicate late Pleistocene reactivation of the Rhine River fault, and geophysical prospecting suggests a near-surface offset of young sedimentary deposits. The size of the fault segments potentially reactivated suggests that earthquakes with magnitude larger than Mw=6.3 could be expected in the area with a return interval of about 8000 years. Extrapolated to the duration of the Plio-Pleistocene, the strain rate estimates reveal that the tectonic forcing may account for only one-third to one-half of the whole thickness of the Plio-Pleistocene sediments of the basin fill. Thus other processes must be invoked to understand the growth of the Plio-Pleistocene basin. Especially the piracy of the Rhine River to the north during the early Pleistocene could explain these effects.

  7. Volcanic and Tectonic Evolution of The Gulf of California Near Mulege, Baja California Sur: Results From Baja Basins NSF-REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, S. J.; Allard, J.; Acuna, N.; Graettinger, A. H.; Busby, C.

    2017-12-01

    Cenozoic volcanic rocks have been studied along many parts of the Gulf of California margin of Baja California because they provide a record of its volcano-tectonic evolution, from subduction (24-12 Ma), to rifting (<12 Ma). The 2015-2016 Baja Basins REU studied volcanic rocks around the Boleo basin, and used geochemistry and 40Ar/39AR geochronology to recognize a ca. 10-14 Ma calcalkaline subduction assemblage, and a 6.1 Ma magnesian andesite assemblage inferred to be related to the Boleo stratiform Cu-Co-Zn sulfides. However, volcanic rocks in a 5,000 km2 region between Santa Rosalia and Mulegé remain largely undivided. The 2017 volcanology group mapped a 390 km2 area inland from Mulegé. Geologic results are described here, while geochemical data used to divide the volcanic rocks into suites are described in an accompanying abstract1. We infer the following sequence of events: (1) A half graben filled with a >820 m thick red bed sequence, sourced to the east by andesitic volcanic rocks eroded from the footwall of a west-dipping normal fault. Proximal alluvial fan bajada deposits are debris-flow dominated, with angular clasts up to 1.3 m in size. Distal braided stream deposits have sandstones and cobble conglomerates, with abundant cut and fill structures and rounded clasts. Adakite trachyandesite block-and-ash-flow tuffs are interstratified with the proximal deposits, representing pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of lava domes plumbed up the basin-bounding fault to the east. (2) The redbeds were cut by a dike swarm that fed a field of lava shield volcanoes. The dikes and lava shields include calcalkaline basaltic andesite, andesite and dacite, as well as magnesian trachyandesite and basaltic andesite. (3) A N-S, subvertical fault stepped into the basin and dropped the lava shields down to the east, while they were eroded off the uplifted footwall to the west. (4) The footwall block was beveled and overlain by plateau-forming magnesian basaltic

  8. An evaluation of the results of alluvial groundwater sampling from 1987--1990 at the Durango disposal site

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This evaluation was conducted to determine if surface discharges of contaminated water from a retention pond and seepage of tailings pore water from the disposal cell have affected ground I water quality in the alluvial deposits east and northeast of the Bodo Canyon disposal cell. The question of whether corrective remedial action is needed for the alluvial groundwater downgradient of the disposal cell is also addressed. Maximum observed concentrations of seven hazardous constituents equalled or exceeded proposed US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum concentration limits (MCLs) in the alluvial groundwater downgradient of the disposal cell. These constituents include chromium, lead,more » molybdenum, net gross alpha, radium-226 and -228, selenium, and uranium. Concentrations greater than MCLs for molybdenum, net gross alpha, and radium-226 and -228 may be naturally occurring in the alluvial groundwater. There is no statistical evidence that these hazardous constituents are groundwater contaminants with concentrations that exceed the MCLs in alluvial groundwater. However, the median selenium concentration in monitor well 608 exceeds the MCL. Therefore, selenium contamination in the alluvial groundwater in the area of monitor well 608 is possible. Selenium concentrations show no definite increasing or decreasing trend. Since groundwater contamination by selenium is possible in one monitor well, but concentrations are not increasing, corrective action is not warranted at this time. Alluvial groundwater quality will continue to be monitored quarterly and the discharge from the retention pond should be sampled after treatment to ascertain its potential affects on groundwater quality.« less

  9. How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit

    2014-02-01

    Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when

  10. Surface-water hydrology of the Little Black River basin, Missouri and Arkansas, before water-land improvement practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berkas, W.R.; Femmer, Suzanne R.; Mesko, T.O.; Thompson, B.W.

    1987-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in accordance with Public Law 566, is implementing various types of water-land improvement practices in the Little Black River basin in southeastern Missouri. These practices are designed, in part, to decrease the suspended sediment (SS) transport in the basin, decrease flood damage in the basin, and improve drainage in the agricultural area. The general features of the basin, such as geology, groundwater hydrology, soils, land use, water use, and precipitation are described; surface water quantity, quality, and suspended sediment discharge are also described. The aquifers are the Mississippi River valley alluvial aquifer, which can yield about 3,500 gal/min to properly constructed wells, and the Ozark and St. Francois aquifers, which can yield from about 30 to 500 gal/min to properly constructed wells. Soils in the area have formed in loess and cherty residuum in the uplands or have formed in alluvial sediment in the lowlands. About 93% of the estimated 3 billion gal/year of water used in the basin is for crop irrigation. The average monthly precipitation varies slightly throughout the year, with an average annual precipitation of about 47 inches. Water quality data were collected at seven stations. Specific conductance values ranged from 50 to 400 microsiemens/cm at 25 C. Water temperatures ranged from 0.0 C in the winter to 33.5 C in summer. pH values ranged from 6.4 to 8.5 units. Dissolved oxygen concentrations ranged from 2.2 to 12.8 ml/l. Total nitrogen concentrations ranged from 0.13 to 2.20 ml/l as nitrogen, with organic nitrogen as the most abundant form. Phosphorus concentrations ranged from zero to 0.29 ml/l as phosphorus. Bacterial counts were largest during storm runoff in the basin with livestock waste as the significant contributor. For the period from October 1, 1980, to September 30, 1984, the average annual SS discharge ranged from 2,230 tons/yr in the headwater areas to 27,800 tons

  11. Application of Basin Morphometry Laws in catchments of the south-western quadrangle of south-eastern Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisuebeogun, A. O.; Ezekwe, I. C.

    2013-09-01

    The relationship between process and form has been at the core of research in fluvial geomorphology. Form-process relationships of a natural river basin are strongly influenced by its hydrologic and sedimentologic processes as basin morphometric properties of length, shape, and relief, change in response to various hydrologic stimuli from the environment, but usually in line with well established laws. In the four river basins (Orashi, Otamiri, Sombreiro, New Calabar) examined in this study, however, empirical evidence does not conform neatly with theoretical postulates. Remarkable variations are noted in the morphometric properties of the catchments, when compared with established morphometric laws. The most varied in conformity are the Orashi and New Calabar basins, although the Sombreiro and Otamiri catchments also show some level of variation. Prime explanation for the morphometric and topographic non-conformity is caused by the nature of surficial material and the profoundly shallow relief of much of the study area, especially the alluvial flood and deltaic plains to the south and south-west of the study area.

  12. Restoration and evolution of the intermontane Indus molasse basin, Ladakh Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searle, M. P.; Pickering, K. T.; Cooper, D. J. W.

    1990-03-01

    Collision of the Indian Plate with the Karakorum Plate-Lhasa Block during the Eocene (ca. 55-50 Ma) created predominantly a S- or SW-verging thrust culmination across the Himalaya. During the late Tertiary, two molasse basins existed — the Siwalik Bain, formed in the late Miocene to Present on the Indian foreland south of the Himalaya, and the mid-Eocene to late Miocene Indus Basin along the Indus Suture Zone north of the High Himalaya. The Indus Basin is approximately 2000 km long, extending eastwards from Ladakh across South Tibet. A balanced cross-section along the Zanskar River shows a minimum 36 km shortening in the Eocene-?late Miocene molasse, and suggests that the minimum basin width was approximately 60 km in Ladakh. More than 2000 m of post-Eocene alluvial fan, fluvial and fluvio-lacustrine sediments accumulated in the Ladakh sector with petrographies suggesting derivation mainly from the deeply dissected and uplifted northern granodioritic Ladakh batholith (Aptian-Eocene), with only minor amounts of debris derived from the deformed southern Tethyan passive margin. Palaeocurrents show predominant E-W, axis-parallel, sediment transport, with subordinate lateral input paths being preserved. The Indus molasse basin is deformed by numerous, post-Eocene, N-directed backthrusts, many of which cut the entire stratigraphy and, therefore, were active at least into late Tertiary times.

  13. Pleistocene alterations of drainage network between the Alps and the Pannonian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovács, G.

