Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan
Robust and sustainable development of poultry industry requires prevention of deadly infectious diseases. Vigorous vaccination of the birds is a routine practice; however, the live and inactivated vaccines that are used have inherent disadvantages. New-generation vaccines such as DNA vaccines offer several advantages over conventional vaccines. DNA vaccines, which encode an antigen of interest or multiple antigens in the target host, are stable, easy to produce and administer, do not require cold chain maintenance, and are not affected by the maternal antibodies. In addition, DNA vaccines can also be administered in ovo, and thus, mass vaccination and early induction of immune response can effectively be achieved. In this chapter, we focus on the development of DNA vaccines against important infectious viral as well as parasitic diseases of poultry.
... STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) HPV Vaccine Information For Young Women Language: English Español (Spanish) ... media/releases/2016/p1020-hpv-shots.html A vaccines is available to prevent the human papillomavirus (HPV) ...
An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.
Mansoor, Muhammad Khalid; Hussain, Iftikhar; Arshad, Muhammad; Muhammad, Ghulam
The current study was planned to develop an efficient vaccine against hydropericardium syndrome virus (HSV). Currently, formalin-inactivated liver organ vaccines failed to protect the Pakistan broiler industry from this destructive disease of economic importance. A field isolate of the pathogenic hydropericardium syndrome virus was adapted to chicken embryos after four blind passages. The chicken embryo-adapted virus was further serially passaged (12 times) to get complete attenuation. Groups of broiler chickens free from maternal antibodies against HSV at the age of 14 days were immunized either with 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine or commercially formalized liver organ vaccine. The antibody response, measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in the group immunized with the 16th passage attenuated HSV vaccine compared to the group immunized with liver organ vaccine at 7, 14, and 21 days post-immunization. At 24 days of age, the broiler chickens in each group were challenged with 10(3.83) embryo infectious dose(50) of pathogenic HSV and were observed for 7 days post-challenge. Vaccination with the 16th passage attenuated HSV gave 94.73% protection as validated on the basis of clinical signs (5.26%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (5.26%), histopathological lesions in the liver (1.5 ± 0.20), and mortality (5.26%). The birds inoculated with liver organ vaccine showed significantly low (p < 0.05; 55%) protection estimated on the basis of clinical signs (40%), gross lesions in the liver and heart (45%), histopathological lesions in the liver (2.7 ± 0.72), and mortality (35%). Birds in the unvaccinated control group showed high morbidity (84%), mortality (70%), gross (85%), and histopathological lesions (3.79 ± 0.14) with only 10% protection. In conclusion, this newly developed HSV vaccine proved to be immunogenic and has potential for controlling HSV infections in chickens.
Jones, E. Elizabeth
A new disease having a characteristic and well defined symptom complex is described as occurring in young chickens in four New England states. Tremor, principally of the head and neck, and progressive ataxia are the characteristic symptoms, either or both of which may be present in a single bird. Age at onset in field epidemics ranges from 3 days to 6 weeks, with a majority of cases reported at 3 weeks. Morbidity in commercial flocks ranges from 5 to 50 per cent; mortality in affected hatches may be 50 per cent. The disease may or may not recur in successive hatches, and in the same flock in successive years. Although birds may survive an attack of the disease, nervous symptoms persist in a majority of cases. There is no evidence that nutritional factors are involved. Normal chickens have not contracted the disease by contact with affected birds. The disease has been reproduced in normal chickens by intracerebral inoculation of brain and spinal cord from affected birds. Twenty brain-to-brain passages have been made up to the present time. The incubation period in laboratory passages ranges from 6 to 44 days with symptoms appearing usually between 21 and 28 days. The proportion of inoculated birds developing symptoms has increased with successive passages. The infective agent in the brain has survived in 50 per cent glycerine for 69 days. No organism has been cultivated. The disease has been reproduced after inoculation with bacteriologically sterile filtrates obtained with Seitz and Berkefeld N filters. Attempts to demonstrate the presence of the infective agent in the chicken embryo have been inconclusive. Chicks hatched from eggs laid by birds which had survived the disease were not infected, nor were they immune to inoculation at 6 weeks of age. The characteristic lesion of the disease consists of microscopic focal collections of glia cells, perivascular infiltration, degeneration of Purkinje's cells, and degeneration of nerve cells. Foci of infiltration are
We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication competent adenovirus (RCA)-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial layer-type chicken groups were singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, or singly v...
Toro, Haroldo; Suarez, David L; Tang, De-chu C; van Ginkel, Frederik W; Breedlovea, Cassandra
We evaluated protection conferred by mucosal vaccination with replication-competent adenovirus-free recombinant adenovirus expressing a codon-optimized avian influenza (AI) H5 gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5ck). Commercial, layer-type chicken groups were either singly vaccinated ocularly at 5 days of age, singly vaccinated via spray at 5 days of age, or ocularly primed at 5 days and ocularly boosted at 15 days of age. Only chickens primed and boosted via the ocular route developed AI systemic antibodies with maximum hemagglutination inhibition mean titers of 3.9 log2 at 32 days of age. In contrast, single vaccination via the ocular or spray routes maintained an antibody status similar to unvaccinated controls. All chickens (16/16) subjected to ocular priming and boosting with AdTW68.H5ck survived challenge with highly pathogenic AI virus A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2). Single ocular vaccination resulted in 63% (10/16) of birds surviving the challenge followed by a 44% (7/16) survival of single-sprayed vaccinated birds. Birds vaccinated twice via the ocular route also showed significantly lower (P < 0.05) AI virus RNA concentrations in oropharyngeal swabs compared to unvaccinated-challenged controls.
Guo, Rongxian; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan
Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum is the causative agent of pullorum disease in poultry, an acute systemic disease that results in a high mortality rate in young chickens. Vaccines have been considered in many developing countries where levels of infection are high and eradication is not a realistic option. An attenuated strain combined with protein E-mediated cell lysis was used to generate a safety enhanced Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine. Immune responses and protection induced by ghost vaccine in chickens were investigated following a prime-boost immunization administered via intramuscular and oral routes. Chickens from vaccinated groups showed significant increases in antigen-specific IgG, especially after booster immunization. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were also significantly increased in all immunized groups at 2-weeks post-final vaccination. The Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine provided satisfactory protection against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection, as shown by the robust stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as the reduction in the number of bacterial recovered post-challenge. Moreover, the immune effects and survival rates indicated intramuscular injection is more efficient than oral vaccination. In conclusion, our results suggest that Salmonella Pullorum ghosts may be used as a safe and effective novel inactivated vaccine candidate to protect against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection.
de Cássia Figueira Silva, Rita; do Nascimento, Elmiro Rosendo; de Almeida Pereira, Virgínia Léo; Barreto, Maria Lúcia; do Nascimento, Maria da Graça Fichel
Newcastle disease is characterized by respiratory manifestations in association with nervous and/or digestive symptoms. Its prevention is done by vaccination with live attenuated (lentogenic strains) and/or killed vaccines. The lentogenic strains can lead to strong post-vaccination reaction, principally due to the presence of other pathogenic agents. Among them, Mycoplasma synoviae is worldwide important, mainly in Brazil. The dissemination of this agent in poultry flocks has been achieved due to difficulties in diagnosis and disease reproduction, virulence variations among different M.synoviae strains, and attribution of typical M.synoviae disease manifestation to other disease agents. This experimental study in SPF chicks (Gallus gallus), previously infected by M.synoviae and thereafter vaccinated against Newcastle disease, was done with the objective of evaluating M.synoviae pathogenicity through assessment of post-vaccinal respiratory reactions and serologic responses to Newcastle disease virus vaccine in the absence of environmental factors. A total of 86 three days old chicks were used, being 57 infected by eye and nostril drop, with chicken activated M. synoviae strain WVU 1853. Seven days later, 21 mycoplasma infected birds plus 29 not mycoplasma infected ones were vaccinated against Newcastle disease. As results, the not infected and vaccinated birds yielded, significantly, higher and longer lasting serologic responses to Newcastle disease vaccine virus than those infected and vaccinated. Similarly, the infected and vaccinated birds yielded lower serologic reactions to M.synoviae than those only mycoplasma infected. No post-vaccinal respiratory reaction was observed in the vaccinated birds. PMID:24031234
Roh, J-H; Kang, M; Wei, B; Yoon, R-H; Seo, H-S; Bahng, J-Y; Kwon, J-T; Cha, S-Y; Jang, H-K
The production performance, efficacy, and safety of two types of vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) were compared with in-ovo vaccination of Cobb 500 broiler chickens for gross and microscopic examination of the bursa of Fabricius, bursa/body weight (b/B) ratio, flow cytometry, and serologic response to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccination. One vaccine was a recombinant HVT-IBD vector vaccine (HVT as for herpesvirus of turkeys) and the other was an intermediate plus live IBDV vaccine. A significant difference was detected at 21 d. Eight of 10 chickens that received the IBDV live vaccine had severe bursal lesions and a relatively low b/B ratio of 0.95, and an inhibited NDV vaccine response. On the other hand, the HVT-IBD vector vaccine resulted in mild bursal lesions and a b/B ratio of 1.89. Therefore, the live vaccine had lower safety than that of the HVT-IBD vector vaccine. To determine the protective efficacy, chickens were intraocularly challenged at 24 d. Eight of 10 chickens in the IBDV live vaccination group showed gross and histological lesions characterized by hemorrhage, cyst formation, lymphocytic depletion, and a decreased b/B ratio. In contrast, the HVT-IBD vector vaccinated chickens showed mild gross and histological lesions in three of 10 chickens with a b/B ratio of 1.36, which was similar to that of the unchallenged controls. Vaccinated chickens showed a significant increase in IBDV antibody titers, regardless of the type of vaccine used. In addition, significantly better broiler flock performance was observed with the HVT-IBD vector vaccine compared to that of the live vaccine. Our results revealed that the HVT-IBD vector vaccine could be used as an alternative vaccine to increase efficacy, and to have an improved safety profile compared with the IBDV live vaccine using in-ovo vaccination against the Korean very virulent IBDV in commercial broiler chickens.
Ferguson-Noel, N M; Williams, S M
The efficacy of a live Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) vaccine candidate (K-strain) was compared to commercially available vaccines in broiler-type chickens (Trial 1) and layer-type chickens (Trial 2). In Trial 1, three-week-old broiler-type chickens were vaccinated via aerosol with K-strain or an F-strain vaccine. The vaccinated chickens and 10 non-vaccinated controls were subsequently challenged with virulent R-strain via aerosol at six weeks post vaccination; both K-strain and F-strain vaccination resulted in significant protection from air sac and tracheal lesions, as well as R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). In Trial 2, commercial layer-type chickens were vaccinated with ts-11 (via eye drop) or K-strain (via aerosol) at 12 weeks of age. At 25 weeks of age these birds were challenged with R-strain via aerosol. The ts-11 and K-strain vaccinated groups both had significantly lower air sac lesion scores and a lower prevalence of ovarian regression after challenge as compared to non-vaccinated chickens (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain vaccination also prevented significant tracheal lesions and R-strain colonization (P ≤ 0.05). K-strain shows great potential as a highly efficacious live MG vaccine in broiler and layer-type chickens for protection of the respiratory and reproductive systems as well as prevention of infection with field strains.
Marek's disease virus oncogene meq has been identified as the gene involved in tumorigenesis in chickens. We have recently developed a Meq-null virus, rMd5delMeq, in which the oncogene Meq was deleted. Vaccine efficacy experiments conducted in ADOL 15I5 x 71 chickens vaccinated with rMd5delMeq virus...
Ryan, Margaret A K; Smith, Tyler C; Honner, William K; Gray, Gregory C
Primary varicella infection, or chicken pox, is a threat to all young adults who join the United States (U.S.) military if they fail to develop immunity prior to enlistment. Historically, outbreaks of chicken pox have caused marked morbidity and impaired military readiness. In December 1996, the U.S. Navy began performing serologic testing for varicella among all new recruits, and vaccinating those found to be sero-negative. We evaluated results of the screening program in its first 4 years, and used multivariable logistic regression modeling to describe factors associated with varicella susceptibility. Cases of chicken pox were tracked among all military services before and after program implementation. More than 190,000 young adults enlisted in the U.S. Navy between 1997 and 2000. Recruits originated from all 50 states and several foreign countries; 84% were male, and their average age was 19 years. Seven percent were found to be susceptible (sero-negative) to varicella. In multivariable modeling, race/ethnicity was associated with susceptibility, but age, gender, and home state were not. The overall incidence of chicken pox in the Navy was reduced by more than 80% after initiation of the screening-vaccination program. A successful varicella screening-vaccination program has been implemented in the U.S. Navy. Results of serologic screening undertaken on this large number of young adults may be useful in tracking the changing epidemiology of varicella in the general population in the post-vaccine era.
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) virus was elicited in chickens by single-dose vaccination with a replication competent adenovirus (RCA) -free human adenovirus (Ad) vector encoding a H7 hemagglutinin gene from a low pathogenic North American isolate (AdChNY94.H7). Chickens vaccinate...
Fang, Lichun; Li, Xiaohan; Ren, Zhihao; Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
In order to observe the effect of the immune and weight of chickens after use the attenuated vaccine with low dose of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV). In this study, the effects of low dose of CIAV on the weight of SPF chickens and NDV antibody production were observed by simulated experiments. The results showed that 10 EID50 and 5 EID50 CIAV per plume attenuated NDV vaccines were used to cause the weight loss of SPF chickens. Compared with the use of the non contaminated vaccine group, it has significant difference. And NDV antibody levels compared with the use of the non contaminated groups also decreased after use the vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. It has significant difference. A certain proportion of CIAV antibody positive was detected at the beginning of the second week after use the NDV vaccine with two doses of CIAV contaminated. The detection of a high proportion of CIAV nucleic acid was detected in the first week after the use of a contaminated vaccine. The results of the study demonstrate the effects of CIAV pollution on the production and immune function of SPF chickens, and it is suggested that increasing the detection of viral nucleic acid can help save time and improve the detection rate in the detection of exogenous virus contamination by SPF chicken test method.
NAVAL HEALTH RESEARCH CENTER MOLECULAR ANALYSIS OF ADENOVIRUS ISOLATES FROM PREVIOUSLY VACCINATED YOUNG ADULTS D. A. Blasiole...Molecular Analysis of Adenovirus Isolates From Previously Vaccinated Young Adults . 6. AUTHORS Daniel A Blasiole, David Metzgar, Luke T Daum, Margaret AK
Carrillo, José A; He, Yanghua; Luo, Juan; Menendez, Kimberly R; Tablante, Nathaniel L; Zhao, Keji; Paulson, Joseph N; Li, Bichun; Song, Jiuzhou
In this study we investigated the methylome of chickens immunized with Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) vaccine derived from chicken embryos. Methyl-CpG binding domain protein-enriched genome sequencing (MBD-Seq) method was employed in the detection of the 1,155 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) across the entire genome. After validation, we ascertained the genomic DMRs distribution and annotated them regarding genes, transcription start sites (TSS) and CpG islands. We found that global DNA methylation decreased in vaccinated birds, presenting 704 hypomethylated and 451 hypermethylated DMRs, respectively. Additionally, we performed an enrichment analysis detecting gene networks, in which cancer and RNA post-transcriptional modification appeared in the first place, followed by humoral immune response, immunological disease and inflammatory disease. The top four identified canonical pathways were EIF2 signaling, regulation of EIF4 and p70S6K signaling, axonal guidance signaling and mTOR signaling, providing new insight regarding the mechanisms of ILT etiology. Lastly, the association between DNA methylation and differentially expressed genes was examined, and detected negative correlation in seventeen of the eighteen genes.
Wang, Mi; Yang, Ruile; Zhang, Lifang; Meng, Xinyu; Fei, Chenzhong; Zhang, Keyu; Wang, Xiaoyang; Zheng, Wenli; Xiao, Sui; Zhang, Saiqi; Xue, Feiqun; Hu, Yuanliang
To evaluate the immune effect of sulfated glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (SGSC) on chickens, two experiments were researched. In vitro experiment, the effects of SGSC on chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation were determined. The results displayed that SGSC could significantly stimulate chicken splenic lymphocyte proliferation. In vivo experiment, 200 14-day-old chickens were averagely divided into 5 groups. The chickens, except blank control (BC) group, were vaccinated with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in three SGSC groups were injected, respectively, with the SGSC at low, medium and high concentrations, in vaccination control (VC) and BC group, with equal volume of physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On days 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 after the first vaccination, the lymphocyte proliferation, serum antibody titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) were measured. The results showed that SGSC at suitable dose could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation, enhance serum antibody titer, and improve serum IL-2 and IFN-γ concentrations. It indicated that SGSC could significantly improve the immune efficacy of Newcastle disease vaccine, and would be as the candidate of a new-type immune adjuvant.
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibo...
Our previous study demonstrated that chickens immunized subcutaneously with an Eimeria recombinant profilin protein vaccine emulsified in a Quil A/cholesterol/DDA/Carbopol (QCDC) adjuvant developed partial protection against experimental avian coccidiosis compared with animals immunized with profili...
Hwa, S.-H.; Iams, Keith P.; Hall, Jeffrey S.; Kingstad, B.A.; Osorio, Jorge E.
Raccoonpox virus (RCN) has been used as a recombinant vector against several mammalian pathogens but has not been tested in birds. The replication of RCN in chick embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) and chickens was studied with the use of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus H5N1 hemagglutinin (HA) as a model antigen and luciferase (luc) as a reporter gene. Although RCN replicated to low levels in CEFs, it efficiently expressed recombinant proteins and, in vivo, elicited anti-HA immunoglobulin yolk (IgY) antibody responses comparable to inactivated influenza virus. Biophotonic in vivo imaging of 1-wk-old chicks with RCN-luc showed strong expression of the luc reporter gene lasting up to 3 days postinfection. These studies demonstrate the potential of RCN as a vaccine vector for avian influenza and other poultry pathogens. ?? American Association of Avian Pathologists 2010.
Afzal, M A; Pipkin, P A; Minor, P D
Several preparations of MMR vaccines and their progenitor monovalent vaccine bulks produced by two different manufacturers were examined serologically for the presence of chicken myelin basic protein (MBP) residues. The products were challenged against several commercial preparations of anti-hMBP antisera that reacted positively with the control MBP preparations of human and chicken origins. There was no evidence of the presence of MBP components in MMR vaccines or their progenitor vaccine bulks as shown by the reactivity profiles of the antibody preparations against control and test antigens.
Shrestha, Sulochana; Dhawan, Mamta; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste
The efficacy of vaccination with Newcastle disease (ND) La Sota and R2B (Mukteswar) modified live strain vaccines was determined by experimental challenge and with ND La Sota vaccine under field conditions in Nepal. Booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine after a primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine, induced a geometric mean titre (GMT) of 5.0 log2 haemagglutination inhibition (HI) units, compared to a GMT of 6.0 log2 HI units following booster vaccination with R2B vaccine 1 month after primary vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine. Both vaccines provided 100% protection against challenge with a local field ND strain. Furthermore, booster vaccination with ND La Sota vaccine induced protective levels of antibody after field use in villages in Jhapa, and no outbreaks of ND occurred during the study period. The ND La Sota modified live vaccine is immunogenic and efficacious and is a suitable vaccine for use in vaccination programmes in village chickens in the rural areas of Nepal.
Mossab, A; Hallouis, J M; Lessire, M
The experiment was conducted to determine the apparent metabolizable energy and apparent fatty acid digestibility of tallow and soybean oil (8% of the basal diet) in young (1 and 3 wk of age) turkeys compared with young chickens. At 1 wk of age, turkeys used fats, particularly saturated fats, more efficiently than young chickens (i.e., total fatty acid digestibility was 96.5 vs. 86.4% for soybean oil and 75.0 vs. 49.1% for tallow). This difference between the two species disappeared at 3 wk of age, when there was an increase (95.7 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 64.0 vs. 69.7% for tallow) in fat utilization in young chickens, whereas in turkeys it remained constant (96.5 vs. 99.3% for soybean oil and 75 vs. 69.3% for tallow). This result suggests a greater and earlier maturity of the digestive system for fat utilization in turkeys than in young chickens. This efficient utilization of saturated fatty acids in turkeys seemed to depend more on the fat origin than on bird age, because it remained constant with age (91.4 vs. 96%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by soybean oil, and decreased (particularly for C18:0: 5.08 vs. 35.8%) when saturated fatty acids were provided by tallow. In turkeys, fluctuations in secretion of bile salts or in lipase activity during the trial period may have caused the lower stearic acid digestibility at 3 wk of age. The present study revealed a difference in fat utilization between turkeys and young chickens. For higher validity of the digestibility of fats, it would be preferable to use turkeys to derive metabolizable energy and fatty acid digestibility of fat values in formulating turkey diets.
Thomas, Tami L; Stephens, Dionne P; Johnson-Mallard, Versie; Higgins, Melinda
This exploratory descriptive study examined perceived vulnerabilities to human papillomavirus (HPV) and the correlation to factors influencing vaccine beliefs and vaccine decision making in young Hispanic males attending a large public urban university. Only 24% of participants believed that the HPV vaccine could prevent future problems, and 53% said they would not be vaccinated. The best predictors of HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men were agreement with doctor recommendations and belief in the vaccine's efficacy. Machismo cultural norms influence young Hispanic men's HPV-related decision making, their perceptions of the vaccine, and how they attitudinally act on what little HPV information they have access to. This study provides culturally relevant information for the development of targeted health education strategies aimed at increasing HPV vaccination in young Hispanic men.
More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFN') during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFN' wit...
Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Dunwoody, Robert P.; Marcano, Valerie; Diel, Diego G.; Williams, Robert J.; Gogal, Robert M.; Brown, Corrie C.; Miller, Patti J.; Afonso, Claudio L.
More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFNγ) during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFNγ with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigens were evaluated for their ability to enhance the avian immune response and their protective capacity upon challenge with virulent NDV. These systems consisted of: 1) a DNA vaccine expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion (F) protein co-administered with a vector expressing the chIFNγ gene for in ovo and booster vaccination, 2) a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the chIFNγ gene (rZJ1*L/IFNγ) used as a live vaccine delivered in ovo and into juvenile chickens, and 3) the same rZJ1*L/IFNγ virus used as an inactivated vaccine for juvenile chickens. Co-administration of chIFNγ with a DNA vaccine expressing the F protein resulted in higher levels of morbidity and mortality, and higher amounts of virulent virus shed after challenge when compared to the group that did not receive chIFNγ. The live vaccine system co-delivering chIFNγ did not enhanced post-vaccination antibody response, nor improved survival after hatch, when administered in ovo, and did not affect survival after challenge when administered to juvenile chickens. The low dose of the inactivated vaccine co-delivering active chIFNγ induced lower antibody titers than the groups that did not receive the cytokine. The high dose of this vaccine did not increase the antibody titers or antigen-specific memory response, and did not reduce the amount of challenge virus shed or mortality after challenge. In summary, regardless of the delivery system, chIFNγ, when administered simultaneously with the vaccine antigen, did not enhance Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity. PMID:27409587
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... inspector per minute under the traditional inspection procedure for the different young chicken and...
Swayne, D E; Beck, J R; Kinney, N
Vaccines against mildly pathogenic avian influenza (AI) have been used in turkeys within the United States as part of a comprehensive control strategy. Recently, AI vaccines have been used in control programs against highly pathogenic (HP) AI of chickens in Pakistan and Mexico. A recombinant fowl pox-AI hemagglutinin subtype (H) 5 gene insert vaccine has been shown to protect specific-pathogen-free chickens from HP H5 AI virus (AIV) challenge and has been licensed by the USDA for emergency use. The ability of the recombinant fowl pox vaccine to protect chickens preimmunized against fowl pox is unknown. In the current study, broiler breeders (BB) and white leghorn (WL) pullets vaccinated with a control fowl poxvirus vaccine (FP-C) and/or a recombinant fowl poxvirus vaccine containing an H5 hemagglutinin gene insert (FP-HA) were challenged with a HP H5N2 AIV isolated from chickens in Mexico. When used alone, the FP-HA vaccine protected BB and WL chickens from lethal challenge, but when given as a secondary vaccine after a primary FP-C immunization, protection against a HP AIV challenge was inconsistent. Both vaccines protected against virulent fowl pox challenge. This lack of consistent protection against HPAI may limit use to chickens without previous fowl pox vaccinations. In addition, prior exposure to field fowl poxvirus could be expected to limit protection induced by this vaccine.
Mesonero, Alexander; Suarez, David L; van Santen, Edzard; Tang, De-Chu C; Toro, Haroldo
Protective immunity against avian influenza (AI) can be elicited in chickens in a single-dose regimen by in ovo vaccination with a replication-competent adenovirus (RCA)-free human adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad)-vector encoding the AI virus (AIV) hemagglutinin (HA). We evaluated vaccine potency, antibody persistence, transfer of maternal antibodies (MtAb), and interference between MtAb and active in ovo or mucosal immunization with RCA-free recombinant Ad expressing a codon-optimized AIV H5 HA gene from A/turkey/WI/68 (AdTW68.H5(ck)). Vaccine coverage and intrapotency test repeatability were based on anti-H5 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels detected in in ovo vaccinated chickens. Even though egg inoculation of each replicate was performed by individuals with varying expertise and with different vaccine batches, the average vaccine coverage of three replicates was 85%. The intrapotency test repeatability, which considers both positive as well as negative values, varied between 0.69 and 0.71, indicating effective vaccination. Highly pathogenic (HP) AIV challenge of chicken groups vaccinated with increasing vaccine doses showed 90% protection in chickens receiving > or = 10(8) ifu (infectious units)/bird. The protective dose 50% (PD50) was determined to be 10(6.5) ifu. Even vaccinated chickens that did not develop detectable antibody levels were effectively protected against HP AIV challenge. This result is consistent with previous findings ofAd-vector eliciting T lymphocyte responses. Higher vaccine doses significantly reduced viral shedding as determined by AIV RNA concentration in oropharyngeal swabs. Assessment of antibody persistence showed that antibody levels of in ovo immunized chickens continued to increase until 12 wk and started to decline after 18 wk of age. Intramuscular (IM) booster vaccination with the same vaccine at 16 wk of age significantly increased the antibody responses in breeder hens, and these responses were maintained at high
Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.
Li, Yang; Hu, Yan; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Fang, Lichun; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
The aim of this study was to investigate possible causes of the pervasiveness of chicken infectious anemia virus ( CIAV: ) infection in chickens in recent years in China. A total of 14 batches of live-virus vaccines were examined using PCR to detect CIAV contamination, of which only 2 samples (a Newcastle disease vaccine and a fowl pox vaccine) tested positive for CIAV. These Newcastle and fowl pox vaccines were then inoculated into 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. Serum samples were collected from chickens infected with the PCR-positive vaccines, and these tested positive for CIAV-specific antibodies as tested using ELISA. In addition, DNA samples isolated from the serum samples also tested positive by PCR. The results indicated that the samples were contaminated with CIAV and identified 2 exogenous CIAV strains, designated CIAV-N22 and CIAV-F10, in the respective samples. The full genome sequences of these novel CIAV strains were sequenced and analyzed. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that the CIAV-F10 strain might represent a recombinant viral strain arising from the parental CIAV strains JQ690762 and KJ728816. Overall, the results suggested that vaccination with CIAV-contaminated vaccines contributed to the prevalence and spread of CIAV infection in chickens. Furthermore, the CIAV contaminant was likely subsequently transmitted to commercial chickens through congenital transmission. Our findings therefore highlight the need for more extensive screening of live-virus vaccines for poultry in China to reduce the threat of contamination with exogenous viruses.
Lee, Chih-Chun; Kim, Bong-Suk; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infection destroys the bursa of Fabricius, causing immunosuppression and rendering chickens susceptible to secondary bacterial or viral infections. IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA has been shown to confer complete protection of chickens from infectious bursal disease (IBD). The purpose of the present study was to compare DNA-vaccinated chickens and unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge by transcriptomic analysis of bursa regarding innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated intramuscularly three times at weekly intervals with IBDV large-segment-protein-expressing DNA. Chickens were challenged orally with 8.2 × 10(2) times the egg infective dose (EID)50 of IBDV strain variant E (VE) one week after the last vaccination. Bursae collected at 0.5, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10 days post-challenge (dpc) were subjected to real-time RT-PCR quantification of bursal transcripts related to innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport. The expression levels of granzyme K and CD8 in DNA-vaccinated chickens were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in unvaccinated chickens upon IBDV challenge at 0.5 or 1 dpc. The expression levels of other genes involved in innate immunity, inflammation, immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport were not upregulated or downregulated in DNA-vaccinated chickens during IBDV challenge. Bursal transcripts related to innate immunity and inflammation, including TLR3, MDA5, IFN-α, IFN-β, IRF-1, IRF-10, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, iNOS, granzyme A, granzyme K and IL-10, were upregulated or significantly (p < 0.05) upregulated at 3 dpc and later in unvaccinated chickens challenged with IBDV. The expression levels of genes related to immune cell regulation, apoptosis and glucose transport, including CD4, CD8, IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12(p40), IL-18, GM-CSF, GATA-3
Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Delezie, Evelyne; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip
Necrotic enteritis, caused by netB toxin-producing Clostridium perfringens type A, is an important disease in broiler chickens worldwide. Earlier attempts to prevent necrotic enteritis by vaccination have not sufficiently taken into account the practical limitations of broiler vaccination. In most published studies on vaccination against necrotic enteritis, multiple doses at different ages are administered, which is not practical for broilers. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of subcutaneous single vaccination at day 1 or day 3 and double vaccination at day 3 and day 12, using crude supernatant containing active toxin or formaldehyde-inactivated supernatant (toxoid) of a netB-positive C. perfringens strain in a subclinical necrotic enteritis model. Double vaccination with crude supernatant resulted in a significant decrease in the number of chickens with necrotic enteritis lesions. The efficacy of vaccination using toxoid was lower compared with crude supernatant. Single vaccination with crude supernatant at day 3 resulted in significant protection, while vaccination of 1-day-old chickens with crude supernatant or toxoid, as envisaged for practical field application, did not induce protection.
Han, Qingsong; Gao, Xiaolong; Wu, Pengpeng; Xiao, Sa; Wang, Xinglong; Liu, Peng; Tong, Lina; Hao, Huafang; Zhang, Shuxia; Dang, Ruyi; Yang, Zengqi
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection causes serious problems in laying chickens, like reducing egg production, increasing rate of abnormal eggs in spite of strict vaccination in layer farms program. A new evaluation system is needed to show complete protection of the immunization in laying chickens based on the egg-laying performance, rather than clinical signs of the disease. In this study, laying chickens with different anti-NDV HI (hemagglutination-inhibition) antibody titer after vaccination were divided into different groups. These chickens were then challenged with field isolated highly virulent NDV strains. Results showed that the chickens in low HI titers group (5log2 to 8log2) and medium HI titers group (9log2 to 11log2) had atypical symptoms, produced abnormal eggs, and shed virus. Whereas, with HI titers≥12log2, the chickens were completely protected, and did not show symptoms, or produce abnormal eggs or shed virus. Morbidity, positive viral shedding rate and abnormal egg-rate decreased with increase in pre-challenge HI antibody titer. Our result suggested that 12log2 is the threshold of the HI antibody in providing complete protection to laying chickens under field condition, and protective efficacy is correlated with HI antibody titer. This study provides a valuable reference for the vaccination and control of ND in poultry.
Gimeno, Isabel M; Faiz, Nik M; Cortes, Aneg L; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio; Pandiri, Arun R
Administration of Marek's disease (MD) vaccines in ovo has become a common practice for the poultry industry. Efficacy of MD vaccines is very high, even though they are administered to chicken embryos that are immunologically immature. We have recently demonstrated that in ovo vaccination with turkey herpesvirus (HVT) results in increased activation of T cells at hatch. Our previous results suggested that in ovo vaccination with HVT might have a positive impact not only on MD protection but also on the overall maturity of the developing immune system of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 days of embryonation (ED) on the maturation of the embryo immune system. Four experiments were conducted in Specific-Pathogen-Free Avian Supplies (SPAFAS) chickens to evaluate the effect of administration of HVT at 18 ED on the splenic cell phenotypes at day of age (experiment 1) and on the ability of 1-day-old chickens to respond to various antigens compared with older birds (experiments 2 and 3). In addition, a fourth experiment was conducted to elucidate whether administration of other serotype's MD vaccines (CVI988 and SB-1) at 18 ED had the same effect as HVT on the spleen cell phenotypes at day of age. Our results demonstrated that 1-day-old chickens that had received HVT in ovo (1-day HVT) had higher percentages of CD45+, MHC-I+, CD45+MHC-I+, CD3+, MHC-II+, CD3+MHC-II+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+CD8+ cells in the spleen than 1-day-old sham-inoculated chickens (1-day sham). Moreover, spleens of 1-day HVT chickens had greater percentages of CD45+MHC-I+ cells and equal or greater numbers of CD4+CD8- and CD4-CD8+ cells than older unvaccinated chickens. In addition, administration of HVT at 18 ED rendered chicks at hatch more responsive to unrelated antigens such as concavalin A, phytohemagglutinin-L, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Administration of MD vaccines of other serotypes had an effect
Kim, J Y; Kye, S J; Lee, H J; Gaikwad, S; Lee, H S; Jung, S C; Choi, K S
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain NDRL0901 was developed as a live vaccine candidate for control of Newcastle disease. NDV isolate KR/duck/13/07 (DK1307) of duck origin was used as the selected vaccine strain. DK1307 was passaged 6 times in chickens. Then a single clone from the chicken-adapted virus (DK1307C) was finally selected, and the vaccine strain was named NDRL0901. DK1307C and the clone NDRL0901 viruses showed enhanced immunogenicity compared to the DK1307 virus. Principal component analysis based on fusion and hemagglutinin-neuraminidase genes revealed the codon usage pattern in the dataset is distinct separating duck viral sequences and avian sequences, and passage of the duck origin virus into the chicken host causes deviation in the codon usage pattern. The NDRL0901 virus was avirulent and did not acquire viral virulence even after 7 back passages in chickens. When day-old chicks were vaccinated with the NDRL0901 virus via spray, eye drops, and drinking water, the vaccinated birds showed no clinical signs and had significant protection efficacy (>80%) against very virulent NDV (Kr005 strain) infection regardless of the administration route employed. The results indicate that the NDRL0901 strain is safe in chickens and can offer protective immunity.
Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...
Villanueva-Cabezas, J P; Campbell, P T; McCaw, J M; Durr, P A; McVernon, J
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N1 remains an enzootic disease of village chickens in Indonesia, posing ongoing risk at the animal-human interface. Previous modelling showed that the fast natural turnover of chicken populations might undermine herd immunity after vaccination, although actual details of how this effect applies to Indonesia's village chicken population have not been determined. We explored the turnover effect in Indonesia's scavenging and mixed populations of village chickens using an extended Leslie matrix model parameterized with data collected from village chicken flocks in Java region, Indonesia. Population dynamics were simulated for 208 weeks; the turnover effect was simulated for 16 weeks after vaccination in two 'best case' scenarios, where the whole population (scenario 1), or birds aged over 14 days (scenario 2), were vaccinated. We found that the scavenging and mixed populations have different productive traits. When steady-state dynamics are reached, both populations are dominated by females (54.5%), and 'growers' and 'chicks' represent the most abundant age stages with 39% and 38% in the scavenging, and 60% and 25% in the mixed population, respectively. Simulations showed that the population turnover might reduce the herd immunity below the critical threshold that prevents the re-emergence of HPAI H5N1 4-8 weeks (scavenging) and 6-9 weeks (mixed population) after vaccination in scenario 1, and 2-6 weeks (scavenging) and 4-7 weeks (mixed population) after vaccination in scenario 2. In conclusion, we found that Indonesia's village chicken population does not have a unique underlying population dynamic and therefore, different turnover effects on herd immunity may be expected after vaccination; nonetheless, our simulations carried out in best case scenarios highlight the limitations of current vaccine technologies to control HPAI H5N1. This suggests that the improvements and complementary strategies are necessary
Fentie, Tsegaw; Dadi, Kara; Kassa, Tesfu; Sahle, Mesfin; Cattoli, Giovanni
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of vaccines produced in Ethiopia from vaccine strains used worldwide on the transmission characteristics of velogenic Newcastle disease virus field strain after different vaccination schemes. Chickens were vaccinated with Hitchner B1, La Sota or I-2 via the intraocular and intranasal routes. Vaccine and challenge viruses induced high antibody levels, both in inoculated and contact birds. Prime-boost vaccination protected birds against morbidity and mortality and significantly reduced the incidence of viral shedding from chickens compared with single vaccinated and unvaccinated birds. Protection from disease and mortality was correlated with the presence of positive antibody titres (>4 log2) at day of challenge. Most of the unvaccinated and in-contact birds excreted the virus and showed a high level of antibody titres, indicating the high infectivity of the challenge virus. The detection of the challenge virus in most of vaccinated birds demonstrated that the tested vaccination protocols cannot fully protect birds from viral infection, replication and shedding, and vaccinated-infected birds can act as a source of infection for susceptible flocks. The high mortality observed in unvaccinated birds and their contacts confirmed the virulence of the challenge virus and indicated that this field virus strain can easily spread in an unvaccinated poultry population and cause major outbreaks. Progressive vaccinations supported by biosecurity measures should therefore be implemented to control the disease and introduction of the virus to the poultry farms.
Matulova, Marta; Havlickova, Hana; Sisak, Frantisek; Rychlik, Ivan
The prevalence of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is gradually decreasing in poultry flocks in the EU, which may result in the demand for a vaccine that allows for the differentiation of vaccinated flocks from those infected by wild-type S. Enteritidis. In this study, we therefore constructed a (Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1) SPI1-lon mutant with or without fliC encoding for S. Enteritidis flagellin. The combination of SPI1-lon mutations resulted in attenuated but immunogenic mutant suitable for oral vaccination of poultry. In addition, the vaccination of chickens with the SPI1-lon-fliC mutant enabled the serological differentiation of vaccinated and infected chickens. The absence of fliC therefore did not affect the immunogenicity of the vaccine strain and allowed for serological differentiation of the vaccinated chickens. The SPI1-lon-fliC mutant is therefore a suitable marker vaccine strain for oral vaccination of poultry. PMID:23785484
Roh, Ha Jung; Sung, Haan Woo
This study examined the adjuvant effects of dimethyl dioctadecyl ammonium bromide (DDA), CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN), and chicken interferon-γ (ChIFN-γ) on a DNA vaccine (pcDNA-VP243) against the infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV). A plasmid encoding chicken IFN-ã was constructed. Twice at 2-week intervals, two-week-old chickens were injected intramuscularly and intraperitoneally with either a DNA vaccine alone or a DNA vaccine together with the respective adjuvants. On week 2 after the second immunization, the chickens were orally challenged with the highly virulent IBDV. The groups that received the DNA vaccines plus either DDA or CpG-ODN showed significantly lower survival rates than the group that received the DNA vaccine alone. However, the survival rates for the DNA vaccine alone and for the DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-γ were similar. The chickens had no detectable antibodies to the IBDV before the challenge but all the surviving chickens in all groups except for the normal control group showed the induction of antibodies to the IBDV at day 10 after the challenge. As judged by the lymphocyte proliferation assays using the a WST-8 solution performed on the peripheral blood and splenic lymphocytes, the stimulation indices (SI) of the peripheral blood lymphocytes in all groups except for the normal control group were similar immediately before the challenge. At 10 days post-challenge, the SI for DNA vaccine plus either CpG-ODN or ChIFN-γ was similar to that of the DNA vaccine control group. For splenic lymphocytes, the SI in the DNA vaccine plus CpG-ODN and DNA vaccine plus ChIFN-γ groups were higher than for the DNA vaccine control. These results suggest that DDA actually compromises the protection against the IBDV by DNA vaccine, and CpG-ODN and IFN-γ had no significant effect. PMID:17106228
Vaccine protective efficacy is determined by multiple factors including host genetics, the type of vaccine, vaccine dosage, the virulence and dose of challenging viruses, and the interval between vaccination and viral challenge. Studies on human immune responses to vaccinations suggest host genetic...
Principi, Nicola; Senatore, Laura; Esposito, Susanna
Influenza is a very common disease among infants and young children, with a considerable clinical and socioeconomic impact. A significant number of health authorities presently recommend universal influenza vaccination for the pediatric population, but a large number of European health authorities is still reluctant to include influenza vaccination in their national vaccination programs. The reasons for this reluctance include the fact that the protection offered by the currently available vaccines is considered poor. This review shows that although future research could lead to an increase in the immunogenicity and potential efficacy of influenza vaccines, the available vaccines, even with their limits, assure sufficient protection in most subjects aged ≥ 6 months, thus reducing the total burden of influenza in young children and justifying the recommendation for the universal vaccination of the whole pediatric population. For younger subjects, the vaccination of their mother during pregnancy represents an efficacious strategy. PMID:26090704
Wambura, Philemon N; Godfrey, S K
The objective of the present study was to develop and evaluate a local vaccine (strain TPV-1) against Fowl pox (FP) in chickens. Two separate groups of chickens were vaccinated with FP vaccine through oral (coated on oiled rice) and wing web stab routes, respectively. The results showed that the haemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titres in both vaccinated groups were comparable and significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the control chickens. It was further revealed that 14 days after vaccination HI GMT of > or =2 log(2) was recorded in chickens vaccinated by oral and wing web stab routes whereas 35 days after vaccination the HI antibody titres reached 5.6 log(2) and 6.3 log(2), respectively. Moreover, in both groups the birds showed 100% protection against challenge virus at 35 days after vaccination. The findings from the present study have shown that oral route is equally effective as wing web stab route for vaccination of chickens against FP. However, the oral route can be used in mass vaccination of birds thus avoid catching individual birds for vaccination. It was noteworthy that strain TPV-1 virus could be propagated by a simple allantoic cavity inoculation and harvesting of allantoic fluid where it survived exposure at 57 degrees C for 2 hours. If the oral vaccination technique is optimized it may be used in controlling FP in scavenging and feral chickens. In conclusion, the present study has shown that FP vaccine (strain TPV-1) was safe, thermostable, immunogenic and efficacious in vaccinated chickens.
Pei, Yanlong; Parreira, Valeria R; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy; Prescott, John F
Salmonella hold considerable promise as vaccine delivery vectors for heterologous antigens in chickens. Such vaccines have the potential additional benefit of also controlling Salmonella infection in immunized birds. As a way of selecting attenuated strains with optimal immunogenic potential as antigen delivery vectors, this study screened 20 novel Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine strains, differing in mutations associated with delayed antigen synthesis and delayed attenuation, for their efficacy in controlling colonization by virulent Salmonella Typhimurium, as well as for their persistence in the intestine and the spleen. Marked differences were observed between strains in these characteristics, which provide the basis for selection for further study as vaccine vectors.
Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspe...
Hoan, Tran Duc; Thao, Doan Thi; Gadahi, Javaid Ali; Song, Xiaokai; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui
This study aimed to determine the changes of cytokines, specific serum IgG and several parameters in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccine encoding Eimeria brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) antigen. Two-week-old chickens were divided into five groups (four groups for experiment) randomly. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with DNA vaccine while control group of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid alone or TE buffer solution. All immunizations were boosted 2 weeks later. The EbAMA1 specific IgG antibody responses were measured at weeks 1-6 post-second immunizations and several parameters were also identified. The result showed that the antibody titers in chickens vaccinated with DNA vaccines were significantly different from those of the control groups 1 week after the second immunization and reached the maximum values 3 weeks post-second immunization. IFN-γ concentration was increased the highest level against EbAMA1 of all chickens vaccinated with vaccines up to 56-fold, follow by the specific IgG antibody levels were increased 10-17-fold compared with those of TE solution and plasmid (pVAX1) control chickens 1-6 weeks post-second immunization. In case of the levels of IL-10 and IL-17 was increased in experimental chickens with 4-5-fold. Even though it was statistically significant, TGF-β and IL-4 levels were higher in vaccinated than unvaccinated chickens. The results suggested that DNA vaccines encoding E. brunetti apical membrane antigen-1 (EbAMA1) could increase serum specific IgG antibody and cytokines concentration and could give protection against E. brunetti infection.
Varela, Ana Paula Muterle; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Scheffer, Camila Mengue; Schmidt, Candice; Sales Lima, Francisco Esmaile; Silva, Alessandra D'Avila; Esteves, Paulo Augusto; Franco, Ana Cláudia; Roehe, Paulo Michel
This study focuses on the detection of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) genomes in commercially available poultry vaccines. A duplex quantitative real-time PCR (dqPCR), capable of identifying genomes of both viruses in a single assay, was employed to determine the viral loads of these agents in commercially available vaccines. Thirty five vaccines from eight manufacturers (32 prepared with live and 3 with inactivated microorganisms) were examined. Genomes of CAV were detected as contaminants in 6/32 live vaccines and in 1/3 inactivated vaccines. The CAV genome loads ranged from 6.4 to 173.4 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.07 to 0.69 genome copies per dose of vaccine). Likewise, AGV2 genomes were detected in 9/32 live vaccines, with viral loads ranging from 93 to 156,187 per 50 ng of vaccine DNA (equivalent to 0.28-9176 genome copies per dose of vaccine). These findings provide evidence for the possibility of contamination of poultry vaccines with CAV and AGV2 and they also emphasize the need of searching for these agents in vaccines in order to ensure the absence of such potential contaminants.
Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Bajwa, Preety; Deb, Rajib; Chellappa, Madhan Mohan; Dey, Sohini
Chicken raised under commercial conditions are vulnerable to environmental exposure to a number of pathogens. Therefore, regular vaccination of the flock is an absolute requirement to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. To combat infectious diseases, vaccines require inclusion of effective adjuvants that promote enhanced protection and do not cause any undesired adverse reaction when administered to birds along with the vaccine. With this perspective in mind, there is an increased need for effective better vaccine adjuvants. Efforts are being made to enhance vaccine efficacy by the use of suitable adjuvants, particularly Toll-like receptor (TLR)-based adjuvants. TLRs are among the types of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize conserved pathogen molecules. A number of studies have documented the effectiveness of flagellin as an adjuvant as well as its ability to promote cytokine production by a range of innate immune cells. This minireview summarizes our current understanding of flagellin action, its role in inducing cytokine response in chicken cells, and the potential use of flagellin as well as its combination with other TLR ligands as an adjuvant in chicken vaccines.
Nothaft, Harald; Davis, Brandi; Lock, Yee Ying; Perez-Munoz, Maria Elisa; Vinogradov, Evgeny; Walter, Jens; Coros, Colin; Szymanski, Christine M.
Campylobacter jejuni is a predominant cause of human gastroenteritis worldwide. Source-attribution studies indicate that chickens are the main reservoir for infection, thus elimination of C. jejuni from poultry would significantly reduce the burden of human disease. We constructed glycoconjugate vaccines combining the conserved C. jejuni N-glycan with a protein carrier, GlycoTag, or fused to the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide-core. Vaccination of chickens with the protein-based or E. coli-displayed glycoconjugate showed up to 10-log reduction in C. jejuni colonization and induced N-glycan-specific IgY responses. Moreover, the live E. coli vaccine was cleared prior to C. jejuni challenge and no selection for resistant campylobacter variants was observed. Analyses of the chicken gut communities revealed that the live vaccine did not alter the composition or complexity of the microbiome, thus representing an effective and low-cost strategy to reduce C. jejuni in chickens and its subsequent entry into the food chain. PMID:27221144
Tseng, Li-Ping; Chiou, Chwei-Jang; Chen, Chien-Chung; Deng, Ming-Chung; Chung, Tze-Wen; Huang, Yi-You; Liu, Der-Zen
In order to potentiate the low immunogenicity of the inactivated Newcastle disease virus immunized into chickens by mucosal route, liposomes as a drug delivery system and LPS (lipopolysaccharide) as an immuno-stimulator were evaluated. Here, we report a new nasal delivery system of inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. The intranasal vaccine was based on different lipids to form MLV (multi-lamellar vehicles) liposomes. The liposomes had combined carrier and adjuvant activities, which induced strong systemic (serum) and local (lung and nasal) humoral responses in SPF (specific-pathogen-free) chickens, and provided protective immunity. PC-Lip (phosphatidylcholine-liposome) elicited significant mucosal secretary immunoglobulin A (s-IgA) levels (p<0.05) in tracheal lavage fluid and serum IgG levels (p<0.05). In response to virulent viral challenge, birds treated with PBS (phosphate buffered saline) as control group died, whereas 80% of chickens which received PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, PS-Lip (phosphatidylserine-liposome), and PS-Lip-LPS survived. HAI titers were 1:2560 in the PS-Lip-LPS group and 1:1280 in the PC-Lip, PC-Lip-LPS, and PS-Lip groups after two vaccinations. The results suggest that PC-Lip or PS-Lip might thus be suitable as a potential adjuvant for mucosal vaccination against NDV in chickens.
Methner, Ulrich; Barrow, Paul A; Berndt, Angela; Rychlik, Ivan
Salmonella Enteritidis mutants with deletions in phoP, fliC or phoPfliC were tested for their virulence and their ability to induce parameters of the innate and adaptive immunity in addition to their potential for serological differentiation between vaccinated, non-vaccinated and infected chickens. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant was sufficiently attenuated but not diminished in its capability to inhibit the caecal colonisation and systemic invasion of homologous Salmonella Enteritidis shortly after administration of the vaccine strain to very young chicks. Immunisation with the attenuated ΔphoPfliC mutant resulted in protective effects which were only slightly and insignificantly lower than after "immunisation" with a Salmonella wild-type strain, indicating the capability to induce an intense adaptive immune response and protection against Salmonella exposure in older chickens. The deletion in fliC enabled the effective the differentiation between immunised and infected chickens using a commercially available ELISA kit. The double phoPfliC deletion mutant of Salmonella Enteritidis might be a potential and promising live Salmonella vaccine candidate with novel characteristics for use in poultry.
Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua
Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.
IBI, Kanata; MURAKAMI, Tomoaki; GODA, Wael Mohamed; KOBAYASHI, Naoki; ISHIGURO, Naotaka; YANAI, Tokuma
Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent. PMID:25985816
Ibi, Kanata; Murakami, Tomoaki; Goda, Wael Mohamed; Kobayashi, Naoki; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Yanai, Tokuma
Avian amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is commonly observed in adult birds with chronic inflammation, such as that caused by bacterial infection. We previously described vaccine-associated AA amyloidosis in juvenile chickens. In this study, the prevalence of amyloid deposition was measured in mature healthy chickens that survived a previous outbreak of avian AA amyloidosis while they were juveniles. Herein, we analyzed the amyloid deposition in mature chickens and compared the prevalence of amyloid deposition with juvenile chickens obtained in our previous study (Murakami et al., 2013). We found that: 1) amyloid deposition in the liver was absent in mature chickens, while juvenile chickens had a rate of 24%; 2) amyloid deposition in the spleen was observed in 36% of juvenile chickens and in 40% of mature chickens; 3) amyloid deposition in the pectoral muscle of mature chickens (43.75%) was approximately half that of juvenile chickens (88%). These results suggest that additional amyloid deposition in chickens previously exposed to AA amyloidosis may not worsen with age. Further, amyloid deposition in chickens may tend to regress when causative factors, such as vaccinations and/or chronic inflammation, are absent.
Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or ...
Baxi, M K; Oberoi, M S
Two types of vaccines, chicken embryo adapted (VacCE) and cell culture adapted (VacCC), were tested for their efficacy to elicite the immune response in birds vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk of age. The cell-mediated immune response studied by blastogenesis assay showed that birds vaccinated at the second week of age by both VacCE and VacCC vaccines had significant increase in T-lymphocyte count at 21 days postvaccination (PV) and 7 days postchallenge (PC), whereas in birds vaccinated at 8 wk of age, a significant increase was seen at 21 days PV and 7 days PC with the VacCC vaccine. The rise in passive hemagglutination titers was observed up to 21 days PV and 7 days PC in birds vaccinated at 2 wk of age. However, only the birds vaccinated with VacCC at 8 wk of age showed rise in titers at days 21 PV and 7 PC. Birds were challenged 90 days PV by scarification on the thigh region, and the birds vaccinated with VacCC showed 90% and 70% protection when vaccinated at 2 and 8 wk, respectively. The birds vaccinated with VacCE showed only 60% and 20% protection at the corresponding levels, respectively.
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high-prevalence setting of South Africa--where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. This study reports on six focus groups (n = 42) conducted in…
Su, Bor Sheu; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Hung, Li Hsiang; Huang, Ji Ping; Shien, Jui Hung; Lee, Long Huw
Recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/HN) expressing Newcastle disease virus (NDV) HN gene and rFPV/HN/chIL-12 co-expressing chicken IL-12 (chIL-12) and HN (rHN/chIL-12) genes have been characterized. rHN/chIL-12 or rchIL-12, expressed by our previous construct rFPV/chIL-12, co-administered with rHN was assessed for adjuvant activities of chIL-12. Chickens were vaccinated with various amounts of rHN/chIL-12 mixed with mineral oil (MO), intramuscularly. Levels of hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody production depended on the concentration of the injected rHN or rHN/chIL-12. The lower HI antibody titers were obtained in chicken groups rHN/chIL-12/7-rHN/chIL-12/9, receiving 60ng rHN/8ng chIL-12 with MO, 30ng rHN/4ng chIL-12 with MO or 15ng rHN/2ng chIL-12 with MO, respectively, compared to those in chicken groups rHN/7-rHN/9, receiving rHN with MO alone. However, chickens in group rHN/chIL-12/7 or rHN/chIL-12/8 and rHN with MO alone showed the same effective protection. Chicken group rHN/chIL-12/9 was even more protective than that in group rHN/9. When rchIL-12 was co-injected with 15ng rHN plus MO, chickens produced low levels of HI antibody titers; while higher levels of IFN-γ production and an effective protection rate (83%) were obtained. On the other hand, low levels of IFN-γ production and low protection response (50%) were obtained in chickens injected with rHN with MO alone. Taken together, when the concentration of rHN decreased to certain levels, rchIL-12 reduced HI antibody production. The increase in the induction of IFN-γ production might suggest the enhancement of the cell-mediated immunity which conferred the protection from the NDV challenge.
Sayles, Jennifer N.; Macphail, Catherine L.; Newman, Peter A.; Cunningham, William E.
Developing and disseminating a preventive HIV vaccine is a primary scientific and public health objective. However, little is known about HIV vaccine acceptability in the high prevalence setting of South Africa—where young adults are likely to be targeted in early dissemination efforts. In 2007, we conducted six focus groups (n=42) with South Africans aged 18-24 years old. We used a deductive framework approach to identify key motivators and barriers to future HIV vaccine uptake. Participants identified HIV testing, HIV stigma, mistrust of the health care system, and concerns about sexual disinhibition as barriers to vaccine uptake. For women, family members and friends were strong motivators for vaccine uptake, while men were more likely to see vaccines as an opportunity to stop using HIV prevention strategies such as condoms and partner reductions. Implications of these findings for developing HIV vaccine dissemination strategies and policy in South Africa are discussed. PMID:19509123
Giambrone, J J
Experiments were conducted to examine the efficacy of various commercial vaccination programs for the prevention of Newcastle disease (ND) in broilers. In all, chicks were from breeders vaccinated against ND via drinking water at 75-day intervals. Vaccination was by company personnel on company premises. In Expt. 1, the initial ND vaccination programs tested were vaccination at 1 day by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine or by tracheal instillation with the Beak-o-Vac machine, and vaccination at 7 days via drinking water. In Expts. 2-4, birds initially vaccinated via one of the three previously mentioned methods (Spra-Vac in Expt. 2, Beak-o-Vac in Expt. 3, and drinking water in Expt. 4) were revaccinated against ND by either drinking water or coarse spray with one of two commercial portable machines (ULVA Fan or Spray Master). Serologic and challenge data in Expt. 1 indicated that although broilers vaccinated by any of the three initial routes failed to produce measurable antibody to NDV, all methods resulted in protection against NDV challenge at 35 and 49 days. However, resistance to challenge with virulent ND was greatest in birds initially vaccinated by coarse spray with the Spra-Vac machine. Results in Expts. 2-4 indicated that NDV hemagglutination-inhibition titers were highest and resistance to challenge greatest in birds initially vaccinated at day 1 by coarse spray (Spra-Vac) and then revaccinated at 14 days by coarse spray. There were no differences, however, between the portable coarse spray machines in efficacy in reimmunizing broilers against NDV.
Ren, Zhenghua; Lu, Zhongzheng; Wang, Lei; Huo, Zeren; Cui, Jianhua; Zheng, Tingting; Dai, Qing; Chen, Cuiling; Qin, Mengying; Chen, Meihua; Yang, Rirong
H9N2 subtype avian influenza viruses are widespread in domestic poultry, and vaccination remains the most effective way to protect the chicken population from avian influenza pandemics. Currently, egg-based H9N2 influenza vaccine production has several disadvantages and mammalian MDCK cells are being investigated as candidates for influenza vaccine production. However, little research has been conducted on low pathogenic avian influenza viruses (LPAIV) such as H9N2 replicating in mammalian cells using microcarrier beads in a bioreactor. In this study, we present a systematic analysis of a safe H9N2 influenza vaccine derived from MDCK cells for protecting chickens against influenza virus infection. In 2008, we isolated two novel H9N2 influenza viruses from chickens raised in southern China, and these H9N2 viruses were adapted to MDCK cells. The H9N2 virus was produced in MDCK cells in a scalable bioreactor, purified, inactivated, and investigated for use as a vaccine. The MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine was able to induce high titers of neutralizing antibodies in chickens of different ages. Histopathological examination, direct immunofluorescence, HI assay, CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio test, and cytokine evaluation indicated that the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine evoked a rapid and effective immune response to protect chickens from influenza infection. High titers of H9N2-specific antibodies were maintained in chickens for 5 months, and the MDCK-derived H9N2 vaccine had no effects on chicken growth. The use of MDCK cells in bioreactors for LPAIV vaccine production is an attractive option to prevent outbreaks of LPAIV in poultry.
Chen, Hong-Ying; Cui, Pei; Cui, Bao-An; Li, He-Ping; Jiao, Xian-Qin; Zheng, Lan-Lan; Cheng, Guo; Chao, An-Jun
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes severe and economically significant respiratory disease in poultry worldwide. Herein, the immunogenicity of two recombinant fowlpox viruses (rFPV-gB and rFPV-gB/IL18) containing ILTV glycoprotein B (gB) and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) were investigated in a challenge model. One-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were vaccinated by wing-web puncture with the two rFPVs and challenged with the virulent ILTV CG strain. There were differences in antibody levels elicited by either rFPV-gB/IL18 or rFPV-gB as determined using ELISA. The ratios of CD4(+) to CD8(+) in chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were higher (P < 0.05) than in those immunized with rFPV-gB, and the level of proliferative response of the T cells in the rFPV-gB/IL18-vaccinated group was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the rFPV-gB group. All chickens immunized with rFPV-gB/IL18 were protected (10/10), whereas only eight of 10 of the chickens immunized with the rFPV-gB were protected. The results showed that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-gB vaccine could be enhanced by simultaneous expression of chicken IL-18.
Gimeno, Isabel M; Cortes, Aneg L; Faiz, Nik M; Barbosa, Taylor; Villalobos, Tarsicio
Marek's disease (MD) strain CVI988 is the most-protective commercially available vaccine against very virulent plus (vv+) Marek's disease virus (MDV). However, its use in meat-type chickens has been controversial. While several countries have been using CVI988 for more than 40 yr, others do not authorize its use or it is restricted mainly to layers. The use of CVI988 in meat-type chickens will be necessary in the future in areas where other vaccine protocols fail. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors (vaccine dose, vaccine origin, chicken genetics, age and route of vaccination, and combination with other MD vaccines) influencing the efficacy of CVI988 against MD in meat-type chickens. Three animal experiments were conducted in which various vaccine protocols using CVI988 were tested for their protection against challenge with vv+ strain 648A by contact at day of age. Experiments 1 and 2 were to compare the efficacy of CVI988 vaccines from three different origins (CVI988-A, CVI988-B, and CVI988-C) and evaluate the effect of vaccine dose and chicken genetics. Experiment 3 was to evaluate the effect of adding CVI988 vaccine to various vaccine protocols using other MD vaccines of serotypes 2 (SB-1) and 3 (rHVT). Our results show that, regardless of the origin of the vaccine, protection against early challenge with 648A was good when vaccines were administered at a high dose (>3000 plaque-forming units [PFU]). Differences among vaccines, however, were detected even when using a high dose in experiment 2 (vaccine CVI988-B conferred higher protection than did CVI988-C) but not in Experiment 1 (CVI988-B was compared to CVI988-A). The use of a fixed low dose (2000 PFU) of vaccine resulted in reduction in protection, and such reduction was more remarkable when using CV1988-A. No statistically significant differences were found when we compared the efficacy of CVI988 in two different genetic lines of broiler chickens (G1 and G2). Vaccination protocols that
Jang, Hyesun; Ngunjiri, John M.; Lee, Chang-Won
Influenza virus mutants that encode C-terminally truncated NS1 proteins (NS1-truncated mutants) are attractive candidates for avian live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) development because they are both attenuated and immunogenic in chickens. We previously showed that a high protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV in chickens corresponds with induction of high levels of type I interferon (IFN) responses in chicken embryonic fibroblast cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between induction of IFN and IFN-stimulated gene responses in vivo and the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV. Our data demonstrates that accelerated antibody induction and protective efficacy of NS1-truncated LAIV correlates well with upregulation of IFN-stimulated genes. Further, through oral administration of recombinant chicken IFN alpha in drinking water, we provide direct evidence that type I IFN can promote rapid induction of adaptive immune responses and protective efficacy of influenza vaccine in chickens. PMID:27257989
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section 381.67 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section 381.67 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate maximums under traditional inspection procedure. 381.67 Section 381.67 Animals and Animal... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Young chicken and squab slaughter... INSPECTION REGULATIONS Operating Procedures § 381.67 Young chicken and squab slaughter inspection rate... slaughter line configurations are specified in the following table. These maximum rates will not be...
Xu, Qingqing; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Zhao, Xiaomin
The intricate sequence and antigenic variability of avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) have led to unprecedented difficulties in the development of vaccines. Much experimental evidence demonstrates that ALV-J mutants have caused immune evasion and pose a challenge for traditional efforts to develop effective vaccines. To investigate the potential of a multi-epitope vaccination strategy to prevent chickens against ALV-J infections, a recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) containing both immunodominant B and T epitope concentrated domains selected from the major structural protein of ALV-J using bioinformatics approach was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3). Its immunogenicity and protective efficacy was studied in chickens. The results showed that rCMEPX could elicit neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses, and antibodies induced by rCMEPX could specifically recognize host cell naturally expressed ALV-J proteins, which indicated that the rCMEPX is a good immunogen. Challenge experiments showed 80% chickens that received rCMEPX were well protected against ALV-J challenge. This is the first report of a chimeric multi-epitope protein as a potential immunogen against ALV-J.
Yu, Wen-Ying; Chuang, Tien-Fu; Guichard, Cécile; El-Garch, Hanane; Tierny, Dominique; Laio, Albert Taiching; Lin, Ching-Si; Chiou, Kuo-Hao; Tsai, Cheng-Long; Liu, Chen-Hsuan; Li, Wen-Chiuan; Fischer, Laurent; Chu, Rea-Min
Immunization with xenogeneic DNA is a promising cancer treatment to overcome tolerance to self-antigens. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) is over-expressed in various kinds of tumors and is believed to be involved in tumor progression. This study tested a xenogeneic chicken HSP70 (chHSP70) DNA vaccine in an experimental canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) model. Three vaccination strategies were compared: the first (PE) was designed to evaluate the prophylactic efficacy of chHSP70 DNA vaccination by delivering the vaccine before tumor inoculation in a prime boost setting, the second (T) was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the same prime boost vaccine by vaccinating the dogs after tumor inoculation; the third (PT) was similar to the first strategy (PE), with the exception that the electroporation booster injection was replaced with a transdermal needle-free injection. Tumor growth was notably inhibited only in the PE dogs, in which the vaccination program triggered tumor regression significantly sooner than in control dogs (NT). The CD4(+) subpopulation of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and canine HSP70 (caHSP70)-specific IFN-γ-secreting lymphocytes were significantly increased during tumor regression in the PE dogs as compared to control dogs, demonstrating that specific tolerance to caHSP70 has been overcome. In contrast, no benefit of the therapeutic strategy (T) could be noticed and the (PT) strategy only led to partial control of tumor growth. In summary, antitumor prophylactic activity was demonstrated using the chHSP70 DNA vaccine including a boost via electroporation. Our data stressed the importance of DNA electroporation as a booster to get the full benefit of DNA vaccination but also of cancer immunotherapy initiation as early as possible. Xenogeneic chHSP70 DNA vaccination including an electroporation boost is a potential vaccine to HSP70-expressing tumors, although further research is still required to better understand true
Yu, Qingzhong; Wang, Hongling; Luo, Qingping; Zhang, Tengfei; Zhang, Rongrong; Zhang, Wanpo; Shao, Huabin
In-ovo vaccination is an attractive immunization approach for poultry industry. However, most of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine strains used after hatch are unsafe, as in-ovo vaccines, due to their high pathogenicity for chicken embryos. In this study, we evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a thermostable NDV strain TS09-C, derived from V4 strain, as in-ovo vaccine. Chickens in-ovo vaccinated with the parental V4 strain displayed greatly reduced hatchability and severe histopathological lesions in both trachea and intestine tissues, while the hatchability was not affected by in-ovo vaccination withTS09-C strain. The safe dose that infected all chicken embryos without obviously histopathological lesions was 103.0 EID50 per bird. In-ovo vaccination of chickens with TS09-C virus conferred complete protection against virulent NDV challenge. Results suggest that the thermostable NDV strain TS09-C is a safe and immunogenic in-ovo vaccine candidate that can be delivered quickly and uniformly, and induce earlier immune response. PMID:28234989
Manso, Pedro Paulo de Abreu; Dias de Oliveira, Barbara C. E. P.; de Sequeira, Patrícia Carvalho; Maia de Souza, Yuli Rodrigues; Ferro, Jessica Maria dos Santos; da Silva, Igor José; Caputo, Luzia Fátima Gonçalves; Guedes, Priscila Tavares; dos Santos, Alexandre Araujo Cunha; Freire, Marcos da Silva; Bonaldo, Myrna Cristina; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo
The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine is one of the most effective human vaccines ever created. The YF vaccine has been produced since 1937 in embryonated chicken eggs inoculated with the YF 17D virus. Yet, little information is available about the infection mechanism of YF 17DD virus in this biological model. To better understand this mechanism, we infected embryos of Gallus gallus domesticus and analyzed their histopathology after 72 hours of YF infection. Some embryos showed few apoptotic bodies in infected tissues, suggesting mild focal infection processes. Confocal and super-resolution microscopic analysis allowed us to identify as targets of viral infection: skeletal muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, nervous system cells, renal tubular epithelium, lung parenchyma, and fibroblasts associated with connective tissue in the perichondrium and dermis. The virus replication was heaviest in muscle tissues. In all of these specimens, RT-PCR methods confirmed the presence of replicative intermediate and genomic YF RNA. This clearer characterization of cell targets in chicken embryos paves the way for future development of a new YF vaccine based on a new cell culture system. PMID:26371874
Maity, Hemanta Kumar; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan; Khulape, Sagar A; Pathak, Dinesh C; Vakharia, Vikram N
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, infectious, immunosuppressive disease affecting young chicken worldwide. The etiological agent IBD virus (IBDV) is a double stranded RNA virus with outer capsid protein VP2 of IBDV is the major antigenic determinant capable of inducing neutralizing antibody. DNA vaccines encoding VP2 has been extensively studied achieving only partial protection. However, the efficacy of DNA vaccines against IBDV can be augmented by choosing a potential molecular adjuvant. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the immune response and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding the C-terminal domain of the heat shock protein 70 (cHSP70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene genetically fused with the full length VP2 gene of IBDV (pCIVP2-cHSP70) in comparison to a 'DNA prime-protein boost' approach and a DNA vaccine encoding the VP2 gene (pCIVP2) alone. The results indicate that both pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' elicited humoral as well as cellular immune responses. Chickens in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' groups developed significantly higher levels of ELISA titer to IBDV antigen compared to the group immunized with pCIVP2 alone (p<0.01). However, significantly higher levels of lymphocyte proliferative response, IL-12 and IFN-γ production were found in the pCIVP2-cHSP70 group compared to 'DNA prime-protein boost' group. Additionally, chickens immunized with pCIVP2-cHSP70 and 'DNA prime-protein boost' vaccines were completely protected against the vvIBDV whereas pCIVP2 DNA vaccine alone was able to protect only 70%. These findings suggest that the truncated C-terminal HSP70 mediated DNA vaccine genetically fused with the VP2 gene construct stimulated both humoral and cell mediated immune responses and conferred complete protection against IBDV. This novel strategy is perhaps a seminal concept in utilizing HSP70 as an adjuvant molecule to elicit an immune response against IBD affecting chickens.
Nolan, Terry; O'Ryan, Miguel; Wassil, James; Abitbol, Véronique; Dull, Peter
Vaccination programs employing capsular-based meningococcal vaccines have proved successful in a variety of settings globally since first introduced over 40 years ago. Similar successes have been demonstrated using meningococcal vaccines for use against serogroup B (MenB) outbreak strains but the diversity of MenB strains has limited vaccine use outside targeted geographic regions. MenB continues to be a significant cause of outbreaks in adolescents and young adults, as recently demonstrated in university settings in the US (Princeton, New Jersey and Santa Barbara, California) and has the potential for hyperendemic disease levels such as currently experienced in Québec and the United Kingdom. In adolescents, increased endemic disease rates and outbreak potential are likely associated with social behaviors putting individuals at risk for carriage acquisition and may explain regional and temporal variations in epidemiology. A protein-based, multi-component MenB vaccine (4CMenB) is currently licensed for use in 37 countries including EU/EEA countries, Australia, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Uruguay, and the US. In this article we review the most recent clinical trial data with 4CMenB with a focus on adolescents and young adults. The vaccine appears to have an acceptable safety profile and is well-tolerated in adolescents and young adults while providing robust, persistent levels of bactericidal antibodies considered protective for each of the four antigenic components of the vaccine. With the recent availability of this vaccine, health care providers have the first comprehensive opportunity to control meningococcal disease, a highly disruptive public health problem with a disproportionate impact on adolescents and young adults.
Chen, Hong-Ying; Shang, Yan-Hong; Yao, Hui-Xia; Cui, Bao-An; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Wang, Zi-Xin; Wang, Ya-Dan; Chao, An-Jun; Duan, Ting-Yun
Control of the circulation of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) is a major concern for both animal and public health, and H9N2 AIV poses a major threat to the chicken industry worldwide. Here, we developed a recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV-HA) expressing the haemagglutinin (HA) gene of the A/CH/JY/1/05 (H9N2) influenza virus and a recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV-HA/IL18) expressing the HA gene and chicken interleukin-18 (IL-18) gene. Recombinant plasmid pSY-HA/IL18 was constructed by cloning chicken IL-18 expression cassette into recombinant plasmid pSY-HA containing the HA gene. Two rFPVs were generated by transfecting two recombinant plasmids into the chicken embryo fibroblast cells pre-infected with S-FPV-017, and assessed for their immunological efficacy on one-day-old White Leghorn specific-pathogen-free chickens challenged with the A/CH/JY/1/05 (H9N2) strain. There was a significant difference in HI antibody levels (P<0.05) elicited by either rFPV-HA or rFPV-HA/IL18. The level of splenocyte proliferation response in the rFPV-HA/IL18-vaccinated group was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that in the rFPV-HA group. After challenge with 10(6.5)ELD(50) H9N2 AIV 43days after immunization, rFPVs vaccinated groups could prevent virus shedding and replication in multiple organs in response to H9N2 AIV infection, and rFPV-HA/IL18 vaccinated group had better inhibition of viruses than rFPV-HA vaccinated group. Our results show that the protective efficacy of the rFPV-HA vaccine could be enhanced significantly by simultaneous expression of IL-18.
Shen, Sin Ying; Chang, Wei Chun; Yi, Hsiang Heng; Tsai, Shinn-Shong; Liu, Hung Jen; Liao, Pei-Chun; Chuang, Kuo Pin
Chicken anemia virus (CAV) is a severe threat to the chicken industry and causes heavy economic losses worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the immune response and protective efficacy provided by a subunit vaccine containing recombinant VP1 (rVP1) and pigeon interferon-γ (rPiIFN-γ). Results indicated that rPiIFN-γ enhanced humoral immunity elicited by rVP1 as early as 10 day after primary immunization and reach the high titer after secondary immunization. When compared to chickens immunized with rVP1, inactivated vaccine, chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ showed faster and higher levels (p<0.05) of antibody titer. The CAV challenge result showed that the rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine prevent the reducing of hematocrit values in comparison with the rVP1 or inactivated groups. The relative fold inductions of mRNA expression of Th1-type (IFN-γ), but not Th2-type (IL-4) cytokines in splenocytes isolated from chickens immunized with rVP1+rPiIFN-γ were significantly higher than those of the rVP1 or inactivated vaccine groups. In conclusion, our study found that rPiIFN-γ can enhance both humoral and cellular immunity elicited by an rVP1 vaccine. The rVP1+rPiIFN-γ vaccine may provide a new strategy vaccine against CAV in chicken.
Several respiratory viruses are documented in medicine. Several infectious diseases due to these viruses are current global public health problems. Prevention of respiratory viral infections becomes the focus of the public health ministries of many tropical countries. Presently, there are many new vaccines for respiratory viruses. These vaccines include chicken pox vaccine, influenza vaccine and respiratory syncytial virus vaccine. In this article, the author will briefly discuss on these quoted vaccines focusing on efficacy, necessity and policy for tropical world at present.
Eladl, Abdelfattah H; Hamed, Hamed R; Khalil, Mostafa R
The consequence of cryptosporidiosis on the immune response of vaccinated chickens against Newcastle disease and/or avian influenza was studied by using 240, 1 day old, male, white Hy-Line chicks and divided into 8 groups and subgroups. Each group or subgroup was consisting of 30 chicks (15 × 2 replicates). The first and second groups were kept as unvaccinated control, G1uninfected and G2 infected. G3, G4 and G5 contained 2 subgroups A&B (G3A, G3B, G4A, G4B, G5A and G5B). Chicks of subgroup A were vaccinated only while chicks of subgroup B were infected and vaccinated. These chicks were orally inoculated with 5 × 10(5) oocysts of Cryptosporidium baileyi (C. baileyi) at 2 days of age. Chickens were vaccinated intraocular with live Newcastle disease (ND) vaccine (Hitchner on day 7th and LaSota on day 17th of chicken life) (G3) or vaccinated by subcutaneous route with Volvac®- H5N2- AI vaccine on day 10 of chicken life (G4). Last group (G5) was infected similarly and vaccinated with ND and AI vaccines with the same day, dose and route of vaccination for each one. Random blood samples were collected for 3 weeks post-vaccination for investigation of humoral immune response against Newcastle and/or avian influenza vaccines by the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. The results showed that H5N2 vaccine at day 10 of chicken life is effective in chickens indicated by the geometric mean of HI titer against AI virus. The findings of this study showed that the infection with Cryptosporidia in the broiler chicken has a depressive effect on the immune status of the birds vaccinated against ND and/or AI vaccination. Moreover, the obtained protection rates against challenge with virulent ND virus observed to be parallel to the results of HI- test. Also, by using 2 different antigens (one commercial and field prepared antigen) to avian influenza virus, lower Geometric mean (GM) HI titer were appeared in infected and vaccinated group than vaccinated group only. A
Elaish, M; Kang, K I; Xia, M; Ali, A; Shany, S A S; Wang, L; Jiang, X; Lee, C W
The ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (M2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. In this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus P particle containing the avian M2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (AI) viruses (H5N2, H6N2, H7N2) in chickens. Two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an M2e-P particle (M2e-PP) vaccine via the subcutaneous (SQ) route with oil adjuvant, and transmucosal routes (intranasal, IN; eye drop, ED; microspray, MS) without adjuvant. M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route induced significant IgG antibody responses which were increased by each booster vaccination. In groups vaccinated via IN, ED or MS, neither IgG nor IgA responses were detected from sera or nasal washes of immunized birds. The M2e-PP vaccination via the SQ route significantly reduced the virus shedding in the trachea and the cloaca for all three challenge viruses. Despite the absence of detectable IgG and IgA responses in birds vaccinated with the M2e-PP via intranasal routes, a similar level of reduction in virus shedding was observed in the IN group compared to the SQ group. Our results supports that the universal vaccine approach using M2e-based vaccine can provide cross-protection against challenge viruses among different HA subtypes although the efficacy of the vaccine should be enhanced further to be practical. Better understanding of the protective immune mechanism will be critical for the development of an M2e-based vaccine in chickens.
Vagnozzi, Ariel; Zavala, Guillermo; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; García, Maricarmen
Viral vector vaccines using fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) as vectors and carrying infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) genes are commercially available to the poultry industry in the USA. Different sectors of the broiler industry have used these vaccines in ovo or subcutaneously, achieving variable results. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of protection induced by viral vector vaccines as compared with live-attenuated ILTV vaccines. The HVT-LT vaccine was more effective than the FPV-LT vaccine in mitigating the disease and reducing levels of challenge virus when applied in ovo or subcutaneously, particularly when the challenge was performed at 57 days rather than 35 days of age. While the FPV-LT vaccine mitigated clinical signs more effectively when administered subcutaneously than in ovo, it did not reduce the concentration of challenge virus in the trachea by either application route. Detection of antibodies against ILTV glycoproteins expressed by the viral vectors was a useful criterion to assess the immunogenicity of the vectors. The presence of glycoprotein I antibodies detected pre-challenge and post challenge in chickens vaccinated with HVT-LT indicated that the vaccine induced a robust antibody response, which was paralleled by significant reduction of clinical signs. The chicken embryo origin vaccine provided optimal protection by significantly mitigating the disease and reducing the challenge virus in chickens vaccinated via eye drop. The viral vector vaccines, applied in ovo and subcutaneously, provided partial protection, reducing to some degree clinical signs, and challenge VIRUS replication in the trachea.
Development and evaluation of an experimental vaccination program using a live avirulent Salmonella typhimurium strain to protect immunized chickens against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes.
Hassan, J O; Curtiss, R
A stable live avirulent, genetically modified delta cya delta crp Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain, chi 3985, was used in several vaccination strategies to evaluate its use in the control of Salmonella infection in chickens. Oral vaccination of chickens at 1 and at 14 days of age with 10(8) CFU of chi 3985 protected against invasion of spleen, ovary, and bursa of Fabricius and colonization of the ileum and cecum in chickens challenged with 10(6) CFU of virulent homologous Salmonella strains from group B. Chickens challenged with heterologous Salmonella strains from groups C, D, and E were protected against visceral invasion of spleen and ovary, while invasion of the bursa of Fabricius and colonization of ileum and cecum was reduced in vaccinated chickens. Oral vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age induced an excellent protection against challenge with virulent group B Salmonella serotypes and very good protection against challenge with group D or E Salmonella serotypes, while protection against challenge with group C Salmonella serotypes was marginal but significant. Vaccination at 2 and at 4 weeks of age also protected vaccinated chickens against challenge with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains. The protection of chickens vaccinated with chi 3985 against challenge with homologous and heterologous Salmonella serotypes is outstanding, and the complete protection against ovarian invasion in chickens challenged with 10(8) CFU of highly invasive S. typhimurium or S. enteritidis strains suggests that vaccination of chickens with chi 3985 can complement the present hygiene- and sanitation-based Salmonella control measures. This paper reports a breakthrough in the use of live avirulent vaccine to control Salmonella carriers in chickens. PMID:7960134
Keyburn, Anthony L; Portela, Ricardo W; Sproat, Kathy; Ford, Mark E; Bannam, Trudi L; Yan, Xuxia; Rood, Julian I; Moore, Robert J
NetB toxin from Clostridium perfringens is a major virulence factor in necrotic enteritis in poultry. In this study the efficacy of NetB as a vaccine antigen to protect chickens from necrotic enteritis was examined. Broiler chickens were immunized subcutaneously with purified recombinant NetB (rNetB), formalin treated bacterin and cell free toxoid with or without rNetB supplementation. Intestinal lesion scores and NetB antibody levels were measured to determine protection after mild oral gavage, moderate in-feed and heavy in-feed challenges with virulent C. perfringens isolates. Birds immunized with rNetB were significantly protected against necrotic enteritis when challenged with a mild oral dose of virulent bacteria, but were not protected when a more robust challenge was used. Bacterin and cell free toxoid without rNetB supplementation did not protect birds from moderate and severe in-feed challenge. Only birds immunized with bacterin and cell free toxoid supplemented with rNetB showed significant protection against moderate and severe in-feed challenge, with the later giving the greatest protection. Higher NetB antibody titres were observed in birds immunized with rNetB compared to those vaccinated with bacterin or toxoid, suggesting that the in vitro levels of NetB produced by virulent C. perfringens isolates are too low to induce the development of a strong immune response. These results suggest that vaccination with NetB alone may not be sufficient to protect birds from necrotic enteritis in the field, but that in combination with other cellular or cell-free antigens it can significantly protect chickens from disease.
Spatz, Stephen J; Volkening, Jeremy D; Mullis, Robert; Li, Fenglan; Mercado, John; Zsak, Laszlo
Meleagrid herpesvirus type 1 (MeHV-1) is an ideal vector for the expression of antigens from pathogenic avian organisms in order to generate vaccines. Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) is a widespread infectious virus that causes serious disease in chickens. It is one of the etiological agents largely suspected in causing Runting Stunting Syndrome (RSS) in chickens. Initial attempts to express the wild-type gene encoding the capsid protein VP2 of ChPV by insertion into the thymidine kinase gene of MeHV-1 were unsuccessful. However, transient expression of a codon-optimized synthetic VP2 gene cloned into the bicistronic vector pIRES2-Ds-Red2, could be demonstrated by immunocytochemical staining of transfected chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). Red fluorescence could also be detected in these transfected cells since the red fluorescent protein gene is downstream from the internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Strikingly, fluorescence could not be demonstrated in cells transiently transfected with the bicistronic vector containing the wild-type or non-codon-optimized VP2 gene. Immunocytochemical staining of these cells also failed to demonstrate expression of wild-type VP2, indicating that the lack of expression was at the RNA level and the VP2 protein was not toxic to CEFs. Chickens vaccinated with a DNA vaccine consisting of the bicistronic vector containing the codon-optimized VP2 elicited a humoral immune response as measured by a VP2-specific ELISA. This VP2 codon-optimized bicistronic cassette was rescued into the MeHV-1 genome generating a vectored vaccine against ChPV disease.
Coppo, Mauricio J C; Devlin, Joanne M; Noormohammadi, Amir H
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute infectious viral disease that affects chickens, causing respiratory disease, loss of production and mortality in severe cases. Biosecurity measures and administration of attenuated viral vaccine strains are commonly used to prevent ILT. It is notable that most recent ILT outbreaks affecting the intensive poultry industry have been caused by vaccine-related virus strains. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare viral replication and transmission patterns of two attenuated chicken embryo origin ILT vaccines delivered via the drinking water. Two groups of specific pathogen free chickens were each inoculated with SA-2 ILT or Serva ILT vaccine strains. Unvaccinated birds were then placed in contact with vaccinated birds at regular intervals. Tracheal swabs were collected every 4 days over a period of 60 days and examined for the presence and amount of virus using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. A rapid increase in viral genome copy numbers was observed shortly after inoculation with SA-2 ILT virus. In contrast, a comparatively delayed virus replication was observed after vaccination with Serva ILT virus. Transmission to in-contact birds occurred soon after exposure to Serva ILT virus but only several days after exposure to SA-2 ILT virus. Results from this study demonstrate in vivo differences between ILT vaccine strains in virus replication and transmission patterns.
Lee, Kyung-Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun-Soon; Jang, Seung-Ik; Lee, Sung-Hyen; Bautista, Daniel A; Donald Ritter, G; Lillehoj, Erik P; Siragusa, Gregory R
Coccidiosis vaccines and anticoccidial drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. Birds were orally vaccinated with a live, attenuated vaccine (Inovocox), or were provided with in-feed salinomycin (Bio-Cox), and body weights, serum levels of nitric oxide (NO) and antibodies against Eimeria profilin and Clostridium perfringens PFO proteins, and intestinal levels of cytokine gene transcripts were measured. Vaccinated chickens had increased body weights, greater NO levels, and higher profilin and PFO antibody levels compared with salinomycin-fed birds. Transcripts for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor superfamily 15, and interferon-γ were increased, while mRNAs for IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased, in immunized chickens compared with salinomycin-treated chickens. In conclusion, vaccination against avian coccidiosis may be more effective compared with dietary salinomycin for increasing body weight and augmenting pro-inflammatory immune status during commercial poultry production.
Garcia, A; Johnson, H; Srivastava, D K; Jayawardene, D A; Wehr, D R; Webster, R G
The control and eventual eradication of H5N2 influenza virus from domestic poultry in Mexico is dependent on the use of avian influenza (AI) vaccine strategies. This study was performed to determine the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) antigen required to control the signs of disease from a highly pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus (A/Chicken/ Queretaro/19/95) and the amount of antigen required to prevent shedding of virus from vaccinated birds. Six commercial inactivated water in oil H5N2 vaccines available in Mexico were compared with standardized vaccines to assess their efficacy. The amount of HA required to prevent the signs of disease from A/Chicken/Queretaro/19/95 influenza virus was approximately 0.4 microgram per dose. Each of the six commercially available vaccines prevented disease signs, and half of the vaccines significantly reduced viral shedding from vaccinated birds. There is a need for standardization of AI virus vaccine, and the antigen content should be increased in some of the commercially available AI vaccines in Mexico.
Zhai, L; Wang, Y; Yu, J; Hu, S
Infectious bursal disease (IBD), caused by infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), is an immunosuppressive infectious disease of global economic importance in poultry. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of oral administration of ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) on humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live IBDV vaccine, and furthermore, to test its protective efficacy against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination. In experiment 1, chickens were orally administered with GSLS at 5 mg/kg of BW for 7 d, and then immunized with live IBDV vaccine via the oral route. Serum was sampled on 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 wk postvaccination for detecting antibody titers by ELISA, and intestinal tissues were collected on 0, 1, 3, and 5 wk postvaccination for measurement of IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes by immunohistochemical and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively. Result showed that antibody titers, IgA-positive cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes were significantly higher in chickens drinking GSLS than the control, suggesting an enhanced effect of GSLS on humoral and gut mucosal immune responses. In experiment 2, chickens were delivered with GSLS and then vaccinated in the same way as in experiment 1. The birds were challenged with virulent IBDV at wk 3 postvaccination. Then the birds were weighed, bled, and necropsied at d 3 postchallenge and the bursae were sampled for gross and histopathological examination. Results demonstrated that GSLS provided a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge following vaccination than the control. In conclusion, oral administration of GSLS enhances both humoral and gut mucosal immune responses to IBDV and offers a better protection against virulent IBDV challenge. Considering its immunomodulatory properties to IBDV vaccine, GSLS might be a promising oral adjuvant for vaccination against infectious diseases in poultry.
Sánchez Ramos, Oliberto; González Pose, Alain; Gómez-Puerta, Silvia; Noda Gomez, Julia; Vega Redondo, Armando; Águila Benites, Julio César; Suárez Amarán, Lester; Parra, Natalie C; Toledo Alonso, Jorge R
Recombinant adenoviral vectors have emerged as an attractive system for veterinary vaccines development. However, for poultry vaccination a very important criterion for an ideal vaccine is its low cost. The objective of this study was to test the ability of chicken CD154 to enhance the immunogenicity of an adenoviral vector-based vaccine against avian influenza virus in order to reduce the amount of antigen required to induce an effective immune response in avian. Chickens were vaccinated with three different doses of adenoviral vectors encoding either HA (AdHA), or HA fused to extracellular domain chicken's CD154 (AdHACD). Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay and relative quantification of IFN-γ showed that the adenoviral vector encoding for the chimeric antigen is able to elicit an improved humoral and cellular immune response, which demonstrated that CD154 can be used as a molecular adjuvant allowing to reduce in about 50-fold the amount of adenoviral vector vaccine required to induce an effective immune response.
Jiang, Yanlong; Mo, Hua; Willingham, Crystal; Wang, Shifeng; Park, Jie-Yeun; Kong, Wei; Roland, Kenneth L; Curtiss, Roy
Necrotic enteritis (NE), caused by Gram-positive Clostridium perfringens type A strains, has gained more attention in the broiler industry due to governmental restrictions affecting the use of growth-promoting antibiotics in feed. To date, there is only one commercial NE vaccine available, based on the C. perfringens alpha toxin. However, recent work has suggested that the NetB toxin, not alpha toxin, is the most critical virulence factor for causing NE. These findings notwithstanding, it is clear from prior research that immune responses against both toxins can provide some protection against NE. In this study, we delivered a carboxyl-terminal fragment of alpha toxin and a GST-NetB fusion protein using a novel attenuated Salmonella vaccine strain designed to lyse after 6-10 rounds of replication in the chicken host. We immunized birds with vaccine strains producing each protein individually, a mixture of the two strains, or with a single vaccine strain that produced both proteins. Immunization with strains producing either of the single proteins was not protective, but immunization with a mixture of the two or with a single strain producing both proteins resulted in protective immunity. The vaccine strain synthesizing both PlcC and GST-NetB was able to elicit strong production of intestinal IgA, IgY, and IgM antibodies and significantly protect broilers against C. perfringens challenge against both mild and severe challenges. Although not part of our experimental plan, the broiler chicks we obtained for these studies were apparently contaminated during transit from the hatchery with group D Salmonella. Despite this drawback, the vaccines worked well, indicating applicability to real-world conditions.
Lim, Kian-Lam; Jazayeri, Seyed Davoud; Yeap, Swee Keong; Mohamed Alitheen, Noorjahan Banu; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Ideris, Aini; Omar, Abdul Rahman
We had examined the immunogenicity of a series of plasmid DNAs which include neuraminidase (NA) and nucleoprotein (NP) genes from avian influenza virus (AIV). The interleukin-15 (IL-15) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) as genetic adjuvants were used for immunization in combination with the N1 and NP AIV genes. In the first trial, 8 groups of chickens were established with 10 specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens per group while, in the second trial 7 SPF chickens per group were used. The overall N1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titer in chickens immunized with the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 was higher compared to the chickens immunized with the pDis/N1 and this suggesting that chicken IL-15 could play a role in enhancing the humoral immune response. Besides that, the chickens that were immunized at 14-day-old (Trial 2) showed a higher N1 antibody titer compared to the chickens that were immunized at 1-day-old (Trial 1). Despite the delayed in NP antibody responses, the chickens co-administrated with IL-15 were able to induce earlier and higher antibody response compared to the pDis/NP and pDis/NP+pDis/IL-18 inoculated groups. The pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 inoculated chickens also induced higher CD8+ T cells increase than the pDis/N1 group in both trials (P<0.05). The flow cytometry results from both trials demonstrated that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 groups were able to induce CD4+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, pDis/N1+pDis/IL-18 group was able to induce CD8+ T cells higher than the pDis/N1 group (P<0.05) in Trial 2 only. In the present study, pDis/NP was not significant (P>0.05) in inducing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells when co-administered with the pDis/IL-18 in both trials in comparison to the pDis/NP. Our data suggest that the pDis/N1+pDis/IL-15 combination has the potential to be used as a DNA vaccine against AIV in chickens.
de Geus, Eveline D; Rebel, Johanna M J; Vervelde, Lonneke
The risk and the size of an outbreak of avian influenza virus (AIV) could be restricted by vaccination of poultry. A vaccine used for rapid intervention during an AIV outbreak should be safe, highly effective after a single administration and suitable for mass application. In the case of AIV, aerosol vaccination using live virus is not desirable because of its zoonotic potential and because of the risk for virus reassortment. The rational design of novel mucosal-inactivated vaccines against AIV requires a comprehensive knowledge of the structure and function of the lung-associated immune system in birds in order to target vaccines appropriately and to design efficient mucosal adjuvants. This review addresses our current understanding of the induction of respiratory immune responses in the chicken. Furthermore, possible mucosal vaccination strategies for AIV are highlighted.
Song, Xiaokai; Huang, Xinmei; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
Chimeric DNA vaccines encoding Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) surface antigen 5401 were constructed and their efficacies against E. tenella challenge were studied. The open reading frame (ORF) of 5401 was cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pGEX-4T2 to express the recombinant protein and the expressed recombinant protein was identified by Western blot. The ORF of 5401 and chicken cytokine gene IFN-γ or IL-2 were cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 consecutively to construct DNA vaccines pVAX-5401-IFN-γ, pVAX-5401-IL-2 and pVAX-5401. The expression of aim genes in vivo was detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Fourteen-day-old chickens were inoculated twice at an interval of 7 days with 100 µg of plasmids pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ and pVAX-5401-IL-2 or 200 µg of recombinant 5401 protein by leg intramuscular injection, respectively. Seven days after the second inoculation, all chickens except the unchallenged control group were challenged orally with 5 × 10(4) sporulated oocysts of E. tenella. Seven days after challenge, all chickens were weighted and slaughtered to determine the effects of immunization. The results showed the recombinant protein was about 90 kDa and reacted with antiserum against soluble sporozoites. The animal experiment showed that all the DNA vaccines pVAX-5401, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 and the recombinant 5401 protein could obviously alleviate body weight loss and cecal lesions as compared with non-vaccinated challenged control and empty vector pVAX1control. Furthermore, pVAX-5401-IFN-γ or pVAX-5401-IL-2 induced anti-coccidial index (ACI) of 180.01 or 177.24 which were significantly higher than that of pVAX-5401. The results suggested that 5401 was an effective candidate antigen for vaccine. This finding also suggested that chicken IFN-γ or IL-2 could effectively improve the efficacies of DNA vaccines against avian coccidiosis.
Coccidiosis vaccines and coccidiostat drugs are commonly used to control Eimeria infection during commercial poultry production. The present study was conducted to compare the relative effectiveness of these two disease control strategies in broiler chickens in an experimental research facility. B...
Kobierecka, Patrycja A; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K
Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens.
Kobierecka, Patrycja A.; Wyszyńska, Agnieszka K.; Gubernator, Jerzy; Kuczkowski, Maciej; Wiśniewski, Oskar; Maruszewska, Marta; Wojtania, Anna; Derlatka, Katarzyna E.; Adamska, Iwona; Godlewska, Renata; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.
Campylobacter spp, especially the species Campylobacter jejuni, are important human enteropathogens responsible for millions of cases of gastro-intestinal disease worldwide every year. C. jejuni is a zoonotic pathogen, and poultry meat that has been contaminated by microorganisms is recognized as a key source of human infections. Although numerous strategies have been developed and experimentally checked to generate chicken vaccines, the results have so far had limited success. In this study, we explored the potential use of non-live carriers of Campylobacter antigen to combat Campylobacter in poultry. First, we assessed the effectiveness of immunization with orally or subcutaneously delivered Gram-positive Enhancer Matrix (GEM) particles carrying two Campylobacter antigens: CjaA and CjaD. These two immunization routes using GEMs as the vector did not protect against Campylobacter colonization. Thus, we next assessed the efficacy of in ovo immunization using various delivery systems: GEM particles and liposomes. The hybrid protein rCjaAD, which is CjaA presenting CjaD epitopes on its surface, was employed as a model antigen. We found that rCjaAD administered in ovo at embryonic development day 18 by both delivery systems resulted in significant levels of protection after challenge with a heterologous C. jejuni strain. In practice, in ovo chicken vaccination is used by the poultry industry to protect birds against several viral diseases. Our work showed that this means of delivery is also efficacious with respect to commensal bacteria such as Campylobacter. In this study, we evaluated the protection after one dose of vaccine given in ovo. We speculate that the level of protection may be increased by a post-hatch booster of orally delivered antigens. PMID:27242755
Habibi, Hassan; Nili, Hassan; Asasi, Kramat; Mosleh, Najmeh; Firouzi, Sobhan; Mohammadi, Mitra
This study was conducted to assess efficacy of heat-stable I-2 vaccine against Newcastle diseases in vaccinated and vaccinated in contact birds group following challenge against virulent Newcastle disease (ND) virus in village chicken. Also, to assess whether birds that have been exposed to vaccine virus-shedding, birds were protected against mortality and clinical signs after infection with a virulent strain of the ND virus (NDV). One hundred fifty one-day-old native chickens were divided into seven groups (4 experimental groups of 30 birds/group and 3 control groups (unvaccinated unchallenged, challenged, and just vaccinated). Birds in experimental groups were vaccinated either via drinking water or as food carrier with thermostable I-2 vaccine and then challenged with virulent isolate of NDV (JF820294.1), and eight birds were added as in-contact birds to vaccinated groups. Following challenge, seven extra birds were added to each group as in contact with vaccinated and challenged birds. Survival rate, clinical signs, necropsy finding, and mean antibody titer were evaluated in different experimental and control groups. Birds vaccinated via drinking water showed 100% survival rate. However, birds vaccinated with food carrier vaccine showed less than 50% survival rate. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be recommended that I-2 vaccination via drinking water can effectively prevent ND in village chicken, since I-2 strain has been able to transmit to non-vaccinated-sensitive birds more effectively than velogenic NDV.
Wang, Qiuyue; Chen, Lifeng; Li, Jianhua; Zheng, Jun; Cai, Ning; Gong, Pengtao; Li, Shuhong; Li, He; Zhang, Xichen
A novel recombinant Bacille Calmette-Guerin (rBCG) vaccine co-expressed Eimeria tenella rhomboid and cytokine chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) was constructed, and its efficacy against E. tenella challenge was observed. The rhomboid gene of E. tenella and chIL-2 gene were subcloned into integrative expression vector pMV361, producing vaccines rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2. Animal experiment via intranasal and subcutaneous route in chickens was carried out to evaluate the immune efficacy of the vaccines. The results indicated that these rBCG vaccines could obviously alleviate cacal lesions and oocyst output. Intranasal immunization with pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 elicited better protective immunity against E. tenella than subcutaneous immunization. Splenocytes from chickens immunized with either rBCG pMV361-rho and pMV361-rho-IL2 had increased CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell production. Our data indicate recombinant BCG is able to impart partial protection against E. tenella challenge and co-expression of cytokine with antigen was an effective strategy to improve vaccine immunity.
Development of a DNA vaccine for chicken infectious anemia and its immunogenicity studies using high mobility group box 1 protein as a novel immunoadjuvant indicated induction of promising protective immune responses.
Sawant, Pradeep Mahadev; Dhama, Kuldeep; Rawool, Deepak Bhiva; Wani, Mohd Yaqoob; Tiwari, Ruchi; Singh, Shambhu Dayal; Singh, Raj Kumar
Chicken infectious anaemia (CIA) is an economically important and emerging poultry disease reported worldwide. Current CIA vaccines have limitations like, the inability of the virus to grow to high titres in embryos/cell cultures, possession of residual pathogenicity and a risk of reversion to virulence. In the present study, a DNA vaccine, encoding chicken infectious anaemia virus (CIAV) VP1 and VP2 genes, was developed and co-administered with truncated chicken high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1ΔC) protein in young chicks for the evaluation of vaccine immune response. CIAV VP1 and VP2 genes were cloned in pTARGET while HMGB1ΔC in PET32b vector. In vitro expression of these gene constructs was evaluated by Western blotting. Further, recombinant HMGB1ΔC was evaluated for its biological activity. The CIAV DNA vaccine administration in specific pathogen free chicks resulted in moderately protective ELISA antibody titres in the range of 4322.87 ± 359.72 to 8288.19 ± 136.38, increased CD8(+) cells, and a higher titre was observed by co-administration of novel adjuvant (HMGB1ΔC) and booster immunizations. The use of vaccine with adjuvant showed achieving antibody titres nearly 8500, titre considered as highly protective, which indicates that co-immunization of HMGB1ΔC may have a strong adjuvant activity on CIAV DNA vaccine induced immune responses. The able potential of HMGB1 protein holding strong adjuvant activity could be exploited further with trials with vaccines for other important pathogens for achieving the required protective immune responses.
Jeon, Woo-Jin; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Young-Jeong; Jeong, Ok-Mi; Kim, Yong-Joo; Kwon, Jun-Hun; Choi, Kang-Seuk
Despite the intensive vaccination policy that has been put in place to control Newcastle disease virus (NDV), the recent emergence of NDV genotype VII strains in Korea has led to significant economic losses in the poultry industry. We assessed the ability of inactivated, oil-emulsion vaccines derived from La Sota or Ulster 2C NDV strains to protect chickens from challenge with Kr-005/00, which is a recently isolated Korean epizootic genotype VII strain. Six-week-old SPF chickens were vaccinated once and challenged three weeks later via the eye drop/intranasal route. All vaccinated birds were fully protected from disease, regardless of the vaccine strains used. All vaccinated and challenged groups showed significant sero-conversion 14 days after challenge. However, some vaccinated birds, despite being protected from disease, shed the challenge virus from their oro-pharynx and cloaca, albeit at significantly lower titers than the unvaccinated challenged control birds. The virological, serological, and epidemiological significance of our observations with regard to NDV disease eradication is discussed.
Annamalai, T; Selvaraj, R K
The CCR7 and CXCR5 chemokine receptor mRNA contents of different immune organs were studied in normal, healthy birds and in birds treated with either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a systemic inflammatory challenge or coccidial vaccine (Coccivac B; Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Corp., Millsboro, DE) as an enteric vaccination challenge. The CCR7 mRNA content of the spleen of normal, healthy birds was approximately 150-fold higher than CCR7 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The CXCR5 mRNA content of the bursa of normal, healthy birds was approximately 80-fold higher than the CXCR5 mRNA content of any other organs studied. The LPS injection decreased the splenic CCR7 mRNA content by approximately 100 times and the bursal CXCR5 mRNA content by approximately 5-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.01). The LPS injection increased the CXCR5 content of cecal tonsils by approximately 3-fold at 24 h post-LPS injection (P < 0.05). At 10 d postvaccination, CCR7 mRNA content was approximately 15-fold higher and CXCR5 mRNA content was approximately 12-fold higher in cecal tonsils of the vaccinated group than in the control group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, CCR7 and CXCR5 mRNA levels were dependent on the immune organs and the inflammatory status of the organs in chickens.
Okada, Chika; Fujieda, Megumi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kondo, Kyoko; Maeda, Akiko; Nakano, Takashi; Kaji, Masaro; Hirota, Yoshio
In order to assess factors associated with reactogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) among young children, data on 1538 vaccinees aged 0-5 years in a previous vaccine effectiveness study were analyzed. The most frequent reaction was redness (19%), followed by induration, swelling, itching, and pain (6-12%); there were no serious adverse events. For some local reactions, multivariate analyses indicated associations of younger age, preschool attendance, presence of siblings, and allergy with lower risk, and use of thinner needles with higher risk. Most notably, administration of one or more IIV3 vaccines during the previous 3 seasons was positively associated with each local reaction (adjusted odds ratios: 3.6-5.4). For subjects aged ≥3 years, prior successive annual vaccinations were associated with substantially increased local reactions, with clear dose-response relationships (P for trend: <0.001 for each); for example, an 9.8-fold greater risk of swelling following three successive annual vaccinations before the study season.
McPherson, Marla C; Cheng, Hans H; Delany, Mary E
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotropic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unvaccinated host birds. The causative pathogen, MD virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres. MD occurrence is controlled across the globe by biosecurity, selective breeding for enhanced MD genetic resistance, and widespread vaccination of flocks using attenuated serotype 1 MDV or other serotypes. Despite over 40 years of usage, the specific mechanism(s) of MD vaccine-related immunity and anti-tumor effects are not known. Here we investigated the cytogenetic interactions of commonly used MD vaccine strains of all three serotypes (HVT, SB-1, and Rispens) with the host to determine if all were equally capable of host genome integration. We also studied the dynamic profiles of chromosomal association and integration of the three vaccine strains, a first for MD vaccine research. Our cytogenetic data provide evidence that all three MD vaccine strains tested integrate in the chicken host genome as early as 1 day after vaccination similar to oncogenic strains. However, a specific, transformation-associated virus-host phenotype observed for oncogenic viruses is not established. Our results collectively provide an updated model of MD vaccine-host genome interaction and an improved understanding of the possible mechanisms of vaccinal immunity. Physical integration of the oncogenic MDV genome into host chromosomes along with cessation of viral replication appears to have joint signification in MDV's ability to induce oncogenic transformation. Whereas for MD vaccine serotypes, a sustained viral replication stage and lack of the chromosome-integrated only stage were shared traits during early infection.
Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken.
Valdivia-Olarte, Hugo; Requena, David; Ramirez, Manuel; Saravia, Luis E; Izquierdo, Ray; Falconi-Agapito, Francesca; Zavaleta, Milagros; Best, Iván; Fernández-Díaz, Manolo; Zimic, Mirko
Fowl adenoviruses (FAdVs) are the ethiologic agents of multiple pathologies in chicken. There are five different species of FAdVs grouped as FAdV-A, FAdV-B, FAdV-C, FAdV-D, and FAdV-E. It is of interest to develop immunodiagnostics and vaccine candidate for Peruvian FAdV-C in chicken infection using MHC restricted short peptide candidates. We sequenced the complete genome of one FAdV strain isolated from a chicken of a local farm. A total of 44 protein coding genes were identified in each genome. We sequenced twelve Cobb chicken MHC alleles from animals of different farms in the central coast of Peru, and subsequently determined three optimal human MHC-I and four optimal human MHC-II substitute alleles for MHC-peptide prediction. The potential MHC restricted short peptide epitope-like candidates were predicted using human specific (with determined suitable chicken substitutes) NetMHC MHC-peptide prediction model with web server features from all the FAdV genomes available. FAdV specific peptides with calculated binding values to known substituted chicken MHC-I and MHC-II were further filtered for diagnostics and potential vaccine epitopes. Promiscuity to the 3/4 optimal human MHC-I/II alleles and conservation among the available FAdV genomes was considered in this analysis. The localization on the surface of the protein was considered for class II predicted peptides. Thus, a set of class I and class II specific peptides from FAdV were reported in this study. Hence, a multiepitopic protein was built with these peptides, and subsequently tested to confirm the production of specific antibodies in chicken. PMID:26664030
Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Wertelecki, T; Skorupińska, J
The experiment comprised 100 chickens, 100 ducks and 100 geese fed diets based on mixed grains of maize, barley and wheat. Nutrient concentrations in the mixtures were in accordance with the requirements of poultry species. The birds were kept in metabolic cages from the 1st up to the 42nd day of life. The measurements of body weight, activity of alpha-amylase and lipase in pancreatic tissue, enzymatic activity of intestinal wall cells, parameters of carbohydrate fermentations, ileal and total amino acids digestibility were conducted on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 28th and 42nd day of life or on the 14th, 28th and 42nd day of life. The pancreas alpha-amylase activity in chickens during the whole period was quite constant; in ducks and geese it was very low, but from the 28th day a dynamic increase in the activity of the pancreatic enzymes was observed in these birds. The activity of lipase was low but from the 28th day of experiment an increase was noted and was much higher in waterfowl than in chickens. The highest caecal concentration of SCFA (Short chain fatty acids) (in total high) was noted in chickens; these values were slightly lower in geese and ducks. A high (70%) ileal amino acids digestibility was seen in very young chickens; during the period of 15-42 days this value amounted up to 73%. In geese, the obtained values were 63% and in ducks 43-61%, with a mean of 55%. Faecal digestibility of amino acids had a mean of up to 86% for all species but the digestibility of single amino acids such as cystine, glycine, histidine and tyrosine was diversified and relatively lower than the others.
Choi, Kang-Seuk; Kye, Soo-jeong; Kim, Ji-Ye; Lee, Hee-Soo
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolation was attempted from La Sota-vaccinated or unvaccinated chickens exposed to the virulent NDV variant E347Kmt. Shedding viruses were purified by plaque assay and then were sequenced for HN and F genes. The amino acid sequences of the F gene of all shedding viruses were identical to the sequence of the challenge virus. However, amino acid substitution occurred at four positions (70, 347, 466, and 517) in the HN protein among shedding viruses from vaccinated and challenged chickens but not from unvaccinated and challenged chickens. Amino acid substitution occurred more frequently at position 347 (K to G or V) in the HN protein compared with the other positions. There was minor antigenic variation between some of mutant viruses shed and challenge virus. However, none of mutant viruses had a significantly lower antigenic R value with La Sota virus compared with challenge virus E347Kmt. Our findings indicate that vaccinal immunity might facilitate an evolutional event through antigenic selection, genetic mutation among virulent virus populations shed from vaccinated flocks, or both.
Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.
Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…
Song, Xiaokai; Zhang, Zeyang; Liu, Chang; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Li, Xiangrui
In a previous study, the construction of the Eimeria tenella DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 which provides effective protection against coccidiosis was described and the immunization procedure was optimized. However, the persistence, integration, histopathology and environmental release of the DNA vaccine remain unknown. In this study, the persistence, integration and histopathology of the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 was evaluated in chickens in the following immunization studies: (1) single-dose immunization in one-day-old chickens; (2) repeat-dose immunization in chickens; and (3) single-high-dose immunization of three batches of plasmid in chickens. The persistence, integration, histopathology of the DNA vaccine was also evaluated in mice. At 1, 1.5, 2-4 months post immunization, blood, duodenum, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys and the immunized muscle tissue were collected from ten animals of each group. Persistence and integration were evaluated using PCR with a confirmed sensitivity of 30 plasmid copies. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections were examined for the presence of inflammation or abnormalities that may result from vaccination. Water and fecal samples were also collected from the chicken enclosures to evaluate the potential for environmental release of the DNA vaccine. Testing various tissues by PCR confirmed that plasmid DNA persisted 1.5 months in blood, heart, liver and spleen, 2 months in kidneys and muscle of injected site. Furthermore, the vaccine did not integrate with the host genome. The histopathological examinations did not show obvious inflammation or pathological damage in any tissue of the immunized chickens. Similar results were observed in mice. Moreover, the DNA vaccine was not released into the surrounding environment. These results indicate that the DNA vaccine pVAX1.0-TA4-IL-2 has potential as safe vaccine against coccidiosis.
Elaish, Mohamed; Ali, Ahmed; Xia, Ming; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Jang, Hyesun; Hiremath, Jagadish; Dhakal, Santosh; Helmy, Yosra A.; Jiang, Xi; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.; Lee, Chang-Won
The current inactivated influenza vaccines provide satisfactory protection against homologous viruses but limited cross-protection against antigenically divergent strains. Consequently, there is a need to develop more broadly protective vaccines. The highly conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) has shown promising results as one of the components of a universal influenza vaccine in different animal models. As an approach to overcome the limited, strain specific, protective efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a combination of recombinant M2e expressed on the surface of norovirus P particle (M2eP) and IIV was tested in chickens. Co-immunization of birds with both vaccines did not affect the production of M2e-specific IgG antibodies compared to the group vaccinated with M2eP alone. However, the co-immunized birds developed significantly higher pre-challenge hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the homologous IIV antigen and heterologous challenge virus. These combined vaccine groups also had cross reactive antibody responses against different viruses (H5, H6, and H7 subtypes) compared to the IIV alone vaccinated group. Upon intranasal challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses, the combined vaccine groups showed greater reduction in viral shedding in tracheal swabs compared to those groups receiving IIV alone. Moreover, M2eP antisera from vaccinated birds were able to bind to the native M2 expressed on the surface of whole virus particles and infected cells, and inhibit virus replication in vitro. Our results support the potential benefit of supplementing IIV with M2eP, to expand the vaccine cross protective efficacy. PMID:28151964
Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael
Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.