    2012-04-01

    markers (wide alluvial valleys with relatively small streams, terrace levels and wind gaps) and the different height of the scarps we roughly elaborated the geomorphological development of the area, including relative age of drainage network elements, tectonic features and river captures. Results indicate a detailed but still regionally dissected timeline about drainage network alterations, including phases of gravel sedimentation, incision and beheadings. The abstract titled "Pleistocene alteration of drainage network and surface morphology caused by basement structure in the foreland of Eastern Alps" determine the origin of the investigated scarps. This paper was supported by Hungarian Scientific Research Fund (OTKA NK83400). Joó, I. (1992): Recent vertical surface movements in the Carpathian Basin. Tectonophysics 202: 129-134. Kovács, G., Telbisz, T., Székely, B. (2010) Faulted and eroded gravel deposit in western Hungary. - Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 12. EGU General Assembly 2010. Kovács, G., Telbisz, T., Székely, B. (2011) Quaternary alterations of drainage network in a transition area between the Alps and the Pannonian Basin. - Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol. 13. EGU General Assembly 2011. Tari, G. and Horváth, F. (1995): Middle Miocene extensional collapse in the Alpine-Pannonian transitional zone, in: Horváth, F., Tari, G., and Bokor, K. (Eds.): Extensional collapse of the Alpine orogene and hydrocarbon prospects in the basement and fill of the western Pannonian Basin, AAPG Inter. Conf. and Exhib., Nice, France, Guidebook to fieldtrip No. 6, 75-105

  14. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of groundwater flow in the central Virgin River Basin of Iron and Washington Counties, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Freethey, G.W.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Stolp, B.J.; Wilberg, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Because rapid growth of communities in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, is expected to cause an increase in the future demand for water resources, a hydrologic investigation was done to better understand ground-water resources within the central Virgin River basin. This study focused on two of the principal ground-water reservoirs within the basin: the upper Ash Creek basin ground-water system and the Navajo and Kayenta aquifer system.The ground-water system of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin consists of three aquifers: the uppermost Quaternary basin-fill aquifer, the Tertiary alluvial-fan aquifer, and the Tertiary Pine Valley monzonite aquifer. These aquifers are naturally bounded by the Hurricane Fault and by drainage divides. On the basis of measurements, estimates, and numerical simulations of reasonable values for all inflow and outflow components, total water moving through the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is estimated to be about 14,000 acre-feet per year. Recharge to the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is mostly from infiltration of precipitation and seepage from ephemeral and perennial streams. The primary source of discharge is assumed to be evapotranspiration; however, subsurface discharge near Ash Creek Reservoir also may be important.The character of two of the hydrologic boundaries of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is speculative. The eastern boundary provided by the Hurricane Fault is assumed to be a no-flow boundary, and a substantial part of the ground-water discharge from the system is assumed to be subsurface outflow beneath Ash Creek Reservoir along the southern boundary. However, these assumptions might be incorrect because alternative numerical simulations that used different boundary conditions also proved to be feasible. The hydrogeologic character of the aquifers is uncertain because of limited data. Differences in well yield indicate that there is considerable

  15. Ages and potential drivers of fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, S.; Savi, S.; Wickert, A. D.; Wittmann, H.; Alonso, R. N.; Strecker, M. R.; Schildgen, T. F.

    2015-12-01

    Fluvial fill terraces record changes in past sediment to water discharge ratios. Across the world, fill terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. However, pronounced fill terraces far from major glaciers and ice sheets have the potential to record a different set of climate forcings. So far, little is known about how changes in global climate on multi-millenial timescales affected the rainfall patterns in the interior of South America, or how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Nonetheless, several studies in the Central Andes have linked terrace formation to precessionally-controlled changes in precipitation. In this study, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes in NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 100 m above the current river level. Within the fills, we observe a minimum of 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. These fills document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. The filling and re-incision has previously been associated with tectonic activity in the basin, but the potential superposed role of climate cycles in forming terraces has not been considered. We sampled four CRN (10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the broadest terrace surfaces, least affected by later overwash and erosion. The ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~ 80 ka to 400 ka). While the presence of inflationary soils beneath desert pavements make precise age determinations difficult, our preliminary calculations suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 kyr) cycles, pointing to a different timescale of landscape response to climate forcing compared to previous studies.

  16. Large Well-Exposed Alluvial Fans in Deep Late-Noachian Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. M.; Howard, A. D.

    2004-01-01

    Large, fresh-appearing alluvial fans (typically greater than 10 km long) have been identified during a systematic search of 100 m/pixel low-sun daylight THEMIS IR imaging in deep late-Noachian or early-Hesperian craters. Our study of these fans was augmented with MOLA-derived topography and high-resolution MOC and THEMIS VIS images where available. The influence of alluvial fan deposition on the topography of crater floors has been recognized in previous topographic studies. Recent Mars Odyssey-era studies have also identified and described in detail a fluvial delta or fan of approximately the same age as the alluvial fans of this study. Our results, at the time of this writing, indicate that these fans are only found in less than 5% of all craters greater than or equal to 70 kilometers in diameter within a large study region. In every case the fan-containing craters were restricted to a latitude belt between 20 degrees S and 30 degrees S. All of which had significant topographic relief and appeared morphologically younger than typical mid-Noachian craters in the size range. However, large fans were not found in the most pristine (and presumably youngest) craters in this size range. Most Martian fans have morphologies consistent with terrestrial debris-flow-dominated fans.

  17. Hydrogeologic Framework of the Yakima River Basin Aquifer System, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaccaro, J.J.; Jones, M.A.; Ely, D.M.; Keys, M.E.; Olsen, T.D.; Welch, W.B.; Cox, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Yakima River basin aquifer system underlies about 6,200 square miles in south-central Washington. The aquifer system consists of basin-fill deposits occurring in six structural-sedimentary basins, the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG), and generally older bedrock. The basin-fill deposits were divided into 19 hydrogeologic units, the CRBG was divided into three units separated by two interbed units, and the bedrock was divided into four units (the Paleozoic, the Mesozoic, the Tertiary, and the Quaternary bedrock units). The thickness of the basin-fill units and the depth to the top of each unit and interbed of the CRBG were mapped. Only the surficial extent of the bedrock units was mapped due to insufficient data. Average mapped thickness of the different units ranged from 10 to 600 feet. Lateral hydraulic conductivity (Kh) of the units varies widely indicating the heterogeneity of the aquifer system. Average or effective Kh values of the water-producing zones of the basin-fill units are on the order of 1 to 800 ft/d and are about 1 to 10 ft/d for the CRBG units as a whole. Effective or average Kh values for the different rock types of the Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary units appear to be about 0.0001 to 3 ft/d. The more permeable Quaternary bedrock unit may have Kh values that range from 1 to 7,000 ft/d. Vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) of the units is largely unknown. Kv values have been estimated to range from about 0.009 to 2 ft/d for the basin-fill units and Kv values for the clay-to-shale parts of the units may be as small as 10-10 to 10-7 ft/d. Reported Kv values for the CRBG units ranged from 4x10-7 to 4 ft/d. Variations in the concentrations of geochemical solutes and the concentrations and ratios of the isotopes of hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon in groundwater provided information on the hydrogeologic framework and groundwater movement. Stable isotope ratios of water (deuterium and oxygen-18) indicated dispersed sources of groundwater recharge to

  18. Eccentricity-driven fluvial fill terrace formation in the southern-central Andes, NW Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tofelde, Stefanie; Savi, Sara; Wickert, Andrew D.; Wittmann, Hella; Alonso, Ricardo; Strecker, Manfred R.; Schildgen, Taylor F.

    2016-04-01

    Across the world, fill-terrace formation in glaciated catchments has been linked to variable sediment production and river discharge over glacial-interglacial cycles. Little is known, however, how variability in global climate may have affected rainfall patterns and associated surface-processes on multi-millennial timescales in regions far from major glaciers and ice sheets, and how those changes might be reflected in the landscape. Here, we investigate the timing of fluvial fill terrace planation and abandonment in the Quebrada del Toro, an intermontane basin located in the Eastern Cordillera of the southern-central Andes of NW Argentina. Fluvial fills in the valley reach more than 150 m above the current river level. Sculpted into the fills, we observe at least 5 terrace levels with pronounced differences in their extent and preservation. We sampled four TCN (in situ 10Be) depth profiles to date the abandonment of the most extensive terrace surfaces in locations, where subsequent overprint by erosion and deposition was not pronounced. We interpret unexpectedly low 10Be concentrations at shallow depths and surface samples to be related to aeolian input, causing surface inflation. Correcting the depth profiles for inflation results in a reduction of the terrace surface ages by up to 70 ka. The inflation-corrected ages fall within the late Pleistocene (~140 - 370 ka) and suggest a potential link to orbital eccentricity (~100 ka) cycles. The studied fills in the Toro Basin document successive episodes of incision, punctuated by periods of lateral planation and possible partial re-filling. We propose climate cycles as a potentially-dominant factor in forming these terraces. To our knowledge, none of the previously studied fluvial terraces in the Andes date back more than 2 glacial cycles, thus making the Quebrada del Toro an important archive of paleoenvironmental conditions over longer timescales.

  19. Geologic and physiographic controls on bed-material yield, transport, and channel morphology for alluvial and bedrock rivers, western Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, J. E.; Wallick, R.; Mangano, J.; Anderson, S. W.; Jones, K. L.; Keith, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    The rivers of western Oregon have channel beds ranging from fully alluvial to bedrock. A local history of in-stream gravel mining in conjunction with ongoing permitting concerns with respect to future extraction have prompted a series of investigations of bed-material production, transport and channel morphology across this spectrum of channel types. In western Oregon, it appears that the distribution of alluvial and bedrock channels (and many aspects of river morphology and behavior) are largely controlled by regional lithologies and the downstream consequences of different rates of bed-material supply and clast comminution. In particular, the Klamath Terrane has elevated erosion rates, steep slopes, and rock types resistant to abrasion, resulting in gravel-bed alluvial channels with high bed-material transport rates. By contrast, Coast Range drainages underlain by large areas of soft sedimentary rocks have bedrock channels owing to exceptionally rapid rates of bed-material attrition during transport. The resulting spatially distributed network controls on the distribution of alluvial and non-alluvial channels likely complicate linkages between rock uplift, bedrock incision, bed-material grain size, and profile concavity. Additionally, the alluvial channels have distinct morphologic characteristics, some of which relate strongly to transport rates. In particular, bar area correlates with estimates of bed-material flux, and this correlation is an upper bound for bar-area observations for non-alluvial reaches. Similarly, an index for transport capacity scaled by bed-material grain size correlates with estimated bed-material flux for alluvial rivers, but not for the non-alluvial rivers. Bedrock and mixed-bed channels in western Oregon have few evident broad-scale patterns or relations among reach-scale morphologic measurements or with estimated transport rates, perhaps indicating that very local lithologic, hydraulic and bed-material supply conditions exert more

  20. Basin seismology in the megacity of Jakarta, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiyantoro, S.; Cummins, P. R.; Saygin, E.; Cipta, A.; Ridwan, M.; Joshi, N.; Murjaya, J.; Irsyam, M.