Petrova, Dafina; Brunton, Carol Gray; Jaeger, Moritz; Lenneis, Anita; Munoz, Rocio; Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Todorova, Irina
The Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI) and can cause cervical cancer. Two vaccines are available to protect against the most common strands of the virus. Vaccination programs differ across Europe but most neglect young adults, who are the group with the highest risk of contracting STIs. Our aim was to explore the views of young women from four European countries—Scotland, Spain, Serbia, and Bulgaria - about the HPV vaccine communication strategy. These countries are characterized by different cervical cancer prevalence and vaccine implementation policies. We conducted focus group discussions with young women (aged 18-26) with various vaccination histories in a purposive sample. We subjected the data to thematic analysis with the purpose of identifying themes related to communication about the HPV vaccine. We recorded the information sources mentioned by participants. Participants discussed numerous sources of vaccine-related information. They approached information critically rather than naively and questioned the sources' trustworthiness and motives. Participants desired transparent information about the risks of the virus and the risks and benefits of the vaccine. These risks and benefits were individualized in view of personal and external factors. Particular aspects of the vaccine and the way information was communicated resulted in feelings of uncertainty. There were notable cross-cultural differences in experiences with HPV vaccine communication. Our results suggest that transparent risk communication about the HPV vaccine is valued by young women. In addition, both individual and culturally-dependent factors influenced experiences with, and preference for information.
Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Li; Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes considerable economic losses to the chicken industry in China. However, there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent ALV-J infection. In order to reduce the losses caused by ALV-J, we constructed two effective ALV-J vaccines by inserting the ALV-J (strain JL093-1) env or gag+env genes into the US2 gene of the Marek's disease herpesviruses (MDV) by transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs, creating two recombinant MDVs, rMDV/ALV-gag+env and rMDV/ALV-env. Analysis of cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the rMDVs revealed that Env and Gag were successfully expressed and that there was no difference in growth kinetics in cells infected with rMDVs compared with that of cells infected with the parent MDV. Chickens vaccinated with either rMDV revealed that positive serum antibodies were induced. Both rMDVs also effectively reduced the rate of positive viremia in chicken flocks challenged with ALV-J. The protective effect provided by rMDV/ALV-env inoculation was slightly stronger than that provided by rMDV/ALV-gag+env. This represents the first study where a potential rMDV vaccine, expressing ALV-J antigenic genes, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of ALV-J. Our study also opens new avenues for the control of MDV and ALV-J co-infection.
Liu, Yongzhen; Li, Kai; Gao, Yulong; Gao, Li; Zhong, Li; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Wang, Xiaomei
Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an immunosuppressive virus that causes considerable economic losses to the chicken industry in China. However, there is currently no effective vaccine to prevent ALV-J infection. In order to reduce the losses caused by ALV-J, we constructed two effective ALV-J vaccines by inserting the ALV-J (strain JL093-1) env or gag+env genes into the US2 gene of the Marek’s disease herpesviruses (MDV) by transfection of overlapping fosmid DNAs, creating two recombinant MDVs, rMDV/ALV-gag+env and rMDV/ALV-env. Analysis of cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with the rMDVs revealed that Env and Gag were successfully expressed and that there was no difference in growth kinetics in cells infected with rMDVs compared with that of cells infected with the parent MDV. Chickens vaccinated with either rMDV revealed that positive serum antibodies were induced. Both rMDVs also effectively reduced the rate of positive viremia in chicken flocks challenged with ALV-J. The protective effect provided by rMDV/ALV-env inoculation was slightly stronger than that provided by rMDV/ALV-gag+env. This represents the first study where a potential rMDV vaccine, expressing ALV-J antigenic genes, has been shown to be effective in the prevention of ALV-J. Our study also opens new avenues for the control of MDV and ALV-J co-infection. PMID:27827933
Liu, Haoyu; Ivarsson, Emma; Lundh, Torbjörn; Lindberg, Jan Erik
Dietary fiber, resistant to host-mediated digestion in the small intestine due to lack of endogenous enzymes, impacts many facets of animal health and is associated with gut development especially in young monogastrics. Furthermore, it can be used as in-feed antibiotic alternative. Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) forage with high content of pectin (uronic acids as building blocks) is a novel class of dietary fiber that is chemically different from cereal grains (with high content of arabinoxylans). In the present study, we investigated effects of dietary inclusion of chicory forage on digestibility, gut morphology and microbiota in broilers and young pigs. In the chicken experiment, 160 1-d old broiler chicks were fed 3 nutritionally balanced diets for 30 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with part of the cereals substituted with 60 and 120 g/kg chicory forage (CF60 and CF120), whereas in the pig experiment, 18 seven-wk old Yorkshire pigs were fed 3 diets for 18 d including a cereal-based diet and 2 diets with 80 and 160 g/kg chicory forage inclusion (CF80 and CF160). Our results showed that young pigs were capable to utilize chicory forage well with higher total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) of all fiber fractions, particularly uronic acid, compared with the control (P < 0.01). In contrast, a decreased TTAD of all fiber fractions was observed in chickens fed on diet CF120 (P < 0.05). Moreover, diet induced changes in gut morphology were observed in the large intestine of chickens. The alteration of cecal mucosal thickness was further positively correlated with TTAD of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and its constituent sugars (P < 0.05). In addition, in pigs, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of intestinal microbiota revealed substantial dietary effects (cereal control diet vs. chicory forage inclusion) on the relative abundance of 2 dominant bacterial phylotypes (Prevotella sp. vs. Roseburia sp
Mucksová, Jitka; Plachý, Jiří; Staněk, Ondřej; Hejnar, Jiří; Kalina, Jiří; Benešová, Barbora; Trefil, Pavel
Systems of antigen delivery into antigen-presenting cells represent an important novel strategy in chicken vaccine development. In this study, we verified the ability of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) antigens fused with streptavidin to be targeted by specific biotinylated monoclonal antibody (anti-CD205) into dendritic cells and induce virus-specific protective immunity. The method was tested in four congenic lines of chickens that are either resistant or susceptible to the progressive growth of RSV-induced tumors. Our analyses confirmed that the biot-anti-CD205-SA-FITC complex was internalized by chicken splenocytes. In the cytokine expression profile, several significant differences were evident between RSV-challenged progressor and regressor chicken lines. A significant up-regulation of IL-2, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 expression was detected in immunized chickens of both regressor and progressor groups. Of these cytokines, IL-2 and IL-12 were most up-regulated 14 days post-challenge (dpc), while IL-15 and IL-18 were most up-regulated at 28 dpc. On the contrary, IL-10 expression was significantly down-regulated in all immunized groups of progressor chickens at 14 dpc. We detected significant up-regulation of IL-17 in the group of immunized progressors. LITAF down-regulation with iNOS up-regulation was especially observed in the progressor group of immunized chickens that developed large tumors. Based on the increased expression of cytokines specific for activated dendritic cells, we conclude that our system is able to induce partial stimulation of specific cell types involved in cell-mediated immunity.
Smith-Norowitz, Tamar A; Josekutty, Joby; Silverberg, Jonathan I; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Norowitz, Yitzchok M; Kohlhoff, Stephan; Nowakowski, Maja; Durkin, Helen G; Bluth, Martin H
The production of IgE specific to different viruses (HIV-1, Parvovirus B19, RSV), and the ability for IgE anti-HIV-1 to suppress HIV-1 production in vitro, strongly suggest an important role for IgE and/or anti viral specific IgE in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies in our laboratory were the first to report the presence of IgE anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) in an adolescent patient with shingles. However, the presence and long term persistence of IgE anti VZV antibodies has not been studied in adults. The presence of serum IgE in addition to IgE and IgG anti-VZV antibody in sera were studied in children (N=12) (0-16 y/o) and adults (N=9) (32-76 y/o) with either a past history of (wild type) chicken pox (N=7 children, 9 adults) or 5 years after vaccination with varicella zoster (N=2 children) (Varicella virus vaccine live, Oka/Merck), as well as in non-infected subjects (N=3 children). Of the patients who had a positive history of chicken pox 13 of 16 (81%) contained IgE anti-VZV antibodies; they were both serum IgEHi (>100 IU/ml) and IgELo (<100 IU/ml). Of the patients who were vaccinated, IgE anti-VZV antibodies were undetected. In contrast, serum from the patients without a history of chicken pox or vaccination did not make either IgE or IgG anti-VZV antibodies. This is the first demonstration of the existence of IgE anti-VZV antibodies, and its long-term persistence in serum of previously infected subjects. Future studies regarding the functional role of anti-viral IgE and its relationship to VZV are warranted.
Korsa, Mesula G; Browning, Glenn F; Coppo, Mauricio J C; Legione, Alistair R; Gilkerson, James R; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Vaz, Paola K; Lee, Sang-Won; Devlin, Joanne M; Hartley, Carol A
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes acute upper respiratory tract disease in chickens. Attenuated live ILTV vaccines are often used to help control disease, but these vaccines have well documented limitations, including retention of residual virulence, incomplete protection, transmission of vaccine virus to unvaccinated birds and reversion to high levels of virulence following bird-to-bird passage. Recently, two novel ILTV field strains (class 8 and 9 ILTV viruses) emerged in Australia due to natural recombination between two genotypically distinct commercial ILTV vaccines. These recombinant field strains became dominant field strains in important poultry producing areas. In Victoria, Australia, the recombinant class 9 virus largely displaced the previously predominant class 2 ILTV strain. The ability of ILTV vaccines to protect against challenge with the novel class 9 ILTV strain has not been studied. Here, the protection induced by direct (drinking-water) and indirect (contact) exposure to four different ILTV vaccines against challenge with class 9 ILTV in commercial broilers was studied. The vaccines significantly reduced, but did not prevent, challenge virus replication in vaccinated chickens. Only one vaccine significantly reduced the severity of tracheal pathology after direct drinking-water vaccination. The results indicate that the current vaccines can be used to help control class 9 ILTV, but also indicate that these vaccines have limitations that should be considered when designing and implementing disease control programs.
Recombinant infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) H120 vaccine strain expressing the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) protects chickens against IBV and NDV challenge.
Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yingshun; Li, Jianan; Fu, Li; Ji, Gaosheng; Zeng, Fanya; Zhou, Long; Gao, Wenqian; Wang, Hongning
Infectious bronchitis (IB) and Newcastle disease (ND) are common viral diseases of chickens, which are caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), respectively. Vaccination with live attenuated strains of IBV-H120 and NDV-LaSota are important for the control of IB and ND. However, conventional live attenuated vaccines are expensive and result in the inability to differentiate between infected and vaccinated chickens. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new efficacious vaccines. In this study, using a previously established reverse genetics system, we generated a recombinant IBV virus based on the IBV H120 vaccine strain expressing the haemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein of NDV. The recombinant virus, R-H120-HN/5a, exhibited growth dynamics, pathogenicity and viral titers that were similar to those of the parental IBV H120, but it had acquired hemagglutination activity from NDV. Vaccination of SPF chickens with the R-H120-HN/5a virus induced a humoral response at a level comparable to that of the LaSota/H120 commercial bivalent vaccine and provided significant protection against challenge with virulent IBV and NDV. In summary, the results of this study indicate that the IBV H120 strain could serve as an effective tool for designing vaccines against IB and other infectious diseases, and the generation of IBV R-H120-HN/5a provides a solid foundation for the development of an effective bivalent vaccine against IBV and NDV.
AIHARA, Naoyuki; HORIUCHI, Noriyuki; HIKICHI, Nanase; OCHIAI, Mariko; HOSODA, Yuko; ISHIKAWA, Yoko; SHIMAZAKI, Yoko; OISHI, Koji
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV. PMID:25866403
Aihara, Naoyuki; Horiuchi, Noriyuki; Hikichi, Nanase; Ochiai, Mariko; Hosoda, Yuko; Ishikawa, Yoko; Shimazaki, Yoko; Oishi, Koji
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is characterized by immunosuppression due to the depletion of lymphocytes in the atrophied bursa of Fabricius (BF). We have sometimes encountered contradictory findings: chickens infected with the vaccine IBD virus (IBDV) strain have sometimes exhibited a highly atrophied BF, but not immunosuppression. In this study, chickens administered vaccine or wild-type strains of IBDV were later vaccinated with the B1 strain of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Bursal changes were examined histologically with a focus on the bursal follicle. The immunoreactivity to NDV was also evaluated with the hemagglutination inhibition test. In gross examination, we observed a few chickens with a severely atrophied BF in vaccine strain-administered groups (vaccine groups), and the level of severity was the same as that in the wild-type strain-administered group (wild-type group). However, these chickens retained humoral antibody responses to NDV and were revealed to possess a higher number of bursal follicles than those of the wild-type group. These results indicated that macroscopic evaluation dose not accurately reflect the immunoreactivity and degree of bursal damage in IBDV-administered chickens. We also found non-immunosuppressed chickens in the wild-type group. These non-immunosuppressed chickens retained a significantly higher number of normal follicles and total follicles according to our statistical analysis. Furthermore, a high correlation coefficient between the NDV-HI titer and the number of normal follicles was found in the wild-type group. These results implied that the retained number of normal follicles is important for the immunoreactivity of chickens infected with IBDV.
Yu, J; Shi, F S; Hu, S
Our previous investigation demonstrated that ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) derived from the stems and leaves of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer promoted humoral and gut mucosal immunity in chickens vaccinated with live infectious bursa disease vaccine. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of GSLS on the immune response to a bivalent inactive vaccine of Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) in chickens immunosuppressed by cyclophosphamide (Cy). One hundred and sixty-eight specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 24 birds. Chickens in groups 3-7 received intramuscular injection of Cy at 100mg/kg BW for 3 days to induce immunosuppression. Groups 1 and 2 were injected with saline solution in the same way as groups 3-7. Following injection of Cy, groups 4-7 were orally administrated GSLS (2.5, 5 and 10mg/kg BW) or astragalus polysaccharide (APS) (200mg/L) in drinking water for 7 days; groups 1-3 were not medicated and served as control birds. After administration of GSLS or APS, groups 2-7 were subcutaneously injected with a bivalent inactive vaccine of ND and AI. After that, serum was sampled for detecting antibody titers by HI, spleen was collected for lymphocyte proliferation assay, and duodenum tissues were collected for measurement of IgA-secreting (IgA+) cells and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (iIELs). The results showed that injection of Cy significantly suppressed immunity in chickens; oral administration of GSLS before immunization recovered splenocyte proliferation induced by ConA and LPS, and the numbers of IgA+ cells and iIELs as well as the specific antibody response to a bivalent inactive vaccine of ND and AIin immunosuppressed chickens treated with Cy. Therefore, GSLS may be the potential agent to improve vaccination in immunosuppressed chickens.
Jenkins, Mark C; Parker, Carolyn; O'Brien, Celia; Persyn, Joseph; Barlow, Darren; Miska, Katarzyna; Fetterer, Raymond
Control of avian coccidiosis is increasingly being achieved by the administration of low doses of Eimeria oocysts to newly hatched chicks. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of gel beads containing a mixture of Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella oocysts as a vaccine to protect broilers raised in contact with litter. Newly hatched chicks were either sprayed with an aqueous suspension of Eimeria oocysts or were allowed to ingest feed containing Eimeria oocysts-incorporated gel beads. Control, 1-day-old chicks were given an equivalent number of Eimeria oocysts (10(3) total) by oral gavage or received no vaccine (nonimmunized controls). All chicks were raised in floor-pen cages in direct contact with litter. At 4 wk of age, all chickens and a control nonimmunized group received a high-dose E. acervulina, E. maxima, and E. tenella challenge infection. Chickens immunized with Eimeria oocysts in gel beads or by spray vaccination displayed significantly (P < 0.05) greater weight gain (WG) compared to nonimmunized controls. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) also showed a significant (P < 0.05) improvement in both groups relative to nonimmunized controls. Moreover, WG and FCR in both groups was not significantly different (P > 0.05) from chickens immunized by oral gavage or from nonimmunized, noninfected controls. Oocyst excretion after Eimeria challenge by all immunized groups was about 10-fold less than in nonimmunized controls. These findings indicate that immunization efficacy of gel beads and spray vaccination is improved by raising immunized chicks in contact with litter.
Hassan, Mohamed K; Kilany, Walid H; Abdelwhab, E M; Arafa, Abdel-Satar; Selim, Abdullah; Samy, Ahmed; Samir, M; Le Brun, Yvon; Jobre, Yilma; Aly, Mona M
Avian influenza due to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAIV) H5N1 virus is not a food-borne illness but a serious panzootic disease with the potential to be pandemic. In this study, broiler chickens were vaccinated with commercial H5N1 or H5N2 inactivated vaccines prior to being challenged with an HPAIV H5N1 (clade 2.2.1 classic) virus. Challenged and non-challenged vaccinated chickens were kept together, and unvaccinated chickens served as contact groups. Post-challenge samples from skin and edible internal organs were collected from dead and sacrificed (after a 14-day observation period) birds and tested using qRT-PCR for virus detection and quantification. H5N1 vaccine protected chickens against morbidity, mortality and transmission. Virus RNA was not detected in the meat or edible organs of chickens vaccinated with H5N1 vaccine. Conversely, H5N2 vaccine did not confer clinical protection, and a significant virus load was detected in the meat and internal organs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the H5N1 virus vaccine and challenge virus strains are closely related. The results of the present study strongly suggest a need for proper selection of vaccines and their routine evaluation against newly emergent field viruses. These actions will help to reduce human exposure to HPAIV H5N1 virus from both infected live birds and slaughtered poultry. In addition, rigorous preventive measures should be put in place in order to minimize the public-health risks of avian influenza at the human-animal interface.
Katz, D; Kohn, A
In mammals the antibody activity in secretions is associated with the secretory IgA. This unique immunoglobulin plays a major role in immunity against infectious diseases of the alimentary and the respiratory tracts. We found a similar system of local immunity against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in the fowl. Airway washings and bile globulins of chickens were examined by immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoretic methods. No antigenic differences were found between the serum IgA and the secretory IgA of airway washings and of bile. The chicken IgA differs from mammalian IgA by lacking secretory component. Antibodies in the airway washings and in tears of chickens immunized by aerosol ir i.m. NDV vaccine (attenuated or inactive) were compared to serum antibodies produced by similar methods of administration. HI antibodies in secretions reached higher levels after aerosol vaccination than after i.m. administration, whereas in serum the situation was reversed. The antibody activity in airway washings and in tears is associated with IgA, while in serum the main antibody is IgG.
Negash, Tamiru; Liman, Martin; Rautenschlein, Silke
Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is an immunosuppressive virus of chickens. The virus protein (VP) 2 induces neutralizing antibodies, which protect chickens against the disease. The aim of this study was to develop a cationic poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticle (MP) based IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccine (MP-IBDV-DNA) for chickens to be delivered orally and by eye drop route. The tested IBDV-VP2 DNA vaccines were immunogenic for specific-pathogen-free chickens and induced an antibody response after intramuscular application. Co-inoculation with a plasmid encoding chicken IL-2 (chIL-2) or CpG-ODN did not significantly improve protection against IBDV challenge. However, the application of a MP-IBDV-DNA vaccine alone or in combination with a delayed oral and eye drop application of cationic MP loaded with CpG-ODN or chIL-2 improved protection against challenge. The MP-IBDV-DNA-vaccinated chickens showed less pathological and histopathological bursal lesions, a reduced IBDV antigen load as well as T-cell influx into the bursa of Fabricius (BF) compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The addition of chIL-2 loaded MP improved challenge virus clearance from the BF as demonstrated by lower neutralizing antibody titers and reduced IL-4 and IFN-α mRNA expression in the bursa at 7 days postchallenge compared to the other challenged groups. Overall, the efficacy of the IBDV-DNA vaccine was improved by adsorption of the DNA vaccine onto cationic PLGA-MP, which also allowed mucosal application of the DNA vaccine.
Roblot, F; Robin, S; Chubilleau, C; Giraud, J; Bouffard, B; Ingrand, P
We aimed to assess vaccination coverage (VC) in 17-year-old French young adults (YAs) participating in one mandatory Day of Defence and Citizenship (DDC). Between June 2010 and May 2011, YAs participating in 43 randomly selected mandatory sessions of the DDC programme in Poitou-Charentes (France) were asked to provide their personal vaccination record. Tetanus, diphtheria, polio, hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae b, pertussis, measles, mumps and rubella vaccination status were assessed at ages 2, 6, 13 and 17 years. Of 2610 participants, 2111 (81%) supplied documents for evaluation. Of these, 1838 (87%, M:F sex ratio 0·96) were aged 17 years (9% of the global population of this age in the area). The assessment of the 17-year-olds demonstrated the following rates of complete vaccination: diphtheria-tetanus-polio 83%; measles, mumps and rubella 83%; pertussis 69%; H. influenzae b 61%; human papillomavirus 47%; and hepatitis B 40%. At age 6 years, only 46% had received two doses of the vaccine against measles. The YAs were not aware of their status but were in favour of vaccination. VC in YAs is insufficient, particularly for hepatitis B, pertussis and measles. Combined vaccines and the simplification of vaccination schedules should improve VC. Preventive messages should focus on YAs.
Lou, Yijun; Qesmi, Redouane; Wang, Qian; Steben, Marc; Wu, Jianhong; Heffernan, Jane M
Genital Herpes, which is caused by Herpes Simplex Virus-1 or -2 (HSV-1, -2, predominantly HSV-2) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that causes a chronic latent infection with outbreak episodes linked to transmission. Antiviral therapies are effective in reducing viral shedding during these episodes, but are ineffective as a whole since many outbreaks are asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. Thus, the development of a vaccine for genital herpes is needed to control this disease. The question of how to implement such a vaccine program is an important one, and may be similar to the vaccination program for Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) for young females. We have developed a mathematical model to describe the epidemiology of vaccination targeting young females against HSV-2. The model population is delineated with respect to age group, sexual activity and infection status including oral infection of HSV-1, which may affect vaccine efficacy. A threshold parameter R(C), which determines the level of vaccine uptake needed to eradicate HSV-2, is found. Computer simulation shows that an adolescent-only vaccination program may be effective in eliminating HSV-2 disease, however, the success of extinction greatly depends on the level of vaccine uptake, the vaccine efficacy, the age of sexual maturity and safe sex practices. However, the time course of eradication would take many years. We also investigate the prevalence of infection in the total population and in women between 16-30 years of age before and after vaccination has been introduced, and show that the adolescent-only vaccination program can be effective in reducing disease prevalence in these populations depending on the level of vaccine uptake and vaccine efficacy. This will also result in a decrease of maternal-fetal transmission of HSV-2 infection. Another important, if commonsense, conclusion is that vaccination of some females reduces infection in men, which then reduces infection in women.
Improvements to the hemagglutination inhibition test for serological assessment of recombinant fowlpox-H5-avian-influenza vaccination in chickens and its use along with an agar gel immunodiffusion test for differentiating infected from noninfected vaccinated animals.
Swayne, David E; Avellaneda, Gloria; Mickle, Thomas R; Pritchard, Nikki; Cruz, Julio; Bublot, Michel
In general, avian influenza (AI) vaccines protect chickens from morbidity and mortality and reduce, but do not completely prevent, replication of wild AI viruses in the respiratory and intestinal tracts of vaccinated chickens. Therefore, surveillance programs based on serological testing must be developed to differentiate vaccinated flocks infected with wild strains of AI virus from noninfected vaccinated flocks in order to evaluate the success of vaccination in a control program and allow continuation of national and international commerce of poultry and poultry products. In this study, chickens were immunized with a commercial recombinant fowlpox virus vaccine containing an H5 hemagglutinin gene from A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5N8) avian influenza (AI) virus (rFP-H5) and evaluated for correlation of immunological response by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) or agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) tests and determination of protection following challenge with a high pathogenicity AI (HPAI) virus. In two different trials, chickens immunized with the rFP-H5 vaccine did not develop AGID antibodies because the vaccine lacks AI nucleoprotein and matrix genes, but 0%-100% had HI antibodies, depending on the AI virus strain used in the HI test, the HI antigen inactivation procedure, and whether the birds had been preimmunized against fowlpox virus. The most consistent and highest HI titers were observed when using A/turkey/Ireland/83 (H5N8) HPAI virus strain as the beta-propiolactone (BPL)-inactivated HI test antigen, which matched the hemagglutinin gene insert in the rFP-H5 vaccine. In addition, higher HI titers were observed if ether or a combination of ether and BPL-inactivated virus was used in place of the BPL-inactivated virus. The rFP-H5 vaccinated chickens survived HPAI challenge and antibodies were detected by both AGID and HI tests. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the rFP-H5 vaccine allowed easy serological differentiation of infected from noninfected birds in
Crosby, Richard A.; Casey, Baretta R.; Vanderpool, Robin; Collins, Tom; Moore, Gregory R.
Purpose: To contrast rates of initial HPV vaccine uptake, offered at no cost, between a rural clinic, a rural community college, and an urban college clinic and to identify rural versus urban differences in uptake of free booster doses. Methods: Young rural women attending rural clinics (n = 246), young women attending a rural community college (n…
Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun
Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles.
Zhao, Kai; Rong, Guangyu; Hao, Yan; Yu, Lu; Kang, Hong; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua; Jin, Zheng; Ren, Zhiyu; Li, Zejun
Newcastle disease caused by ND virus (NDV) is a highly contagious disease of birds. Vaccine for effective protection of poultry animals from NDV infection is urgently needed. Mucosal immunity plays a very important role in the antiviral immune response. In this study, a NDV F gene-containing DNA vaccine encapsulated in Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles (pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs) with an average diameter of 500 nm were prepared to assess the mucosal immune response. These nanoparticles exhibited low cytotoxicity and did not destroy the bioactivity of plasmid DNA, which could be expressed in vitro. The plasmid DNA was sustainably released after an initial burst release. In vivo immunization showed that the intranasal immunization of chickens with pFDNA-Ag@SiO2-NPs induced high titers of serum antibody, significantly promoted lymphocyte proliferation and induced higher expression levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that the Ag@SiO2 hollow nanoparticles could serve as an efficient and safe delivery carrier for NDV DNA vaccine to induce mucosal immunity. This study has provided promising results for the further development of mucosal vaccines encapsulated in inorganic nanoparticles. PMID:27170532
Towards a universal vaccine for avian influenza: protective efficacy of modified Vaccinia virus Ankara and Adenovirus vaccines expressing conserved influenza antigens in chickens challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Boyd, Amy C; Ruiz-Hernandez, Raul; Peroval, Marylene Y; Carson, Connor; Balkissoon, Devanand; Staines, Karen; Turner, Alison V; Hill, Adrian V S; Gilbert, Sarah C; Butter, Colin
Current vaccines targeting surface proteins can drive antigenic variation resulting either in the emergence of more highly pathogenic viruses or of antigenically distinct viruses that escape control by vaccination and thereby persist in the host population. Influenza vaccines typically target the highly mutable surface proteins and do not provide protection against heterologous challenge. Vaccines which induce immune responses against conserved influenza epitopes may confer protection against heterologous challenge. We report here the results of vaccination with recombinant modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) and Adenovirus (Ad) expressing a fusion construct of nucleoprotein and matrix protein (NP+M1). Prime and boost vaccination regimes were trialled in different ages of chicken and were found to be safe and immunogenic. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot was used to assess the cellular immune response post secondary vaccination. In ovo Ad prime followed by a 4 week post hatch MVA boost was identified as the most immunogenic regime in one outbred and two inbred lines of chicken. Following vaccination, one inbred line (C15I) was challenged with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N7 (A/Turkey/England/1977). Birds receiving a primary vaccination with Ad-NP+M1 and a secondary vaccination with MVA-NP+M1 exhibited reduced cloacal shedding as measured by plaque assay at 7 days post infection compared with birds vaccinated with recombinant viruses containing irrelevant antigen. This preliminary indication of efficacy demonstrates proof of concept in birds; induction of T cell responses in chickens by viral vectors containing internal influenza antigens may be a productive strategy for the development of vaccines to induce heterologous protection against influenza in poultry.
Naqid, Ibrahim A.; Owen, Jonathan P.; Maddison, Ben C.; Spiliotopoulos, Anastasios; Emes, Richard D.; Warry, Andrew; Flynn, Robin J.; Martelli, Francesca; Gosling, Rebecca J.; Davies, Robert H.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Gough, Kevin C.
Serological surveillance and vaccination are important strategies for controlling infectious diseases of food production animals. However, the compatibility of these strategies is limited by a lack of assays capable of differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA tests) for established killed or attenuated vaccines. Here, we used next generation phage-display (NGPD) and a 2-proportion Z score analysis to identify peptides that were preferentially bound by IgY from chickens infected with Salmonella Typhimurium or S. Enteritidis compared to IgY from vaccinates, for both an attenuated and an inactivated commercial vaccine. Peptides that were highly enriched against IgY from at least 4 out of 10 infected chickens were selected: 18 and 12 peptides for the killed and attenuated vaccines, respectively. The ten most discriminatory peptides for each vaccine were identified in an ELISA using a training set of IgY samples. These peptides were then used in multi-peptide assays that, when analysing a wider set of samples from infected and vaccinated animals, diagnosed infection with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The data describes a method for the development of DIVA assays for conventional attenuated and killed vaccines. PMID:27510219
Gerend, Mary A.; Madkins, Krystal; Phillips, Gregory; Mustanski, Brian
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common sexually transmitted infection that causes anal, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers in men. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at particularly high risk for HPV infection and HPV-related disease. HPV vaccination is currently recommended for all MSM in the U.S. through age 26 years, yet little is known about HPV vaccine uptake in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of HPV vaccine uptake and barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination that may be unique to young MSM. Methods Men aged 18–26 years (N=336) were recruited via advertisements placed on a geospatial smartphone dating application designed for MSM. Participants completed an online survey. Correlates of vaccine uptake and provider recommendation for HPV vaccine were identified using logistic regression. Results In total, 21% of participants had received ≥1 dose of HPV vaccine. Provider recommendation was the strongest predictor of uptake such that MSM with a recommendation were over 40 times more likely to have been vaccinated. Additional predictors of uptake included age and HPV vaccine attitudes. Predictors of provider recommendation included sexual identity, race/ethnicity, condomless anal sex, and HIV status. Psychosocial correlates and barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccination among unvaccinated men were also identified. Conclusions Findings highlight potential disparities in HPV vaccine uptake, as well as disparities in provider recommendation practices for HPV vaccination. Future interventions should aim to clarify misconceptions, modify psychosocial beliefs, and address barriers and facilitators to HPV vaccine uptake specific to young MSM. PMID:26859806
Xu, Qingqing; Cui, Ning; Ma, Xingjiang; Wang, Fangkun; Li, Hongmei; Shen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomin
The prokaryotic expressed recombinant chimeric multi-epitope protein X (rCMEPX) had been evaluated with good immunogenicity and protective efficacy against subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in our previous study. In the present research, we cloned the chimeric multi-epitope gene X into the eukaryotic expression vector pVAX1 to evaluate its potency as a DNA vaccine. The purified recombinant gp85 protein and rCMEPX were used as positive controls and a DNA prime-protein boost strategy was also studied. Six experimental groups of 7-day-old chickens (20 per group) were immunized intramuscularly three times at 2weeks interval with PBS, gp85, rCMEPX, pVAX1, pVAX-X and pVAX-X+rCMEPX respectively. The antibody titers and cellular immune responses were assayed after immunization. The efficacy of immunoprotection against the challenge of ALV-J NX0101 strain was also examined. The results showed that the DNA vaccine could elicit both neutralizing antibodies and cellular responses. Immune-challenge experiments showed good protection efficacy against ALV-J infection. Particularly, the regimen involving one priming pVAX-X and twice recombinant rCMEPX boosting, induced the highest antibody titers in all immunized groups. Our results suggest that the constructed chimeric multi-epitope DNA has potential for a candidate vaccine against ALV-J when used in proper prime-boost combinations. The data presented here may provide an alternative strategy for vaccine design in chicken ALV-J prevention.
Wang, X B; Liu, Z J; Lv, Y J; Long, Y; Bao, E D
In this study, the immune response induced by a mixture of polysaccharide and nucleic acid extracted from Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) was evaluated in chickens inoculated with infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) vaccine. After the mixture was injected intramuscularly at a dose of 0.075, 0.15 or 0.3 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) for 3 days, the 14-day-old chickens were inoculated with the attenuated IBDV vaccine via intranasal and ocular routes. The relative weight of bursa of Fabricius (BF) and thymus, the serum IBD antibody titer, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio, and the concentrations of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 in peripheral blood were investigated on days 5, 15 and 25. The IBD antibody titer in BCG-treated groups was higher than in the negative control and only IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture of BCG can significantly enhance chicken humoral response. CD4+/CD8+ and the secretions of IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-6 were also clearly increased compared with that in the negative control and IBD-vaccinated chickens, indicating that the mixture can also enhance the cell-mediated immune response. The results also showed that the relative weights of BF and thymus increased after chickens were inoculated with BCG, indicating that the BCG mixture can clearly enhance the immunity of IBD-vaccine and can be expected to be viewed as a candidate for a new type of immune adjuvant.
Sawant, P M; Verma, P C; Subudhi, P K; Chaturvedi, U; Singh, M; Kumar, Rajeev; Tiwari, A K
The basic objective of this study was to enumerate whether co-administration of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and/or interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene along with a bivalent Newcastle disease (ND) DNA vaccine construct could modulate the immune response to the DNA vaccine in chickens. pVIVO2 vector carrying Haemaglutinin-Neuraminidase (HN) and Fusion (F) genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at its two cloning sites was used as a DNA vaccine. The same vector was used to clone the chicken IFN-γ and IL-4 genes at the multiple cloning site-1 separately. In vitro expression of IFN-γ and IL-4 gene constructs was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and that of HN and F genes by indirect fluorescent antibody technique (IFAT) in addition to RT-PCR. The chickens were immunized thrice intramuscularly at 21, 36 and 46 days of age with the bivalent DNA vaccine alone, or in combination with IFN-γ/IL-4 or both cytokine gene constructs. The bivalent DNA vaccine led to increase in both NDV specific antibodies as assessed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and haemagglutination inhibition test (HI) and cell mediated immune (CMI) response as assessed by lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) employing MTT assay. Co-administration of the DNA vaccine with IL-4 gene resulted in highest IgY levels while IFN-γ produced highest CMI response. The DNA vaccine alone could afford only 10% protection against challenge infection by velogenic NDV. This protection was increased to 40% when IL-4 gene construct was co-administered with the DNA vaccine. Co-injection of IFN-γ as well as the combination of IFN-γ and IL-4 gene constructs with the DNA vaccine yielded 20% protection. Our study suggests that IL-4 may prove to be more appropriate as a genetic adjuvant than IFN-γ for ND DNA vaccine.
Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda
Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705
Juan, Long; Xiao, Zhao; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi
Current clinically available treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fail to cure the disease or unsatisfactorily halt disease progression. To overcome these limitations, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters may offer new promising strategies. Because type II collagen (CII) as a critical autoantigen in RA and native chicken type II collagen (nCCII) has been used to effectively treat RA, we previously developed a novel therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding CCII (pcDNA-CCOL2A1) with efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard", methotrexate(MTX). Here, we systemically evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal Wistar rats. Group 1 received only a single intramuscular injection into the hind leg with pcDNA-CCOL2A1 at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg on day 0; Group 2 was injected with normal saline (NS) as a negative control. All rats were monitored daily for any systemic adverse events, reactions at the injection site, and changes in body weights. Plasma and tissues from all experimental rats were collected on day 14 for routine examinations of hematology and biochemistry parameters, anti-CII IgG antibody reactivity, and histopathology. Our results indicated clearly that at the maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine was safe and well-tolerated. No abnormal clinical signs or deaths occurred in the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 group compared with the NS group. Furthermore, no major alterations were observed in hematology, biochemistry, and histopathology, even at the maximum dose. In particularly, no anti-CII IgG antibodies were detected in vaccinated normal rats at 14 d after vaccination; this was relevant because we previously demonstrated that the pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine, when administered at the therapeutic dosage of 300 μg/kg alone, did not induce anti-CII IgG antibody production and significantly reduced levels of anti-CII IgG antibodies in the plasma of rats with established collagen-induced arthritis
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens, which causes severe production losses to the poultry industry worldwide. Control of the disease is based on biosecurity and vaccination, whereas, comprehension of the nature of the protective immunity induced...
Vaccination with Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins in combination with Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant increases protection against experimental necrotic enteritis in commercial broiler chickens
This study was performed to compare four Clostridium perfringens recombinant proteins as vaccine candidates using the Montanide™ ISA 71 VG adjuvant in an experimental model of necrotic enteritis. Broiler chickens were immunized with clostridial recombinant proteins with ISA 71 VG, and intestinal le...
Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Nagy, Éva; Kulkarni, Raveendra R; Hodgins, Douglas C; Sharif, Shayan
In poultry, systemic administration of commercial vaccines consisting of inactivated avian influenza virus (AIV) requires the simultaneous delivery of an adjuvant (water-in-oil emulsion). These vaccines are often limited in their ability to induce quantitatively better local (mucosal) antibody responses capable of curtailing virus shedding. Therefore, more efficacious adjuvants with the ability to provide enhanced immunogenicity and protective anti-AIV immunity in chickens are needed. While the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 agonist, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) has been recognized as a potential vaccine adjuvant in chickens, poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles, successfully tested as vaccine delivery systems in other species, have not been extensively explored. The present study, therefore, assessed both systemic and mucosal antibody-mediated responses following intramuscular vaccination (administered at 7 and 21days post-hatch) of chickens with PLGA encapsulated H9N2 AIV plus encapsulated CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007), and nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccine formulations. Virus challenge was performed at 2weeks post-secondary vaccination using the oculo-nasal route. Our results showed that chickens vaccinated with the nonencapsulated AIV vaccine plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 developed significantly higher systemic IgY and local (mucosal) IgY antibodies as well as haemagglutination inhibition antibody titres compared to PLGA encapsulated AIV plus encapsulated CpG 2007 vaccinated chickens. Furthermore, chickens that received CpG 2007 as an adjuvant in the vaccine formulation had antibodies exhibiting higher avidity indicating that the TLR21-mediated pathway may enhance antibody affinity maturation qualitatively. Collectively, our data indicate that vaccination of chickens with nonencapsulated AIV plus PLGA encapsulated CpG 2007 results in qualitatively and quantitatively augmented antibody responses leading to a reduction in
Chalmers, W S; Baxendale, W
Two groups of six-week-old beagle puppies were vaccinated with either high titre canine distemper virus or human measles virus, a third group remaining unvaccinated. All the puppies were subsequently challenged by the nasopharyngeal route at 10 weeks old with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of canine distemper. Severe clinical signs were observed in 90 per cent of the unvaccinated dogs but both groups of vaccinated dogs survived the challenge. High temperatures were recorded in 20 per cent of the measles vaccinates and abdominal petechial rashes were observed in 60 per cent of them. The only clinical signs observed in the puppies vaccinated with distemper virus were transient rashes in 20 per cent of the group. The high titre canine distemper vaccine stimulated a humoral response quickly in 78 per cent of the puppies in the presence of maternally derived antibody and protected them against challenge with the virulent Snyder-Hill strain of distemper virus. The remaining dogs responded sluggishly but were still protected against challenge. The results of field surveys showed that 95 per cent of young puppies with different levels of maternally derived antibodies responded to the distemper component in a vaccine also containing canine parvovirus. No incompatibility was observed between the two components.
Johnson, Jeffrey A.; Heneine, Walid
Previous findings of low levels of reverse transcriptase (RT) activity in chick cell-derived measles and mumps vaccines showed this activity to be associated with virus particles containing RNA of both subgroup E endogenous avian leukosis viruses (ALV-E) and endogenous avian viruses (EAV). These particles originate from chicken embryonic fibroblast (CEF) substrates used for propagating vaccine strains. To better characterize vaccine-associated ALV-E, we examined the endogenous ALV proviruses (ev loci) present in a White Leghorn CEF substrate pool by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Five ev loci were detected, ev-1, ev-3, ev-6, ev-18, andev-19. Both ev-18 and ev-19 can express infectious ALV-E, while ev-1, ev-3, and ev-6 are defective. We analyzed the full-length sequence of ev-1 and identified an adenosine insertion within the pol RT-β region at position 5026, which results in a truncated RT-β and integrase. We defined the 1,692-bp deletion in the gag-pol region of ev-3, and we found that in ev-6, sequences from the 5′ long terminal repeat to the 5′ pol region were absent. Based on the sequences of the ev loci, RT-PCR assays were developed to examine expression of ALV-E particles (EV) in CEF supernatants. Both ev-1- and ev-3-like RNA sequences were identified, as well as two other RNA sequences with intact pol regions, presumably of ev-18 and ev-19 origin. Inoculation of susceptible quail fibroblasts with CEF culture supernatants from both 5-azacytidine-induced and noninduced CEF led to ALV infection, confirming the presence of infectious ALV-E. Our data demonstrate that both defective and nondefective ev loci can be present in CEF vaccine substrates and suggest that both ev classes may contribute to the ALV present in vaccines. PMID:11264350
Vygen, Sabine; Fischer, Aurélie; Meurice, Laure; Mounchetrou Njoya, Ibrahim; Gregoris, Marina; Ndiaye, Bakhao; Ghenassia, Adrien; Poujol, Isabelle; Stahl, Jean Paul; Antona, Denise; Le Strat, Yann; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Rolland, Patrick
In 2013, 15 clusters of mumps were notified in France; 72% (82/114) of the cases had been vaccinated twice with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. To determine whether the risk of mumps increased with time since the last vaccination, we conducted a case-control study among clusters in universities and military barracks. A confirmed case had an inflammation of a salivary gland plus laboratory confirmation in 2013. A probable case presented with inflammation of a salivary gland in 2013 either lasting for > 2 days or with epidemiological link to a confirmed case. Controls had no mumps symptoms and attended the same university course, student party or military barracks. We collected clinical and vaccination data via web questionnaire and medical records. We calculated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using logistic regression. 59% (50/85) of cases and 62% (199/321) of controls had been vaccinated twice. The odds of mumps increased for twice-vaccinated individuals by 10% for every year that had passed since the second dose (aOR 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.19; p = 0.02). Mumps immunity waned with increasing time since vaccination. Our findings contributed to the French High Council of Public Health's decision to recommend a third MMR dose during outbreaks for individuals whose second dose dates > 10 years.
Pacho, Sonsoles; Dahdouh, Elias; Merino, Javier; Suárez, Monica
Rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDVb) is the new variant of the classical RHDV, a virulent pathogen responsible for an acute disease in young rabbits. The virus invades internal organs, especially the liver, spleen, kidneys, and gut; prevents coagulation; and causes liver necrosis. This eventually leads to quick death of the animal because of hemorrhage. In this study, we evaluated the effects of a new vaccine against RHDVb in rabbits at a young age, after experimental infection using four different viral isolates. Our findings show that the vaccine had a protective effect with survival rates reaching 80-100% against the different isolates. These results suggest that this vaccine, when applied to young animals, is an effective tool to protect against the disease caused by RHDVb in rabbitries.
Christy, Shannon M; Winger, Joseph G; Raffanello, Elizabeth W; Halpern, Leslie F; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Mosher, Catherine E
Although cognitions have predicted young adults' human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine decision-making, emotion-based theories of healthcare decision-making suggest that anticipatory emotions may be more predictive. This study examined whether anticipated regret was associated with young adults' intentions to receive the HPV vaccine above and beyond the effects of commonly studied cognitions. Unvaccinated undergraduates (N = 233) completed a survey assessing Health Belief Model (HBM) variables (i.e., perceived severity of HPV-related diseases, perceived risk of developing these diseases, and perceived benefits of HPV vaccination), anticipatory emotions (i.e., anticipated regret if one were unvaccinated and later developed genital warts or HPV-related cancer), and HPV vaccine intentions. Anticipated regret was associated with HPV vaccine intentions above and beyond the effects of HBM variables among men. Among women, neither anticipated regret nor HBM variables showed consistent associations with HPV vaccine intentions. Findings suggest that anticipatory emotions should be considered when designing interventions to increase HPV vaccination among college men.
Ports, Katie A; Barnack-Tavlaris, Jessica L; Mosavel, Maghboeba; Murithi, Lydia Karuta
In the present study the authors sought to explore, in greater depth, the impact that HPV vaccination has on college-aged women's reproductive and sexual health. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 HPV-vaccinated, college women and analyzed for reoccurring themes. Although findings revealed that women's HPV-related knowledge was suboptimal, most women correctly believed that they were still at risk for HPV after having received the vaccination. Women indicated that having the HPV vaccine made them more aware of sexually transmitted infections and prompted them to continue to take care of their sexual health. Women reported that having the HPV vaccine did not influence their condom use or birth control choices, and they believed that obtaining Pap smears was still important. These results help us to understand the impact of HPV vaccination on women's reproductive and sexual health. These findings are promising and reinforce the importance of educating women about behaviors that will help them maintain reproductive and sexually healthy lives.
Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics ...
Yin, Guangwen; Lin, Qian; Qiu, Jianhan; Qin, Mei; Tang, Xinming; Suo, Xun; Huang, Zhijian; Liu, Xianyong
The CD40 ligand (CD40L) has shown potential as a powerful immunological adjuvant in various studies. Here, the efficacy of a chimeric subunit vaccine, consisting of Eimeria tenella immune mapped protein 1 (EtIMP1) and chicken CD40L, was evaluated against E. tenella infection. The recombinant EtIMP1-CD40L was purified from E. coli over-expressing this protein. Chickens were vaccinated with EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant or EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. Immunization of chickens with EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein resulted in stronger IFN-γ secretion and IgA response than that with only recombinant EtIMP1 with Freund's adjuvant. The clinical effect (cecal lesions, body weights gain, and oocysts shedding) of the EtIMP1-CD40L without adjuvant was also better than that of the EtIMP1 with adjuvant, as evidenced by the difference between the two groups in the oocyst output of E. tenella-challenged chickens. The results suggest that the EtIMP1-CD40L fusion protein can be used as an effective immunogen in the development of subunit vaccines against Eimeria infection.
Mot, Dorien; Timbermont, Leen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip
Necrotic enteritis in broilers is caused by Clostridium perfringens type A strains that produce the NetB toxin. Necrotic enteritis is one of the gastrointestinal diseases in poultry that has gained worldwide importance during the last decade due to efforts to improve broiler performance. Prevention strategies include avoiding predisposing factors, such as coccidiosis, and in-feed supplementation with a variety of feed additives. However, vaccination with modified toxin or other secreted immunogenic proteins seems a logical preventive tool for protection against a toxin-producing bacterium. Formalin-inactivated crude supernatant has been used initially for vaccination. Several studies have been carried out recently to identify the most important immunogenic and protective proteins that can be used for vaccination. These include the NetB toxin, as well as a number of other proteins. There is evidence that immunization with single proteins is not protective against severe challenge and that combinations of different antigens are needed. Most published studies have used multiple dosage vaccination regimens that are not relevant for practical use in the broiler industry. Single vaccination regimens for 1-day-old chicks appear to be non-protective. This review describes the history of vaccination strategies against necrotic enteritis in broilers and gives an update on future vaccination strategies that are applicable in the field. These may include breeder hen vaccination, in ovo vaccination and live attenuated vectors to be used in feed or in drinking water.
Characterisation of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolated from NDV vaccinated chickens, and the efficacy of LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines against challenge with velogenic NDV.
Roohani, Kiarash; Tan, Sheau Wei; Yeap, Swee Keong; Ideris, Aini; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman
A Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolate designated IBS002 was isolated from a commercial broiler farm in Malaysia. The virus was characterised as a virulent strain based on the multiple basic amino acid motif of the fusion (F) cleavage site (112)RRRKGF(117) and length of the C-terminus extension of the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. Furthermore, IBS002 was classified as a velogenic NDV with mean death time (MDT) of 51.2 h and intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) of 1.76. A genetic distance analysis based on the full-length F and HN genes showed that both velogenic viruses used in this study, genotype VII NDV isolate IBS002 and genotype VIII NDV isolate AF2240-I, had high genetic variations with genotype II LaSota vaccine. In this study, the protection efficacy of the recombinant genotype VII NDV inactivated vaccine was also evaluated when added to an existing commercial vaccination program against challenge with velogenic NDV IBS002 and NDV AF2240-I in commercial broilers. The results indicated that both LaSota and recombinant genotype VII vaccines offered full protection against challenge with AF2240-I. However, the LaSota vaccine only conferred partial protection against IBS002. In addition, significantly reduced viral shedding was observed in the recombinant genotype VII-vaccinated chickens compared to LaSota-vaccinated chickens.
Reetha, T. Lurthu; Rajeswar, J. Johnson; Harikrishnan, T. J.; Sukumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Kirubakaran, J. John
Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0 egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age. Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg. PMID:27651681
Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry.
Song, Byung-Min; Kang, Hyun-Mi; Lee, Eun-Kyoung; Jung, Suk Chan; Kim, Min-Chul; Lee, Yu-Na; Kang, Sang-Moo; Lee, Youn-Jeong
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5 viruses derived from A/Goose/Guangdong/1/96 have been continuously circulating globally, severely affecting the public health and poultry industries. The matrix 2 protein ectodomain (M2e) is considered a promising candidate for a universal cross-protective influenza vaccine that provides more effective control over HPAI H5 viruses harboring variant hemagglutinin (HA)-antigens. Here, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a tandem repeat construct of heterologous M2e presented on virus-like particles (M2e5x VLPs) either alone or as a supplement against HPAI H5 viruses in a chicken model. Chickens immunized with M2e5x VLPs alone induced M2e-specific antibodies but were not protected against HPAI H5. The homo- and cross-protective efficacy of M2e5x VLP-supplemented vaccination of chickens was also examined. Importantly, supplementation with M2e5x VLPs induced significantly higher levels of antibodies specific for M2e and different viruses as well as provided improved protection against homologous and heterologous HPAI H5 viruses. Considering the limited efficacy of inactivated vaccines, supplement vaccination with M2e5x VLPs may be an effective measure for preventing outbreaks of HPAI viruses that have the ability to constantly change their antigenic properties in poultry. PMID:26691568
Traditional vaccination methods for avian influenza (AI) require costly and time-consuming injection of individual birds, often multiple times, in order to produce protection. These vaccines are difficult to change quickly in response to new threats as manufacturing takes time. Yeast are an ideal ...
Maternal antibodies (MAb) may interfere with avian influenza (AI) vaccination. MAb interference prevents an immune response by binding to the vaccine antigen. Once MAb titers are depleted, the chick is susceptible to a circulating AI virus. This study examined the affect of MAb on seroconversion ...
Vaccination has been a critical tool in the control of some avian influenza viruses (AIV) and has been used routinely in Pakistan to help control sporadic outbreaks of highly pathogenic (HP) H7 AIV since 1995. During that time, several AIV isolates were utilized as inactivated vaccines with varying...
Henning, J; Morton, J; Pym, R; Hla, T; Meers, J
Previous research identified Newcastle disease and poor management of chicks (birds younger than 6 weeks of age) as major constraints to village chicken production in Myanmar. Based on these findings, controlled trials were conducted in 124 randomly selected households in nine villages in Myanmar over a period of 12 months to evaluate strategies to enhance survival of village chickens. Two intervention strategies were assessed: Newcastle disease vaccination using the thermostable I-2 vaccine and changes to the management of chick rearing (confinement and supplementary feeding). These interventions were applied in two trials: (1) a randomised controlled trial to compare I-2 vaccination, altered chick management and no intervention (apart from placebo treatment) at household level and (2) nested within this trial, a double-blinded controlled trial at bird-level to compare serological titres between I-2 vaccinated and placebo-treated birds both between and within households. Outcomes measured in the first trial were crude incidence rate of mortality, proportional mortality rate for deaths due to disease stratified by age group of birds and mortality attributed to Newcastle disease, number of sales, income from sale of birds, consumption of birds and hatching of birds. Odds of having protective titres two weeks after vaccination were up to 125 times higher in I-2 vaccinated birds and up to 47 times higher in control birds in contact with I-2 vaccinates compared to birds without I-2 contact. Vaccination against Newcastle disease reduced the proportions of mortalities assumed to be caused by disease in growers and chicks. Crude mortality incidence was lower in households that applied management changes to chick rearing. In household-months when birds were sold, numbers sold were higher and income from sale of birds were about 2.50 US dollars per month higher in households allocated to altered chick management. Altered chick management resulted in more households having
Singh, Shirene M; Alkie, Tamiru N; Hodgins, Douglas C; Nagy, Éva; Shojadoost, Bahram; Sharif, Shayan
Commercial vaccines against avian influenza viruses (AIV) in chickens consist mainly of inactivated AIV, requiring parenteral administration and co-delivery of an adjuvant. Limitations in T helper 1 or T helper 2 biased responses generated by these vaccines emphasize the need for alternative, more efficacious adjuvants. The Toll-like receptor (TLR) 21 ligand, CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN), has been established as immunomodulatory in chickens. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the adjuvant potential of high (20μg) and low (2μg) doses of CpG ODN 2007 (CpG 2007) and CpG ODN 1826 (CpG 1826) when administered to chickens with a formalin-inactivated H9N2 AIV. Antibody responses in sera were evaluated in 90 specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens after intramuscular administration of vaccine formulations at 7 and 21 days post-hatch. Antibody responses were assessed based on haemagglutination inhibition (HI) and virus neutralization (VN) assays; virus-specific IgM and IgY antibody responses were evaluated by ELISA. The results suggest that the vaccine formulation containing low dose CpG 2007 was significantly more effective at generating neutralizing (both HI and VN) responses than formulations with high or low doses of CpG 1826 or high dose CpG 2007. Neutralizing responses elicited by low dose CpG 2007 significantly exceeded those generated by a squalene-based adjuvanted vaccine formulation during peak responses. A significantly higher IgM response was elicited by the formulation containing low dose CpG 2007 compared to high and low doses of 1826. Although the low dose of CpG 2007 elicited a higher IgY response than CpG 1826, the difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, 2μg of CpG 2007 is potentially promising as a vaccine adjuvant when delivered intramuscularly with inactivated H9N2 virus to chickens. Future studies may be directed at determining the mucosal antibody responses to the same vaccine formulations.