    2016-12-01

    Like several of SE Asia's megacities, Jakarta is home to a very large and vulnerable urban population (10 million in the city itself, 28 million in greater Jakarta). Jakarta also has many tall buildings built on a basin filled with poorly consolidated sediments. The resonant periods of many buildings are longer than 1 second, and if these periods match the resonant periods of the sedimentary basin, they may be particularly prone to damage if a large earthquake occurs. In order to characterize the subsurface structure of the Jakarta Basin, a dense portable seismic broad-band network was operated by the Australian National University (ANU) and the Indonesian Agency for Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics (BMKG) between October 2013 and February 2014. Overall 96 locations were sampled through successive deployments of 52 seismic broadband sensors at different parts of the city. Oceanic and anthropogenic noise was recorded as well as regional and teleseismic earthquakes. We applied a Trans-dimensional Bayesian implementation of Ambient Noise Tomography to estimate the thickness and shear velocity of the basin fill. Results show that these vary between about 300 to 700 meters and 200 to 1200 m/s, respectively. We show that these variations agree well with variations in P-wave arrival time delays of regional and distant earthquakes, variations in the peak period of horizontal-over-vertical spectral ratios, and times of P-to-S converted waves generated at the floor of the basin. We discuss the implications these low seismic velocities and the thick basin beneath the city may have for seismic amplification during a subduction megathrust or other large earthquake close to the city of Jakarta.

  1. Capturing and modelling high-complex alluvial topography with UAS-borne laser scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandlburger, Gottfried; Wieser, Martin; Pfennigbauer, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Due to fluvial activity alluvial forests are zones of highest complexity and relief energy. Alluvial forests are dominated by new and pristine channels in consequence of current and historic flood events. Apart from topographic features, the vegetation structure is typically very complex featuring, both, dense under story as well as high trees. Furthermore, deadwood and debris carried from upstream during periods of high discharge within the river channel are deposited in these areas. Therefore, precise modelling of the micro relief of alluvial forests using standard tools like Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) is hardly feasible. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), in turn, is very time consuming for capturing larger areas as many scan positions are necessary for obtaining complete coverage due to view occlusions in the forest. In the recent past, the technological development of Unmanned Arial Systems (UAS) has reached a level that light-weight survey-grade laser scanners can be operated from these platforms. For capturing alluvial topography this could bridge the gap between ALS and TLS in terms of providing a very detailed description of the topography and the vegetation structure due to the achievable very high point density of >100 points per m2. In our contribution we demonstrate the feasibility to apply UAS-borne laser scanning for capturing and modelling the complex topography of the study area Neubacher Au, an alluvial forest at the pre-alpine River Pielach (Lower Austria). The area was captured with Riegl's VUX-1 compact time-of-flight laser scanner mounted on a RiCopter (X-8 array octocopter). The scanner features an effective scan rate of 500 kHz and was flown in 50-100 m above ground. At this flying height the laser footprint is 25-50 mm allowing mapping of very small surface details. Furthermore, online waveform processing of the backscattered laser energy enables the retrieval of multiple targets for single laser shots resulting in a dense point cloud of

  2. Hydrogeologic investigations of the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales Area, Upper Santa Cruz Basin, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Gray, Floyd; Bultman, Mark W.; Menges, Christopher M.

    2016-07-28

    Hydrogeologic investigations were conducted to evaluate the groundwater resource potential for the Miocene Nogales Formation in the Nogales area, southern Arizona. Results indicate that parts of the formation may provide new, deeper sources of groundwater for the area. Geologic mapping determined the hydrogeologic framework of the formation by defining lithologic, mineralogic, and stratigraphic characteristics; identifying potential aquifers and confining units; and mapping faults and fractures which likely influence groundwater flow. Geophysical modeling was used to determine the basin geometry and thickness of the Nogales Formation and younger alluvial aquifers and to identify target areas (deep subbasins) which may prove to be productive aquifers.Volcaniclastic sandstone samples from the formation were analyzed for porosity, bulk density, saturated hydraulic conductivity, and fabric. Effective porosity ranges from 16 to 42 percent, bulk density from 1.6 to 2.47 grams per cubic centimeter, and saturated hydraulic conductivity (SHC) from 4 to 57 centimeters per day (4.9×10-5 to 6.7×10-4 centimeters per second). Thin sections show that sandstone framework grains consist of quartz, feldspar, biotite, hornblende, pumice, volcanic glass, and opaque minerals. The matrix in most samples consists of pumice fragments, and some contain predominantly silt and clay. Samples with a mostly silt and clay matrix have lower porosity and SHC compared to samples with mostly pumice, which have higher and wider ranges of porosity and SHC. Pore space in the Nogales Formation sediments includes moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Some intercrystalline pore space is partially filled with calcite cement. About one third of the samples contain fractures, which correspond to fractures noted in outcrops in all members of the formation.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that most of the samples contained the zeolite clinoptilolite

  3. Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Mustard, J.; Taylor, L.; McCord, T.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Clark, R.; hide

    2010-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the geological and thermal evolution of the Moon is the nature and history of mantle melting and its relationship to the formation and evolution of lunar multi-ringed basins. Mare volcanic deposits provide evidence for the nature, magnitude and composition of mantle melting as a function of space and time [1]. Many argue that mantle partial melts are derived from depths well below the influence of multiringed basin impact events [1], while others postulate that the formation of these basins can cause mantle perturbations that are more directly linked to the generation ascent and eruption of mare basalts [2,3]. In any case, longer-term basin evolution will considerably influence the state and orientation of stress in the lithosphere, and the location of mare volcanic vents in basins as a function of time [4]. Thus, the location, nature and ages of volcanic vents and deposits in relation to multi-ringed impact basins provides evidence for the role that these basins played in the generation of volcanism or in the influence of the basins on surface volcanic eruption and deposit concentration. Unfortunately, most lunar multi-ringed impact basins have been eroded by impacts or filled with lunar mare deposits [5-8], with estimates of the thickness of mare fill extending up to more than six km in the central part of some basins [9-11]. The interior of most basins (e.g., Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, Humorum) are almost completely covered and obscured. Although much is known about the lava filling of multi-ringed basins, and particularly the most recent deposits [5-8], little is known about initial stages of mare volcanism and its relationship to the impact event. One multi-ringed basin, Orientale, offers substantial clues to the relationships of basin interiors and mare basalt volcanism.

  4. Reconnaissance of sedimentation in the Rio Pilcomayo Basin, May 1975, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ritter, John R.

    1977-01-01

    The Río Pilcomayo "Alto" (Bolivia) and "Superior" (Bolivia, Argentina, and Paraguay) transport large quantities of sediment for the size of the basin. The Río Pilcomayo "Inferior" (Argentina and Paraguay) seems to carry little sediment. The large loads of the "Alto" and "Superior" must be considered before dams or irrigation projects are started. The shifting channel and flooding of the Río Pilcomayo "Superior" also are problems to be considered before development. The Río Pilcomayo "Alto" basin has relatively little deposition whereas the "Superior" basin has considerable deposition. A part of the "Superior" channel is filled with sediment to the top of its banks. The upstream limit of filling is moving farther upstream each year causing the place of overbank flooding to move upstream also.More data must be collected and more observations made before a complete analysis of the sediment movement in the basin can be made.

  5. Geohydrology and numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the central Virgin River basin of Iron and Washington Countries, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Freethey, G.W.; Wilkowske, C.D.; Stolp, B.J.; Wilberg, D.E.

    2000-01-01

    Because rapid growth of communities in Washington and Iron Counties, Utah, is expected to cause an increase in the future demand for water resources, a hydrologic investigation was done to better understand ground-water resources within the central Virgin River basin. This study focused on two of the principal ground-water reservoirs within the basin: the upper Ash Creek basin ground-water system and the Navajo and Kayenta aquifer system. The ground-water system of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin consists of three aquifers: the uppermost Quaternary basin-fill aquifer, the Tertiary alluvial-fan aquifer, and the Tertiary Pine Valley monzonite aquifer. These aquifers are naturally bounded by the Hurricane Fault and by drainage divides. On the basis of measurements, estimates, and numerical simulations of reasonable values for all inflow and outflow components, total water moving through the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is estimated to be about 14,000 acre-feet per year. Recharge to the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is mostly from infiltration of precipitation and seepage from ephemeral and perennial streams. The primary source of discharge is assumed to be evapotranspiration; however, subsurface discharge near Ash Creek Reservoir also may be important. The character of two of the hydrologic boundaries of the upper Ash Creek drainage basin ground-water system is speculative. The eastern boundary provided by the Hurricane Fault is assumed to be a no-flow boundary, and a substantial part of the ground-water discharge from the system is assumed to be subsurface outflow beneath Ash Creek Reservoir along the southern boundary. However, these assumptions might be incorrect because alternative numerical simulations that used different boundary conditions also proved to be feasible. The hydrogeologic character of the aquifers is uncertain because of limited data. Difference in well yield indicate that there is considerable

  6. Ground-water hydrology of the San Pitch River drainage basin, Sanpete County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, Gerald B.