Uwemedimo, Omolara T; Findley, Sally E; Andres, Raquel; Irigoyen, Matilde; Stockwell, Melissa S
Few studies have examined potential factors that contribute to low influenza vaccination rates among minority children. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of early childhood influenza vaccination among young black and Latino children, living in inner-city neighborhoods, and examine the effects of child, caregiver and health system factors. Secondary data analysis was performed using a survey about medical home experiences conducted from May 2007-June 2008. The study sample was limited to children ≥6 months in any influenza season prior to the 2006-2007 influenza season. Bivariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression tested associations between influenza vaccination receipt and socio-demographic and health system characteristics. One-third of children received an influenza vaccination by the end of 2006-2007 season, while only 11% received a vaccination within their first season of eligibility. Black children were more likely than Latino children to have been vaccinated (50% vs. 31%, P<0.01) during their first few eligible seasons. Children whose mothers were older, proficient in English, and frequent users of healthcare were more likely to obtain vaccination. Child attendance at healthcare settings with immunization reminder systems was also positively correlated with influenza vaccination. Our findings suggest that initial vaccination receipt among minority children from inner-city communities might be improved by expanded influenza promotion activities targeting younger mothers or those with limited English proficiency. Strategies to increase the frequency of child's actual contact with the medical home, such as reminder systems, may be useful in improving uptake of influenza vaccination among inner-city, minority children.
van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R
In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body
Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA)
Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein. A single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H5N1 HPAI virus and anti-NDV antibody detected in ELISA and protected chickens against subsequent lethal HPAIV and NDV infections. Furthermore, we could easily perform DIVA test using the commercial NP-cELISA tests against HPAIV and HI assay against NDV. These results strongly suggest that utilization of chimeric VLP vaccine in poultry species would be a promising strategy for the better control of HPAI and ND simultaneously. PMID:27626934
Chimeric Bivalent Virus-Like Particle Vaccine for H5N1 HPAI and ND Confers Protection against a Lethal Challenge in Chickens and Allows a Strategy of Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals (DIVA).
Noh, Jin-Yong; Park, Jae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hun; Yuk, Seong-Su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are considered as the most devastating poultry infections, owing to their worldwide distribution and economical threat. Vaccines have been widely used to control these diseases in the poultry industry in endemic countries. However, vaccination policy without differentiating infected animals from vaccinated animals (DIVA) makes the virus surveillance difficult. In this study, we developed a bivalent virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine that is composed of the hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix 1 (M1) proteins of the H5N1 HPAI virus (HPAIV) and a chimeric protein containing the ectodomain of the ND virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein fused with the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the HPAIV HA protein. A single immunization of chickens with the chimeric VLP vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers against H5N1 HPAI virus and anti-NDV antibody detected in ELISA and protected chickens against subsequent lethal HPAIV and NDV infections. Furthermore, we could easily perform DIVA test using the commercial NP-cELISA tests against HPAIV and HI assay against NDV. These results strongly suggest that utilization of chimeric VLP vaccine in poultry species would be a promising strategy for the better control of HPAI and ND simultaneously.
Shil, Pollob K; Kanci, Anna; Browning, Glenn F; Markham, Philip F
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. A live attenuated vaccine, ts-11, has been used for the control of MG in several countries. The efficacy of this vaccine is highly dose dependent and the flock antibody response is weak. To improve the functionality of the vaccine and investigate its potential as a delivery vector for foreign antigens and immunomodulatory proteins, we developed a derivative of ts-11 expressing infectious bronchitis virus-S1 glycoprotein (IBV-S1) and releasing chicken interleukin-6 into the extracellular milieu (MG ts-11 C3 (+CS)) using a transposon-based delivery vector. Following administration of MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) to chickens by eye-drop, an antibody response to MG and IBV-S1, as determined by the rapid serum agglutination test (RSA) and Western blotting, respectively, could be detected. Birds inoculated with the recombinant vaccine had significantly enhanced weight gain and were partially protected against damage by pathogenic IBV. These results indicate that the ChIL-6 released by MG ts-11 C3 (+CS) may have had a non-specific effect on growth rate. They also suggest that ts-11 is a promising vaccine vector, capable of delivering heterologous protective antigens, and may also provide non-specific benefits when engineered to express immunomodulatory proteins. With some improvements in the expression system, it could be used to induce a targeted immune response against specific mucosal pathogens, and co-expression of several antigens would allow development of a novel multivalent vaccine.
Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa
In this study we describe the generation of a safe, immunogenic, genetically inactivated Salmonella Typhimurium ghost vaccine candidate carrying the Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein as an adjuvant molecule. An asd(+) p15A ori(-) plasmid pJHL187-LTB harbouring the E lysis gene cassette and a foreign antigen delivery cassette containing the eltB gene was used to transform a Δasd Salmonella Typhimurium (JOL1311) strain to construct the ghost strain, JOL1499. Incubation of mid-logarithmic phase JOL1499 cultures at 42°C resulted in co-expression of the eltB and E lysis genes, leading to the generation of Salmonella Typhimurium ghost cells carrying the LTB protein (Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost). The production of LTB in Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost preparations was confirmed by western blot analysis, and functional activity of the LTB protein to bind with GM1 receptors was determined by means of GM1 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Efficacy of the Salmonella Typhimurium-LTB ghost as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a chicken model using 56 chickens at 5 weeks old, which were divided into four groups (n = 14): group A was designated the non-vaccinated control group, whereas the birds in groups B, C, and D were immunized intramuscularly with 10(9), 10(8), and 10(7) ghost cells, respectively. Compared with the non-immunized chickens (group A), immunized chickens (groups B, C and D) exhibited increased titres of plasma IgG and intestinal secretory IgA antibodies. After oral challenge with 10(9) colony-forming units of a virulent Salmonella Typhimurium strain, the vaccinated group B birds showed a decrease in internal organ colonization with the challenge strain.
Degen, Winfried G J; Smith, Jacqueline; Simmelink, Bartjan; Glass, Elizabeth J; Burt, Dave W; Schijns, Virgil E J C
In a respiratory-infection-model with the avian influenza A H9N2 virus we studied lung and splenic immune reactions in chickens using a recently developed 5K chicken immuno-microarray. Groups of chickens were either mock-immunized (referred to as non-immune), vaccinated with inactivated viral antigen only (immune) or with viral antigen in a water-in-oil (W/O) immunopotentiator (immune potentiated). Three weeks after vaccination all animals were given a respiratory infection. Immune potentiated birds developed inhibitory antiviral antibodies, showed minimal lung histopathology and no detectable viral sequences, while non-immune animals showed microscopic immunopathology and detectable virus. Immune birds, receiving antigen in saline only, showed minimal microscopic histopathology, and intermediate levels of virus detection. These classical features in the different groups were mirrored by overlapping or specific mRNA gene expression profiles in lungs and spleen using microarray analysis. To our knowledge this is the first study demonstrating pneumonia-associated lung pathology of the low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 virus. Our data provide insights into the molecular interaction of this virus with its natural host when naive or primed by vaccination.
Temkin, Sarah M; Seibel, Nita L
Survivors of pediatric and young adult cancers remain at risk for subsequent diseases, including those related to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Prevention of HPV acquisition through vaccination has become possible over the last decade. HPV vaccines have been shown to be safe and effective, yet rates of vaccination among childhood cancer survivors have remained low. Multiple factors, including stronger advocacy for this intervention from providers, could potentially increase vaccination and lead to lower HPV disease burdens for childhood cancer survivors. Health care providers for survivors of pediatric and adolescent cancers should prioritize counseling for HPV vaccination at follow-up visits. Cancer 2015;121:3435-43. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Groves, Peter J; Sharpe, Sue M; Cox, Julian M
Responses to the parenteral administration of a live aroA deletion Salmonella serovar Typhimurium vaccine given to three brown egg layer strains and two broiler strains were studied. Twenty-five birds of each strain were reared together in floor pens to 6 weeks of age and then moved as individual strains to new floor pens and injected with 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) per bird of the vaccine bacteria intramuscularly or subcutaneously, 10(6) CFU per bird subcutaneously, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) subcutaneously as a vaccination control. Three birds of one layer strain were injected intramuscularly with 0.5mg/ bird S. Typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evaluate whether response was similar for vaccine and endotoxin. Birds were weighed, and rectal temperatures recorded at the time of injection, then observed over 24 hours. Rectal temperatures were measured and blood samples collected for serum IL-6 assay at 3 hours post injection (PI). At 12 hours PI blood samples were drawn for analyses for plasma phosphorus (P), glucose (Glu), cholesterol (Cho), aspartate transaminase (AST), total protein (Ptn) and creatinine kinase (CK). Blood was sampled 14 days PI and tested for serum antibody to S. Typhimurium. Vaccination resulted in significant seroconversion by 14 days PI in all strains compared to the controls. The three layer strains exhibited a clinical malaise, evident within 90 minutes of injection, lasting for 12 hours, with complete recovery by 24 hours PI. Only the 10(8) CFU dose given subcutaneously produced an increase in rectal temperature 3 hours PI. Vaccination had no effect on IL-6 or Ptn. All vaccine doses increased P and the higher dose by either route decreased Cho in all bird strains. The 10(8) vaccine dose increased Glu and intramuscular injection markedly elevated CK only in the layer strains. The response was not completely congruous with that to LPS alone. The results highlight the need for consideration of differences in response of
Samy, Ahmed A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; El-Sanousi, Ahmed A; Nasef, Soad A; Naguib, Mahmoud M; Abdelwhab, E M; Hikono, Hirokazu; Saito, Takehiko
In Egypt, two distinct lineages of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, "classic 184.108.40.206" and "variant 220.127.116.11" strains, have evolved. The underlying host immune responses counteracting these viruses in chickens remain not well understood. In the present study, the cytokine responses to a classic strain (C121) and those to a variant strain (V1063) were compared in naïve and vaccinated chickens. In naïve chickens, the C121 replicated more efficiently than the V1063. Both the C121 and the V1063 increased interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 gene expression at 48 h post inoculation (hpi) in the lung and spleen but the levels of these cytokines were lower in chickens infected with the C121 than those infected with the V1063. In contrast, in chickens vaccinated with inactivated C121-based vaccine, the C121 replicated less than the V1063. Both challenge with the C121 and that with the V1063 did not increase IFN-γ gene expression at 48 hpi; rather, the C121 increased IL-4 gene expression in the lung accompanied with lower viral titer and higher HI titers. These results suggested that the pathogenicity of HPAI viruses correlated with IFN-γ-producing helper and/or cytotoxic T cell responses in naïve chickens, whereas vaccine efficacy to HPAI viruses correlated with IL-4 producing helper T cell responses in the lung in vaccinated chickens. It implies that IL-4 in the lung, in addition to the traditional serum HI titers, could be used to screen novel vaccine strategies, such as strains, adjuvant, prime/boost protocols, against HPAI in chickens.
Amen, O; Vemula, S V; Zhao, J; Ibrahim, R; Hussein, A; Hewlett, I K; Moussa, S; Mittal, S K
Highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 viruses continue to be a major veterinary and public health problem in Egypt. Continued surveillance of these viruses is necessary to devise strategies to control the spread of the virus and to monitor its evolutionary patterns. This is a report of the identification of a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus during an outbreak in 2010 in vaccinated chicken flocks in a poultry farm in Assiut, Egypt. Vaccination of chickens with an oil-emulsified inactivated A/chicken/Mexico/232/94 (H5N2) vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers reaching up to 9 log2. However, all flocks irrespective of the number of vaccine doses and the resultant HI titer levels came down with severe influenza infections. The qRT-PCR and rapid antigen test confirmed the influenza virus to be from H5N1 subtype. Sequencing of the hemagglutinin (HA) gene fragment from ten independent samples demonstrated that a single H5N1 strain was involved. This strain belonged to clade 2.2.1 and had several mutations in the receptor-binding site of the HA protein, thereby producing a variant strain of HPAI H5N1 virus which was antigenically different from the parent clade 2.2.1 virus circulating in Egypt at that time. In order to define the variability in HPAI H5N1 viruses over time in Egypt, we sequenced another H5N1 virus that was causing infections in chickens in 2014. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that both viruses had further distanced from the parent virus circulating during 2010. This study highlights that the antigenic mutations in HPAI H5N1 viruses represent a definitive challenge for the development of an effective vaccine for poultry. Overall, the results emphasize the need for continued surveillance of H5N1 outbreaks and extensive characterization of virus isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated poultry populations to better understand genetic changes and their implications.
Tung, Iris L. Y.; Machalek, Dorothy A.; Garland, Suzanne M.
Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination targets high-risk HPV16/18 that cause 70% of all cancers of the cervix. In Australia there is a fully-funded, school-based National HPV Vaccination Program which has achieved vaccine initiation rate of 82% among age-eligible females. Improving HPV vaccination rates is important in the prevention of morbidity and mortality associated with HPV-related disease. This study aimed to identify factors and barriers associated with uptake of the HPV vaccine in the Australian Program. Methods Between 2011 and 2014, females aged 18–25 years, living in Victoria, Australia who were offered HPV vaccination between 2007 and 2009 as part of the National HPV Vaccination Program, living in Victoria, Australia were recruited into a a young women’s study examining effectiveness of the Australian National HPV Vaccination Program. Overall, 668 participants completed the recruitment survey, which collected data of participants’ demographics and HPV knowledge. In 2015 these participants were invited to complete an additional supplementary survey on parental demographics and attitudes towards vaccinations. Results In 2015, 417 participants completed the supplementary survey (62% response rate). Overall, 19% of participants were unvaccinated. In multivariate analyses, HPV vaccination was significantly associated with their being born in Australia (p<0.001), having completed childhood vaccinations (p<0.001) and their parents being main decision-makers for participants’ HPV vaccination (p<0.001). The main reason reported for HPV non-vaccination was parental concern about vaccine safety (43%). Compared with HPV-vaccinated participants, those unvaccinated were significantly more likely to be opposed to all vaccines, including HPV vaccines (p<0.001) and were less likely to consider vaccinating their own children with all vaccines (p = 0.033), including HPV vaccines (p<0.001). Overall, 61% of unvaccinated participants reported that a
Jafari, Mahdie; Moghaddam Pour, Masoud; Taghizadeh, Morteza; Masoudi, Shahin; Bayat, Zahra
Context Adjuvants are compounds used in the preparation of inactive vaccines to enhance the immune response. Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is one of the first compounds approved by the Food and Drug Administration, which is used as adjuvants in vaccine products for humans. Montanide ISA 70 is an oil-emulsion adjuvant and is used in poultry inactive vaccines. Objective In this study, the effects of alum adjuvant on the efficiency and induction of immune response in inactive vaccines of Influenza and Newcastle are compared with those of ISA 70. Materials and methods Six groups of 7-d-old specific-pathogen-free chickens were inoculated with 0.3 ml of the prepared vaccines via the subcutaneous route in the neck. Immune response in each group after 7, 14, 21, 31, 41, and 45 d was evaluated using the technique of hemagglutination inhibition. Results The results were compared using SPSS software. Results showed that vaccines containing adjuvant ISA 70 depicted a higher increase in the immune response and adjuvant of 20% alum is similar to adjuvant of ISA 70 in boosting the immune system. There was no statistically significant difference between 10% and 20% alum, but these adjuvants are visibly different from ISA 70. Conclusion In conclusion, alum can be used as an easily accessible, harmless, and effective adjuvant; however, to increase the immune period using the inactive vaccines for poultry, more research would be necessary.
Lipton, Brandy J; Decker, Sandra L
Affordable Care Act provisions implemented in 2010 required insurance plans to offer dependent coverage to people ages 19-25 and to provide targeted preventive services with zero cost sharing. These provisions both increased the percentage of young adults with any source of health insurance coverage and improved the generosity of coverage. We examined how these provisions affected use of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, which is among the most expensive of recommended vaccines, among young adult women. Using 2008-12 data from the National Health Interview Survey, we estimated that the 2010 policy implementation increased the likelihood of HPV vaccine initiation and completion by 7.7 and 5.8 percentage points, respectively, for women ages 19-25 relative to a control group of women age 18 or 26. These estimates translate to approximately 1.1 million young women initiating and 854,000 young women completing the vaccine series.
The sites where virulent Newcastle disease virus persists in endemic countries are unknown. Evidence presented here shows that the same strain that caused a previous outbreak was present in both apparently healthy and sick vaccinated birds from multiple farms that had high average specific antibody...
Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. Maternal antibodies provide early protection from disease, but may interfere with the vaccination efficacy in the chick. MAb are thought to interfere wit...
Birds transfer maternal antibodies (MAb) to their offspring through the egg yolk where the antibody is absorbed and enters the circulatory system. These maternal antibodies, depending on the pathogen, can provide early protection from some diseases, but it may also interfere with the vaccination re...
Tang, Xinming; Yin, Guangwen; Qin, Mei; Tao, Geru; Suo, Jingxia; Liu, Xianyong; Suo, Xun
The surface antigen 1 of Toxoplasma gondii (TgSAG1) is a major immunodominant antigen and is widely considered an ideal candidate for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Eimeria tenella, an affinis apicomplexan parasite with T. gondii, is a potential vaccine vector carrying exogenous antigens that stimulates specific immune responses. Here, we engineered TgSAG1 into E. tenella and obtained a stably transfected E. tenella line (Et-TgSAG1). We found TgSAG1 localized on the cell surface of Et-TgSAG1, which is similar to its native distribution in T. gondii tachyzoites. We immunized the chickens with Et-TgSAG1 orally and detected TgSAG1-specific immune responses, which partly reduced T. gondii infection. In the mouse model, we immunized the mice with Et-TgSAG1 sporozoites intraperitoneally and challenged them with T. gondii tachyzoites RH strain. We found that the mice immunized with Et-TgSAG1 showed a TgSAG1 specific Th 1-dominant immune response and a prolonged survival time compared with wild-type E. tenella and non-immunized mice. Collectively, our results demonstrated that Et-TgSAG1, utilized as a recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis, could be applied in both chickens and mice. Our findings also provide a promising persuasion for the development of transgenic Eimeria as vaccine vectors for use in birds and mammals. PMID:27387302
Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Cui, Shuai; Fu, Jiayuan; Wang, Yixin; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
To explore the antibody responses and protective effects induced by subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) gp85 protein vaccine plus different adjuvants (CpG and white oil adjuvant YF01) combined with the immune enhancer Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharide (TPPPS), we immunized SPF chickens with the recombinant ALV-J gp85 protein, along with different adjuvants and immune enhancer, which protected the chickens by inducing different levels of protective antibodies. Results showed that a single injection of gp85 recombinant protein could only produce low-titre antibodies that were maintained over a short time in few chickens. When combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, the recombinant protein could induce high-titre antibodies in most of the immunized chickens. Moreover, when the immune enhancer TPPPS was used with the two adjuvants, it further elevated the antibody levels for a longer duration. The eggs from four groups with the highest levels of ALV-J antibodies were collected, hatched, and examined for maternal antibodies. The protection by the maternal antibodies against ALV-J infection in the TPPPS-immunized group was higher than that in the group without TPPPS, which was consistent with the observations in the parents. This study shows that the immune enhancer TPPPS, combined with YF01 or CpG adjuvants, can enhance the immunogenicity of gp85 recombinant proteins, and provide a better immuno-protection. It provides a powerful experimental basis for the development of ALV-J subunit vaccine. Efficient subunit vaccine development will also accelerate the process of purification of ALV-J.
Yin, Hui-Chu; Cheng, Shao-Wen; Yang, Chun-Yuh; Chiu, Ya-Wen
Background. Infant holding position may reduce vaccination pain. However, the optimal position for young infants remains controversial. Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of holding infants in the supine position and the effectiveness of holding infants in upright position for relieving acute pain from vaccine injection. Methods. This prospective cohort study enrolled 6–12-week-old healthy infants. We examined infant pain responses by evaluating the following three categories: (1) crying, (2) irritability, and (3) facial expression. Results. In total, 282 infants were enrolled, with 103 and 179 held in the supine and upright positions, respectively. At 30 s after vaccination, the infants in the supine position showed a larger decrease in crying (p < 0.001), irritability (p = 0.002), and pained facial expression (p = 0.001) than did those in the upright position. However, there was no significant difference in pain response between two groups at 180 s after intervention. Conclusion. In 2-month-old infants, the supine position may reduce acute pain more effectively than does the upright position. Our findings provide a clinical strategy for relieving vaccination pain in young infants. PMID:28246489
Efficacy of single dose of a bivalent vaccine containing inactivated Newcastle disease virus and reassortant highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus against lethal HPAI and NDV infection in chickens.
Lee, Dong-Hun; Park, Jae-Keun; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Yuk, Seong-Su; Erdene-Ochir, Tseren-Ochir; Jang, Yo-Han; Seong, Baik-Lin; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) and Newcastle disease (ND) are 2 devastating diseases of poultry, which cause great economic losses to the poultry industry. In the present study, we developed a bivalent vaccine containing antigens of inactivated ND and reassortant HPAI H5N1 viruses as a candidate poultry vaccine, and we evaluated its immunogenicity and protective efficacy in specific pathogen-free chickens. The 6:2 reassortant H5N1 vaccine strain containing the surface genes of the A/Chicken/Korea/ES/2003(H5N1) virus was successfully generated by reverse genetics. A polybasic cleavage site of the hemagglutinin segment was replaced by a monobasic cleavage site. We characterized the reverse genetics-derived reassortant HPAI H5N1 clade 2.5 vaccine strain by evaluating its growth kinetics in eggs, minimum effective dose in chickens, and cross-clade immunogenicity against HPAI clade 1 and 2. The bivalent vaccine was prepared by emulsifying inactivated ND (La Sota strain) and reassortant HPAI viruses with Montanide ISA 70 adjuvant. A single immunization with this vaccine induced high levels of hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody titers and protected chickens against a lethal challenge with the wild-type HPAI and ND viruses. Our results demonstrate that the bivalent, inactivated vaccine developed in this study is a promising approach for the control of both HPAI H5N1 and ND viral infections.
Bangoura, Berit; Alnassan, Alaa Aldin; Lendner, Matthias; Shehata, Awad Ali; Krüger, Monika; Daugschies, Arwid
Necrotic enteritis (NE) is an important disease in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens combined with predisposing factors, mainly eimeriosis. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of a commercial attenuated anticoccidial live vaccine against NE in a clinical infection model using 60 day-old chicks. Vaccination was performed on study day (SD) 1 with natural booster-infections for 4 weeks from Eimeria spp. oocysts present in litter. On SD 28, five groups were formed (n=12): group V+/C-E- (vaccinated, uninfected), group V+/C-E+ (vaccinated, infected with Eimeria spp.), group V+/C+E+ (vaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), group V-/C+E+ (unvaccinated, infected with clostridia and Eimeria spp.), and group NC (negative control). Efficacy was measured by clinical parameters, pathogen multiplication, and pathological parameters assessed during two necropsies on SD 34 and SD 40, respectively. Additionally, cytokine expression was measured in gut and spleen tissues at necropsy. Clinical signs of NE were observed only in the coinfected groups, mainly in group V-/C+E+. Accordingly, lowest body weight gain was observed in group V-/C+E+ (301.8 g from SD 28 to SD 40; group NC: 626.2 g). Oocyst excretion varied significantly (P<0.01) between all Eimeria spp. infected groups and was highest in group V-/C+E+, followed by V+/C+E+, and lowest in group V+/C-E+. NE typical intestinal lesions showed only in groups V+/C+E+ and V-/C+E+. The intestinal mucosa featured partly severe lesions in the jejunum, C. perfringens colonization was histologically visible. Upregulation of IFN-γ, was observed in the jejunal tissue of group V-/C+E+ (P<0.01 (SD 34) or P<0.05 (SD 40) compared to all other groups). IL-10 and IL-12 were upregulated in group V-/C+E+, IL-10 also in group V+/C+E+ (SD 40) while IL-2 expression remained unaltered. In conclusion, vaccination against coccidiosis was effective in preventing NE in a mixed infection comparable to field
Lum, Lucy Chai See; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Breiman, Robert F; Vesikari, Timo; Sablan, Benjamin P; Chay, Oh Moh; Tantracheewathorn, Taweewong; Schmitt, Heinz-Josef; Lau, Yu-Lung; Bowonkiratikachorn, Piyaporn; Tam, John S; Lee, Bee Wah; Tan, Kah Kee; Pejcz, Jerzy; Cha, Sungho; Gutierrez-Brito, Maricruz; Kaltenis, Petras; Vertruyen, Andre; Czajka, Hanna; Bojarskas, Jurgis; Brooks, W Abdullah; Cheng, Sheau-Mei; Rappaport, Ruth; Baker, Sherryl; Gruber, William C; Forrest, Bruce D
Children aged 11 to <24 months received 2 intranasal doses of live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or placebo, 35+/-7 days apart. Dose 1 was administered concomitantly with a combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (Priorix). Seroresponses to measles and mumps were similar between groups. Compared with placebo, response rates to rubella in LAIV+Priorix recipients were statistically lower at a 15 IU/mL threshold (83.9% vs 78.0%) and the prespecified noninferiority criteria were not met. In a post hoc analysis using an alternate widely accepted threshold of 10 IU/mL, the noninferiority criteria were met (93.4% vs 89.8%). Concomitant administration with Priorix did not affect the overall influenza protection rate of LAIV (78.4% and 63.8% against antigenically similar influenza strains and any strain, respectively).
Ng, Michelle S.Y.; Foong, Alice Y.W.; Koh, Mark J.A.
Introduction The development of cutaneous neoplasms at immunization sites following vaccination is uncommon, and only few have been reported in the literature worldwide. We report an unusual case of an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma that developed as a chronic nonhealing plaque in the immunization scar of a young boy after vaccination. Case Report A 13-month-old Chinese boy presented with an unusual skin reaction on the vaccination site at the right anterolateral thigh following a routine intramuscular injection of ‘5-in-1’ (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine at 4 months of age. The immunization site developed a slightly raised papule with a central punctum that progressively grew in size, ulcerated and showed occasional bleeding over a span of 9 months. On follow-up, the lesion showed a chronic granulomatous reaction with surrounding induration and a central scarring. The right inguinal lymph node was palpable. Ultrasound of the lesion showed only nonspecific focal skin thickening. An incisional skin biopsy with careful histopathological evaluation revealed microscopic features consistent with an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma. Conclusion Neoplastic development in immunization scars following vaccination is a rare occurrence and, hence, makes this case a diagnostic challenge. A high index of suspicion is crucial in atypical presentations of a common skin lesion, as typified by this case. Careful history taking and clinicopathological correlation of clinical findings with gross and microscopic findings along with targeted immunohistological staining is often essential to aid early diagnosis. PMID:27721753
Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter
(1) Background: Hungarys's estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12-13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated-significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults' HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students' attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children.
Peebles, E David; Jacob, Roymon; Branton, Scott L; Evans, Jeffrey D; Leigh, Spencer A; Gerard, Patrick D
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. When administered before lay, F-strain MG (FMG) can reduce egg production during lay, but the ts-11 strain of MG (ts11MG) does not exert this effect. Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of pre-lay vaccinations of ts11MG, MG-Bacterin (MGBac), or their combination, in conjunction with an FMG challenge overlay after peak production on the blood characteristics of commercial layers. In each trial, 160 mycoplasma-free Hy-Line W-36 layers were housed in negative-pressure biological isolation units (4 units per treatment, 10 birds per unit) from 9 through 52 wk of age (woa). The following vaccination treatments were administered at 10 woa: 1) Control (no vaccinations); 2) MGBac; 3) ts11MG; and 4) ts11MG and MGBac combination (ts11MG+MGBac). At 45 woa, half of the birds were challenged with a laboratory stock of high-passage FMG. Parameters measured in both trials were whole-blood hematocrit and serum concentrations of cholesterol (SCHOL), triglycerides, calcium, and total protein (STP). An age×treatment interaction (P=0.04) was observed for STP between 23 and 43 woa. The STP concentration in the ts11MG and ts11MG+MGBac groups was higher at 33 woa, but was lower at 43 woa, in comparison to the Control group. Also, at 38 woa, the STP of the ts11MG+MGBac group was higher than that of the MGBac group. Although use of the ts11MG vaccine alone or in combination with MGBac may influence circulating STP concentrations when administered before lay, it remains effective in protecting layers against the adverse effect of a post-peak challenge of FMG on egg production, as was observed in a previous companion study.
Ogilvie, Gina S; Naus, Monika; Money, Deborah M; Dobson, Simon R; Miller, Dianne; Krajden, Mel; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Coldman, Andrew J
We report on the rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young women aged 15-22 years of age in British Columbia before and after the introduction of an HPV vaccine program. Rates of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2+ for each age stratum (15-22) in the calendar years 2004-2012 for the province of British Columbia were obtained from the BC Cancer Agency's population-based cervical cancer program. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) of CIN2+ were described and compared before and after HPV vaccine program introduction in cohorts born in vaccine eligible years, and in non-vaccine eligible years using piece-wise Poisson regression analysis, and adjusted for age. Between 2004 and 2012, rates of CIN2 and CIN2+ in young women aged 15-22 years in the province of British Columbia have decreased overall. After the introduction of the HPV vaccine program, the age adjusted IRR for CIN2+ for young women aged 15-17 years decreased significantly from 0.91 (95% CI: 0.86-0.98 p < 0.01) to 0.36 (95% CI: 0.18-0.73 p < 0.01). During the same time period, no similar reduction was found in young women 18-22 years. After introduction of HPV vaccine program, IRR for CIN2+ in young women 15-17 was significantly reduced for CIN2+ (0.14; 95% CI: 0.04- 0.47; p < 0.01) and CIN2 (0.1; 95% CI: 0.02-0.54; p < 0.01). This ecological analysis shows a significant reduction in CIN2+ lesions in young women aged 15-17 years in British Columbia after the introduction of the HPV vaccine in young women despite vaccine uptake levels below 70%.
Gosselin, Virginie; Généreux, Mélissa; Gagneur, Arnaud; Petit, Geneviève
ABSTRACT In 2011, the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced into a universal immunization program in Quebec (Canada). This retrospective cohort study assessed vaccine effectiveness (VE) in preventing acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) hospitalizations among children <3 y living in the Quebec Eastern Townships region according to socioeconomic status (SES). Data were gathered from a tertiary hospital database paired with a regional immunization registry. Three cohorts of children were followed: (1) vaccinated children born in post-universal vaccination period (2011–2013, n = 5,033), (2) unvaccinated children born in post-universal vaccination period (n = 1,239), and (3) unvaccinated children born in pre-universal vaccination period (2008–2010, n = 6,436). In each cohort, AGE and RVGE hospitalizations were identified during equivalent follow-up periods to calculate VE globally and according to neighborhood-level SES. Using multivariable logistic regression, adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed to obtain VE (1-OR). Adjusted VE of 2 doses was 62% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 37%–77%) and 94% (95%CI: 52%–99%) in preventing AGE and RVGE hospitalization, respectively. Stratified analyses according to SES showed that children living in neighborhoods with higher rates of low-income families had significantly lower VE against AGE hospitalizations compared to neighborhoods with lower rates of low-income families (30% vs. 78%, p = 0.027). Our results suggest that the rotavirus vaccine is highly effective in preventing severe gastroenteritis in young children, particularly among the most well-off. SES seems to influence rotavirus VE, even in a high-income country like Canada. Further studies are needed to determine factors related to lower rotavirus VE among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups. PMID:27367155
Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens.
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Martin, Alison; Haddad, Eid E; King, Daniel J
Worldwide, Newcastle disease (ND) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live ND vaccines that typically induce protection against virulent field viruses. Here, we tested the efficacy of an antigen-antibody complex (AAC) ND vaccine delivered in ovo. Commercial maternal antibody-positive broiler chickens (Gallus domesticus) were vaccinated in ovo with an AAC vaccine composed of live B1-LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV) complexed with NDV-specific antiserum, and then they were challenged at weekly intervals after hatch. Challenge viruses included three exotic ND disease (END) viruses: the neurotropic strain Texas GB NDV-92-01 (TxGB) and two viscerotropic isolates, one isolate from the 2002-2003 outbreak in California (California 2002 isolate S212676 [CA]) and the other isolate from a 1997 END outbreak in South Korea (South Korea 94-147 [SK]). Results demonstrate that maternal antibody was able to provide approximately 50% protection in either vaccinated or control chickens at 7 days of age after TxGB challenge. However, with challenge at > or = 14 days, most control birds died, whereas all AAC-vaccinated birds were protected. Challenge with the CA or SK viruses in chickens at 28 days of age resulted in 100% protection of vaccinated birds, whereas all control birds died. In addition, AAC-vaccinated birds displayed decreased incidence of viral shedding in oral and cloacal swabs than control birds. Antibody titers were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in vaccinated chickens, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and hemagglutinin-inhibition tests, than in nonvaccinated controls. Together, these results demonstrate the efficacy of AAC vaccines delivered in ovo to protect commercial poultry.
Rajput, Zahid Iqbal; Xiao, Chen-wen; Hu, Song-hua; Arijo, Abdullah G.; Soomro, Noor Mohammad
Seeds of a Chinese traditional medicine plant, Cochinchina momordica were used in the present study for the improvement of influenza vaccine (H5N1) in chicken. Crude extraction from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS) was obtained by ethanol extraction method. In experiment No. 1, two weeks old chickens were immunized with influenza vaccine (H5N1) alone or combined with ECMS (5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 μg/dose). Serum IgG antibody levels (by ELISA) as well as effects on daily weight gain were measured on 0, 7, 14 and 28th day after immunization. Results revealed that all ECMS groups numerically increased the antibody levels while 10 and 20 μg/dose groups significantly (P<0.05) enhanced total IgG antibody on day 28, when compared with control. Average daily weight gain was also significantly higher in 20 μg/dose ECMS group. Adjuvant effect was also confirmed in experiment No. 2 when chickens were immunized with 20 μg/dose ECMS and antibody titer was measured through hemagglutination inhibition (HI). It is concluded that ECMS has potential to improve the immune responses and deserve further study as an adjuvant. PMID:17542061
Adebajo, Meseko Clement; Ademola, Shittu Ismail; Oluwaseun, Akinyede
Fowl pox is a viral disease of domestic and wild birds. The large size of the genome makes it a useful vector for recombinant DNA technology. Although the disease has been described in both commercial and indigenous chickens in Nigeria, data are limited on seroprevalence in free range chickens. Such data are, however, important in the design and implementation of fowl pox virus vector vaccine. We surveyed current antibody status to fowl pox virus in free range chickens by testing 229 sera collected from 10 villages in Jos North and Jos South LGA of Plateau State Nigeria. Sera were analyzed by AGID against standard fowl pox antigen. Fifty-two of the 229 (23%) tested sera were positive for fowl pox virus antibody, and the log titre in all positive specimen was >2. Thirty (21%) and twenty-two (27%) of the samples from Jos South and Jos North, respectively, tested positive. This was, however, not statistically significant (P = 0.30). Generally the study showed a significant level of antibody to fowl pox virus in the study area. This observation may hinder effective use of fowl pox vectored viral vaccine. Fowl pox control is recommended to reduce natural burden of the disease.
Herati, Ramin Sedaghat; Reuter, Morgan A; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Aung, Htin; Badwan, Osama Z; Kurupati, Raj K; Kannan, Senthil; Ertl, Hildegund; Schmader, Kenneth E; Betts, Michael R; Canaday, David H; Wherry, E John
Although influenza vaccination is recommended for all adults annually, the incidence of vaccine failure, defined as weak or absent increase in neutralizing Ab titers, is increased in the elderly compared with young adults. The T follicular helper cell (Tfh) subset of CD4 T cells provides B cell help in germinal centers and is necessary for class-switched Ab responses. Previous studies suggested a role for circulating Tfh cells (cTfh) following influenza vaccination in adults, but cTfh have not been studied in elderly adults in whom weak vaccine responses are often observed. In this study, we studied cTfh expressing CXCR5 and programmed death-1 (PD-1). cTfh from elderly adults were present at reduced frequency, had decreased in vitro B cell help ability, and had greater expression of ICOS compared with young adults. At 7 d after inactivated influenza vaccination, cTfh correlated with influenza vaccine-specific IgM and IgG responses in young adults but not in elderly adults. In sum, we have identified aging-related changes in cTfh that correlated with reduced influenza vaccine responses. Future rational vaccine design efforts should incorporate Tfh measurement as an immune correlate of protection, particularly in the setting of aging.
Vlădoianu, I. R.; Dimache, G.; Antohi, S.; Vlădoianu, Constanța; Zarma, Ortansa
In Romania, pre-school children are excluded from subcutaneous inoculation with typhoid and paratyphoid A and B vaccine. The authors have therefore investigated the possibility of giving them an oral vaccine. Laboratory tests were carried out on 30 children from 3 to 7 years of age. Samples of blood serum were collected before and after vaccination and subsequently tested for (1) seroprotection in chick embryos, (2) seroprotection in white mice, (3) titration of the agglutinating antibodies, and (4) electrophoretic pattern. The results obtained showed that the oral administration of the vaccine can, under the conditions used in the test, afford a considerable degree of protection to young children. PMID:14290078
Liljebjelke, Karen A; Petkov, Daniel I; Kapczynski, Darrell R
The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical protection from challenge conferred by two attenuated Salmonella enteria serovar typhimurium vaccine strains expressing the hemagglutinin (HA1) gene from a highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), under control of the anaerobically inducible nir15 promoter. Two-week-old White Leghorn chickens were immunized by oral gavage with one milliliter doses of >109 Salmonella colony-forming units once weekly for 4 weeks prior to challenge. Expression of recombinant protein was confirmed via Western blot. Serum and mucosal gavage samples were collected prior to, and following immunization and antibodies against avian influenza HA were confirmed by Western blot and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) assay. Chickens were challenged with homologous (A/whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005), or heterologous (A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95) HPAI virus strains. Chickens immunized with attenuated Salmonella strains containing plasmid expression vector (pTETnir15HA) demonstrated a statistically significant increase in survival compared to control groups. Results provide evidence of effectiveness of attenuated Salmonella strains for delivery of recombinant avian influenza HA antigens and induction of mucosal and systemic immune responses protective against lethal challenge with HPAI.
Xu, Huaiying; Meng, Fang; Huang, Dihai; Sheng, Xiaodan; Wang, Youling; Zhang, Wei; Chang, Weishan; Wang, Leyi; Qin, Zhuoming
Infection of poultry with diverse lineages of H5N2 avian influenza viruses has been documented for over three decades in different parts of the world, with limited outbreaks caused by this highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. In the present study, three avian H5N2 influenza viruses, A/chicken/Shijiazhuang/1209/2013, A/chicken/Chiping/0321/2014, and A/chicken/Laiwu/0313/2014, were isolated from chickens with clinical symptoms of avian influenza. Complete genomic and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that all three isolates are novel recombinant viruses with hemagglutinin (HA) and matrix (M) genes derived from H5N1, and remaining genes derived from H9N2-like viruses. The HA cleavage motif in all three strains (PQIEGRRRKR/GL) is characteristic of a highly pathogenic avian influenza virus strain. These results indicate the occurrence of H5N2 recombination and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of the H5N2 subtype virus and reformulation of vaccine strains.
Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J
The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.
Hussain, Aneela N.; Alkhenizan, Abdullah; McWalter, Patricia; Qazi, Nusrat; Alshmassi, Amal; Farooqi, Samina; Abdulkarim, Ahmed
Background: Rising incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer can be reduced by effective vaccination. Saudi Food and Drug Administration approved prophylactic HPV vaccine in 2010 for females of 11–26 years. Objectives: To determine the awareness of HPV infection, its health sequel and the attitude and barriers to the acceptance of HPV vaccine by young women in Saudi Arabia. Dynamics influencing the decision of patients and parents regarding vaccination were assessed to foster effective and strategically focused interventions. Materials and Methods: All patients of Family Medicine department, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh were invited to participate in this study from January 2012 to June 2014. A culturally sensitive and specially designed questionnaire was administered using an interview-based model to assess the knowledge, perception, and associated sociodemographic factors of HPV. Results: A total of 325 patients participated as per the inclusion criteria: 87.4% were Saudis, 53.5% had university or higher education and 65.2% were adolescents (age 11-19 years). The questionnaire was answered by participants (50.8%) or guardians (49.2%). About 34.5% of the population was aware of HPV infection, and 27.4% were aware of its relation with cervical cancer. However, awareness of the HPV vaccine, perception of its prevention of cervical cancer and other HPV-related disease was relatively low (32.3%), Saudis (29.9%) versus non-Saudis (48.8%) (P = 0.016). More guardians (41.2%) were aware of the HPV vaccine and its impact than participants (27.9%) (P = 0.01). Higher educational background (43.1%) increased the knowledge of HPV compared to less than high school education (24.5%) (odds ratio: 2.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.44–3.76). Nearly 64.3% of participants agreed, and 35.7% refused to receive the HPV vaccine. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception of HPV infection as an sexually transmitted infections and its
The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...
Perez-Carbajal, C; Caldwell, D; Farnell, M; Stringfellow, K; Pohl, S; Casco, G; Pro-Martinez, A; Ruiz-Feria, C A
One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 300) were orally vaccinated (Coccivac-B) and divided into 6 groups to evaluate Arg at 3 levels of supplementation, 0, 0.3, or 0.6% [normal level (NARG), medium level (MARG), or high level (HARG), respectively], and 2 levels of vitamin E (VE), 40 or 80 IU/kg of feed (VE40 or VE80, respectively), in a factorial experiment. Birds were reared in floor pens with fresh pine shavings and provided a corn-soybean-based diet and water ad libitum. At d 14, all chickens were orally challenged with a mixture of Eimeria field isolates (Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima, and Eimeria tenella). In vitro heterophil and monocyte oxidative burst (HOB and MOB, respectively) was measured at d 21 from cells isolated from peripheral blood. Antibody levels (IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes, ELISA) and NO were measured at d 14 and 28. The HOB was lower in birds fed the VE40 diets but was increased with the MARG and HARG treatments, whereas birds fed the VE80 diet had a higher HOB irrespective of Arg level. Birds fed the VE80 diet had high levels of MOB, which was not further improved by Arg, whereas birds fed the VE40-MARG diet had the highest MOB response. Plasma NO was not affected by diet at d 14, but at d 28, plasma NO was higher in birds fed the VE80-MARG or the VE40-NARG diet and lower in birds fed the VE80-NARG or the VE40-MARG diet. Birds fed the VE40-HARG or VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels at d 14, but at d 28, birds fed the VE80-MARG diet had the highest IgG levels. The IgM concentration was lower in birds fed NARG levels irrespective of VE levels at d 14, but at d 28, IgM levels were higher in birds fed the VE40-HARG or the VE80-MARG feed. The IgA concentration was not consistently affected at d 14 or 28. These results suggest that Arg and VE fed at levels higher than those recommended by the NRC may play complementary roles on the innate and humoral immune response against an Eimeria challenge, potentially improving vaccine efficacy and
A vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus strain from the influenza virus library conferred protective immunity to chickens against the challenge with antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza virus.
Samad, Rozanah Asmah Abdul; Nomura, Naoki; Tsuda, Yoshimi; Manzoor, Rashid; Kajihara, Masahiro; Tomabechi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Takashi; Kokumai, Norihide; Ohgitani, Toshiaki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Takada, Ayato; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Kida, Hiroshi
Inactivated influenza virus vaccine prepared from a non-pathogenic influenza virus strain A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-1/2004 (H5N1) from the virus library conferred protective immunity to chickens against the challenge of antigenically drifted highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV), A/whooper swan/Hokkaido/1/2008 (H5N1). The efficacy of the vaccine was comparable to that prepared from genetically modified HPAIV strain deltaRRRRK rg-A/ whooper swan/Mongolia/3/2005 (H5N1), which is more antigenically related to the challenge virus strain, in chickens.
Montour, J. L.; Shellabarger, C. J.
Young single-comb white Leghorn cockerels were subjected to single acute doses of either 2.2 GeV protons or 250 kVp X-rays. Since young chickens exposed in the lethal range die within 48 hours of exposure, an hourly tabulation of deaths was recorded for this length of time after exposure. Animals which were exposed to sublethal doses were killed five days after exposure and their major lymphatic organs, (thymus, bursa, and spleen), removed and weighed. In the lethal range, animals exposed to 2.2 GeV protons died sooner than those receiving similar doses of X-rays, but total mortality was similar in each case at similar dose levels. The 48 hour LD sub 50 was determined to be 710 rad. Measured five days after exposure, 50% depression ED sub 50 for lymphatic organs occurred as follows: (1) thymus, 350 rad; (2) pursa, 500 rad, and (3) spleen, 450 rad. In all case R.B.E. values were not different from unity.
Sousa, R L; Cardoso, T C; Paulillo, A C; Montassier, H J; Pinto, A A
Ten young partridges (Rhynchotus rufescens) were vaccinated with the lentogenic strain of Newcastle disease virus. Another eight unvaccinated birds were kept in close contact with the treated flock. Antibodies levels were measured over the course of 3 mo in all birds using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and the liquid-phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LPB-ELISA). The LPB-ELISA was standardized, and the results were compared with those obtained with the HI test. Antibodies increased after 23 days postvaccination in 16 birds with no side effects as determined by both the HI test and the LPB-ELISA.
Flood, Danna; Wallace, Melissa; Bloch, Kimberly; Kublin, James; Bekker, Linda-Gail
Background HIV remains a significant health problem in South Africa (SA). The development of a preventive vaccine offers promise as a means of addressing the epidemic, yet development of the human resource capacity to facilitate such research in SA is not being sustained. The HIV Vaccine Trials Network (HVTN) has responded by establishing South African/HVTN AIDS Early Stage Investigator Programme (SHAPe), a programme to identify, train and retain clinician scientists in HIV vaccine research in SA. Objectives The present study sought to identify factors influencing the attraction and retention of South African medical doctors in HIV vaccine research; to understand the support needed to ensure their success; and to inform further development of clinician research programmes, including SHAPe. Methods Individual interviews and focus groups were held and audio-recorded with 18 senior and junior research investigators, and medical doctors not involved in research. Recordings were transcribed, and data were coded and analysed. Results Findings highlighted the need for: (1) medical training programmes to include a greater focus on fostering interest and developing research skills, (2) a more clearly defined career pathway for individuals interested in clinical research, (3) an increase in programmes that coordinate and fund research, training and mentorship opportunities and (4) access to academic resources such as courses and libraries. Unstable funding sources and inadequate local funding support were identified as barriers to promoting HIV research careers. Conclusion Expanding programmes that provide young investigators with funded research opportunities, mentoring, targeted training and professional development may help to build and sustain SA’s next generation of HIV vaccine and prevention scientists. PMID:27616977
Takla, Anja; Böhmer, Merle M; Klinc, Christina; Kurz, Norbert; Schaffer, Alice; Stich, Heribert; Stöcker, Petra; Wichmann, Ole; Koch, Judith
Mumps outbreaks in populations with high 2-dose vaccination coverage and among young adults are increasingly reported. However, data on the duration of vaccine-induced protection conferred by mumps vaccines are scarce. As part of a supra-regional outbreak in Germany 2010/11, we conducted two retrospective cohort studies in a primary school and among adult ice hockey teams to determine mumps vaccine effectiveness (VE). Via questionnaires we collected information on demography, clinical manifestations, and reviewed vaccination cards. We estimated VE as 1-RR, RR being the rate ratio of disease among two-times or one-time mumps-vaccinated compared with unvaccinated persons. The response rate was 92.6% (100/108--children cohort) and 91.7% (44/48--adult cohort). Fourteen cases were identified in the children and 6 in the adult cohort. In the children cohort (mean age: 9 y), 2-dose VE was 91.9% (95% CI 81.0-96.5%). In the adult cohort (mean age: 26 y), no cases occurred among the 13 2-times vaccinated, while 1-dose VE was 50.0% (95% CI -9.4-87.1%). Average time since last vaccination showed no significant difference for cases and non-cases, but cases were younger at age of last mumps vaccination (children cohort: 2 vs. 3 y, P=0.04; adult cohort: 1 vs. 4 y, P=0.03). We did not observe signs of waning immunity in the children cohort. Due to the small sample size VE in the adult cohort should be interpreted with caution. Given the estimated VE, very high 2-dose vaccination coverage is required to prevent future outbreaks. Intervention efforts to increase coverage must especially target young adults who received<2 vaccinations during childhood.
... vaccinated? For many years, a set of annual vaccinations was considered normal and necessary for dogs and ... to protect for a full year. Consequently, one vaccination schedule will not work well for all pets. ...
Shittu, Ismaila; Zhu, Ziying; Lu, Yangqing; Hutcheson, Jessica M; Stice, Steven L; West, Franklin D; Donadeu, Meritxell; Dungu, Baptiste; Fadly, Aly M; Zavala, Guillermo; Ferguson-Noel, Naola; Afonso, Claudio L
Traditionally, substrates for production of viral poultry vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent primary cell cultures. The difficulties and cost involved in scaling up these substrates in cases of increased demand have been a limitation for vaccine production. Here, we assess the ability of a newly developed chicken-induced pluripotent cell line, BA3, to support replication and growth of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota vaccine strain. The characteristics and growth profile of the cells were also investigated. BA3 cells could grow in suspension in different media to a high density of up to 7.0 × 10(6) cells/mL and showed rapid proliferation with doubling time of 21 h. Upon infection, a high virus titer of 1.02 × 10(8) EID50/mL was obtained at 24 h post infection using a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 5. In addition, the cell line was shown to be free of endogenous and exogenous Avian Leukosis viruses, Reticuloendotheliosis virus, Fowl Adenovirus, Marek's disease virus, and several Mycoplasma species. In conclusion, BA3 cell line is potentially an excellent candidate for vaccine production due to its highly desirable industrially friendly characteristics of growing to high cell density and capability of growth in serum free medium.
Administration of Poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and Avian Beta Defensin as Adjuvants in Inactivated Inclusion Body Hepatitis Virus and its Hexon Protein-Based Experimental Vaccine Formulations in Chickens.
Dar, Arshud; Tipu, Masroor; Townsend, Hugh; Potter, Andy; Gerdts, Volker; Tikoo, Suresh
Inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) is one of the major infectious diseases adversely affecting the poultry industry of the United States and Canada. Currently, no effective and safe vaccine is available for the control of IBH virus (IBHV) infection in chickens. However, based on the excellent safety and immunogenic profiles of experimental veterinary vaccines developed with the use of new generation adjuvants, we hypothesized that characterization of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV or its capsid protein hexon as antigens, along with poly[di(sodium carboxylatoethylphenoxy)phosphazene] (PCEP) and avian beta defensin 2 (ABD2) as vaccine adjuvants, will be helpful in development of an effective and safe vaccine formulation for IBH. Our data demonstrated that experimental administration of vaccine formulations containing inactivated IBHV and a mixture of PCEP with or without ABD2 as an adjuvant induced significantly higher antibody responses compared with other vaccine formulations, while hexon protein-based vaccine formulations showed relatively lower levels of antibody responses. Thus, a vaccine formulation containing inactivated IBHV with PCEP or a mixture of PCEP and ABD2 (with a reduced dosage of PCEP) as an adjuvant may serve as a potential vaccine candidate. However, in order to overcome the risks associated with whole virus inactivated vaccines, characterization of additional viral capsid proteins, including fiber protein and penton of IBHV along with hexon protein in combination with more new generation adjuvants, will be helpful in further improvements of vaccines against IBHV infection.
In ovo evaluation of FloraMax®-B11 on Marek´s disease HVT vaccine protective efficacy, hatchability, microbiota composition, morphometric analysis, and Salmonella Enteritidis infection in broiler chickens
Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of in ovo administration of FloraMax®-B11 (FM) on Marek´s disease (MD) herpesvirus of turkeys (HVT) vaccine protective efficacy, hatchability, microbiota composition, morphometric analysis and Salmonella enteritidis (SE) infection in chickens. I...
The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either ...
The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on used litter. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemi...
Balla, Bettina Claudia; Terebessy, András; Tóth, Emese; Balázs, Péter
(1) Background: Hungarys’s estimated cervical cancer mortality was 6.9/100,000 in 2012, above the average of the EU27 countries (3.7/100,000) in the same year. Since 2014, the bivalent HPV vaccine has been offered to schoolgirls aged 12–13. (2) Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 1022 high school seniors (492 girls, 530 boys) in 19 randomly selected schools in Budapest. Our anonymous questionnaire contained 54 items: basic socio-demographic data, knowledge about HPV infection/cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. (3) Results: 54.9% knew that HPV caused cervical cancer, and 52.1% identified HPV as an STD. Knowledge of risk factors such as promiscuity (46.9%) and early sexual activity (15.6%) was low, but higher than that of further HPV-induced diseases: genital warts (in females 9.9%, in males 9%), anal cancer (in females 2.2%, in males 1.9%), penile cancer (9.4%), and vulvar cancer (7.8%). A percentage of 14.6% feared getting infected, and 35.7% supported compulsory HPV vaccination. A percentage of 51.2% would have their future children vaccinated—significantly more girls than boys. (4) Conclusion: Our results support the findings of previous studies about young adults’ HPV-related knowledge, which was poor, especially regarding pathologies in men. Despite the low level of awareness, the students’ attitude was mostly positive when asked about vaccinating their future children. PMID:28036070
Ericsson, Maria; Jensen, Per
Domestication is thought to increase stress tolerance. The connection between stressor exposure, glucocorticoids and behavioural responses has been studied in adults, where domestication effects are evident. Early stress exposure may induce detrimental effects both in short-and long term. Previous research has reported a lack of glucocorticoid response in newly hatched chickens (Gallus gallus), whereas others have found opposite results. Hence it remains unclear whether the HPA-axis is functional from hatch, and if domestication has affected the early post-hatch ontogeny of the stress response. Our aims were to investigate the early ontogeny of the HPA-axis and characterize behavioural and hormonal stress responses in ancestral Red Junglefowl and in two domestic layer strains. Plasma corticosteone and behavioural responses before and after physical restraint was measured on day one, nine, 16 and 23 post hatch. The results showed significant increases of corticosterone after stress in all three breeds at all the different ages. The HPA-response decreased with age and was lower in Red Junglefowl. Behavioural responses also decreased with age, and tended to be stronger in Red Junglefowl. In summary, the HPA-axis is reactive from day one, and domestication may have affected its development and reactivity, alongside with related behaviour responses. PMID:27782164
Chan, Lung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ying-Chin; Wu, Pei-Jung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Liu, Cheung-Pin; Tsai, Han-Yin; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Hu, Chaur-Jong
Abstract Work-related stress (WS) can result in considerable and extensive changes in physiological and psychological performance. WS beyond the optimal levels induces anxiety, confusion, exhaustion, and burnout. Chronic WS affects neurocognitive performance, particularly attention and visuospatial memory. Essence of chicken (EC) has been reported to improve neurocognitive function after mental stress. To investigate the beneficial effects of EC in improving neurocognitive performance under WS, we conducted a randomized, double blind trial. Total 102 young workers in New Taipei City with high WS, evaluated using the Individual Subjective Perception Job Stress Scale scores (>36 for job leaders and 33 for nonleaders) were recruited. Fifty-one participants received 70 mL of EC and 51 received a placebo daily for 2 weeks. Blood tests and neurocognitive assessment were performed before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment. EC improved the performance of participants with high depression scores in the form-color associative memory test, used for assessing short-term memory. Although creatinine and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels increased in week 2, but the levels returned to the baseline in week 4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels decreased in week 4. EC significantly improved short-term memory in participants with high WS and concomitant depressive mood, although it slightly increased GPT and creatinine levels and reduced BUN levels. The long-term treatment effects of EC warrant further investigation. PMID:27175681
Manika, Danae; Ball, Jennifer G; Stout, Patricia A
This quantitative study explored young women's response to direct-to-consumer pharmaceutical advertising (DTCA) for a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. In particular, the study examined (a) the association of factors stemming from consumer research with actual and intended behavioral responses to DTCA for HPV and (b) key elements drawn from commonly used health-related theories to determine the strongest associations with behavioral intentions regarding the HPV vaccine. Survey findings showed that vaccinated women indicated that DTCA played a role in their decision to get vaccinated against HPV more so than those who were not vaccinated. Trust in DTCA for an HPV vaccine brand was significantly related to intentions to seek more information about the vaccine. Also, perceived barriers had the only significant association with behavioral intentions when taking into account perceived threat and response efficacy. These results provide practical implications for key industry decision makers and health communication professionals on the design of effective theory-based health communication message content for an HPV vaccine brand with consequent social implications.
The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus (AIV) is wide-spread in Asia and the Middle East. The efficacy of vaccines is enhanced by the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA) between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how antigenic variations affect the vaccine efficacy, speci...
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) causes an acute, highly contagious upper-respiratory disease of chickens. Sensitive detection of the causative alphaherpesvirus is important in clinical investigations and experimental studies. In particular, it is essential to quantify the viral genome co...
Zhuang, Qing Yuan; Wong, Ru Xin; Chen, Wei Ming Darren; Guo, Xiao Xuan
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practices of young women regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. METHODS We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study among female students at a tertiary institute in Singapore. RESULTS A total of 255 questionnaires were completed and formed the basis of the analysis. 244 (95.7%) of the total participants were of the age group 15–22 years. 252 (98.8%) participants were unmarried and 240 (94.1%) had never had sexual intercourse. Only 25 (9.8%) women had received vaccination. Among the unvaccinated participants, 96 (41.7%) had no intention to receive HPV vaccination and 62 of them cited lack of information as a major barrier to HPV vaccination. Knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination was also assessed and graded via a point system, with a maximum score of 14. Knowledge was found to be low, with a median score of 7. There was a significant association between HPV vaccination uptake and the source from which they first heard about the vaccine (p = 0.007). Vaccinated respondents tended to first hear about it from their relatives and friends, as compared to unvaccinated respondents (60.0% vs. 27.0%) CONCLUSION There is poor uptake of HPV vaccination amongst Singapore’s susceptible youth as well as poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV vaccination. Public health education regarding cervical cancer and HPV vaccination is still needed and has to be targeted at not only respondents, but also their family and friends. PMID:27353611
Chicken infectious anemiavirus (CIAV) causes diseases in young chickens, which include increased pathogenicity of secondary infectious agents, generalized lymphoid depletion, and immune-repression. In the present study, we have identified 22 CIAV strains isolated from several commercial chicken farm...
Xiao, Zhao; Juan, Long; Song, Yun; Zhijian, Zhang; Jing, Jin; Kun, Yu; Yuna, Hao; Dongfa, Dai; Lili, Ding; Liuxin, Tan; Fei, Liang; Nan, Liu; Fang, Yuan; Yuying, Sun; Yongzhi, Xi
A major challenge in the development of effective therapies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is finding a method for the specific inhibition of the inflammatory disease processes without the induction of generalized immunosuppression. Of note, the development of therapeutic DNA vaccines and boosters that may restore immunological tolerance remains a high priority. pcDNA-CCOL2A1 is a therapeutic DNA vaccine encoding chicken type II collagen(CCII). This vaccine was developed by our laboratory and has been shown to exhibit efficacy comparable to that of the current "gold standard" treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Here, we used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with anti-CII IgG antibodies, quantified the expression levels of Th1, Th2, and Th3 cytokines, and performed flow cytometric analyses of different T-cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Tc, Ts, Treg, and CD4(+)CD29(+)T cells to systemically evaluate humoral and cellular immune responses to pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine in normal rats. Similar to our observations at maximum dosage of 3 mg/kg, vaccination of normal rats with 300 μg/kg pcDNA-CCOL2A1 vaccine did not induce the production of anti-CII IgG. Furthermore, no significant changes were observed in the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-5, IL-6, IL-12(IL-23p40), monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, regulated on activation in normal T-cell expressed and secreted (RANTES), receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) or anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10 in vaccinated normal rats relative to that in controls(P > 0.05). However, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β levels were significantly increased on days 10 and 14, while interferon (IFN)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly decreased on days 28 and 35 after vaccination(P < 0.05). Similarly, there were no significant differences in the
Vaccinations are injections of antigens into the body. Once the antigens enter the blood, they circulate along ... suppressor T cells stop the attack. After a vaccination, the body will have a memory of an ...
Lee, Jiwon; Boutz, Daniel R; Chromikova, Veronika; Joyce, M Gordon; Vollmers, Christopher; Leung, Kwanyee; Horton, Andrew P; DeKosky, Brandon J; Lee, Chang-Han; Lavinder, Jason J; Murrin, Ellen M; Chrysostomou, Constantine; Hoi, Kam Hon; Tsybovsky, Yaroslav; Thomas, Paul V; Druz, Aliaksandr; Zhang, Baoshan; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Lingshu; Kong, Wing-Pui; Park, Daechan; Popova, Lyubov I; Dekker, Cornelia L; Davis, Mark M; Carter, Chalise E; Ross, Ted M; Ellington, Andrew D; Wilson, Patrick C; Marcotte, Edward M; Mascola, John R; Ippolito, Gregory C; Krammer, Florian; Quake, Stephen R; Kwong, Peter D; Georgiou, George
Molecular understanding of serological immunity to influenza has been confounded by the complexity of the polyclonal antibody response in humans. Here we used high-resolution proteomics analysis of immunoglobulin (referred to as Ig-seq) coupled with high-throughput sequencing of transcripts encoding B cell receptors (BCR-seq) to quantitatively determine the antibody repertoire at the individual clonotype level in the sera of young adults before and after vaccination with trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine. The serum repertoire comprised between 40 and 147 clonotypes that were specific to each of the three monovalent components of the trivalent influenza vaccine, with boosted pre-existing clonotypes accounting for ~60% of the response. An unexpectedly high fraction of serum antibodies recognized both the H1 and H3 monovalent vaccines. Recombinant versions of these H1 + H3 cross-reactive antibodies showed broad binding to hemagglutinins (HAs) from previously circulating virus strains; several of these antibodies, which were prevalent in the serum of multiple donors, recognized the same conserved epitope in the HA head domain. Although the HA-head-specific H1 + H3 antibodies did not show neutralization activity in vitro, they protected mice against infection with the H1N1 and H3N2 virus strains when administered before or after challenge. Collectively, our data reveal unanticipated insights regarding the serological response to influenza vaccination and raise questions about the added benefits of using a quadrivalent vaccine instead of a trivalent vaccine. PMID:27820605
Xu, Libin; Wei, Yong; Chen, Taoyang; Lu, Jianhua; Zhu, Chang-Lin; Ni, Zhengping; Huang, Fei; Du, Jun; Sun, Zongtang; Qu, Chunfeng
Previous follow-up on our neonatal HB vaccination cohorts with 80,000 individuals in Qidong, China, showed significant protective efficacy of immunization against HBV infection in childhood. However, some vaccinees were found to be HBsAg negative, but anti-HBs positive and anti-HBc positive at age 10-11 years. To study this phenomenon, 2919 vaccinees at age 19-21 years were sampled from the cohort. HBsAg(-), anti-HBs(+) and anti-HBc(+) were found in 124/2919 (4.2%) of the vaccinees. HBV DNA was detectable in 81/106 sample sera by using nested PCR. The PreS-S regions of HBV were sequenced in 41 randomly sampled sera. All the HBV isolates were HBV genotype C. Twenty one isolates (21/41, 51.2%) were identical to an HBV isolated in this area (GU434374). Only 4/41 (9.8%) showed mutations at the "a" epitope and three of them were G145A. The other mutations were found outside of the "a" epitope. Most of the sera contained <10,000 HBV copies/ml. Occult HBV infection happened in the young adults with HBsAg(-), anti-HBs(+) and anti-HBc(+) status, who received neonatal vaccination in Qidong.
Background Vaccination against Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is recommended for adolescent young women prior to sexual debut to reduce cervical cancer related mortality and morbidity. Understanding factors affecting decision-making of HPV vaccination of young women is important so that effective interventions can be developed which address barriers to uptake in population groups less likely to receive the HPV vaccine. Methods We undertook a qualitative systematic review and evidence synthesis to examine decision-making relating to the HPV vaccination of young women in high-income countries. A comprehensive search of databases from inception to March 2012 was undertaken to identify eligible studies reporting the perspectives of key stakeholders including policy makers, professionals involved in programme, parents, and young women. Factors affecting uptake of the vaccine were examined at different levels of the socio-ecological model (policy, community, organisational, interpersonal and intrapersonal). Results Forty-one studies were included. Whether young women receive the HPV vaccine is strongly governed by the decisions of policy makers, healthcare professionals, and parents. These decisions are shaped by: financial considerations; social norms and values relating to sexual activity, and; trust in vaccination programmes and healthcare providers. Financial constraints may be overcome through universal healthcare systems offering the HPV vaccine free at the point of delivery. In the healthcare setting, judgements by healthcare professionals about whether to recommend the vaccine may restrict a young woman’s access to the vaccine irrespective of her own beliefs and preferences. Parents may decide not to allow their daughters to be vaccinated, based on cultural or religious perceptions about sexual activity. Conclusions Barriers to the uptake of the HPV vaccine have implications for young women’s future sexual, physical and reproductive health. Interventions to
Harper, Marina; John, Marietta; Edmunds, Mark; Wright, Amy; Ford, Mark; Turni, Conny; Blackall, P J; Cox, Andrew; Adler, Ben; Boyce, John D
Pasteurella multocida is a major animal pathogen that causes a range of diseases including fowl cholera. P. multocida infections result in considerable losses to layer and breeder flocks in poultry industries worldwide. Both killed whole-cell and live-attenuated vaccines are available; these vaccines vary in their protective efficacy, particularly against heterologous strains. Moreover, until recently there was no knowledge of P. multocida LPS genetics and structure to determine precisely how LPS structure affects the protective capacity of these vaccines. In this study we show that defined lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mutants presented as killed whole-cell vaccines elicited solid protective immunity only against P. multocida challenge strains expressing highly similar or identical LPS structures. This finding indicates that vaccination of commercial flocks with P. multocida killed cell formulations will not protect against strains producing an LPS structure different to that produced by strains included in the vaccine formulation. Conversely, protective immunity conferred by vaccination with live P. multocida strains was found to be largely independent of LPS structure. Birds vaccinated with a range of live mutants belonging to the L1 and L3 LPS genotypes, each expressing a specific truncated LPS structure, were protected against challenge with the parent strain. Moreover, birds vaccinated with any of the five LPS mutants belonging to the L1 LPS genotype were also protected against challenge with an unrelated strain and two of the five groups vaccinated with live LPS mutants belonging to the L3 genotype were protected against challenge with an unrelated strain. In summary, vaccination with live P. multocida aroA mutants producing full-length L1 or L3 LPS or vaccination with live strains producing shortened L1 LPS elicited strong protective immunity against both homologous and heterologous challenge.
Jacob, R; Branton, S L; Evans, J D; Leigh, S A; Peebles, E D
Different vaccine strains of Mycoplasma gallisepticum have been used on multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect birds against virulent field-strain infections. Use of the F-strain of M. gallisepticum (FMG), as an overlay vaccine during lay, may be necessary because of the lower level of protection afforded by M. gallisepticum vaccines of low virulence given before lay. Two replicate trials were conducted to investigate effects of live and killed M. gallisepticum vaccines administered individually and in combination before lay, in conjunction with an FMG vaccine overlay after peak egg production (EP), on the performance characteristics of commercial layers. The following treatments were utilized at 10 wk of age (woa): 1) control (no vaccinations); 2) ts11 strain M. gallisepticum (ts11MG) vaccine; 3) M. gallisepticum-Bacterin vaccine (MG-Bacterin); and 4) ts11MG and MG-Bacterin vaccines combination. At 45 woa, half of the birds were overlaid with an FMG vaccine. Hen mortality, BW, egg weight, percentage hen-day EP, egg blood spots, and egg meat spots were determined at various time periods between 18 and 52 woa. The data from each trial were pooled. Treatment did not affect performance in interval I (23 to 45 woa). However, during interval II (46 to 52 woa), the EP of control and MG-Bacterin-vaccinated birds that later received an FMG vaccine overlay was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Furthermore, treatment application reduced bird BW during interval II. Despite the effects on BW and EP, no differences were observed for egg blood or meat spots among the various treatments. It is suggested that the vaccination of commercial layers before lay with ts11MG, but not MG-Bacterin, may reduce the negative impacts of an FMG overlay vaccination given during lay. These results establish that the vaccination of pullets with ts11MG in combination with the vaccination of hens with an FMG overlay, for continual protection against field-strain M
Liu, Qinfang; Mena, Ignacio; Ma, Jingjiao; Bawa, Bhupinder; Krammer, Florian; Lyoo, Young S; Lang, Yuekun; Morozov, Igor; Mahardika, Gusti Ngurah; Ma, Wenjun; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Richt, Juergen A
Sporadic human infections by a novel H7N9 virus occurred over a large geographic region in China. In this study, we show that Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-vectored H7 (NDV-H7) and NDV-H5 vaccines are able to induce antibodies with high hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers and completely protect chickens from challenge with the novel H7N9 or highly pathogenic H5N1 viruses, respectively. Notably, a baculovirus-expressed H7 protein failed to protect chickens from H7N9 virus infection.
MacKellar, D A; Valleroy, L A; Secura, G M; McFarland, W; Shehan, D; Ford, W; LaLota, M; Celentano, D D; Koblin, B A; Torian, L V; Thiede, H; Janssen, R S
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated hepatitis B immunization coverage and the extent of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among young men who have sex with men (MSM), a group for whom hepatitis B vaccine has been recommended since 1982. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3432 MSM, aged 15 to 22 years, randomly sampled at 194 gay-identified venues in 7 US metropolitan areas from 1994 through 1998. Participants were interviewed, counseled, and tested for serologic markers of HBV infection. RESULTS: Immunization coverage was 9% and the prevalence of markers of HBV infection was 11%. HBV infection ranged from 2% among 15-year-olds to 17% among 22-year-olds. Among participants susceptible to HBV infection, 96% used a regular source of health care or accessed the health care system for HIV or sexually transmitted disease testing. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the availability of an effective vaccine for nearly 2 decades, our findings suggest that few adolescent and young adult MSM in the United States are vaccinated against hepatitis B. Health care providers should intensify their efforts to identify and vaccinate young MSM who are susceptible to HBV. PMID:11392942
Bowyer, Harriet L; Marlow, Laura A V; Hibbitts, Sam; Pollock, Kevin G; Waller, Jo
A national school-based human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme has been available for 12-13 year old females in the UK since 2008, offering protection against HPV types 16 and 18, which are responsible for the majority of cervical cancer. Little is known about HPV knowledge in girls who have been offered the vaccine. Girls offered the school-based vaccine in the first routine cohort (n=1033) were recruited from 13 schools in London three years post-vaccination. Participants completed a questionnaire about HPV awareness, knowledge about HPV and the vaccine, and demographic characteristics including vaccine status. About a fifth of the girls reported they were unaware of the HPV infection. Among those who reported being aware of HPV (n=759) knowledge was relatively low. Approximately half of the participants knew that HPV infection causes cervical cancer, condoms can reduce the risk of transmission and that cervical screening is needed regardless of vaccination status. These results are helpful in benchmarking HPV-related knowledge in vaccinated girls and could be used in the development of appropriate educational messages to accompany the first cervical screening invitation in this cohort in the future.
Song, Yeong-Jun; Lim, Jiseun; Park, Woong-Sub; Sohn, Haesook; Lee, Moo-Sik; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Chun-Bae; Kim, Hwasung; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Ki, Moran
We previously observed 80.7% seropositivity and a significant interaction between gender and hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine type (Havrix vs. Epaxal) on the seropositivity approximately 11 months after single-dose HAV vaccinations in Korean young adults. Our objective was to evaluate seropositivity approximately 2 years after a single-dose HAV vaccination and the influence of demographic characteristics on seropositivity, including the interaction between gender and vaccine type. Seronegative medical school students were randomly vaccinated with Havrix or Epaxal. Based on a total serum anti-HAV antibody titer cutoff of 20 IU/mL, 338 participants (76.0%) of the 445 vaccinees were seropositive 20-25 months after a single-dose HAV vaccination. The seropositive rates were similar after vaccination with Havrix (77.0%) and Epaxal (74.9%). Univariate analysis indicated that female (p = 0.052) and less obese (p < 0.001) participants had a higher seropositive rate, whereas other characteristics such as age, alcohol use, smoking history, vaccine type, and follow-up duration were not associated with seropositivity. Multivariate analysis indicated that women (p = 0.026) and participants with moderate alcohol use (p < 0.001) showed significantly higher seropositive rates than men and participants with no or low alcohol use, respectively. The seropositive rates after vaccination with Havrix and Epaxal were 70.9% and 67.5% in men and 87.7% and 91.3% in women, respectively (p for interaction = 0.304). Compared with the seropositive rate approximately 11 months after vaccination, the seropositive rate decreased substantially only in men in the Havrix group (11.0% points), and consequently, the interaction between gender and vaccine type disappeared while seropositivity remained high (87.7% and 91.3% in Havrix and Epaxal groups, respectively) among women approximately 2 years after vaccination. Further studies are needed to assess whether the seropositive rate would be maintained in
Kallon, Sanpha; Yu, Xingang
To determine the effect of astragalus and ginseng polysaccharides (APS, GPS) on immune response and improvement of H5N1 vaccine, 360-day-old broilers were randomly divided into 8 groups of 45 chicks, comprising APS groups (1–3); GPS groups (4–6); vaccine group (7); and blank control (8) (without polysaccharide and vaccine). From day 12 after hatch groups 1–3 were given APS and groups 4–6 with GPS both at 100, 200, and 400 (mg/kg), respectively. At day 15 after hatch, groups 1–7 were vaccinated with 0.3 mL H5N1 vaccine subcutaneously; daily weight gain (DWG) and serum Ig antibody (by HI-test) were measured on 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Serum antibody titers and expression of cytokines (IL-2, IL-10, I FN-γ, and TNF) were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR. Results revealed that all the polysaccharide groups were numerically increased in antibody levels and the expression of cytokines was significant (P < 0.05) in the APS and GPS groups compared to corresponding vaccine group and blank control. DWG was higher (P < 0.05) in 400 mg/kg APS groups than control groups. Thus oral supplements of GPS and APS have shown their potential in the improvement of immune response and could be used as adjuvant in a formulation of H5N1 vaccine. PMID:27597953
Live F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (FMG) vaccines are presently being used to help control field strain MG outbreaks. However, they may exert some adverse effects on egg production. Live strains of MG of lesser virulence as well as killed vaccines have little or no effect on egg production, bu...
The use of avian influenza (AI) vaccination in poultry would have greater world-wide acceptance if a reliable test that clearly discriminates naturally infected from vaccinated only animals (DIVA) was available. Because the non-structural protein (NS1) is expressed in infected cells, and is not pac...
The H9 subtype of avian influenza virus is wide-spread in the areas of Asia and Middle East. Selection of effective vaccines that provide effective protection mainly depends on the antigenic match of the hemagglutinin protein (HA), between the vaccine and the field strain. To determine how the ant...
Rauw, F; Van Borm, S; Welby, S; Ngabirano, E; Gardin, Y; Palya, V; Lambrecht, B
The purpose of this study was to look for a reliable molecular method for confirmation of uptake of recombinant turkey herpesvirus vaccine against Newcastle disease (rHVT-F) and for use as a valuable prediction tool of Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-specific immune response in chickens deprived of maternally derived antibody (MDA). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) specific to rHVT-F was developed. The method was applied to various tissue samples taken from specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens experimentally inoculated at day-old with one dose of rHVT-F vaccine over a 6-week period. Among the tested tissues, the rHVT-F vaccine was detected predominantly in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the lung for the first week, followed by a progressive decline from 9 days onwards. Then, an increase of genome load was observed in the feather follicles (FF) with a peak at 2 weeks, rising to a level almost 10(3)-fold greater than in the other tissues. Importantly, the rHVT-F genome load in FF appeared to be strongly correlated to the humoral immunity specific to NDV as evaluated by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and NDV-specific IgG, IgM and IgA ELISAs. This is the first report of quantification of rHVT-F vaccine in FF and its correlation with the induction of ND-specific immune response in chickens with no MDA. Our data indicate that the application of this real-time qPCR assay on FF samples taken from chickens in the field may be used to confirm rHVT-F vaccine administration and uptake with the important added benefit of offering a non-disruptive sampling procedure.
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) recombinants expressing the infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) glycoproteins B and D have previously been demonstrated to confer complete clinical protection against virulent ILTV and NDV challenges in naive chickens. We extended this study to assess whether mate...
Niccolai, Linda M; McBride, Vanessa; Julian, Pamela R
Assessing history of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is important for monitoring vaccine uptake, impact, and effectiveness. Based on data collected from 1720 women with high-grade cervical lesions reported to a statewide surveillance system in Connecticut, we found that available medical records did not contain HPV vaccination information for 34% of women, and 43% of women could not be reached for interview. When both were used for data collection, concordance of vaccination history (83%) and sensitivity of self-report (96%) were both high. Reviewing medical records based on self-reported information about vaccine providers increased confirmation of vaccination histories in this sample by 18%. The vaccine registry in Connecticut is not currently utilized for HPV vaccinations, but efforts to increase use for adolescent vaccines could be useful in the future to overcome limitations of other sources.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Audrey, Suzanne; Trotter, Caroline; Hickman, Matthew
Background Interventions to increase uptake of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination by young women may be more effective if they are underpinned by an appropriate theoretical model or framework. The aims of this review were: to describe the theoretical models or frameworks used to explain behaviours in relation to HPV vaccination of young women, and: to consider the appropriateness of the theoretical models or frameworks used for informing the development of interventions to increase uptake. Methods Primary studies were identified through a comprehensive search of databases from inception to December 2013. Results Thirty-four relevant studies were identified, of which 31 incorporated psychological health behaviour models or frameworks and three used socio-cultural models or theories. The primary studies used a variety of approaches to measure a diverse range of outcomes in relation to behaviours of professionals, parents, and young women. The majority appeared to use theory appropriately throughout. About half of the quantitative studies presented data in relation to goodness of fit tests and the proportion of the variability in the data. Conclusion Due to diverse approaches and inconsistent findings across studies, the current contribution of theory to understanding and promoting HPV vaccination uptake is difficult to assess. Ecological frameworks encourage the integration of individual and social approaches by encouraging exploration of the intrapersonal, interpersonal, organisational, community and policy levels when examining public health issues. Given the small number of studies using such approach, combined with the importance of these factors in predicting behaviour, more research in this area is warranted. PMID:26314783
Frasca, Daniela; Diaz, Alain; Romero, Maria; Mendez, Nicholas V.; Landin, Ana Marie; Ryan, John G.; Blomberg, Bonnie B.
We evaluated immune response to the seasonal influenza vaccine in young and elderly patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Immune measures included the in vivo serum response to the vaccine by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) and ELISA in 22 patients (14 young, 8 elderly) and 65 healthy age-matched controls (37 young, 28 elderly). B cell-specific biomarkers of optimal vaccine response were measured ex vivo by switched memory B cells and plasmablasts and in vitro by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) in stimulated cells. Markers of systemic and B cell-intrinsic inflammation were also measured. Results show that in vivo responses, as well as B cell-specific markers identified above, decrease by age in healthy individuals but not in T2D patients. This occurred despite high levels of B cell-intrinsic inflammation (TNF-α) in T2D patients, which was surprising as we had previously demonstrated this negatively impacts B cell function. These results altogether suggest that valid protection against influenza can be achieved in T2D patients and proposed mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23711934
Penha Filho, Rafael Antonio Casarin; Moura, Bruna Silva; de Almeida, Adriana Maria; Montassier, Hélio José; Barrow, Paul A; Berchieri Junior, Angelo
The poultry industry has a high demand for Salmonella vaccines in order to generate safer Salmonella-free food for consumers around the world. Vaccination against S. Enteritidis (SE) is vastly undertaken in many countries, although the criteria for the use of live vaccine (LV) or killed vaccine (KV) should also depend on the immune mechanisms triggered by each. In this study, a commercial bacterin (KV) and an attenuated SG mutant (LV) were used in four different vaccine programs (LV; LV+LV; KV; LV+KV). At 1 day before (dbi) and 1, 6 and 9 days after SE challenge (dpi), humoral (IgM, IgG and secretory IgA) and cellular (CD8(+) T cells) immune responses were evaluated along with the production of IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ. Although after challenge, all birds from each group had an influx of CD8(+) T cells, birds which received KV had lower levels of these cells in organs and significantly higher levels of immunoglobulins. The expression of the cytokines was up-regulated in all groups post-vaccination, although, after challenge, cytokine expression decreased in the vaccinated groups, and increased in the unvaccinated group A. IL-10 levels were significantly higher at 1 day post-infection in the group that received KV, which may be involved in the weak cellular immune response observed within this group. In caecal tonsils, IFN-γ expression at 1 dbi was higher in birds which received two vaccine doses, and after challenge, the population of CD8(+) T cells constantly increased in birds that were only vaccinated with the LV. This study demonstrated that the development of a mature immune response by CD8(+) T cells, provided by the use of the LV, had better efficacy in comparison to the high antibody levels in the serum stimulated by the KV. However, high secretory IgA levels in the intestinal lumen associated with influx CD8(+) T cells may be indicative of protection as noticed in group E (LV+KV).
Bhave, Swati Y
Chicken-pox is one more newer vaccine in our armamentarium against infectious diseases. Due to its extremely contagious nature, varicella is experienced by almost every child or young adult in the world. Each year from 1990 to 1994, prior to availability of varicella vaccine, about 4 million cases of varicella occurred in the United States. Of these cases approximately 10,000 required hospitalization and 100 died. Although varicella is not commonly perceived as an important public health problem, the socioeconomic consequences in industrialized countries of a disease that affects practically every child and causes the carrier absence from work should not be underestimated. The varicella vaccines available in the market are safe and effective. A recent cost-benefit analysis in USA showed that routine chicken-pox vaccination is likely to save five times the investment. Even when only direct costs were considered, benefits almost balanced the costs. At present similar studies from developing countries are not available. The public health impact of varicella and zoster may be increasing in regions with high endemic rates of HIV infection. Varicella vaccine may be used either at an individual level to protect susceptible adolescents and adults, or at a population level, to cover all children as part of a national immunization programme. Vaccination of adolescents and adults will protect at-risk individuals, but will not have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease on a population basis. On the other hand, extensive use as a routine vaccine in children will have a significant impact on the epidemiology of the disease. If sustained high coverage can be achieved, the disease may virtually disappear. If only partial coverage can be obtained, the epidemiology may shift, leading to an increase in the number of cases in older children and adults. Hence, routine childhood varicella immunization programmes should emphasize high, sustained coverage. At present
McRee, Annie-Laurie; Katz, Mira L.; Paskett, Electra D.
Objectives. We examined human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among gay and bisexual men, a population with high rates of HPV infection and HPV-related disease. Methods. A national sample of gay and bisexual men aged 18 to 26 years (n = 428) completed online surveys in fall 2013. We identified correlates of HPV vaccination using multivariate logistic regression. Results. Overall, 13% of participants had received any doses of the HPV vaccine. About 83% who had received a health care provider recommendation for vaccination were vaccinated, compared with only 5% without a recommendation (P < .001). Vaccination was lower among participants who perceived greater barriers to getting vaccinated (odds ratio [OR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.27, 0.78). Vaccination was higher among participants with higher levels of worry about getting HPV-related disease (OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.27) or perceived positive social norms of HPV vaccination (OR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.02, 2.43). Conclusions. HPV vaccine coverage is low among gay and bisexual men in the United States. Future efforts should focus on increasing provider recommendation for vaccination and should target other modifiable factors. PMID:25393178
Zeng, Xianying; Chen, Pucheng; Liu, Liling; Deng, Guohua; Li, Yanbing; Shi, Jianzhong; Kong, Huihui; Feng, Huapeng; Bai, Jie; Li, Xin; Shi, Wenjun; Tian, Guobin; Chen, Hualan
The Goose/Guangdong-lineage H5 viruses have evolved into diverse clades and subclades based on their hemagglutinin (HA) gene during their circulation in wild birds and poultry. Since late 2013, the clade 18.104.22.168 viruses have become widespread in poultry and wild bird populations around the world. Different subtypes of the clade 22.214.171.124 H5 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8, have caused vast disease outbreaks in poultry in Asia, Europe, and North America. In this study, we developed a new H5N1 inactivated vaccine by using a seed virus (designated as Re-8) that contains the HA and NA genes from a clade 126.96.36.199 virus, A/chicken/Guizhou/4/13(H5N1) (CK/GZ/4/13), and its six internal genes from the high-growth A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) virus. We evaluated the protective efficacy of this vaccine in chickens challenged with one H5N1 clade 188.8.131.52b virus and six different subtypes of clade 184.108.40.206 viruses, including H5N1, H5N2, H5N6, and H5N8 strains. In the clade 220.127.116.11b virus DK/GX/S1017/13-challenged groups, half of the vaccinated chickens shed virus through the oropharynx and two birds (20%) died during the observation period. All of the control chickens shed viruses and died within 6 days of infection with challenge virus. All of the vaccinated chickens remained healthy following challenge with the six clade 18.104.22.168 viruses, and virus shedding was not detected from any of these birds; however, all of the control birds shed viruses and died within 4 days of challenge with the clade 22.214.171.124 viruses. Our results indicate that the Re-8 vaccine provides protection against different subtypes of clade 126.96.36.199 H5 viruses.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) infection was examined in peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte cultures (PBMC) that were collected from 1-day-old chicks or from 52-week-old chickens. Virus-specific antibodies were incubated with AIV to model maternal antibody interference in vitro. Interferon-alpha (I...
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a major and economically significant pathogen of avian species. Different strains of MG have been used as vaccines in multiple-age commercial layer farms in an effort to protect the birds against more virulent field strains. The lower level of protection afforded b...
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Tumpey, Terrence M; Hidajat, Rachmat; Zsak, Aniko; Chrzastek, Klaudia; Tretyakova, Irina; Pushko, Peter
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI strains. Influenza VLPs contain viral hemagglutinin (HA), which can be expressed in cell culture within highly immunogenic VLPs that morphologically and antigenically resemble influenza virions, except VLPs are non-infectious. Here we describe a recombinant VLP containing HA proteins derived from three distinct clades of H5N1 viruses as an experimental, broadly protective H5 avian influenza vaccine. A baculovirus vector was configured to co-express the H5 genes from recent H5N1 HPAI isolates A/chicken/Germany/2014 (clade 188.8.131.52), A/chicken/West Java/Subang/29/2007 (clade 2.1.3) and A/chicken/Egypt/121/2012 (clade 2.2.1). Co-expression of these genes in Sf9 cells along with influenza neuraminidase (NA) and retrovirus gag genes resulted in production of triple-clade H555 VLPs that exhibited hemagglutination activity and morphologically resembled influenza virions. Vaccination of chickens with these VLPs resulted in induction of serum antibody responses and efficient protection against experimental challenges with three different viruses including the recent U.S. H5N8 HPAI isolate. We conclude that these novel triple-clade VLPs represent a feasible strategy for simultaneously evoking protective antibodies against multiple variants of H5 influenza virus.
Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D
Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P < 0.001). The absolute decline was significant both for males (8.8%, P = 0.001) and females (12.1%, P < 0.001). There were no significant differences in seropositivity by gender, years of education, country of birth or smoking status. Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.
Bråve, Andreas; Hallengärd, David; Schröder, Ulf; Blomberg, Pontus; Wahren, Britta; Hinkula, Jorma
One of the major challenges for the development of an HIV vaccine is to induce potent virus-specific immune responses at the mucosal surfaces where transmission of virus occurs. Intranasal delivery of classical vaccines has been shown to induce good mucosal antibody responses, but so far for genetic vaccines the success has been limited. This study shows that young individuals are sensitive to nasal immunization with a genetic vaccine delivered in a formulation of a lipid adjuvant, the Eurocine N3. Intranasal delivery of a multiclade/multigene HIV-1 genetic vaccine gave rise to vaginal and rectal IgA responses as well as systemic humoral and cellular responses. As electroporation might become the preferred means of delivering genetic vaccines for systemic HIV immunity, nasal delivery by droplet formulation in a lipid adjuvant might become a means of priming or boosting the mucosal immunity.
Braeckman, Tessa; Van Herck, Koen; Meyer, Nadia; Pirçon, Jean-Yves; Soriano-Gabarró, Montse; Heylen, Elisabeth; Zeller, Mark; Azou, Myriam; Capiau, Heidi; De Koster, Jan; Maernoudt, Anne-Sophie; Raes, Marc; Verdonck, Lutgard; Verghote, Marc; Vergison, Anne; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Van Ranst, Marc
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of rotavirus vaccination among young children in Belgium. Design Prospective case-control study. Setting Random sample of 39 Belgian hospitals, February 2008 to June 2010. Participants 215 children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and 276 age and hospital matched controls. All children were of an eligible age to have received rotavirus vaccination (that is, born after 1 October 2006 and aged ≥14 weeks). Main outcome measure Vaccination status of children admitted to hospital with rotavirus gastroenteritis and matched controls. Results 99 children (48%) admitted with rotavirus gastroenteritis and 244 (91%) controls had received at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (P<0.001). The monovalent rotavirus vaccine accounted for 92% (n=594) of all rotavirus vaccine doses. With hospital admission as the outcome, the unadjusted effectiveness of two doses of the monovalent rotavirus vaccine was 90% (95% confidence interval 81% to 95%) overall, 91% (75% to 97%) in children aged 3-11 months, and 90% (76% to 96%) in those aged ≥12 months. The G2P genotype accounted for 52% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls. Vaccine effectiveness was 85% (64% to 94%) against G2P and 95% (78% to 99%) against G1P. In 25% of cases confirmed by polymerase chain reaction with eligible matched controls, there was reported co-infection with adenovirus, astrovirus and/or norovirus. Vaccine effectiveness against co-infected cases was 86% (52% to 96%). Effectiveness of at least one dose of any rotavirus vaccine (intention to vaccinate analysis) was 91% (82% to 95%). Conclusions Rotavirus vaccination is effective for the prevention of admission to hospital for rotavirus gastroenteritis among young children in Belgium, despite the high prevalence of G2P and viral co-infection. PMID:22875947
Kahn, Jessica A; Lee, Jeannette; Belzer, Marvin; Palefsky, Joel M
The aim of this study was to identify risk perceptions after human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among HIV-infected young men who have sex with men. On average, participants appropriately perceived themselves to be at lower than neutral risk for HPV (mean subscale score 4.2/10), at higher than neutral risk for other sexually transmitted infections (7.0/10), and that safer sexual behaviors were still important (8.5/10). Higher perceived risk of HPV was associated with African-American race (p = .03); higher perceived risk of other sexually transmitted infections with White race (p = .01) and higher knowledge about HPV (p = .001); and higher perceived need for safer sexual behaviors with consistent condom use (p = .02). The study provides reassuring data that HIV-infected young men who have sex with men generally have appropriate risk perceptions and believe that safer sexual behaviors after vaccination are still important. These findings mirror the results of studies in HIV-infected young women and HIV-uninfected adolescents.
Kim, Jarim; Nan, Xiaoli
This study examines how individual difference in consideration of future consequences (CFC) and temporal framing (i.e., present- vs. future-oriented message) interact to influence the persuasive outcomes of a health message promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young adults. Results of an experiment (N = 416) showed a significant interaction effect of CFC and temporal framing on persuasion. The nature of the interaction suggested that individuals with high CFC generally were more persuaded by the present-oriented messages, compared to the future-oriented messages. On the other hand, those with low CFC responded similarly to the present- and future-oriented messages. Implications of the findings for HPV vaccination messaging are discussed.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L.; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
Background To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Methods Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. Results The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. Conclusions The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. PMID:26054910
Wang, Xibin; Fosmire, Gary J; Gay, Carol V; Leach, Roland M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of zinc deficiency on chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in the epiphyseal growth plate of juvenile chickens. Newly hatched broiler chickens were fed either a low zinc (10 mg/kg diet) or a zinc-adequate (68 mg/kg diet) soy protein-based purified diet. Cell proliferation in the growth plate was evaluated with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling. Apoptosis was assessed using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Chondrocyte differentiation was evaluated with immunostaining of osteonectin as a marker of maturation. As early as d 3 of feeding, zinc deficiency significantly inhibited chondrocyte proliferation, promoted cell differentiation and induced cell apoptosis in the growth plate. These effects were manifested primarily in areas remote from the blood supply. Immunostaining for local growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) did not reveal any differences between growth plates of zinc-deficient and zinc-adequate chickens after 3 d of feeding. By d 7, severe growth plate lesions characterized by reduced cellularity and abnormally shaped cells were formed in areas remote from blood vessels. Immunoreactive IGF-1, PTHrP and FGF-2 were all greatly reduced in the lesion. However, the growth rate and food intake of zinc-deficient chickens were not different from those of the controls during the 7-d experiment. Therefore, a direct effect of zinc deficiency on proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of growth plate chondrocytes was indicated.
Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Murakami, A E; Furlan, A C; Moreira, I; Macari, M
Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) nutritional requirements, dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), and their effects on acid-base balance, litter moisture, and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence for young broiler chickens were evaluated in two trials. One-day-old Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, five replicates, and 50 birds per experimental unit. Treatments used in both experiments were a basal diet with 0.10% Na+ (Experiment 1) or Cl- (Experiment 2) supplemented to result in diets with Na+ or Cl- levels of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35%, respectively. In Experiment 1, results indicated an optimum Na+ requirement of 0.26%. Sodium levels caused a linear increase in arterial blood gas parameters, indicating an alkalogenic effect of Na+. The hypertrophic area of growth plate in the proximal tibiotarsi decreased with Na+ levels. The TD incidence decreased with increases in dietary Na+. Litter moisture increased linearly with sodium levels. In Experiment 2, the Cl- requirement was estimated as 0.25%. Chloride levels caused a quadratic effect (P < or = 0.01) on blood gas parameters, with an estimated equilibrium [blood base excess (BE) = 0] at 0.30% of dietary Cl-. No Cl- treatment effects (P > or = 0.05) were observed on litter moisture or TD incidence. The best DEB for maximum performance was 298 to 315 mEq/kg in Experiment 1 and 246 to 264 mEq/kg in Experiment 2. We concluded that the Na+ and Cl- requirements for optimum performance of young broiler chickens were 0.28 and 0.25%, respectively.
Nutrition and immunity: the effects of the combination of arginine and tryptophan on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response in broiler chickens challenged with infectious bursal disease vaccine.
Emadi, M; Jahanshiri, F; Kaveh, K; Hair-Bejo, M; Ideris, A; Alimon, A R
To explore the effects of the combination of tryptophan (Trp) and arginine (Arg) on growth performance, serum parameters and immune response of broiler chickens challenged with intermediate plus strain of infectious bursal disease virus vaccine, an in vivo experiment was conducted. A corn-soybean meal-based diet containing different levels of Arg and Trp was used. Cobb500 male broiler chickens from 0 to 49 days of age were subjected to a diet supplemented with the combination of Trp and Arg. Growth performance parameters and serum parameters were measured at 27 and 49 days of age. To evaluate the immunomodulatory effects of the combination of Trp and Arg on the challenged chickens, we measured the serum levels of interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G at 27, 35, 42, and 49 days of age. The results showed that the three evaluated immune system parameters including interferon-α, interferon-γ and immunoglobulin G were significantly enhanced after treatment. This enhancement resulted in the recovery of infectious bursal disease virus-infected chickens compared with controls as confirmed by histopathological examinations. Moreover, serum parameters such as albumin and total protein increased, whereas the treatment decreased (P<0.05) the feed:gain ratio, aspartate amino-transferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactic dehydrogenase, triglyceride and cholesterol. These findings suggest that the combination of Arg and Trp has a regulatory effect on growth performance. Moreover, it modulates the systemic immune response against infectious bursal disease.
Song, Haichen; Nieto, Gloria Ramirez; Perez, Daniel R
In light of the recurrent outbreaks of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), there is a pressing need for the development of vaccines that allow rapid mass vaccination. In this study, we introduced by reverse genetics temperature-sensitive mutations in the PB1 and PB2 genes of an avian influenza virus, A/Guinea Fowl/Hong Kong/WF10/99 (H9N2) (WF10). Further genetic modifications were introduced into the PB1 gene to enhance the attenuated (att) phenotype of the virus in vivo. Using the att WF10 as a backbone, we substituted neuraminidase (NA) for hemagglutinin (HA) for vaccine purposes. In chickens, a vaccination scheme consisting of a single dose of an att H7N2 vaccine virus at 2 weeks of age and subsequent challenge with the wild-type H7N2 LPAI virus resulted in complete protection. We further extended our vaccination strategy against the HPAI H5N1. In this case, we reconstituted an att H5N1 vaccine virus, whose HA and NA genes were derived from an Asian H5N1 virus. A single-dose immunization in ovo with the att H5N1 vaccine virus in 18-day-old chicken embryos resulted in more than 60% protection for 4-week-old chickens and 100% protection for 9- to 12-week-old chickens. Boosting at 2 weeks posthatching provided 100% protection against challenge with the HPAI H5N1 virus for chickens as young as 4 weeks old, with undetectable virus shedding postchallenge. Our results highlight the potential of live att avian influenza vaccines for mass vaccination in poultry.
Nedeljković, Jasminka; Kovačević-Jovanović, Vesna; Milošević, Vesna; Šeguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P.; Hübschen, Judith M.
In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20–29 years old, followed by the 15–19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories. PMID:26496490
Nedeljković, Jasminka; Kovačević-Jovanović, Vesna; Milošević, Vesna; Šeguljev, Zorica; Petrovic, Vladimir; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M
In 2012, mumps was introduced from Bosnia and Herzegovina to Vojvodina, causing an outbreak with 335 reported cases. The present manuscript analyses the epidemiological and laboratory characteristics of this outbreak, identifies its main causes and suggests potential future preventive measures. Sera of 133 patients were tested for mumps-specific antibodies by ELISA and 15 nose/throat swabs were investigated for mumps virus RNA by RT-PCR. IgG antibodies were found in 127 patients (95.5%). Mumps infection was laboratory-confirmed in 53 patients, including 44 IgM and 9 PCR positive cases. All other 282 cases were classified as epidemiologically-confirmed. More than half of the patients (n = 181, 54%) were 20-29 years old, followed by the 15-19 age bracket (n = 95, 28.4%). Twice as many males as females were affected (67% versus 33%). Disease complications were reported in 13 cases (3.9%), including 9 patients with orchitis and 4 with pancreatitis. According to medical records or anamnestic data, 190 patients (56.7%) were immunized with two doses and 35 (10.4%) with one dose of mumps-containing vaccine. The Serbian sequences corresponded to a minor genotype G variant detected during the 2011/2012 mumps outbreak in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Vaccine failures, the initial one-dose immunization policy and a vaccine shortage between 1999 and 2002 contributed to the outbreak. Additional vaccination opportunities should be offered to young adults during transition periods in their life trajectories.
Beginning on June 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) epizootic was reported in the State of Jalisco (Mexico), with some 22.4 million chickens that died, were slaughtered on affected farms or were preemptively culled on neighboring farms. In the current study, layer chickens were ...
Randomized trial on the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of MenACWY-CRM, an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal glycoconjugate vaccine, administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine in adolescents and young adults.
Gasparini, Roberto; Conversano, Michele; Bona, Gianni; Gabutti, Giovanni; Anemona, Alessandra; Dull, Peter M; Ceddia, Francesca
This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of an investigational quadrivalent meningococcal conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, when administered concomitantly with a combined tetanus, reduced diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine, in subjects aged 11 to 25 years. Subjects received either MenACWY-CRM and Tdap, MenACWY-CRM and saline placebo, or Tdap and saline placebo. No significant increase in reactogenicity and no clinically significant vaccine-related adverse events (AEs) occurred when MenACWY-CRM and Tdap were administered concomitantly. Similar immunogenic responses to diphtheria, tetanus, and meningococcal (serogroups A, C, W-135, and Y) antigens were observed, regardless of concomitant vaccine administration. Antipertussis antibody responses were comparable between vaccine groups for filamentous hemagglutinin and were slightly lower, although not clinically significantly, for pertussis toxoid and pertactin when the two vaccines were administered concomitantly. These results indicate that the investigational MenACWY-CRM vaccine is well tolerated and immunogenic and that it can be coadministered with Tdap to adolescents and young adults.
Lee, Kyung Woo; Lillehoj, Hyun S; Jang, Seung I; Pagès, Marc; Bautista, Daniel A; Pope, Conrad R; Ritter, G Donald; Lillehoj, Erik P; Neumann, Anthony P; Siragusa, Gregory R
The present study reports the effects of various field anticoccidial programs on the distribution of Eimeria spp. in poultry litter and serum antibody titers against coccidia in broiler chickens raised on the used litters. The programs included in ovo vaccination and various medications with either chemicals, ionophores, or both. In general, serum samples from these chickens showed anticoccidial antibody titers when tested at days 7 and 14 post hatch with the peak response at day 43. Serum anticoccidial titers were highest in birds fed a non-medicated diet compared with those vaccinated or fed medicated diets. Total number of Eimeria oocysts and the composition of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples from different treatment groups varied depending on the type of anticoccidial program. Oocyst counts in general ranged from 3.7×10(3) to 7.0×10(4) per g of litter. Importantly, both morphological and molecular typing studies revealed four major predominant Eimeria spp., E. acervulina, E. maxima, E. praecox, and E. tenella in the litter samples. Collectively, these results indicate that the field anticoccidial programs influenced the type and abundance of Eimeria spp. present in the litter samples and also modulated host immune response to Eimeria.
Chan, Lung; Wang, Hsuan-Min; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Lin, Ying-Chin; Wu, Pei-Jung; Hsieh, Wan-Lin; Chen, Ying-Ru; Liu, Cheung-Pin; Tsai, Han-Yin; Chen, Yun-Ru; Chang, Hsiu-Hui; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Hu, Chaur-Jong
Work-related stress (WS) can result in considerable and extensive changes in physiological and psychological performance. WS beyond the optimal levels induces anxiety, confusion, exhaustion, and burnout. Chronic WS affects neurocognitive performance, particularly attention and visuospatial memory. Essence of chicken (EC) has been reported to improve neurocognitive function after mental stress.To investigate the beneficial effects of EC in improving neurocognitive performance under WS, we conducted a randomized, double blind trial. Total 102 young workers in New Taipei City with high WS, evaluated using the Individual Subjective Perception Job Stress Scale scores (>36 for job leaders and 33 for nonleaders) were recruited. Fifty-one participants received 70 mL of EC and 51 received a placebo daily for 2 weeks. Blood tests and neurocognitive assessment were performed before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 2 weeks after treatment.EC improved the performance of participants with high depression scores in the form-color associative memory test, used for assessing short-term memory. Although creatinine and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT) levels increased in week 2, but the levels returned to the baseline in week 4. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels decreased in week 4.EC significantly improved short-term memory in participants with high WS and concomitant depressive mood, although it slightly increased GPT and creatinine levels and reduced BUN levels. The long-term treatment effects of EC warrant further investigation.
Linville, John W; Schumann, Douglas; Aston, Christopher; Defibaugh-Chavez, Stephanie; Seebohm, Scott; Touhey, Lucy
A six sigma fishbone analysis approach was used to develop a machine learning model in SAS, Version 9.4, by using stepwise linear regression. The model evaluated the effect of a wide variety of variables, including slaughter establishment operational measures, normal (30-year average) weather, and extreme weather events on the rate of Salmonella -positive carcasses in young chicken slaughter establishments. Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) verification carcass sampling data, as well as corresponding data from the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, from September 2011 through April 2015, were included in the model. The results of the modeling show that in addition to basic establishment operations, normal weather patterns, differences from normal and disaster events, including time lag weather and disaster variables, played a role in explaining the Salmonella percent positive that varied by slaughter volume quartile. Findings show that weather and disaster events should be considered as explanatory variables when assessing pathogen-related prevalence analysis or research and slaughter operational controls. The apparent significance of time lag weather variables suggested that at least some of the impact on Salmonella rates occurred after the weather events, which may offer opportunities for FSIS or the poultry industry to implement interventions to mitigate those effects.
A live attenuated varicella-zoster vaccine (Zostavax--Merck) has been approved by the FDA for prevention of herpes zoster (HZ; zoster; shingles) in persons > or = 60 years old. Each dose of Zostavax contains about 14 times as much varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as Varivax, which has been used in the US since 1995 to vaccinate against varicella (chicken pox).
Recombinant fowlpox viruses coexpressing chicken type I IFN and Newcastle disease virus HN and F genes: influence of IFN on protective efficacy and humoral responses of chickens following in ovo or post-hatch administration of recombinant viruses.
Karaca, K; Sharma, J M; Winslow, B J; Junker, D E; Reddy, S; Cochran, M; McMillen, J
We have constructed recombinant (r) fowl pox viruses (FPVs) coexpressing chicken type I interferon (IFN) and/or hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) proteins of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). We administered rFPVs and FPV into embryonated chicken eggs at 17 days of embryonation or in chickens after hatch. Administration of FPV or rFPVs did not influence hatchability and survival of hatched chicks. In ovo or after hatch vaccination of chickens with the recombinant viruses resulted in protection against challenge with virulent FPV and NDV. Chickens vaccinated with FPV or FPV-NDV recombinant had significantly lower body weight 2 weeks following vaccination. This loss in body weight was not detected in chickens receiving FPV-IFN and FPV-NDV-IFN recombinants. Chickens vaccinated with FPV coexpressing IFN and NDV genes produced less antibodies against NDV in comparison with chickens vaccinated with FPV expressing NDV genes.
Stronski Huwiler, Susanne; Spaar, Anne
Human Papilloma Viruses are associated with genital carcinoma (of the cervix, anus, vulva, vagina and the penis) as well as with non-genital carcinoma (oropharyngeal carcinoma) and genital warts. In Switzerland two highly efficient and safe vaccines are available. The safety of these vaccines has been repeatedly subject of controversial discussions, however so far post marketing surveillance has always been able to confirm the safety. In Switzerland girls and young women have been offered the HPV vaccination within cantonal programmes since 2008. 2015 the recommendation for the HPV-vaccination for boys and young men was issued, and starting July 1, 2016 they as well will be offered vaccination free of charge within the cantonal programmes. This article discusses the burden of disease, efficacy and safety of the vaccines and presents facts which are important for vaccinating these young people. Specifically, aspects of the decisional capacity of adolescents to consent to the vaccination are presented. Finally, the future perspective with a focus on a new vaccine with an enlarged spectrum of HPV-types is discussed.
Chang, Guobin; Liu, Xiangping; Ma, Teng; Xu, Lu; Wang, Hongzhi; Li, Zhiteng; Guo, Xiaomin; Xu, Qi; Chen, Guohong
To date, the functions of the NLRC5 in chickens remain undefined. In the current study, chicken NLRC5 was cloned and an A1017G mutation was detected in its promoter region. The relative expression levels of the NLRC5 and key NF-κB pathway genes, IKKα, IKKβ, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ, in the spleens of wild and mutant type birds, AA and GG, were determined using FQ-PCR at 7 day post-infection (DPI) with Salmonella Enteritidis. Additionally, the bacterial burden in the caecum and various immune response parameters were measured to evaluate immune responses. All of the examined immune response parameters were significantly different between the AA chickens and the GG chickens. Specifically, the mRNA expression levels of IKKα, NF-κB, IL-6, IL-1β and IFN-γ were higher in AA chickens than those in GG chickens, while the mRNA expression levels of NLRC5 were lower in AA chickens than those in GG chickens (P<0.05). Moreover, the mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and MyD88 were not affected in either group. Collectively, considering former NLRC5 functional study in vitro, the wild genotype birds presented with better resistance to Salmonella Enteritidis through the actions of the NLRC5 and subsequent inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in chickens.
A heterologous neuraminidase subtype strategy for the differentiation of vaccinated and infected animals (DIVA) strategy for avian influenza virus using a more flexible neuraminidase inhibition test in chickens
The option of vaccinating poultry against avian influenza (AI) as a control tool is gaining greater acceptance by the government and poultry industry world-wide. One reservation about vaccination with killed whole virus vaccines is the loss of the ability to use serologic surveillance to identify i...
Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion and to a lesser degree recombinant vectored vaccines (e.g. virus expressing AI gen...
Kapczynski, Darrell R; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary; Guzman, Sofia G; Ricardez, Yadira; Spackman, Erica; Bertran, Kateri; Suarez, David L; Swayne, David E
In June of 2012, an H7N3 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was identified as the cause of a severe disease outbreak in commercial laying chicken farms in Mexico. The purpose of this study was to characterize the Mexican 2012 H7N3 HPAI virus (A/chicken/Jalisco/CPA1/2012) and determine the protection against the virus conferred by different H7 inactivated vaccines in chickens. Both adult and young chickens intranasally inoculated with the virus became infected and died at between 2 and 4 days postinoculation (p.i.). High virus titers and viral replication in many tissues were demonstrated at 2 days p.i. in infected birds. The virus from Jalisco, Mexico, had high sequence similarity of greater than 97% to the sequences of wild bird viruses from North America in all eight gene segments. The hemagglutinin gene of the virus contained a 24-nucleotide insert at the hemagglutinin cleavage site which had 100% sequence identity to chicken 28S rRNA, suggesting that the insert was the result of nonhomologous recombination with the host genome. For vaccine protection studies, both U.S. H7 low-pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses and a 2006 Mexican H7 LPAI virus were tested as antigens in experimental oil emulsion vaccines and injected into chickens 3 weeks prior to challenge. All H7 vaccines tested provided ≥90% protection against clinical disease after challenge and decreased the number of birds shedding virus and the titers of virus shed. This study demonstrates the pathological consequences of the infection of chickens with the 2012 Mexican lineage H7N3 HPAI virus and provides support for effective programs of vaccination against this virus in poultry.
Petäjä, Tiina; Pedersen, Court; Poder, Airi; Strauss, Gitte; Catteau, Gregory; Thomas, Florence; Lehtinen, Matti; Descamps, Dominique
Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to young women aged 10-25 years. Serum and cervicovaginal secretion (CVS) samples were collected at prespecified time-points during the 48-month follow-up period. Anti-HPV-16/18 antibody levels in serum and CVS were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At Month 48, all subjects remained seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies in CVS were still detectable for subjects aged 15-25 years (84.1% and 69.7%, respectively). There was a strong correlation between serum and CVS anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies levels (correlation coefficients = 0.84 and 0.90 at Month 48, respectively) supporting the hypothesis of transudation or exudation of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women induces long-term systemic and mucosal immune response and has a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 4 years after the first vaccine dose.
Szu, Shousun Chen; Ahmed, Amina
Pediatric immunization has been the most effective measure to prevent and reduce the burden of infectious diseases in children. The recent inclusion of pneumococcal and meningococcal polysaccharide conjugates in infant immunization further reinforces their importance. Currently there is no human vaccine against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections. This review focuses on the human EHEC vaccine that has been studied clinically, in particular, the polysaccharide conjugate against E. coli O157. The surface polysaccharide antigen, O-specific polysaccharide, was linked to rEPA, recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In adults and children 2 to 5 years old, O157-rEPA conjugates, shown to be safe, induced high levels of antilipopolysaccharide immunoglobulin G with bactericidal activities against E. coli O157, a functional bioassay that mimics the killing of inoculum in vivo. A similar construct using the B subunit of Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 as the carrier protein elicited both bactericidal and toxin-neutralizing antibodies in mice. So far there is no clinical study of Stx-based human vaccine. Passive immunization of Stx-specific antibodies with humanized, chimeric, or human monoclonal antibodies, produced in transgenic mice, showed promising data in animal models and offered high prospects. Demonstrations of their safety and effectiveness in treating hemolytic-uremic syndrome or patients with EHEC infections are under way, and results are much anticipated. For future development, other virulence factors such as the nontoxic Stx B subunit or intimin should be included, either as carrier protein in conjugates or as independent components. The additional antigens from O157 may provide broader coverage to non-O157 Stx-producing E. coli and facilitate both preventive and therapeutic treatment.