    1971-01-01

    The San Pitch River drainage basin in central Utah comprises an area of about 850 square miles; however, the investigation was concerned primarily with the Sanpete and Arapien Valleys, which comprise about 250 square miles and contain the principal ground-water reservoirs in the basin. Sanpete Valley is about 40 miles long and has a maximum width of 13 miles, and Arapien Valley is about 8 miles long and 1 mile wide. The valleys are bordered by mountains and plateaus that range in altitude from 5,200 to 11,000 feet above mean sea level.The average annual precipitation on the valleys is about 12 inches, but precipitation on the surrounding mountains reaches a maximum of about 40 inches per year. Most of the precipitation on the mountains falls as snow, and runoff from snowmelt during the spring and summer is conveyed to the valleys by numerous tributaries of the San Pitch River. Seepage from the tributary channels and underflow beneath the channels are the major sources of recharge to the ground-water reservoir in the valleys.Unconsolidated valley fill constitutes the main ground-water reservoir in Sanpete and Arapien Valleys. The fill, which consists mostly of coalescing alluvial fans and flood deposits of the San Pitch River, ranges in particle size from clay to boulders. Where they are well sorted, these deposits yield large quantities of water to wells.Numerous springs discharge from consolidated rocks in the mountains adjacent to the valleys and along the west margin of Sanpete Valley, which is marked by the Sevier fault. The Green River Formation of Tertiary age and several other consolidated formations yield small to large quantities of water to wells in many parts of Sanpete Valley. Most water in the bedrock underlying the valley is under artesian pressure, and some of this water discharges upward into the overlying valley fill.The water in the valley fill in Sanpete Valley moves toward the center of the valley and thence downstream. The depth to water along

  7. Water resources of the Salmon Falls Creek basin, Idaho-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosthwaite, E.G.

    1969-01-01

    The northern part of the Salmon Falls Creek basin, referred to as the Salmon Falls tract, contains a large acreage of good agricultural land, but the surface-water supply is inadequate to develop the area fully. Attempts to develop ground water for irrigation have been successful only locally. Specific capacities of wells drilled for irrigation and for test purposes ranged from less than 0.5 to 70 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown. The surface-water supply averages 107,000 acre-feet annually, of which about 76,000 acre-feet is diverted for irrigation. The Idavada Volcanics, the most widespread and oldest water-bearing formation in the Salmon Falls tract, consists of massive, dense, thick flows and blankets of welded silicic tuff with associated fine- to coarse-grained ash, clay, silt, sand, and gravel. Fault zones and jointed rock yield large amounts of water to wells, but massive nonjointed units yield little water. Sand, tuff, and ash beds yield moderate quantities of water. Clay, sandy clay, sand, and pea gravel occur in topographic lows on the Idavada Volcanics. The finegrained sediments yield little water to wells, but the gravel yields moderate quantities. Vesicular porphyritic irregularly jointed olivine basalt flows, which overlie the Idavada Volcanics, underlie almost all the Salmon Falls tract. Lenticular fine-grained sedimentary beds as much as 15 feet thick separate some of the flows. Joints and contacts between flows yield small to moderate amounts of water to wells. Alluvial and windblown deposits blanket most of the tract. Where they occur below the water table, the alluvial deposits yield adequate supplies for stock and domestic wells. Perched water in the alluvium along Deep Creek supplies some stock and domestic wells during most years. Ground-water supplies adequate for domestic and stock use can be obtained everywhere in the tract, but extensive exploration has discovered only five local areas where pumping ground water for irrigation is

  8. Dynamic reorganization of river basins.

    PubMed

    Willett, Sean D; McCoy, Scott W; Perron, J Taylor; Goren, Liran; Chen, Chia-Yu

    2014-03-07

    River networks evolve as migrating drainage divides reshape river basins and change network topology by capture of river channels. We demonstrate that a characteristic metric of river network geometry gauges the horizontal motion of drainage divides. Assessing this metric throughout a landscape maps the dynamic states of entire river networks, revealing diverse conditions: Drainage divides in the Loess Plateau of China appear stationary; the young topography of Taiwan has migrating divides driving adjustment of major basins; and rivers draining the ancient landscape of the southeastern United States are reorganizing in response to escarpment retreat and coastal advance. The ability to measure the dynamic reorganization of river basins presents opportunities to examine landscape-scale interactions among tectonics, erosion, and ecology.

  9. Geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity at basin scale: a case study from Datong basin, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-05-01

    A hydrogeochemical investigation using integrated methods of stable isotopes ((18)O, (2)H), (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios, Cl/Br ratios, chloride-mass balance, mass balance and hydrogeochemical modeling was conducted to interpret the geochemical evolution of groundwater salinity in Datong basin, northern China. The δ(2)H, δ(18)O ratios in precipitation exhibited a local meteoric water line of δ(2)H = 6.4 δ(18)O -5 (R(2) = 0.94), while those in groundwater suggested their meteoric origin in a historically colder climatic regime with a speculated recharge rate of less than 20.5 mm overall per year, in addition to recharge from a component of deep residual ancient lake water enriched with Br. According to the Sr isotope binary mixing model, the mixing of recharges from the Shentou karst springs (24%), the western margins (11%) and the eastern margins (65%) accounts for the groundwater from the deep aquifers of the down-gradient parts in the central basin is a possible mixing mechanism. In Datong, hydrolysis of silicate minerals is the most important hydrogeochemical process responsible for groundwater chemistry, in addition to dissolution of carbonate and evaporites. In the recharge areas, silicate chemical weathering is typically at the bisiallitization stage, while that in the central basin is mostly at the monosiallitization stage with limited evidence of being in equilibrium with gibbsite. Na exchange with bound Ca, Mg prevails at basin scale, and intensifies with groundwater salinity, while Ca, Mg exchange with bound Na locally occurs in the east pluvial and alluvial plains. Although groundwater salinity increases with the progress of water-rock/sediment interactions along the flow path, as a result of carbonate solubility control and continuous evapotranspiration, Na-HCO3 and Na-Cl-SO4 types of water are usually characterized respectively in the deep and the shallow aquifers of an inland basin with a silicate terrain in an arid climatic regime.

  10. Outlook for Mississippi Alluvial Valley forests: a subregional report from the Southern Forest Futures Project

    Treesearch

    Emile S. Gardiner

    2015-01-01

    The Mississippi Alluvial Valley, which can be broadly subdivided into the Holocene Deposits section and the Deltaic Plain section, is a 24.9-million-acre area generally approximating the alluvial floodplain and delta of the lower Mississippi River. Its robust agricultural economy is maintained by a largely rural population, and recreational resources draw high...

  11. Fluvial deposits of Yellowstone tephras: Implications for late Cenozoic history of the Bighorn basin area, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reheis, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    Several deposits of tephra derived from eruptions in Yellowstone National Park occur in the northern Bighorn basin area of Wyoming and Montana. These tephra deposits are mixed and interbedded with fluvial gravel and sand deposited by several different rivers. The fluvial tephra deposits are used to calculate stream incision rates, to provide insight into drainage histories and Quaternary tectonics, to infer the timing of alluvial erosion-deposition cycles, and to calibrate rates of soil development. ?? 1992.

  12. Considerations in Managing the Fill Rate of the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam Reservoir Using a System Dynamics Approach.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, Bruce; Ford, David N.; Horton, Radley M.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate simulated fill rate scenarios for the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam while taking into account plausible climate change outcomes for the Nile River Basin. The region lacks a comprehensive equitable water resource management strategy, which creates regional security concerns and future possible conflicts. We employ climate estimates from 33 general circulation models within a system dynamics model as a step in moving toward a feasible regional water resource management strategy. We find that annual reservoir fill rates of 8-15% are capable of building hydroelectric capacity in Ethiopia while concurrently ensuring a minimum level of stream flow disruption into Egypt before 2039. Insofar as climate change estimates suggest a modest average increase in stream flow into the Aswan, climate changes through 2039 are unlikely to affect the fill rate policies. However, larger fill rates will have a more detrimental effect on stream flow into the Aswan, particularly beyond a policy of 15%. While this study demonstrates that a technical solution for reservoir fill rates is feasible, the corresponding policy challenge is political. Implementation of water resource management strategies in the Nile River Basin specifically and Africa generally will necessitate a national and regional willingness to cooperate.

  13. The evolving contribution of border faults and intra-rift faults in early-stage East African rifts: insights from the Natron (Tanzania) and Magadi (Kenya) basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muirhead, J.; Kattenhorn, S. A.; Dindi, E.; Gama, R.

    2013-12-01

    In the early stages of continental rifting, East African Rift (EAR) basins are conventionally depicted as asymmetric basins bounded on one side by a ~100 km-long border fault. As rifting progresses, strain concentrates into the rift center, producing intra-rift faults. The timing and nature of the transition from border fault to intra-rift-dominated strain accommodation is unclear. Our study focuses on this transitional phase of continental rifting by exploring the spatial and temporal evolution of faulting in the Natron (border fault initiation at ~3 Ma) and Magadi (~7 Ma) basins of northern Tanzania and southern Kenya, respectively. We compare the morphologies and activity histories of faults in each basin using field observations and remote sensing in order to address the relative contributions of border faults and intra-rift faults to crustal strain accommodation as rifting progresses. The ~500 m-high border fault along the western margin of the Natron basin is steep compared to many border faults in the eastern branch of the EAR, indicating limited scarp degradation by mass wasting. Locally, the escarpment shows open fissures and young scarps 10s of meters high and a few kilometers long, implying ongoing border fault activity in this young rift. However, intra-rift faults within ~1 Ma lavas are greatly eroded and fresh scarps are typically absent, implying long recurrence intervals between slip events. Rift-normal topographic profiles across the Natron basin show the lowest elevations in the lake-filled basin adjacent to the border fault, where a number of hydrothermal springs along the border fault system expel water into the lake. In contrast to Natron, a ~1600 m high, densely vegetated, border fault escarpment along the western edge of the Magadi basin is highly degraded; we were unable to identify evidence of recent rupturing. Rift-normal elevation profiles indicate the focus of strain has migrated away from the border fault into the rift center, where

  14. The origin of lunar mascon basins.

    PubMed

    Melosh, H J; Freed, Andrew M; Johnson, Brandon C; Blair, David M; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Smith, David E; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Zuber, Maria T

    2013-06-28

    High-resolution gravity data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory spacecraft have clarified the origin of lunar mass concentrations (mascons). Free-air gravity anomalies over lunar impact basins display bull's-eye patterns consisting of a central positive (mascon) anomaly, a surrounding negative collar, and a positive outer annulus. We show that this pattern results from impact basin excavation and collapse followed by isostatic adjustment and cooling and contraction of a voluminous melt pool. We used a hydrocode to simulate the impact and a self-consistent finite-element model to simulate the subsequent viscoelastic relaxation and cooling. The primary parameters controlling the modeled gravity signatures of mascon basins are the impactor energy, the lunar thermal gradient at the time of impact, the crustal thickness, and the extent of volcanic fill.

  15. Estimates of long-term water total phosphorus (TP) concentrations in three large shallow lakes in the Yangtze River basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pan; Qin, Boqiang; Yu, Ge

    2016-03-01

    The shallow lakes in the eastern China developed on alluvial plains with high-nutrient sediments, and most overflow into the Yangtze River with short hydraulic residence times, whereas they become eutrophic over long time periods. Assuming strong responses to hydrogeological changes in the basin, we attempted to determine the dynamic eutrophication history of these lakes. Although evaluation models for internal total phosphorus (TP) loading are widely used for deep lakes in Europe and North America, the accuracy of these models for shallow lakes that have smaller water volumes controlled by the geometrical morphology and greater basin area of alluvial plains is unknown. To describe the magnitude of changes in velocity of trophic state for the studied shallow lakes, we first evaluated the P retention model in relation to the major forces driving lake morphology, basin climate, and external discharge and then used the model to estimate changes in TP in three large shallow lakes (Taihu, Chao, and Poyang) over 60 years (1950-2009 AD). The observed levels of TP were verified against the relative error of the three lakes (<6.43 %) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients (0.67-0.75). The results showed that the predicted TP concentrations largely increased with hydraulic residence time, especially in extreme drought years, with a generally rising trend in trophic status. The simulated trophic state index showed that lakes Taihu and Poyang became eutrophic in the 1990s, whereas Lake Chao became eutrophic in the 1980s; lakes Taihu and Chao ultimately became hypereutrophic in the 2000s. The analysis suggested that the tropic status of the shallow lakes was affected by both the hydroclimate and geological sedimentation of the Yangtze River basin. This work will contribute to the development of an internal P loading model for further evaluating trophic states.

  16. Effect of seasonal flooding cycle on litterfall production in alluvial rainforest on the middle Xingu River (Amazon basin, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Camargo, M; Giarrizzo, T; Jesus, A J S

    2015-08-01

    The assumption for this study was that litterfall in floodplain environments of the middle Xingu river follows a pattern of seasonal variation. According to this view, litterfall production (total and fractions) was estimated in four alluvial rainforest sites on the middle Xingu River over an annual cycle, and examined the effect of seasonal flooding cycle. The sites included two marginal flooded forests of insular lakes (Ilha Grande and Pimentel) and two flooded forests on the banks of the Xingu itself (Boa Esperança and Arroz Cru). Total litterfall correlated with rainfall and river levels, but whereas the leaf and fruit fractions followed this general pattern, the flower fraction presented an inverse pattern, peaking in the dry season. The litterfall patterns recorded in the present study were consistent with those recorded at other Amazonian sites, and in some other tropical ecosystems.

  17. Lithostratigraphie, sédimentologie et évolution de deux bassins molassiques intramontagneux de la chaine Pan-Africaine: la Série pourprée de l'Ahnet, Nord-Ouest du Hoggar, Algérie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ait-Kaci Ahmed, Ali; Moussine-Pouchkine, Alexis

    The study of two of the intermontane molassic basins of the 'Série pourprée de l'Ahnet' shows that they developed independently both in time and space. The characteristics of their thick sedimentary infillings are quite different. The Ouallen basin is filled by essentially fine-grained sediments which were deposited in continental then marine or lacustrine environments; these sediments thicen from east to west. The In Semmen basin is characterised by coarser sediments which were deposited from south to north, in alluvial fan, fluvial, deltaic and slope environments. This basin is also characterised by an episode of carbonate sedimentation leading to the formation of a remarkable thin layer of carbonate, covering the entire sedimentary area, and perhaps related to a volcanic rhyolitic event. The history of the two basins is also marked by obvious tectonic events simultaneous with the sedimentation and related to the recurrent faulting of major Pan-African faults. These led to the formation of very coarse fanglomerates located near the fault scarps, and are probably responsible for the shape and the evolution of the basins.

  18. Climatic, geomorphic, and archaeological implications of a late Quaternary alluvial chronology for the lower Salt River, Arizona, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckleberry, Gary; Onken, Jill; Graves, William M.; Wegener, Robert

    2013-03-01

    Recent archaeological excavations along the lower Salt River, Arizona resulted in the unexpected discovery of buried late Pleistocene soils and cultural features dating 5800-7100 cal YBP (Early Archaic), the latter representing the earliest evidence of human activity in the lower Salt River floodplain thus far identified. Because the lower Salt River floodplain has been heavily impacted by recent agriculture and urbanization and contains few stratigraphic exposures, our understanding of the river's geological history is limited. Here we present a late Quaternary alluvial chronology for a segment of the lower Salt River based on 19 accelerator mass spectrometry 14C and four optically stimulated luminescence ages obtained during two previous geoarchaeological investigations. Deposits are organized into allostratigraphic units and reveal a buried late Pleistocene terrace inset into middle-to-late Pleistocene terrace deposits. Holocene terrace fill deposits unconformably cap the late Pleistocene terrace tread in the site area, and the lower portion of this fill contains the Early Archaic archaeological features. Channel entrenchment and widening ~ 900 cal YBP eroded much of the older terrace deposits, leaving only a remnant of fill containing the buried latest Pleistocene and middle-to-late Holocene deposits preserved in the site area. Subsequent overbank deposition and channel filling associated with a braided channel system resulted in the burial of the site by a thin layer of flood sediments. Our study confirms that the lower Salt River is a complex mosaic of late Quaternary alluvium formed through vertical and lateral accretion, with isolated patches of buried soils preserved through channel avulsion. Although channel avulsion is linked to changes in sediment load and discharge and may have climatic linkages, intrinsic geomorphic and local base level controls limit direct correlations of lower Salt River stratigraphy to other large rivers in the North American

  19. Late Quaternary Alluvial Fans of Southern Baja California, Mexico: Relation to Eastern Pacific Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antinao, J.; McDonald, E.

    2009-12-01

    In the arid, non-glaciated regions of the Southwestern USA and Northwestern Mexico, aggradation in alluvial fan systems has been traditionally linked to cold and humid periods (e.g., Last Glacial Maximum) or to the transition to warm periods (e.g., the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, PHT). However, major intervals of sediment transport and aggradation have also occurred during climatically warm periods in these regions. These periods have also been identified as portraying enhanced humidity or “monsoonal’ conditions. Investigations on the weather systems able to perform geomorphic work during predominantly warm periods, i.e. the North American Monsoon (NAM) and Eastern Pacific (EP) Tropical Cyclones (TCs), have concentrated mainly in the USA. To understand the relative contribution of these systems to sediment transport over millennial timescales, we have mapped and characterized preliminarily the alluvial fans in four different areas of the Southern Baja California peninsula, Mexico. This region is dominated by EPTC precipitation, which in turn is driving the sediment transport along alluvial channels. Detailed geomorphologic mapping shows that a distinct Late Quaternary chronostratigraphy of alluvial fan units can be developed using geochronological and pedological tools. Specifically, a soil chronosequence can be compared to sequences in the SW USA, allowing a correlation to Late Pleistocene - Holocene events in the region. At least five alluvial units can be identified. Older units have well defined gravel pediments, Av and B horizons and pervasive pedogenic carbonate morphology, with alluvial terraces that rise tens of meters above the present channel. Intermediate age units have developed B horizons and carbonate morphology at different stages. The younger units have thin soil horizons, no carbonate morphology in the soil profile, and some of them are subject to episodic flooding during TC activity. The chronosequence developed is the first step towards

  20. Geologic interpretation of gravity data from the Date Creek basin and adjacent areas, west-central Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, James K.; Wynn, Jeffrey C.

    1978-01-01

    A gravity survey of the Date Creek Basin and adjacent areas was conducted in June 1977 to provide information for the interpretation of basin geology. A comparison of facies relations in the locally uraniferous Chapin Wash Formation and the position of the Anderson mine gravity anomaly in the Date Creek Basin suggested that a relationship between gravity lows and the development of thick lacustrine sections in the region might exist. A second-order residual gravity map derived from the complete Bouguer gravity map for the survey area (derived from survey data and pre-existing U.S. Department of Defense data) shows an excellent correspondence between gravity lows and sediment-filled basins and suggests considerable variation in basin-fill thickness. Using the Anderson mine anomaly as a model, gravity data and facies relations suggest that the southeastern flank of the Aguila Valley gravity low and the gravity low at the western end of the Hassayampa Plain are likely areas for finding thick sections of tuffaceous lacustrine rocks.

  1. Processes of arroyo filling in northern New Mexico, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Jonathan M.; Vincent, Kirk R.; Griffin, Eleanor R.; Scott, Michael L.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Auble, Gregor T.