Albright, Kendra S.; Gavigan, Karen
HIV/AIDS infections are growing at an alarming rate for young adults. In 2009, youth, ages 13-29, accounted for 39% of all new HIV infections in the U.S. (Division of HIV/ AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), 2011). South Carolina ranks eighth in the nation for new HIV cases, while the capital city of Columbia ranks seventh…
Ou, Shan-Chia; Giambrone, Joseph J
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an important respiratory disease of chickens and annually causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry world-wide. ILT virus (ILTV) belongs to alphaherpesvirinae and the Gallid herpesvirus 1 species. The transmission of ILTV is via respiratory and ocular routes. Clinical and post-mortem signs of ILT can be separated into two forms according to its virulence. The characteristic of the severe form is bloody mucus in the trachea with high mortality. The mild form causes nasal discharge, conjunctivitis, and reduced weight gain and egg production. Conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nested PCR, real-time PCR, and loop-mediated isothermal amplification were developed to detect ILTV samples from natural or experimentally infected birds. The PCR combined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) can separate ILTVs into several genetic groups. These groups can separate vaccine from wild type field viruses. Vaccination is a common method to prevent ILT. However, field isolates and vaccine viruses can establish latent infected carriers. According to PCR-RFLP results, virulent field ILTVs can be derived from modified-live vaccines. Therefore, modified-live vaccine reversion provides a source for ILT outbreaks on chicken farms. Two recently licensed commercial recombinant ILT vaccines are also in use. Other recombinant and gene-deficient vaccine candidates are in the developmental stages. They offer additional hope for the control of this disease. However, in ILT endemic regions, improved biosecurity and management practices are critical for improved ILT control. PMID:24175219
Vaccine protection of chickens against antigenically diverse H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza isolates with a live HVT vector vaccine expressing the influenza hemagglutinin gene derived from a clade 2.2 avian influenza vi
Vaccination is an important tool in the protection of poultry against avian influenza (AI). For field use, the overwhelming majority of AI vaccines produced are inactivated whole virus formulated into an oil emulsion. However, recombinant vectored vaccines are gaining use for their ability to induce...
Gottvall, Maria; Stenhammar, Christina; Grandahl, Maria
Objective To explore parents' views of extending the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programme to also include boys. Design Explorative qualitative design using individual, face-to-face, interviews and inductive thematic analysis. Setting 11 strategically chosen municipalities in central Sweden. Participants Parents (n=42) who were offered HPV vaccination for their 11–12 years old daughter in the national school-based vaccination programme. Results The key themes were: equality from a public health perspective and perception of risk for disease. Parents expressed low knowledge and awareness about the health benefits of male HPV vaccination, and they perceived low risk for boys to get HPV. Some parents could not see any reason for vaccinating boys. However, many parents preferred gender-neutral vaccination, and some of the parents who had not accepted HPV vaccination for their daughter expressed that they would be willing to accept vaccination for their son, if it was offered. It was evident that there was both trust and distrust in authorities' decision to only vaccinate girls. Parents expressed a preference for increased sexual and reproductive health promotion such as more information about condom use. Some parents shared that it was more important to vaccinate girls than boys since they believed girls face a higher risk of deadly diseases associated with HPV, but some also believed girls might be more vulnerable to side effects of the vaccine. Conclusions A vaccine offered only to girls may cause parents to be hesitant to vaccinate, while also including boys in the national vaccination programme might improve parents' trust in the vaccine. More information about the health benefits of HPV vaccination for males is necessary to increase HPV vaccination among boys. This may eventually lead to increased HPV vaccine coverage among both girls and boys. PMID:28246143
In this article, the author describes how a visit from a flock of chickens provided inspiration for the children's chicken art. The gentle clucking of the hens, the rooster crowing, and the softness of the feathers all provided rich aural, tactile, visual, and emotional experiences. The experience affirms the importance and value of direct…
Kubińska, M; Tykałowski, B; Koncicki, A; Jankowski, J
The objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that increasing levels of dietary methionine can stimulate the mechanisms of cell-mediated and humoral immunity in young turkeys. The blood and organs involved in cell-mediated and humoral immune responses were analyzed in 8-week-old turkeys that had been vaccinated against Ornithobacterium rhinotraheale (ORT) infection (on days 17 and 48). The birds were fed diets with a low (LM), medium (MM) and high (HM) methionine content (0.45 and 0.40%, 0.60 and 0.51%, 0.71 and 0.57% in weeks 1 - 4 and 5 - 8, respectively). Dietary methionine supplementation led to a significant increase in body weights of turkeys at 56 days of age, from 3532 g in group LM to 3720 g in group MM and 3760 g in group HM (p=0.001). A significant increase in vaccine-induced antibody titers against ORT was noted in group HM relative to group LM (p=0.006). Increasing levels of methionine had no significant effect on total serum IgG nor IgM levels and most serum biochemical parameters, TP, ALB, GLOB, GLU, AST, ALP, P and Ca. In comparison with group LM, group HM turkeys were characterized by a lower percentage of IgM⁺ B cell subpopulation in the blood and bursa of Fabricius. The percentages of CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T cell subpopulations in the bursa of Fabricius in group HM were significantly different from those found in groups LM and MM. The highest percentages of CD4⁺ T cells and CD8⁺ T cells in the spleen were observed in groups LM (p<0.001) and HM (p=0.04), respectively. The differences were statistically significant relative to the remaining groups. Turkeys of group LM were characterized by a lower CD4⁺ T cell percentage in the thymus (p<0.001) and a lower CD8⁺ T cell percentage in the cecal tonsils (CTs) (p<0.01). Vaccination against ORT resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of CD4⁺CD8⁺ T cell subpopulation and a decrease in the percentage of CD8⁺ T cell subset in the spleen.
Bornstein, Kristin; Hungerford, Laura; Hartley, David; Sorkin, John D.; Tapia, Milagritos D.; Sow, Samba O.; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Simon, Raphael; Tennant, Sharon M.
Background In sub-Saharan Africa, systematic surveillance of young children with suspected invasive bacterial disease (e.g., septicemia, meningitis) has revealed non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) to be a major pathogen exhibiting high case fatality (~20%). Where infant vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) and Streptococcus pneumoniae has been introduced to prevent invasive disease caused by these pathogens, as in Bamako, Mali, their burden has decreased markedly. In parallel, NTS has become the predominant invasive bacterial pathogen in children aged <5 years. While NTS is believed to be acquired orally via contaminated food/water, epidemiologic studies have failed to identify the reservoir of infection or vehicles of transmission. This has precluded targeting food chain interventions to diminish disease transmission but conversely has fostered the development of vaccines to prevent invasive NTS (iNTS) disease. We developed a mathematical model to estimate the potential impact of NTS vaccination programs in Bamako. Methodology/Principal Findings A Markov chain transmission model was developed utilizing age-specific Bamako demographic data and hospital surveillance data for iNTS disease in children aged <5 years and assuming vaccine coverage and efficacy similar to the existing, successfully implemented, Hib vaccine. Annual iNTS hospitalizations and deaths in children <5 years, with and without a Salmonella Enteritidis/Salmonella Typhimurium vaccine, were the model’s outcomes of interest. Per the model, high coverage/high efficacy iNTS vaccination programs would drastically diminish iNTS disease except among infants age <8 weeks. Conclusions/Significance The public health impact of NTS vaccination shifts as disease burden, vaccine coverage, and serovar distribution vary. Our model shows that implementing an iNTS vaccine through an analogous strategy to the Hib vaccination program in Bamako would markedly reduce cases and deaths due to iNTS among
Wadhera, Priya; Evans, Jennifer L; Stein, Ellen; Gandhi, Monica; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sansothy, Neth; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Kaldor, John; Page, Kimberly; Kien
Human papillomavirus is a common sexually transmitted infection and the causative agent for cervical cancer, a frequently occurring malignant disease among women in developing countries. We assessed human papillomavirus awareness prior to the delivery of a brief information and education intervention, and human papillomavirus vaccine provision to female entertainment and sex workers (N = 220). At baseline, only 23.6% of women had heard of human papillomavirus. Following the educational intervention, 90% answered all the human papillomavirus knowledge questions correctly. Of 192 participants attending the first quarterly cohort visit where vaccine was offered, 149 (78%) were eligible for vaccination; HIV-positive (n = 32) and pregnant (n = 11) women were excluded. Acceptance of vaccine among eligible women was universal, and 79.2% completed the three-dose vaccination series. Women who reported use of amphetamine-type stimulants had significantly and independently lower odds of vaccine completion (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08, 0.69). New pregnancies also had an impact on vaccine completion: 5.4% (8/149 5.4%) who started the series had to stop due to new pregnancy. Results demonstrate the effectiveness of a simple education intervention designed to increase human papillomavirus knowledge and the feasibility of successful human papillomavirus vaccine in a population that is often difficult to engage in preventive health care.
Dortmans, J C F M; Venema-Kemper, S; Peeters, B P H; Koch, G
Newcastle disease (ND) is a severe threat to the poultry industry and is caused by virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Many countries maintain a vaccination policy, but NDV is rapidly evolving as shown by the discovery of several new genotypes in the last decades. We tested the efficacy of the currently used classical commercial ND vaccine based on the genotype II strain VG/GA, applied under standard field conditions, against outbreak strains. Field vaccinated broilers were challenged with four different viruses belonging to genotype II, V or VII. A large proportion of field vaccinated broilers showed suboptimal immunity and the protection level against early and recent NDV isolates was dramatically low. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in protection afforded by a genotype II vaccine against a genotype II virus challenge compared to a challenge with viruses belonging to the other genotypes. This study suggests that the susceptibility of vaccinated poultry to NDV infection is not the result of vaccine mismatch, but rather of poor vaccination practices.
Inactivated and fowlpox (FP)-vectored vaccines have been used to control avian influenza (AI) in poultry. In endemic countries, breeder flocks are vaccinated and therefore, maternally-derived antibodies (MDA) are transferred to their progeny. Results of several immunogenicity and efficacy studies ...
Poulsen, J; Permin, A; Hindsbo, O; Yelifari, L; Nansen, P; Bloch, P
We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence and species of gastro-intestinal helminths and haemoparasites in 100 chickens kept under extensive management systems in Ghana, West Africa. All the examined chickens (100%) were infected with gastro-intestinal helminths; a total of 18 species were detected. The species and their prevalences were: Acuaria hamulosa (25%), Allodapa suctoria (20%), Ascaridia galli (24%), Capillaria spp. (60%), Choanotaenia infundibulum (13%), Gongylonema ingluvicola (62%), Heterakis gallinarum (31%), H. isolonche (16%), Hymenolepis spp. (66%), Raillietina cesticillus (12%), R. echinobothrida (81%), R. tetragona (59%), Strongyloides avium (2%), Subulura strongylina (10%), Tetrameres fissispina (58%), Trichostronygylus tenuis (2%), and finally one unidentified acanthocephalan (1%) and one unidentified trematode (1%). Thirty-five per cent of the chickens were infected with the haemoparasites Aegyptinella pullorum and Plasmodium juxtanucleare (prevalences 9% and 27%, respectively). Association between chicken sex and prevalences was not significant. An over-dispersed distribution was seen for most of the helminth species.
Yukimasa, Nobuyasu; Sato, Shoichi; Oboshi, Wataru; Watanabe, Toru; Uzawa, Ryuichi
Hepatitis B (HB) vaccination is one of the most efficient tools to prevent the transmission of the virus. Considerable variability exists in HB vaccine responses, with 5-10% of healthy Japanese adults demonstrating no response following a standard vaccination. Recently, polymorphisms of immune-regulatory genes, such as cytokine genes, have been reported to influence the immune response to HB vaccine. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the genetic association between several cytokine gene polymorphisms and the immune response to HB vaccination in a Japanese population. One hundred and twenty three vaccinated young adults were classified according to the level of antibody-titer (anti-HBs). Single nucleotide polymorphism typing for IFN-γ (+874, 3'-UTR), IL-10 (-591, -819, -1082), and TNF-α (-308, -857), was accomplished using the PCR-RFLP or SSP-PCR method. The TNF-α (-857) CC type and the IL-10 (-1082) AG type were present more frequently in the low titer group than in the high titer group. The TNF-α (-857) CC type was found to be significantly associated with low response of serum anti-HBs. The anti-HBs antibody was not readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AG and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype. Conversely, the antibody was readily produced in the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CC haplotype, and the IL-10 (-1082) AA and TNF-α (-857) CT haplotype, suggesting a high likelihood of the IL-10 (-1082) AG type to be included in the low anti-HBs group, and high anti-HBs antibody production in those with the TNF-α (-857) CT type. These SNPs may produce ethnically-specific differences in the immune response to HB vaccine in the Japanese population. J. Med. Invest. 63: 256-261, August, 2016.
Marek's disease (MD) is a lymphotrophic and oncogenic disease of chickens that can lead to death in susceptible and unimmunized host birds. The causative pathogen, Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly oncogenic alphaherpesvirus, integrates into host genome near the telomeres during viral latency an...
A synthetic hemagglutinin (HA) gene from the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus A/chicken/Indonesia/7/2003 (H5N1) (Indo/03) was expressed in aquatic plant Lemna minor (rLemna-HA). In Experiment 1, efficacy of rLemna-HA was tested on specific pathogen free (SPF) birds immunized with 0.2 ...
Mtileni, Bohani Joseph; Muchadeyi, Farai C; Maiwashe, Azwihangwisi; Chimonyo, Michael; Mapiye, Cletos; Dzama, Kennedy
Individual interviews were conducted in 137 households using semi-structured questionnaires to determine the influence of socioeconomic factors on production constraints faced by indigenous chicken producers in the rural areas of South Africa. The major constraints to village chicken production were mortality (95 % of the households) followed by feed shortage (85 %) and low chicken sales (72 %). The logistic regression model showed that households that owned imported/crossbred chickens practiced extensive production system without housing structures and did not have vaccines were more likely to experience high levels of chicken mortality. Poor and youth-headed households with no supplements and vaccines had high probability of Newcastle disease. The probability of a household to experience chicken feed shortage was lower in households that owned indigenous chickens than those that owned imported/crossbred chickens (odds ratio, 11.68; 95 % confidence interval, 1.19-27.44). Youth-headed households that had small flocks and no access to veterinary services were not likely to sell chickens. It was concluded that gender, age, wealth status, production system, chicken flock size, type of chicken breed owned, accessibility of veterinary services, availability of supplements, vaccines and shelter influence village chicken farmer's production constraints such as feed availability, chicken mortality, prevalence of diseases and chicken sales.
Muhwezi, Wilson Winstons; Banura, Cecily; Turiho, Andrew Kampikaho; Mirembe, Florence
The Ministry of Health in Uganda in collaboration with the Program for Appropriate Technology for Health (PATH) supported by Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in 2008-2009 vaccinated approximately 10,000 girls with the bivalent humanpapilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. We assessed parent's knowledge, risk perception and willingness to allow son(s) to receive HPV vaccines in future through a cross-sectional survey of secondary school boys aged 10-23 years in 4 districts. 377 questionnaires were distributed per district and 870 were used in analysis. Parents that had ever heard about cervical cancer and HPV vaccines; those who would allow daughter(s) to be given the vaccine and those who thought that HPV infection was associated with genital warts were more willing to allow son(s) to receive the HPV vaccine. Unwilling parents considered HPV vaccination of boys unimportant (p = 0.003), believed that only females should receive the vaccine (p = 0.006), thought their son(s) couldn't contract HPV (p = 0.010), didn't know about HPV sexual transmissibility (p = 0.002), knew that males could not acquire HPV (p = 0.000) and never believed that the HPV vaccines could protect against HPV (p = 0.000). Acceptance of HPV vaccination of daughters and likelihood of recommending HPV vaccines to son(s) of friends and relatives predicted parental willingness to allow sons to receive HPV vaccines. Probable HPV vaccination of boys is a viable complement to that of girls. Successfulness of HPV vaccination relies on parental acceptability and sustained sensitization about usefulness of HPV vaccines even for boys is vital.
Campbell, John P; Edwards, Kate M; Ring, Christopher; Drayson, Mark T; Bosch, Jos A; Inskip, Andrew; Long, Joanna E; Pulsford, Daniel; Burns, Victoria E
An acute bout of exercise prior to vaccination can improve the antibody and cell-mediated responses to influenza vaccination. The mechanisms underpinning this adjuvant effect remain unclear, and further investigation to determine the optimal exercise protocol is warranted. The aim of the current study was to determine whether exercise augmented the immune response to vaccination, and whether the timing of exercise relative to vaccination affected the efficacy of the intervention. One hundred and fifty-six (76 men) healthy participants were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three intervention groups who exercised immediately, 6h or 48 h prior to administration of a standard trivalent influenza vaccine. The exercise groups performed 50 repetitions of the eccentric portion of both the bicep curl and lateral raise movements at an intensity eliciting 85% of each participant's pre-determined concentric one repetition maxima. Antigen-specific serum antibody titres were measured at baseline and 28 days post-vaccination as indicators of the humoral response. All three viral strains elicited strong antibody responses; however, eccentric exercise did not further augment any antibody responses compared to the control group. Cell-mediated immunity at 28 days post-vaccination was determined by measuring the IFN-gamma response to in vitro stimulation of the blood with whole vaccine. There were no differences in cell-mediated immunity among the groups. Although these null findings were unexpected, they are consistent with previous research showing that exercise-induced immunoenhancement was only observed when the control group had relatively poor responses. In conclusion, it is likely that the robust immune responses to the vaccine observed in this study may have limited any further immune enhancement by exercise.
Lacharme-Lora, Lizeth; Chaloner, Gemma; Gilroy, Rachel; Humphrey, Suzanne; Gibbs, Kirsty; Jopson, Sue; Wright, Elli; Reid, William; Ketley, Julian; Humphrey, Tom; Williams, Nicola; Rushton, Steven; Wigley, Paul
Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis with contaminated poultry meat its main source. Control of C. jejuni is a priority for the poultry industry but no vaccines are available and their development hampered by poor understanding of the immunobiology of C. jejuni infection. Here we show the functional role of B lymphocytes in response to C. jejuni in the chicken through depletion of the B lymphocyte population (bursectomy) followed by challenge. B lymphocyte depletion has little effect on bacterial numbers in the ceca, the main site of colonisation, where C. jejuni persist to beyond commercial slaughter age, but reduces clearance from the small intestine. In longer-term experiments we show antibody leads to reduction in C. jeuni numbers in the ceca by nine weeks post infection. Whilst we did not examine any protective role to re-challenge, it illustrates the difficulty in producing a vaccine in a young, immunologically naïve host. We believe this is first study of functional immunity to C. jejuni in chicken and shows antibody is ineffective in clearing C. jejuni from the ceca within the production lifetime of chickens, although is involved in clearance from the small intestine and longer-term clearance from the ceca. PMID:28332622
Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission, jumps up from the lunar surface as he salutes the U.S. Flag at the Descartes landing site during the first Apollo 16 extravehicular activity (EVA-1). Astronaut Charles M. Duke Jr., lunar module pilot, took this picture. The Lunar Module (LM) 'Orion' is on the left. The Lunar Roving Vehicle is parked beside the LM. The object behind Young in the shade of the LM is the Far Ultraviolet Camera/Spectrograph. Stone Mountain dominates the background in this lunar scene.
Gabrielsen, Ann E.; Pickering, R. J.; Linna, T. J.; Good, R. A.
Development of total complement (C) and C1 activity was followed in Line 96 chickens from day 13 of embryonic life to 40 days post-hatching. Both activities were demonstrable on day 13, and levels rose slowly in the late prehatching period. At hatching, on day 21, there was a sharp rise in both activities; both titres were roughly five times those of day 19 embryos. Further increases were seen to about day 10, followed by a levelling off (perhaps even a drop in the case of C1) for about 10 days. On about the twenty-first day the titration curve rose again. The source of the C detected in the embryo and young chicken is unknown. The pattern is consistent with transfer from the egg, but it might also reflect synthesis by the developing animal. PMID:4733800
Chelimo, Carol; Wouldes, Trecia A; Cameron, Linda D
Two-hundred undergraduate students completed an anonymous questionnaire after viewing a human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine television commercial. Eight-four percent of participants would accept a free HPV vaccine, whereas 47% were unconcerned about future personal HPV infection risk. Males were less likely to accept a free HPV vaccine and to be concerned about future personal HPV infection risk. Perceived HPV vaccine effectiveness was significantly greater among participants who had previously heard of the vaccine and who knew that HPV is sexually transmitted. More education on the role of sexual behavioural characteristics of both males and females in HPV transmission is necessary to promote awareness and concern of personal HPV infection risk and acceptance of HPV vaccination.
Piontkowski, Michael; Kroll, Jeremy; Kraft, Christian; Coll, Teresa
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) can be difficult to manage in commercial settings. A novel type I PRRSV vaccinal strain (94881) was evaluated for safety and efficacy/onset of immunity (OOI) in piglets. In 2 experiments, groups of piglets were vaccinated intramuscularly (IM) at approximately 14 d of age with a maximum-range commercial dose, an overdose, or a placebo in experiment 1 and either a minimum-range commercial dose or a placebo in experiment 2. The piglets in experiment 1 were evaluated for local and systemic reactions from days −2 through 14 after vaccination. The piglets in experiment 2 were challenged with a virulent heterologous type I PRRSV isolate 14 d after vaccination and observed once daily for general health from days −1 through 12 after vaccination and once daily for clinical signs associated with challenge from days 13 through 24 after vaccination. The average daily weight gain (ADWG) and the results of serologic and viremia testing were evaluated in experiments 1 and 2. Lung lesion scores and results of testing for PRRSV in lung tissue were evaluated in experiment 2. In experiment 1 the vaccine was shown to be safe, as there were no relevant differences between the vaccinated piglets and the piglets given a placebo. In experiment 2 the vaccine’s efficacy, with an OOI of 14 d after vaccination, was established, as the vaccinated and challenged piglets exhibited significantly lower lung lesion scores, viremia, viral load in lung tissue, and total clinical sign scores, along with a significantly greater ADWG, compared with the placebo-vaccinated and challenged piglets. PMID:27127339
Zhang, Pinghu; Tang, Yinghua; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Wenbo; Liu, Hongqi; Lu, Shan; Liu, Xiufan
In the current study, we characterized H9N2 influenza viruses isolated from vaccinated flocks in an integrated broiler chicken operation during a 5 year period (1998-2002). Phylogenetic analysis of the 8 genes of 11 representative viruses showed that they all shared high similarity to that of the first isolate, A/Chicken/Shanghai/F/1998 (Ck/SH/F/98), and clustered to the same lineages. Furthermore, all 11 viruses had a 9 nt deletion between positions 206 and 214 of the neuraminidase gene. These genetic characteristics strongly suggest that these viruses are descendants of the first isolate. In addition, our study also showed that the H9N2 viruses circulating in the operation during this 5 year period were evolving, as shown by antigenic variations between viruses manifested by reactivity with polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies, by haemagglutination with erythrocytes from different animals, by amino acid differences in haemagglutinin and neuraminidase proteins, and by variation in their ability to replicate in the respiratory and intestinal tract and to be transmitted by aerosol. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the internal genes from some H5N1 viruses of duck origin clustered together with those from H9N2 virus and that the RNP genes of these H5N1 viruses isolated after 2001 are more closely related to the genes of the Ck/SH/F/98-like H9N2 viruses, indicating more recent reassortment events between these two subtypes of viruses. Continuous surveillance of influenza virus in poultry and waterfowl is critical for monitoring the genesis and emergence of potentially pandemic strains in this region.
Kreimer, Aimée R.; Gonzalèz, Paula; Katki, Hormuzd A.; Porras, Carolina; Schiffman, Mark; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Solomon, Diane; Jimenez, Silvia; Schiller, John T.; Lowy, Douglas R.; van Doorn, Leen-Jan; Struijk, Linda; Quint, Wim; Chen, Sabrina; Wacholder, Sholom; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando
Background Anal cancer remains rare (incidence of ∼1.5 per 100,000 women annually) but rates are increasing in many countries. Human papillomavirus-16 (HPV16) infection causes most cases. We evaluated vaccine efficacy (VE) of an ASO4-adjuvanted HPV16/18 vaccine against anal HPV16/18 infection. Methods In a randomized double-blind controlled trial designed to evaluate VE against persistent cervical HPV16/18 infections and associated precancerous lesions in Costa Rica, 4210 healthy women underwent anal specimen collection (4224 of 5968= 70.8% of eligible women) at the final blinded study visit 4 years after vaccination to evaluate anal HPV16/18 VE. Cervical HPV16/18 VE among the same women at the same visit was calculated as a comparator. For this ancillary work, analyses were conducted in a restricted cohort of women both cervical HPV16/18 DNA negative and HPV 16/18 seronegative prior at enrollment (N=1989), and in the full cohort (all women with an anal specimen). Findings In the restricted cohort, VE against prevalent HPV16/18 anal infection measured one-time, four-years post-vaccination was 83.6% (95%CI 66.7% to 92.8%), which was comparable to cervical HPV16/18 VE (87.9%, 95%CI 77.4% to 94.0%). In the full cohort, HPV16/18 VE was statistically lower at the anus (62.0%, 95%CI 47.1% to 73.1%) compared to the cervix (76.4%, 95%CI 67.0% to 83.5%) (p for anatomic-site interaction =0.03). Significant and comparable VE estimates against a composite endpoint of HPV31/33/45 (i.e.: cross-protection) was observed at the anus and cervix. Interpretation The ASO4-adjuvanted vaccine affords strong protection against anal HPV, particularly among women more likely to be HPV naïve at vaccination. Funding. The Costa Rica HPV Vaccine Trial is sponsored and funded by the NCI (contract N01-CP-11005), with funding support from the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health, and conducted with support from the Ministry of Health of Costa Rica. Vaccine was
Bae, E Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il; Kang, Jin Han
Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment.
Marek's disease, a disease primarily affecting immature chickens, is a worldwide problem that has on at least three occasions threatened the poultry industry in the United States. A rich dataset to study the epidemiology of this disease is available because the United States Department of Agricultu...
Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S
In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.
H5N1 high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) is an important pathogen for poultry. Vaccines have assisted in control for poultry, and for human pandemic preparedness. However the genetic diversity and rapid antigenic drifting of the field viruses have led to inadequate protection. This s...
Traditionally, substrates for production of vaccines have been embryonated eggs or adherent cell culture. The daunting challenge of scaling up these technologies in the face of an outbreak has been a limitation for industrial applicability. Suspension cell lines are better suited in many ways to e...
Since its emergence in 1996 in China, H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus has continuously evolved into different genetic clades that have created challenges to maintaining antigenically relevant H5N1 vaccine seeds. Therefore, a universal (multi-hemagglutinin [HA] subtype) or more c...
Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.
Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela; Van Der Wielen, Marie
We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under
Antibody Persistence in Young Children 5 Years after Vaccination with a Combined Haemophilus influenzae Type b-Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C Conjugate Vaccine Coadministered with Diphtheria-Tetanus-Acellular Pertussis-Based and Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines
Tejedor, Juan Carlos; Brzostek, Jerzy; Konior, Ryszard; Grunert, Detlef; Kolhe, Devayani; Baine, Yaela
We evaluated antibody persistence in children up to 5 years after administration of a combined Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C (MenC)-tetanus toxoid (TT) conjugate vaccine coadministered with a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This is the follow-up study of a randomized trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT00334334/00463437) in which healthy children were vaccinated (primary vaccinations at 2, 4, and 6 months of age and booster vaccination at 11 to 18 months of age) with Hib-MenC-TT or a control MenC conjugate vaccine, coadministered with diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTPa)-based combination vaccines (DTPa/Hib for control groups) and a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (10-valent pneumococcal nontypeable H. influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine [PHiD-CV] or 7-valent cross-reacting material 197 [CRM197] conjugate vaccine [7vCRM]). MenC antibody titers were measured with a serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay using rabbit complement (i.e., rabbit SBA [rSBA]), and antibodies against Hib polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) were measured with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody persistence up to 5 years after booster vaccination is reported for 530 children ∼6 years of age. The percentages of children with seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers were between 24.2% and 40.1% in all groups approximately 5 years after booster vaccination. More than 98.5% of children in each group retained seroprotective anti-PRP concentrations. No vaccine-related serious adverse events and no events related to a lack of vaccine efficacy were reported. Approximately 5 years after booster vaccination, the majority of children retained seroprotective anti-PRP antibody concentrations. The percentage of children retaining seroprotective rSBA-MenC titers was low (≤40%), suggesting that a significant proportion of children may be unprotected against MenC disease. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under
Cherry, James D; Heininger, Ulrich; Richards, David M; Storsaeter, Jann; Gustafsson, Lennart; Ljungman, Margaretha; Hallander, Hans O
In a previous study, it was found that the antibody response to a nonvaccine pertussis antigen in children who were vaccine failures was reduced compared with the response in nonvaccinated children who had pertussis. In two acellular pertussis vaccine efficacy trials in Sweden, we studied the convalescent-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) geometric mean values (GMVs) in response to pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (FIM 2/3) in vaccine failures and controls with pertussis. In Germany, the antibody responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 were analyzed by ELISA according to time of serum collection after onset of illness in children with pertussis who were vaccine failures or who were previously unvaccinated. Antibody values were also compared by severity of clinical illness. In Sweden, infants who had received a PT toxoid vaccine and who were vaccine failures had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigen FHA compared with the response in children who had received a PT/FHA vaccine. Similarly, infants who had pertussis and who had received a PT/FHA vaccine had a blunted response to the nonvaccine antigens PRN and FIM 2/3 compared with the response in children who were vaccine failures and who had received a PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM 2/3 vaccine. In Germany, in sera collected from 0 to 15 days after pertussis illness onset, the GMVs for all 4 antigens (PT, FHA, PRN, and FIM-2) were significantly lower in an unvaccinated group than in children who were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine failures. In the unvaccinated group, the GMV of the PT antibody rose rapidly over time so that it was similar to that of the DTaP vaccine recipients at the 16- to 30-day period. In contrast, the antibody responses to FHA, PRN, and FIM-2 at all time periods were lower in the diphtheria-tetanus vaccine (DT) recipients than in the DTaP vaccine failures. In both Sweden and Germany
Wang, Yun-Feng; Sun, Yong-Ke; Tian, Zhan-Cheng; Shi, Xing-Ming; Tong, Guang-Zhi; Liu, Sheng-Wang; Zhi, Hai-Dong; Kong, Xian-Gang; Wang, Mei
A fowlpox virus expressing the chicken infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 gene of the LX4 strain (rFPV-IBVS1) and a fowlpox virus co-expressing the S1 gene and the chicken type II interferon gene (rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma) were constructed. These viruses were assessed for their immunological efficacy on specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens challenged with a virulent IBV. Although the antibody levels in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated group were lower than those in the attenuated live IB vaccine H120 group and the rFPV-IBVS1 group, the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma provided the strongest protection against an IBV LX4 virus challenge (15 out of 16 chickens immunized with rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma were protected), followed by the attenuated live IB vaccine (13/16 protected) and the rFPV-IBVS1 (12/16 protected). Compared to those of the rFPV-IBVS1 and the attenuated live IB vaccine groups, chickens in the rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma group eliminated virus more quickly and decreased the presence of viral antigen more significantly in renal tissue. Examination of affected tissues revealed abnormalities in the liver, spleen, kidney, lung and trachea of chickens vaccinated with the attenuated live IB vaccine and the rFPV-IBVS1 vaccine. In rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma-vaccinated chickens, pathological changes were also observed in those organs, but were milder and lasted shorter. The lesions in the mock control group were the most severe and lasted for at least 20 days. This study demonstrated that chicken type II interferon increased the immunoprotective efficacy of rFPV-IBVS1-ChIFNgamma and normal weight gain in vaccinated chickens although it inhibited serum antibody production.
Stock, Michelle L; Peterson, Laurel M; Houlihan, Amy E; Walsh, Laura A
Public health information and educational interventions regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) have focused on the link between vaginal sex and cervical cancer among women. Many people are unaware that HPV can be transmitted through oral sex or that HPV causes oral cancers. Given that HPV infections and unprotected oral sex are increasing, research on oral sex-related HPV risk is important. This study examined the effect of a brief informational intervention regarding HPV and oral sex on the sexual risk cognitions of young adults. College students (N = 238) read information on HPV, oral sex, and oral cancer or no information. Participants then completed measures of oral sex and HPV knowledge, oral sex willingness, HPV vaccination likelihood, and risk perceptions. Participants who read the information on HPV and oral sex and cancer (compared to those who did not) reported greater knowledge, perceived risk and concern, and lower willingness to engage in oral sex. These effects were only significant among women. However, men reported a higher likelihood of future HPV vaccination compared to women who had not yet received the vaccine. Focusing on oral sex and cancer, this study adds to research investigating ways to reduce HPV infections.
Marek’s disease (MD) is a herpesvirus-induced disease of poultry and it continues to threaten the poultry industry worldwide as MD virus (MDV) evolves to escalate the virulence of field strains. MD has been primarily controlled by vaccination and management measures. This study aimed to compare the ...
Vintiñi, E; Villena, J; Alvarez, S; Medina, M
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a serious public health problem, especially in developing countries, where available vaccines are not part of the vaccination calendar. We evaluated different respiratory mucosa immunization protocols that included the nasal administration of Lactococcus lactis-pneumococcal protective protein A (PppA) live, inactivated, and in association with a probiotic (Lc) to young mice. The animals that received Lc by the oral and nasal route presented the highest levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)A and IgG anti-PppA antibodies in bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) and IgG in serum, which no doubt contributed to the protection against infection. However, only the groups that received the live and inactivated vaccine associated with the oral administration of the probiotic were able to prevent lung colonization by S. pneumoniae serotypes 3 and 14 in a respiratory infection model. This would be related to a preferential stimulation of the T helper type 1 (Th1) cells at local and systemic levels and with a moderate Th2 and Th17 response, shown by the cytokine profile induced in BAL and by the results of the IgG1/IgG2a ratio at local and systemic levels. Nasal immunization with the inactivated recombinant strain associated with oral Lc administration was able to stimulate the specific cellular and humoral immune response and afford protection against the challenge with the two S. pneumoniae serotypes. The results obtained show the probiotic-inactivated vaccine association as a valuable alternative for application to human health, especially in at-risk populations, and are the first report of a safe and effective immunization strategy using an inactivated recombinant strain.
Toro, H; van Santen, V L; Hoerr, F J; Breedlove, C
The effects of chicken anemia virus (CAV) and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) coinfection in commercial layer-type and meat-type (broiler) chickens with specific maternal immunity were evaluated. In addition, the broiler progeny used had been vaccinated in ovo against IBDV. Layer chickens were inoculated intramuscularly on day 3 of age with CAV and orally on day 7 of age with an IBDV standard strain (APHIS). Broiler chickens were exposed to CAV and/or an IBDV variant strain (AL2) via the drinking water on days 3 and 14 of age. Following CAV and IBDV inoculation neither mortality nor overt clinical disease was observed in any layer or broiler group. In spite of maternal immunity against both IBDV and CAV, mean hematocrits of all layer groups inoculated with CAV (CAV, CAV + APHIS) were lower than uninfected chickens. IBDV APHIS alone or in combination with CAV did not affect the layer weight gain. However, on day 30 of age and concomitantly with maternal antibody decay, bursa lymphocyte depletion became evident in CAV + APHIS-infected layer chickens. These birds (CAV + APHIS) also seroconverted to IBDV on day 35 of age. CAV persisted at low levels in the layer chickens throughout the experimental period in CAV- and CAV+APHIS-infected chickens. Similarly, infected broiler chickens did not show changes in weight gain. Compared to CAV-infected or uninfected controls, CAV+AL2- and AL2-infected broiler chickens showed significant lymphocyte depletion in the bursa as assessed both by bursal indices and histomorphometry. Broilers also seroconverted to IBDV after day 30 of age confirming that bursal lymphocyte depletion was due to IBDV resuming replication. Thymus histomorphometry revealed significant lymphocyte depletion in all infected broiler groups at 30 days of age, but only in CAV+AL2-infected broiler chickens at 41 days of age, suggesting that IBDV infection delayed repopulation of the thymus.
Ghareeb, K; Awad, W A; Zebeli, Q; Böhm, J
This study was conducted to investigate the impacts of deoxynivalenol (DON) feeding either alone or in combination with a microbial feed additive (MFA) on the immune response to a viral vaccine and serum clinical chemical parameters. Forty 1-day-old boiler chicks were weighed and randomly divided into four groups, 10 birds in each group: (i) control group fed with basal diet; (ii) DON group fed with basal diet artificially contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed; (iii) DON + MFA group fed with basal diet contaminated with 10 mg DON/kg feed and supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed; and (iv) MFA group fed with basal diet supplemented with 2.5 kg of MFA/ton feed. At 35 days of age, birds were slaughtered and blood was collected for investigating the antibody titre against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and clinical chemical parameters. The results showed that DON reduced (p = 0.032) the titre against IBV, decreased (p = 0.005) the level of alanine transaminase (ALT) (4.2 ± 0.5 U/l) compared with control birds (6.4 ± 0.5 U/l), increased (p = 0.002) the serum cholesterol concentration (144 ± 6 mg/dl) compared with their control counterparts (123 ± 5 mg/dl) and increased (p = 0.074) the amount of circulating triglycerides (62.25 ± 7.50 mg/dl) compared with controls (39.55 ± 4.74). These results indicate that dietary DON altered the humoral immune response to viral vaccine and affected the serum clinical biochemistry. However, DON in combination with MFA did not affect serum IBV titre. Taken together, DON in the feed of broilers produced an impairment of the success of IBV vaccine and affected the health of birds.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Detection of pathogens by the chicken... REQUIREMENTS Standard Procedures § 113.36 Detection of pathogens by the chicken inoculation test. The test for...,000 doses. (b) At least 25 healthy susceptible young chickens, properly identified and obtained...
Background A significant number of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder suffer a loss of previously-acquired skills, suggesting neurodegeneration or a type of progressive encephalopathy with an etiological basis occurring after birth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectof the age at which children got their first Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccine on autism incidence. This is a reanalysis of the data set, obtained from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Protection (CDC), used for the Destefano et al. 2004 publication on the timing of the first MMR vaccine and autism diagnoses. Methods The author embarked on the present study to evaluate whether a relationship exists between child age when the first MMR vaccine was administered among cases diagnosed with autism and controls born between 1986 through 1993 among school children in metropolitan Atlanta. The Pearson’s chi-squared method was used to assess relative risks of receiving an autism diagnosis within the total cohort as well as among different race and gender categories. Results When comparing cases and controls receiving their first MMR vaccine before and after 36 months of age, there was a statistically significant increase in autism cases specifically among African American males who received the first MMR prior to 36 months of age. Relative risks for males in general and African American males were 1.69 (p=0.0138) and 3.36 (p=0.0019), respectively. Additionally, African American males showed an odds ratio of 1.73 (p=0.0200) for autism cases in children receiving their first MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age versus 24 months of age and thereafter. Conclusions The present study provides new epidemiologic evidence showing that African American males receiving the MMR vaccine prior to 24 months of age or 36 months of age are more likely to receive an autism diagnosis. PMID:25114790
Radomska, Katarzyna A.; Vaezirad, Mahdi M.; Verstappen, Koen M.; Wösten, Marc M. S. M.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; van Putten, Jos P. M.
Campylobacter jejuni is the main cause of bacterial food-borne diseases in developed countries. Chickens are the most important source of human infection. Vaccination of poultry is an attractive strategy to reduce the number of C. jejuni in the intestinal tract of chickens. We investigated the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant C. jejuni flagellin-based subunit vaccine with intrinsic adjuvant activity. Toll-like receptor activation assays demonstrated the purity and TLR5 stimulating (adjuvant) activity of the vaccine. The antigen (20–40 μg) was administered in ovo to 18 day-old chicken embryos. Serum samples and intestinal content were assessed for antigen-specific systemic and mucosal humoral immune responses. In ovo vaccination resulted in the successful generation of IgY and IgM serum antibodies against the flagellin-based subunit vaccine as determined by ELISA and Western blotting. Vaccination did not induce significant amounts of flagellin-specific secretory IgA in the chicken intestine. Challenge of chickens with C. jejuni yielded similar intestinal colonization levels for vaccinated and control animals. Our results indicate that in ovo delivery of recombinant C. jejuni flagellin subunit vaccine is a feasible approach to yield a systemic humoral immune response in chickens but that a mucosal immune response may be needed to reduce C. jejuni colonization. PMID:27760175
Sun, Yi-Sheng; Li, Ya-jing; Xia, Yong; Xu, Fang; Wang, Wei-wei; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Lu, Hang-Jing; Chen, Zhi-Ping; Miao, Zi-Ping; Liang, Wei-Feng; Xu, Zhi-Yao; Dong, Hong-Jun; Qiu, Dan-Hong; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; van der Veen, Stijn; Qian, Jie; Zhou, Bin; Yao, Ping-Ping; Zhu, Han-Ping
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is one of the major pathogens associated with human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in the Asia-pacific region. Although CA16 infections are generally mild, severe neurological manifestations or even death has been reported. Studies on CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development are severely hampered because the small animal models that are currently available show major limitations. In this study, gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were investigated for their suitability as an animal model to study CA16 pathogenesis and vaccine development. Our results showed that gerbils up to the age of 21 days were fully susceptible to CA16 and all died within five days post-infection. CA16 showed a tropism towards the skeletal muscle, spinal cord and brainstem of gerbils, and severe lesions, including necrosis, were observed. In addition, an inactivated CA16 whole-virus vaccine administrated to gerbils was able to provide full protection to the gerbils against lethal doses of CA16 strains. These results demonstrate that gerbils are a suitable animal model to study CA16 infection and vaccine development. PMID:27667023
Krawczyk, Andrea; Lau, Elsa; Perez, Samara; Delisle, Vanessa; Amsel, Rhonda; Rosberger, Zeev
Objective: To compare the efficacy of 2 human papillomavirus (HPV) educational interventions on increasing HPV knowledge and vaccination intentions in college students. Participants: Male (n = 60) and female (n = 140) undergraduates (M[subscript age] = 20.4, SD = 2.3) recruited from a university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from October 2009 to…
Permin, A; Esmann, J B; Hoj, C H; Hove, T; Mukaratirwa, S
A cross-sectional study determined the prevalence of ecto-, endo- and haemoparasites in free-range chickens from the Goromonzi District, Zimbabwe. Fifty young and 50 adult birds were selected randomly. All chickens harboured ecto- and endoparasites, and 32% were infected with haemoparasites. Eight different ectoparasites were identified; the more prevalent ones had the following prevalences (young, %; adult, %): Argas persicus (6; 14), Cnemidocoptes mutans (6; 32), Echidnophaga gallinacea (72; 74), Goniocotes gallinae (0; 22), Menacanthus stramenius (90; 88) and Menopon gallinea (24; 66). The prevalences of C. mutans, G. gallinae and M. gallinae were higher in adults compared to young chickens. The mean (+/-S.D.) number of helminth species per chicken was 6.7+/-2.0 for young chickens and 6.4+/-2.0 for adult chickens with a range of 1-10 for young chickens and a range of 1-11 for adult chickens. The most prevalent nematodes identified were (with prevalence in % for young/adult birds): Allodapa suctoria (76; 72), Ascaridia galli (48; 24), Gongylonema ingluvicola (28; 56), Heterakis gallinarum (64; 62) and Tetrameres americana (70; 62). For cestodes the prevalences were: Amoebotaenia cuneata (60; 68), Hymenolepis spp. (62; 80), Raillietina echinobothrida (66; 34), Raillietina tetragona (94; 100) and Skrjabinia cesticillus (50; 76). The young chickens had higher prevalences of A. galli and R. echinobothrida compared to adults, but lower prevalence of G. ingluvicola and S. cesticillus. Eimeria spp. oocysts were isolated in 36% of 47 investigated samples. The prevalence was 47% for young chickens and 18% for adult chickens. Prevalences (in %) of haemoparasites in young and adult chickens were: Aegyptinella pullorum (7; 6), Leucocytozoon sabrazesi (3; 1), Plasmodium gallinaceum (8; 6) and Trypanosoma avium (2; 3).
Lardinois, Amélyne; van den Berg, Thierry; Lambrecht, Bénédicte; Steensels, Mieke
Chicks possess maternally derived antibody (MDA) against pathogens and vaccines previously encountered by the dams. This passive immunity is important in early life, when the immune system is immature and unable to fight off infection. On the other hand, MDA can also affect the development of the immune system and interfere with vaccination against avian diseases such as Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI). The effect of MDA is generally investigated by studying the progeny of vaccinated dams, which is time-consuming, poorly flexible and expensive. Moreover, the antibody titres obtained are not homogeneous. In this study, a model was developed to offer a faster, more reproducible and cheaper way to study passive immunity in specific pathogen free chickens by injection of a polyclonal serum into the egg yolk at embryonic day 14, combined with an intraperitoneal injection at day 1. A satisfactory model, with consistent, homogeneous antibody titres, as well as persistence close to natural passive immunity, could be obtained for ND virus. On the other hand, the application of this optimized protocol in an H5 AI context induced only a low artificial passive immunity compared with that described in the literature for the progeny of AI vaccinated dams. This artificial model should facilitate future studies regarding the effect of passive immunity on vaccine efficacy at a young age and its effect on immune system development.
Chen, Yung-Yi; Hsieh, Ming Kun; Tung, Chun-Yu; Wu, Ching Ching; Lin, Tsang Long
The present study was undertaken to determine the kinetics of viral load and immune response in protection against infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by DNA vaccination. Chickens were DNA-vaccinated and challenged with IBDV one week after the third vaccination. Tissues were collected at 12 hours postinfection (HPI), 1 day postinfection (DPI), 3, 5, 7 and 10 DPI. The vaccinated chickens had less viral RNA, with delayed appearance and shorter duration in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and cecal tonsil than the challenged control chickens. Their ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers were decreased at 12 HPI and significantly lower (P < 0.05) than those in the challenged control chickens at later time points. Their spleen IFNγ expression was up-regulated compared to that in the DNA-vaccinated chickens without IBDV challenge. These results indicate that DNA vaccination confers protection against IBDV challenge by delayed appearance and rapid clearance of the invading viruses.
Vaccine - HPV; Immunization - HPV; Gardasil; HPV2; HPV4; Vaccine to prevent cervical cancer; Genital warts - HPV vaccine; Cervical dysplasia - HPV vaccine; Cervical cancer - HPV vaccine; Cancer of the cervix - HPV vaccine; Abnormal ...
Ahken, Stephanie; Fleming, Nathalie; Dumont, Tania; Black, Amanda
Objectif : Déterminer le niveau de sensibilisation au VPH et l’état des connaissances à ce sujet chez des jeunes femmes exposées à des risques accrus, ainsi que les attitudes de ces dernières envers la vaccination anti-VPH et les programmes de rattrapage. Méthodes : Un questionnaire Web d’autoévaluation anonyme et transversal a été rempli par des femmes (âges : 13-25 ans) fréquentant deux cliniques destinées à des groupes mal desservis. La sensibilisation à l’infection au VPH / à la vaccination anti-VPH, les taux de vaccination et l’acceptabilité des programmes de rattrapage constituaient les critères d’évaluation principaux. Le test de chi carré, le test exact de Fisher et des analyses de régression logistique ont été menés. Résultats : Parmi les 105 répondantes (âge moyen : 19,32), 66,7 % recevaient de l’aide sociale et 54,3% avaient recours aux services de cliniques sans rendez-vous. Le taux global de sensibilisation au VPH était de 81,0 % et le taux de sensibilisation à la vaccination était de 76,2 %. La sensibilisation au VPH était considérablement accrue chez les femmes de moins de 20 ans (P = 0,032) et chez celles qui présentaient des antécédents d’infection transmissible sexuellement (ITS) (P = 0,039); toutefois, elle n’était pas affectée par le niveau de scolarité. La sensibilisation à la vaccination variait considérablement en fonction des antécédents d’ITS (P = 0,031), mais non pas en fonction de l’âge ou du niveau de scolarité. La sensibilisation à l’association entre le VPH et les verrues génitales et le cancer du col utérin était faible (30,0 %, 41,9 %) et ne variait ni en fonction du niveau de scolarité ni en fonction des antécédents d’ITS. Trente pour cent des répondantes avaient été vaccinées (chez celles-ci, 42 % avaient reçu trois doses), principalement dans le cadre de programmes scolaires (71 %). La probabilité d’une vaccination était consid
Many factors have the potential to influence the efficacy of Marek's disease (MD) vaccination. Some of these factors include maternal antibody, vaccine dose, age of birds at vaccination or challenge, challenge virus strain and genetic background of chickens. The objective of this study was to evalua...
Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic (HP) AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination f...
Gong, Yumei; Zhang, Peijun; Wang, Hongjun; Zhu, Wenge; Sun, Huiling; He, Yunxia; Shao, Qinghong; Blackall, P J
The safety and efficacy of an inactivated oil-emulsion infectious coryza vaccine containing three Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates (one each of Page serovars A, B, and C) was evaluated. The safety of six batches of the vaccine was confirmed by testing with chickens vaccinated with a single large dose or vaccinated repeatedly with a normal dose. Efficacy tests were carried out on three batches of vaccine using both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and conventional chickens. In SPF chickens given a single vaccination at 42 days of age, the protection rate against all three serovars of Av. paragallinarum was at least 80% at 30 days post vaccination. The conventional chickens, which were immunized at 42 and 110 days of age, were challenged at 9 months post the second vaccination and the protection rate was at least 80% for all three serovars. The effect of storage on the vaccine was evaluated in SPF chickens using three batches of vaccine stored at 4-8°C for 1 year. The protection rate against challenge from all three serovars (single vaccination at 42 days of age and challenge at 30 days post-vaccination) was at least 80%.
Tregnaghi, Miguel W.; Sáez-Llorens, Xavier; López, Pio; Abate, Hector; Smith, Enrique; Pósleman, Adriana; Calvo, Arlene; Wong, Digna; Cortes-Barbosa, Carlos; Ceballos, Ana; Tregnaghi, Marcelo; Sierra, Alexandra; Rodriguez, Mirna; Troitiño, Marisol; Carabajal, Carlos; Falaschi, Andrea; Leandro, Ana; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Lepetic, Alejandro; Lommel, Patricia; Hausdorff, William P.; Borys, Dorota; Guiñazú, Javier Ruiz; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Yarzábal, Juan P.; Schuerman, Lode
, 67.1% (95% CI: 17.0%, 86.9%) against vaccine serotype clinically confirmed AOM, 100% (95% CI: 74.3%, 100%) against vaccine serotype IPD, and 65.0% (95% CI: 11.1%, 86.2%) against any IPD. Results were consistent between intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. Serious adverse events were reported for 21.5% (95% CI: 20.7%, 22.2%) and 22.6% (95% CI: 21.9%, 23.4%) of PHiD-CV and control recipients, respectively. There were 19 deaths (n = 11,798; 0.16%) in the PHiD-CV group and 26 deaths (n = 11,799; 0.22%) in the control group. A significant study limitation was the lower than expected number of captured AOM cases. Conclusions Efficacy was demonstrated against a broad range of pneumococcal diseases commonly encountered in young children in clinical practice. Trial registration www.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00466947 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:24892763
Jawale, Chetan V; Lee, John Hwa
The study was conducted for the comparative evaluation of the vaccine potential of Salmonella Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis, SE) ghost, SE ghost carrying Escherichia coli heat labile enterotoxin B subunit (LTB) protein, and a commercial vaccine. Group A chickens were used as a non-vaccinated control, group B chickens were immunized with the ghost carrying LTB protein, group C chickens were immunized with the ghost and, group D chickens were immunized with a commercial vaccine. Group D chickens showed the swelling at the injection site, while no adverse reactions were observed at injection sites of the group B and C chickens. Chickens from the immunized groups B, C, and D demonstrated significant increases in plasma IgG, intestinal secretory IgA levels, and antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses. After challenge with a virulent SE strain via intravenous route, groups B, C, and D showed significantly higher egg production and lower internal egg contamination and lower recovery of the challenge strain from internal organs compared to non-immunized-challenged control group A. In conclusion, these data indicate that immunization of chickens with the ghost and ghost carrying LTB is safe, without causing any adverse reaction, and is effective as the commercial vaccine in terms of reduction in internal egg contamination and internal organ colonization of Salmonella.
The epidemiology of Eimeria species in poultry flocks is important to increase the effectiveness of vaccinations and prophylactic strategies on chicken farms. In this study, fecal samples from 356 chicken farms were collected randomly and examined for the prevalence of Eimeria species. Through micro...
A dose-ranging study of MF59®-adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine in young to middle-aged and older adult populations to assess safety, immunogenicity, and antibody persistence one year after vaccination
Reisinger, Keith S; Holmes, Sandra J; Pedotti, Paola; Arora, Ashwani Kumar; Lattanzi, Maria
Background During development of an A/H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, this study was performed to identify the antigen and adjuvant content which would provide optimal antibody response and persistence in adults and the elderly. Dose-sparing strategies, such as inclusion of adjuvants, are critical in ensuring the widest possible population coverage in the event of an influenza pandemic, despite a limited global capacity for vaccine manufacture. Methods Healthy subjects aged 18−64 years (n = 1240) and ≥65 years (n = 1352) were vaccinated with 1 of 8 investigational vaccine formulations varying in antigen quantity (3.75 µg to 30 µg of hemagglutinin) and MF59® adjuvant (none, half dose, or full dose). All subjects received 2 vaccine doses administered 3 weeks apart. Antibody response was assessed by hemagglutination inhibition assay 1 and 3 weeks after administration of first and second doses. Antibody persistence was assessed after 6 and 12 mo. Vaccine safety was monitored over 12 mo. Results All 8 investigational A/H1N1 vaccine formulations were well tolerated, and rapidly induced high antibody titers which met all of the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) and Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) licensure criteria 3 weeks after one dose. The highest antibody titers were observed in participants vaccinated with higher quantities of antigen and adjuvant. Conclusion A single vaccine dose containing 3.75 µg of A/California/7/2009 (H1N1) antigen with MF59 adjuvant was identified as optimal for young to middle-aged (18−64 years) and older (≥65 years) adult populations. PMID:25424947
Fiore, Anthony E; Bridges, Carolyn B; Cox, Nancy J
safety of LAIV among young children suggest an increased risk of wheezing in some young children, and the vaccine is not recommended for children younger than 2 years old, ages 2-4 old with a history of recurrent wheezing or reactive airways disease, or older persons who have any medical condition that confers an increased risk of influenza-related complications.The effectiveness of influenza vaccines is related predominantly to the age and immune competence of the vaccinee and the antigenic relatedness of vaccine strains to circulating strains. Vaccine effectiveness in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness when the vaccine strains are well matched to circulating strains is 70-90% in randomized, placebo-controlled trials conducted among children and young healthy adults, but is lower among elderly or immunocompromised persons. In years with a suboptimal match, vaccine benefit is likely to be lower, although the vaccine can still provide substantial benefit, especially against more severe outcomes. Live, attenuated influenza vaccines have been most extensively studied among children, and have been shown to be more effective than inactivated vaccines in several randomized controlled trials among young children.Influenza vaccination is recommended in the United States for all children six months or older, all adults 50 years or older, all persons with chronic medical conditions, and pregnant women, and contacts of these persons, including healthcare workers. The global disease burden of influenza is substantial, and the World Health Organization has indicated that member states should evaluate the cost-effectiveness of introducing influenza vaccination into national immunization programs. More research is needed to develop more effective seasonal influenza vaccines that provide long-lasting immunity and broad protection against strains that differ antigenically from vaccine viruses.
Vallada, Marcelo Genofre; Okay, Thelma Suely; Del Negro, Gilda Maria B.; Antonio, Claudio Amaral; Yamamoto, Lidia; Ramos, Sonia Regina T. S.
Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of an interferongamma release assay (QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube) for diagnosing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a young pediatric population. Methods: 195 children previously vaccinated with BCG were evaluated, being 184 healthy individuals with no clinical or epidemiological evidence of mycobacterial infection, and 11 with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, according to clinical, radiological, and laboratory parameters. A blood sample was obtained from each child and processed according to the manufacturer's instructions. The assay performance was evaluated by a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: In the group of 184 non-infected children, 130 (70.6%) were under the age of four years (mean age of 35 months). In this group, 177 children (96.2%) had negative test results, six (3.2%) had indeterminate results, and one (0.5%) had a positive result. In the group of 11 infected children, the mean age was 58.5 months, and two of them (18%) had negative results. The ROC curve had an area under the curve of 0.88 (95%CI 0.82-0.92; p<0.001), disclosing a predictive positive value of 81.8% for the test (95%CI 46.3-97.4). The assay sensitivity was 81.8% (95%CI 48.2-97.2) and the specificity was 98.8% (95%CI 96-99.8). Conclusions: In the present study, the QuantiFERON-TB Gold in Tube performance for diagnosing M. tuberculosis infection was appropriate in a young pediatric population. PMID:24676183
Zhu, Shufen; Guo, Wenlong; Sheng, Pengcheng; Wang, Zunmin; Zhao, Changliang; Zhao, Qingyou; Zhu, Ruiliang
Contaminated vaccine is one unexpected and potential origin of virus infection. In order to investigate the most likely cause of disease in a broiler breeder company of Shandong Province, all 17 batches of live-virus vaccines used in the affected flocks and 478 tissue samples were tested by dot-blot hybridization, nested PCR, and IFA. The results suggested the outbreak of disease was most probably due to the vaccination of REV-contaminated MD-CVI988/Rispens vaccines and ND-LaSota+IB-H120 vaccines. Furthermore, the REV was probably transmitted to the commercial chickens through congenital transmission. PMID:22912872
Ndashe, Kunda; Simulundu, Edgar; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Moonga, Ladslav; Ogawa, Hirohito; Takada, Ayato; Mweene, Aaron S
Infectious bursal disease (IBD) is an acute, highly contagious, and immunosuppressive viral disease of young chickens and remains one of the economically most important diseases threatening the poultry industry worldwide. In this study, 16 and 11 nucleotide sequences of the VP2 hypervariable region (VP2-HVR) and part of VP1, respectively, of IBD virus (IBDV) detected in vaccinated broiler chickens in Lusaka in 2012 were determined. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these Zambian IBDVs separated into three genotypes of very virulent (VV) IBDVs. Although the majority of these viruses belonged to the African VV type (VV1), which consisted of viruses from West Africa, South Africa and Zambia, one virus belonged to the East African VV type (VV2). Interestingly, a Zambian IBDV belonging to the VV3 genotype (composed of viruses from several continents) clustered with attenuated vaccine strains. Although sequence analysis of VP2-HVR showed that all detected Zambian IBDVs had conserved putative virulence marker amino acids (i.e., 222A, 242I, 256I, 294I and 299S), one virus had two unique amino acid substitutions, N280S and E300A. This study demonstrates the diversity of Zambian IBDVs and documents for the first time the possible involvement of attenuated vaccine strains in the epidemiology of IBD in Zambia. Strict biosecurity of poultry farms, monitoring of live vaccine use in the field, surveillance and characterization of IBDV in poultry and development of a vaccine from local or regional IBDV field strains are recommended for improved IBD control in Zambia.
Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Campins-Martí, Magda
Pertussis continues to be a public health problem despite the significant decrease in its incidence due to routine vaccination. Resurgence of the disease in countries that have maintained high vaccination coverage has been observed in recent years. Although vaccination is the most effective preventive control measure, both natural and artificial immunity wane over time, and thus the protection offered by current vaccines is not long-lasting. Furthermore, acellular vaccines are less effective. The implementation of new vaccine strategies is required. Vaccination of pregnant women is the most effective strategy for preventing pertussis in young infants, who are the most vulnerable, and should be recommended together with cocooning, ie vaccination of future household and extra-domiciliary contacts who are the main transmitters of the disease.
Neal-McKinney, Jason M.; Samuelson, Derrick R.; Eucker, Tyson P.; Nissen, Mark S.; Crespo, Rocio; Konkel, Michael E.
Campylobacter jejuni is a leading bacterial cause of human gastrointestinal disease worldwide. While C. jejuni is a commensal organism in chickens, case-studies have demonstrated a link between infection with C. jejuni and the consumption of foods that have been cross-contaminated with raw or undercooked poultry. We hypothesized that vaccination of chickens with C. jejuni surface-exposed colonization proteins (SECPs) would reduce the ability of C. jejuni to colonize chickens, thereby reducing the contamination of poultry products at the retail level and potentially providing a safer food product for consumers. To test our hypothesis, we injected chickens with recombinant C. jejuni peptides from CadF, FlaA, FlpA, CmeC, and a CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion protein. Seven days following challenge, chickens were necropsied and cecal contents were serially diluted and plated to determine the number of C. jejuni per gram of material. The sera from the chickens were also analyzed to determine the concentration and specificity of antibodies reactive against the C. jejuni SECPs. Vaccination of chickens with the CadF, FlaA, and FlpA peptides resulted in a reduction in the number of C. jejuni in the ceca compared to the non-vaccinated C. jejuni-challenged group. The greatest reduction in C. jejuni colonization was observed in chickens injected with the FlaA, FlpA, or CadF-FlaA-FlpA fusion proteins. Vaccination of chickens with different SECPs resulted in the production of C. jejuni-specific IgY antibodies. In summary, we show that the vaccination of poultry with individual C. jejuni SECPs or a combination of SECPs provides protection of chickens from C. jejuni colonization. PMID:25474206
Thieulent, N; Grezard, P; Wolf, F; Barrut, D; Perrot, H
A new episode of chicken pox in adults who had a well documented infection previously is usually observed in immunocompromised individuals. The principal immunodeficiency factors are hematology diseases, acquired immunodeficiency disease and old age. We report here the case of a young woman who after a contaminating contact presented a recurrence of typical chicken pox. Morphological investigations evidenced a right kidney tumor which pathology revealed to be a renal adenocarcinoma. We discuss this pathological association and review cases reported in the literature.
Cai, T; Perletti, G; Meacci, F; Magri, V; Verze, P; Palmieri, A; Mazzoli, S; Santi, R; Nesi, G; Mirone, V; Bartoletti, R
In this study, we aimed to investigate the clearance of type-specific genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in heterosexual, non-HPV-vaccinated males whose female partners were positive to HPV DNA tests. All consecutive men attending the same sexually transmitted diseases (STD) centre between January 2005 and December 2006 were considered for this study. All subjects (n = 1009) underwent a urologic visit and microbiological tests on first void, midstream urine and total ejaculate samples. One hundred and five patients were positive for HPV DNA (10.4 %; mean age: 34.8 ± 5.8 years) and consented to clinical examination and molecular diagnostic assays for HPV detection scheduled every 6 months (median surveillance period of 53.2 months). HPV genotypes were classified as high risk, probable high risk and low risk. HPV-positive samples which did not hybridise with any of the type-specific probes were referred to as positive non-genotypeable. At enrollment, the distribution of HPV genotypes was as follows: high-risk HPV (n = 37), probable high-risk HPV (n = 6), low-risk HPV (n = 23) and non-genotypeable HPV (n = 39). A high HPV genotype concordance between stable sexual partners emerged (kappa = 0.92; p < 0.001). At the end of the study, 71/105 (67.6 %) subjects were negative for HPV (mean virus clearance time: 24.3 months). With regard to the HPV genotype, virus clearance was observed in 14/37 (37.8 %) high-risk HPV cases, 6/6 (100 %) probable high-risk HPV cases, 20/23 (86.9 %) low-risk HPV cases and 31/39 (79.5 %) non-genotypeable cases. The high-risk HPV genotypes showed the lowest rate and probability of viral clearance (p < 0.001). In our series, high-risk HPV infections were more likely to persist over time when compared with other HPV genotypes.
Salleras, L; Dominguez, A; Prats, G; Parron, I; Munoz, P
STUDY OBJECTIVES—The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mass vaccination programme carried out in Catalonia (Spain) in the last quarter of 1997 in response to an upsurge of serogroup C meningococcal disease (SCMD). DESIGN—Vaccination coverage in the 18 month to 19 years age group was investigated by means of a specific vaccination register. Vaccination effectiveness was calculated using the prospective cohort method. Cases of SCMD were identified on the basis of compulsory reporting and microbiological notification by hospital laboratories. Vaccination histories were investigated in all cases. Unadjusted and age adjusted vaccination effectiveness referred to the time of vaccination and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of follow up. SETTING—All population aged 18 months to 19 years of Catalonia. MAIN RESULTS—A total of seven cases of SCMD were detected at six months of follow up (one in the vaccinated cohort), 12 cases at 12 months (one in the vaccinated cohort), 19 cases at 18 months (two in the vaccinated cohort) and 24 at 24 months (two in the vaccinated cohort). The age adjusted effectiveness was 84% (95%CI 30, 97) at six months, 92% (95%CI 63, 98) at 12 months, 92% (95% CI 71, 98) at 18 months and 94% (95%CI 78, 98) at 24 months. In the target population, cases have been reduced by more than two thirds (68%) two years after the vaccination programme. In the total population the reduction was 43%. CONCLUSION—Vaccination effectiveness has been high in Catalonia, with a dramatic reduction in disease incidence in the vaccinated cohort accompanied by a relevant reduction in the overall population. Given that vaccination coverage was only 54.6%, it may be supposed that this vaccination effectiveness is attributable, in part, to the herd immunity conferred by the vaccine. Keywords: serogroup C; meningococcal disease; vaccination; mass
Lazarus, Rajeka; Kelly, Sarah; Snape, Matthew D.; Vandermeulen, Corinne; Voysey, Merryn; Hoppenbrouwers, Karel; Hens, Annick; Van Damme, Pierre; Pepin, Stephanie; Leroux-Roels, Isabel; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Pollard, Andrew J.
Avian influenza continues to circulate and remains a global health threat not least because of the associated high mortality. In this study antibody persistence, booster vaccine response and cross-clade immune response between two influenza A(H5N1) vaccines were compared. Participants aged over 18-years who had previously been immunized with a clade 1, A/Vietnam vaccine were re-immunized at 6-months with 7.5 μg of the homologous strain or at 22-months with a clade 2, alum-adjuvanted, A/Indonesia vaccine. Blood sampled at 6, 15 and 22-months after the primary course was used to assess antibody persistence. Antibody concentrations 6-months after primary immunisation with either A/Vietnam vaccine 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine or 7.5 μg dose vaccine were lower than 21-days after the primary course and waned further with time. Re-immunization with the clade 2, 30 μg alum-adjuvanted vaccine confirmed cross-clade reactogenicity. Antibody cross-reactivity between A(H5N1) clades suggests that in principle a prime-boost vaccination strategy may provide both early protection at the start of a pandemic and improved antibody responses to specific vaccination once available. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00415129 PMID:27814377
In 1994 the Spanish Association of Pediatrics founded the Advisory Committee on Vaccines with the aim of providing advice on matters related to childhood immunizations and of implementing vaccination schedules. The latest recommendations concern the immunization schedule for 2001-2002, in which indications for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine instead of the attenuated poliovirus vaccine are of prime importance. The advisability of including the vaccine against chicken pox in healthy children is stressed.
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine Print A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...
... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness HPV Vaccine KidsHealth > For Teens > HPV Vaccine A A A ... starting at age 9. continue How Does the Vaccine Work? The HPV vaccine is approved for people ...
Lukashev, Alexander N; Yarmolskaya, Maria S; Shumilina, Elena Yu; Sychev, Daniil A; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I
In 2010, a type 1 poliovirus outbreak in Congo with 445 lethal cases was caused by a virus that was neutralized by sera of German adults vaccinated with inactivated polio vaccine with a reduced efficiency. This seroprevalence study was done in two cohorts immunized with other vaccination schedules. Russian children aged 3-6 years immunized with a combination of inactivated and live polio vaccines were reasonably well protected against any wild type poliovirus 1, including the Congolese isolate. Adults aged 20-29 years immunized only with live vaccine were apparently protected against the vaccine strain (92% seropositive), but only 50% had detectable antibodies against the Congo-2010 isolate. Both waning immunity and serological divergence of the Congolese virus could contribute to this result.
A serotype 1 Marek’s disease Meq null virus (rMd5'Meq) has been shown to be an excellent vaccine in maternal antibody positive (MAb+) chickens. The only drawback of this non-oncogenic virus is that, like parental rMd5, it retains the ability to induce bursa and thymus atrophy (BTA) in MAb- chickens....
Background One third of the world’s population is thought to have latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) with the potential for subsequent reactivation of disease. To better characterize this important population, studies comparing Tuberculin Skin Test (TST) and the new interferon-γ release assays including QuantiFERON®-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) have been conducted in different parts of the world, but most of these have been in countries with a low incidence of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the use of QFT-GIT assay as compared with TST in the diagnosis of LTBI in Ethiopia, a country with a high burden of TB and routine BCG vaccination at birth. Methods Healthy medical and paramedical male students at the Faculty of Medicine, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia were enrolled into the study from December 2008 to February 2009. The TST and QFTG-IT assay were performed using standard methods. Results The mean age of the study participants was 20.9 years. From a total of 107 study participants, 46.7% (95%CI: 37.0% to 56.6%) had a positive TST result (TST≥10 mm), 43.9% (95%CI: 34.3% to 53.9%) had a positive QFT-GIT assay result and 44.9% (95%CI: 35.2% to 54.8%) had BCG scar. There was strong agreement between TST (TST ≥10mm) and QFT-GIT assay (Kappa = 0.83, p value = 0.000). Conclusion The TST and QFT-GIT assay show similar efficacy for the diagnosis of LTBI in healthy young adults residing in Ethiopia, a country with high TB incidence. PMID:22870897
Thiomersal, also called thimerosal, is an ethyl mercury derivative used as a preservative to prevent bacterial contamination of multidose vaccine vials after they have been opened. Exposure to low doses of thiomersal has essentially been associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Nevertheless there is no evidence that allergy to thiomersal could be induced by thiomersal-containing vaccines. Allergy to thiomersal is usually of delayed-hypersensitivity type, but its detection through cutaneous tests is not very reliable. Hypersensitivity to thiomersal is not considered as a contraindication to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines. In 1999 in the USA, thiomersal was present in approximately 30 different childhood vaccines, whereas there were only 2 in France. Although there were no evidence of neurological toxicity in infants related to the use of thiomersal-containing vaccines, the FDA considered that the cumulative dose of mercury received by young infants following vaccination was high enough (although lower than the FDA threshold for methyl mercury) to request vaccine manufacturers to remove thiomersal from vaccine formulations. Since 2002, all childhood vaccines used in Europe and the USA are thiomersal-free or contain only minute amounts of thiomersal. Recently published studies have shown that the mercury levels in the blood, faeces and urine of children who had received thiomersal-containing vaccines were much lower than those accepted by the American Environmental Protection Agency. It has also been demonstrated that the elimination of mercury in children was much faster than what was expected on the basis of studies conducted with methyl mercury originating from food. Recently, the hypothesis that mercury contained in vaccines could be the cause of autism and other neurological developmental disorders created a new debate in the medical community and the general public. To date, none of the epidemiological studies conducted in Europe and elsewhere
Protection from clinical disease against three highly virulent strains of Newcastle disease virus after in ovo application of an antibody-antigen complex vaccine in maternal antibody-positive chickens
Worldwide, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) remains one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. Current vaccination strategies for commercial poultry include the use of inactivated and live NDV vaccines that typically induce protection against less virulent field viruses. The value of...
Sharma, J M; Zhang, Y; Jensen, D; Rautenschlein, Silke; Yeh, H Y
A multivalent in ovo vaccine (MIV) was tested for safety and efficacy in a commercial broiler complex. The MIV comprised five replicating live viruses including serotypes 1, 2, and 3 of Marek's disease virus (MDV), an intermediate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and a recombinant fowl poxvirus (FPV) vector vaccine containing HN and F genes of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). The performance of MIV-vaccinated broilers was compared with that of hatchmates that received turkey herpesvirus (HVT) alone (routinely used in ovo vaccine in the broiler complex). The chickens that hatched from the MIV-injected and HVT-injected eggs were raised under commercial conditions in six barns. Barn 1 housed 17,853 MIV-vaccinated chickens and each of the barns 2-6 housed 18,472-22,798 HVT-vaccinated chickens. The HVT-vaccinated chickens were given infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and NDV vaccines at hatch and at 2 wk of age. The MIV-vaccinated chickens received IBV vaccine at hatch and IBV + NDV at 2 wk of age. The relative values of hatchability of eggs, livability and weight gain of chickens, and condemnation rates at processing were comparable between the MIV and the HVT groups (P > 0.05). Chickens from the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups were challenged with virulent viruses under laboratory conditions. The resistance of vaccinated chickens against Marek's disease could not be assessed because of high natural resistance of unvaccinated commercial broilers to virulent MDV. The relative resistances of the MIV- and the HVT-vaccinated groups, respectively, against other virulent viruses were as follows: IBDV, 100% for both groups; NDV, 81% vs. 19%; FPV, 86% vs. 0%. The successful use of MIV under field conditions expands the usefulness of the in ovo technology for poultry.
Shehata, Awad A; Halami, Mohammad Y; Sultan, Hesham H; Abd El-Razik, Alaa G; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W
Infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) continues to cause respiratory disease in Egypt in spite of vaccination. The currently available modified live ILTV vaccines provide good protection but may also induce latent infections and even clinical disease if they spread extensively from bird-to-bird in the field. Four field ILTV isolates, designated ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Giza2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 were isolated from cross-bred broiler chickens. The pathogenicity based on intratracheal pathogenicity index, tracheal lesion score, and mortality index for chicken embryos revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009 and ILT-Behera2010 isolates were highly pathogenic whereas ILT-Giza2007 was non-pathogenic. To study the molecular epidemiology of these field isolates, the infected cell protein 4 gene was amplified and sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ILT-Behera2007, ILT-Behera2009, and ILT-Behera2010 are chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine-related isolates while ILT-Giza2007 is a tissue culture origin vaccine-related isolate. These results suggest that CEO laryngotracheitis vaccine viruses could increase in virulence after bird-to-bird passages causing severe outbreaks in susceptible birds.
In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). Infection with HPAIV usually results in the rapid death of poultry. The aim of this study was to identify host immune genes which a...
Recent advances in immunogenomic and proteomic tools are facilitating the characterization of complex host-pathogen immunobiology. In this study, we applied functional genomics tools to investigate the early immunological response of chickens to highly pathogenic (HP) avian influenza virus (AIV). ...
Elnekave, Ehud; Dekker, Aldo; Eble, Phaedra; van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje; Gelman, Boris; Storm, Nick; Klement, Eyal
In Israel, occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in dairy farms is rare. However, when FMD outbreaks occur, dairy calves are the most affected, despite routine vaccination. Contradictory findings exist regarding the effect of age and maternally derived antibodies (MDA) on the serological response following vaccinations against FMD in dairy calves. Furthermore, the long term effect of FMD vaccination regimen during early life was rarely assessed. This study was conducted in order to assess both the short and long term effects. In total 44 non-vaccinated calves were divided into four groups of different age. Calves were vaccinated up to four times and 484 serum samples were collected on 11 time points in a period of 70weeks. Virus neutralizing tests were performed in order to determine the neutralizing antibody titers (NAT) against the vaccine strains (homologous serotypes): O-4625, O-Manisa, ASIA-1-Shamir and the heterologous serotype A-Turkey-20/2006. A similar NAT pattern was observed to all serotypes and therefore statistical analysis was restricted to O-4625 serotype. The MDA titer was negatively associated with the age of the calves and the MDA half-life was 22days. We demonstrated that early vaccination of calves (younger than three months) resulted in low NAT, even after four repeated vaccinations, compared with vaccination of calves older than three months. The percentage of time in which these calves had a NAT above 2.0 (log10) between the age of six months and 1.5years was significantly lower compared to older calves (older than three months). Additionally, we found that by increasing the frequency of vaccination in calves older than three months, it is possible to reach high NAT by the age of one year. Adoption of such a vaccination regimen in Israel as well as other FMD endemic countries may allow better protection against FMD in dairy calves and reduction in FMD incidence.
Dubé, Eve; Laberge, Caroline; Guay, Maryse; Bramadat, Paul; Roy, Réal; Bettinger, Julie A.
Despite being recognized as one of the most successful public health measures, vaccination is perceived as unsafe and unnecessary by a growing number of individuals. Lack of confidence in vaccines is now considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. Vaccine hesitancy is believed to be responsible for decreasing vaccine coverage and an increasing risk of vaccine-preventable disease outbreaks and epidemics. This review provides an overview of the phenomenon of vaccine hesitancy. First, we will characterize vaccine hesitancy and suggest the possible causes of the apparent increase in vaccine hesitancy in the developed world. Then we will look at determinants of individual decision-making about vaccination. PMID:23584253
CHICKEN COOP AND BROAD LEAF MAPLE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. Three chicken coops on the farm were used by both chickens and turkeys. The yards around the buildings were once fenced in to give the poultry brooding space. - Kineth Farm, Chicken Coop, 19162 STATE ROUTE 20, Coupeville, Island County, WA
Efficacy of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomized, double-blind PATRICIA trial.
Apter, Dan; Wheeler, Cosette M; Paavonen, Jorma; Castellsagué, Xavier; Garland, Suzanne M; Skinner, S Rachel; Naud, Paulo; Salmerón, Jorge; Chow, Song-Nan; Kitchener, Henry C; Teixeira, Julio C; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Limson, Genara; Szarewski, Anne; Romanowski, Barbara; Aoki, Fred Y; Schwarz, Tino F; Poppe, Willy A J; Bosch, F Xavier; Mindel, Adrian; de Sutter, Philippe; Hardt, Karin; Zahaf, Toufik; Descamps, Dominique; Struyf, Frank; Lehtinen, Matti; Dubin, Gary
We report final event-driven analysis data on the immunogenicity and efficacy of the human papillomavirus 16 and 18 ((HPV-16/18) AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in young women aged 15 to 25 years from the PApilloma TRIal against Cancer In young Adults (PATRICIA). The total vaccinated cohort (TVC) included all randomized participants who received at least one vaccine dose (vaccine, n = 9,319; control, n = 9,325) at months 0, 1, and/or 6. The TVC-naive (vaccine, n = 5,822; control, n = 5,819) had no evidence of high-risk HPV infection at baseline, approximating adolescent girls targeted by most HPV vaccination programs. Mean follow-up was approximately 39 months after the first vaccine dose in each cohort. At baseline, 26% of women in the TVC had evidence of past and/or current HPV-16/18 infection. HPV-16 and HPV-18 antibody titers postvaccination tended to be higher among 15- to 17-year-olds than among 18- to 25-year-olds. In the TVC, vaccine efficacy (VE) against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1 or greater (CIN1+), CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 55.5% (96.1% confidence interval [CI], 43.2, 65.3), 52.8% (37.5, 64.7), and 33.6% (-1.1, 56.9). VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ irrespective of HPV DNA was 21.7% (10.7, 31.4), 30.4% (16.4, 42.1), and 33.4% (9.1, 51.5) and was consistently significant only in 15- to 17-year-old women (27.4% [10.8, 40.9], 41.8% [22.3, 56.7], and 55.8% [19.2, 76.9]). In the TVC-naive, VE against CIN1+, CIN2+, and CIN3+ associated with HPV-16/18 was 96.5% (89.0, 99.4), 98.4% (90.4, 100), and 100% (64.7, 100), and irrespective of HPV DNA it was 50.1% (35.9, 61.4), 70.2% (54.7, 80.9), and 87.0% (54.9, 97.7). VE against 12-month persistent infection with HPV-16/18 was 89.9% (84.0, 94.0), and that against HPV-31/33/45/51 was 49.0% (34.7, 60.3). In conclusion, vaccinating adolescents before sexual debut has a substantial impact on the overall incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities, and catch-up vaccination up to 18 years
Gamoh, Koichiro; Nakamura, Shigeyuki
The basic countermeasures used to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) are early detection procedures and the culling of affected chickens. However, if successive HPAI outbreaks occur, the vaccination may be an option for controlling HPAI. Therefore, avian influenza (AI) vaccines are stocked by the Japanese government. By contrast, equine influenza (EI) vaccine is an effective tool for preventing or controlling EI. Because antigenic drifts affect the efficacy of AI and EI vaccines, the vaccine strains should be updated rapidly. However, the development and registration of veterinary vaccines usually takes several years. In response to this issue, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry, and Fisheries (MAFF) established a system that allows AI and EI vaccine strains to be updated rapidly. National Veterinary Assay Laboratory, MAFF, established a vaccine strains selection committee for veterinary influenza vaccine. The main agendas involve determining whether the current vaccine strains need to be updated and selecting the most appropriate vaccine strains. The committee concluded that A/duck/Hokkaido/Vac-3/2007(H5N1) was added to the strains of stockpiled AI vaccines and that the EI vaccine strains did not need to be changed, but that the clade 2 viruses of the Florida sub-lineage strain, A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010(H3N8) was added to the EI vaccine strain.
Zhang, Ping; Ding, Ronglong; Jiang, Shanxiang; Ji, Liwei; Pan, Mingming; Liu, Li; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiuge; Huang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Guanjun; Peng, Lin; Ji, Hui
The adjuvant activity of GLP was investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro experiment, the effects of GLP on chicken peripheral lymphocytes proliferation were compared by MTT assay. The results showed that GLP could significantly enhance lymphocytes proliferation singly or synergistically with ConA. The interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA levels of chicken peripheral lymphocytes stimulated by GLP synergistically with ConA were measured using fluorescent quantitative PCR. The results showed that GLP could promote interferon-γ mRNA levels in peripheral lymphocytes. In vivo experiment, 175 14-day-old chickens were randomly divided into 7 groups. The chickens except blank control (BC) group were vaccinated with Newcastle disease vaccine, repeated vaccination at 28 days old. At the same time of the first vaccination, the chickens in experimental groups were orally administrated with 5 different doses of GLP respectively, whereas vaccination control (VC) and BC groups were treated with physiological saline, once a day for three successive days. On Day 7, 14, 21 and 28 after the first vaccination, the peripheral lymphocytes proliferation and serum ND antibody titer were determined. The results showed that GLP could significantly promote lymphocyte proliferation and enhance serum antibody titer. The results indicated that GLP may be a novel immunomodulator.
Wang, Wei; Shi, Xinchuan; Wu, Yongwang; Li, Xiaoxin; Ji, Ye; Meng, Qingsen; Zhang, Shucheng; Wu, Hua
Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) 1a and 1b strains are the predominant subgenotypes in China. Because of the genetic and antigenic variability among different BVDV strains, a vaccine effective in one region may fail to protect against infections caused by different virus strains in another region. No BVDV vaccine developed with the predominant strains in China are available. In this study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated Chinese BVDV 1a NM01 vaccine strain was evaluated by challenging with a Chinese BVDV 1b JL strain. Ten 2-4-month-old calves were intramuscularly vaccinated with a single dose of the vaccine strain and boosted with same dose three weeks after the first vaccination, with five mock immunized calves serving as a control group. The average titer of neutralization antibody to BVDV 1a and BVDV 1b of immunized calves reached 1:410 and 1:96, respectively, at 21 days post the second vaccination. Twenty-one days post the second vaccination, all calves were challenged with strain JL. The clinical signs, such as the temperature and leukopenia of the immunized calves and viral shedding, were significantly less than the mock immunized calves after challenging with the virulent BVDV 1b strain, indicating that the BVDV 1a vaccine strain elicited efficacious protection against the endemic BVDV 1b strain in China. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of an inactivated BVDV vaccine which demonstrated effective cross-protection against BVDV type 1b infection in China.
Wu, H; Singh, Narendra K; Locy, Robert D; Scissum-Gunn, K; Giambrone, Joseph J
Transgenic plants represent a safe, effective, and inexpensive way to produce vaccines. The immunogenicity of VP2 protein of an infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus variant E isolate expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana was compared with a commercial vaccine in specific-pathogen-free broiler chickens. The VP2 coding sequence was isolated and integrated into A. thaliana genome by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Soluble VP2 expressed in transgenic plants was used to immunize chickens. Chickens receiving oral immunization with plant-derived VP2 at 1 and 3 wk of age had an antibody response using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 80% protection against challenge infection at 4 wk. Chickens primed with a commercial vaccine at 1 wk followed by an oral booster with VP2 expressed in plants at 3 wk of age showed 90% protection. Chickens immunized with a commercial vaccine at 1 and 3 wk showed 78% protection. Results supported the efficacy of plant-produced VP2 as a vaccine against IBD.
Fu, Chuanxi; Xu, Jianxiong; Lin, Jinyan; Wang, Ming; Li, Kuibiao; Ge, Jing; Thompson, Mark G
In 2012-2013, we examined 1729 laboratory-confirmed A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza cases matched 1:1 with healthy controls and estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE) for trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) to be 67% (95% confidence interval=58-74%) for ages 8 months to 6 years old. Among children aged 8-35 months old, VE for fully vaccinated children (73%, 60-81%) was significantly higher than VE for partially vaccinated children (55%, 33-70%). Significant cross-season protection from prior IIV3 was noted, including VE of 31% (8-48%) from IIV3 received in 2010-2011 against influenza illness in 2012--2013 without subsequent boosting doses.
Pichichero, Michael E
The immunogenicity of polysaccharides as human vaccines was enhanced by coupling to protein carriers. Conjugation transformed the T cell-independent polysaccharide vaccines of the past to T cell-dependent antigenic vaccines that were much more immunogenic and launched a renaissance in vaccinology. This review discusses the conjugate vaccines for prevention of infections caused by Hemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitidis. Specifically, the characteristics of the proteins used in the construction of the vaccines including CRM, tetanus toxoid, diphtheria toxoid, Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane complex, and Hemophilus influenzae protein D are discussed. The studies that established differences among and key features of conjugate vaccines including immunologic memory induction, reduction of nasopharyngeal colonization and herd immunity, and antibody avidity and avidity maturation are presented. Studies of dose, schedule, response to boosters, of single protein carriers with single and multiple polysaccharides, of multiple protein carriers with multiple polysaccharides and conjugate vaccines administered concurrently with other vaccines are discussed along with undesirable consequences of conjugate vaccines. The clear benefits of conjugate vaccines in improving the protective responses of the immature immune systems of young infants and the senescent immune systems of the elderly have been made clear and opened the way to development of additional vaccines using this technology for future vaccine products. PMID:23955057
[Determination of beta-adrenergic binding sites in the myocardium of young female chickens of various strains--a study for the clarification of frequent occurrence of sudden death and ascites in male broilers].
Neubert, E; Huppke, S; Gründel, G
The present investigations should contribute to clarify the importance of beta-adrenergic system in myocard for the triggering of sudden death syndrome and ascites in male broiler chickens. Therefore it should be verified if differences in density of beta-adrenergic receptors in myocard exist in several strains and sexes of chickens. We showed in both male and female broilers that the receptor density was significantly higher as in chickens of the laying strain. There were no significant differences in receptor density between sexes in both investigated strains as well as in KD-values between all groups. The latter finding is referred to the absence of differences in receptor affinity for 3H-dihydroalprenolol between the groups. Clarification of the question if chronic heart failure is in contrast to myocard hypertrophy accompanied with reduction of beta-adrenergic receptor density or receptor affinity in broilers too, as could be shown in other species, has to carried out in further investigations.
High pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infections in chickens decrease egg production and eggs that are laid contain HPAIV. Vaccination once or twice was examined as a way to protect chickens from Vietnamese H5N1 HPAIV. Eighty-three percent of hens without vaccination died within 3 days ...
Wang, Guomin; Zhu, Ruihao; Yang, Licong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Qian; Su, Xia; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing
Vaccines are of great importance in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in poultry farming. The safety and efficacy of vaccines are also essential. To explore the feasibility of a novel technology (non-thermal plasma) in inactivated vaccine preparation, an alternating current atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) jet with Ar/O2/N2 as the operating gas was used to inactivate a Newcastle disease virus (NDV, LaSota) strain and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV, A/Chicken/Hebei/WD/98) for vaccine preparation. The results showed that complete inactivation could be achieved with 2 min of NTP treatment for both NDV and AIV. Moreover, a proper NTP treatment time is needed for inactivation of a virus without destruction of the antigenic determinants. Compared to traditional formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine, the vaccine made from NDV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine) could induce a higher NDV-specific antibody titer in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the results of a chicken challenge experiment showed that NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine could protect SPF chickens from a lethal NDV challenge. Vaccines made from AIV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-AIV-vaccine) also showed a similar AIV-specific antibody titer compared with traditional AIV vaccines prepared using formaldehyde inactivation. Studies of the morphological changes of the virus, chemical analysis of NDV allantoic fluid and optical emission spectrum analysis of NTP suggested that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by NTP played an important role in the virus inactivation process. All of these results demonstrated that it could be feasible to use non-thermal NTP as an alternative strategy to prepare inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza.
The number of Japanese oversea travelers has gradually increased year by year, however they usually pay less attention to the poor physical condition at the voyage place. Many oversea travelers caught vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. The Vaccine Guideline for Oversea Travelers 2010 published by Japanese Society of Travel Health will be helpful for spreading the knowledge of travelers' vaccine and vaccine preventable diseases in developing countries. Many travelers' vaccines have not licensed in Japan. I hope these travelers' vaccines, such as typhoid vaccine, meningococcal vaccine, cholera vaccine and so on will be licensed in the near future.
Background A malaria vaccine could be an important addition to current control strategies. We report the safety and vaccine efficacy (VE) of the RTS,S/AS01 vaccine during 18 mo following vaccination at 11 African sites with varying malaria transmission. Methods and Findings 6,537 infants aged 6–12 wk and 8,923 children aged 5–17 mo were randomized to receive three doses of RTS,S/AS01 or comparator vaccine. VE against clinical malaria in children during the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3 (per protocol) was 46% (95% CI 42% to 50%) (range 40% to 77%; VE, p<0.01 across all sites). VE during the 20 mo after vaccine dose 1 (intention to treat [ITT]) was 45% (95% CI 41% to 49%). VE against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, and all-cause hospitalization was 34% (95% CI 15% to 48%), 41% (95% CI 30% to 50%), and 19% (95% CI 11% to 27%), respectively (ITT). VE against clinical malaria in infants was 27% (95% CI 20% to 32%, per protocol; 27% [95% CI 21% to 33%], ITT), with no significant protection against severe malaria, malaria hospitalization, or all-cause hospitalization. Post-vaccination anti-circumsporozoite antibody geometric mean titer varied from 348 to 787 EU/ml across sites in children and from 117 to 335 EU/ml in infants (per protocol). VE waned over time in both age categories (Schoenfeld residuals p<0.001). The number of clinical and severe malaria cases averted per 1,000 children vaccinated ranged across sites from 37 to 2,365 and from −1 to 49, respectively; corresponding ranges among infants were −10 to 1,402 and −13 to 37, respectively (ITT). Meningitis was reported as a serious adverse event in 16/5,949 and 1/2,974 children and in 9/4,358 and 3/2,179 infants in the RTS,S/AS01 and control groups, respectively. Conclusions RTS,S/AS01 prevented many cases of clinical and severe malaria over the 18 mo after vaccine dose 3, with the highest impact in areas with the greatest malaria incidence. VE was higher in children than in infants, but even at
Ahmed, M; Munshi, S U; Nessa, A; Ullah, M S; Tabassum, S; Islam, M N
Serum samples from 465 subjects aged between 1 and 25 years were tested for antibody against hepatitis A virus (HAV) [anti-HAV IgG and IgM] to determine the seroprevalence of HAV antibody and do a cost-benefit analysis for decision making about vaccination against HAV among the general population of Bangladesh. A high prevalence of anti-HAV (74.8%) was observed in the study population; the whole study population was found positive for anti-HAV by the age of 25 years. On performing the cost-benefit analysis, it was found that the cost for vaccination with screening for anti-HAV was almost three times cheaper than vaccination without screening. Thus, in the present socioeconomic condition of Bangladesh, a policy based on screening for HAV antibody before vaccination is recommended.
Coccidiosis control programs such as vaccines or in-feed anticoccidials are commonly practiced in poultry industry to improve growth performance and health of commercial broiler chickens. In this study, we assessed the effects of various coccidiosis control programs (e.g., in ovo vaccination, synth...
Wang, Zhijun; Jin, Li; Węgrzyn, Alicja
Leptospirosis is a serious infection disease caused by pathogenic strains of the Leptospira spirochetes, which affects not only humans but also animals. It has long been expected to find an effective vaccine to prevent leptospirosis through immunization of high risk humans or animals. Although some leptospirosis vaccines have been obtained, the vaccination is relatively unsuccessful in clinical application despite decades of research and millions of dollars spent. In this review, the recent advancements of recombinant outer membrane protein (OMP) vaccines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) vaccines, inactivated vaccines, attenuated vaccines and DNA vaccines against leptospirosis are reviewed. A comparison of these vaccines may lead to development of new potential methods to combat leptospirosis and facilitate the leptospirosis vaccine research. Moreover, a vaccine ontology database was built for the scientists working on the leptospirosis vaccines as a starting tool. PMID:18072968
Huang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Menghui; Song, Xiaokai; Yan, Ruofeng; Xu, Lixin; Li, Xiangrui
In the present study, the immune protective effects of recombinant microneme protein 7 of Eimeria maxima (rEmMIC7) and a DNA vaccine encoding this antigen (pVAX1-EmMIC7) on experimental challenge were evaluated. Two-week-old chickens were randomly divided into five groups. Experimental groups of chickens were immunized with 100 μg DNA vaccine pVAX1-MIC7 or 200 μg rEmMIC7, while control groups of chickens were injected with pVAX1 plasmid or sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results showed that the anti-EmMIC7 antibody titres in chickens of both rEmMIC7 and pVAX1-MIC7 groups were significantly higher as compared to PBS and pVAX1 control (P < .05). The splenocytes from both vaccinated groups of chickens displayed significantly greater proliferation response compared with the controls (P < .05). Serum from chickens immunized with pVAX1-MIC7 and rEmMIC7 displayed significantly high levels of interleukin-2, interferon-γ, IL-10, IL-17, tumour growth factor-β and IL-4 (P < .05) compared to those of negative controls. The challenge experiment results showed that both the recombinant antigen and the DNA vaccine could obviously alleviate jejunum lesions, body weight loss and enhance oocyst decrease ratio. The anti-coccidial index (ACI) of the pVAX1-MIC7 group was 167.84, higher than that of the recombinant MIC7 protein group, 167.10. Our data suggested that immunization with EmMIC7 was effective in imparting partial protection against E. maxima challenge in chickens and it could be an effective antigen candidate for the development of new vaccines against E. maxima.
Lee, Moon J; Cho, Jieun
We investigated the effects of message framing and online media channel on young adults' perceived severity of human papillomavirus (HPV), perceived barriers and benefits of getting HPV vaccination, and behavioral intention to get vaccinated. An experiment was conducted with 142 college students. We found an interaction effect: The loss-framed message posted on Facebook was more effective in increasing the number of people who expressed their willingness to get HPV vaccination than the gain-framed message presented on Facebook. However, this framing effect was not found when the identical message was presented on an online newspaper. People's perceptions of severity of HPV and barriers of getting HPV vaccination were also influenced, depending on which media channel the information was circulated.
Jacobson, Robert M; St Sauver, Jennifer L; Finney Rutten, Lila J
Vaccine refusal received a lot of press with the 2015 Disneyland measles outbreak, but vaccine refusal is only a fraction of a much larger problem of vaccine delay and hesitancy. Opposition to vaccination dates back to the 1800 s, Edward Jenner, and the first vaccine ever. It has never gone away despite the public's growing scientific sophistication. A variety of factors contribute to modern vaccine hesitancy, including the layperson's heuristic thinking when it comes to balancing risks and benefits as well as a number of other features of vaccination, including falling victim to its own success. Vaccine hesitancy is pervasive, affecting a quarter to a third of US parents. Clinicians report that they routinely receive requests to delay vaccines and that they routinely acquiesce. Vaccine rates vary by state and locale and by specific vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy results in personal risk and in the failure to achieve or sustain herd immunity to protect others who have contraindications to the vaccine or fail to generate immunity to the vaccine. Clinicians should adopt a variety of practices to combat vaccine hesitancy, including a variety of population health management approaches that go beyond the usual call to educate patients, clinicians, and the public. Strategies include using every visit to vaccinate, the creation of standing orders or nursing protocols to provide vaccination without clinical encounters, and adopting the practice of stating clear recommendations. Up-to-date, trusted resources exist to support clinicians' efforts in adopting these approaches to reduce vaccine hesitancy and its impact.
Reeves, Charles A.
Uses the chicken problem for sixth grade students to scratch the surface of systems of equations using intuitive approaches. Provides students responses to the problem and suggests similar problems for extensions. (ASK)
Jones, Carolyn; Brown, Paul
In this article, the authors describe St Peter's Primary School's and Honiton Primary School's experiences of keeping chickens. The authors also describe the benefits they bring and the reactions of the children. (Contains 5 figures.)
Johnson, Deirdre I; Vagnozzi, Ariel; Dorea, Fernanda; Riblet, Sylva M; Mundt, Alice; Zavala, Guillermo; García, Maricarmen
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and by vaccination with live-attenuated vaccines. The chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines, although proven to be effective in experimental settings, have limited efficacy in controlling the disease in dense broiler production sites due to unrestricted use and poor mass vaccination coverage. These factors allowed CEO vaccines to regain virulence, causing long lasting and, consequently, severe outbreaks of the disease. A new generation of viral vector fowl poxvirus (FPV) and herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) vaccines carrying ILTV genes has been developed and such vaccines are commercially available. These vaccines are characterized by their lack of transmission, lack of ILTV-associated latent infections, and no reversion to virulence. HVT-vectored ILTV recombinant vaccines were originally approved for subcutaneous HVT or transcutaneous (pox) delivery. The increased incidence of ILTV outbreaks in broiler production sites encouraged the broiler industry to deliver the FPV-LT and HVT-LT recombinant vaccines in ovo. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protection induced by ILTV viral vector recombinant vaccines after in ovo application in 18-day-old commercial broiler embryos. The protection induced by recombinant ILTV vaccines was assessed by their ability to prevent clinical signs and mortality; to reduce challenge virus replication in the trachea; to prevent an increase in body temperature; and to prevent a decrease in body weight gain after challenge. In this study, both recombinant-vectored ILTV vaccines provided partial protection, thereby mitigating the disease, but did not reduce challenge virus loads in the trachea.
Ellis, T M; Sims, L D; Wong, H K H; Wong, C W; Dyrting, K C; Chow, K W; Leung, C; Peiris, J S M
Outbreaks of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) that occurred in Hong Kong up until February/March 2002 were controlled by stamping out. With endemic presence of the virus in the region and large daily importation of poultry to Hong Kong, the Administration considered that further risk management measures, in addition to improved biosecurity and enhanced surveillance, were necessary to prevent outbreaks. Vaccination using a killed H5N2 vaccine was evaluated over a 12-month period in the district with the last HPAI cases in the early 2002 outbreak. The vaccination trial showed that farmer-administered killed H5N2 vaccine produced suitable flock antibody responses; vaccinated birds were protected against H5N1 HPAI virus challenge and excreted significantly less H5N1 virus; and vaccination was able to control virus excretion in flocks during field outbreaks. Universal vaccination of local chicken farms was introduced in June 2003 and by the end of 2003 all chickens entering the live poultry markets in Hong Kong were vaccinated by killed H5N2 vaccine. In addition to vaccination, an enhanced biosecurity programme on farms and in live poultry markets and a comprehensive surveillance programme in poultry, wild birds, recreation park birds and pet birds were in place. Vaccination use and performance is closely monitored. This programme was successful in protecting local farms and live poultry markets from H5N1 outbreaks during the regional H5N1 outbreaks in 2004.
Gilkey, Melissa B.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Magnus, Brooke E.; Reiter, Paul L.; Dempsey, Amanda F.; Brewer, Noel T.
Objective To support efforts to address parental hesitancy towards early childhood vaccination, we sought to validate the Vaccination Confidence Scale using data from a large, population-based sample of U.S. parents. Methods We used weighted data from 9,354 parents who completed the 2011 National Immunization Survey. Parents reported on the immunization history of a 19- to 35-month-old child in their households. Healthcare providers then verified children’s vaccination status for vaccines including measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR), varicella, and seasonal flu. We used separate multivariable logistic regression models to assess associations between parents’ mean scores on the 8-item Vaccination Confidence Scale and vaccine refusal, vaccine delay, and vaccination status. Results A substantial minority of parents reported a history of vaccine refusal (15%) or delay (27%). Vaccination confidence was negatively associated with refusal of any vaccine (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54–0.63) as well as refusal of MMR, varicella, and flu vaccines specifically. Negative associations between vaccination confidence and measures of vaccine delay were more moderate, including delay of any vaccine (OR = 0.81, 95% CI, 0.76–0.86). Vaccination confidence was positively associated with having received vaccines, including MMR (OR = 1.53, 95% CI, 1.40–1.68), varicella (OR = 1.54, 95% CI, 1.42–1.66), and flu vaccines (OR = 1.32, 95% CI, 1.23–1.42). Conclusions Vaccination confidence was consistently associated with early childhood vaccination behavior across multiple vaccine types. Our findings support expanding the application of the Vaccination Confidence Scale to measure vaccination beliefs among parents of young children. PMID:27391098
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a very serious and widespread respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Conventional attenuated ILT vaccines, obtained by continuous passages in chicken embryos and tissue culture, had been the main tools utilized by th...
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses, especially H5N1 strains, represent a public health threat and cause widespread morbidity and mortality in domestic poultry. Recombinant virus-like particles (VLPs) represent a promising novel vaccine approach to control avian influenza including HPAI...
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Martínez Michel, Lorelei; Anders, Sven; Wismer, Wendy V
A growing demand for convenient and ready-to-eat products has increased poultry processors' interest in developing consumer-oriented value-added chicken products. In this study, a conjoint analysis survey of 276 chicken consumers in Edmonton was conducted during the summer of 2009 to assess the importance of the chicken part, production method, processing method, storage method, the presence of added flavor, and cooking method on consumer preferences for different value-added chicken product attributes. Estimates of consumer willingness to pay (WTP) premium prices for different combinations of value-added chicken attributes were also determined. Participants'"ideal" chicken product was a refrigerated product made with free-range chicken breast, produced with no additives or preservatives and no added flavor, which could be oven heated or pan heated. Half of all participants on average were willing to pay 30% more for a value-added chicken product over the price of a conventional product. Overall, young consumers, individuals who shop at Farmers' Markets and those who prefer free-range or organic products were more likely to pay a premium for value-added chicken products. As expected, consumers' WTP was affected negatively by product price. Combined knowledge of consumer product attribute preferences and consumer WTP for value-added chicken products can help the poultry industry design innovative value-added chicken products. Practical Application: An optimum combination of product attributes desired by consumers for the development of a new value-added chicken product, as well as the WTP for this product, have been identified in this study. This information is relevant to the poultry industry to enhance consumer satisfaction of future value-added chicken products and provide the tools for future profit growth.
... Stuffed Chicken Marinating Partial Cooking Color of Skin Dark Bones Pink Meat Storage Times Color of Giblets ... mature male chicken with coarse skin and tough, dark meat. Requires long, moist cooking. [ Top of Page ] ...
Meloen, R H; Hamilton, W D; Casal, J I; Dalsgaard, K; Langeveld, J P
The ultimate vaccine is an oral vaccine which given once protects against a multitude of diseases. Furthermore this ultimate vaccine needs to be very stable and inexpensive to produce. Probably this latter condition can be met only if the vaccines are produced in plants. Such vaccines are called 'edible vaccines'. Edible vaccines can be produced in plants in many ways. Using recombinant plantvirus, CPMV, it was shown that plants can produce massive amounts of chimaeric virus particles which protect after a single injection the target animal against disease. The final step, oral administration, is being addressed at present. Preliminary experiments by others suggest that this step may be solved sooner than expected.
Paiva, Andrea L.; Lipschitz, Jessica M.; Fernandez, Anne C.; Redding, Colleen A.; Prochaska, James O.
Objective: To examine acceptability and feasibility of a Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based computer-tailored intervention (CTI) for increasing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in college-aged women. Participants: Two hundred forty-three women aged 18-26 were recruited between February and May of 2011. Methods: Participants completed the…
Artnzen, C J
Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume.
Guo, H; Zhou, E M; Sun, Z F; Meng, X J
Avian hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) is an emerging virus associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens in North America. Avian HEV is genetically and antigenically related to human HEV, the causative agent of hepatitis E in humans. In the lack of a practical animal model, avian HEV infection in chickens has been used as a model to study human HEV replication and pathogenesis. A 32 kDa recombinant ORF2 capsid protein of avian HEV expressed in Escherichia coli was found having similar antigenic structure as that of human HEV containing major neutralizing epitopes. To determine if the capsid protein of avian HEV can be used as a vaccine, 20 chickens were immunized with purified avian HEV recombinant protein with aluminum as adjuvant and another 20 chickens were mock immunized with KLH precipitated in aluminum as controls. Both groups of chickens were subsequently challenged with avian HEV. All the tested mock-immunized control chickens developed typical avian HEV infection characterized by viremia, fecal virus shedding and seroconversion to avian HEV antibodies. Gross hepatic lesions were also found in portion of these chickens. In contrast, none of the tested chickens immunized with avian HEV capsid protein had detectable viremia, fecal virus shedding or observable gross hepatitis lesions. The results from this study suggested that immunization of chickens with avian HEV recombinant ORF2 capsid protein with aluminum as adjuvant can induce protective immunity against avian HEV infection. Chickens are a useful small animal model to study anti-HEV immunity and pathogenesis.
Wang, J; Li, C C; Diao, Y X; Sun, X Y; Hao, D M; Liu, X; Ge, P P
As the major aquatic and terrestrial hosts for avian influenza viruses (AIVs), ducks and chickens play a critical role in the evolution and spread of the H9N2 virus. However, the outcomes of infection of ducks and chickens with the H9N2 virus are not sufficiently documented. In this study, we compared the outcomes of infection of chickens and Peking ducks with a duck-origin H9N2 virus. The results showed that this virus caused more pronounced clinical signs and histological lesions in chickens. As for the virus shedding, chickens shed more virus in the trachea and less virus in the cloaca in levels of interferon (IFN) γ were found in the trachea of ducks compared with chickens, while comparison with ducks. As for cytokines, namely IFNs and interleukins (IL), higher higher levels of IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and IL-6 were observed in the ileum of chickens compared with ducks. Eventually, serum hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody titers were higher in chickens than in ducks. Taken together, ducks and chickens use different strategies in response to the H9N2 virus infection in tissues representing main replication sites of low-pathogenic AIVs. Given the different outcomes of the H9N2 virus infection in ducks and chickens, different measures should be taken in vaccination and treatment.
Dong, Xuan; Ju, Sidi; Zhao, Peng; Li, Yang; Meng, Fanfeng; Sun, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong
To further understand the effect of co-infection of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) white leghorn chickens, the experiment was made to study the pathogenicity, the weight of body and immune organs, response to newcastle disease virus (NDV) and avian influenza virus subtype H9 (AIV-H9) vaccination. Chickens were randomly divided into four groups, which includes injection groups (REV, ALV-J, REV plus ALV-J), and negative control group. The pathogenesis experiments indicated that chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly higher mortality rate than those of the chickens infected with REV or ALV-J alone (P<0.05). Chickens inoculated with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower weights than chickens in all other groups (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between the two single infection groups and co-infection group (P>0.05) on bursa and thymus over body wt ratios, however, chickens co-infected with REV and ALV-J had significantly lower titers than REV-infected chickens and ALV-J-infected chickens on HI antibody titers to ND and AIV-H9 after vaccination (P<0.05). These findings suggested that the co-infection of REV and ALV-J caused more serious growth retardation and immunosuppression in SPF chickens.
Meunier, Marine; Chemaly, Marianne; Dory, Daniel
DNA vaccination is a promising alternative strategy for developing new human and animal vaccines. The massive efforts made these past 25 years to increase the immunizing potential of this kind of vaccine are still ongoing. A relatively small number of studies concerning poultry have been published. Even though there is a need for new poultry vaccines, five parameters must nevertheless be taken into account for their development: the vaccine has to be very effective, safe, inexpensive, suitable for mass vaccination and able to induce immune responses in the presence of maternal antibodies (when appropriate). DNA vaccination should meet these requirements. This review describes studies in this field performed exclusively on birds (chickens, ducks and turkeys). No evaluations of avian DNA vaccine efficacy performed on mice as preliminary tests have been taken into consideration. The review first describes the state of the art for DNA vaccination in poultry: pathogens targeted, plasmids used and different routes of vaccine administration. Second, it presents strategies designed to improve DNA vaccine efficacy: influence of the route of administration, plasmid dose and age of birds on their first inoculation; increasing plasmid uptake by host cells; addition of immunomodulators; optimization of plasmid backbones and codon usage; association of vaccine antigens and finally, heterologous prime-boost regimens. The final part will indicate additional properties of DNA vaccines in poultry: fate of the plasmids upon inoculation, immunological considerations and the use of DNA vaccines for purposes other than preventing infectious diseases.
Wernery, U; Wernery, R; Kinne, J
Ten common kestrels (Falco tinnunculus) were used for this falcon herpes vaccine experiment. Four kestrels were subcutaneously given 1 ml of an attenuated falcon herpesvirus that had originally been isolated from the liver of an American prairie falcon (Falco mexicanus). This virus was then passaged 100 times on chicken embryo fibroblast cells (CEF-cells). Another 4 kestrels were given subcutaneously an inactivated falcon herpesvirus vaccine derived from the same American field strain. This vaccine was concentrated, inactivated by heat and betapropiolactone and emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvans. Two further kestrels served as controls and were not vaccinated. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 10 kestrels were challenged with passage 3 of the American falcon herpesvirus. The 2 control kestrels died 6 days after challenge and 3 of those given the inactivated herpes vaccine died 9 days after challenge, with typical lesions of herpesvirus inclusion body hepatitis. Before the vaccination experiment, all 10 kestrels were free of serum neutralising antibodies to the falcon herpesvirus. Twenty-one days after vaccination, all 4 kestrels vaccinated with the attenuated vaccine, and one vaccinated with the killed vaccine, had seroconverted, having shown no symptoms to the challenge with a low passage virulent American herpesvirus strain. Following the challenge their antibody titres to falcon herpesvirus increased. No herpesvirus was isolated from any of the cloacal swabs taken during this experiment, indicating that there is no danger for any other birds from the attenuated herpesvirus vaccine. This experiment clearly shows that an attenuated falcon herpesvirus vaccine can protect kestrels from fatal inclusion body hepatitis.
... young women and were subsequently broadened to include boys and young men. This factsheet discusses HPV and ... Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommends that all girls and boys get vaccinated at age 11 or 12, and ...