    2015-01-01

    We documented arroyo evolution at the tree, trench, and arroyo scales along the lower Rio Puerco and Chaco Wash in northern New Mexico, USA. We excavated 29 buried living woody plants and used burial signatures in their annual rings to date stratigraphy in four trenches across the arroyos. Then, we reconstructed the history of arroyo evolution by combining trench data with arroyo-scale information from aerial imagery, light detection and ranging (LiDAR), longitudinal profiles, and repeat surveys of cross sections. Burial signatures in annual rings of salt cedar and willow dated sedimentary beds greater than 30 cm thick with annual precision. Along both arroyos, incision occurred until the 1930s in association with extreme high flows, and subsequent filling involved vegetation development, channel narrowing, increased sinuosity, and finally vertical aggradation. A strongly depositional sediment transport regime interacted with floodplain shrubs to produce a characteristic narrow, trapezoidal channel. The 55 km study reach along the Rio Puerco demonstrated upstream progression of arroyo widening and filling, but not of arroyo incision, channel narrowing, or floodplain vegetation development. We conclude that the occurrence of upstream progression within large basins like the Rio Puerco makes precise synchrony across basins impossible. Arroyo wall retreat is now mostly limited to locations where meanders impinge on the arroyo wall, forming hairpin bends, for which entry to and exit from the wall are stationary. Average annual sediment storage within the Rio Puerco study reach between 1955 and 2005 was 4.8 × 105 t/yr, 16% of the average annual suspended sediment yield, and 24% of the long-term bedrock denudation rate. At this rate, the arroyo would fill in 310 yr.

  2. Prospects for Dating the South Pole-Aitken Basin through Impact-Melt Rock Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Coker, R. F.; Petro, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the present debate about the ages of the nearside basins arises because of the difficulty in understanding the relationship of recovered samples to their parent basin. The Apollo breccias are from basin ejecta formations, which are ballistically-emplaced distal deposits that have mixed provenances. The Nectaris, Imbrium, and Serenitatis basins all have mare-basalt fill obscuring their original melt sheets, so geochemical ties are indirect. Though the geological processes acting to vertically and laterally mix materials into regolith are the same as at the Apollo sites, the SPA interior is a fundamentally different geologic setting than the Apollo sites. The South Pole-Aitken basin was likely filled by a large impact melt sheet, possibly differentiated into cumulate horizons. It is on this distinctive melt sheet that the regolith has formed, somewhat diluting but not erasing the prominent geochemical signature seen from orbital assets. By analogy to the Apollo 16 site, a zeroth-order expectation is that bulk samples taken from regolith within SPA will contain abundant samples gardened from the SPA melt sheet. However, questions persist as to whether the SPA melt sheet has been so extensively contaminated with foreign ejecta that a simple robotic scoop sample of such regolith would be unlikely to yield the age of the basin.

  3. A review of stratigraphy and sedimentary environments of the Karoo Basin of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. M. H.

    . Deformation of the southern rim of the basin, caused by the subducting palaeo-Pacific plate, resulted in mountain ranges far to the south. Material derived from this source, as well as granitic uplands to the west and morth-east, was deposited on large deltas that built out into the Ecca sea (Upper Ecca). The relatively cool climate and lowland setting promoted thick accumulations of peat on the coastal and delta plains and which now constitute the major coal reserves of southern Africa. Later the prograding deltas coalesced to fill most of the basin after which fluvial sedimentation of the Beaufort Group dominated. The climate by this time (Late Permian) had warmed to become semi-arid with highly seasonal rainfall. The central parts of the basin were for the most part drained by fine-grained meanderbelts and semi-permanent lakes. Significant stratabound uranium reserves have been delimited in the channel sandstones of the Beaufort Group in the southwestern parts of the basin. Pulses of uplift in the southern source areas combined with a possible orogenic effect resulted in two coarser-grained alluvial fans prograding into the more central parts of the basin (Katberg Sandstone Member and Molteno Formation). In the upper Karoo sequence progressive aridification dominated depositional style with playa lake and wadi-type environments (Elliot Formation) that finally gave way to a dune sand dominated system (Clarens Formation). Basinwide volcanic activity of the early Jurassic Drakensberg Group brought deposition in the Karoo Basin to a close.

  4. Transient Electromagnetic Study of the Geologic Framework, Upper San Pedro Basin, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultman, M. W.; Gray, F.; Flemming, J. B.; Callegary, J.; Kleinkopf, M. D.

    2006-12-01

    The San Pedro River flows north from near Cananea, Mexico into the U.S. and ends at its confluence with the Gila River in Arizona. The river supports a riparian habitat that is important for its biological diversity and is the most significant flyway for migrating birds in southwest North America. Nearby communities in Arizona and Mexico are pumping groundwater from basin fill in the San Pedro valley and there is much concern about the effects of this pumping on the baseflow of the San Pedro River. Local, State, and National agencies have been studying this issue from a wide variety of perspectives. To help address the problem, the U.S. Geological Survey has undertaken an integrative research effort utilizing geologic mapping, multiple geophysical techniques, and multi-spectral imaging to better understand the geology, geometry, structure and basin fill sediments in the San Pedro basin in Mexico. An existing aeromagnetic survey coupled with a natural source audio frequency magnetotelluric study indicates that the basin is less than 1km deep in most places and contains at least two sub-basins. These sub-basins are separated by a subsurface bedrock high that is well below the present water table. Also, several vertical electrical soundings, acquired by Grupo Mexico in the region, indicate that the central portion of the basin may contain several, potentially thick, sequences of clay. The transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey was designed to provide more information on the nature of the basin fill sediments and to provide a better estimate of the depth of the bedrock structural high. The TEM data was acquired with a Zonge ZeroTEM instrument at 104 locations with 150m per side square loops using approximately 3.6 amps of current at a base frequency of 16 Hz. The locations of the TEM stations, generally spaced 0.5km apart, were designed to obtain a conductivity-depth profile along approximately 30km of the San Pedro River in Mexico and at three locations perpendicular

  5. A Froude-scaled model of a bedrock-alluvial channel reach: 1. Hydraulics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, Rebecca A.; Hoey, Trevor B.

    2016-09-01

    The controls on hydraulics in bedrock-alluvial rivers are relatively poorly understood, despite the importance of the flow in determining rates and patterns of sediment transport and consequent erosion. To measure hydraulics within a bedrock-alluvial channel, we developed a 1:10 Froude-scaled laboratory model of an 18 × 9 m bedrock-alluvial river reach using terrestrial laser scanning and 3-D printing. In the reported experiments, water depth and velocity were recorded at 18 locations within the channel at each of five different discharges. Additional data from runs with sediment cover in the flume were used to evaluate the hydraulic impact of sediment cover; the deposition and erosion of sediment patches in these runs are analyzed in the companion paper. In our data (1) spatial variation in both flow velocity and Froude number increases with discharge; (2) bulk flow resistance and Froude number become independent of discharge at higher discharges; (3) local flow velocity and Reynolds stress are correlated to the range of local bed topography at some, but not most, discharges; (4) at lower discharges, local topography induces vertical flow structures and slower velocities, but these effects decrease at higher discharges; and (5) there is a relationship between the linear combination of bed and sediment roughness and local flow velocity. These results demonstrate the control that bedrock topography exerts over both local and reach-scale flow conditions, but spatially distributed hydraulic data from bedrock-alluvial channels with different topographies are needed to generalize these findings.

  6. Riparian Cottonwood Ecosystems and Regulated Flows in Kootenai and Yakima Sub-Basins : Volume II Yakima (Overview, Report, Appendices).

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Jamieson, Bob; Braatne, Jeffrey H.

    Riparian vegetation and especially cottonwood and willow plant communities are dependent on normative flows and especially, spring freshette, to provide conditions for recruitment. These plant communities therefore share much in common with a range of fish species that require natural flow conditions to stimulate reproduction. We applied tools and techniques developed in other areas to assess riparian vegetation in two very different sub-basins within the Columbia Basin. Our objectives were to: Document the historic impact of human activity on alluvial floodplain areas in both sub-basins; Provide an analysis of the impacts of flow regulation on riparian vegetation in two systemsmore » with very different flow regulation systems; Demonstrate that altered spring flows will, in fact, result in recruitment to cottonwood stands, given other land uses impacts on each river and the limitations imposed by other flow requirements; and Assess the applicability of remote sensing tools for documenting the distribution and health of cottonwood stands and riparian vegetation that can be used in other sub-basins.« less

  7. The Portland Basin: A (big) river runs through it

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evarts, Russell C.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Wells, Ray E.; Madin, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    Metropolitan Portland, Oregon, USA, lies within a small Neogene to Holocene basin in the forearc of the Cascadia subduction system. Although the basin owes its existence and structural development to its convergent-margin tectonic setting, the stratigraphic architecture of basin-fill deposits chiefly reflects its physiographic position along the lower reaches of the continental-scale Columbia River system. As a result of this globally unique setting, the basin preserves a complex record of aggradation and incision in response to distant as well as local tectonic, volcanic, and climatic events. Voluminous flood basalts, continental and locally derived sediment and volcanic debris, and catastrophic flood deposits all accumulated in an area influenced by contemporaneous tectonic deformation and variations in regional and local base level.

  8. The Sredne-Amursky basin: A migrating cretaceous depocenter for the Amur river, eastern Siberia

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Light, M.; Maslanyj, M.; Davidson, K.