Jacobson, Robert M
Rates of reported adverse events are remarkably low. VAERS identifies an adverse event rate approximating 11.4 reports per 100,000 vaccine doses. Approximately 15% of these reports represent SAEs, but less than 2% involve death; in most cases, reviews have shown no causal relation between the events and the vaccine. Across the spectrum of vaccines in use (including those directed against influenza and hepatitis B virus), many claims of adverse events regarding vaccines represent typical reactions to vaccinations. These reactions can be thought of as foreign-body reactions and predominate among the inactivated vaccines. In controlled studies, the adverse event rates that occur with vaccination resemble those that occur with placebo injections. Typical reactions associated with live viral and bacterial vaccines, such as MMR and varicella vaccines, may resemble attenuated forms of the disease for which the vaccine is directed. Other claims against vaccines represent chance-coincidence or misunderstood data; further studies of claims have vindicated the overall safety of the vaccines in most cases. Two documented safety concerns with vaccines, however, have demonstrated that vaccines (like other biologics and pharmacologic) can result in harm (eg, rotavirus and OPV vaccines). The denouement with these vaccines indicates the broad postmarketing data collection and evaluation that extends efforts made with prelicensure study to balance the benefits from vaccination with the risk for harm. Overall, measures including prelicensure study and postlicensure surveillance, such as VAERS, the Vaccine Safety Datalink Project, and the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment Centers, have resulted in an exceptional safety profile for the vaccines in use.
Smith, D.J.; Ackley, D.H.; Forrest, S.; Perelson, A.S.
Although influenza vaccine efficacy is 70--90% in young healthy first-time vaccinees, the efficacy in repeat vaccinees has varied considerably. In some studies, vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was higher than in first-time vaccinees, whereas in other studies vaccine efficacy in repeat vaccinees was significantly lower than in first-time vaccinees and sometimes no higher than in unvaccinated controls. It is known that the closeness of the antigenic match between the vaccine strain and the epidemic virus is important for vaccine effectiveness. In this study the authors show that the antigenic differences between a first vaccine strain and a second vaccine strain, and between the first vaccine strain and the epidemic strain, might account for the observed variation in attack rate among two-time vaccinees.
Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L
West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.
Straub, Christian; Neulen, Marie-Luise; Sperling, Beatrice; Windau, Katharina; Zechmann, Maria; Jansen, Christine A; Viertlboeck, Birgit C; Göbel, Thomas W
Natural killer cells are innate immune cells that destroy virally infected or transformed cells. They recognize these altered cells by a plethora of diverse receptors and thereby differ from other lymphocytes that use clonally distributed antigen receptors. To date, several receptor families that play a role in either activating or inhibiting NK cells have been identified in mammals. In the chicken, NK cells have been functionally and morphologically defined, however, a conclusive analysis of receptors involved in NK cell mediated functions has not been available. This is partly due to the low frequencies of NK cells in blood or spleen that has hampered their intensive characterization. Here we will review recent progress regarding the diverse NK cell receptor families, with special emphasis on novel families identified in the chicken genome with potential as chicken NK cell receptors.
Wei, Yandi; Qi, Lu; Gao, Huijie; Sun, Honglei; Pu, Juan; Sun, Yipeng; Liu, Jinhua
To prevent H9N2 avian influenza virus infection in chickens, a long-term vaccination program using inactivated vaccines has been implemented in China. However, the protective efficacy of inactivated vaccines against antigenic drift variants is limited, and H9N2 influenza virus continues to circulate in vaccinated chicken flocks in China. Therefore, developing a cross-reactive vaccine to control the impact of H9N2 influenza in the poultry industry remains a high priority. In the present study, we developed a live cold-adapted H9N2 influenza vaccine candidate (SD/01/10-ca) by serial passages in embryonated eggs at successively lower temperatures. A total of 13 amino acid mutations occurred during the cold-adaptation of this H9N2 virus. The candidate was safe in chickens and induced robust hemagglutination-inhibition antibody responses and influenza virus–specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell immune responses in chickens immunized intranasally. Importantly, the candidate could confer protection of chickens from homologous and heterogenous H9N2 viruses. These results demonstrated that the cold-adapted attenuated H9N2 virus would be selected as a vaccine to control the infection of prevalent H9N2 influenza viruses in chickens. PMID:27457755
Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker
Vaccines are complex products that are manufactured in highly dynamic processes. Cellular substrates are one critical component that can have an enormous impact on reactogenicity of the final preparation, level of attenuation of a live virus, yield of infectious units or antigens, and cost per vaccine dose. Such parameters contribute to feasibility and affordability of vaccine programs both in industrialized countries and developing regions. This review summarizes the diversity of cellular substrates for propagation of viral vaccines from primary tissue explants and embryonated chicken eggs to designed continuous cell lines of human and avian origin. PMID:24732259
Yen, Catherine; Tate, Jacqueline E; Hyde, Terri B; Cortese, Margaret M; Lopman, Benjamin A; Jiang, Baoming; Glass, Roger I; Parashar, Umesh D
Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea among children <5 years worldwide. Currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been efficacious and effective, with many countries reporting substantial declines in diarrheal and rotavirus-specific morbidity and mortality. However, the full public health impact of these vaccines has not been realized. Most countries, including those with the highest disease burden, have not yet introduced rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization programs. Research activities that may help inform vaccine introduction decisions include (1) establishing effectiveness, impact, and safety for rotavirus vaccines in low-income settings; (2) identifying potential strategies to improve performance of oral rotavirus vaccines in developing countries, such as zinc supplementation; and (3) pursuing alternate approaches to oral vaccines, such as parenteral immunization. Policy- and program-level barriers, such as financial implications of new vaccine introductions, should be addressed to ensure that countries are able to make informed decisions regarding rotavirus vaccine introduction. PMID:24755452
Thisyakorn, Usa; Thisyakorn, Chule
The uniqueness of the dengue viruses (DENVs) and the spectrum of disease resulting from infection have made dengue vaccine development difficult. Several vaccine candidates are currently being evaluated in clinical studies. The candidate currently at the most advanced clinical development stage, a live-attenuated tetravalent vaccine based on the chimeric yellow fever-dengue virus (CYD-TDV), has progressed to Phase 3 efficacy studies. Several other live-attenuated vaccines, as well as subunit, DNA, and purified inactivated vaccine candidates are at earlier stages of clinical development. Additional technological approaches, such as virus-vectored and Virus-Like Particles (VLP)-based vaccines are under evaluation in preclinical studies.
Background Studies have shown that DNA vaccines can induce protective immunity, which demonstrated the high potential of DNA vaccines as an alternative to inactivated vaccines. Vaccines are frequently formulated with adjuvants to improve their release, delivery and presentation to the host immune system. Methods The H5 gene of H5N1 virus (A/Ck/Malaysia/5858/04) was cloned separately into pcDNA3.1 + vector. The immunogenicity of the cloned H5 DNA vaccine was tested on SPF chickens using two different approaches. First approach was using H5 DNA vaccine (pcDNA3.1/H5) and the second was using H5 DNA vaccine in addition to the pcDNA3.1/MDP1 vaccine. Ten days old chickens inoculated three times with two weeks intervals. The spleen and muscle samples from chickens immunized with H5 (pcDNA3.1/H5) and H5 + MDP1 (pcDNA3.1/H5 + pcDNA3.1/MDP1) vaccines were collected after sacrificing the chickens and successfully expressed H5 and MDP1 RNA transcripts. The sera of immunized chickens were collected prior to first immunization and every week after immunization; and analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Results Results of competitive ELISA showed successful antibody responses two weeks post immunization. The HI test showed an increased in antibody titers during the course of experiment in group immunized with H5 and H5 + MDP1 vaccines. The result showed that the constructed DNA vaccines were able to produce detectable antibody titer in which the group immunized with H5 + MDP1 vaccine produced higher antibody comparing to H5 vaccine alone. Conclusions This study shows for the first time the usefulness of MDP1 as a genetic adjuvant for H5 DNA vaccine. PMID:20497569
Federman, Ross S.
Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating. PMID:25506276
Federman, Ross S
Though once a discovery greatly celebrated by the nation, the vaccine has come under fire in recent decades from skeptics, critics, and a movement set into motion by fraudulent scientists and fueled by frustrated parents looking for answers to the autism conundrum. There is enough denialist resistance to vaccination to bring upon renewed fear of young children and infants becoming infected with diseases, the threats of which had been functionally eradicated from the United States. In more recent years, the surge in independent online journalism and blogging has invited many to rapidly share their opinions with millions of readers and, importantly, has appeared to open the door for opinion to be portrayed as fact. As a result, many parents are inundated with horror stories of vaccine dangers, all designed to eat away at them emotionally while the medical and scientific communities have mounted their characteristic response by sharing the facts, the data, and all of the reliable peer-reviewed and well-cited research to show that vaccines are safe and effective. It has become clear to me that facts are no match for emotion, but perhaps an understanding behind vaccine methodology will help parents overcome these fears of vaccinating. By helping those who doubt vaccines better understand what vaccines really are and how they work in such an incredibly engineered fashion, we may have a stronger weapon than we realize in battling the emotional arsenal that comes from the fear and skepticism of vaccinating.
Barbaud, Annick; Deschildre, Antoine; Waton, Julie; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Tréchot, Philippe
Allergic reactions to vaccines can be classified as sensitivity to one of the vaccine components, pseudo-allergic reactions, often after hyperimmunization, and exacerbation of atopic symptoms or vasculitis. Pseudo-allergic reactions, some possibly due to hyperimmunization, are probably more common than true allergies. Atopic reactions should not be confused with the "flash" phenomenon, defined as an exacerbation of an allergic reaction due to a reduction in the allergic reactivity threshold following the vaccine injection. BCGitis occurs frequently, and for this reason, guidelines for Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) have been modified. The vaccine is now reserved for people at risk of exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. This review provides an update on the vaccination modalities for people allergic to eggs, on the assessment that should be performed when a reaction occurs due to tetanus vaccination, on the urticaria after hepatitis vaccination, on an aluminum granuloma, which is more and more frequent in young children, and vasculitis after flu vaccination and BCGitis. The side effects associated with new, recently released vaccines, such as anti-influenza A H1N1 or anti-human papilloma virus (HPV) will also be presented.
... diphtheria, mumps, measles, pertussis (whooping cough), meningitis, and polio. Many of these infections can cause serious or ... MMR - vaccine Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Pneumococcal polysaccharide ... (vaccine) Rotavirus vaccine Tdap vaccine Tetanus - vaccine
Martins, Reinaldo M.; Maia, Maria de Lourdes S.; Farias, Roberto Henrique G.; Camacho, Luiz Antonio B.; Freire, Marcos S.; Galler, Ricardo; Yamamura, Anna Maya Yoshida; Almeida, Luiz Fernando C.; Lima, Sheila Maria B.; Nogueira, Rita Maria R.; Sá, Gloria Regina S.; Hokama, Darcy A.; de Carvalho, Ricardo; Freire, Ricardo Aguiar V.; Filho, Edson Pereira; Leal, Maria da Luz Fernandes; Homma, Akira
Objective: To verify if the Bio-Manguinhos 17DD yellow fever vaccine (17DD-YFV) used in lower doses is as immunogenic and safe as the current formulation. Results: Doses from 27,476 IU to 587 IU induced similar seroconversion rates and neutralizing antibodies geometric mean titers (GMTs). Immunity of those who seroconverted to YF was maintained for 10 mo. Reactogenicity was low for all groups. Methods: Young and healthy adult males (n = 900) were recruited and randomized into 6 groups, to receive de-escalating doses of 17DD-YFV, from 27,476 IU to 31 IU. Blood samples were collected before vaccination (for neutralization tests to yellow fever, serology for dengue and clinical chemistry), 3 to 7 d after vaccination (for viremia and clinical chemistry) and 30 d after vaccination (for new yellow fever serology and clinical chemistry). Adverse events diaries were filled out by volunteers during 10 d after vaccination. Volunteers were retested for yellow fever and dengue antibodies 10 mo later. Seropositivity for dengue was found in 87.6% of volunteers before vaccination, but this had no significant influence on conclusions. Conclusion: In young healthy adults Bio-Manguinhos/Fiocruz yellow fever vaccine can be used in much lower doses than usual. International Register ISRCTN 38082350. PMID:23364472
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Marek’s disease (MD) is a neoplastic disease in chickens caused by the MD virus (MDV). Successful vaccine development against MD has resulted in increased virulence of MDV and the understanding of genetic resistance to the disease is, therefore, crucial to long-term control strategies. Also, epigene...
The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...
Broiler breeder pullets from a single grandparent flock were in ovo-vaccinated with Marek's vaccines herpesvirus of turkey (HVT) + chicken herpesvirus (SB1) or a vector HVT + Infectious bursal disease (IBD) vaccine+SB1. The chicks were placed in an experimental broiler breeder facility at the Univer...
Betáková, T; Svetlíková, D; Gocník, M
Measles and mumps are common viral childhood diseases that can cause serious complications. Vaccination remains the most efficient way to control the spread of these viruses. The manufacturing capability for viral vaccines produced in embryonated hen eggs and conventional/classical cell substrates, such as chicken embryo fibroblast or primary dog kidney cell substrates, is no longer sufficient. This limitation can be overcome by utilizing other recognized cell substrates such as Madin Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK), Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO), Vero (monkey origin) cells, MRC-5 (human diploid) or as an alternative, introducing new cell substrates of human or avian origin. A very important factor in vaccine production is the safety and immunogenicity of the final vaccine, where the proper choice of cell substrate used for virus propagation is made. All substrates used in vaccine production must be fully characterized to avoid the contamination of hidden unknown pathogens which is difficult to achieve in primary cell substrates.
Breeders of the 2009 generation of Avian Disease and Oncology Laboratory transgenic chicken line ALVA6, known to be resistant to infection with subgroups A and E avian leukosis virus (ALV), were vaccinated at hatch with a trivalent Marek's disease (MD) vaccine containing serotypes 1, 2, and 3 Marek'...
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of chickens caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). The disease is mainly controlled through biosecurity and vaccination with live-attenuated strains of the virus and vectored vaccines based on turkey he...
Preblud, Stephen R.
Widespread rubella vaccination of young children with a secondary emphasis on vaccinating susceptible adolescents and young adults has prevented epidemics of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome. Benefits of ensuring high immunity levels in college students, quick response to disease outbreak, and safety and efficacy of rubella vaccine in this…
Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam
Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…
Farkas, Szilvia L.; Marton, Szilvia; Dandár, Eszter; Kugler, Renáta; Gál, Bence; Jakab, Ferenc; Bálint, Ádám; Kecskeméti, Sándor; Bányai, Krisztián
The near complete genome sequences of ten field avian orthoreovirus (ARV) strains collected from young chicken between 2002 and 2011 in Hungary have been determined in order to explore the genetic diversity and evolutionary mechanisms affecting ARVs in this region. Sequence analyses and phylogenetic calculations revealed similar geographic distribution and distinct evolution in case of eight studied strains that were closely related to the recently described Hungarian strain T1781. The remaining two strains showed the highest similarity with the US origin AVS-B. The topology of the phylogenetic trees of certain segments was affected by several potential homologous reassortment events between strains of Hungarian, Chinese and US origin. Analyzing the μB gene a possible heterologous reassortment event was identified in three Hungarian strains. Recombination events were detected in as much as a dozen cases implying that beside point mutations and reassorment this mechanism also plays an important role in the diversification of ARVs. All these mechanisms in concert may explain the reduced effectiveness of immunization using commercial vaccine strains. PMID:27830770
Artnzen, C J
Vaccines were the result of trial and error research until molecular biology and genetic engineering made possible the creation of of many new and improved vaccines. New vaccines need to be inexpensive, easily administered, and capable of being stored and transported without refrigeration; without these characteristics, developing countries find it difficult to adopt vaccination as the central strategy for preventing their most devastating diseases. The authors describe a promising approach to inexpensive and effective vaccines: producing them in plants we commonly consume. Images p190-a p191-a p193-a p196-a PMID:9182305
Siegel, P B; Dodgson, J B; Andersson, L
The chicken has a proud history, both in genetic research and as a source of food. Here we attempt to provide an overview of past contributions of the chicken in both arenas and to link those contributions to the near future from a genetic perspective. Companion articles will discuss current poultry genetics research in greater detail. The chicken was the first animal species in which Mendelian inheritance was demonstrated. A century later, the chicken was the first among farm animals to have its genome sequenced. Between these firsts, the chicken remained a key organism used in genetic research. Breeding programs, based on sound genetic principles, facilitated the global emergence of the chicken meat and egg industries. Concomitantly, the chicken served as a model whose experimental populations and mutant stocks were used in basic and applied studies with broad application to other species, including humans. In this paper, we review some of these contributions, trace the path from the origin of molecular genetics to the sequence of the chicken genome, and discuss the merits of the chicken as a model organism for furthering our understanding of biology.
Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay’s, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène
Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death. PMID:24765491
Joye, Sebastien; Gao, Anja; Kayemba-Kay's, Simon; Cotting, Jacques; Perez, Marie-Hélène
Despite good cover with 7-valent vaccination, invasive pneumococcal infections may still be misdiagnosed and may lead to lifethreatening situations or death in young children. New serotypes are emerging and, therefore, clinicians must keep a high level of suspicion in young children regardless of their vaccination status. We report three cases of invasive pneumococcal infection due to new serotypes not covered by the 7-valent conjugated vaccine, two of which led children to death.
Background Marek's disease virus (MDV) causes an acute lymphoproliferative disease in chickens, resulting in immunosuppression, which is considered to be an integral aspect of the pathogenesis of Marek's disease (MD). A recent study showed that deletion of the Meq gene resulted in loss of transformation of T-cells in chickens and a Meq-null virus, rMd5ΔMeq, could provide protection superior to CVI988/Rispens. Results In the present study, to investigate whether the Meq-null virus could be a safe vaccine candidate, we constructed a Meq deletion strain, GX0101ΔMeq, by deleting both copies of the Meq gene from a pathogenic MDV, GX0101 strain, which was isolated in China. Pathogenesis experiments showed that the GX0101ΔMeq virus was fully attenuated in specific pathogen-free chickens because none of the infected chickens developed Marek's disease-associated lymphomas. The study also evaluated the effects of GX0101ΔMeq on the immune system in chickens after infection with GX0101ΔMeq virus. Immune system variables, including relative lymphoid organ weight, blood lymphocytes and antibody production following vaccination against AIV and NDV were used to assess the immune status of chickens. Experimental infection with GX0101ΔMeq showed that deletion of the Meq gene significantly decreased immunosuppression in chickens caused by pathogenic MDV. Conclusion These findings suggested that the Meq gene played an important role not only in tumor formation but also in inducing immunosuppressive effects in MDV-infected chickens. PMID:21205328
Immunization by genes encoding immunogens, rather than with the immunogen itself, has opened up new possibilities for vaccine research and development and offers chances for new applications and indications for future vaccines. The underlying mechanisms of antigen processing, immune presentation and regulation of immune responses raise high expectations for new and more effective prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines, particularly for vaccines against chronic or persistent infectious diseases and tumors. Our current knowledge and experience of DNA vaccination is summarized and critically reviewed with particular attention to basic immunological mechanisms, the construction of plasmids, screening for protective immunogens to be encoded by these plasmids, modes of application, pharmacokinetics, safety and immunotoxicological aspects. DNA vaccines have the potential to accelerate the research phase of new vaccines and to improve the chances of success, since finding new immunogens with the desired properties is at least technically less demanding than for conventional vaccines. However, on the way to innovative vaccine products, several hurdles have to be overcome. The efficacy of DNA vaccines in humans appears to be much less than indicated by early studies in mice. Open questions remain concerning the persistence and distribution of inoculated plasmid DNA in vivo, its potential to express antigens inappropriately, or the potentially deleterious ability to insert genes into the host cell's genome. Furthermore, the possibility of inducing immunotolerance or autoimmune diseases also needs to be investigated more thoroughly, in order to arrive at a well-founded consensus, which justifies the widespread application of DNA vaccines in a healthy population.
Vaccination has been successful in controlling numerous diseases in man and animals. Smallpox has been eradicated and poliomyelitis is on the verge of being eradicated. The traditional immunization arsenal includes vaccines using live, attenuated, and inactivated organisms. DNA recombinant technology has added two new types of vaccines, i.e. subunit vaccines based on purified antigens produced by genetic engineering in bacterial, yeast, or animal-cell cultures and live recombinant vaccines based on attenuated bacterial or viral vectors. Currently the best known examples of these new vaccines are those using poxvirus vectors (vaccinia virus, canarypox virus, or fowlpox virus) but new vectors are under development. Another application for genetic engineering in the field of vaccinology is the development of DNA vaccines using naked plasmid DNA. This technique has achieved remarkable results in small rodents but its efficacy, safety, and feasibility in man has yet to be demonstrated. Numerous studies are now under way to improve the process. In the field of synthetic vaccines, lipopeptides have shown promise for induction of cell immune response. Development of vaccines for administration by the oral or nasal route may one day revolutionize vaccination techniques. However, effective vaccines against hepatitis C and HIV have stalled in the face of the complexity and pathophysiology of these diseases. These are the greatest challenges confronting scientists at the dawn of the new millennium.
Zhu, Fujie; Liu, Xiao; Sun, Zhenhong; Yu, Cuilian; Liu, Liping; Yang, Shifa; Li, Bing; Wei, Kai; Zhu, Ruiliang
Bordetella avium is the causative agent of bordetellosis, which remains to be the cause of severe losses in the turkey industry. Given the lack of vaccines that can provide good protection, developing a novel vaccine against B. avium infection is crucial. In this study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression plasmid, which expressed the outer membrane protein A (ompA) of B. avium, to prepare a B. avium recombinant ompA-DNA vaccine. Three concentrations (low, middle, and high) of Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen polysaccharides (TPPPS), a known immunomodulator, were used as adjuvants, and their immune conditioning effects on the developed DNA vaccine were examined. The pure ompA-DNA vaccine, Freund’s incomplete adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine, and the empty plasmid served as the controls. The chickens in each group were separately inoculated with these vaccines three times at 1, 7, and 14 days old. Dynamic changes in antibody production, cytokine secretion, and lymphocyte count were then determined from 7 to 49 days after the first inoculation. Protective rates of the vaccines were also determined after the third inoculation. Results showed that the pure DNA vaccine obviously induced the production of antibodies, the secretion of cytokines, and the increase in CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood, as well as provided a protective rate of 50% to the B. avium-challenged chickens. The chickens inoculated with the TPPPS adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine and Freund’s adjuvant ompA-DNA vaccine demonstrated higher levels of immune responses than those inoculated with pure ompA-DNA vaccine, whereas only the ompA-DNA vaccine with 200 mg/mL TPPPS completely protected the chickens against B. avium infection. These findings indicate that the B. avium ompA-DNA vaccine combined with TPPPS is a potentially effective B. avium vaccine. PMID:26870023
Vaccination has many benefits for disease prevention and overall health status of animals. Not all animals respond equally to vaccinations. A number of factors can be shown to influence a young animal’s response to vaccination. Calves with more maternal antibodies at the time of vaccination have poo...
Campylobacter contaminated broiler chicken meat is an important source of foodborne gastroenteritis and poses a serious health burden in industrialized countries. Broiler chickens are commonly regarded as a natural host for this zoonotic pathogen and infected birds carry a very high C. jejuni load in their gastrointestinal tract, especially the ceca. This eventually results in contaminated carcasses during processing. Current intervention methods fail to reduce the colonization of broiler chicks by C. jejuni due to an incomplete understanding on the interaction between C. jejuni and its avian host. Clearly, C. jejuni developed several survival and colonization mechanisms which are responsible for its highly adapted nature to the chicken host. But how these mechanisms interact with one another, leading to persistent, high-level cecal colonization remains largely obscure. A plethora of mutagenesis studies in the past few years resulted in the identification of several of the genes and proteins of C. jejuni involved in different aspects of the cellular response of this bacterium in the chicken gut. In this review, a thorough, up-to-date overview will be given of the survival mechanisms and colonization factors of C. jejuni identified to date. These factors may contribute to our understanding on how C. jejuni survival and colonization in chicks is mediated, as well as provide potential targets for effective subunit vaccine development. PMID:21714866
Shim, Jong-Bo; So, Hyun-Hee; Won, Ho-Keun; Mo, In-Pil
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is one of the most important infectious agents in the poultry industry, and vaccines against it have been widely used for prevention and control. Live vaccines, which can replicate in the respiratory and digestive systems, have been especially needed in areas with outbreaks of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle disease. Towards the goal of searching for a new live vaccine candidate, avian paramyxovirus type 1 (APMV-1) was isolated from the faeces of wild birds. Three APMV-1 strains thus isolated were characterized in terms of phylogeny, pathogenicity, immunogenicity and tissue tropism, and on the basis of these analyses were classified as lentogenic genotype I NDV. CBU2179, one of the three APMV-1 strains, was selected and was evaluated in terms of its efficacy and safety in specific pathogen-free chickens and commercial broilers. The manufactured trial vaccine from this strain, also called CBU2179, induced similar immune responses to those of VG/GA and B1 commercial vaccines, and provided 100% protection against challenge from viscerotropic velogenic NDV, KJW/49 strain (the official challenge strain in Korea). Also, the CBU2179 virus was re-isolated and persisted as long as or longer than other vaccine strains in both the respiratory and alimentary tracts. Therefore, the CBU2179 strain may represent a good candidate for a live Newcastle disease vaccine to protect chickens against viscerotropic velogenic NDV.
Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy
Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747
Ogholikhan, Sina; Schwarz, Kathleen B.
Viral hepatitis is a serious health problem all over the world. However, the reduction of the morbidity and mortality due to vaccinations against hepatitis A and hepatitis B has been a major component in the overall reduction in vaccine preventable diseases. We will discuss the epidemiology, vaccine development, and post-vaccination effects of the hepatitis A and B virus. In addition, we discuss attempts to provide hepatitis D vaccine for the 350 million individuals infected with hepatitis B globally. Given the lack of a hepatitis C vaccine, the many challenges facing the production of a hepatitis C vaccine will be shown, along with current and former vaccination trials. As there is no current FDA-approved hepatitis E vaccine, we will present vaccination data that is available in the rest of the world. Finally, we will discuss the existing challenges and questions facing future endeavors for each of the hepatitis viruses, with efforts continuing to focus on dramatically reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these serious infections of the liver. PMID:26978406
Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV.
Li, Yang; Wang, Yixin; Fang, Lichun; Fu, Jiayuan; Cui, Shuai; Zhao, Yingjie; Cui, Zhizhong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng
The antibody to chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) was positive in a specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicken population by ELISA test in our previous inspection, indicating a possible infection with CIAV. In this study, blood samples collected from the SPF chickens were used to isolate CIAV by inoculating into MSB1 cells and PCR amplification. A CIAV strain (SD1403) was isolated and successfully identified. Three overlapping genomic fragments were obtained by PCR amplification and sequencing. The full genome sequence of the SD1403 strain was obtained by aligning the sequences. The genome of the SD1403 strain was 2293 bp with a nucleotide identity of 94.8% to 98.5% when compared with 30 referred CIAV strains. The viral proteins VP2 and VP3 were highly conserved, but VP1 was not relatively conserved. Both amino acids 139 and 144 of VP1 were glutamine, which was in accord with the low pathogenic characteristics. In this study, we first reported that CIAV exists in Chinese SPF chicken populations and may be an important reason why attenuated vaccine can be contaminated with CIAV. PMID:27298822
Dai, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Xu-Fu; Tan, Ming; Huang, Pengwei; Lei, Wen; Fang, Hao; Zhong, Weiming; Jiang, Xi
Rotavirus (RV) and norovirus (NoV) are the two most important causes of viral gastroenteritis. While vaccine remains an effective prophylactic strategy, development of other approaches, such as passive immunization to control and treat clinical infection and illness of the two pathogens, is necessary. Previously we demonstrated that high titers of NoV-specific IgY were readily developed by immunization of chickens with the NoV P particles. In this study, we developed a dual IgY against both RV and NoV through immunization of chickens with a divalent vaccine comprising neutralizing antigens of both RV and NoV. This divalent vaccine, named P-VP8* particle, is made of the NoV P particle as a carrier with the RV spike protein VP8* as a surface insertion. Approximately 45 mg of IgY were readily obtained from each yolk with high titers of anti-P particle and anti-VP8* antibodies detected by ELISA, Western blot, HBGA blocking (NoV and RV) and neutralization (RV) assays. Reductions of RV replication were observed with viruses treated with the IgY before and after inoculation into cells, suggesting an application of the IgY as both prophylactic and a therapeutic treatment. Collectively, our data suggested that the P-VP8* based IgY could serve as a practical approach against both NoV and RV. PMID:23267830
Riemenschneider, Henna; Schübel, Jeannine; Bergmann, Antje; Kugler, Joachim; Voigt, Karen
Germany aimed to eliminate measles by 2015, but vaccination coverage is still insufficient, especially in respect to adolescents and young adults. A cross-sectional survey with 711 students studying a range of subjects showed a high acceptance regarding vaccination. Actual self-reported vaccination rates were lower; only 65.5% of medical students and 25.3%-39.4% of other student groups reported complete vaccination against measles. Of the students, 12.6%-45% did not know their vaccination status. Vaccination acceptance did not correlate with vaccination behavior: accessible vaccination opportunities at universities should be offered.
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Evans, Thomas G; Schrager, Lew; Thole, Jelle
TB is now the single pathogen that causes the greatest mortality in the world, at over 1.6 million deaths each year. The widely used the 90 year old BCG vaccine appears to have minimal impact on the worldwide incidence despite some efficacy in infants. Novel vaccine development has accelerated in the past 15 years, with 15 candidates entering human trials; two vaccines are now in large-scale efficacy studies. Modeling by three groups has consistently shown that mass vaccination that includes activity in the latently infected population, especially adolescents and young adults, will likely have the largest impact on new disease transmission. At present the field requires better validated animal models, better understanding of a correlate of immunity, new cost-effective approaches to Proof of Concept trials, and increased appreciation by the public health and scientific community for the size of the problem and the need for a vaccine. Such a vaccine is likely to also play a role in the era of increasing antibiotic resistance. Ongoing efforts and studies are working to implement these needs over the next 5 years, which will lead to an understanding that will increase the likelihood of a successful TB vaccine.
Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Seyed Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; El Zowalaty, Mohamed E; Webster, Thomas J; Ideris, Aini
Plasmid DNA (pDNA)-based vaccines have emerged as effective subunit vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. In this study, a DNA vaccine, namely plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F, was applied in ovo against Newcastle disease (ND). Vaccination was carried out using the DNA vaccine alone or as a mixture of the pDNA and dextran-spermine (D-SPM), a nanoparticle used for pDNA delivery. The results showed that in ovo vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone induced high levels of antibody titer (P<0.05) in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens at 3 and 4 weeks postvaccination compared to 2 weeks postvaccination. Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titer was not significantly different between groups injected with 40 μg pDNA + 64 μg D-SPM and 40 μg pDNA at 4 weeks postvaccination (P>0.05). Higher antibody titer was observed in the group immunized with 40 μg pDNA/egg at 4 weeks postvaccination. The findings also showed that vaccination with 40 μg pDNA/egg alone was able to confer protection against Newcastle disease virus strain NDIBS002 in two out of seven SPF chickens. Although the chickens produced antibody titers 3 weeks after in ovo vaccination, it was not sufficient to provide complete protection to the chickens from lethal viral challenge. In addition, vaccination with pDNA/D-SPM complex did not induce high antibody titer when compared with naked pDNA. Therefore, it was concluded that DNA vaccination with plasmid internal ribosome entry site-HN/F can be suitable for in ovo application against ND, whereas D-SPM is not recommended for in ovo gene delivery.
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil. PMID:26887250
Carrasco, Adriano de Oliveira Torres; Seki, Meire Christina; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Ikeda, Priscila; Pinto, Aramis Augusto
This study was designed with the goal of adding as much information as possible about the role of pigeons (Columba livia) and chickens (Gallus gallus) in Newcastle disease virus epidemiology. These species were submitted to direct experimental infection with Newcastle disease virus to evaluate interspecies transmission and virus-host relationships. The results obtained in four experimental models were analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for detection of virus shedding. These techniques revealed that both avian species, when previously immunized with a low pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (LaSota), developed high antibody titers that significantly reduced virus shedding after infection with a highly pathogenic Newcastle disease virus strain (São Joao do Meriti) and that, in chickens, prevent clinical signs. Infected pigeons shed the pathogenic strain, which was not detected in sentinel chickens or control birds. When the presence of Newcastle disease virus was analyzed in tissue samples by RT-PCR, in both species, the virus was most frequently found in the spleen. The vaccination regimen can prevent clinical disease in chickens and reduce viral shedding by chickens or pigeons. Biosecurity measures associated with vaccination programs are crucial to maintain a virulent Newcastle disease virus-free status in industrial poultry in Brazil.
Piedra, Pedro A
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is at times associated with life-threatening lower respiratory tract illness in infancy. Severe infection during the first year of life may be an important risk factor or indicator for the development of asthma in early childhood. Severe infections primarily occur in healthy infants, and young infants and children with specific risk factors. However, RSV causes respiratory infections in all age groups. Indeed it is now recognized that RSV disease is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the geriatric population. RSV infection remains difficult to treat, and prevention is a worldwide goal. For this reason there has been an intensive effort to develop an effective and safe RSV vaccine. Initial infection with RSV affords limited protection to reinfection, yet repeated episodes decrease the risk for lower respiratory tract illness. In the 20 years from 1960 to 1980, trials of several candidate RSV vaccines failed to attain the desired safety and protection against natural infection. Some vaccine types either failed to elicit immunogenicity, as with the live subcutaneous vaccine, or resulted in exaggerated disease on natural exposure to the virus, as with the formalin-inactivated (FI) type. Currently vaccine candidates are being developed based on the molecular virology of RSV. Recent formulations of candidate RSV vaccines have focused on subunit vaccines [such as purified fusion protein (PFP)], subunit vaccines combined with nonspecific immune activating adjuvants, live attenuated vaccines (including cold passaged, temperature-sensitive or cpts mutants), genetically engineered live attenuated vaccines and polypeptide vaccines.
Vaccines against infectious bronchitis of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) have arguably been the most successful, and certainly the most widely used, of vaccines for diseases caused by coronaviruses, the others being against bovine, canine, feline and porcine coronaviruses. Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), together with the genetically related coronaviruses of turkey (Meleagris gallopovo) and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a group 3 coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus being tentatively in group 4, the other known mammalian coronaviruses being in groups 1 and 2. IBV replicates not only in respiratory tissues (including the nose, trachea, lungs and airsacs, causing respiratory disease), but also in the kidney (associated with minor or major nephritis), oviduct, and in many parts of the alimentary tract--the oesophagus, proventriculus, duodenum, jejunum, bursa of Fabricius, caecal tonsils (near the distal end of the tract), rectum and cloaca (the common opening for release of eggs and faeces), usually without clinical effects. The virus can persist, being re-excreted at the onset of egg laying (4 to 5 months of age), believed to be a consequence of the stress of coming into lay. Genetic lines of chickens differ in the extent to which IBV causes mortality in chicks, and in respect of clearance of the virus after the acute phase. Live attenuated (by passage in chicken embryonated eggs) IBV strains were introduced as vaccines in the 1950s, followed a couple of decades later by inactivated vaccines for boosting protection in egg-laying birds. Live vaccines are usually applied to meat-type chickens at 1 day of age. In experimental situations this can result in sterile immunity when challenged by virulent homologous virus. Although 100% of chickens may be protected (against clinical signs and loss of ciliary activity in trachea), sometimes 10% of vaccinated chicks do not respond with a protective immune response
Esaki, Motoyuki; Godoy, Alecia; Rosenberger, Jack K; Rosenberger, Sandra C; Gardin, Yannick; Yasuda, Atsushi; Dorsey, Kristi Moore
Newcastle disease (ND) is prevalent worldwide and causes significant clinical and economic losses to the poultry industry. Current vaccine programs using live attenuated vaccines and inactivated vaccines have limitations, and new vaccines with distinct features are needed. To offer an alternative solution to control ND, a turkey herpesvirus vector Newcastle disease vaccine (HVT/ND) expressing the fusion gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been developed. First, immunogenicity of the HVT/ND was evaluated in specific-pathogen-free layer chickens after vaccination by the in ovo route to 18-day-old embryos or by the subcutaneous route to 1-day-old chicks. Antibodies against NDV were detected at 24 days of age using a commercial NDV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and the hemagglutination inhibition test. At least 90% of chickens were protected against challenge with velogenic neurotropic NDV Texas GB strain (genotype II; pathotype velogenic) at 4 wk of age, while none of the nonvaccinated, challenged controls were protected from challenge. Second, the age at which a vaccinated chicken elicits an immunologic response to the HVT/ND prepared for this study, and thus is protected from ND virus, was assessed in commercial broiler chickens after in ovo vaccination of 18-day-old embryos. Challenge was conducted using a low-virulence NDV strain (genotype II; pathotype lentogenic) via the respiratory tract each week between 1 and 5 wk of age, in order to mimic the situation in areas where virulent NDV strains do not normally exist and low-virulence strains cause mild respiratory symptoms leading to economic losses. Protection was evaluated by the presence or absence of isolated virus from tracheal swabs at 5 days postchallenge. Partial protection was observed at 3 wk of age, when 6 out of 10 (60%) chickens were protected. Full protection was obtained at 4 and 5 wk of age, when 9 out of 10 (90%) and 10 out of 10 (100%) chickens were protected, respectively
Background From an epidemiological perspective, the practice of universal vaccination of girls and young women in order to prevent human papilloma virus (HPV) infection and potential development of cervical cancer is widely accepted even though it may lead to the neglect of other preventive strategies against cervical cancer. Discussion It is argued that removing the deterrent effect – the fear of developing cancer – could encourage teenage sex. This paper reflects on the ethical legitimacy of the universal vaccination of girls and young women against HPV infection, especially regarding safety issues, the need to vaccinate people who have opted to abstain from sex, the presumption of early onset of sexual relations, the commercial interests of the companies that manufacture the vaccine, and the recommendation of universal vaccination in males. Summary Based on the aforementioned information, we believe that the universal vaccination against HPV in young women is acceptable from an ethical point of view, given the medical advantages it presents. PMID:24708813
Comparison of a live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit with a commercial vaccine for efficacy of protection against internal egg contamination by Salmonella in hens.
Nandre, Rahul M; Eo, Seong Kug; Park, Sang Youel; Lee, John Hwa
This study compared a new live attenuated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccine candidate secreting Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (SE-LTB) with a commercial Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) vaccine for efficacy of protection against SE infection in laying hens. Chickens were divided into 3 groups of 20 each. Group A chickens were inoculated orally with phosphate-buffered saline and served as controls, group B chickens were inoculated orally with the vaccine candidate, and group C chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a commercial vaccine, the primary inoculation in groups B and C being at 10 wk of age and the booster at 16 wk. Groups B and C showed significantly higher titers of plasma immunoglobulin G, intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A, and egg yolk immunoglobulin Y antibodies compared with the control group, and both vaccinated groups showed a significantly elevated cellular immune response. After virulent challenge, group B had significantly lower production of thin-shelled and/or malformed eggs and a significantly lower rate of SE contamination of eggs compared with the control group. Furthermore, the challenge strain was detected significantly less in all of the examined organs of group B compared with the control group. Group C had lower gross lesion scores only in the spleen and had lower bacterial counts only in the spleen, ceca, and ovary. These findings indicate that vaccination with the SE-LTB vaccine candidate can efficiently reduce internal egg and internal organ contamination by Salmonella and has advantages over the commercial vaccine.
Salmon, Daniel A; Dudley, Matthew Z; Glanz, Jason M; Omer, Saad B
Vaccine hesitancy reflects concerns about the decision to vaccinate oneself or one's children. There is a broad range of factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy, including the compulsory nature of vaccines, their coincidental temporal relationships to adverse health outcomes, unfamiliarity with vaccine-preventable diseases, and lack of trust in corporations and public health agencies. Although vaccination is a norm in the U.S. and the majority of parents vaccinate their children, many do so amid concerns. The proportion of parents claiming non-medical exemptions to school immunization requirements has been increasing over the past decade. Vaccine refusal has been associated with outbreaks of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, varicella, pneumococcal disease, measles, and pertussis, resulting in the unnecessary suffering of young children and waste of limited public health resources. Vaccine hesitancy is an extremely important issue that needs to be addressed because effective control of vaccine-preventable diseases generally requires indefinite maintenance of extremely high rates of timely vaccination. The multifactorial and complex causes of vaccine hesitancy require a broad range of approaches on the individual, provider, health system, and national levels. These include standardized measurement tools to quantify and locate clustering of vaccine hesitancy and better understand issues of trust; rapid, independent, and transparent review of an enhanced and appropriately funded vaccine safety system; adequate reimbursement for vaccine risk communication in doctors' offices; and individually tailored messages for parents who have vaccine concerns, especially first-time pregnant women. The potential of vaccines to prevent illness and save lives has never been greater. Yet, that potential is directly dependent on parental acceptance of vaccines, which requires confidence in vaccines, healthcare providers who recommend and administer vaccines, and the
Human papillomavirus causes viral-dependent cancers, including cervical, anal, vulvar, penile, vaginal, and oropharyngeal, and condyloma acuminata. In the last decade, HPV prophylactic vaccine has been developed and spread worldwide after many large-scale clinical studies. These studies demonstrate significant clinical efficacy for prevention of HPV16/18/6/11-related diseases. In particular, prevention of cervical cancer should be the most important role in the world. In Japan, incidence of cervical cancer does not increase, but the peak of age of the patients at 2005 is 25-45 years old and became 20 years younger than that at 1985. The current two HPV vaccines can prevent the infection of HPV16/18 among high-risk HPVs and will provide a significant impact especially on young-age onset cervical cancer. Furthermore, quadrivalent HPV vaccine, Gardasil, has shown population impact that is decrease of patients with condyloma acuminate in several countries. The clinical efficacy seems to be convincing. Here HPV vaccine will be reviewed based on the literatures.
Su, Bor Sheu; Chiu, Hua Hsien; Lin, Cheng Chung; Shien, Jui Hung; Yin, Hsien Sheng; Lee, Long Huw
A recombinant fowlpox virus (rFPV/VP2) expressing infectious bursal diseases virus (IBDV) VP2 gene has been constructed. After purification and identification of rFPV/VP2, the adjuvant activity of the recombinant chicken IL-12 (rchIL-12), synthesized by our previous construct of rFPV/chIL-12, in rFPV/VP2-expressed rVP2 antigen was assessed in one-week-old specific-pathogen free chickens. The results indicated that rchIL-12 alone or rchIL-12 plus mineral oil (MO) co-administered with rVP2 antigen significantly enhanced the production of serum neutralization (SN) antibody against IBDV, compared to those with MO alone. The SN titers in groups receiving rVP2 antigen with MO alone were more inconsistent after vaccination. On the other hand, rchIL-12 significantly stimulated IFN-γ production in serum and in splenocyte cultured supernatant, suggesting that rchIL-12 alone or plus MO significantly induced a cell-mediated immune response. Finally, bursal lesion protection from very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) challenge in chickens receiving rVP2 antigen with rchIL-12 alone or plus MO was much more effective than that with MO alone at two weeks after boosting. Taken together, rchIL-12 alone augmented in vivo the induction of a primary and also a secondary SN antibody production and a cell-mediated immunity against IBDV rVP2 antigen, which conferred the enhancement of bursal lesion protective efficacy from vvIBDV challenge. These data indicated that a potential for chIL-12 as immunoadjuvant for chicken vaccine development such as IBDV rVP2 antigen.
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Griebel, Philip J
The control and prevention of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infections has provided substantial challenges. Viral genetic variation, persistent infections, and viral tropism for immune cells have complicated disease control strategies. Vaccination has, however, provided an effective tool to prevent acute systemic infections and increase reproductive efficiency through fetal protection. There has been substantial controversy about the safety and efficacy of BVDV vaccines, especially when comparing killed versus modified-live viral (MLV) vaccines. Furthermore, numerous vaccination protocols have been proposed to protect the fetus and ensure maternal antibody transfer to the calf. These issues have been further complicated by reports of immune suppression during natural infections and following vaccination. While killed BVDV vaccines provide the greatest safety, their limited immunogenicity makes multiple vaccinations necessary. In contrast, MLV BVDV vaccines induce a broader range of immune responses with a longer duration of immunity, but require strategic vaccination to minimize potential risks. Vaccination strategies for breeding females and young calves, in the face of maternal antibody, are discussed. With intranasal vaccination of young calves it is possible to avoid maternal antibody interference and induce immune memory that persists for 6-8 months. Thus, with an integrated vaccination protocol for both breeding cows and calves it is possible to maximize disease protection while minimizing vaccine risks.
Montomoli, Emanuele; Khadang, Baharak; Piccirella, Simona; Trombetta, Claudia; Mennitto, Elisa; Manini, Ilaria; Stanzani, Valerio; Lapini, Giulia
In the 20th century, three influenza pandemics killed approximately 100 million people. The traditional method of influenza vaccine manufacturing is based on using chicken eggs. However, the necessity of the availability of millions of fertile eggs in the event of a pandemic has led research to focus on the development of cell culture-derived vaccines, which offer shorter lead-in times and greater flexibility of production. So far, the cell substrates being evaluated and in use include Vero, Madin-Darby canine kidney, PER.C6 and insect cells. However, Vero cells are the most widely accepted among others. This review introduces briefly the concepts of advanced cell culture-derived influenza vaccine production and highlights the advantages of these vaccines in terms of efficiency, speed and immunogenicity based on the clinical data obtained from different studies.
Hilbink, F W
Susceptibility to infectious laryngotracheitis virus was studied in peafowl (Pavo cristatus), various species of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus, Lophura swinhoeii, Lophophorus impejanus), guinea-fowl (Numida meleagris), canaries (Serinus canaria), budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) and Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnic japonica). Apart from clinical observations, experiments were evaluated in terms of histopathology, immunofluorescence, serology and recovery of virus. Only peafowl and pheasants were found to be susceptible, pheasants responding more strongly than chickens to ocular vaccination and intratracheal inoculation. The other species were found to be refractory.
Yang, Tai; Wang, Hong-Ning; Wang, Xue; Tang, Jun-Ni; Lu, Dan; Zhang, Yun-Fei; Guo, Zi-Cheng; Li, Yu-Ling; Gao, Rong; Kang, Run-Min
Peptide vaccine was found to be an effective and powerful approach to a variety of pathogens. To explore multi-epitope based peptide vaccines against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), the immunogenic peptides were fused to the 3' terminal of glutathione S transferase gene (GST) and expressed in Escherichia coli. ELISA and Western blot analysis showed that the purified fusion proteins had excellent immune activity with chicken anti-IBV serum. During the vaccination course, the candidate peptide vaccines induced strong humoral and cellular response, and provided up to 80.0% immune protection, while all non-immunized chickens in the negative control group manifested obvious typical symptoms and died after virus challenge. Our finding provides a new way to develop multi-epitope based peptide vaccine against IBV.
Protective dose of a recombinant Newcastle disease LaSota-avian influenza virus H5 vaccine against H5N2 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus and velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus in broilers with high maternal antibody levels.
Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel
The protective dose of a live recombinant LaSota Newcastle disease virus (NDV)-avian influenza H5 vaccine (rNDV-LS/AI-H5) was determined in broiler chickens with high levels of maternal antibodies against NDV and avian influenza virus (AIV). At hatch the geometric mean titers (GMT) of the chickens' maternal antibodies were 2(5.1) and 2(10.3) for NDV and AIV, respectively. At the time of vaccination the GMT was 2(3.1) for NDV and 2(7.9) for AIV. The chickens were vaccinated with one drop (0.03 ml) in the eye at 10 days of age as is typical under field conditions. The test chickens received 10(4.8), 10(5.8), 10(6.8), or 10(7.8) mean chicken embryo infective doses (CEID50) of the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. Control chickens were either nonvaccinated, or vaccinated with 10(5.8) or 10(6.8) CEID50 of a commercial live LaSota NDV vaccine. Birds were challenged with either the Mexican highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain A/Chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2) or a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic (VV) NDV strain. One hundred percent of the chickens vaccinated with the rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine were protected against HPAIV and VVNDV when a challenge dose of 10(6.8) EID50 or higher was administered by eye drop. Birds vaccinated with the LaSota NDV vaccine were protected against VVNDV, but not against HPAIV.
Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.
Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio
The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age.
Li, Kai; Liu, Yongzhen; Liu, Changjun; Gao, Li; Zhang, Yanping; Cui, Hongyu; Gao, Yulong; Qi, Xiaole; Zhong, Li; Wang, Xiaomei
Marek’s disease virus (MDV) is a preferred vector in the construction of recombinant vaccines. However, bivalent vaccine based on MDV that confers full protection against both very virulent Marek’s and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) infections in chickens has not been produced. Here we developed a system utilizing overlapping fosmid DNAs transfection that rescues an MDV type 1 (MDV1) vaccine strain. Using this system, we inserted the IBDV VP2 gene at MDV1 genome sites UL41, US10 and US2. The VP2 protein was stably expressed in the recombinant MDV-infected cells and self-assembled into IBDV subviral particles. Insertion of the VP2 gene did not affect the replication phenotype of MDV in cell cultures, nor did it increase the virulence of the MDV vaccine strain in chickens. After challenge with very virulent IBDV, r814US2VP2 conferred full protection, whereas r814UL41VP2 and r814US10VP2 provided partial or no protection. All the three recombinant vaccines provided full protection against very virulent MDV challenge in chickens. These results demonstrated that r814US2VP2 could be used as a promising bivalent vaccine against both Marek’s and infectious bursal diseases in chickens. PMID:27982090
Swayne, David E
There are 30 recorded epizootics of H5 or H7 high pathogenicity avian influenza (HPAI) from 1959 to early 2012. The largest of these epizootics, affecting more birds and countries than the other 29 epizootics combined, has been the H5N1 HPAI, which began in Guangdong China in 1996, and has killed or resulted in culling of over 250 million poultry and/or wild birds in 63 countries. Most countries have used stamping-out programs in poultry to eradicate H5N1 HPAI. However, 15 affected countries have utilized vaccination as a part of the control strategy. Greater than 113 billion doses were used from 2002 to 2010. Five countries have utilized nationwide routine vaccination programs, which account for 99% of vaccine used: 1) China (90.9%), 2) Egypt (4.6%), 3) Indonesia (2.3%), 4) Vietnam (1.4%), and 5) Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (< 0.01%). Mongolia, Kazakhstan, France, The Netherlands, Cote d'Ivoire, Sudan, North Korea, Israel, Russia, and Pakistan used < 1% of the avian influenza (AI) vaccine, and the AI vaccine was targeted to either preventive or emergency vaccination programs. Inactivated AI vaccines have accounted for 95.5% of vaccine used, and live recombinant virus vaccines have accounted for 4.5% of vaccine used. The latter are primarily recombinant Newcastle disease vectored vaccine with H5 influenza gene insert. China, Indonesia, Egypt, and Vietnam implemented vaccination after H5N1 HPAI became enzootic in domestic poultry. Bangladesh and eastern India have enzootic H5N1 HPAI and have not used vaccination in their control programs. Clinical disease and mortality have been prevented in chickens, human cases have been reduced, and rural livelihoods and food security have been maintained by using vaccines during HPAI outbreaks. However, field outbreaks have occurred in vaccinating countries, primarily because of inadequate coverage in the target species, but vaccine failures have occurred following antigenic drift in field viruses within China, Egypt
Spackman, Erica; Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J
Although little has changed in vaccine technology for avian influenza virus (AIV) in the past 20 years, the approach to vaccination of poultry (chickens, turkeys and ducks) for avian influenza has evolved as highly pathogenic AIV has become endemic in several regions of the world. Vaccination for low pathogenicity AIV is also becoming routine in regions where there is a high level of field challenge. In contrast, some countries will not use vaccination at all and some will only use it on an emergency basis during eradication efforts (i.e. stamping-out). There are pros and cons to each approach and, since every outbreak situation is different, no one method will work equally well in all situations. Numerous practical aspects must be considered when developing an AIV control program with vaccination as a component, such as: (1) the goals of vaccination must be defined; (2) the population to be vaccinated must be clearly identified; (3) there must be a plan to obtain and administer good quality vaccine in a timely manner and to achieve adequate coverage with the available resources; (4) risk factors for vaccine failure should be mitigated as much as possible; and, most importantly, (5) biosecurity must be maintained as much as possible, if not enhanced, during the vaccination period.
Bruni, Laia; Serrano, Beatriz; Bosch, Xavier; Castellsagué, Xavier
Human papillomavirus (HPV) related disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Prophylactic vaccines have been recognized as the most effective intervention to control for HPV-related diseases. This article reviews the major phaseii/iii trials of the bivalent (HPVs16/18), quadrivalent (HPVs6/11/16/18), and the recently approved 9-valent vaccine (HPVs6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58). Large trials have been conducted showing the safety, immunogenicity and high efficacy of the bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines in the prevention of pre-invasive lesions and infection, especially when administered at young ages before exposure to HPV. Trials of the 9-valent vaccine have also demonstrated the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the vaccine in the prevention of infection and disease associated with the vaccine types, and its potential to substantially increase the overall prevention of HPV-related diseases. Post-licensure country reports have shown the recent and early impact of these vaccines at population level after the implementation of established HPV vaccination programs, including decreases in the prevalence of vaccine HPV types, the incidence of genital warts, and the incidence of high-grade cervical abnormalities. If widely implemented, current HPV vaccines may drastically reduce the incidence of cervical cancer and other HPV-related cancers and diseases.
The effects of dietary supplementation of young broiler chickens with a new organic selenium (Se) formulation, B-Traxim Se, on the host response to experimental necrotic enteritis (NE) were studied. Broiler chickens treated with three Se doses (0.25, 0.50, 1.00 mg/kg) from hatch were orally challeng...
Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an economically important respiratory disease of poultry that affects the industry worldwide. Vaccination is the principal tool in the control of the disease. Two types of vaccines, live attenuated and recombinant viral vector, are commercially available. The first generation of GaHV-1 vaccines available since the early 1960's are live viruses, attenuated by continuous passages in cell culture or embryos. These vaccines significantly reduce mortalities and, in particular, the chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccines have shown to limit outbreaks of the disease. However, the CEO vaccines can regain virulence and become the source of outbreaks. Recombinant viral vector vaccines, the second generation of GaHV-1 vaccines, were first introduced in the early 2000's. These are Fowl Pox virus (FPV) and Herpes virus of turkeys (HVT) vectors expressing one or multiple GaHV-1 immunogenic proteins. Recombinant viral vector vaccines are considered a much safer alternative because they do not regain virulence. In the face of challenge, they improve bird performance and ameliorate clinical signs of the disease but fail to reduce shedding of the challenge virus increasing the likelihood of outbreaks. At the moment, several new strategies are being evaluated to improve both live attenuated and viral vector vaccines. Potential new live vaccines attenuated by deletion of genes associated with virulence or by selection of CEO viral subpopulations that do not exhibit increased virulence upon passages in birds are being evaluated. Also new vector alternatives to express GaHV-1 glycoproteins in Newcastle diseases virus (NDV) or in modified very virulent (vv) serotype I Marek's disease virus (MDV) were developed and evaluated.
Read, Andrew F.; Baigent, Susan J.; Powers, Claire; Kgosana, Lydia B.; Blackwell, Luke; Smith, Lorraine P.; Kennedy, David A.; Walkden-Brown, Stephen W.; Nair, Venugopal K.
Could some vaccines drive the evolution of more virulent pathogens? Conventional wisdom is that natural selection will remove highly lethal pathogens if host death greatly reduces transmission. Vaccines that keep hosts alive but still allow transmission could thus allow very virulent strains to circulate in a population. Here we show experimentally that immunization of chickens against Marek's disease virus enhances the fitness of more virulent strains, making it possible for hyperpathogenic strains to transmit. Immunity elicited by direct vaccination or by maternal vaccination prolongs host survival but does not prevent infection, viral replication or transmission, thus extending the infectious periods