    1993-09-01

    Recently acquired seismic, well, and regional geological data imply favorable conditions for the accumulation of oil and gas in the 20,000 km[sup 2] Sredne-Amursky basin. Major graben and northeast-trending sinistral wrench-fault systems are recognized in the basin. Lower and Upper Cretaceous sediments are up to 9000 and 3000 m thick, respectively. Paleogeographic reconstructions imply that during the Late Triassic-Early Cretaceous the Sredne-Amursky basin was part of a narrow marine embayment (back-arc basin), which was open to the north. During the Cretaceous, the region was part of a foreland basin complicated by strike-slip, which produced subsidence related to transtension during obliquemore » collision of the Sikhote-Alin arc with Eurasian margin. Contemporaneous uplift also related to this collision migrated from south to north and may have sourced northward-directed deltas and alluvial fans, which fed northward into the closing back-arc basin between 130 and 85 Ma. The progradational clastic succession of the Berriasian-Albian and the Late Cretaceous fluvial, brackish water and paralic sediments within the basin may be analogous to the highly productive late Tertiary clastics of the Amur River delta in the northeast Sakhalin basin. Cretaceous-Tertiary lacustrine-deltaic sapropelic shales provide significant source and seal potential and potential reservoirs occur in the Cretaceous and Tertiary. Structural plays were developed during Cretaceous rifting and subsequent strike-slip deformation. If the full hydrocarbon potential of the Sredne-Amursky basin is to be realized, the regional appraisal suggests that exploration should be focused toward the identification of plays related to prograding Cretaceous deltaic depositional systems.« less

  9. Groundwater quality in alluvial and prolluvial areas under the influence of irrigated agriculture activities.

    PubMed

    Kovacevik, Biljana; Boev, Blazo; Panova, Vesna Zajkova; Mitrev, Sasa

    2016-12-05

    The aim of this study was to investigate the groundwater pollution from alluvial aquifers lying under surface agriculture activities in two geologically different areas: alluvial and prolluvial. The groundwater in investigated areas is neutral to alkaline (pH 7.05-8.45), and the major dissolved ions are bicarbonate and calcium. Groundwater samples from the alluvial area are characterized by nitrate concentration above the national maximum concentration limit (MCL) at 20.5% of samples [mean value (Me) 6.31 mg/L], arsenic concentrations greater than national MCL at 35.6% of investigated samples (Me 12.12 µg/L) and elevated concentrations of iron (Me 202.37 µg/L) and manganese (Me 355.22 µg/L) at 22.7% and 81% of investigated samples, respectively. Groundwater samples from the prolluvial area did not show significantly elevated concentrations of heavy metals, but the concentration of nitrate was considerably higher (Me 65.06 mg/L). Factor analysis positively correlates As with Mn and Fe, suggesting its natural origin. Nitrate was found in positive correlation with SO 4 2- and Ni but in negative with NH 4 + , suggesting its anthropogenic origin and the relationship of these ions in the process of denitrification. The t-test analysis showed a significant difference between nitrate pollution of groundwater from alluvial and prolluvial areas. According to the chemical composition of groundwater, the process of denitrification is considered to be the main reason for the reduced presence of nitrate in the groundwater lying under alluvial deposits represented by chalk and sandstones. Denitrification in groundwater lying under prolluvial deposits represented by magmatic and metamorphic rock formations was not observed.

  10. Relative Impacts of Low Permeability Subsurface Deposits on Recharge Basin Infiltration Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, P.; Becker, M.; Pham, C.; Rodriguez, G.; Hutchinson, A.; Plumlee, M.

    2017-12-01

    Artificial recharge of aquifers through spreading basins has become an important component of water management in semi-arid climates. The rate at which water can be recharged in these basins is limited by the natural vertical permeability of the underlying deposits which may be highly variable both laterally and vertically. To help understand hydrostratigraphic controls on recharge, a newly constructed basin was surveyed and instrumented. Prior to flooding the basin, lithology was characterized by shallow hand coring, direct push coring, ground penetrating radar, and electrical resistivity. After flooding, recharge was monitored through piezometers, electrical resistivity, and a network of fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (DTS). The DTS network used temperature as a tracer to measure infiltration rate on 25 cm intervals both laterally and vertically. Several hundred paired DTS time series datasets (from fiber optic cables located at 0 and 0.5 meters below ground surface) were processed with the cross-wavelet transform (XWT) to calculate spatially and temporally continuous infiltration rates, which can be interpolated and animated to visualize heterogeneity. Time series data from 8-meter deep, vertically oriented DTS cables reveal depth intervals where infiltration rates vary. Inverted resistivity sections from repeated dipole-dipole surveys along the sidewall of a spreading basin exhibit a positive correlation with the distribution of relatively high and low infiltration rates, indicating zones of preferential downward (efficient) and lateral (inefficient) flow, respectively. In contrast to other monitored basins, no perching was observed in the vertically oriented DTS cables. The variation in recharge across the basin and the appearance of subsurface lateral flow can be explained in context of the alluvial depositional environment.

  11. Natural hazards on alluvial fans: the debris flow and flash flood disaster of December 1999, Vargas state, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larsen, Matthew C.; Wieczorek, Gerald F.; Eaton, L.S.; Torres-Sierra, Heriberto; Sylva, Walter F.

    2001-01-01

    Large populations live on or near alluvial fans in locations such as Los Angeles, California, Salt Lake City, Utah, Denver, Colorado, and lesser known areas such as Sarno, Italy, and Vargas, Venezuela. Debris flows and flash floods occur episodically in these alluvial fan environments, and place many communities at high risk during intense and prolonged rainfall. In December 1999, rainstorms induced thousands of landslides along the Cordillera de la Costa, Vargas, Venezuela. Rainfall accumulation of 293 mm during the first 2 weeks of December was followed by an additional 911 mm of rainfall on December 14 through 16. Debris flows and floods inundated coastal communities resulting in a catastrophic death toll of as many as 30,000 people. Flash floods and debris flows caused severe property destruction on alluvial fans at the mouths of the coastal mountain drainage network. In time scales spanning thousands of years, the alluvial fans along this Caribbean coastline are dynamic zones of high geomorphic activity. Because most of the coastal zone in Vargas consists of steep mountain fronts that rise abruptly from the Caribbean Sea, the alluvial fans provide practically the only flat areas upon which to build. Rebuilding and reoccupation of these areas requires careful determination of hazard zones to avoid future loss of life and property. KEY TERMS: Debris flows, flash floods, alluvial fans, natural hazards, landslides, Venezuela

  12. Facies architecture of basin-margin units in time and space: Lower to Middle Miocene Sivas Basin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çiner, A.; Kosun, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Miocene Sivas Basin is located within a collision zone, forming one of the largest basins in Central Turkey that developed unconformably on a foundered Paleozoic-Mesozoic basement and Eocene-Oligocene deposits. The time and space relationships of sedimentary environments and depositional evolution of Lower to Middle Miocene rocks exposed between Zara and Hafik towns is studied. A 4 km thick continuous section is subdivided into the Agilkaya and Egribucak Formations. Each formation shows an overall fining upward trend and contains three members. Although a complete section is present at the western part (near Hafik) of the basin, to the east the uppermost two members (near Zara) are absent. The lower members of both formations are composed of fluvial sheet-sandstone and red mudstone that migrate laterally on a flood basin within a semi-arid fan system. In the Agilkaya Formation that crops out near Zara, alluvial fans composed of red-pink volcanic pebbles are also present. The middle members are composed of bedded to massive gypsum and red-green mudstone of a coastal and/or continental sabkha environment. While the massive gypsum beds reach several 10’s of m in Hafik area, near Zara, they are only few m thick and alternate with green mudstones. In Hafik, bedded gypsums are intercalated with lagoonal dolomitic limestone and bituminous shale in the Agilkaya Formation and with fluvial red-pink sandstone-red mudstone in the Egribucak Formation. The upper members are made up of fossiliferous mudstone and discontinuous sandy limestone beds with gutter casts, HCS, and 3-D ripples. They indicate storm-induced sedimentation in a shallow marine setting. The disorganized accumulations of ostreid and cerithiid shells, interpreted as coquina bars, are the products of storm generated reworking processes in brackish environments. Rapid vertical and horizontal facies changes and the facies associations in both formations reflect the locally subsiding nature of this molassic

  13. Lateral groundwater inflows into alluvial aquifers of main alpine valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    In alpine regions the topography is mainly characterised by deep incised valleys, mountain slopes and ridges. Usually the main valleys contain aquifers in alluvial soft rock. Lateral these aquifers are confined by mountainous hard rock slopes covered by heterogeneous sediments with different thickness. The slopes can be incised by lateral valleys. Numerical models for the main alluvial aquifers ask for lateral hydrogeological boundaries. Usually no flow boundaries or Constant head Boundaries are used, even if the lateral inflows to the main aquifers are rarely known. In this example a data set for a detailed investigated and monitored area is studied to give an answer on the location and the quantification of these lateral subsurface inflows. The study area is a typical main alpine valley with a thick alluvial aquifer (appr. 120m thick), lateral confined by granite, covered at the base of the steep slopes by quaternary sediments (Burger at al. 2012). The study consists of several steps 1.) Analytical calculation of the inflows on the base of investigated and monitored 2d profiles along fault zones (Perello et al 2013) which pinch out in the main valley 2.) Analytical models along typical W-dipping slopes with monitored slope springs 3.) Evaluating temperature and electrical conductivity profiles measured in approx. 30 groundwater wells in the alluvial aquifers and along the slopes to locate main lateral subsurface inflows 4.) Output of a regional model used for the hydrogeological back analyses of the excavation of a tunnel (Baietto et al. 2014) 5.) Output of a local numerical model calibrated with a monitoring dataset and results of a pumping test of big scale (450l/s for 10days) Results of these analyses are shown to locate and quantify the lateral groundwater inflows in the main alluvial aquifer. References Baietto A., Burger U., Perello P. (2014): Hydrogeological modelling applications in tunnel excavations: examples from tunnel excavations in granitic rocks

  14. A database on flood and debris-flow processes in alluvial fans: a preliminary analysis aimed at evaluation of the damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Santangelo, Nicoletta; Santo, Antonio; Parise, Mario

    2015-04-01

    Debris-flow and flood events cause yearly wide damages to buildings and infrastructures, and produce many casualties and fatalities. These processes are very common in Italy, affecting mainly torrential stream basins with different geological and morphological settings: in the Alpine mountain areas they are quite well analysed, whilst much less attention is generally paid in contexts such as those of the Apennines mostly due to the minor frequency of the events. Nevertheless, debris-flows and flood processes occur along many alluvial fans, have greatly contributed to their building up, and are therefore worth to be studied. Along many areas of the Southern Apennines, coalescent alluvial fans are a widespread geomorphic unit, typically located at the foot of steep slopes. In most cases these areas correspond to the more highly urbanised sectors, generally considered to be safer than the bottom valley, as concerns the direct effects from flooding. During intense storms, villages and towns built on alluvial fans may be affected by flooding and/or debris flow processes originated in the above catchment, and rapidly transferred downslope due to the steep slopes and the torrential character of the streams. This creates a very high hazard to the population and is at the origin of the severe and recurrent damage to urban settlements. Starting from the above considerations, we compiled a catalogue of flood and debris-flow events occurred in Campania Region, southern Italy, by consulting very different information sources: national and local newspapers and journals, regional historical archives, scientific literature, internet blogs. More than 350 events, occurred in Campania from 1700 to present, were collected. Information on time of occurrence and location are available for each event, with different level of accuracy, that is typically lower going back to the oldest events for which only the year or the month of occurrence of the event was identified; nevertheless, for

  15. A Semiarid Long-Term Hydrologic Observatory at the Continental Scale: The Upper Río Grande Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. F.; Vivoni, E. R.; Bowman, R. S.; Coonrod, J.; Thomson, B. M.; Samani, Z.; Ferre, P. T.; Phillips, F. M.; Rango, A.; Rasmussen, R.; Springer, E. P.; Small, E. E.

    2004-12-01

    Water availability is critical in arid and semiarid regions, which comprise 35 percent of the land area of the globe. In the Southwestern US, climate variability and landscape heterogeneity lead to strong gradients in hydrological processes, which in turn impact land-atmosphere interactions, ecological dynamics, biogeochemical cycles and geomorphic change. This complexity presents a fundamental challenge to our understanding of hydrology, one that is best addressed through long-term, systematic field and remote-sensing observations and numerical-model investigations. In this poster, we will present our plans to study the interaction of climate-landscape-vegetation and water using a nested set of instrumented sites within the Upper Río Grande, a continental-scale semiarid watershed. This complex watershed extends from the snow-dominated headwater basins in San Juan Mountains of southern Colorado, through the Chihuahuan Desert in New Mexico, Texas and Mexico, to the desert valley alluvial basins southeast of El Paso, Texas. As part of the Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc. (CUAHSI) plan for a network of Long-Term Hydrologic Observatories (LTHOs), the Upper Río Grande would represent the combination of mountain landscapes, semiarid to arid alluvial basin aquifers and riparian corridors that are characteristic of the Western United States. We will describe existing hydrologic, ecologic and atmospheric measurement infrastructure in the watershed and discuss plans for integrating these into a coherent network that provides a core set of scientific data products for the hydrologic community. Data products generated by the Upper Río Grande LTHO will also aid in the testing of coupled numerical models of the atmosphere-surface-groundwater system applied at high resolution over the region. The Upper Río Grande presents unique opportunities to test hydrologic hypotheses concerning surface water-groundwater interactions and their

  16. Sediment transfer-storage relations for degrading alluvial reservoirs

    Treesearch

    Thomas E. Lisle; Michael Church

    2001-01-01

    The routing of sediment through a drainage system is mediated by transfer-storage relations that are particular to each alluvial reservoir, which contains a channel and floodplain. We propose that sediment transfer rate for a given annual distribution of streamflow is a positive function of sediment storage and examine these relations for degrading reservoirs in which...

  17. Geochemical evidence for the provenance of aeolian deposits in the Qaidam Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Shisong; Wu, Yongqiu; Tan, Lihua

    2018-06-01

    The main purpose of this study is to analyse the material source of different grain-size components of dune sand in the Qaidam Basin. We determined the trace and rare earth element (REE) compositions and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions of the coarse (75-500 μm) and fine (<75 μm) fractions of surface sediment samples. The comparison of the immobile trace element and REE compositions, Sr-Nd isotopic compositions and multidimensional scaling (MDS) results of the dune sands with those of different types of sediments in potential source areas revealed the following information. (1) The fine- and coarse-grained fractions of dune sands in the Qaidam Basin exhibit distinctly different elemental concentrations, elemental patterns and characteristic parameters of REE. Moreover, Sr-Nd isotopic differences also exist between different grain-size fractions of aeolian sand, which means that different grain-size fractions of these dune sands have different source areas. (2) The geochemical characteristics of the coarse particles of dune sand exhibit obvious regional heterogeneity and generally record a local origin derived from local fluvial sediments and alluvial/proluvial sediments. The coarse- and fine-grained dune sand in the southern Qaidam Basin mainly came from Kunlun Mountains, whereas the coarse- and fine-grained dune sand in the northeastern Qaidam Basin mainly came from Qilian Mountains. (3) The fine-grained fractions of sediments throughout the entire Qaidam Basin may have been affected by the input of foreign materials from the Tarim Basin.

  18. Late Quaternary alluvial fans of Emli Valley in the Ecemiş Fault Zone, south central Turkey: Insights from cosmogenic nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akif Sarıkaya, M.; Yıldırım, Cengiz; Çiner, Attila

    2015-01-01

    Alluvial fans within the paraglacial Ecemiş River drainages on the Aladağlar Mountains in south central Turkey were studied using geomorphological, sedimentological, and chlorine-36 terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure dating methods to examine the timing of alluvial fan abandonment/incision, and to understand the role of climatic and tectonic processes in the region. These alluvial fan complexes are among the best-preserved succession of alluvial fans in Turkey and they were offset by the major strike-slip Ecemiş Fault of the Central Anatolian Fault Zone. The alluvial fans are mostly composed of well-lithified limestone cobbles (5 to 25 cm in size), and comprise crudely stratified thick beds with a total thickness reaching up to about 80 m. TCN surface exposure dating indicates that the oldest alluvial fan surface (Yalak Fan) was likely formed and subsequently abandoned latest by 136.0 ± 23.4 ka ago, largely on the transition of the Penultimate Glaciation (Marine Isotope Stage 6, MIS 6) to the Last Interglacial (MIS 5) (i.e. Termination II). The second set of alluvial fan (Emli Fan) was possibly developed during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5), and incised twice by between roughly 97.0 ± 13.8 and 81.2 ± 13.2 ka ago. A younger alluvial fan deposit placed on relatively older erosional terraces of the Emli Fan suggests that it may have been produced during the Last Glacial Cycle (MIS 2). These events are similar to findings from other fluvial and lacustrine deposits throughout central Anatolia. The incision times of the Ecemiş alluvial fan surfaces largely coincide with major climatic shifts from the cooler glacial periods to warmer interglacial/interstadial conditions. This indicates that alluvial fans were produced by outwash sediments of paleoglaciers during cooler conditions, and, later, when glaciers started to retreat due to a major warming event, the excess water released from the glaciers incised the pre-existing fan surfaces. An

  19. Hydrogeological bedrock inferred from electrical resistivity model in Taichung Basin, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, C. W.; Chang, P. Y.; Chang, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    The four-year project of the study of groundwater hydrogeology and recharge model was indicated by Central Geological Survey, MOEA, Taiwan (R.O.C.) to evaluate recharge groundwater areas in Taiwan where included Taipei, Taichung Basins, Lanyang and Chianan Plains. The groundwater recharge models of Lanyang Plain and Taipei Basin have successfully been estimated in two years ago (2013-2014). The third year of the project integrates with geophysical, geochemistry, and hydrogeology models to estimate the groundwater recharge model in Taichung Basin region. Taichung Basin is mainly covered by Pre-Pleistocene of thick gravel, sandy and muddy sediment rocks within a joint alluvial fan, whereas the depth of the hydrological bedrock remains uncertain. Two electrical resistivity geophysical tools were carried out utilizing direct current resistivity and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) explorations, which could ideally provide the depth resolutions from shallow to depth for evaluating the groundwater resources. The study has carried out 21 AMT stations in the southern Taichung Basin in order to delineate hydrological bedrock in the region. All the AMT stations were deployed about 24 hours and processed with remote reference technique to reduce culture noises. The quality of most stations shows acceptable in the area which two stations were excluded due to near-field source effect in the southwestern basin. The best depth resolution is identified in 500 meters for the model. The preliminary result shows that the depths of the bedrock gradually changes from southern ~20 m toward to ~400 m in central, and eastern ~20 m to 180 m in the western basin inferred from the AMT model. The investigation shows that AMT method could be a useful geophysical tool to enhance the groundwater recharge model estimation without dense loggings in the region.

  20. Walled Sedimentary Basins of China: Perpetrators or Victims of Plateau Growth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, A. R.; Graham, S. A.; Smith, M. E.

    2004-12-01

    older history of nonmarine fill that dates back at least to the Jurassic, and therefore its existence predates the Himalayan orogeny. Fourth, mid-Tertiary and older fill of the Qaidam basin has already been deformed, indicating an ongoing history of structural shortening. Finally, closed geomorphic basins within the southern Tibetan plateau are all much smaller than the Qaidam. This suggests that brittle deformation associated with progressive south to north underplating has disrupted preexisting sedimentary basins that were originally more prominent than they are now.

  1. New Classification of Impact Basins and Its Implications for Basin Evolution on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, J.; Liu, J.; Guo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Large impact basins, the comprehensive results of internal and external dynamic geological processes, are the principal topographic features on the Moon. Study on evolution of those large impact basins provides important clues for understanding early history of the Moon. However, to classify the impact basins before anyone can link their characteristics to basin evolution, discrepancies occur among different classification systems, of which some did not to consider the effect of filled basalt [1] or some did not to consider the category of non-mascon basins [2, 3]. In order to clarify the ambiguous basin types caused by different classifications, we re-examined impact basins ≥ 200 km in diameter (66 in total; excluding SPA basin) using the GRAIL geophysical data, LRO DEM data and LP geochemical data from NASA Planetary Data System. We chose two major category labels: mascon or not [1, 2, 3] and the basin floor is covered by basalt/basaltic materials or not [4, 5]; plus, we considered topographic signatures as the clue of timescale. As a result, the 66 impact basins were classified into four categories: Type I (20), ma